Science.gov

Sample records for health depression level

  1. IGF-I levels and depressive disorders: results from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP).

    PubMed

    Sievers, C; Auer, M K; Klotsche, J; Athanasoulia, A P; Schneider, H J; Nauck, M; Völzke, H; John, U; Schulz, A; Freyberger, H J; Friedrich, N; Biffar, R; Stalla, G K; Wallaschofski, H; Grabe, H J

    2014-06-01

    In vitro and in vivo models revealed that the somatotropic system exerts central effects on the central nervous system. Disturbances to this system such as in the case of growth hormone deficiency or growth hormone excess, are associated with a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Nonetheless, there is no epidemiological data available regarding the influence of growth hormone and its mediator, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), on depressive disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate whether endogenous IGF-I levels may predict depression in humans. We included 4079 adult subjects from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), a population-based study with a 5-year follow-up period. The main predictor was the baseline IGF-I value categorized in three levels as <10th percentile, between the 10th and the 90th percentile (the reference group) and >90th percentile. The outcome measure was the incidence of depressive disorders according to the Composite International Diagnostic-Screener (CID-S). After adjustment for potential confounding variables, females with IGF-I levels below the 10th percentile had a higher incidence of depressive disorders during follow-up (OR 2.70 95% CI 1.38-5.28, p=0.004) compared to females within the reference group (10th-90th percentile). Among males, those with IGF-I levels above the 90th percentile had a higher risk of depressive disorder (OR 3.26 95% CI 1.52-6.98, p=0.002) than those within the 10th-90th percentile. In conclusion we can demonstrate that low IGF-I levels in females and high IGF-I levels in males predict the development of depressive disorders in this general adult population sample. PMID:24507017

  2. High level of depressive symptoms as a barrier to reach an ideal cardiovascular health. The Paris Prospective Study III

    PubMed Central

    Gaye, B.; Prugger, C.; Perier, M. C.; Thomas, F.; Plichart, M.; Guibout, C.; Lemogne, C.; Pannier, B.; Boutouyrie, P.; Jouven, X.; Empana, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that depression might represent a barrier to reach an ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) as estimated by the 7-item tool proposed by the American Heart Association. Between 2008 and 2012, 9,417 subjects 50–75 years of age were examined in a large health center and enrolled in the Paris Prospective Study III (PPS3). Participants with 0–2, 3–4 and 5–7 health metrics at the ideal level were categorized as having poor, intermediate and ideal CVH, respectively. Participants with a score ≥7 on the 13-item Questionnaire of Depression 2nd version, Abridged or who were on antidepressants were referred as having high level of depressive symptoms (HLDS). The mean age of the 9417 study participants was 59.57 (SD 6.28) years and 61.16% were males. A total of 9.55% had HLDS. Poor, intermediate and ideal CVH was present in 40.38%, 49.52% and 10.10% of the participants. In multivariate polytomous logistic regression analysis, HLDS was inversely associated with ideal CVH (odds ratio = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.55;0.90). This was driven by an association with the behavioural component of the CVH. Participants with HLDS had a substantial reduced chance of reaching an ideal CVH. PMID:26743318

  3. National Dissemination of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression in the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System: Therapist and Patient-Level Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlin, Bradley E.; Brown, Gregory K.; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Zeiss, Antonette M.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system is nationally disseminating and implementing cognitive behavioral therapy for depression (CBT-D). The current article evaluates therapist and patient-level outcomes associated with national training in and implementation of CBT-D in the VA health care system. Method: Therapist…

  4. Value of health, incidence of depression, and level of self-esteem in low-income mothers of pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Burns, E I; Doremus, P C; Potter, M B

    1990-01-01

    health. Based on their high valuing of health and the potential for increasing self-esteem through activity, it can be concluded that the women in this sample will benefit from planned health activities. It is also anticipated that, because of the strong relationship between self-esteem and depression, women who participate in these activities will demonstrate lower levels of depression. PMID:2272853

  5. The Relationship of Depression to Health Risk Behaviors and Health Perceptions in Korean College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Oksoo

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of depression to health risk behaviors and health perceptions in Korean college students. The level of students' depression predicted alcohol consumption, symptom pattern, and physical health. Students who were more depressed reported more symptoms and perceived their health as worse than those who were less…

  6. Quality of Life, Health Status, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Nancy A.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Doering, Lynn V.; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B.; Child, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QOL) in adolescents and adults who have undergone the Fontan procedure and are living with only 1 ventricle is presumed to be diminished. Objectives This study aimed to compare QOL, health status, and prevalence of depression in adolescents/adults after the Fontan procedure with healthy counterparts and to identify predictors of QOL in the Fontan group. Methods Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescents and adults with single ventricle congenital heart disease who have undergone the Fontan procedure were compared with 66 age-matched healthy counterparts. Quality of life, health status, depression, and social support were measured using the Satisfaction With Life Scale, Short Form Survey Version 2, Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Module, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Clinical variables were abstracted from medical records. Predictors of QOL were determined using multiple linear regression. Results Adolescents and adults in the Fontan group reported lower physical health status (mean [SD] = 46.5 [9.3] vs mean [SD] = 55.9 [5.1], P < .001) and were more depressed (mean [SD] = 7.3 [5.9] vs mean [SD] = 4.5 [4.3], P < .004) than their healthy counterparts. There were no differences in QOL, mental health status, or social support between the 2 groups. Functional status (New York Heart Association class), depression, and social support accounted for 55% of the variance in QOL in the Fontan group. Conclusions Despite lower levels of physical health, the QOL of Fontan patients was comparable with that of their healthy counterparts; this finding contradicts previous proxy reports, self-reports, and assumptions that QOL is lower in patients with complex single ventricle congenital heart disease. However, because Fontan patients were more depressed than their healthy counterparts, the need for early screening and detection is warranted. PMID:21912272

  7. Depressive Symptoms and Serum Lipid Levels in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J.; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Longacre, Margaret L.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression (CES-D) scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-hour recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  8. Depressive symptoms and serum lipid levels in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Fang, Carolyn Y; Egleston, Brian L; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J; Kwiterovich, Peter O; Snetselaar, Linda G; Longacre, Margaret L; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-h recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  9. Engagement in Pleasant Activities and Depression Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    1975-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a low rate of engagement in pleasant activities to be a concomitant of depression. The crucial question addressed by the Hammen and Glass study (1975) is whether an increase in pleasant-activity level will produce a decrease in depression level. (Editor)

  10. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents. PMID:26733335

  11. Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Depression in Urban Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yan; Wang, Bo; Wallen, Gwenyth R.; Shao, Pei; Ni, Chunping; Hua, Qianzhen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore health-promoting lifestyles, depression and provide further insight into the relationship between health-promoting lifestyles and depression in an urban community sample of elderly Chinese people. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive and correlational study of 954 community-dwelling urban elderly Chinese (aged ≥ 60) was conducted from July to December 2010. Lifestyles and depression were assessed using the revised Chinese Version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-C) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results In this cohort, 15.8% of elderly urban adults met the criteria for depression. Over half of the sample (62.1%) scored greater than 100 on the HPLP-C, with range of score sum from 55 to 160. There were significant correlations between self-actualization (OR = 1.167, 95%CI: 1.111–1.226), nutrition (OR = 1.118, 95%CI: 1.033–1.209), physical activity (OR = 1.111, 95%CI: 1.015–1.216) and depression among community-dwelling elderly Chinese. Limitations This was a cross-sectional study. The significant associations found do not represent directional causation. Further longitudinal follow-up is recommended to investigate the specific causal relationship between lifestyles and depression. Conclusions Depression was common with medium to high levels of health-promoting lifestyles among urban elderly Chinese people. Lifestyle behaviors such as self-actualization, good nutrition habits and frequent physical activity were correlated to fewer depressive symptoms. Healthy lifestyles should be further developed in this population and measures should be taken for improving their depression. PMID:25781326

  12. Identity gaps and level of depression among Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eura; Hecht, Michael L

    2008-07-01

    Identity gaps are a new theoretical construct that provide a framework for integrating communication into the study of identity and understanding the relationship between identity and health outcomes, such as depression. Derived from the communication theory of identity, identity gaps emerge when elements of identity are inconsistent with each other. This article focuses on 2 types of identity gaps, personal-enacted and personal-relational, examining their relationships with situational variables and depression. A questionnaire was administered to a community sample of 377 Korean immigrants to test a hypothesized path model predicting that 3 situational variables (intercultural communication competence, middleperson status, and perception of racial hierarchy) would influence the identity gaps that, in turn, influence Korean immigrants' levels of depression. Results showed that all 3 situational variables predicted Korean immigrants' personal-relational identity gaps, whereas only intercultural communication competence predicted their personal-enacted identity gaps. Both types of identity gaps predicted the level of depression. The personal-relational identity gap significantly mediated the effects of all 3 situational variables on levels of depression. However, the personal-enacted identity gap mediated only the effects of intercultural communication competence on the levels of depression. PMID:18701996

  13. Maternal Depression and Childhood Health Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turney, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    An increasing body of literature documents considerable inequalities in the health of young children in the United States, though maternal depression is one important, yet often overlooked, determinant of children's health. In this article, the author uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,048) and finds that maternal…

  14. Mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD and depression

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Thomas; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Kohler, Michaela; Carraro, Giovanni E.; Schnyder, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, mental health professionals’ attitudes toward posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), compared to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression, have rarely been studied. Objective We assessed mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD compared to patients suffering from depression. Method Case vignettes of a patient with either PTSD or depression were presented to two samples of mental health professionals: attendees of a conference on posttraumatic stress (N=226) or of a lecture for psychiatry residents (N=112). Participants subsequently completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude reactions to the presented case. Results Participants showed similarly positive attitudes toward depression and PTSD. PTSD elicited a more favorable attitude with regard to prosocial reactions, estimated dependency, attributed responsibility, and interest in the case, particularly in mental health professionals specializing in psychotraumatology. Across diagnoses, higher age and longer professional experience were associated with more positive attitudes toward patients. Conclusions Mental health professionals’ positive attitudes toward patients with depression and PTSD correlate with their specific knowledge about the disorder, their level of professional training, and their years of professional experience. Limitations The instruments used, although based on established theoretical concepts in attitude research, were not validated in their present versions. PMID:26507340

  15. National Health Priority Areas Report, 1998--Mental Health: A Report Focusing on Depression, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Health and Ageing, Canberra.

    This report presents procedures for national mental health that involve many levels of government and draws advice from a range of professional organizations. Due to the enormous impact of depression on the social, human, economic, and public health costs to Australians and the Australian government, this initiative focuses efforts on dealing with…

  16. Neighborhood socioeconomic status, depression, and health status in the Look AHEAD (Action for health in diabetes) study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-le...

  17. Effects of stress, health competence, and social support on depressive symptoms after cardiac hospitalization.

    PubMed

    León-Pérez, Gabriela; Wallston, Kenneth A; Goggins, Kathryn M; Poppendeck, Heidi M; Kripalani, Sunil

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the role of stress on the psychological well-being of patients after cardiac hospitalization or about factors that protect against or exacerbate the effects of stress. We use prospective data from 1542 patients to investigate the relationship between post-discharge stress and changes in depressive symptoms, and whether the level of prior depressive symptoms, health competence, and perceived social support moderate this relationship. Net of depressive symptoms in the 2 weeks prior to hospitalization, higher levels of post-discharge stress significantly increase depressive symptoms 30 days after discharge. The level of prior depressive symptoms moderates the effect of stress. On the other hand, perceived health competence and social support buffer the negative effects of post-discharge stress. Knowing which patients are particularly vulnerable to experiencing stress and a subsequent increase in depressive symptoms can help trigger interventions prior to discharge and possibly ameliorate the prevalence of depression. PMID:26660867

  18. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... it might motivate the person to go for treatment. Treating Depression Your doctor or mental health expert can often treat your depression successfully. Different therapies seem to work for different people. For instance, ...

  19. State Psychological Reactance to Depression Public Service Announcements Among People With Varying Levels of Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Lienemann, Brianna A; Siegel, Jason T

    2016-01-01

    Campaigns seeking to help people with depression can be effective, but they can also backfire. Psychological reactance is proposed as a partial explanation. Two experimental studies examined the effect of two depression messages (i.e., autonomy-supportive language, controlling language) for participants (n = 2027, n = 777) with varying levels of depressive symptomatology. For Study 1, two versions of a print public service announcement about seeking help for depression served as the experimental stimulus. Study 2 used an existing video public service announcement about seeking help for depression, but the text was altered to create the two conditions. In both studies, increased depressive symptomatology was associated with reduced help-seeking attitudes and intentions, as well as greater state reactance to a public service announcement about depression. Increased state reactance mediated the relationship between increased depressive symptomology and unfavorable help-seeking outcomes. Further, across the two studies, participants with high levels of depressive symptomatology who were exposed to the autonomy-supportive language ad reported either as much, or more, state reactance than participants with high levels of depressive symptomatology who were in the control condition. These results warn that language perceived as autonomy-supportive by people without depression might be perceived as controlling among people with depression. PMID:26086674

  20. Supplemental private health insurance and depressive symptoms in older married couples.

    PubMed

    Min, Meeyoung Oh; Townsend, Aloen L; Miller, Baila; Rovine, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Stress process theory is applied to examine lack of supplemental private health insurance as a risk factor for depressive symptomatology among older married couples covered by Medicare. Dyadic data from 130 African-American couples and 1,429 White couples in the 1993 Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest-Old Survey were analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear modeling. Lack of supplemental insurance is operationalized at the household level in terms of neither spouse covered, one spouse covered, or both spouses covered. Controlling for covariates at both individual and couple levels, supplemental insurance has significant impact on depression, but the pattern differs by race. White couples report the highest depression when neither spouse is covered by private health insurance; African-American couples report the highest depression when only one spouse is covered. Results suggest lack of supplemental private health insurance coverage is a stressor that significantly affects depressive symptoms. PMID:16320444

  1. Serum DHEAS levels are associated with the development of depression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guang; Yin, You; Xiao, Chun-Lan; Mao, Rong-Jie; Shi, Bo-Hai; Jie, Yong; Wang, Zuo-Wei

    2015-09-30

    The aim of study was to evaluate the association between serum DHEAS levels and depression with a case-control study together with a meta-analysis. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was performed to measure the serum DHEAS levels of all participants before and after treatment. Depression Patients were divided into mild depression and severe depression based on Hamilton depression scale (HAMD24) and received 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and citalopram (20mg/d) for 8 weeks. Case-control studies related to our study theme were enrolled for meta-analysis and Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0) was used for statistical analysis. After treatment, DHEAS levels in depression patients were significantly increased, while before and after treatment, DHEAS levels were all lower in depression patients than in controls (all P<0.001); further analysis on age revealed that DHEAS levels were decreased with the rising of age. Meta-analysis results suggested that serum DHEAS levels (ng/mL) were significantly higher in healthy controls compared to depression patients (SMD=0.777, 95%CI=0.156-1.399, P=0.014). In conclusion, our study suggests that serum DHEAS levels are associated with the development of depression and it decreased with the rising of age. PMID:26205628

  2. Women's Use of Multi sector Mental Health Services in a Community-Based Perinatal Depression Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sarah Kye

    2010-01-01

    Low-income and ethnic minority women have been described as at risk for experiencing depression during and around the time of pregnancy, a finding complicated by low levels of mental health service use within this population. This study retrospectively examined data from a community-based perinatal depression project targeting low-income women in…

  3. Depression, Health, and Somatic Complaints in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahurin, Kathleen A.; Gatz, Margaret

    Although depression is considered to be common in the elderly, reliable rates of prevalence are lacking. Studies have shown that age differences on measures of depressive symptomatology can be attributed to higher levels of somatic complaints. In order to examine whether the association between somatic and depressive symptoms varies as a function…

  4. [Anxiety and depression levels in rape offenders].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Hernández, E; Marván, L; Saavedra, M; Contreras, C M

    1993-03-01

    Whether the active subject of rape possesses a particular personality trait is a much debated matter. It is an accepted fact that a small amount of rapists fall into the sadistic diagnostic category. Other psychopatologic traits likely to identify a rapist are, however, unknown. The present study was carried over at a jail near the city of Xalapa (Veracruz) Mexico. Hamilton, IDARE, and Zung scales, in their modified Spanish version were applied to a sample of imprisoned adult rapists. Compared to their control group (men serving sentences for other felonies), rapists scored higher in anxiety, and depression scales. In the light of these results, it is suggested that some rapists are likely to be anxious-depressive subjects that, after having "acquired" a sociopathic repertoire, offend other people in conditions of indefensiveness, contrary to depressive subjects who aggress themselves. PMID:8237434

  5. Health care expenditures associated with depression in adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoyun; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Background The rates of depression in adults with cancer have been reported as high as 38%–58%. How depression affects overall health care expenditures in individuals with cancer is an under-researched area. Objective To estimate excess average total health care expenditures associated with depression in adults with cancer by comparing those with and without depression after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, access to care, and other health status variables. Methods Cross-sectional data on 4,766 adult survivors of cancer from 2006–2009 of the nationally representative household survey, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), were used. The patients were older than 21 years. Cancer and depression were identified from the patients’ medical conditions files. Dependent variables consisted of total, inpatient, outpatient, emergency department, prescription drugs, and other expenditures. Ordinary least square (OLS) on logged dollars and generalized linear models with log-link function were performed. All analyses (SAS 9.3 and STATA12) accounted for the complex survey design of the MEPS. Results Overall, 14% of individuals with cancer reported having depression. In those with cancer and depression, the average annual health care expenditures were $18,401 compared with $12,091 in those without depression. After adjusting for demographic, socio-economic, access to care, and other health status variables, those with depression had about 31.7% greater total expenditures compared with those without depression. Total, outpatient, and prescription expenditures were higher in individuals with depression than in those without depression. Individuals with cancer and depression were significantly more likely to use emergency departments (adjusted odds ratio, 1.46) compared with their counterparts without depression. Limitations Cancer patients who died during the reporting year were excluded. The financial burden of depression may have been underestimated because

  6. Maternal Depressive Symptoms During Childhood and Risky Adolescent Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Maeve E.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Wild, T. Cameron; Hoglund, Wendy L.G.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maternal depression is a risk factor for adolescent depression; however, the effect of childhood exposure to maternal depression on adolescent engagement in health risk behaviors (eg, substance use, delinquency) is unclear. METHODS: We examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms (child’s age 4–15) and engagement in health risk behaviors at age 16 to 17 by using data from 2910 mother–youth pairs in a nationally representative prospective Canadian cohort. Maternal depressive trajectories were estimated through finite mixture modeling, and multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and engagement in various health risk behaviors (linear regression) and age of debut of various behaviors (Cox regression). RESULTS: Five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms were found: recurrent maternal symptoms, midchildhood exposure to maternal symptoms, adolescent exposure to maternal symptoms, mild maternal symptoms, and low symptoms. Adolescents exposed to maternal depressive symptoms during middle childhood were more likely to use common substances (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana), engage in violent and nonviolent delinquent behavior, and have an earlier debut ages of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hallucinogen use. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, particularly in middle childhood, is associated with greater and earlier engagement in health risk behaviors. PMID:25535266

  7. High occupational level is associated with poor response to treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Mandelli, Laura; Serretti, Alessandro; Souery, Daniel; Mendlewicz, Julien; Kasper, Siegfried; Montgomery, Stuart; Zohar, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Depression may be complicated by work-related stress and, in turn, depression is a leading cause of disability in workplaces. Though available effective treatments, only one third of patients reach full remission after a first treatment trial and nearly half of the patients are non-responders. Occupational level has been found to be a reliable predictor of health outcome in the general population. In the present study we tested the potential association of occupational level of those in work with response to treatment of depression in a large multinational sample. Major depressive disorder patients (n=654) stratified in three occupational levels (high, middle, low) were considered for the present study. Response to last treatment for current episode and treatment resistant depression, defined as non-response to 2 or more previous adequate treatment trials, were considered the outcome variables. Depressed patients from the high occupational level had a higher level of educational achievement. They showed a significantly poorer response to the last treatment with lower remission rates and more treatment resistance than the other occupational level groups. They were treated less with Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SRIs). Potential confounding factors did not influence the main effect. The present findings indicate that those working at a high occupational level may be a risk factor for poor response to medication for depression and this has potential implications for clinicians and their patients, for future research, for employers and for public policy. PMID:27211903

  8. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing

    PubMed Central

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Hanklang, Suda; Chumchai, Pornlert

    2015-01-01

    Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation. PMID:25954515

  9. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing.

    PubMed

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Hanklang, Suda; Chumchai, Pornlert

    2015-01-01

    Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation. PMID:25954515

  10. Elevated morning cortisol is a stratified population-level biomarker for major depression in boys only with high depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Owens, Matthew; Herbert, Joe; Jones, Peter B; Sahakian, Barbara J; Wilkinson, Paul O; Dunn, Valerie J; Croudace, Timothy J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2014-03-01

    Major depressive disorder (MD) is a debilitating public mental health problem with severe societal and personal costs attached. Around one in six people will suffer from this complex disorder at some point in their lives, which has shown considerable etiological and clinical heterogeneity. Overall there remain no validated biomarkers in the youth population at large that can aid the detection of at-risk groups for depression in general and for boys and young men in particular. Using repeated measurements of two well-known correlates of MD (self-reported current depressive symptoms and early-morning cortisol), we undertook a population-based investigation to ascertain subtypes of adolescents that represent separate longitudinal phenotypes. Subsequently, we tested for differential risks for MD and other mental illnesses and cognitive differences between subtypes. Through the use of latent class analysis, we revealed a high-risk subtype (17% of the sample) demarcated by both high depressive symptoms and elevated cortisol levels. Membership of this class of individuals was associated with increased levels of impaired autobiographical memory recall in both sexes and the greatest likelihood of experiencing MD in boys only. These previously unidentified findings demonstrate at the population level a class of adolescents with a common physiological biomarker specifically for MD in boys and for a mnemonic vulnerability in both sexes. We suggest that the biobehavioral combination of high depressive symptoms and elevated morning cortisol is particularly hazardous for adolescent boys. PMID:24550453

  11. Elevated morning cortisol is a stratified population-level biomarker for major depression in boys only with high depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Matthew; Herbert, Joe; Jones, Peter B.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Wilkinson, Paul O.; Dunn, Valerie J.; Croudace, Timothy J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MD) is a debilitating public mental health problem with severe societal and personal costs attached. Around one in six people will suffer from this complex disorder at some point in their lives, which has shown considerable etiological and clinical heterogeneity. Overall there remain no validated biomarkers in the youth population at large that can aid the detection of at-risk groups for depression in general and for boys and young men in particular. Using repeated measurements of two well-known correlates of MD (self-reported current depressive symptoms and early-morning cortisol), we undertook a population-based investigation to ascertain subtypes of adolescents that represent separate longitudinal phenotypes. Subsequently, we tested for differential risks for MD and other mental illnesses and cognitive differences between subtypes. Through the use of latent class analysis, we revealed a high-risk subtype (17% of the sample) demarcated by both high depressive symptoms and elevated cortisol levels. Membership of this class of individuals was associated with increased levels of impaired autobiographical memory recall in both sexes and the greatest likelihood of experiencing MD in boys only. These previously unidentified findings demonstrate at the population level a class of adolescents with a common physiological biomarker specifically for MD in boys and for a mnemonic vulnerability in both sexes. We suggest that the biobehavioral combination of high depressive symptoms and elevated morning cortisol is particularly hazardous for adolescent boys. PMID:24550453

  12. Inattention Symptoms Predict Level of Depression in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Khushmand; O’Neill, Sarah; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential bidirectional relationships between severity of inattention and depression across early childhood. Methods Children (N = 216) from the New York, NY, metropolitan area were recruited when they were aged 3 to 4 years (T1) and studied again at age 6 (T2) and 7 (T3) years. Child inattention symptoms were measured using the Kiddie–Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children–Present and Lifetime, along with both parent and teacher reports on the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2). Severity of child depression was assessed at each time point using parent and teacher reports on the BASC-2. After examining correlations between child inattention and depression, structural equation modeling was used to investigate whether child inattention was longitudinally related to child depression, and whether child depression symptoms were associated with later child inattention. Results Severity of child inattention at T1 and T2 was longitudinally associated with increased severity of child depression at T2 and T3, respectively. Early child depression was not longitudinally associated with later child inattention. Conclusion Child inattention is a risk factor for increased levels of child depression. Pediatricians and clinicians who assess children’s inattention symptoms also need to investigate symptoms of depression. This study makes a case for treating children’s inattention symptoms at preschool and early childhood, before emotional problems become more severe. PMID:23391681

  13. Depression Screening Patterns for Women in Rural Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudiver, Fred; Edwards, Joellen Beckett; Pfortmiller, Deborah T.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Rates and types of screening for depression in rural primary care practices are unknown. Purpose: To identify rates of depression screening among rural women in a sample of rural health clinics (RHCs). Methods: A chart review of 759 women's charts in 19 randomly selected RHCs across the nation. Data were collected from charts of female…

  14. Depression and diabetes: treatment and health-care delivery.

    PubMed

    Petrak, Frank; Baumeister, Harald; Skinner, Timothy C; Brown, Alex; Holt, Richard I G

    2015-06-01

    Despite research efforts in the past 20 years, scientific evidence about screening and treatment for depression in diabetes remains incomplete and is mostly focused on North American and European health-care systems. Validated instruments to detect depression in diabetes, although widely available, only become effective and thus recommended if subsequent treatment pathways are accessible, which is often not the case. Because of the well known adverse effects of the interaction between depression and diabetes, treatment goals should focus on the remission or improvement of depression as well as improvement in glycaemic control as a marker for subsequent diabetes outcome. Scientific evidence evaluating treatment for depression in type 1 and type 2 diabetes shows that depression can be treated with moderate success by various psychological and pharmacological interventions, which are often implemented through collaborative care and stepped-care approaches. The evidence for improved glycaemic control in the treatment of depression by use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or psychological approaches is conflicting; only some analyses show small to moderate improvements in glycaemic control. More research is needed to evaluate treatment of different depression subtypes in people with diabetes, the cost-effectiveness of treatments, the use of health-care resources, the need to account for cultural differences and different health-care systems, and new treatment and prevention approaches. PMID:25995125

  15. Optimism and depression as predictors of physical and mental health functioning: the Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Achat, H; Kawachi, I; Spiro, A; DeMolles, D A; Sparrow, D

    2000-01-01

    Dispositional optimism has been linked in previous studies to better health outcomes. We sought to examine the independent associations of dispositional optimism and depressive symptoms with physical and mental functioning in a cohort of healthy middle-aged and older men. The study was conducted among 659 subjects in the Veterans Administration (VA) Normative Aging Study. Dispositional optimism and depressive symptomatology were measured in 1991 and 1990, respectively, by the Life Orientation Test and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression Scale (CES-D). The dependent variables, functioning and well-being, were measured in 1992 by the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). In multivariate regression models, optimism was associated with higher levels of general health perceptions, vitality, and mental health, and lower levels of bodily pain, but not to physical functioning, social functioning, or role limitations due to physical or emotional problems. Depressive symptomatology was associated with reduced levels of functioning across all SF-36 domains. The findings for optimism and depression were statistically significant after mutual adjustment in multivariate regression models. Optimism and depression are independent predictors of functional status among aging men. PMID:10962705

  16. Pesticide Exposure and Self-Reported Incident Depression among Wives in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.; Kamel, Freya

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression in women is a public health problem. Studies have reported positive associations between pesticides and depression, but few studies were prospective or presented results for women separately. Objectives We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and incident depression among farmers’ wives in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods We used data on 16,893 wives who did not report physician-diagnosed depression at enrollment (1993-1997) and who completed a follow-up telephone interview (2005-2010). Among these wives, 1,054 reported physician diagnoses of depression at follow-up. We collected information on potential confounders and on ever use of any pesticide, 11 functional and chemical classes of pesticides, and 50 specific pesticides by wives and their husbands via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for possible selection bias induced by the death or loss of 10,639 wives during follow-up. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results After weighting for age at enrollment, state of residence, education level, diabetes diagnosis, and not dropping out of the cohort, wives’ incident depression was positively associated with diagnosed pesticide poisoning, but was not associated with ever using any pesticide. Use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives’ depression. Among wives who never used pesticides, husbands’ ever use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives’ incident depression. Conclusions Our study adds further evidence that high level pesticide exposure, such as pesticide poisoning, is associated with increased risk of depression and sets a lower bound on the level of

  17. 'Love Hormone' Levels in Pregnancy May Point to Risk for Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... their oxytocin levels in the third trimester of pregnancy and their depression symptoms six weeks after they gave birth. Among the 13 women with a history of depression before pregnancy, the higher their oxytocin levels, the more depression ...

  18. Recession depression: mental health effects of the 2008 stock market crash.

    PubMed

    McInerney, Melissa; Mellor, Jennifer M; Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2013-12-01

    Do sudden, large wealth losses affect mental health? We use exogenous variation in the interview dates of the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to assess the impact of large wealth losses on mental health among older U.S. adults. We compare cross-wave changes in wealth and mental health for respondents interviewed before and after the October 2008 stock market crash. We find that the crash reduced wealth and increased feelings of depression and use of antidepressant drugs, and that these effects were largest among respondents with high levels of stock holdings prior to the crash. These results suggest that sudden wealth losses cause immediate declines in subjective measures of mental health. However, we find no evidence that wealth losses lead to increases in clinically-validated measures of depressive symptoms or indicators of depression. PMID:24113241

  19. Recession Depression: Mental Health Effects of the 2008 Stock Market Crash*

    PubMed Central

    McInerney, Melissa; Mellor, Jennifer M.; Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2013-01-01

    Do sudden, large wealth losses affect mental health? We use exogenous variation in the interview dates of the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to assess the impact of large wealth losses on mental health among older U.S. adults. We compare cross-wave changes in wealth and mental health for respondents interviewed before and after the October 2008 stock market crash. We find that the crash reduced wealth and increased feelings of depression and use of antidepressant drugs, and that these effects were largest among respondents with high levels of stock holdings prior to the crash. These results suggest that sudden wealth losses cause immediate declines in subjective measures of mental health. However, we find no evidence that wealth losses lead to increases in clinically-validated measures of depressive symptoms or indicators of depression. PMID:24113241

  20. MATERNAL SELF-REPORTED DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND MATERNAL CORTISOL LEVELS INTERACT TO PREDICT INFANT CORTISOL LEVELS.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Jennifer E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo; Atkinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Three basic findings have emerged from research on maternal depressive symptoms and offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning: (a) Mothers' depressive symptoms are positively associated with their offsprings' cortisol stress response, (b) numerous individual and interpersonal maternal characteristics moderate this association, and (c) maternal and infant cortisol levels are highly correlated. In combination, these findings have suggested that maternal cortisol levels may moderate the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol responsivity; the current study assessed this hypothesis. Participants were 297 mother-infant dyads who were recruited from the community. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report. Dyads participated in two differentially stressful infant challenges when infants were 16 and 17 months old. Mother and infant salivary cortisol was collected before and after challenges. Results indicate that maternal cortisol levels moderated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol levels across both challenges. Infants showed higher cortisol levels if their mothers had both higher depressive symptoms and higher cortisol levels, as compared to infants of mothers with higher depressive symptoms and lower cortisol, and to infants of mothers with lower depressive symptoms and either higher or lower cortisol levels. We discuss findings in relation to environmental and biological factors that may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms. PMID:26939829

  1. Spirituality, depression, living alone, and perceived health among Korean older adults in the community.

    PubMed

    You, Kwang Soo; Lee, Hae-Ok; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Kim, Susie; Marui, Eiji; Lee, Jung Su; Cook, Paul

    2009-08-01

    Both theoretical and empirical studies have documented the protective effect of religiosity and spirituality on general health in older adults in community and hospital settings; however, no study has documented the relationship between spirituality and depression among older adults living alone in communities in Korea. We tested two hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Korean older adults living alone would be more depressed and less healthy than older adults living with family, and Hypothesis 2: Individuals who are more religious and spiritual would report a lower level of depression and a higher level of general health even when other demographic and living status variables are controlled. A descriptive, comparative, and correlational design with a convenience sampling method was conducted among community-dwelling Korean older adults in Chounbook Providence, South Korea. This study included 152 men and women older than 65 years old. Hypothesis 1 was supported as Korean older adults living alone were significantly more depressed than were older adults living with family (P<.01). However, for Hypotheses 2, only spirituality activities and Spirituality Index of Well-Being scores were significantly associated with general health and/or depression (P<.01), but there were no relationships between the variables of attendance and importance of religion with general health and depression. PMID:19631109

  2. Anxiety and physical health problems increase the odds of women having more severe symptoms of depression.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Sandra J; Simeonova, Diana I; Kimmel, Mary C; Battle, Cynthia L; Maki, Pauline M; Flynn, Heather A

    2016-06-01

    Severely depressed women incur substantial disability and suicide risk, necessitating an understanding of factors that may contribute to severe depression. The purpose of this research was to determine the degree to which age, physical morbidity, anxiety, and hormonal status predict the likelihood of severe depression among women with mood disorders (n = 298). Data arose from a standardized battery of measures in a multi-center clinical registry of patients with mood disorders. The women were being treated at 17 participating sites of the National Network of Depression Centers. Results of logistic regression analyses indicate that a woman's level of anxiety was the strongest predictor of her likelihood of having severe depression (Exp(B) = 1.33, p = .000), including thoughts of death or suicide. The number of physical health problems that a woman reported was also a significant predictor (Exp(B) = 1.09, p = .04). Neither age nor hormonal status was significant in the final model, although a trend was observed for women with surgically induced menopause to have more severe depression. Findings support the need to work closely with medical practitioners to address physical health problems as part of the treatment plan for depression and to give comorbid anxiety and depression equal priority in symptom management. PMID:26403982

  3. Depression and suicide ideation among students accessing campus health care.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Sara; Wiegel, Jennifer R; Mundt, Marlon; Brown, David; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Heiligenstein, Eric; Harahan, Brian; Fleming, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Depression and suicide are of increasing concern on college campuses. This article presents data from the College Health Intervention Projects on the frequency of depression and suicide ideation among 1,622 college students who accessed primary care services in 4 university clinics in the Midwest, Northwest, and Canada. Students completed the Beck Depression Inventory and other measures related to exercise patterns, alcohol use, sensation seeking, and violence. The frequency of depression was similar for men (25%) and women (26%). Thought of suicide was higher for men (13%) than women (10%). Tobacco use, emotional abuse, and unwanted sexual encounters were all associated with screening positive for depression. "Days of exercise per week" was inversely associated with screening positive for depression. Because the majority of students access campus-based student health centers, medical providers can serve a key role in early identification and intervention. With every 4th student reporting symptoms of depression and every 10th student having suicidal thoughts, such interventions are needed. PMID:21219281

  4. Depressive symptoms and health-related risk-taking in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Testa, C Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear bike-helmets less often, and drive while drunk more frequently. Depressive symptoms did not correlate with reported condom use. The found relations were all mediated by reported levels of hopelessness. Reported levels of anhedonia and suicidality also mediated some of the found relations. Therefore, adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms, especially those reporting hopelessness, should be considered at jeopardy for a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors. PMID:20560751

  5. Race, life course socioeconomic position, racial discrimination, depressive symptoms and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Darrell L; Puterman, Eli; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Matthews, Karen A; Adler, Nancy E

    2013-11-01

    Greater levels of socioeconomic position (SEP) are generally associated with better health. However results from previous studies vary across race/ethnicity and health outcomes. Further, the majority of previous studies do not account for the effects of life course SEP on health nor the effects of racial discrimination, which could moderate the effects of SEP on health. Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we examined the relationship between a life course SEP measure on depressive symptoms and self-rated health. A life course SEP was constructed for each participant, using a framework that included parental education and occupation along with respondents' highest level of education and occupation. Interaction terms were created between life course SEP and racial discrimination to determine whether the association between SEP and health was moderated by experiences of racial discrimination. Analyses revealed that higher levels of life course SEP were inversely related to depressive symptoms. Greater life course SEP was positively associated with favorable self-rated health. Racial discrimination was associated with more depressive symptoms and poorer self-rated health. Analyses indicated a significant interaction between life course SEP and racial discrimination on depressive symptoms in the full sample. This suggested that for respondents with greater levels of SEP, racial discrimination was associated with reports of more depressive symptoms. Future research efforts should be made to examine whether individuals' perceptions and experiences of racial discrimination at the interpersonal and structural levels limits their ability to acquire human capital as well as their advancement in education and occupational status. PMID:24161083

  6. BDNF plasma levels variations in major depressed patients receiving duloxetine.

    PubMed

    Fornaro, Michele; Escelsior, Andrea; Rocchi, Giulio; Conio, Benedetta; Magioncalda, Paola; Marozzi, Valentina; Presta, Andrea; Sterlini, Bruno; Contini, Paola; Amore, Mario; Fornaro, Pantaleo; Martino, Matteo

    2015-05-01

    It has been frequently reported that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Objective of the study was to investigate BDNF levels variations in MDD patients during antidepressant treatment with duloxetine. 30 MDD patients and 32 healthy controls were assessed using Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and monitored for BDNF plasma levels at baseline, week 6 and week 12 of duloxetine treatment (60 mg/day) and at baseline, respectively. According to early clinical response to duloxetine (defined at week 6 by reduction >50 % of baseline HAM-D score), MDD patients were distinguished in early responders (ER) and early non-responders (ENR), who reached clinical response at week 12. Laboratory analysis showed significant lower baseline BDNF levels among patients compared to controls. During duloxetine treatment, in ENR BDNF levels increased, reaching values not significantly different compared to controls, while in ER BDNF levels remained nearly unchanged. Lower baseline BDNF levels observed in patients possibly confirm an impairment of the NEI stress-adaptation system and neuroplasticity in depression, while BDNF increase and normalization observed only in ENR might suggest differential neurobiological backgrounds in ER vs. ENR within the depressive syndrome. PMID:25501804

  7. Does the level of wealth inequality within an area influence the prevalence of depression amongst older people?

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alan; Jivraj, Stephen; Nazroo, James; Tampubolon, Gindo; Vanhoutte, Bram

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers whether the extent of inequality in house prices within neighbourhoods of England is associated with depressive symptoms in the older population using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We consider two competing hypotheses: first, the wealth inequality hypothesis which proposes that neighbourhood inequality is harmful to health and, second, the mixed neighbourhood hypothesis which suggests that socially mixed neighbourhoods are beneficial for health outcomes. Our results are supportive of the mixed neighbourhood hypothesis, we find a significant association between neighbourhood inequality and depression with lower levels of depression amongst older people in neighbourhoods with greater house price inequality after controlling for individual socio-economic and area correlates of depression. The association between area inequality and depression is strongest for the poorest individuals, but also holds among the most affluent. Our results are in line with research that suggests there are social and health benefits associated with economically mixed communities. PMID:24662528

  8. Perinatal Depression Screening and Intervention: Enhancing Health Provider Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Corder-Mabe, Joan; Austin, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective The authors of this study collaborated in the analysis of public health survey data in order to inform future statewide interventions that could systematically enhance depression screening and mental health service use for women of reproductive age. The primary objective of the study was to empirically inform and test the program theory components of a motivational interviewing intervention that we anticipate will guide statewide practice and policy priorities. Methods Data were examined from a survey of healthcare practitioners statewide (n=1498) regarding their practices with and perceptions of perinatal depression care for women. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to measure two latent constructs: health provider confidence in the ability to diagnose and treat and the importance placed on screening and treatment. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test a program theory supporting motivational interviewing using a model implied relationship between confidence and importance on screening and treatment/referral practices. Results The data fit the model; the model provisionally supports motivational interviewing as an intervention influencing provider attitudes and practices surrounding perinatal depression screening and treatment/referral. Conclusions Ultimately, study findings support statewide public health efforts to expand the role of health providers in recognizing and responding to perinatal depression and suggest that motivational interviewing techniques that augment importance and confidence may lead to enhanced screening and referral/treatment outcomes for pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:22309209

  9. Mental health literacy towards depression among non‐medical students at a Malaysian university

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge and perception of depression among students of University Sains Malaysia (USM), in Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. Method Face‐to‐face interviews were conducted using a pre‐validated 21‐item questionnaire among students at USM. Results A total of 500 respondents participated in the survey comprising 24.6% (n=123) males and 75.4% (n=377) females. Half (50.0%, n=250) were Malays, followed by Chinese (44.0%, n=220) and Indians (6.0%, n=30). Whilst exploring the respondents' knowledge of the symptoms of depression, it was found that Chinese females had a comparatively better knowledge (P=0.058) of the symptoms of depression in comparison with Malays and Indians. Overall, social issues were attributed as the possible cause of depression. A cursory knowledge level was observed regarding medication for depression. Female students were more inclined towards the use of alternative and traditional medicines. However, with regard to seeking professional help, consultation with a psychiatrist was preferred by the majority. Conclusion Overall, a moderate level of knowledge about the symptoms of depression and a cursory knowledge of its therapy were observed. Those with personal experience of depression had better knowledge of the symptoms and therapy. Alternative treatments and traditional medicines were also favoured. There is a risk that this may affect the ability of Malaysian youths to seek evidence‐based mental health care. PMID:22477920

  10. Mental health literacy towards depression among non-medical students at a Malaysian university.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tahir M; Sulaiman, Syed A; Hassali, Mohamed A

    2010-03-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge and perception of depression among students of University Sains Malaysia (USM), in Penang, Peninsular Malaysia.Method Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a pre-validated 21-item questionnaire among students at USM.Results A total of 500 respondents participated in the survey comprising 24.6% (n=123) males and 75.4% (n=377) females. Half (50.0%, n=250) were Malays, followed by Chinese (44.0%, n=220) and Indians (6.0%, n=30). Whilst exploring the respondents' knowledge of the symptoms of depression, it was found that Chinese females had a comparatively better knowledge (P=0.058) of the symptoms of depression in comparison with Malays and Indians. Overall, social issues were attributed as the possible cause of depression. A cursory knowledge level was observed regarding medication for depression. Female students were more inclined towards the use of alternative and traditional medicines. However, with regard to seeking professional help, consultation with a psychiatrist was preferred by the majority.Conclusion Overall, a moderate level of knowledge about the symptoms of depression and a cursory knowledge of its therapy were observed. Those with personal experience of depression had better knowledge of the symptoms and therapy. Alternative treatments and traditional medicines were also favoured. There is a risk that this may affect the ability of Malaysian youths to seek evidence-based mental health care. PMID:22477920

  11. Self‐efficacy and the promotion of health for depressed single mothers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Single mothers are a vulnerable population at risk for poor mental and physical health. This paper discusses the mental and physical health of single mothers, as well as the psychosocial and socio‐economic risk factors placing single mothers at risk for poor health outcomes. Some of these include, gender, income level, educational status, social support, stress and certain personality characteristics. Theoretical models with the potential to explore ways to promote health in depressed single mothers will also be presented. The paper concludes with the application of these models to primary prevention and the promotion of health for single mothers along with recommendations for future research. PMID:22477937

  12. Health-related personal control predicts depression symptoms and quality of life but not health behaviour following coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Tara; Poole, Lydia; Leigh, Elizabeth; Ronaldson, Amy; Jahangiri, Marjan; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    To determine the prospective association between health-related control beliefs, quality of life (QOL), depression symptoms, and health behaviours in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients 6-8 weeks following surgery. 149 patients who were undergoing planned CABG surgery were recruited. Patients completed questionnaires measuring health related personal control, treatment control, depression symptoms, QOL, and health behaviours prior to and 6-8 weeks after surgery. Higher levels of health-related personal control predicted better QOL, and lower levels of depression symptoms, but not adherence to medication, cardiac rehabilitation attendance, or physical activity. These results were independent of demographic, behavioural, and clinical covariates. Treatment control was not associated with any outcome. These results suggest that perceived health-related personal control is associated with key aspects of short-term recovery from CABG surgery. Targeted interventions aimed at improving perceptions of health-related personal control may improve health outcomes in this cardiac population. PMID:26341356

  13. Links between depressive symptoms and unmet health and social care needs among older prisoners

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Kate; Forsyth, Katrina; Webb, Roger; Senior, Jane; Hayes, Adrian Jonathan; Challis, David; Fazel, Seena; Shaw, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Background: absolute numbers of older prisoners and their proportion of the total prison population are increasing. They have multiple health and social care needs that are prominent on entry into prison. No previous studies have identified older prisoners' health and social care needs at this crucial point. Objective: to examine unmet health and social care needs among older men entering prison and their links with depressive symptoms. Methods: a cross-sectional survey across nine prisons in the North of England was completed. One hundred male prisoners aged between 60 and 81 were interviewed, using the Camberwell Assessment of Need—Forensic short version (CANFOR-S) and Geriatric Depression Scale—Short Form (GDS-15). Descriptive statistics were generated and χ2 tests performed. Results: participants reported high levels of unmet needs as measured with the CANFOR-S, notably in the domains of knowledge about their condition and treatment (38%); psychological distress (34%); daytime activities (29%); benefits (28%); food (22%) and physical health (21%). The mean total number of unmet needs was 2.74, with a median of 2.0. More than half the sample (56%, 95% CI 45–66%) exhibited clinical signs of depression. A significant association between depressive symptomology and an unmet physical health need, as measured by the CANFOR-S, was detected (χ2 = 6.76, df = 1, P < 0.01). Conclusions: high levels of depressive symptoms were experienced by older prisoners on entry into prison. Personalised health and social care needs assessment and discrete depression screening are required on prison entry to facilitate effective management of unmet needs. PMID:26764402

  14. Does family history of depression predict major depression in midlife women? Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Mental Health Study (SWAN MHS).

    PubMed

    Colvin, Alicia; Richardson, Gale A; Cyranowski, Jill M; Youk, Ada; Bromberger, Joyce T

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to determine whether family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women independent of psychosocial and health profiles at midlife. Participants were 303 African American and Caucasian women (42-52 years at baseline) recruited into the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) and the Women's Mental Health Study (MHS) in Pittsburgh. Major depression was assessed annually with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Family mental health history was collected at the ninth or tenth follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether family history of depression predicted major depression in midlife, adjusting for covariates. The odds of experiencing major depression during the study were three times greater for those with a family history than for those without a family history (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.95-5.31). Family history predicted depression (OR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.50-4.78) after adjusting for lifetime history of depression, age, trait anxiety, chronic medical conditions, and stressful life events. In analyses stratified by lifetime history of depression, family history significantly predicted depression only among women with a lifetime history of depression. Family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women generally, but particularly in those with a lifetime history of depression prior to midlife. PMID:24952069

  15. Does Family History of Depression Predict Major Depression in Midlife Women? Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation Mental Health Study (SWAN MHS)

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Alicia; Richardson, Gale A.; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Youk, Ada; Bromberger, Joyce T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women independent of psychosocial and health profiles at midlife. Methods Participants were 303 African American and Caucasian women (42–52 years at baseline) recruited into the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) and the Women’s Mental Health Study (MHS) in Pittsburgh. Major depression was assessed annually with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Family mental health history was collected at the 9th or 10th follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether family history of depression predicted major depression in midlife, adjusting for covariates. Results The odds of experiencing major depression during the study were three times greater for those with a family history than for those without a family history (OR=3.22, 95% CI=1.95- 5.31). Family history predicted depression (OR=2.67, 95% CI=1.50–4.78) after adjusting for lifetime history of depression, age, trait anxiety, chronic medical conditions, and stressful life events. In analyses stratified by lifetime history of depression, family history significantly predicted depression only among women with a lifetime history of depression. Conclusions Family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women generally, but particularly in those with a lifetime history of depression prior to midlife. PMID:24952069

  16. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Depression, and Health Status in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Methods Individual-level data on 1010 participants at baseline in Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), a trial of long-term weight loss among adults with type 2 diabetes, were linked to neighborhood-level SES (% living below poverty) from the 2000 US Census (tracts). Dependent variables included depression (Beck Inventory), and health status (Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36) scale). Multi-level regression models were used to account simultaneously for individual-level age, sex, race, education, personal yearly income and neighborhood-level SES. Results Overall, the % living in poverty in the participants' neighborhoods varied, mean = 11% (range 0-67%). Compared to their counterparts in the lowest tertile of neighborhood poverty (least poverty), those in the highest tertile (most poverty) had significantly lower scores on the role-limitations(physical), role limitations(emotional), physical functioning, social functioning, mental health, and vitality sub-scales of the SF-36 scale. When evaluating SF-36 composite scores, those living in neighborhoods with more poverty had significantly lower scores on the physical health (β-coefficient [β] = -1.90 units, 95% CI: -3.40,-0.039), mental health (β = -2.92 units, -4.31,-1.53) and global health (β = -2.77 units, -4.21,-1.33) composite scores. Conclusion In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, lower neighborhood SES was significantly associated with poorer health status. Whether these associations might influence response to the Look AHEAD weight loss intervention requires further investigation. PMID:22182286

  17. Depression Screening Using Daily Mental-Health Ratings from a Smartphone Application for Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junetae; Lim, Sanghee; Min, Yul Ha; Shin, Yong-Wook; Lee, Byungtae; Sohn, Guiyun; Jung, Kyung Hae; Lee, Jae-Ho; Son, Byung Ho; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Shin, Soo-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile mental-health trackers are mobile phone apps that gather self-reported mental-health ratings from users. They have received great attention from clinicians as tools to screen for depression in individual patients. While several apps that ask simple questions using face emoticons have been developed, there has been no study examining the validity of their screening performance. Objective In this study, we (1) evaluate the potential of a mobile mental-health tracker that uses three daily mental-health ratings (sleep satisfaction, mood, and anxiety) as indicators for depression, (2) discuss three approaches to data processing (ratio, average, and frequency) for generating indicator variables, and (3) examine the impact of adherence on reporting using a mobile mental-health tracker and accuracy in depression screening. Methods We analyzed 5792 sets of daily mental-health ratings collected from 78 breast cancer patients over a 48-week period. Using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) as the measure of true depression status, we conducted a random-effect logistic panel regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate the screening performance of the mobile mental-health tracker. In addition, we classified patients into two subgroups based on their adherence level (higher adherence and lower adherence) using a k-means clustering algorithm and compared the screening accuracy between the two groups. Results With the ratio approach, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) is 0.8012, indicating that the performance of depression screening using daily mental-health ratings gathered via mobile mental-health trackers is comparable to the results of PHQ-9 tests. Also, the AUC is significantly higher (P=.002) for the higher adherence group (AUC=0.8524) than for the lower adherence group (AUC=0.7234). This result shows that adherence to self-reporting is associated with a higher accuracy of depression screening. Conclusions Our results

  18. Social support and physical activity as moderators of life stress in predicting baseline depression and change in depression over time in the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Eaton, Charles B.; Weisberg, Risa; Sands, Megan; Williams, Carla; Calhounm, Darren; Manson, JoAnn E.; Denburg, Natalie L.; Taylor, Teletia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether social support and/or physical activity buffer the association between stressors and increasing risk of depression symptoms at baseline and at 3 year follow-up. Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. 91,912 community-dwelling post-menopausal women participated in this prospective cohort study. Depression symptoms were measured at baseline and 3 years later; social support, physical activity, and stressors were measured at baseline. Results Stressors at baseline, including verbal abuse, physical abuse, caregiving, social strain, negative life events, financial stress, low income, acute pain, and a greater number of chronic medical conditions, were all associated with higher levels of depression symptoms at baseline and new onset elevated symptoms at three year follow-up. Social support and physical activity were associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms. Contrary to expectation, more social support at baseline strengthened the association between concurrent depression and physical abuse, social strain, caregiving, and low income. Similarly, more social support at baseline increased the association between financial stress, income, and pain on new-onset depression 3 years later. Physical activity similarly moderated the effect of caregiving, income, and pain on depression symptoms at baseline. Conclusion Stressors, social support, and physical activity showed predicted main effect associations with depression. Multiplicative interactions were small in magnitude and in the opposite direction of what was expected. PMID:23644722

  19. Depression, Social Support, and Mental Health: A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis in African American Custodial Grandmothers.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Deborah M; Kelley, Susan J; Lamis, Dorian A

    2016-03-01

    Custodial grandparents raising grandchildren experience intense levels of stress that can lead to depression and other forms of psychological distress. Drawing on a coping model of family stress, adjustment, and adaptation, we explored the relationship between depression and mental health quality of life mediated by social support and moderated by grandparent's age. The sample consisted of 667 African American custodial grandmothers, dichotomized into two age groupings, ≤55 (n = 306) and 55 + (n = 361). All grandmothers participated in a 12-month support intervention. The prospective analysis revealed social support was a mediator in the association between depressive symptoms and mental health quality of life for older African American grandmothers; however, this same relationship did not hold for their younger counterparts. Study limitations and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26798077

  20. Social Class and Mental Health: Testing Exploitation as a Relational Determinant of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Muntaner, Carles; Ng, Edwin; Prins, Seth J.; Bones-Rocha, Katia; Espelt, Albert; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-01-01

    This study tests whether social class exploitation operates as a relational mechanism that generates mental health inequalities in the nursing home industry. We ask, does social class exploitation (i.e., the acquisition of economic benefits from the labor of those who are dominated) have a systematic and predictable impact on depression among nursing assistants? Using cross-sectional data from 868 nursing assistants employed in 50 nursing homes in three U.S. states, we measure social class exploitation as “ownership type” (private for-profit, private not-for-profit, and public) and “managerial domination” (labor relations violations, perceptions of labor-management conflict). Depression is assessed using the original and revised versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and CESD-R). Using two-level logistic regressions, we find that private for-profit ownership and higher managerial domination are predictive of depression among nursing assistants even after adjustment for potential confounders and mediators. Our findings confirm the theoretical and empirical value of applying a social class approach to understanding how mental health inequalities are generated through exploitative mechanisms. Ownership type and managerial domination appear to affect depression through social relations that generate mental health inequalities through the process of acquiring profits, controlling production, supervising and monitoring labor, and enforcing disciplinary sanctions. PMID:25813501

  1. Psychometric analysis of the Mental Health Recovery Measure in a sample of veterans with depression.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Kristen M; Nelson, C Beau; Ganoczy, Dara; Zivin, Kara; Brandfon, Samantha; Walters, Heather; Cohen, Jay L; Valenstein, Marcia

    2016-05-01

    Using data from a sample of 398 veterans diagnosed with depression, the present study used principal components analysis to shorten the Mental Health Recovery Measure (MHRM) to a 10-item instrument. Results indicated the 10-item MHRM had excellent internal reliability. Construct validity for the 10-item MHRM was evidenced by correlations with measures of depression coping self-efficacy, social adjustment, hopelessness, and depression. The 10-item MHRM derived in the present study was compared with a 10-item version of the MHRM that was previously empirically derived in a sample of veterans with schizophrenia (Armstrong, Cohen, Hellemann, Reist, & Young, 2014). Results suggest that similar items represent the underlying construct of recovery for veterans with depression and veterans with schizophrenia. Veterans with depression reported lower average levels of recovery than veterans with schizophrenia. Study limitations, directions for future investigations, and the implications of routine assessment of mental health recovery in public mental health systems are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27148954

  2. Stigma and mental health treatment of adolescents with depression in jordan.

    PubMed

    Gearing, Robin E; MacKenzie, Michael J; Ibrahim, Rawan W; Brewer, Kathryne B; Batayneh, Jude S; Schwalbe, Craig S J

    2015-01-01

    Stigma is a fundamental barrier to seeking and engaging in mental health treatment for individuals managing depression. This study examines stigma perceptions of mental health treatment for Arab adolescents managing depression using a vignette survey completed by adults in public spaces in Amman, Jordan (n = 108). The vignette was systematically changed across four different conditions that varied the described youth's gender and whether or not they were receiving treatment for their depression. Two-way ANOVAs found that gender and receipt of mental health treatment influenced perceptions of stigma. Seeking treatment, however, did not increase perceived stigma, and receiving mental health treatment rather than no treatment was found as more likely to be a helpful approach for both males and females. Findings indicate that personal level stigma may have greater effects on females whereas public stigma may exert more influence on males. Participants endorsed that adolescents with depression are most likely to be helped when a family sought treatment rather than not seeking treatment. Findings also indicate that the community seems to appreciate the need for treatment and the likelihood of benefiting from formal mental health services. PMID:25027014

  3. [Depression and the complete state model of health].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Darío; Blanco, Amalio; Horcajo, Javier; Valle, Carmen

    2007-05-01

    Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. In order to specify the contents of this positive state, the Complete State Model of Health (CSMH) considers mental health as a series of symptoms of hedonia and positive functioning, operationalized by measures of subjective, psychological, and social well-being. This model has empirically confirmed two new axioms: (a) rather than forming a single bipolar dimension, health and illness are correlated unipolar dimensions, and (b) the presence of mental health implies positive personal and social functioning. In the present article, we have taken the CSMH as the theoretical framework for the study of depression. Confirmatory factor analyses did not support the first axiom. In fact, the model that posits that measures of mental illness and health form a single bipolar dimension provided the best fit to the data. PMID:17425901

  4. Relationship Between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Symptoms of Depression in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Hyun; Seok, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between depressive symptoms and serum vitamin D levels in stroke patients. Methods In total, 126 stroke patients were analyzed. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration of each patient was used to determine their vitamin D status. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9). Functional status was evaluated with the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI). We compared the clinical questionnaires of a vitamin D-deficient group and a normal group, and evaluated the correlations between BDI-II, PHQ-9, K-MBI, and serum 25-OHD levels. Results In the vitamin D-deficient group, BDI-II (16.0±12.1) and PHQ-9 (7.4±4.2) scores were significantly higher than those of the normal group (BDI-II, 9.1±7.2; PHQ-9, 4.2±2.9; p<0.01). In a Spearman correlation analysis, a significant negative correlation was found between serum 25-OHD levels and BDI-II (Spearman r=0.177, p=0.048), but there were no significant correlations between serum 25-OHD levels and PHQ-9 or K-MBI. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency was correlated with the symptoms of depression in stroke patients. PMID:26949678

  5. Flourishing after depression: Factors associated with achieving complete mental health among those with a history of depression.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Agbeyaka, Senyo; LaFond, Deborah M; Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2016-08-30

    This study investigated factors associated with complete mental health among a nationally representative sample of Canadians with a history of depression by conducting secondary analysis of the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey- Mental Health (n=20,955). Complete mental health was defined as 1) the absence of mental illness, substance abuse, or suicidal ideation in the past year; 2) happiness or life satisfaction almost every day/past month, and 3) social and psychological well-being. The prevalence of complete mental health among those with and without a history of depression was determined. In a sample of formerly depressed respondents (n=2528), a series of logistic regressions were completed controlling for demographics, socioeconomic status, health and lifetime mental health conditions, health behaviours, social support, adverse childhood experiences, and religiosity. Two in five individuals (39%) with a history of depression had achieved complete mental health in comparison to 78% of those without a history of depression. In comparison to the formally depressed adults who were not in complete mental health, those in complete mental health were more likely to be female, White, older, affluent, married, with a confidant, free of disabling pain, insomnia, and childhood adversities and without a history of substance abuse. They were also more likely to exercise regularly and use spirituality to cope. PMID:27267442

  6. Agomelatine Increases BDNF Serum Levels in Depressed Patients in Correlation with the Improvement of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Pettorruso, Mauro; De Berardis, Domenico; Varasano, Paola Annunziata; Lucidi Pressanti, Gabriella; De Remigis, Valeria; Valchera, Alessandro; Ricci, Valerio; Di Nicola, Marco; Janiri, Luigi; Biggio, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Agomelatine modulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression via its interaction with melatonergic and serotonergic receptors and has shown promising results in terms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor increase in animal models. Methods: Twenty-seven patients were started on agomelatine (25mg/d). Venous blood was collected and brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels were measured at baseline and after 2 and 8 weeks along with a clinical assessment, including Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale. Results: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum concentration increased after agomelatine treatment. Responders showed a significant increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels after 2 weeks of agomelatine treatment; no difference was observed in nonresponders. Linear regression analysis showed that more prominent brain-derived neurotrophic factor level variation was associated with lower baseline BDNF levels and greater anhedonic features at baseline. Conclusions: Patients affected by depressive disorders showed an increase of brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum concentration after a 2-week treatment with agomelatine. The increase of brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels was found to be greater in patients with lower brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and marked anhedonia at baseline. PMID:26775293

  7. Measuring depression and stigma towards depression and mental health treatment among adolescents in an Arab-American community

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, R.M.; Farroukh, M.; Ismail, M.; Najda, J.; Sobh, H.; Hammad, A.; Dalack, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research that has examined the prevalence of depression and attitudes towards depression and mental health treatment in Arab-American adolescents; we sought to assess these in a predominantly Arab-American community in metro Detroit. A health survey of adolescents aged 12–17 years was conducted (n=98). Participants were recruited from two local community organizations in Dearborn, MI. Depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Depression Scale, and attitude towards depression and willingness to seek help for mental health conditions were assessed by the Self-Stigma of Depression Scale (SSDS). To assess whether attitudes might be affected by information about mental health treatment, adolescents were randomized to view either an educational video about mental health, or a control video before responding to questions about their willingness to seek help for mental health conditions. Overall, 14% of Arab-American adolescents in this study endorsed moderate or moderately severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 11), suggesting a need to increase awareness of and access to mental health services and screening for Arab-American youth. PMID:26257824

  8. The Modified Depression Scale (MDS): A Brief, No-Cost Assessment Tool to Estimate the Level of Depressive Symptoms in Students and Schools

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Erin C.; Johnson, Renee M.; Green, Jennifer G.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent health researchers and practitioners are frequently interested in assessing depression as part of student screening and for school-wide prevention and intervention planning. However, this task is challenging given the lack of free, brief assessments of depressive symptoms in youth. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of an adapted version of the Modified Depression Scale (MDS). Data came from a school-based survey of 9th-12th graders in Boston (N=1,657). We assessed internal consistency reliability and known-groups validity, in addition to the feasibility of establishing a dichotomous cut-point to classify adolescents as having high versus low depressive symptoms. We also evaluated the validity of the adapted MDS as a school-wide measure. At the student-level, the adapted MDS demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. Students engaging in risk behaviors (e.g., substance use) or who were victimized (e.g., bullied) had significantly higher depressive symptom scores. Students who endorsed four or five MDS symptoms often or always had a heightened risk of suicidal ideation, substance use, and failing grades when compared to students who endorsed three or fewer symptoms often or always. At the school-level, higher mean levels of depressive symptoms in a school were associated with higher mean levels of suicidal ideation and failing grades. Results of this study suggest that the adapted MDS is a promising measurement tool that could be useful to school-based professionals and researchers to evaluate depressive symptoms in adolescents and ascertain the prevalence of depressive symptoms in schools. PMID:22639697

  9. The Onset of Depression During the Great Recession: Foreclosure and Older Adult Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Cagney, Kathleen A.; Browning, Christopher R.; Iveniuk, James; English, Ned

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined neighborhood-level foreclosure rates and their association with onset of depressive symptoms in older adults. Methods. We linked data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (2005–2006 and 2010–2011 waves), a longitudinal, nationally representative survey, to data on zip code–level foreclosure rates, and predicted the onset of depressive symptoms using logit-linked regression. Results. Multiple stages of the foreclosure process predicted the onset of depressive symptoms, with adjustment for demographic characteristics and changes in household assets, neighborhood poverty, and visible neighborhood disorder. A large increase in the number of notices of default (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14, 2.67) and properties returning to ownership by the bank (OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.47) were associated with depressive symptoms. A large increase in properties going to auction was suggestive of such an association (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 0.96, 2.19). Age, fewer years of education, and functional limitations also were predictive. Conclusions. Increases in neighborhood-level foreclosure represent an important risk factor for depression in older adults. These results accord with previous studies suggesting that the effects of economic crises are typically first experienced through deficits in emotional well-being. PMID:24446830

  10. Spousal Suffering and Partner’s Depression and Cardiovascular Disease: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Richard; Beach, Scott R.; Hebert, Randy S.; Martire, Lynn M.; Monin, Joan K.; Tompkins, Connie A.; Albert, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of suffering in a spouse on prevalent and incident psychiatric (depression) and physical morbidity (cardiovascular disease, CVD) in their partner, controlling for known risk factors for depression and CVD. Design Descriptive longitudinal study. Participants 1330 older married couples enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a large epidemiologic study of the elderly. Measurements Predictor variables were physical, psychological, and existential/spiritual indicators of suffering. Primary outcomes were prevalent and incident depression and CVD. Results Controlling for known risk factors for depression, we found a dose-response relationship between suffering in a spouse and concurrent depression in their partner as well as a relationship between suffering and the partner’s future risk for depression. With respect to CVD, and controlling for sub-clinical CVD at baseline, husbands whose wives reported high levels of suffering also had higher rates of prevalent CVD, but there were not significant associations between wives suffering and husbands incident CVD. There were no associations between husbands’ suffering and wives’ prevalent or incident CVD. Conclusion Exposure to spousal suffering is an independent and unique source of distress in married couples that contributes to psychiatric and physical morbidity. More attention should be paid to the interpersonal effects of suffering in married couples, and to its role in contributing to morbidity. PMID:19454851

  11. Social Determinants of Health and Depression: A Preliminary Investigation from Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuan; Gong, Yan-Hong; Wen, Xiao-Piao; Guan, Chao-Ping; Li, Ming-Chuan; Yin, Ping; Wang, Zhi-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Background In the last several years, research related to social determinants of health (SDH) has begun to resonate in the medical, behavioral, social and political sciences arena. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between SDH and depression, and to provide new evidences and clues for depression control and prevention. Methodology/Principal Findings This research was a cross-sectional survey executed door to door from October 2006 to April 2008, with a sample of 3,738 individuals aged 18 and older in rural China. The three variables of SDH were socioeconomic status (years of schooling and self-reported economic status of family), social cohesion and negative life events. Demographic variables and self-perceived physical health were taken as potential confounders. The cross-table analysis showed that variations in levels of depression were associated with variations in SDH, and logistic regression analysis confirmed the association even after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Conclusions Although there were some limitations, the current study provides initial evidence of the importance of SDH in depression. Findings indicate that social inequity and the role of policy action emphasized by SDH should be considered high priorities when addressing the issue of depression. In addition, cell-to-society and pill-to-policy approaches should be encouraged in the future. PMID:22276213

  12. Overeducation and depressive symptoms: diminishing mental health returns to education.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Piet; Pattyn, Elise; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2013-11-01

    In general, well-educated people enjoy better mental health than those with less education. As a result, some wonder whether there are limits to the mental health benefits of education. Inspired by the literature on the expansion of tertiary education, this article explores marginal mental health returns to education and studies the mental health status of overeducated people. To enhance the validity of the findings we use two indicators of educational attainment - years of education and ISCED97 categories - and two objective indicators of overeducation (the realised matches method and the job analyst method) in a sample of the working population of 25 European countries (unweighted sample N = 19,089). Depression is measured using an eight-item version of the CES-D scale. We find diminishing mental health returns to education. In addition, overeducated people report more depression symptoms. Both findings hold irrespective of the indicators used. The results must be interpreted in the light of the enduring expansion of education, as our findings show that the discussion of the relevance of the human capital perspective, and the diploma disease view on the relationship between education and modern society, is not obsolete. PMID:23909439

  13. Are women with major depression in pregnancy identifiable in population health data?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although record linkage of routinely collected health datasets is a valuable research resource, most datasets are established for administrative purposes and not for health outcomes research. In order for meaningful results to be extrapolated to specific populations, the limitations of the data and linkage methodology need to be investigated and clarified. It is the objective of this study to investigate the differences in ascertainment which may arise between a hospital admission dataset and a dispensing claims dataset, using major depression in pregnancy as an example. The safe use of antidepressants in pregnancy is an ongoing issue for clinicians with around 10% of pregnant women suffer from depression. As the birth admission will be the first admission to hospital during their pregnancy for most women, their use of antidepressants, or their depressive condition, may not be revealed to the attending hospital clinicians. This may result in adverse outcomes for the mother and infant. Methods Population-based de-identified data were provided from the Western Australian Data Linkage System linking the administrative health records of women with a delivery to related records from the Midwives’ Notification System, the Hospital Morbidity Data System and the national Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme dataset. The women with depression during their pregnancy were ascertained in two ways: women with dispensing records relating to dispensed antidepressant medicines with an WHO ATC code to the 3rd level, pharmacological subgroup, ‘N06A Antidepressants’; and, women with any hospital admission during pregnancy, including the birth admission, if a comorbidity was recorded relating to depression. Results From 2002 to 2005, there were 96698 births in WA. At least one antidepressant was dispensed to 4485 (4.6%) pregnant women. There were 3010 (3.1%) women with a comorbidity related to depression recorded on their delivery admission, or other admission to hospital

  14. Depression - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  15. Antenatal depression and hematocrit levels as predictors of postpartum depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Roomruangwong, Chutima; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Maes, Michael

    2016-04-30

    The aim of this study is to delineate the risk factors of antenatal depression and its consequences, including postnatal depression, and to examine whether the hematocrit (Hct) is associated with maternal depression. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Kennerley and Gath Maternity Blues Assessment Scale (KGB), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) were assessed at the end of term (T1) and 2-3 days (T2) and 4-6 weeks (T3) after delivery in 126 women with and without antenatal depression. The Hct was measured at T1. Antenatal depression was significantly predicted by lifetime depression and premenstrual syndrome and less education. Antenatal depression was not associated with obstetric or neonatal outcomes. Antenatal depression symptoms strongly predict depression and anxiety symptoms at T2 and T3. The EPDS, KGB, STAI and BDI, but not the HAMD, scores, were significantly lower at T3 than before. The incidence of depression significantly decreased from T1 (23.8%) to T2 (7.8%) and T3 (5.3%). T1 Hct values significantly predicted the T3 postnatal EPDS, STAI, KGB and BDI scores. Delivery significantly improves depression and anxiety symptoms. Increased Hct in the third trimester is a biomarker of postpartum depression and anxiety symptoms. PMID:27086235

  16. Likelihood of Suicidality at Varying Levels of Depression Severity: A Re-Analysis of NESARC Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Strong, David; Weinstock, Lauren M.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    Although it is clear that increasing depression severity is associated with more risk for suicidality, less is known about at what levels of depression severity the risk for different suicide symptoms increases. We used item response theory to estimate the likelihood of endorsing suicide symptoms across levels of depression severity in an…

  17. Perceived threat and depression among patients with cancer: the moderating role of health locus of control.

    PubMed

    Goldzweig, Gil; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Alon, Shirly; Shalit, Efrat

    2016-07-01

    Illness perception was found to be a better predictor of psychological outcome among cancer patients than the objective characteristics of illness. The current study explored the association between the perceived threat of illness (a major aspect of illness perception) and depression among cancer patients. We examined the hypothesis that this association will be higher for persons with low External (others) or internal (self) Health Locus of Control (HLC) than for those with high HLC. The study took an exploratory approach regarding the role that different sources of control (external and internal) may assume. Fifty-seven cancer patients completed self-report measures of Perceived Life Threat (PLT), HLC and Depression. The possible moderating role of HLC on the relationship between PLT and Depression was examined. A significant relationship between perceived threat and depression was found only among participants reporting low levels of internal locus of control. The results support the hypothesis that perception of cancer as life threatening is important factor in determining the level of depression among cancer patients. The results also support the differentiation between internal and external HLC and suggest that internal HLC may be more relevant than external HLC in managing perceived threat. Internal locus of control can be interpreted as having a sense of agency and mastery which is important in managing the cognitive perception of the threat of illness. Further research is needed in order to determine the role of external HLC in managing perceived or actual threats. PMID:26821193

  18. Maternal Health Factors as Risks for Postnatal Depression: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Chojenta, Catherine L.; Lucke, Jayne C.; Forder, Peta M.; Loxton, Deborah J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose While previous studies have identified a range of potential risk factors for postnatal depression (PND), none have examined a comprehensive set of risk factors at a population-level using data collected prospectively. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between a range of factors and PND and to construct a model of the predictors of PND. Methods Data came from 5219 women who completed Survey 5 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health in 2009 and reported giving birth to a child. Results Over 15% of women reported experiencing PND with at least one of their children. The strongest positive associations were for postnatal anxiety (OR = 13.79,95%CI = 10.48,18.13) and antenatal depression (OR = 9.23,95%CI = 6.10,13.97). Positive associations were also found for history of depression and PND, low SF-36 Mental Health Index, emotional distress during labour, and breastfeeding for less than six months. Conclusions Results indicate that understanding a woman’s mental health history plays an important role in the detection of those who are most vulnerable to PND. Treatment and management of depression and anxiety earlier in life and during pregnancy may have a positive impact on the incidence of PND. PMID:26785131

  19. Comparison of Health Status and Nutrient Intake between Depressed Women and Non-depressed Women: Based on the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Won, Myeong Suk; Kim, Sunghee; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to provide supporting data for the management of dietary habits in depression by comparing health and nutrition in adult Korean women according to depression status. A total of 2,236 women aged between 19 and 64 years who participated in the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into a depression group (n = 315) and a non-depression group (n = 1,921). Among 19-29-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, and suicidal thoughts than the non-depression group. The depression group showed lower intake of cereal, chocolate, meat, and carbonated drinks, as well as a lower index of nutritional quality (INQ) for protein, iron, and niacin. Among 30-49-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, chronic disease, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of rice with mixed grains and higher intake of instant and cup noodles than the non-depression group. Among 50-64-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of vegetables, mushrooms, and seaweed, lower nutritional intake of fat, saturated fat, and n-3 fatty acids, as well as a lower INQ for niacin and a lower Recommended Food Score. For all age groups, individuals with depression showed poorer health and nutritional intake than healthy individuals, demonstrating a correlation of depression with health and nutritional intake. PMID:27152301

  20. Comparison of Health Status and Nutrient Intake between Depressed Women and Non-depressed Women: Based on the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Won, Myeong Suk; Kim, Sunghee

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide supporting data for the management of dietary habits in depression by comparing health and nutrition in adult Korean women according to depression status. A total of 2,236 women aged between 19 and 64 years who participated in the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into a depression group (n = 315) and a non-depression group (n = 1,921). Among 19–29-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, and suicidal thoughts than the non-depression group. The depression group showed lower intake of cereal, chocolate, meat, and carbonated drinks, as well as a lower index of nutritional quality (INQ) for protein, iron, and niacin. Among 30–49-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, chronic disease, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of rice with mixed grains and higher intake of instant and cup noodles than the non-depression group. Among 50–64-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of vegetables, mushrooms, and seaweed, lower nutritional intake of fat, saturated fat, and n-3 fatty acids, as well as a lower INQ for niacin and a lower Recommended Food Score. For all age groups, individuals with depression showed poorer health and nutritional intake than healthy individuals, demonstrating a correlation of depression with health and nutritional intake. PMID:27152301

  1. Factors Associated with Depression Assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 in Long-Term Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Ae-Jin; Shin, Jinyoung; Ko, Hyeonyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depressive disorders and factors associated in long-term cancer survivors. Methods A total of 702 long-term cancer survivors over 5-years in remission were recruited in a university-affiliated tertiary hospital in Korea. Self-report using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 and the Fatigue Severity Scale assessed depression and fatigue, respectively. Demographic characteristics, cancer-related clinical characteristics, comorbidity, health behaviors, and physical symptoms were assessed through the review of medical records or a structured self-administered questionnaire. Results We identified 26.1% of patients who had a depressed mood or displayed a loss of interest. The most prevalent primary site of cancer was the stomach (65.2%), followed by lung, breast, colorectal, and thyroid cancer. We also found that 5.7% of subjects experienced double or triple primary cancers. Larger proportion among depressive group (89.1%) complained at least one physical problem than among non-depressive group (53.2%). Physical symptoms including sleep problems, dry mouth, indigestion, pain, decreased appetite, and febrile sense were more frequent in the depressive group than in the non-depressive group. The Fatigue Severity Scale scores were higher in the depressive group than in the non-depressive group (P<0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the highest tertile level of fatigue (odds ratio, 7.31; 95% confidence interval, 3.81–14.02) was associated with the increased risk of depression. Conclusion These findings suggest that careful concern about depression is necessary in long-term cancer survivors. Fatigue may be a surrogate sign for depression, and warrants further evaluation. PMID:27468341

  2. Depression, anxiety and stress levels in industrial workers: A pilot study in Bangalore, India

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sheldon; Ramesh, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health disorders affect around 500 million people worldwide. In India, around 10–12% of people are affected by a mental disorder either due to stress, depression, anxiety, or any other cause. Mental health of workers affects the productivity of the workplace, with estimates putting these losses to be over 100 million dollars annually. Aims: The study aims to measure depression, anxiety, and stress levels of workers in an industry and to investigate if it has any effect on productivity of the firm. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a cross-sectional design and was conducted among workmen of the firm. A sociodemographic based questionnaire and a mental health screening tool -Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS)-21 were used for the same. A total of 90 completed questionnaires were analyzed for the study. The data was analyzed for central tendencies as well as for any associations and correlations. Results: The study showed that none of the workers had a positive score for depression. It also showed that around 36% of the workers had a positive score for anxiety and 18% of the workers had a positive score for stress on DASS-21 scale. The odds ratio between stress and number of leaves taken by a worker in the last 3 months suggested a dose–response relationship, but was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The study found a prevalence rate of around 18–36% for anxiety and stress amongst the workers at the factory. Large-scale studies will help understand the effect mental health status has on the Indian workplace. PMID:26257479

  3. The relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder severity, depression severity and physical health.

    PubMed

    Rytwinski, Nina K; Avena, Jennifer S; Echiverri-Cohen, Aileen M; Zoellner, Lori A; Feeny, Norah C

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the relationship among posttraumatic stress disorder severity, depression severity, and subjective and objective physical health in a sample of 200 adults with posttraumatic stress disorder. Posttraumatic stress disorder severity was correlated with subjective, but not objective, health. Similarly, depression symptoms had an indirect effect on the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity and three measures of subjective physical health. Finally, depression symptoms had an indirect effect on the relationship between both reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms and subjective physical health. This research underscores the important role that posttraumatic stress disorder, particularly reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms, and depression may have on perceptions of physical health. PMID:23449677

  4. The relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder severity, depression severity and physical health

    PubMed Central

    Rytwinski, Nina K; Avena, Jennifer S; Echiverri-Cohen, Aileen M; Zoellner, Lori A; Feeny, Norah C

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship among posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity, depression severity, and subjective and objective physical health in a sample of 200 adults with PTSD. PTSD severity was correlated with subjective, but not objective, health. Similarly, depression symptoms had an indirect effect on the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and three measures of subjective physical health. Finally, depression symptoms had an indirect effect on the relationship between both reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms and subjective physical health. This research underscores the important role that PTSD, particularly reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms, and depression may have on perceptions of physical health. PMID:23449677

  5. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... make negative thinking worse. previous continue Depression Can Go Unrecognized People with depression may not realize they ... themselves or who have eating disorders or who go through extreme mood changes may have unrecognized depression. ...

  6. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... The depression generally lifts during spring and summer. Bipolar disorder is different from depression but is included in this list is because someone with bipolar disorder experiences episodes of extreme low moods (depression). But ...

  7. Impact of Depression on Health Care Utilization and Costs among Multimorbid Patients – Results from the MultiCare Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Jens-Oliver; Luppa, Melanie; Brettschneider, Christian; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Bickel, Horst; Fuchs, Angela; Gensichen, Jochen; Maier, Wolfgang; Mergenthal, Karola; Schäfer, Ingmar; Schön, Gerhard; Weyerer, Siegfried; Wiese, Birgitt; König, Hans-Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe and analyze the effects of depression on health care utilization and costs in a sample of multimorbid elderly patients. Method This cross-sectional analysis used data of a prospective cohort study, consisting of 1,050 randomly selected multimorbid primary care patients aged 65 to 85 years. Depression was defined as a score of six points or more on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Subjects passed a geriatric assessment, including a questionnaire for health care utilization. The impact of depression on health care costs was analyzed using multiple linear regression models. A societal perspective was adopted. Results Prevalence of depression was 10.7%. Mean total costs per six-month period were €8,144 (95% CI: €6,199-€10,090) in patients with depression as compared to €3,137 (95% CI: €2,735-€3,538; p<0.001) in patients without depression. The positive association between depression and total costs persisted after controlling for socio-economic variables, functional status and level of multimorbidity. In particular, multiple regression analyses showed a significant positive association between depression and pharmaceutical costs. Conclusion Among multimorbid elderly patients, depression was associated with significantly higher health care utilization and costs. The effect of depression on costs was even greater than reported by previous studies conducted in less morbid patients. PMID:24638040

  8. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  9. Depression Research at the National Institute of Mental Health. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is committed to reducing the burden of mental illness through research on mind, brain, and behavior. This report presents the latest information on what is known about depression. The symptoms and types of depression are considered. Research on the treatments of depression is described, including the…

  10. Mental Health and Functional Outcomes of Maternal and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Frances; Lifford, Kate J.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of maternal and self-ratings of adolescent depression by investigating the extent to which these reports predicted a range of mental health and functional outcomes 4 years later. The potential influence of mother's own depressed mood on her ratings of adolescent depression and suicidal ideation on adolescent outcome…

  11. Postnatal Depression and Infant Health Practices among High-Risk Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajicek-Farber, Michaela L.

    2009-01-01

    Women's postnatal depressive symptoms have been associated with many adverse outcomes for children. The current study examined the frequency association with relative risk between postnatal depressive symptoms and mothers' use of preventative infant health practices. The study used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Parental…

  12. Screening for depressive symptoms in older adults in the Family Health Strategy, Porto Alegre, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Eduardo Lopes; Rubin, Leonardo Librelotto; Giacobbo, Sara de Souza; Gomes, Irenio; Cataldo, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of depression in older adults and associated factors. METHODS Cross-sectional study using a stratified random sample of 621 individuals aged ≥ 60 from 27 family health teams in Porto Alegre, RS, Southern Brazil, between 2010 and 2012. Community health agents measured depression using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Scores of ≥ 6 were considered as depression and between 11 and 15 as severe depression. Poisson regression was used to search for independent associations of sociodemographic and self-perceived health with both depression and its severity. RESULTS The prevalence of depression was 30.6% and was significantly higher in women (35.9% women versus 20.9% men, p < 0.001). The variables independently associated with depression were: female gender (PR = 1.4, 95%CI 1.1;1.8); low education, especially illiteracy (PR = 1.8, 95%CI 1.2;2 6); regular self-rated health (OR = 2.2, 95%CI 1.6;3.0); and poor/very poor self-rated health (PR = 4.0, 95%CI 2.9;5.5). Except for education, the strength of association of these factors increases significantly in severe depression. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depression was observed in the evaluations conducted by community health agents, professionals who are not highly specialized. The findings identified using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale in this way are similar to those in the literature, with depression more associated with low education, female gender and worse self-rated health. From a primary health care strategic point of view, the findings become still more relevant, indicating that community health agents could play an important role in identifying depression in older adults. PMID:25119932

  13. Women's mental health nursing: depression, anxiety and stress during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Parcells, D A

    2010-11-01

    Depression affects more women than men, with a preponderance of cases occurring during prime childbearing years (15-44 years of age). Research shows newborns and infants exposed to maternal antepartum depression, anxiety and stress exhibit pronounced neurobiobehavioral dysregularities. The present study investigated the relationship between maternal psychosocial and biochemical profiles during the antepartum period. Participants were recruited from prenatal registration at a large metropolitan hospital in the southeastern USA--the sample consisted of 59 pregnant women (mean age = 22 years). Structured clinical interviews and maternal self-report were utilized to assess maternal psychosocial distress at mid- (26-28 weeks) and late- (32-34 weeks) gestation. Salivary cortisol levels served as an objective stress measure. The resultant high incidences of maternal depression, anxiety and stress provide evidence of the need for nurses to closely monitor psychosocial and biochemical profiles of all women to thwart the negative effects on the developing human foetus. Clinical nursing implications of the requisite consideration of antepartum maternal psychosocial conditions are discussed. PMID:21040227

  14. The Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase Levels of Depressive Patients with Suicidal Behavior in an Agricultural Area.

    PubMed

    Altinyazar, Vesile; Sirin, Fevziye Burcu; Sutcu, Recep; Eren, Ibrahim; Omurlu, Imran Kurt

    2016-10-01

    Long-term exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) without acute poisoning can lead to various OPs. Environmental exposure to organophosphate pesticides may be associated with depression and suicide attempts in a population living in a rural agricultural area. Patients (n = 149) suffering from major depressive disorder (with and without attempted suicide) and a control group of healthy individuals (n = 64) who had been living in the same rural district for at least 1 year were selected. Red blood cell acetylcholine esterase (RBC-AChE) activity was examined as the basis of evaluating the degree of chronic environmental exposure to OPs residues. There were negative association between RBC-AChE activity levels and suicide attempts, the number of past suicide attempts and hopelessness levels in the depressive patients. The results of the study may support the idea that environmental exposure to OPs may be associated with mental health in individuals living in agricultural districts who are not farmers or working in occupations with access to OPs. PMID:27605747

  15. [From the Competence Network on Depression and Suicidality to the German Depression Foundation : National and international prevention of suicidal behaviour and optimizing health care through using of E‑Mental-Health].

    PubMed

    Hegerl, Ulrich; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Heinz, Ines

    2016-04-01

    Depression is a very common, severe, socio-economically highly relevant disorder and the main cause for approximately 10,000 suicides in Germany annually. There is capital room for improvement and optimization of the care for depressed patients, as effective and evidence-based treatment options are available. However, they are only used optimally by a minority of the people affected due to huge diagnostic and therapeutic deficits. The "Compentence Network on Depression and Suicidality" provided several evidence-based concepts to improve care for patients affected by depression and to prevent suicidal behaviour. Especially the four-level intervention approach of the Alliances Against Depression has been successfully adapted and implemented by more than 100 regions within Europe and globally as well. The infrastructure of the Competence Network could be efficiently sustained throughout the establishment of the German Depression Foundation and the European Alliance against Depression. Since 2014, all research activities have been extended nationally and internationally by the establishment of a Depression Research Centre with a special focus on various E‑Mental-Health-projects. PMID:26961867

  16. Use of the Air Force Post-Deployment Health Reassessment for the Identification of Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Public Health Implications for Suicide Prevention

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Michael D.; Knox, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Military members are required to complete the Post-Deployment Health Assessment on return from deployment and the Post-Deployment Health Reassessment (PHDRA) 90 to 180 days later, and we assessed the PDHRA’s sensitivity and specificity in identifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression after a military deployment among US Air Force personnel. Methods. We computed the PDHRA’s sensitivity and specificity for depression and PTSD and developed a structural model to suggest possible improvements to it. Results. For depression, sensitivity and specificity were 0.704 and 0.651, respectively; for PTSD, they were 0.774 and 0.650, respectively. Several variables produced significant direct effects on depression and trauma, suggesting that modifications could increase its sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions. The PDHRA was moderately effective in identifying airmen with depression and PTSD. It identified behavioral health concerns in many airmen who did not develop a diagnostic mental health condition. Its low level of specificity may result in reduced barriers to care and increased support services, key components of a public health approach to suicide prevention, for airmen experiencing subacute levels of distress after deployment, which may, in part, account for lower suicide rates among airmen after deployment. PMID:22390604

  17. Depressive symptoms in the second trimester relate to low oxytocin levels in African-American women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Lindsey; Giurgescu, Carmen; Carter, C Sue; Holditch-Davis, Diane; McFarlin, Barbara L; Schwertz, Dorie; Seng, Julia S; White-Traut, Rosemary

    2015-02-01

    Low-income African-American women report elevated prenatal depressive symptoms more often (42 %) than the national average (20 %). In the USA in 2012, 16.5 % of African-American women experienced a premature birth (less than 36 completed gestational weeks) compared to 10.3 % of white women. In addition, 13 % of African-American women had a low-birth weight infant (less than 2,500 g) compared to 7 % of white women. Variation in the neuropeptide, oxytocin has been implicated in perinatal depression, maternal behavior, regulation of stress responses, and may be associated with this health disparity. The purpose of this investigation was to examine factors associated with prenatal depressive symptoms, including plasma oxytocin levels and birth weight, in a sample of urban African-American women. Pregnant African-American women (N = 57) completed surveys and had blood drawn twice during pregnancy at 15-22 weeks and 25-37 weeks. In addition, birth data were collected from medical records. A large number of participants reported elevated prenatal depressive symptoms at the first (n = 20, 35 %) and the second (n = 19, 33 %) data points. Depressive symptoms were higher in multigravidas (t(51) = -2.374, p = 0.02), women with higher anxiety (r(47) = 0.71, p = 0.001), women who delivered their infants at an earlier gestational age (r(51) = -0.285, p = 0.04), and those without the support of the infant's father (F(4, 48) = 2.676, p = 0.04). Depressive symptoms were also higher in women with low oxytocin levels than in women with high oxytocin levels (F(2, 47) = 3.3, p = 0.05). In addition, women who had low oxytocin tended to have infants with lower birth weights (F(2, 47) = 2.9, p = 0.06). Neither prenatal depressive symptoms nor prenatal oxytocin levels were associated with premature birth. Pregnant multigravida African-American women with increased levels of anxiety and lacking the baby's father's support during the

  18. Increased health burden associated with comorbid depression in older Brazilians with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Blay, S. L.; Fillenbaum, G.G.; Marinho, V.; Andreoli, S.B.; Gastal, F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The health burden associated with comorbid depression and diabetes in older community residents in middle income countries is unclear. Methods Data came from a statewide representative sample (N= 6,963, age ≥60) in Brazil. Controlled polytomous logistic regression was used to determine whether four mutually exclusive groups (all possible combinations of the presence or absence of depression and diabetes) differed in sociodemographic characteristics, social resources, health behaviors, and selected health conditions. Results While 2.37% were expected to have comorbid depression/diabetes given sample base rates (depression: 20.92% [1457/6963]; diabetes: 11.35% [790/6959]), comorbidity was present in 3.62% (52.5% beyond expectation; P<0.0001; OR = 1.58, 95% Confidence Interval 1.29–1.95). Depression without diabetes was reported by17.3%, and diabetes without depression by 7.7%. In controlled analyses, the depression group had poorer socioeconomic status and health behaviors, and a greater likelihood of vascular, respiratory, and musculoskeletal problems than the diabetes group. Vascular, respiratory, and urinary problems were exacerbated in comorbid depression/diabetes; the comorbid group was also more likely to be female and younger. Limitations cross-sectional design. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study that explicitly reports on all four possible depression/diabetes combinations in an older representative community-resident sample, using controlled analyses to identify unique associations with sociodemographic characteristics and other health conditions. The burden of comorbid depression/diabetes in Brazil, a middle income country, appears to be comparable to that found in higher income countries. So, similarly, depression without diabetes had a greater odds of adverse sociodemographic and health conditions than diabetes without depression; comorbid depression/diabetes was more likely in women and young elderly, and the odds of

  19. Depression and Chronic Diseases: It Is Time for a Synergistic Mental Health and Primary Care Approach

    PubMed Central

    Richie, William D.; Bailey, Rahn K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify the growing significance of depression as a global leading cause of years lost to disability and its role as a major independent risk factor in many chronic illnesses. The distinct effects of depression on morbidity and mortality in cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke are investigated, including behavioral factors and plausible biological mechanisms (psychoneuroimmunology of depression). Data Sources: PubMed articles in English were searched from 1992 to 2012 (20-year span) using the following search criteria: psychoneuroimmunology of depression, immune-mediated inflammation, depression treatment recommendations, depression screening, years lost to disability, underserved populations and depression, chronic illnesses and depression, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and immune system. Data Synthesis: Evidence of the robust bidirectional relationship between depression and individual chronic diseases is presented and discussed. A brief overview of currently recommended psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic treatment approaches in regard to depression in chronic diseases is provided. Results: Discordance between mental health and primary care within the US public health system is a systematic problem that must be addressed. This situation leads to a potentially high hidden prevalence of underdiagnosed and undertreated depression, especially in the underserved populations. Conclusion: Measures must be implemented across the communities of mental health and primary care practitioners in order to achieve a synergistic approach to depression. PMID:23930236

  20. Depression and Rural Environment are Associated With Poor Oral Health Among Pregnant Women in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Daniel W; Hayes, Sarah E; Randall, Cameron L; Polk, Deborah E; Neiswanger, Kathy; Shaffer, John R; Weyant, Robert J; Foxman, Betsy; Kao, Elizabeth; Crout, Richard J; Chapman, Stella; Brown, Linda J; Maurer, Jennifer L; Marazita, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    Both oral health problems and depression among pregnant women contribute to maternal-infant health outcomes. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of clinically significant depression on the oral health status of pregnant women. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of clinically significant depression and rural- or urban-dwelling status on oral health outcomes among pregnant women. Pregnant women (N = 685) in rural (i.e., West Virginia) and urban (i.e., Pittsburgh, PA) areas of northern Appalachia were assessed by calibrated examiners regarding gingivitis, oral hygiene, and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth), completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and provided demographics. Participants were categorized based on clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) and rural/urban domicile. Women with depression and those living in rural areas had worse oral health on all three indices than their non-depressed and urban counterparts. Depression, particularly among women in rural areas, affects certain oral health indices and represents a modifiable target for intervention. Moreover, treatments designed specifically for rural populations may be of particular utility. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant may benefit from regular depression screenings from their dental and medical health care providers. PMID:26643277

  1. Major Depression During and After the Menopausal Transition: Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Chang, Yue-Fang; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Brown, Charlotte; Matthews, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether risk for major depression during the menopausal transition or immediately thereafter is increased relative to premenopause. Objectives To examine whether the odds of experiencing major depression were greater when women were perimenopausal or postmenopausal compared to when they were premenopausal, independent of a history of major depression at study entry and annual measures of vasomotor symptoms, serum levels or changes in estradiol, follicular stimulating hormone, or testosterone and relevant confounders. Methods Participants included the 221 African American and Caucasian women, aged 42–52, who were premenopausal at entry into the Pittsburgh site of a community-based study of menopause, the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). We conducted the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID) to assess diagnoses of lifetime, annual, and current major depression at baseline and annual follow-ups. Psychosocial and health factors, and blood samples for assay of reproductive hormones were obtained annually. Results Women were two to four times more likely to experience major depression episode when they were perimenopausal or early postmenopausal. Repeated measures logistic regression analyses showed that the effect of menopausal status was independent of history of major depression and annually measured upsetting life events, psychotropic medication use, vasomotor symptoms and serum levels of or changes in reproductive hormones. History of major depression was a strong predictor of major depression throughout the study. Conclusions The risk of major depression is greater for women during and immediately after the menopausal transition than when they are premenopausal. PMID:21306662

  2. Cumulative Depression Episodes Predicts Later C-Reactive Protein Levels: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E. Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is associated with elevated levels of the inflammation marker C -reactive protein (CRP), yet the direction of this association remains unclear. This study tested bi-directional longitudinal associations between CRP and depression in a sample of adolescent and young adults. The study compared the effects of current depression to the cumulative episodes of depression over time. Methods Nine waves of data from the prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (N = 1,420) were used, covering children in the community aged 9–16, 19, and 21 years old. Structured interviews were used to assess depressive symptoms, depression diagnosis, and cumulative depressive episodes. Bloodspots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. Results CRP levels were not associated with later depression status. In contrast, all depression-related variables displayed evidence of association with later CRP levels. The associations with depressive symptoms and diagnostic status were attenuated after controlling for covariates particularly body mass index, smoking, and medication use. The effect of cumulative depressive episodes, however, continued to be significant after accounting for a range of covariates. Body mass index, smoking behavior and recent infections may mediate a portion of the effect of cumulative episodes on later CRP, but cumulative depressive episodes continued to predict CRP levels independently. Conclusions The occurrence of multiple depressive episodes exerted the greatest effect on later CRP levels. This suggests that risk for the diseases of middle age - cardiovascular and metabolic disease – may begin in childhood and depend, in part, upon long-term emotional functioning. PMID:22047718

  3. Social, Health, and Age Differences Associated with Depressive Disorders in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plach, Sandra K.; Napholz, Linda; Kelber, Sheryl T.

    2005-01-01

    Depression in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be related to social role experiences, physical health, and age. The purpose of this study was to examine the social and health factors contributing to depression in two age groups of women with RA. One-hundred and thirty-eight midlife and late-life women with a diagnosis of RA participated in…

  4. Evaluating Mental Health Literacy and Adolescent Depression: What Do Teenagers "Know?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, John; Bruno, Michelle; Fernandes, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of depression increases markedly during adolescence, yet many youth are not receiving the support that they need. One factor that has been speculated as contributing to low rates of care is a lack of mental health literacy about depression and viable sources of support. This pilot study focused on mental health literacy as it…

  5. The Effects of Intermittent Reminiscence Therapy on Nursing Home Residents' Depression Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Patricia

    Depression is regarded as the most prevalent mental health disorder in the elderly. Reminiscence, a normative and universal process which can facilitate the resolution, integration, and reorganization of past conflicts can have positive or negative effects on depression. One environment where the elderly are particularly at risk for the negative…

  6. Do employers know the quality of health care benefits they provide? Use of HEDIS depression scores for health plans.

    PubMed

    Robst, John; Rost, Kathryn; Marshall, Donna

    2013-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Dissemination of health quality measures is a necessary ingredient of efforts to harness market-based forces, such as value-based purchasing by employers, to improve health care quality. This study examined reporting of Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures for depression to firms interested in improving depression care. METHODS During surveys conducted between 2009 and 2011, a sample of 325 employers that were interested in improving depression treatment were asked whether their primary health plan reports HEDIS scores for depression to the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) and if so, whether they knew the scores. Data about HEDIS reporting by the health plans were collected from the NCQA. RESULTS HEDIS depression scores were reported by the primary health plans of 154 (47%) employers, but only 7% of employers knew their plan's HEDIS scores. Because larger employers were more likely to report knowing the scores, 53% of all employees worked for employers who reported knowing the scores. A number of structural, health benefit, and need characteristics predicted knowledge of HEDIS depression scores by employers. CONCLUSIONS The study demonstrated that motivated employers did not know their depression HEDIS scores even when their plan publicly reported them. Measures of health care quality are not reaching the buyers of insurance products; however, larger employers were more likely to know the HEDIS scores for their health plan, suggesting that value-based purchasing may have some ability to affect health care quality. PMID:23945985

  7. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    Drug Fact Sheet Depressants Overview Includes barbiturates (barbs), benzodiazepines (benzos) and sedative-hypnotics. Depressants will put you ... unsafe, increasing the likelihood of coma or death. Benzodiazepines were developed to replace barbiturates, though they still ...

  8. Diabetes, Depressive Symptoms, and Inflammation in Older Adults: Results from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Todd A.; de Groot, Mary; Harris, Tamara; Schwartz, Frank; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kanaya, Alka

    2013-01-01

    Objective Up-regulated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are common to both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and elevated depressive symptoms, yet little attention has been given to the biological mechanisms associated with these co-morbidities. This study examined the association between inflammation and both T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Methods Baseline data were analyzed from 3,009 adults, aged 70–79, participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Diabetes was assessed per self-report, medication use, fasting glucose and/or glucose tolerance tests. Elevated depressive symptoms were categorized using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (cut-score≥20). Log-transformed IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results Participants with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms (T2DM+DEP n=14) demonstrated significantly (p<.05) higher IL-6 compared to (T2DM Only n=628), (DEP Only n=49), and (No T2DM or DEP n=2,067) groups following covariate adjustment. Similarly, participants with T2DM+DEP (n=14) had significantly (p<.05) higher CRP, after covariate adjustment, compared to DEP Only (n=50) and No T2DM or DEP groups (n=2,153). No association was observed for TNF-α. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that inflammation is associated with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Participants with T2DM+DEP demonstrated the highest IL-6 levels compared to all other groups. Greater CRP levels were also observed in T2DM, but not elevated depressive symptoms, which may suggest that differential associations between T2DM and depressive symptoms exist for various inflammatory markers. Further investigation into these associations could aid in understanding the biological pathways underlying both T2DM and depressive symptoms. PMID:24182629

  9. Teachers' Ratings of Social Competence of Children with High Versus Low Levels of Depressive Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Farhana; Morgan, Sam B.

    1996-01-01

    Examined the relationship between children's self-ratings of depressive symptoms and teachers' ratings of the children's situational social competence. Results show that teachers rated those children who reported high levels of depressive symptoms as having more problems in social competence when compared to children who reported low levels of…

  10. Are depression, anxiety and poor mental health risk factors for knee pain? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While it is recognized that psychosocial factors are important in the development and progression of musculoskeletal pain and disability, no systematic review has specifically focused on examining the relationship between psychosocial factors and knee pain. We aimed to systematically review the evidence to determine whether psychosocial factors, specifically depression, anxiety and poor mental health, are risk factors for knee pain. Methods Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO were performed to identify relevant studies published up to August 2012 using MESH terms and keywords. We included studies that met a set of predefined criteria and two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of the selected studies. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies, a best evidence synthesis was performed. Results Sixteen studies were included in the review, of which 9 were considered high quality. The study populations were heterogeneous in terms of diagnosis of knee pain. We found a strong level of evidence for a relationship between depression and knee pain, limited evidence for no relationship between anxiety and knee pain, and minimal evidence for no relationship between poor mental health and knee pain. Conclusions Despite the heterogeneity of the included studies, these data show that depression plays a significant role in knee pain, and that a biopsychosocial approach to the management of this condition is integral to optimising outcomes for knee pain. PMID:24405725

  11. Relationship of Somatic Symptoms With Depression Severity, Quality of Life, and Health Resources Utilization in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Seeking Primary Health Care in Spain

    PubMed Central

    García-Campayo, Javier; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Caballero, Luis; Romera, Irene; Aragonés, Enric; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Quail, Deborah; Gilaberte, Inmaculada

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the characteristics of somatic symptoms and depression severity, quality of life (QOL), and health resources utilization in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in primary care setting. Method: This cross-sectional, nationwide epidemiologic study, carried out in 1150 primary care patients with DSM-IV–defined MDD, evaluated the characteristics of somatic symptoms by means of the Standardized Polyvalent Psychiatric Interview. Depression severity and QOL were evaluated by means of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the Physical and Mental Component Summaries of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Health resources utilization was measured in terms of doctor consultations and hospitalizations. The associations were assessed by means of adjusted analyses. The study was carried out from April 2004 to July 2004. Results: Disability associated with somatic symptoms and number of somatic symptoms were strongly associated with increased depression severity (2.45 and 0.29 increase in SDS score, respectively) and health resources utilization (odds ratios of 1.42 and 1.04, respectively). Associated disability, frequency, and persistence during leisure time of somatic symptoms were strongly associated with poorer QOL. In contrast, we found a weaker relationship between duration and intensity of somatic symptoms and depression severity, QOL, and health resources utilization. Conclusions: Of the studied somatic symptom characteristics, somatic symptom–associated disability and number of somatic symptoms are strongly associated with increased depression severity and health resources utilization, as well as with decreased QOL. Our results may help physicians identify relevant characteristics of somatic symptoms to more effectively diagnose and treat depression in primary care patients. PMID:19158973

  12. Leisure Time Physical Activity in Relation to Depressive Symptoms in the Black Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Lauren A.; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity might reduce the risk of depressive symptoms, but there are limited data on Black women. Purpose The objective was to evaluate the association between leisure time physical activity and depressive symptoms in U.S. Black women. Methods Participants included 35,224 women ages 21 to 69 from the Black Women’s Health Study, a follow-up study of African American women in which data are collected biennially by mail questionnaire. Women answered questions on past and current exercise levels at baseline (1995) and follow-up (1997). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms in 1999. Women who reported a diagnosis of depression before 1999 were excluded. We used multivariate logistic regression models to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for physical activity in relation to depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥ 16) with control for potential confounders. Results Adult vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. Women who reported vigorous exercise both in high school (≥ 5 hr per week) and adulthood (≥ 2 hr per week) had the lowest odds of depressive symptoms (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.71–0.82) relative to never active women; the OR was 0.90 for women who were active in high school but not adulthood (95% CI = 0.85–0.96) and 0.83 for women who were inactive in high school but became active in adulthood (95% CI = 0.77–0.91). Although walking for exercise was not associated with risk of depressive symptoms overall, there was evidence of a weak inverse relation among obese women (Body Mass Index ≥ 30). Conclusions Leisure time vigorous physical activity was associated with a reduced odds of depressive symptoms in U.S. Black women. PMID:16827631

  13. Urinary phthalate metabolites and depression in an elderly population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-02-01

    Previous animal studies have demonstrated that phthalate exposure is associated with depression-like behaviors. However, no human study has explored this relationship. We explored the association between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and depression in a nationally representative sample of the U.S. elderly population. We analyzed 2030 participants aged 60 years or older with available data on phthalates and depression from the 2005 to 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We selected 10 urinary phthalate metabolites with a weighted detection rate >60%. Depression was defined as a 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10. The models were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education level, income-to-poverty ratio, health insurance coverage, marital status, smoking status, alcohol consumption, moderate physical activity, body mass index, comorbidity status, NHANEs cycle, and urinary creatinine levels. One-unit increases in log-transformed mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) (odds ratio [OR]=1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.02-1.52) and mono(carboxynonyl) phthalate (MCNP) (OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.15-1.75) were positively associated with depression. When we stratified the urinary phthalate metabolites into quartiles, the highest quartiles (Q4) of MCNP (OR=2.57, 95% CI=1.25-5.27) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) (OR=2.40, 95% CI=1.10-5.22) were associated with depression compared with the lowest quartiles (Q1). Concentrations of urinary phthalate metabolites MCPP, MCNP, and MBP were positively associated with the risk of depression in a representative sample of the U.S. elderly population. However, the present cross-sectional study is hypothesis generating and the associations need to be investigated through further longitudinal studies. PMID:26624239

  14. The effects of maternal depression on child mental health problems based on gender of the child.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Kim, Eu jin; Lim, Ki-Young; Lee, Ji-Won; Shin, Yun-Mi

    2015-04-01

    Depression is a common disorder among women with young children. Compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers tend to display less positive affection, provide less emotional support, and inconsistently respond to their child's every day and emotional needs. We examined the association between maternal depression and child (middle childhood) mental health problems according to the child's gender. This study was conducted between June and August 2006 on 3,911 subjects aged 7-12 years. The data for this study was collected through a questionnaire that included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Korean Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL). Most of the CBCL scores were higher for children in the depressed mother group. The two way ANOVAs (depressed group by gender) found girls to have significantly higher scores than boys on somatization. Children may experience somatic complaints when they also suffer from emotional disorders, and therefore must be observed closely. PMID:25566948

  15. Optimizing Scripted Dialogues for an e-Health Intervention for Suicidal Veterans with Major Depression.

    PubMed

    Kasckow, J; Zickmund, S; Rotondi, A; Welch, A; Gurklis, J; Chinman, M; Fox, L; Haas, G L

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is a health concern among Veterans with depression. We had previously reported on scripted dialogues adapted for an e-health system that engages at-risk veterans with schizophrenia. Here we report a further adaptation of the dialogues for Veterans with depression. Usability was assessed with nine outpatients with a history of major depression and suicidality. We noted that participants preferred greater specificity in the wording of questions. Topics that elicited an emotional response dealt with questions on suicide, social isolation and family relationships. Based on feedback, dialogues were revised for patients with depression. We also compared responses between those with depression and those with schizophrenia who were previously tested. The two groups shared similar themes. Also, individuals with a history of major depression had less trouble with vocabulary comprehension but were less willing to answer more questions daily. PMID:25342076

  16. Prevalence and Levels of Depression Among Parents of Children with Cancer in Basrah, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maliki, Shukrya K.; Al-Asadi, Jasim; Al-Waely, Akeel; Agha, Sabah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Cancer in a family member can be a major source of psychological disorders, especially for the parents of children diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and levels of depression among parents of children with cancer in Basrah, Iraq. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2014 and April 2015 at the Specialist Paediatric Hospital in Basrah City, Iraq. One parent each of 384 children with cancer admitted to the hospital for treatment or follow-up during the study period were invited to participate in the study. Age, gender, years of education, occupation, monthly income, place of residence and the overall number of children in a family were recorded. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to identify depression and assess levels of depression. Results: A total of 336 parents participated in the study (response rate: 87.5%). Of these, 70.5% were depressed, 54.1% of which had major depression. Depression was significantly more common (77.2% versus 57.1%) and more severe (60.7% versus 41.1%) among mothers compared to fathers (P = 0.001). Parents with fewer years of education were more likely to be depressed; this association was significant for mothers but not fathers (P = 0.001 and 0.814, respectively). Depression was significantly inversely associated with monthly income (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The prevalence of depression among the parents of children with cancer was high. Depression was significantly more severe among mothers compared to fathers and among mothers who were less educated. Income also had a significant association with levels of depression among parents. PMID:27606113

  17. A study of depression and anxiety, general health, and academic performance in three cohorts of veterinary medical students across the first three semesters of veterinary school.

    PubMed

    Reisbig, Allison M J; Danielson, Jared A; Wu, Tsui-Feng; Hafen, McArthur; Krienert, Ashley; Girard, Destiny; Garlock, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on previous research on predictors of depression and anxiety in veterinary medical students and reports data on three veterinary cohorts from two universities through their first three semesters of study. Across all three semesters, 49%, 65%, and 69% of the participants reported depression levels at or above the clinical cut-off, suggesting a remarkably high percentage of students experiencing significant levels of depression symptoms. Further, this study investigated the relationship between common stressors experienced by veterinary students and mental health, general health, and academic performance. A factor analysis revealed four factors among stressors common to veterinary students: academic stress, transitional stress, family-health stress, and relationship stress. The results indicated that both academic stress and transitional stress had a robust impact on veterinary medical students' well-being during their first three semesters of study. As well, academic stress negatively impacted students in the areas of depression and anxiety symptoms, life satisfaction, general health, perception of academic performance, and grade point average (GPA). Transitional stress predicted increased depression and anxiety symptoms and decreased life satisfaction. This study helped to further illuminate the magnitude of the problem of depression and anxiety symptoms in veterinary medical students and identified factors most predictive of poor outcomes in the areas of mental health, general health, and academic performance. The discussion provides recommendations for considering structural changes to veterinary educational curricula to reduce the magnitude of academic stressors. Concurrently, recommendations are suggested for mental health interventions to help increase students' resistance to environmental stressors. PMID:23187027

  18. Factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among international university students in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Romeo B; Maria, Madelene Sta; Estanislao, Susana; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Over the years, the number of international university students has been increasing in the Philippines. Depression tends to be common among this demographic sector, because of the varying challenges and expectations associated with studying abroad. Depression can be prevented if its symptoms, particularly those at higher levels, are identified and addressed early and effectively. This survey examined the social and demographic factors that are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. One hundred twenty-six international university students were interviewed using the University Students Depression Inventory. Of the 13 factors analyzed, 3 were found with statistically significant associations with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: level of satisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. In identifying international students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to their financial condition and primary group relationships can be considered. There is a need to carry out more studies to confirm this initial evidence. The findings can help guide further discourse, research and program to benefit international students with higher levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:24450248

  19. Depression, Antidepressants and Bone Health in Older Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gebara, Marie Anne; Shea, Marcie L.O.; Lipsey, Kim L; Teitelbaum, Steven L.; Civitelli, Roberto; Müller, Daniel J.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Lenze, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Some studies have reportedan association between depression or serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressant use and osteoporosis. This association raises concern about the widespread use of antidepressants in older adults and suggests the need to reevaluate this practice. This review examines the association of both depression and antidepressant use with bone health in older adults and the implications for treatment. Design A systematic review of studies of the association between depression or antidepressants and bone health in older adults. Setting All studies that measured depression or antidepressant exposure and bone mineral density (BMD). Participants Adults aged 60 and above. Measurements Age, site of BMD measurement by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), measure of depression or depressive symptoms, association between BMD changes and depression or antidepressant use. Results Nineteen observational studies met the final inclusion criteria; no experimental studies were found. Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies found that depression or depressive symptoms were associated with decreased BMD. Few studies and only two longitudinal studies addressed the association between SRI antidepressant use and a decrease in BMD and they had conflicting results. Conclusion Depression and depressive symptoms are associated with decreased bone mass and accelerated bone loss in older adults; putative mechanisms underlying this relationship are discussed. There is insufficient evidence that SRI antidepressants adversely affect bone health.Thus, a change in current recommendations for the use of antidepressants in older adults is not justified at the present time. Given the high public health significance of this question, more studies are required to determine whether (and in whom) antidepressants may be deleterious for bone health. PMID:25039259

  20. Elevated levels of NR2A and PSD-95 in the lateral amygdala in depression

    PubMed Central

    Karolewicz, Beata; Szebeni, Katalin; Gilmore, Tempestt; Maciag, Dorota; Stockmeier, Craig A.; Ordway, Gregory A.

    2008-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that major depression is associated with dysfunction of the brain glutamatergic transmission, and that the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays a role in antidepressant activity. Recent postmortem studies demonstrate that depression is associated with altered concentrations of proteins associated with NMDA receptor signaling in the brain. The present study investigated glutamate signaling proteins in the amygdala from depressed subjects, given strong evidence for amygdala pathology in depression. Lateral amygdala samples were obtained from 13-14 pairs of age- sex-, and postmortem-interval matched depressed and psychiatrically healthy control subjects. Concentrations of NR1 and NR2A subunits of the NMDA receptor, as well as NMDA receptor-associated proteins such as postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were measured by Western immunoblotting. Additionally, levels of enzymes involved in glutamate metabolism, including glutamine synthetase and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-67), were measured in the same amygdala samples. NR2A protein levels were markedly and significantly elevated (+115%, p=0.03) in depressed subjects as compared to controls. Interestingly, PSD-95 levels were also highly elevated (+128%, p=0.01) in the same depressed subjects relative to controls. Amounts of NR1, nNOS, glutamine synthetase, and GAD-67 were unchanged. Increased levels of NR2A and PSD-95 suggest that glutamate signaling at the NMDA receptor in the amygdala is disrupted in depression. PMID:18570704

  1. A "Mental-Health-at-the-Workplace" Educational Workshop Reduces Managers' Stigma Toward Depression.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Johannes; Mendel, Rosmarie; Reichhart, Tatjana; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Kissling, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination are important factors hindering people with mental health conditions to stay employed or successfully make their careers. We surveyed 580 German managers before and after visiting a "mental-health-at-the-workplace" educational workshop using the Depression Stigma Scale. The workshop significantly reduced stigma toward depression. Managers at baseline already exhibited lower stigma toward depression compared with the general population. In addition, female gender and higher education predicted lower stigma, which is in line with findings from other studies. We conclude that an educational workshop giving practical guidance regarding "mental-health-at-the-workplace" reduces managers' stigma toward depression and improves knowledge regarding depression, its course, and its treatment. PMID:26704465

  2. A conceptual framework of stress vulnerability, depression, and health outcomes in women: potential uses in research on complementary therapies for depression

    PubMed Central

    Kinser, Patricia A; Lyon, Debra E

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is a chronic mental health condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. It is well-established that psychological stress plays an integral role in depression and that depression has numerous negative health outcomes. However, a closer look at components of stress vulnerabilities and depression is required to allow for the development and testing of appropriate interventions. Aims and Discussion This article describes a conceptual framework about the complex and bidirectional relationship between stress vulnerability, depression, and health outcomes in women. The authors elucidate how the framework can be applied in clinical research about cellular aging and on the mechanisms of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for depression, using yoga as an example of a CAM modality. Conclusion The proposed conceptual framework may be helpful for adding depth to the body of knowledge about the use of mind-body therapies for individuals at high risk of stress vulnerability and/or depression. PMID:25328843

  3. Health locus of control and depression in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Christensen, A J; Turner, C W; Smith, T W; Holman, J M; Gregory, M C

    1991-06-01

    Research on the association between health locus of control and depression in chronic illness has produced contradictory findings, perhaps because of a failure to consider contextual variables. In this study of 96 hemodialysis patients, the belief that one's health is controllable was associated with less depression among Ss who had not previously experienced a failed renal transplant. This belief was associated with greater depression for Ss who had returned to dialysis following an unsuccessful transplant. This interactive effect occurred among severely ill Ss, but health locus of control was unrelated to depression among Ss with less severe disease. This pattern occurred both when control perceptions reflected a belief in the Ss' own or powerful others' (i.e., health care providers) ability to influence health outcomes. Results underscore the adaptive value of congruence between control beliefs and objective circumstances in chronic illness. PMID:2071727

  4. Level of Depression in Intellectually Gifted Secondary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahzad, Salman; Begume, Nasreen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to investigate the difference in depression between intellectually gifted and non-gifted secondary school children. After a detailed review of literature the following hypothesis was formulated; there would be a significant difference between intellectually gifted and non-gifted secondary school children on…

  5. Optimal Levels of Emotional Arousal in Experiential Therapy of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carryer, Jonathan R.; Greenberg, Leslie S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between length of time spent expressing highly aroused emotion and therapeutic outcome. Method: Thirty-eight clients (14 male, 24 female) between the ages of 22 and 60 years (M = 39.5, SD = 9.71), treated for depression with experiential therapy, were rated on working alliance and expressed emotional…

  6. Improving the cost-effectiveness of a healthcare system for depressive disorders by implementing telemedicine: a health economic modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Lokkerbol, Joran; Adema, Dirk; Cuijpers, Pim; Reynolds, Charles F.; Schulz, Richard; Weehuizen, Rifka; Smit, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Objective Depressive disorders are important causes of disease burden and are associated with substantial economic costs. Therefore, it is important to design a health care system that can effectively manage depression at sustainable costs. This paper computes the benefit-to-costs ratio of the current Dutch health care system for depression, and investigates whether offering more online preventive interventions improves the cost-effectiveness overall. Methods A health economic (Markov) model was used to synthesize clinical and economic evidence and to compute population-level costs and effects of interventions. The model compares a base-case scenario without preventive telemedicine and alternative scenarios with preventive telemedicine. The central outcome is the benefit-to-cost ratio, also known as return-on-investment (ROI). Results In terms of ROI, a health care system with preventive telemedicine for depressive disorders offers better value for money than a health care system without internet-based prevention. Overall, the ROI increases from €1.45 ($1.72) in the base-case scenario to €1.76 ($2.09) in the alternative scenario where preventive telemedicine is offered. In a scenario where the costs of offering preventive telemedicine are balanced by cutting back on the expenditure for curative interventions, ROI increases to €1.77 ($2.10), while keeping the health care budget constant. Conclusion In order for a health care system for depressive disorders to remain economically sustainable, its cost-benefit ratio needs to be improved. Offering preventive telemedicine at a large scale is likely to introduce such an improvement. PMID:23759290

  7. Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  8. A High School Depression and Suicide Prevention Program: A Collaboration between Health Education and Psychological Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Donna L.; Bradbury, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Examined a collaboration between health education and psychological services in generating a high school depression and suicide prevention program. The five-component program raised awareness of teen depression and suicide, increased communication about these issues within the school and community, and provided information about available…

  9. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Service Use among Adolescents with Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Janet R.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of treatment for major depression in adolescents. This study examined differences in mental health service use in non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents who experienced an episode of major depression. Method: Five years of data (2004-2008) were pooled…

  10. Primary Care Screening of Depression and Treatment Engagement in a University Health Center: A Retrospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Michael C.; Ciotoli, Carlo; Chung, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This retrospective study analyzed a primary care depression screening initiative in a large urban university health center. Depression detection, treatment status, and engagement data are presented. Participants: Participants were 3,713 graduate and undergraduate students who presented consecutively for primary care services between…

  11. Engaging Women Who Are Depressed and Economically Disadvantaged in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Zuckoff, Allan; Swartz, Holly; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Geibel, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Women disadvantaged by poverty, as well as racial or ethnic minority status, are more likely to experience depression than the rest of the U.S. population. At the same time, they are less likely to seek or remain in treatment for depression in traditional mental health settings. This article explores a therapeutic, psychosocial engagement strategy…

  12. Assessing Depression among Older Persons with Arthritis: A Nationwide Health Status Survey.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Rajesh; Rajpura, Jigar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the health status of a nationwide sample of elderly persons having arthritis and determine the prevalence of depressive symptomatology in this population. Methods. WebTV technology was utilized to administer health status and depression surveys to a nationally representative sample of 550 randomly selected older persons. Predetermined cutoff scores on Short Form-36 (SF-36) scale and Center for Epidemiological Scale for Depression (CES-D) were used to identify individuals with depressive mood. Results. Sixteen percent (n = 76) of the respondents were found to be at risk for depression. Key associations among health domains of SF-36 and CES-D variables were statistically significant and were in the expected direction. Discussion. The risk of depression among older adults who have arthritis is moderate. A significant decline in multiple domains of health of older persons is likely when depression coexists with arthritis. Early screening for depressive symptomatology and prompt treatment should be an essential part of arthritis management in primary care practice. PMID:23956874

  13. Health Locus of Control and Depression in End-Stage Renal Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Alan J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Found that, among 96 hemodialysis patients, the belief that one's health is controllable was associated with less depression among subjects who had not previously experienced a failed renal transplant. This belief was associated with greater depression for subjects who had returned to dialysis following an unsuccessful transplant. (Author/NB)

  14. Gender Differences in Health Literacy Among Korean Adults: Do Women Have a Higher Level of Health Literacy Than Men?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Jiwoo; Kim, Nam Keol

    2015-09-01

    The role of gender in determining the level of health literacy in Korean adults is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the level of health literacy in Korean adults and identify factors associated with health literacy by gender. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design with a convenient sample of 585 community-dwelling Korean adults age19 years and older. Health literacy was measured by using eight items selected from Chew et al.'s 16-question self-reported health literacy measure. In accordance with Andersen's health behavior model, predisposing, enabling, and need factors were included in the multiple regression model. Women indicated a higher level of health literacy than men in understanding medical forms, directions on medication bottles, and written information offered by health care providers. Additionally, for Korean women, a higher level of health literacy was associated with attaining a higher education level and having a consistent place to receive care. Unmarried men and men who had higher self-rated health reported a higher level of health literacy compared with their counterparts. Lower level of depression and higher monthly income were significantly linked to a higher level of health literacy in both men and women. This study has established the importance of gender differences in health literacy and suggests gender-specific intervention may be warranted to reduce the existing gap in health literacy in both Korean men and women. Future research should replicate this study to confirm whether or not our finding is an international phenomenon. PMID:25122719

  15. [Blood levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in major depressive disorder].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Reiji; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Hori, Hikaru; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Hayashi, Kenji; Katsuki, Asuka; Ueda, Nobuhisa; Nakamura, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that has been linked to the viability of neurons in brain circuits that regulate emotion, memory, learning, sleep, and appetite. BDNF has been most extensively studied in relation to depression. Depressed patients show reduced levels of hippocampal and cortical BDNF in postmortem studies. Recently, to the best of our knowledge, there are at least three meta-analyses regarding blood BDNF levels in depressed patients, suggesting that blood BDNF levels are decreased in depressive state, and those are recovered after treatment with biological treatments such as antidepressants, ECT, and rTMS. From these findings into account, it is possible that blood (plasma and serum) BDNF level is a biological marker for depressive state. We have recently demonstrated that a significantly negative correlation was observed between the HAMD scores and serum BDNF levels. In addition, responders to fluvoxamine, paroxetine, milnacipran, and sertraline all increased serum BDNF levels. Blood BDNF levels did not distinguish between responders and remitters to the treatment. In conclusion, blood BDNF levels partially reflect those in the brain, and there is also strong and consistent evidence indicating that these levels normalize following the biological intervention for depression. PMID:21179660

  16. Implementing Behavioral Activation and Life-Steps for Depression and HIV Medication Adherence in a Community Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Seitz-Brown, C. J.; Safren, Steven A.; Daughters, Stacey B.

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy to treat HIV/AIDS has substantially improved clinical outcomes among patients living with HIV/AIDS, but only in the presence of very consistent adherence. One of the most prevalent and impactful individual-level predictors of poor adherence is depressive symptoms, even at subthreshold levels. Evidence-based cognitive behavioral interventions exist to address improvements in depressive symptoms and adherence in this population, yet these techniques have largely been designed and tested as individual treatments for delivery in mental health settings. This presents a significant challenge when transporting these techniques to medical settings where other formats for delivery may be more appropriate (i.e., groups, less frequent visits) and few hands-on resources exist to guide this process. As such, primary aims of this study were to adapt and implement evidence-based cognitive behavioral techniques for depression (behavioral activation; BA) and HIV medication adherence (Life-Steps) that have potential for dissemination in an outpatient community health center. The intervention incorporated feedback from health center staff and utilized a modular, group format that did not rely on sequential session attendance. Feasibility was examined over 8 weeks (n = 13). Preliminary effects on depression, health-related quality of life, and medication adherence were examined and exit interviews were conducted with a subset of participants (n = 4) to inform future modifications. Treatment descriptions and recommendations for effective clinical implementation based on patient and clinician feedback are provided along with case material of two individual patients and an example group session. Current efforts are an important next step for disseminating evidence-based techniques for depression and HIV medication adherence to community health center or AIDS service organization settings. PMID:25419102

  17. Associations between Vitamin D Levels and Depressive Symptoms in Healthy Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, David C. R.; Zava, David T.; Piper, Walter T.; Saturn, Sarina R.; Frei, Balz; Gombart, Adrian F.

    2015-01-01

    There have been few studies of whether vitamin D insufficiency is linked with depression in healthy young women despite women’s high rates of both problems. Female undergraduates (n = 185) living in the Pacific Northwest during fall, winter, and spring academic terms completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale weekly for four weeks (W1–W5). We measured serum levels of vitamin D3 and C (ascorbate; as a control variable) in blood samples collected at W1 and W5. Vitamin D insufficiency (<30ng/mL) was common at W1 (42%) and W5 (46%), and rates of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) were 35–42% at W1–W5. Lower W1 vitamin D3 predicted clinically significant depressive symptoms across W1–W5 (β = −.20, p < .05), controlling for season, BMI, race/ethnicity, diet, exercise, and time outside. There was some evidence that lower levels of depressive symptoms in Fall participants (vs. Winter and Spring) were explained by their higher levels of vitamin D3. W1 depressive symptoms did not predict change in vitamin D3 levels from W1 to W5. Findings are consistent with a temporal association between low levels of vitamin D and clinically meaningful depressive symptoms. The preventive value of supplementation should be tested further. PMID:25791903

  18. Associations between vitamin D levels and depressive symptoms in healthy young adult women.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David C R; Zava, David T; Piper, Walter T; Saturn, Sarina R; Frei, Balz; Gombart, Adrian F

    2015-05-30

    There have been few studies of whether vitamin D insufficiency is linked with depression in healthy young women despite women׳s high rates of both problems. Female undergraduates (n=185) living in the Pacific Northwest during fall, winter, and spring academic terms completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale weekly for 4 weeks (W1-W5). We measured serum levels of vitamin D3 and C (ascorbate; as a control variable) in blood samples collected at W1 and W5. Vitamin D insufficiency (<30ng/mL) was common at W1 (42%) and W5 (46%), and rates of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were 34-42% at W1-W5. Lower W1 vitamin D3 predicted clinically significant depressive symptoms across W1-W5 (β=-0.20, p<0.05), controlling for season, BMI, race/ethnicity, diet, exercise, and time outside. There was some evidence that lower levels of depressive symptoms in Fall participants (vs. Winter and Spring) were explained by their higher levels of vitamin D3. W1 depressive symptoms did not predict change in vitamin D3 levels from W1 to W5. Findings are consistent with a temporal association between low levels of vitamin D and clinically meaningful depressive symptoms. The preventive value of supplementation should be tested further. PMID:25791903

  19. Japanese Americans' health concerns and depressive symptoms: implications for disaster counseling.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Monit; Leung, Patrick; Tsui, Venus

    2013-07-01

    This study examined factors contributing to depressive symptoms among Japanese Americans. Data were collected in Houston, Texas, in 2008, before the March 2011 Japan earthquake, through a community survey including demographic and mental health questions and the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist. Among 43 Japanese American respondents in this convenience sample, the depression prevalence was 11.6 percent. Chi-square results found that having anxiety symptoms and holding a master's degree had statistically significant relationships with depressive symptoms. An independent sample t test found that those having depressive symptoms experienced significantly more health issues than those without depressive symptoms. When these statistically significant variables were entered into a logistic regression model, the overall effect of having health issues, anxiety symptoms, and a master's degree collectively predicted depressive symptoms. It was also found that Japanese Americans rarely consult mental health professionals; in particular, female Japanese American respondents tend to seek help from religious leaders. As implied by these findings, the reluctance of Japanese Americans to seek formal help can be explained by social stigma, a health-oriented approach to treatment, and other cultural considerations. Practice implications focus on disaster counseling with a connection between mental health needs and health care support. PMID:24032301

  20. Prevalence of Depression among Households in Three Capital Cities of Pakistan: Need to Revise the Mental Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad Gadit, Amin A.; Mugford, Gerry

    2007-01-01

    Background Pakistan, among the other developing countries, has a higher prevalence rate of depression because of the current social adversities. There is, thus, a great need for systematic studies on prevalence of depression. The current study aims at exploring the prevalence of depression among households in three capital cities of Pakistan. Methodology and Principal Findings A sample of N = 820 was randomly selected, and a cross sectional telephone-based study was conducted for a duration of six months. It was found that there was a regional variation in prevalence rates for depression among the three cities. Lahore had the highest number of depressives (53.4%), as compared to Quetta (43.9%) and Karachi (35.7%). Middle age, female gender and secondary school level of education were significantly associated with depression among the study group. Conclusions/Significance The different rates of prevalence among the three cities could be attributed to local cultural influence, geographical locations and social adversities. There is a need for revision of existing health policy by the government. PMID:17299589

  1. Reproductive health and access to healthcare facilities: risk factors for depression and anxiety in women with an earthquake experience

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The reproductive and mental health of women contributes significantly to their overall well-being. Three of the eight Millennium Development Goals are directly related to reproductive and sexual health while mental disorders make up three of the ten leading causes of disease burden in low and middle-income countries. Among mental disorders, depression and anxiety are two of the most prevalent. In the context of slower progress in achieving Millennium Development Goals in developing countries and the ever-increasing man-made and natural disasters in these areas, it is important to understand the association between reproductive health and mental health among women with post-disaster experiences. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 387 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) randomly selected from the October 2005 earthquake affected areas of Pakistan. Data on reproductive health was collected using the Centers for Disease Control reproductive health assessment toolkit. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, while earthquake experiences were captured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. The association of either depression or anxiety with socio-demographic variables, earthquake experiences, reproductive health and access to health facilities was estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Results Post-earthquake reproductive health events together with economic deprivation, lower family support and poorer access to health care facilities explained a significant proportion of differences in the experiencing of clinical levels of depression and anxiety. For instance, women losing resources for subsistence, separation from family and experiencing reproductive health events such as having a stillbirth, having had an abortion, having had abnormal vaginal discharge or having had genital ulcers, were at significant risk of depression and anxiety. Conclusion The relationship between women's post

  2. Health-related quality of life and depression among medical sales representatives in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Atif, Muhammad; Bashir, Arslan; Saleem, Quratulain; Hussain, Rabia; Scahill, Shane; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies have been known to pose stress and mental harassment on medical sales representatives (MSRs) in-order to increase pharmaceutical sales. This cross sectional descriptive study, conducted during November and December 2014 in the Lahore and Bahawalpur districts of Punjab, Pakistan, evaluates the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and extent of depression among MSRs in Pakistan. The significant predictors of HRQoL and depression among the MSRs were also determined. Using a convenience sampling technique, all consenting MSRs (N = 318) of pharmaceutical companies were asked to self-complete the Short Form-36 (SF-36v2) Health Survey and Stanford Personal Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8). The standard scoring scheme for the SF36v2 and PHQ-8 questionnaires was used. The PHQ-8 scores showed that 16.4 % (n = 52) and 2.5 % of respondents were suffering from major depression and severe major depression, respectively. Being depressed and having difficulty in achieving sales targets were the factors independently associated with lower physical health. Similarly, depression, insufficient time for the family and monthly income less than 36,000 Pakistan Rupees were significant predictors of lower mental health. The factors associated with depression included insufficient time for the family and unsatisfactory behavior of the managers. Compromised mental health and the prevalence of depression among the MSRs suggest pharmaceutical companies need to devise health management strategies and interventions to ensure effective prevention and management of mental health problems among Pakistani MSRs. PMID:27462496

  3. The Coronary Health Improvement Projects Impact on Lowering Eating, Sleep, Stress, and Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Ray M.; Aldana, Stephen G.; Greenlaw, Roger L.; Diehl, Hans A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The Coronary Health Improvement Project (CHIP) is designed to lower cardiovascular risk factors among a group of generally healthy individuals through health education. Purpose: This study will evaluate the efficacy of the CHIP intervention at improving eating, sleep, stress, and depressive disorders. Methods: A health education…

  4. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... marketed in the United States. Common places of origin Generally, legitimate pharmaceutical products are diverted to the illicit market. Teens can obtain depressants from the family medicine cabinet, friends, family members, the Internet, doctors, ...

  5. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... newborns, as well as jitteriness, difficulty feeding, and low blood sugar after delivery. However, moms who stop medications can ... a kind of antidepressant for treating depression and anxiety disorders. However, a number of research studies show ...

  6. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... system. Doctors use them to treat things like insomnia or anxiety . But if depressant drugs (like sedatives, ... Other long-term effects include: impaired sexual function insomnia and other sleep problems breathing problems convulsions (similar ...

  7. Association of lower hemoglobin levels with depression, though not with cognitive performance, in healthy elderly men.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsi-Han; Yeh, Heng-Liang; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2012-06-01

    Lower hemoglobin (Hb) levels are a common feature in the elderly. The present study recruited 180 healthy elderly men. Participants were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument Chinese version, and the Wechsler Digit Span Task test. The mean age of the participants was 85.8 years (SD = 10.5). Pearson's correlation tests demonstrated that Hb concentrations negatively correlated with Geriatric Depression Scale (r = -0.245, P = 0.001), but did not correlate with Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Forward or Backward Digit Span tests. Lower Hb levels, therefore, were associated with depression in the elderly men. PMID:22624743

  8. Mental health and migration: depression, alcohol abuse, and access to health care among migrants in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-12-01

    One-fifth of Kazakhstan's population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N = 450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359

  9. Depression screening using health questionnaires in patients receiving oral isotretinoin for acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Schrom, Kory; Nagy, Terri; Mostow, Eliot

    2016-07-01

    Isotretinoin is used to treat severe and recalcitrant acne. Possible side effects include depression, suicide, and suicidal ideation; however, other studies suggest isotretinoin may improve mood and quality of life. Although iPLEDGE consenting warns about the risk of depression and suicidal ideation, there is no recommendation for screening tools. The patient health questionnaire-2 and the patient health questionnaire-9 are validated instruments that enable dermatologists to efficiently screen for depression before and after isotretinoin is initiated. PMID:27317530

  10. Predictors of and health services utilization related to depressive symptoms among elderly Koreans.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin Hee; Do, Young Kyung; Maselko, Joanna; Brouwer, Rebecca J N; Song, Sang Wook; Østbye, Truls

    2012-07-01

    While the prevalence, comorbidity, risk profile and health care utilization for late-life depression have been described for many Western countries, much less is known about the recent epidemiology of late-life depression in East Asian countries such as Korea. We investigated predictors for depressive symptoms and the association between depressive symptoms and the utilization of both medical care and preventive services in elderly Koreans. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of Koreans aged 60 and above (2226 men, 2911 women) who participated in the 2008 wave of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. Risk factors considered included sociodemographics, health behaviors, chronic diseases, and physical function. Health care utilization factors included hospitalization, outpatient clinic use and basic medical checkup. Being female, being unmarried, and having less education, lower household income, physical inactivity and lower weight were associated with depressive symptoms. Presence of chronic diseases and limited physical function also showed a significant association with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with increased odds of hospitalization and outpatient visits, but decreased the odds of utilization of basic medical checkup after controlling for potential confounders. Findings on most risk factors, except lower weight, were consistent with reports from Western countries. It is important to recognize the burden of depressive symptoms in the elderly. The interaction of such symptoms with chronic diseases should be acknowledged and considered in the clinical setting as well as in health care planning and policymaking. PMID:22531571

  11. Reconsidering the role of social disadvantage in physical and mental health: stressful life events, health behaviors, race, and depression.

    PubMed

    Mezuk, Briana; Rafferty, Jane A; Kershaw, Kiarri N; Hudson, Darrell; Abdou, Cleopatra M; Lee, Hedwig; Eaton, William W; Jackson, James S

    2010-12-01

    Prevalence of depression is associated inversely with some indicators of socioeconomic position, and the stress of social disadvantage is hypothesized to mediate this relation. Relative to whites, blacks have a higher burden of most physical health conditions but, unexpectedly, a lower burden of depression. This study evaluated an etiologic model that integrates mental and physical health to account for this counterintuitive patterning. The Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (Maryland, 1993-2004) was used to evaluate the interaction between stress and poor health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, poor diet, and obesity) and risk of depression 12 years later for 341 blacks and 601 whites. At baseline, blacks engaged in more poor health behaviors and had a lower prevalence of depression compared with whites (5.9% vs. 9.2%). The interaction between health behaviors and stress was nonsignificant for whites (odds ratio (OR = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 0.98, 1.11); for blacks, the interaction term was significant and negative (β: -0.18, P < 0.014). For blacks, the association between median stress and depression was stronger for those who engaged in zero (OR = 1.34) relative to 1 (OR = 1.12) and ≥2 (OR = 0.94) poor health behaviors. Findings are consistent with the proposed model of mental and physical health disparities. PMID:20884682

  12. Personal and Psychosocial Risk Factors for Physical and Mental Health Outcomes and Course of Depression among Depressed Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherbourne, Cathy Donald; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Data from 604 depressed patients in The Medical Outcomes Study showed improvements in measures of functioning and well-being associated with patients who were employed, drank less alcohol, had active coping styles and higher levels of social support, who had active and less avoidant coping styles, who were physically active, and who had fewer…

  13. Relationships between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and depressive symptoms: Findings of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee-Young; Kang, Gaeun; Kang, Hee-Ju; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Kim, Jae-Min

    2016-07-30

    Although serum cholesterol has been associated with late-life depression, few studies on the associations between lipids and depression among middle-aged adults have been performed. This study examined associations between serum lipid levels and depressive symptoms in Korean middle-aged adults. We used data from 8207 participants aged 40-64 years who completed a questionnaire about their experience of depressive symptoms over the last year as part of the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Higher HDL-C levels were significantly associated with an elevated risk of depressive symptoms (OR=1.32; 95% CI=1.09-1.60) after adjusting for other covariates. PMID:27179182

  14. Learned resourcefulness, danger in intimate partner relationships, and mental health symptoms of depression and PTSD in abused women.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kerry

    2013-06-01

    The study investigated the relationships among learned resourcefulness, dangerousness in abusive relationships, and symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of abused sheltered women. A cross-sectional descriptive research design was utilized and 42 women met criteria for participation. Data were collected over a ten-month period from June 2010 to March 2011 using the following instruments: (1) demographic data collection form, (2) Self-Control Schedule (SCS), (3) Danger Assessment (DA), (4) Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA), (5) Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), and (6) Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS). Results indicated that 74% of the sample reported symptoms of depression and 67% met criteria for PTSD. In addition, there was 62% comorbidity between depression and PTSD. High levels of danger and low levels of resourcefulness were associated with increased symptoms of depression and PTSD. Further research is necessary, but results of the study suggest that resourcefulness may be an important consideration for abused women in reducing the impact of violence and abuse on mental health issues. PMID:23805923

  15. Depression screening and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Depression is an important cause of disability among children and adolescents. Depression screening is one possible method for managing depression, and screening programs have been initiated in some school and medical settings. However, in 2005, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care and the United Kingdom National Institute of Clinical Excellence did not recommend depression screening among children and adolescents. By contrast, in 2009, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommended that all adolescents, but not younger children, be screened for depression in medical settings with integrated depression management services, although no trials of screening were identified. The objectives of this systematic review are to evaluate in children and adolescents the accuracy of depression screening tools; depression treatment efficacy; whether depression screening improves depression outcomes; and potential harms related to depression interventions and screening. Methods/design Data sources will include the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, LILACS and Web of Science, supplemented by reference harvesting of eligible articles, relevant systematic reviews, relevant guidelines and recommendations, and selected journals, and by searches for unpublished studies. Eligible studies will report data for children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years. Eligible diagnostic accuracy studies must compare a depression screening tool to a validated diagnostic interview for major depressive disorder and report diagnostic accuracy data. Eligible treatment studies must be randomized controlled trials of pharmacological, psychotherapeutic, or other depression treatments commonly available for children and adolescents in pediatric, primary-care, and family medicine settings. Eligible screening studies must be randomized controlled trials that compare depression outcomes between children or adolescents who underwent depression

  16. Prenatal and Postpartum Evening Salivary Cortisol Levels in Association with Peripartum Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Iliadis, Stavros I.; Comasco, Erika; Sylvén, Sara; Hellgren, Charlotte; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2015-01-01

    Background The biology of peripartum depression remains unclear, with altered stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis response having been implicated in its pathophysiology. Methods The current study was undertaken as a part of the BASIC project (Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging, Cognition), a population-based longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Uppsala County, Sweden, in order to assess the association between evening salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptoms in the peripartum period. Three hundred and sixty-five pregnant women from the BASIC cohort were recruited at pregnancy week 18 and instructed to complete a Swedish validated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at the 36th week of pregnancy as well as the sixth week after delivery. At both times, they were also asked to provide evening salivary samples for cortisol analysis. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature is also provided. Results Women with postpartum EPDS score ≥ 10 had higher salivary evening cortisol at six weeks postpartum compared to healthy controls (median cortisol 1.19 vs 0.89 nmol/L). A logistic regression model showed a positive association between cortisol levels and depressive symptoms postpartum (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 1.7–9.7). This association remained significant even after controlling for history of depression, use of tobacco, partner support, breastfeeding, stressful life events, and sleep problems, as possible confounders (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.5–14.1). Additionally, women with postpartum depressive symptoms had higher postpartum cortisol levels compared to both women with depressive symptoms antenatally and controls (p = 0.019 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions Women with depressive symptoms postpartum had higher postpartum cortisol levels, indicating an altered response of the HPA-axis in postpartum depression. PMID:26322643

  17. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I levels are higher in depressive and anxiety disorders, but lower in antidepressant medication users.

    PubMed

    Bot, Mariska; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Drent, Madeleine L

    2016-06-01

    It has been postulated that many peripheral and (neuro)biological systems are involved in psychiatric disorders such as depression. Some studies found associations of depression and antidepressant treatment with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) - a pleiotropic hormone affecting neuronal growth, survival and plasticity - but evidence is mixed. We therefore studied whether depressive and anxiety disorders were associated with plasma IGF-I, and explored the role of antidepressant medication in this association in a large observational study. The sample consisted of 2714 participants enrolled in The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, classified as healthy controls (n=602), antidepressant users (76 remitted and 571 with current depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s), n=647), persons having remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s) without antidepressant use (n=502), and persons having current depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s) without antidepressant use (n=963). Associations with IGF-I concentrations were studied and adjusted for socio-demographic, health, and lifestyle variables. Relative to healthy controls, antidepressant-free individuals with current disorders had significantly higher IGF-I levels (Cohen's d=0.08, p=0.006), whereas antidepressant-free individuals with remitted disorders had a trend towards higher IGF-I levels (d=0.06, p=0.09). Associations were evident for depressive and for anxiety disorders. In contrast, antidepressant users had significantly lower IGF-I levels compared to healthy controls (d=-0.08, p=0.028). Our findings suggests that antidepressant medication use modifies the association between depressive/anxiety disorders and plasma IGF-I. These results corroborate with findings of some previous small-scale case-control and intervention studies. The higher IGF-I levels related to depression and anxiety might point to a compensatory mechanism to counterbalance the impaired neurogenesis, although future studies are needed to

  18. Depression - elderly

    MedlinePlus

    ... highest risk. Families should pay close attention to elderly relatives who are depressed and who live alone. ... health care provider. Alternative Names Depression in the elderly Images Depression among the elderly References Abbasi O, ...

  19. Validation of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for Major Depressive Disorder in the Occupational Health Setting.

    PubMed

    Volker, D; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, M C; Brouwers, E P M; Homans, W A; Emons, W H M; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C M

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Because of the increased risk of long-term sickness leave for employees with a major depressive disorder (MDD), it is important for occupational health professionals to recognize depression in a timely manner. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) has proven to be a reliable and valid instrument for screening MDD, but has not been validated in the occupational health setting. The aim of this study was to validate the PHQ-9 for MDD within a population of employees on sickness leave by using the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) as a gold standard. Methods Participants were recruited in collaboration with the occupational health service. The study sample consisted of 170 employees on sickness leave between 4 and 26 weeks who completed the PHQ-9 and were evaluated with the MINI by telephone. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, efficiency and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated for all possible cut-off values. A receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis was computed for PHQ-9 score versus the MINI. Results The optimal cut-off value of the PHQ-9 was 10. This resulted in a sensitivity of 86.1 % [95 % CI (69.7-94.8)] and a specificity of 78.4 % [95 % CI (70.2-84.8)]. Based on the ROC analysis, the area under the curve for the PHQ-9 was 0.90 [SE = 0.02; 95 % CI (0.85-0.94)]. Conclusion The PHQ-9 shows good sensitivity and specificity as a screener for MDD within a population of employees on sickness leave. PMID:26377480

  20. Urinary heavy metals, phthalates and polyaromatic hydrocarbons independent of health events are associated with adult depression: USA NHANES, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-11-01

    Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged, but the effects on mental health such as depression were less studied. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships between different sets of urinary environmental chemical concentrations and adult depression in a national and population-based setting in recent years. Data was retrieved from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011-2012 including demographics, serum measurements, lifestyle factors, self-reported health conditions and urinary chemical concentrations. Depression was determined by using the Patient Health Questionnaire with a cutoff point at 9/10. Chi-square test, t test and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling were performed. Among 5560 American adults aged 20-80 years, 363 (7.8%) people were classified as having depression (Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥ 10). They tended to have history of health events. After full adjustment including urinary creatinine; demographic characteristics; lifestyle factors; health conditions (such as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, digestive and bone diseases, and injury); and subsample weighing; and higher levels of manganese, tin, and phthalates including mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl, mono-n-butyl, mono-isobutyl, and mono-benzyl were associated with adult depression. Similarly, urinary polyaromatic hydrocarbons including 2-hydroxyfluorene, 3-hydroxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, 1-hydroxynaphthalene (1-naphthol), 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-naphthol) and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene were associated with depression. There were no associations observed in urinary arsenic, phenols, parabens, pesticides, perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate and polyfluorinated compounds. Urinary heavy metal, phthalates and polyaromatic hydrocarbons were associated with adult depression, being independent of health events. Further elimination

  1. Multimodal E-Mental Health Treatment for Depression: A Feasibility Trial

    PubMed Central

    Duffecy, Jennifer; Jin, Ling; Ludman, Evette J; Lewis, Adam; Begale, Mark; McCarthy Jr, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background Internet interventions for depression have shown less than optimal adherence. This study describes the feasibility trial of a multimodal e-mental health intervention designed to enhance adherence and outcomes for depression. The intervention required frequent brief log-ins for self-monitoring and feedback as well as email and brief telephone support guided by a theory-driven manualized protocol. Objective The objective of this feasibility trial was to examine if our Internet intervention plus manualized telephone support program would result in increased adherence rates and improvement in depression outcomes. Methods This was a single arm feasibility trial of a 7-week intervention. Results Of the 21 patients enrolled, 2 (9.5%) dropped out of treatment. Patients logged in 23.2 ± 12.2 times over the 7 weeks. Significant reductions in depression were found on all measures, including the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8) (Cohen’s d = 1.96, P < .001), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (d = 1.34, P < .001), and diagnosis of major depressive episode (P < .001). Conclusions The attrition rate was far lower than seen either in Internet studies or trials of face-to-face interventions, and depression outcomes were substantial. These findings support the feasibility of providing a multimodal e-mental health treatment to patients with depression. Although it is premature to make any firm conclusions based on these data, they do support the initiation of a randomized controlled trial examining the independent and joint effects of Internet and telephone administered treatments for depression. PMID:21169164

  2. Describing the relationship between cat bites and human depression using data from an electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Hanauer, David A; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Seyfried, Lisa S

    2013-01-01

    Data mining approaches have been increasingly applied to the electronic health record and have led to the discovery of numerous clinical associations. Recent data mining studies have suggested a potential association between cat bites and human depression. To explore this possible association in more detail we first used administrative diagnosis codes to identify patients with either depression or bites, drawn from a population of 1.3 million patients. We then conducted a manual chart review in the electronic health record of all patients with a code for a bite to accurately determine which were from cats or dogs. Overall there were 750 patients with cat bites, 1,108 with dog bites, and approximately 117,000 patients with depression. Depression was found in 41.3% of patients with cat bites and 28.7% of those with dog bites. Furthermore, 85.5% of those with both cat bites and depression were women, compared to 64.5% of those with dog bites and depression. The probability of a woman being diagnosed with depression at some point in her life if she presented to our health system with a cat bite was 47.0%, compared to 24.2% of men presenting with a similar bite. The high proportion of depression in patients who had cat bites, especially among women, suggests that screening for depression could be appropriate in patients who present to a clinical provider with a cat bite. Additionally, while no causative link is known to explain this association, there is growing evidence to suggest that the relationship between cats and human mental illness, such as depression, warrants further investigation. PMID:23936453

  3. Development and Implementation of Health and Wellness CBT for Individuals with Depression and HIV.

    PubMed

    Kennard, B; Brown, L; Hawkins, L; Risi, A; Radcliffe, J; Emslie, G; Mayes, T; King, J; Foxwell, A; Buyukdura, J; Bethel, J; Naar-King, S; Xu, J; Lee, S; Garvie, P; London, C; Tanney, M; Thornton, S

    2014-05-01

    Rates of depression are reported to be between 22-33% in adults with HIV, which is double that of the general population. Depression negatively affects treatment adherence and health outcomes of those with medical illnesses. Further, it has been shown in adults that reducing depression may improve both adherence and health outcomes. To address the issues of depression and non-adherence, Health and Wellness (H&W) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and medication management (MM) treatment strategies have been developed specifically for youth living with both HIV and depression. H&W CBT is based on other studies with uninfected youth and upon research on adults with HIV. H&W CBT uses problem-solving, motivational interviewing, and cognitive-behavioral strategies to decrease adherence obstacles and increase wellness. The intervention is delivered in 14 planned sessions over a 6-month period, with three different stages of CBT. This paper summarizes the feasibility and acceptability data from an open depression trial with 8 participants, 16-24 years of age, diagnosed with HIV and with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) diagnosis of depression, conducted at two treatment sites in the Adolescent Trials Network (ATN). Both therapists and subjects completed a Session Evaluation Form (SEF) after each session, and results were strongly favorable. Results from The Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician (QIDS-C) also showed noteworthy improvement in depression severity. A clinical case vignette illustrates treatment response. Further research will examine the use of H&W CBT in a larger trial of youth diagnosed with both HIV and depression. PMID:24795524

  4. Describing the Relationship between Cat Bites and Human Depression Using Data from an Electronic Health Record

    PubMed Central

    Hanauer, David A.; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Seyfried, Lisa S.

    2013-01-01

    Data mining approaches have been increasingly applied to the electronic health record and have led to the discovery of numerous clinical associations. Recent data mining studies have suggested a potential association between cat bites and human depression. To explore this possible association in more detail we first used administrative diagnosis codes to identify patients with either depression or bites, drawn from a population of 1.3 million patients. We then conducted a manual chart review in the electronic health record of all patients with a code for a bite to accurately determine which were from cats or dogs. Overall there were 750 patients with cat bites, 1,108 with dog bites, and approximately 117,000 patients with depression. Depression was found in 41.3% of patients with cat bites and 28.7% of those with dog bites. Furthermore, 85.5% of those with both cat bites and depression were women, compared to 64.5% of those with dog bites and depression. The probability of a woman being diagnosed with depression at some point in her life if she presented to our health system with a cat bite was 47.0%, compared to 24.2% of men presenting with a similar bite. The high proportion of depression in patients who had cat bites, especially among women, suggests that screening for depression could be appropriate in patients who present to a clinical provider with a cat bite. Additionally, while no causative link is known to explain this association, there is growing evidence to suggest that the relationship between cats and human mental illness, such as depression, warrants further investigation. PMID:23936453

  5. Mental Health Literacy of Depression: Gender Differences and Attitudinal Antecedents in a Representative British Sample

    PubMed Central

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Background Poor mental health literacy and negative attitudes toward individuals with mental health disorders may impede optimal help-seeking for symptoms of mental ill-health. The present study examined the ability to recognize cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender, as well as individual psychological differences in attitudes toward persons with depression. Methods In a representative British general population survey, the ability to correctly recognize vignettes of depression was assessed among 1,218 adults. Respondents also rated the vignettes along a number of attitudinal dimensions and completed measures of attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. Results There were significant differences in the ability to correctly identify cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender. Respondents were more likely to indicate that a male vignette did not suffer from a mental health disorder compared to a female vignette, and women were more likely than men to indicate that the male vignette suffered from a mental health disorder. Attitudes toward persons with depression were associated with attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. Conclusion Initiatives that consider the impact of gender stereotypes as well as individual differences may enhance mental health literacy, which in turn is associated with improved help-seeking behaviors for symptoms of mental ill-health. PMID:23166769

  6. A multicenter cross-sectional study of mental and physical health depression in MHD patients.

    PubMed

    Vettath, R E; Reddy, Y N V; Reddy, Y N V; Dutta, S; Singh, Z; Mathew, M; Abraham, G

    2012-07-01

    Depression is ranked fourth among the disabling diseases affecting people worldwide and is the most common psychological problem in patients with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). The aim of this study is to assess the physical and emotional health status of renal dialysis patients, based on the SF-36 scale in relation to their economic status. Sixty maintenance hemodialysis patients, with a mean age of 40±13 years were included in this cross-sectional study using the SF-36 scale. It comprises 36 questions regarding physical and mental functions, body pain, vitality, etc. An SF-36 score of 50 or less was considered as moderate to severe depression and 51-100 as mild depression to good health. 56.81% of the patients who are below poverty line under dialysis had moderate to severe depression with regard to their health status. A physical health score of up to 50 was seen in 63.63% of patients below poverty line 63.63% (P= 0.16). A mental health score of 0-50 was observed in 61.63% of the cohort studied (P = 0.22). Among the patient with diabetes (28.33%) 55.56% had depression. Dialysis duration was directly associated with deteriorating physical health status and inversely proportional to their mental health status (P<0.05). There are problems in other regular activities due to depressed physical and mental health. The factors that were identified in this study that influence depression such as poverty status, increasing age, vintage and frequency of dialysis and treatment with erythropoietin dosage should be addressed and treated accordingly to improve the quality of life. Improving self-esteem with fruitful employment opportunities, concerted rehabilitation by professionals and easing of economic burden by private-public partnership is an achievable goal. PMID:23162267

  7. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26301514

  8. Beliefs and attitudes of French family practitioners toward depression: the impact of training in mental health

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Joanna L.; Pommié, Christelle; Cogneau, Joël; Haddad, Mark; Ritchie, Karen A.; Mann, Anthony H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study, in a sample of French Family Practitioners (FPs), beliefs and attitudes toward depression and how they vary according to training received in mental health. Methods The Depression Attitude Questionnaire (DAQ) was completed by 468 FPs from all regions of France, recruited by pharmaceutical company representatives to attend focus groups on the management of depression in general practice. Results A three factor model was derived from the DAQ, accounting for 37.7% of the total variance. The correlations between individual items of each component varied from 0.4 to 0.65 with an overall internal consistency of 0.47 (Cronbach’s alpha). FPs had an overall neutral position on component 1, professional ease, a positive view on the origins of depression and its amenability to change (component 2), and a belief in the necessity of medication and the benefit of antidepressant therapy (component 3). Training in mental health, specifically through continuing medical education and postgraduate psychiatric hospital training, was significantly and positively associated with both professional ease and a medication approach to treating depression. Conclusion this study is the first description of the beliefs and attitudes of French FPs towards depression using a standardized measure, the DAQ, despite the instrument’s limited psychometric properties. It shows the positive effect of training in mental health on attitudes towards depression. PMID:21675343

  9. Spanish consensus on the physical health of patients with depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Giner, José; Saiz Ruiz, Jerónimo; Bobes, Julio; Zamorano, Enric; López, Francisco; Hernando, Teresa; Rico-Villademoros, Fernando; Álamo, Cecilio; Cervilla, Jorge A; Ibáñez Cuadrado, Ángela; Ibáñez Guerra, Elena; López, Silvia; Morán, Pedro; Palao, Diego J; Romacho, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Comorbidity between depression and physical illnesses is very common and has a significant impact on the health and management of the patient. With the support of the Sociedades Españolas de Psiquiatría y Psiquiatría Biológica, and Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN) a consensus was prepared on physical health in patients with depression and is summarized in the present work. The literature review highlighted the high frequency of cardiovascular and endocrine-metabolic disorders in patients with depression such as diabetes and obesity, thus making the primary and secondary prevention recommendations for patients with cardiovascular or metabolic risk applicable to patients with depression. Comorbidity between depression and chronic pain is also frequent, and requires an integrated therapeutic approach. The presence of physical illness in patients with depression may condition, but not preclude, the pharmacological treatment; drug selection should take into account potential side-effect and drug-drug interactions. On the other hand, psychotherapy may contribute to the patient's recovery. Overall, coordination between the primary care physician, the psychiatrist and other health professionals involved is essential for the management of patients with depression and concomitant physical illness. PMID:25087131

  10. Serum Testosterone Levels and Symptom-Based Depression Subtypes in Men

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Stephanie; grosse Holtforth, Martin; Hengartner, Michael P.; Müller, Mario; Aleksandrowicz, Aleksandra A.; Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this preliminary study was to further clarify the association between testosterone (T) levels and depression by investigating symptom-based depression subtypes in a sample of 64 men. The data were taken from the ZInEP epidemiology survey. Gonadal hormones of a melancholic (n  = 25) and an atypical (n = 14) depression subtype, derived from latent class analysis, were compared with those of healthy controls (n  = 18). Serum T was assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure. Analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, non-parametrical tests, and generalized linear regression models were performed to examine group differences. The atypical depressive subtype showed significantly lower T levels compared with the melancholic depressives. While accumulative evidence indicates that, beyond psychosocial characteristics, the melancholic and atypical depressive subtypes are also distinguishable by biological correlates, the current study expanded this knowledge to include gonadal hormones. Further longitudinal research is warranted to disclose causality by linking the multiple processes in pathogenesis of depression. PMID:25999864

  11. Bisphenol A alters transcript levels of biomarker genes for Major Depressive Disorder in vascular endothelial cells and colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Varandas, Edna; Pereira, H Sofia; Viegas, Wanda; Delgado, Margarida

    2016-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is capable of mimicking endogenous hormones with potential consequences for human health and BPA exposure has been associated with several human diseases including neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) results show that BPA at low concentrations (10 ng/mL and 1 μg/mL) induces differential transcript levels of four biomarker genes for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in HT29 human colon adenocarcinona cell line and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). These results substantiate increasing concerns of BPA exposure in levels currently detected in humans. PMID:27010169

  12. Measuring symptoms of depression: comparing the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9-Observation Version.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Lorraine J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend available psychometric data on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9-Observation Version (PHQ-9-OV) by comparing it with the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) in a new sample of long-term care residents. Data were collected post intervention in a quasi-experimental storytelling study across six communities. The sample (N = 54) was 87% women with mean age of 84.5, mean CSDD score of 3.96, and mean PHQ-9-OV score of 4.22. Prevalence of depressive symptoms by CSDD criteria was 20.4% and by PHQ-9-OV criteria was 40.7%. The CSDD and PHQ-9-OV were well correlated (r(s) = 0.78, p < 0.0001). Neither scale was significantly correlated with depression diagnosis nor antidepressant agent use. Both measures demonstrated adequate reliability. The PHQ-9-OV item scoring and established cut-off points designate a lower threshold than the CSDD to detect clinically significant depressive symptoms. Further study is needed to determine the sensitivity of the PHQ-9-OV in identifying treatment effects. PMID:22165998

  13. Limitations of the Patient Health Questionnaire in Identifying Anxiety and Depression in Community Mental Health: Many Cases Are Undetected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Lee, Bong-Jae

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the concordance between the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in diagnosing anxiety and depressive disorders. Method: Fifty women seeking psychiatric services for their children at two mental health centers in western Pennsylvania were assessed for anxiety and…

  14. S100B Serum Levels Predict Treatment Response in Patients with Melancholic Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bergink, Veerle; Grosse, Laura; Alferink, Judith; Drexhage, Hemmo A.; Rothermundt, Matthias; Arolt, Volker; Birkenhäger, Tom K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an ongoing search for biomarkers in psychiatry, for example, as diagnostic tools or predictors of treatment response. The neurotrophic factor S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B) has been discussed as a possible predictor of antidepressant response in patients with major depression, but also as a possible biomarker of an acute depressive state. The aim of the present study was to study the association of serum S100B levels with antidepressant treatment response and depression severity in melancholically depressed inpatients. Methods: After a wash-out period of 1 week, 40 inpatients with melancholic depression were treated with either venlafaxine or imipramine. S100B levels and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) scores were assessed at baseline, after 7 weeks of treatment, and after 6 months. Results: Patients with high S100B levels at baseline showed a markedly better treatment response defined as relative reduction in HAM-D scores than those with low baseline S100B levels after 7 weeks (P=.002) and 6 months (P=.003). In linear regression models, S100B was a significant predictor for treatment response at both time points. It is of interest to note that nonresponders were detected with a predictive value of 85% and a false negative rate of 7.5%. S100B levels were not associated with depression severity and did not change with clinical improvement. Conclusions: Low S100B levels predict nonresponse to venlafaxine and imipramine with high precision. Future studies have to show which treatments are effective in patients with low levels of S100B so that this biomarker will help to reduce patients’ burden of nonresponding to frequently used antidepressants. PMID:26364276

  15. Spouse health status, depressed affect, and resilience in mid and late life: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bookwala, Jamila

    2014-04-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine the effects of spousal illness on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older married individuals and the extent to which the adverse effects of illness in a spouse were mitigated by 2 psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem. Using 1,704 married participants who were 51 years of age on average, depressive symptoms were compared in 4 groups varying in their experience of spousal health transitions: those whose spouse remained ill at T1 and T2, those whose spouse declined in health from T1 to T2, those whose spouse's health improved from T1 to T2, and those whose spouse remained healthy at both time points. Mixed analyses of covariance showed that, as hypothesized, having a spouse who became or remained ill over time was linked to greater depressed affect by T2, whereas having a spouse improve in health was associated with a decline in depressive symptomatology. Moderated regression analyses indicated that while higher mastery and self-esteem were linked to lower depressed affect in general, these resources were especially protective against depressed affect for those whose spouse remained ill at both time points. These findings are at the intersection of life course theory and the stress process model highlighting the contextual forces in and the interconnectedness of individual development as well as the plasticity and resilience evident in adaptation to stress during mid and late life. PMID:24364828

  16. Effect of Educational Intervention on General Health and Depression in Temporary Employees

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Maryam A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mental health disorders and depression are pervasive and costly problems for workplaces. The aim of this study was to examine the general health and depression in temporary employees and the effect of educational intervention on general health and depression in temporary employees in Isfahan steel company. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used to examine the effect of intervention among temporary employees of Isfahan steel company. All temporary employees of blast furnaces were studied by census method. Data were collected by questionnaires including GHQ-28, BDI-II before and after a brief three-session CB educational intervention and were analyzed by SPSS12. Results: According to the GHQ-28 scores; 16.9% were suspected to psychological disorders; 3.4% also recorded severe depression. Mean depression scores decreased significantly after the intervention (CI: 3.21-6.94). General health scores also decreased significantly after the intervention (CI: .97-5.03). Conclusion: Brief cognitive behavior educational intervention can be considered as a preliminary education for employees to develop skills to cope with depression, and included in a more extensive education to attain longer-term results. PMID:22891153

  17. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... to eat at all Not being able to sleep, or sleeping too much Feeling very tired Feeling hopeless, irritable, anxious, or guilty Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems Thoughts of death or suicide Depression is a disorder of the brain. There are a variety of ...

  18. Depression-like behavior and reduced plasma testosterone levels in the senescence-accelerated mouse.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Nobuaki; Koushi, Emi; Okuno, Ryoko; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Mishima, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Oishi, Ryozo; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2010-05-01

    During aging, levels of testosterone gradually decline in men and low levels of testosterone in aged men are accompanied by increased incidence of depressive disorders. The senescence-accelerated-prone mouse 10 (SAMP10) is well known as an animal model of aging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the motor function, anxiety levels, depression-related emotional responses, attentional function and plasma levels of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in SAMP10. SAMP10 exhibited a significant prolongation of immobility time compared to that of the aged-matched control senescence-accelerated-resistant mouse 1 (SAMR1) in the tail suspension test for measuring depression. Moreover, significant low levels of plasma testosterone but not DHEA were found in SAMP10, and the testosterone levels were inversely correlated with the depression-like behavior. By contrast, we did not observe any significant differences between SAMP10 and SAMR1 in the open-field, rota-rod, elevated plus-maze, marble-burying behavior, or prepulse inhibition test. The results of the present study indicate that testosterone may play an important role in the depression-like behavior in SAMP10. PMID:20117148

  19. Maternal depressive symptoms and healthcare expenditures for publicly insured children with chronic health conditions.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jada L; Beil, Heather; Beeber, Linda S

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of maternal depressive symptoms and tested associations between maternal depressive symptoms and healthcare utilization and expenditures among United States publicly insured children with chronic health conditions (CCHC). A total of 6,060 publicly insured CCHC from the 2004-2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys were analyzed using negative binomial models to compare healthcare utilization for CCHC of mothers with and without depressive symptoms. Annual healthcare expenditures for both groups were compared using a two-part model with a logistic regression and generalized linear model. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among mothers with CCHC was 19 %. There were no differences in annual healthcare utilization for CCHC of mothers with and without depressive symptoms. Maternal depressive symptoms were associated with greater odds of ED expenditures [odds ratio (OR) 1.26; 95 % CI 1.03-1.54] and lesser odds of dental expenditures (OR 0.81; 95 % CI 0.66-0.98) and total expenditures (OR 0.71; 95 % CI 0.51-0.98). Children of symptomatic mothers had lower predicted outpatient expenditures and higher predicted expenditures for total health, prescription medications, dental care; and office based, inpatient and ED visits. Mothers with CCHC were more likely to report depressive symptoms than were mothers with children without chronic health conditions. There were few differences in annual healthcare utilization and expenditures between CCHC of mothers with and without depressive symptoms. However, having a mother with depressive symptoms was associated with higher ED expenditures and higher predicted healthcare expenditures in a population of children who comprise over three-fourths of the top decile of Medicaid spending. PMID:25047785

  20. Daily Life or Diagnosis? Dual Perspectives on Perinatal Depression within Maternal and Child Health Home Visiting

    PubMed Central

    Price, Sarah Kye; Cohen-Filipic, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a qualitative inquiry–informing program development in a maternal and child home visiting program. Low-income women's perceptions of the meaning and experiences of depression were ascertained through focus groups and interviews. Simultaneously, the study examines staff member perceptions and roles related to depression. Specific findings from clients and staff reveal culturally situated beliefs about depression and stressful life events; comparing and contrasting these beliefs offers a novel perspective on identification and intervention for maternal depression. This study offers a foundation for a translational research agenda that will be used for program and policy development to enhance mental health services situated within maternal and child health home visiting programs. PMID:23944165

  1. Predictors of depressive symptoms and physical health in caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Thunyadee, Chanya; Sitthimongkol, Yajai; Sangon, Sopin; Chai-Aroon, Teradech; Hegadoren, Kathleen M

    2015-12-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relationships among factors influencing caregiver burden, depressive symptoms, and physical health in family caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia. Two hundred family caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia completed standardized questionnaires related to depressive symptoms, physical health, perceptions of burden, coping, and social support. The results revealed that 19.5% of family caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia experienced significant depressive symptoms and 65.5% perceived themselves in poor physical health. Burden, self-controlling coping strategies, and physical health status were all independently predictive of depressive symptoms. Two emotion-focused coping strategies (self-controlling and escape-avoidance) were independently predictive of caregiver burden. Only burden predicted physical health status. The findings suggest that health professionals who provide community care for those with schizophrenia need to consider the "unit of care" as the family rather than the individual. The health status of family caregivers should be routinely assessed. Individualized interventions to reduce family burden could include community-based health professionals as well as trained community volunteers, opportunities for social interaction, and improving self-care for all family members. PMID:26081195

  2. Personal Project Content and Stress: Relations to Subjective Health and Depressive Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenius, Marjut A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how personal project stress and stress related to different personal project contents are associated with subjective health and depressive mood among adults. Participants were 343 men and women (20-76 years old), who responded to the questionnaire including the Little's Personal Project Analysis, and health and…

  3. Adolescent Mental Health Literacy: Young People's Knowledge of Depression and Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, John R.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the mental health literacy of a group of adolescents, with particular reference to their ability to recognize symptoms of depression in their peers. Respondents were 202 Australian adolescents (122 males, 80 females) aged 15-17 years. Their mental health literacy was examined through a questionnaire that presented them with…

  4. Supplemental Private Health Insurance and Depressive Symptoms in Older Married Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Meeyoung Oh; Townsend, Aloen L.; Miller, Baila; Rovine, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Stress process theory is applied to examine lack of supplemental private health insurance as a risk factor for depressive symptomatology among older married couples covered by Medicare. Dyadic data from 130 African-American couples and 1,429 White couples in the 1993 Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest-Old Survey were analyzed using…

  5. Depressive Symptoms and Health-Related Risk-Taking in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, C. Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear…

  6. Association between Ideal Cardiovascular Health Metrics and Depression in Chinese Population: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhikun; Yang, Xin; Wang, Anxin; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Wei; Song, Qiaofeng; Wang, Xizhu

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the association between ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics and depression. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study of 6,851 participants aged 20 years or older (3,525 men and 3,326 women) living in Tangshan City, China. Information on the seven CVH metrics (including smoking, body mass index, dietary intake, physical activity, blood pressure, total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose) was collected via questionnaires, physical examination and laboratory test. Depression status was assessed using the Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and a score of 16 or above was considered depression. The relationship between CVH metrics and depression was analyzed using logistic regression. Of the 6,851 participants, 525 (7.7%) were in depression status. After adjustment for potential confounders, men in the highest quartile of ideal CVH metric summary score had a reduced likelihood of having depression compared to those in the lowest quartile (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28–0.75, p = 0.002). A similar trend was found among women, even though the association was not significant (AOR = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.46–1.18, p = 0.211). This study suggested that better CVH status is associated with a lower risk of depression especially in Chinese male and young population. PMID:26176196

  7. Effects of Toxoplasma gondii infection on anxiety, depression and ghrelin level in male rats.

    PubMed

    Parvin, Zareian; Iraj, Mirzaii Dizgah; Minoo, Shaddel; Fatemeh, Khodabandehloo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection on anxiety, depression and ghrelin level in male rats. Twenty four male rats were assessed in two equal groups. T. gondii tachyzoite (ip) were injected in infected group and control group received (2 ml) physiological serum (ip). Elevated plus Maze and swimming tests were used to assess anxiety and depression in rats respectively. The ghrelin and T. gondii IgG serum levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay kits. The Student's t test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used. The ghrelin serum level was significantly lower in the infected rats than control (P = 0.03). There were no significant differences in the depression and anxiety behavior between two groups. However, here were no significant correlations between ghrelin level and anxiety or depression in rats. It seems that latent T. gondii infection decreases the ghrelin serum level but does not change anxiety and depression like behaviors. PMID:27605768

  8. An investigation of core liquid level depression in small break loss-of-coolant accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, R.R.; Watkins, J.C. ); Motley, F.E.; Stumpf, H. ); Chen, Y.S. . Div. of Systems Research)

    1991-08-01

    Core liquid level depression can result in partial core dryout and heatup early in a small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) transient. Such behavior occurs when steam, trapped in the upper regions of the reactor primary system (between the loop seal and the core inventory), moves coolant out of the core region and uncovers the rod upper elevations. The net result is core liquid level depression. Core liquid level depression and subsequent core heatups are investigated using subscale data from the ROSA-IV Program's 1/48-scale Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) and the 1/1705-scale Semiscale facility. Both facilities are Westinghouse-type, four-loop, pressurized water reactor simulators. The depression phenomena and factors which influence the minimum core level are described and illustrated using examples from the data. Analyses of the subject experiments, conducted using the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 (Version 12.7) thermal-hydraulic code, are also described and summarized. Finally, the response of a typical Westinghouse four-loop plant (RESAR-3S) was calculated to qualitatively study coal liquid level depression in a full-scale system. 31 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Coming out in color: racial/ethnic differences in the relationship between level of sexual identity disclosure and depression among lesbians.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Frances; Matthews, Alicia K; Hughes, Tonda L; Muramatsu, Naoko; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Johnson, Timothy P; Riley, Barth B

    2015-04-01

    Disclosing one's sexual minority identity, or "coming out," has varying effects on the mental health of lesbians. Previous research indicates a negative association between disclosure and depression. However, these findings are based on research with White lesbians. To date, there is a paucity of studies that examined how the relationship between disclosure and depression may differ by race/ethnicity among lesbians. To address this gap, we examined the relationship between disclosure and depression among African American (26.5%), Latina (19.7%), and White (53.8%) self-identified lesbians (N = 351) in 2 survey-interviews (∼ 3-years apart). Over 50% of the participants reported a history of lifetime depression at baseline and 35.9% reported depression at Time 2 (T2). Disclosure levels varied: 78.9% had disclosed to their mother, 58.4% to their father, and 83.3% to a sibling. The mean level for disclosure to nonfamily individuals was 6.29 (SD 2.64; range 0-9). Disclosure results varied by race/ethnicity showing African American lesbians (vs. White lesbians) were less likely to disclose to nonfamily individuals when controlling for covariates. Results for the relationship between disclosure and depression showed disclosure to either parent or sibling was not associated with depression for the total sample. Among Latinas only, disclosure to nonfamily individuals was associated with less depression. Additional research is needed to explore racial/ethnic differences in disclosure with certain individuals and to better understand the relation between disclosure and depression. Findings have implications for reducing overall rates of depression among lesbians living with multiple-minority identities. PMID:25181323

  10. Coming Out in Color: Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Relationship between Level of Sexual Identity Disclosure and Depression among Lesbians

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Frances; Matthews, Alicia K.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Muramatsu, Naoko; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Riley, Barth B.

    2014-01-01

    Disclosing one's sexual minority identity, or “coming out,” has varying effects on the mental health of lesbians. Previous research indicates a negative association between disclosure and depression. However, these findings are based on research with White lesbians. To date, there is a paucity of studies that examined how the relationship between disclosure and depression may differ by race/ethnicity among lesbians. To address this gap, we examined the relationship between disclosure and depression among African American (26.5%), Latina (19.7%), and White (53.8%) self-identified lesbians (N=351) in two survey-interviews (~3-years apart). Over 50% of the participants reported a history of lifetime depression at baseline and 35.9% reported depression at T2. Disclosure levels varied: 78.9% had disclosed to their mother, 58.4% to their father, and 83.3% to a sibling. The mean level for disclosure to nonfamily individuals was 6.29 (SD 2.64; range 0–9). Disclosure results varied by race/ethnicity showing African American lesbians (versus White lesbians) were less likely to disclose to nonfamily individuals when controlling for covariates. Results for the relationship between disclosure and depression showed disclosure to either parent or sibling was not associated with depression for the total sample. Among Latinas only, disclosure to nonfamily individuals was associated with less depression. Additional research is needed to explore racial/ethnic differences in disclosure with certain individuals and to better understand the relation between disclosure and depression. Findings have implications for reducing overall rates of depression among lesbians living with multiple-minority identities. PMID:25181323

  11. The interplay among risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicide: the role of depression, poor health, and loved ones' messages of support and criticism.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephanie L; Vinokur, Amiram D

    2003-09-01

    When individuals who receive social support are in poor physical or mental health and are criticized or made to feel unwanted, they may perceive themselves as a burden. Poor physical health and depression were hypothesized to exacerbate the harmful effects on suicidal ideation of receiving critical negative messages and of receiving social support. These hypotheses were tested using secondary analyses of data from a sample of 533 unemployed married individuals who were assessed shortly after job loss, and 6 months later. The results of our analyses supported the hypotheses and demonstrated that for participants with poor health or high level of depressive symptoms an increase in critical messages and social support (from Time 1 to Time 2) predicted increased suicidal ideation. This relationship was not observed for non-depressed participants in good health. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for suicide prevention. PMID:14570442

  12. Correlates and Predictors of Depression in College Students: Results from the Spring 2000 National College Health Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leino, E. Victor; Kisch, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The present analyses used depression-related items and co-factors from the National College Health Assessment (NCHA), Spring 2000. The results indicate 10.3 % of college students (6.2% male and 12.6% female) reported ever having been diagnosed with depression. Of those ever diagnosed with depression, 39% were diagnosed in the last year, 27% were…

  13. Similarity of Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins in Level and Lability of Subclinically Depressed Mood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wierzbicki, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Ninety-two adult twin-pairs were recruited. Twin zygosity was determined by self-report inventory. Monozygotic twins resembled one another more than dizygotic twins in most measures of both level and lability of mood, which provides modest evidence for a genetic influence on subclinical levels of depression. (Author/ABB)

  14. Adverse health behaviours are associated with depression and anxiety in multiple sclerosis: A prospective multisite study

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Kyla A.; Tremlett, Helen; Fisk, John D.; Patten, Scott B.; Fiest, Kirsten; Berrigan, Lindsay; Marrie, Ruth Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression and anxiety are common among people with multiple sclerosis (MS), as are adverse health behaviours, but the associations between these factors are unclear. Objective: To evaluate the associations between cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and depression and anxiety in MS in a cross-Canada prospective study. Methods: From July 2010 to March 2011 we recruited consecutive MS patients from four MS clinics. At three visits over two years, clinical and demographic information was collected, and participants completed questionnaires regarding health behaviours and mental health. Results: Of 949 participants, 75.2% were women, with a mean age of 48.6 years; most had a relapsing−remitting course (72.4%). Alcohol dependence was associated with increased odds of anxiety (OR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.32–2.58) and depression (OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.05–2.23) adjusting for age, sex, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and smoking status. Smoking was associated with increased odds of anxiety (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.02–1.63) and depression (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.04–1.78) adjusting for age, sex, EDSS, and alcohol dependence. Alcohol dependence was associated with an increased incidence of depression but not anxiety. Depression was associated with an increased incidence of alcohol dependence. Conclusion: Alcohol dependence and smoking were associated with anxiety and depression. Awareness of the effects of adverse health behaviours on mental health in MS might help target counselling and support for those ‘at risk’. PMID:26245214

  15. Levels of mental health problems among UK emergency ambulance workers.

    PubMed

    Bennett, P; Williams, Y; Page, N; Hood, K; Woollard, M

    2004-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety in a sample of emergency ambulance personnel. Of 1029 personnel in one ambulance service mailed a questionnaire, 617 were returned. Among respondents, the overall rate of PTSD was 22%. Levels of PTSD did not differ according to grade, but men had a higher prevalence rate than women (23% compared with 15%). Nearly one in ten reported probable clinical levels of depression, 22% reported probable clinical levels of anxiety based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores. PMID:14988360

  16. Association between depression and work stress in nursing professionals with technical education level 1

    PubMed Central

    Gherardi-Donato, Edilaine Cristina da Silva; Cardoso, Lucilene; Teixeira, Carla Araújo Bastos; Pereira, Sandra de Souza; Reisdorfer, Emilene

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to analize the relationship between depression and work stress in nursing professionals with technical education level of a teaching hospital in a city of the state of São Paulo. Methods: a cross-sectional study was carried out with 310 nursing technicians and nursing assistants, randomly selected. The outcome analyzed was the report of depression and its relationship with high levels of work stress, measured using the Job Stress Scale. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed. Results: the prevalence of depression in this study was 20%, and it was more expressive in females, aged over 40 years, living without a partner and in smokers. The chance of depression was twice as high among professionals showing high levels of work stress, even after multiple regression adjusting. Conclusion: depressive symptoms were strongly associated with high stress levels among nursing assistants and nursing technicians, evidencing a problem to be considered along with the planning of specific intervention programs for this population, as well as the need for better cases management by the supervisors. PMID:26444177

  17. Changes in perceived health and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal analysis with older Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A; Kim, Giyeon; Cho, Soyeon

    2009-02-01

    The present study examined changes in the perceived health of older Korean Americans (n = 141) over a 2-year period: 2003 (T1) and 2005 (T2). A hierarchical regression model of changes in perceived health was estimated with the following array of predictors: (1) background variables (age, gender, marital status, education, and length of stay in the United States), (2) initial perceived health (T1), (3) physical and mental health conditions at T1 (chronic conditions, functional disability, and depressive symptoms), and (4) changes in physical and mental health conditions (T2 - T1). When the effects of background variables and baseline perceived health were controlled, baseline chronic conditions and changes in both chronic conditions and depressive symptoms were found to predict changes in perceived health. Older individuals who initially had more chronic conditions and those who had experienced an increasing number of chronic conditions and depressive symptoms over 2 years viewed their health more negatively at follow-up. Findings highlight the importance of interventions for disease management and mental health promotion to enhance subjective health among older Korean immigrants. PMID:18066715

  18. Potential of e-health in relation to depression: short survey of previous research.

    PubMed

    Stjernswärd, S; Ostman, M

    2006-12-01

    E-health is developing at a high rate and represents an opportunity for the development and spreading of information and communication channels to interested parties. The aim of this study was to get an overview and comprehension of the e-health field, with special focus on depression. A survey of initiatives and studies regarding e-health and depression was carried out. Relevant articles were found through searches on databases, search engines and reference lists. This paper shows that many different initiators with differing goals and motives are active within the e-health field. In the field of e-health and depression, the following areas show interesting results: studies mapping users' profile and habits, the quality of health-related information and the effectiveness of online therapies and supportive communities. Numerous initiators have launched different kinds of e-health initiatives. The potential of the Internet to be used constructively by health-care professionals and health-care consumers for health-enhancing purposes still needs to be mapped, evaluated and developed. PMID:17087672

  19. Health-Seeking Behaviors of Filipino Migrants in Australia: The Influence of Persisting Acculturative Stress and Depression.

    PubMed

    Maneze, Della; Salamonson, Yenna; Poudel, Chandra; DiGiacomo, Michelle; Everett, Bronwyn; Davidson, Patricia M

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the relationships among the constructs of acculturative stress, depression, English language use, health literacy, and social support and the influence of these factors on health-seeking behaviors of Filipino Australians. Using a self-administered questionnaire, 552 respondents were recruited from November 2010 to June 2011. Structural equation modelling was used to examine relationships. A direct and negative relationship between health-seeking behaviors and depression, and an indirect relationship with acculturative stress, was observed mediated through depression. Social support had an important moderating influence on these effects. Although there was an inverse relationship between age and English language usage and depression, age was positively related to health-seeking behavior. Despite their long duration of stay, Filipino Australian migrants continue to experience acculturative stress and depression leading to lower health-seeking behaviors. This study highlights the importance of screening for acculturative stress and depression in migrants and fostering social support. PMID:26050239

  20. Associations between early exposure to intimate partner violence, parental depression and subsequent mental health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Nerissa S.; Gilbert, Amy L.; Carroll, Aaron E.; Downs, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between parent reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) and depressive symptoms within the first 3 years of a child’s life with subsequent mental health conditions and psychotropic drug treatment. Design Prospective cohort study linking parental IPV and depression with subsequent billing and pharmacy data. Setting 4 pediatric clinics between November 2004 and June 2012 Patients/Participants 2,422 children Main Exposure Any report of IPV and/or parental depressive symptoms from birth to 3 years of age. Main Outcome Measures ICD-9 mental health diagnoses and any psychotropic drug treatment between 3 and 6 years of age. Results 2.4% of caregivers (n=58) reported both IPV and depressive symptoms before their children were 3 years of age, 3% (n=69) of caregivers reported IPV only, 29% (n=704) reported depressive symptoms only, and 65.7% (n=1,591) reported neither exposure. Children of parents reporting both IPV and depressive symptoms were more likely to have a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (AOR 4.0; 95% CI: 1.5–10.9), even after adjusting for child gender, race/ethnicity, and insurance type. Children whose parents reported depressive symptoms were more likely to have been prescribed psychotropic medication (AOR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0–3.4). Conclusions Exposure to both IPV and depression before 3 years is associated with preschool-onset ADHD; and early exposure to parental depression is associated with being prescribed psychotropic medication. PMID:23381234

  1. Pain severity in diabetic peripheral neuropathy is associated with patient functioning, symptom levels of anxiety and depression, and sleep.

    PubMed

    Gore, Mugdha; Brandenburg, Nancy A; Dukes, Ellen; Hoffman, Deborah L; Tai, Kei-Sing; Stacey, Brett

    2005-10-01

    Our goal was to evaluate pain severity, pain-related interference with function, sleep impairment, symptom levels of anxiety and depression, and quality of life among patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Participants in a burden of illness survey (n = 255) completed the modified Brief Pain Inventory-DPN (BPI-DPN), MOS Sleep Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Short Form Health Survey-12v2 (SF-12v2), and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D). Patients were 61 +/- 12.8 years old (51.4% female), had diabetes for 12 +/- 10.3 years and painful DPN for 6.4 +/- 6.4 years. Average and Worst Pain scores (BPI-DPN, 0-10 scales) were 5.0 +/- 2.5 and 5.6 +/- 2.8. Pain substantially interfered (>or=4 on 0-10 scales) with walking ability, normal work, sleep, enjoyment of life, mood, and general activity. Moderate to severe symptom levels of anxiety and depression (HADS-A and HADS-D scores >or=11 on 0-21 scales) occurred in 35% and 28% of patients, respectively. Patients reported greater sleep problems compared with the general U.S. population and significant impairment in both physical and mental functioning (SF-12v2) compared with subjects with diabetes. The mean EQ-5D utility score was 0.5 +/- 0.3. Greater pain levels in DPN (mild to moderate to severe) corresponded with higher symptom levels of anxiety and depression, more sleep problems, and lower utility ratings and physical and mental functioning, (all Ps < 0.01). Painful DPN is associated with decrements in many aspects of patients' lives: physical and emotional functioning, affective symptoms, and sleep problems. The negative impact is higher in patients with greater pain severity. PMID:16256902

  2. Does a Mobile Phone Depression-Screening App Motivate Mobile Phone Users With High Depressive Symptoms to Seek a Health Care Professional’s Help?

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Eman M; Aljadhey, Hisham; Basyouni, Mada H; Kowalski, Stefan R; Pont, Lisa G; Shaman, Ahmed M; Trevena, Lyndal; Alhawassi, Tariq M

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of disease screening is to encourage high-risk subjects to seek health care diagnosis and treatment. Mobile phone apps can effectively screen mental health conditions, including depression. However, it is not known how effective such screening methods are in motivating users to discuss the obtained results of such apps with health care professionals. Does a mobile phone depression-screening app motivate users with high depressive symptoms to seek health care professional advice? This study aimed to address this question. Method This was a single-cohort, prospective, observational study of a free mobile phone depression app developed in English and released on Apple’s App Store. Apple App Store users (aged 18 or above) in 5 countries, that is, Australia, Canada, New Zealand (NZ), the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States (US), were recruited directly via the app’s download page. The participants then completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and their depression screening score was displayed to them. If their score was 11 or above and they had never been diagnosed with depression before, they were advised to take their results to their health care professional. They were to follow up after 1 month. Results A group of 2538 participants from the 5 countries completed PHQ-9 depression screening with the app. Of them, 322 participants were found to have high depressive symptoms and had never been diagnosed with depression, and received advice to discuss their results with health care professionals. About 74% of those completed the follow-up; approximately 38% of these self-reported consulting their health care professionals about their depression score. Only positive attitude toward depression as a real disease was associated with increased follow-up response rate (odds ratio (OR) 3.2, CI 1.38-8.29). Conclusions A mobile phone depression-screening app motivated some users to seek a depression diagnosis. However, further study

  3. Living with Stigma: Depressed Elderly Persons' Experiences of Physical Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Anne Lise; Lyberg, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to deepen the understanding of depressed elderly persons' lived experiences of physical health problems. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 depressed elderly persons who suffer from physical health problems. A hermeneutic analysis was performed, yielding one main theme, living with stigma, and three themes: longing to be taken seriously, being uncertain about whether the pain is physical or mental, and a sense of living in a war zone. The second theme comprised two subthemes, feeling like a stranger and feeling dizzy, while the third had one subtheme: afraid of being helpless and dependent on others. Stigma deprives individuals of their dignity and reinforces destructive patterns of isolation and hopelessness. Nurses should provide information in a sensitive way and try to avoid diagnostic overshadowing. Effective training programmes and procedures need to be developed with more focus on how to handle depressive ill health and physical problems in older people. PMID:25013728

  4. Life-space mobility, perceived health, and depression symptoms in a sample of Mexican older adults.

    PubMed

    González, Bertha Cecilia Salazar; Delgado, Leticia Hernández; Quevedo, Juana Edith Cruz; Gallegos Cabriales, Esther C

    2013-01-01

    Mobility in older adults is essential to preserving their physical independence and health. Changes in mobility are related to cognitive, physical, and emotional factors, among others. We explored symptoms of depression as a mediator variable between chronic diseases and comorbidities and the outcomes of perceived health and life-space mobility in a convenience sample of 135 older Mexican adults. A cross-sectional design was used. Simple and multiple linear regression models were adjusted to verify the assumptions of mediation using Baron and Kenny's model. Chronic diseases and comorbidities served as independent variables in two separate models, perceived health and life-space mobility served as dependent variables, and depressive symptoms as the mediator variable. Results showed that perceived health and life-space mobility are affected by chronic diseases and comorbidities. However, when symptoms of depression enter the equation, the β coefficients decreased suggesting partial mediation. It is important to assess and treat depression symptoms in older adults rather than assuming that, at their age, depression is normal. PMID:24830480

  5. A Comparison of Levels of Quality of Life, Depression and Loneliness among Athletes with Different Levels of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unver, Saban; Atan, Tulin; Cavusoglu, Gul; Erim, Vedat; Yamak, Bade

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the levels of life quality, depression and loneliness among the students of the Faculty of Sports Sciences (FSS), national wrestlers and non national wrestlers in terms of some demographic variables. The participants of the study included 37 students from the Faculty of Sports Sciences of Ondokuz Mayis…

  6. Levels of serum immunomodulators and alterations with electroconvulsive therapy in treatment-resistant major depression

    PubMed Central

    Zincir, Serkan; Öztürk, Pelin; Bilgen, Ali Emrah; İzci, Filiz; Yükselir, Cihad

    2016-01-01

    Studies in recent years have indicated that neuroimmunological events and immune activation may have a place in the etiology of depression. It has been suggested from data that there is a causal relationship between activation of the immune system and excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and the etiology of depression. Although the mechanism of action of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is unclear, there is evidence that it can reduce cytokines and immune system changes. In our study, we aimed to determine how levels of serum immunomodulators were affected by ECT in major depression patients. This study was conducted on 50 patients with treatment-resistant major depression. The data of the patients were compared with 30 healthy individuals with similar demographic characteristics. A clinical response occurred in the patients and at the end of therapy, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-4, and interferon-gamma levels were measured. The disease severity was assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 15. Significant differences were determined between the patients with major depression and control group with respect to basal serum IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-4, and interferon-gamma levels. ECT treatment was shown to reduce these differences. ECT may cause significant changes in the activity of the immune system. The consideration of the relationship between the immune endocrine neurotransmitter systems could contribute to new theories regarding the mechanism of antidepressant treatment and biology of depression. PMID:27366071

  7. Levels of serum immunomodulators and alterations with electroconvulsive therapy in treatment-resistant major depression.

    PubMed

    Zincir, Serkan; Öztürk, Pelin; Bilgen, Ali Emrah; İzci, Filiz; Yükselir, Cihad

    2016-01-01

    Studies in recent years have indicated that neuroimmunological events and immune activation may have a place in the etiology of depression. It has been suggested from data that there is a causal relationship between activation of the immune system and excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and the etiology of depression. Although the mechanism of action of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is unclear, there is evidence that it can reduce cytokines and immune system changes. In our study, we aimed to determine how levels of serum immunomodulators were affected by ECT in major depression patients. This study was conducted on 50 patients with treatment-resistant major depression. The data of the patients were compared with 30 healthy individuals with similar demographic characteristics. A clinical response occurred in the patients and at the end of therapy, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-4, and interferon-gamma levels were measured. The disease severity was assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 15. Significant differences were determined between the patients with major depression and control group with respect to basal serum IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-4, and interferon-gamma levels. ECT treatment was shown to reduce these differences. ECT may cause significant changes in the activity of the immune system. The consideration of the relationship between the immune endocrine neurotransmitter systems could contribute to new theories regarding the mechanism of antidepressant treatment and biology of depression. PMID:27366071

  8. A Standardized Chinese Herbal Decoction, Kai-Xin-San, Restores Decreased Levels of Neurotransmitters and Neurotrophic Factors in the Brain of Chronic Stress-Induced Depressive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Ip, Siu-Po; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2012-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction being prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness in ancient China until today. However, the mechanism of its antidepression action is still unknown. Here, the chronic mild-stress-(CMS-) induced depressive rats were applied in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment. Daily intragastric administration of KXS for four weeks significantly alleviated the CMS-induced depressive symptoms displayed by enhanced sucrose consumption. In addition, the expressions of those molecular bio-markers relating to depression in rat brains were altered by the treatment of KXS. These KXS-regulated brain biomarkers included: (i) the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (ii) the transcript levels of proteins relating to neurotransmitter metabolism; (iii) the transcript levels of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The results suggested that the anti-depressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of neurotransmitters and expression of neurotrophic factors and its corresponding receptors in the brain. Thus, KXS could serve as alternative medicine, or health food supplement, for patients suffering from depression. PMID:22973399

  9. Macronutrient intake and depressive symptoms among Japanese male workers: the Furukawa Nutrition and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Nanri, Akiko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Kochi, Takeshi; Kurotani, Kayo; Ito, Rie; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Akter, Shamima; Jacka, Felice; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kabe, Isamu

    2014-12-15

    This study was aimed to examine the cross-sectional association of protein, carbohydrate, and fat intake with depressive symptoms among 1794 Japanese male workers aged 18-69 years who participated in a health survey. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Odds ratio of depressive symptoms (CES-D scale of ≥16) was estimated by using multiple logistic regression with adjustment for covariates including folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, polyunsaturated fatty acid, magnesium, and iron intake. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of depressive symptoms for the highest quartile of protein intake was 26%, albeit not statistically significant, lower compared with the lowest. The inverse association was more evident when a cutoff value of CES-D score ≥19 was used. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest through lowest quartile of protein intake were 1.00 (reference), 0.69 (0.47-1.01), 0.69 (0.44-1.09), and 0.58 (0.31-1.06) (P for trend=0.096). Neither carbohydrate nor fat intake was associated with depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that low protein intake may be associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in Japanese male workers. PMID:25200761

  10. Are depression and poor sexual health neglected comorbidities? Evidence from a population sample

    PubMed Central

    Field, Nigel; Prah, Philip; Mercer, Catherine H; Rait, Greta; King, Michael; Cassell, Jackie A; Heath, Laura; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Clifton, Soazig; Datta, Jessica; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between sexual behaviour, sexual function and sexual health service use of individuals with depression in the British general population, to inform primary care and specialist services. Setting British general population. Participants 15 162 men and women aged 16–74 years were interviewed for the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), undertaken in 2010–2012. Using age-adjusted ORs (aAOR), relative to a comparator group reporting no treatment or symptoms, we compared the sexual health of those reporting treatment for depression in the past year. Outcome measures Sexual risk behaviour, sexual function, sexual satisfaction and sexual health service use. Results 1331 participants reported treatment for depression (5.2% men; 11.8% women). Relative to the comparator group, treatment for depression was associated with reporting 2 or more sexual partners without condoms (men aAOR 2.07 (95% CI 1.38 to 3.10); women 2.22 (1.68 to 2.92)), and concurrent partnerships (men 1.80 (1.18 to 2.76); women 2.06 (1.48 to 2.88)), in the past year. Those reporting depression treatment were more likely to be dissatisfied with their sex lives (men 2.32 (1.74 to 3.11); women 2.30 (1.89 to 2.79)), and to score in the lowest quintile on the Natsal-sexual function measure. They were also more likely to report a recent chlamydia test (men 1.92 (1.15 to 3.20)); women (1.27 (1.01 to 1.60)), and to have sought help regarding their sex life from a healthcare professional (men 2.92 (1.98 to 4.30); women (2.36 (1.83 to 3.04)), most commonly from a family doctor. Women only were more likely to report attending a sexual health clinic (1.91 (1.42 to 2.58)) and use of emergency contraception (1.98 (1.23 to 3.19)). Associations were broadly similar for individuals with depressive symptoms but not reporting treatment. Conclusions Depression, measured by reported treatment, was strongly associated with sexual risk behaviours, reduced

  11. Daily Spiritual Experiences of Nurse Educators and Relationship to Depression and Health.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Paige Turner; Cheshire, Michelle; Wood, Felecia G; Dunn, Linda L; Ewell, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    This research describes the first reported assessment of spirituality in nurse educators. Faculty members at a public university in a southern U.S. state participated in a study to investigate the relationship between daily spiritual experiences (DSE), self-reported health, and depression. All participants viewed themselves as spiritual, had a religious affiliation, and recognized a difference between spirituality and religiosity. Many who reported spiritual experiences at least daily rated their health as good or excellent; those reporting less frequent DSE reported more depressive symptoms. Nurse educators' self-awareness of spirituality is important as they prepare future nursing professionals who will integrate spirituality into healthcare. PMID:27295236

  12. Utilizing a Personal Smartphone Custom App to Assess the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Depressive Symptoms in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Patrick; Shanahan, Meghan; Lin, Charlie; Peck, Pamela; Keshavan, Matcheri; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate reporting of patient symptoms is critical for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring in psychiatry. Smartphones offer an accessible, low-cost means to collect patient symptoms in real time and aid in care. Objective To investigate adherence among psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with major depressive disorder in utilizing their personal smartphones to run a custom app to monitor Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression symptoms, as well as to examine the correlation of these scores to traditionally administered (paper-and-pencil) PHQ-9 scores. Methods A total of 13 patients with major depressive disorder, referred by their clinicians, received standard outpatient treatment and, in addition, utilized their personal smartphones to run the study app to monitor their symptoms. Subjects downloaded and used the Mindful Moods app on their personal smartphone to complete up to three survey sessions per day, during which a randomized subset of PHQ-9 symptoms of major depressive disorder were assessed on a Likert scale. The study lasted 29 or 30 days without additional follow-up. Outcome measures included adherence, measured by the percentage of completed survey sessions, and estimates of daily PHQ-9 scores collected from the smartphone app, as well as from the traditionally administered PHQ-9. Results Overall adherence was 77.78% (903/1161) and varied with time of day. PHQ-9 estimates collected from the app strongly correlated (r=.84) with traditionally administered PHQ-9 scores, but app-collected scores were 3.02 (SD 2.25) points higher on average. More subjects reported suicidal ideation using the app than they did on the traditionally administered PHQ-9. Conclusions Patients with major depressive disorder are able to utilize an app on their personal smartphones to self-assess their symptoms of major depressive disorder with high levels of adherence. These app-collected results correlate with the traditionally administered PHQ-9. Scores

  13. Association between pain severity, depression severity, and use of health care services in Japan: results of a nationwide survey

    PubMed Central

    Vietri, Jeffrey; Otsubo, Tempei; Montgomery, William; Tsuji, Toshinaga; Harada, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is often associated with painful physical symptoms. Previous research has seldom assessed the relationship between the severity of physical symptoms and the severity of mental and emotional symptoms of depression or other health outcomes, and no such studies have been conducted previously among individuals with depression in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the severity of physical pain and depression and other outcomes among individuals in Japan diagnosed with depression. Methods Data for individuals aged 18 and older in Japan who reported being diagnosed with depression and also reported physical pain were obtained from the Japan National Health and Wellness Survey. These respondents were characterized on sociodemographics and health characteristics, and the relationship between ratings of severity on pain in the last week and health outcomes were assessed using bivariate correlations and generalized linear models. Measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression severity, Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form Survey Instrument for health-related quality of life, the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment for work and activity impairment, and 6-month report of health care use. Results More severe physical pain in the past week was correlated with more severe depression, worse health-related quality of life, lower health utility, greater impairment at work, and more health care provider visits. These relationships remained significant after incorporating sociodemographics and health characteristics in the statistical models. Conclusion Individuals whose depression is accompanied by more severe physical pain have a higher burden of illness than those whose depression includes less severe pain, suggesting that even partially ameliorating painful physical symptoms may significantly benefit patients with depression. Clinicians should take the presence and severity of physical pain into

  14. Expectations Among Patients and Health Professionals Regarding Web-Based Interventions for Depression in Primary Care: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Marín, Jesús; Prado-Abril, Javier; Botella, Cristina; Mayoral-Cleries, Fermin; Baños, Rosa; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Gili, Margalida; Castro, Adoración; Nogueira, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Background One-quarter of the world’s population will suffer from depression symptoms at some point in their lives. Mental health services in developed countries are overburdened. Therefore, cost-effective interventions that provide mental health care solutions such as Web-based psychotherapy programs have been proposed. Objective The intent of the study was to identify expectations regarding Web-based psychotherapy for the treatment of depression in primary care among patients and health professionals that might facilitate or hinder its effects. Methods The expectations of untreated patients and health professionals were examined by means of interviews and focus groups. There were 43 participants (20 patients with mild and moderate levels of depression, 11 primary care physicians, and 12 managers; 22 of them for interviews and 21 for groups). A thematic content analysis from the grounded theory for interviews, and an analysis of the discursive positions of participants based on the sociological model for groups were performed. Interpretations were achieved by agreement between three independent analysts. Results All participants showed a good general acceptance of Web-based psychotherapy, appreciating possible advantages and improvements. Patients, physicians, and managers shared the same conceptualization of their expectations, although highlighting different aspects. Patients focused on the need for individualized and personalized interaction, while professionals highlighted the need for the standardization of the program. Physicians were concerned with extra workload, while managers were worried about optimizing cost-effectiveness. Conclusions Expectations of the different participants can conflict with each other. Finding a balanced position among them is needed if we are to harmoniously implement effective Web-based interventions for depression in routine clinical practice. PMID:25757358

  15. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... The exact causes of postpartum depression are unknown. Changes in hormone levels during and after pregnancy may affect a woman’s mood. Many non-hormonal factors may also ...

  16. Impact of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Depression on Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mi Ah; Kang, Hyung Chang; Park, Kyung Suk; Kim, Kwang Sung; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kang, Jina; Park, Eun Ok; Hyun, Mi Yeul; Kim, Chul Soo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We aimed primarily to investigate the level of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and depression in older adults and secondly to identify the impact of LUTS and depression on HRQoL. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to November 2010. Participants were recruited from five community senior centers serving community dwelling older adults in Jeju city. Data analysis was based on 171 respondents. A structured questionnaire was used to guide interviews; the data were collected including demographic characteristics, body mass index, adherence to regular exercise, comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoarthritis), depression, urinary incontinence, LUTS (measured via the International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS]), and HRQoL as assessed by use of the EQ-5D Index. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to test predictors of HRQoL. Results Eighteen percent (18.6%) of the respondents reported depressive symptoms. The mean LUTS score was 8.9 (IPSS range, 0 to 35). The severity of LUTS, was reported to be mild (score, 0 to 7) by 53% of the respondents, moderate (score, 8 to 19) by 34.5%, and severe (score, 20 to 35) by 12.5%. HRQoL was significantly predicted by depression (Partial R2=0.193, P<0.01) and LUTS (Partial R2=0.048, P=0.0047), and 24% of the variance in HRQoL was explained. Conclusions LUTS and depression were the principal predictors of HRQoL in older adults. PMID:23094219

  17. Socio-demographic and Health Behavioral Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Korean Americans

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sunhee; Park, So-Young; Bernstein, Kunsook S; Roh, Soonhee; Jeon, Gyeong-Suk

    2015-01-01

    This study identified socio-demographic characteristics and their help seeking behaviors of depressive symptoms among adult Korean Americans (KAs). Using survey data from 230 residents of the New York City, Teaneck New Jersey, and Philadelphia areas, simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between depressive symptoms and the covariates. Women were at much lower risk of depressive symptoms than were men, even after adjusting other covariates (OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.21–0.96). Having no health insurance(OR=4.02, 95% CI=1.28–12.61) and having experience in seeking professional help for mental health problem during last year were significantly associated with depressive symptoms (OR=2.96, 95% CI=1.29–6.80). Impact of gender, lack of health insurance coverage, and previous help-seeking behavior may be possible explanations for the KA’s higher prevalence of depression. PMID:25536937

  18. Depression and Service Use Among Caregivers Dually Involved in the Child Welfare and Mental Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Acri, Mary; Gopalan, Geetha; Lalayants, Marina; McKay, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression, use of mental health services, and correlates of service use among caregivers who are dually involved in the child welfare and child mental health systems. Methods This study analyzed baseline data from 129 caregivers who reported child welfare system involvement and were participating in a Multiple Family Group service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders. Results Seventy-eight (60.5%) of caregivers met or exceed the clinical-cut off for depression; of them 50 (64.1%) reported utilizing mental health services for their emotional health. Race, employment status, and CES-D score were significantly associated with lifetime mental heath services use. Discussion Depression rates exceeded those found among caregiver involved in either the child welfare or child mental health systems. Rates of service use were higher than found in existing research. As expected, racial differences and depression were associated with service use; contrary to expectations, full time employment was not associated with service use. Discrepancies between this study and existing research are discussed, as are practice, policy, and research implications. PMID:26366130

  19. Depression and Pesticide Exposures among Private Pesticide Applicators Enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beseler, Cheryl L.; Stallones, Lorann; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Keefe, Thomas; Kamel, Freya

    2008-01-01

    Background We evaluated the relationship between diagnosed depression and pesticide exposure using information from private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods There were 534 cases who self-reported a physician-diagnosed depression and 17,051 controls who reported never having been diagnosed with depression and did not feel depressed more than once a week in the past year. Lifetime pesticide exposure was categorized in three mutually exclusive groups: low (< 226 days, the reference group), intermediate (226–752 days), and high (> 752 days). Two additional measures represented acute high-intensity pesticide exposures: an unusually high pesticide exposure event (HPEE) and physician-diagnosed pesticide poisoning. Logistic regression analyses were performed relating pesticide exposure to depression. Results After adjusting for state, age, education, marital status, doctor visits, alcohol use, smoking, solvent exposure, not currently having crops or animals, and ever working a job off the farm, pesticide poisoning was more strongly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR) = 2.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.74–3.79] than intermediate (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.87–1.31) or high (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.87–1.42) cumulative exposure or an HPEE (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.33–2.05). In analysis of a subgroup without a history of acute poisoning, high cumulative exposure was significantly associated with depression (OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.16–2.04). Conclusion These findings suggest that both acute high-intensity and cumulative pesticide exposure may contribute to depression in pesticide applicators. Our study is unique in reporting that depression is also associated with chronic pesticide exposure in the absence of a physician-diagnosed poisoning. PMID:19079725

  20. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among Haitian immigrant students: implications for access to mental health services and educational programming

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies of Haitian immigrant and refugee youth have emphasized "externalizing" behaviors, such as substance use, high risk sexual behavior, and delinquency, with very little information available on "internalizing" symptoms, such as depression and anxiety. Analyzing stressors and "internalizing" symptoms offers a more balanced picture of the type of social and mental health services that may be needed for this population. The present study aims to: 1) estimate the prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Haitian immigrant students; and 2) examine factors associated with depression and PTSD to identify potential areas of intervention that may enhance psychosocial health outcomes among immigrant youth from Haiti in the U.S. Methods A stratified random sample of Haitian immigrant students enrolled in Boston public high schools was selected for participation; 84% agreed to be interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. Diagnosis of depression and PTSD was ascertained using the best estimate diagnosis method. Results The prevalence estimates of depression and PTSD were 14.0% and 11.6%; 7.9% suffered from comorbid PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated factors most strongly associated with depression (history of father's death, self-report of schoolwork not going well, not spending time with friends) and PTSD (concern for physical safety, having many arguments with parents, history of physical abuse, and lack of safety of neighborhood). Conclusions A significant level of depression and PTSD was observed. Stressors subsequent to immigration, such as living in an unsafe neighborhood and concern for physical safety, were associated with an increased risk of PTSD and should be considered when developing programs to assist this population. Reducing exposure to these stressors and enhancing access to social support and appropriate school-based and mental health services may improve educational

  1. Health-related quality of life, treatment adherence, symptom experience and depression in adolescent renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Dobbels, Fabienne; Decorte, Anneloes; Roskams, Ann; Van Damme-Lombaerts, Rita

    2010-03-01

    Few studies comprehensively assessed psychological and behavioral functioning in adolescent kidney transplant patients. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate depression, QOL, treatment adherence and presence of side effects from the perspective of the patient and his parents, and to compare scores with norm data. All patients (age 10-18 yr) and their parents completed the following instruments: KIDSCREEN-27 (QOL), a treatment adherence interview, the MTSOSD-59R (side effects) and the Beck Depression Inventory (depression). Twenty-three of 26 patients and 22 parents agreed to participate (70% male; median age 15 yr). Adolescents rated their QOL as satisfactory, but parents reported significant problems on several QOL dimensions. Depressive symptoms occurred in 17.4%, and 75% were non-adherent with their immunosuppressive drugs (confirmed by their parents) and show other problematic health behavior, including smoking, illicit drug use, dietary non-adherence, and suboptimal exercise levels. The most frequently occurring side effects were increased appetite, fatigue and headache; the most distressing ones were hair loss or thinning of hair, warts on hands or feet, and sores in the mouth or on the lips. Our results underscore the need for regular screening and adequate treatment of the above-mentioned aspects. PMID:19497017

  2. Grief, Depressive Symptoms, and Physical Health among Recently Bereaved Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utz, Rebecca L.; Caserta, Michael; Lund, Dale

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Widowhood is among the most distressing of all life events, resulting in both mental and physical health declines. This paper explores the dynamic relationship between physical health and psychological well-being among recently bereaved spouses. Design and Methods: Using a sample of 328 bereaved persons who participated in the "Living…

  3. Anxiety and Depression in Children with HFASDs: Symptom Levels and Source Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Christopher; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Fox, Jeffery D.; Volker, Martin A.; Chow, Sabrina Y.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Lee, Gloria K.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; McDonald, Christin A.; Smerbeck, Audrey M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine symptom levels of anxiety and depression in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) compared with matched control children using child self-reports and parent ratings; and (2) examine source differences within the two condition groups. An overall multivariate effect indicated…

  4. Review of the Relationship between the College Students' Attitudes towards Love and Depression Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Ahmet; Dashdamirov, Elshad; Ummet, Durmus

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to review the relation between college students' love attitudes and depression levels. Subjects selected were 125 male and 275 female bachelor's and master's degree students; a total of 400 students from various universities in Istanbul in academic year 2013-2014. Data for this study were collected employing both the Love Attitudes…

  5. The Effect of Group Logotherapy on Meaning in Life and Depression Levels of Iranian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robatmili, Somaye; Sohrabi, Faramarz; Shahrak, Mohammad Ali; Talepasand, Siavash; Nokani, Mostafa; Hasani, Mohaddese

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the effectiveness of group logotherapy in reducing depression and increasing meaning in life levels of university students in Iran. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a pre- post- and follow-up test design. The instruments used were the "Purpose in Life" (PIL) test and the "Beck Depression…

  6. Mental health resilience in the adolescent offspring of parents with depression: a prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Collishaw, Stephan; Hammerton, Gemma; Mahedy, Liam; Sellers, Ruth; Owen, Michael J; Craddock, Nicholas; Thapar, Ajay K; Harold, Gordon T; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Young people whose parents have depression have a greatly increased risk of developing a psychiatric disorder, but poor outcomes are not inevitable. Identification of the contributors to mental health resilience in young people at high familial risk is an internationally recognised priority. Our objectives were to identify protective factors that predict sustained good mental health in adolescents with a parent with depression and to test whether these contribute beyond what is explained by parent illness severity. Methods The Early Prediction of Adolescent Depression study (EPAD) is a prospective longitudinal study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression. Parents with recurrent major depressive disorder, co-parents, and offspring (aged 9–17 years at baseline) were assessed three times over 4 years in a community setting. Offspring outcomes were operationalised as absence of mental health disorder, subthreshold symptoms, or suicidality on all three study occasions (sustained good mental health); and better than expected mental health (mood and behavioural symptoms at follow-up lower than predicted given severity of parental depression). Family, social, cognitive, and health behaviour predictor variables were assessed using interview and questionnaire measures. Findings Between February and June, 2007, we screened 337 families at baseline, of which 331 were eligible. Of these, 262 completed the three assessments and were included in the data for sustained mental health. Adolescent mental health problems were common, but 53 (20%) of the 262 adolescents showed sustained good mental health. Index parent positive expressed emotion (odds ratio 1·91 [95% CI 1·31–2·79]; p=0·001), co-parent support (1·90 [1·38–2·62]; p<0·0001), good-quality social relationships (2·07 [1·35–3·18]; p=0·001), self-efficacy (1·49 [1·05–2·11]; p=0·03), and frequent exercise (2·96 [1·26–6·92]; p=0·01) were associated with sustained good

  7. Acculturation Level, Perceived English Fluency, Perceived Social Support Level, and Depression among Taiwanese International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dao, Tam K.; Lee, Donghyuck; Chang, Huang L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between acculturation, perceived English fluency, social support, and depression among 112 graduate Taiwanese international students. Ordinary Least Squares analyses were conducted on 112 graduate Taiwanese international students from a university in southeastern United States. Results indicated that those…

  8. A comparison of four different approaches to measuring health utility in depressed patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A variety of instruments are used to measure health related quality of life. Few data exist on the performance and agreement of different instruments in a depressed population. The aim of this study was to investigate agreement between, and suitability of, the EQ-5D-3L, EQ-5D Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-5D VAS), SF-6D and SF-12 new algorithm for measuring health utility in depressed patients. Methods The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland and Altman approaches were used to assess agreement. Instrument sensitivity was analysed by: (1) plotting utility scores for the instruments against one another; (2) correlating utility scores and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)); and (3) using Tukey’s procedure. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis assessed instrument responsiveness to change. Acceptability was assessed by comparing instrument completion rates. Results The overall ICC was 0.57. Bland and Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement for each pair wise comparison, except between the SF-6D and SF-12 new algorithm. Plots of utility scores displayed ’ceiling effects’ in the EQ-5D-3L index and ’floor effects’ in the SF-6D and SF-12 new algorithm. All instruments showed a negative monotonic relationship with BDI, but the EQ-5D-3L index and EQ-5D VAS could not differentiate between depression severity sub-groups. The SF-based instruments were better able to detect changes in health state over time. There was no difference in completion rates of the four instruments. Conclusions There was a lack of agreement between utility scores generated by the different instruments. According to the criteria of sensitivity, responsiveness and acceptability that we applied, the SF-6D and SF-12 may be more suitable for the measurement of health related utility in a depressed population than the EQ-5D-3L, which is the instrument currently recommended by NICE. PMID:23659557

  9. Depression in Working Adults: Comparing the Costs and Health Outcomes of Working When Ill

    PubMed Central

    Cocker, Fiona; Nicholson, Jan M.; Graves, Nicholas; Oldenburg, Brian; Palmer, Andrew J.; Martin, Angela; Scott, Jenn; Venn, Alison; Sanderson, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    Objective Working through a depressive illness can improve mental health but also carries risks and costs from reduced concentration, fatigue, and poor on-the-job performance. However, evidence-based recommendations for managing work attendance decisions, which benefit individuals and employers, are lacking. Therefore, this study has compared the costs and health outcomes of short-term absenteeism versus working while ill (“presenteeism”) amongst employed Australians reporting lifetime major depression. Methods Cohort simulation using state-transition Markov models simulated movement of a hypothetical cohort of workers, reporting lifetime major depression, between health states over one- and five-years according to probabilities derived from a quality epidemiological data source and existing clinical literature. Model outcomes were health service and employment-related costs, and quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs), captured for absenteeism relative to presenteeism, and stratified by occupation (blue versus white-collar). Results Per employee with depression, absenteeism produced higher mean costs than presenteeism over one- and five-years ($42,573/5-years for absenteeism, $37,791/5-years for presenteeism). However, overlapping confidence intervals rendered differences non-significant. Employment-related costs (lost productive time, job turnover), and antidepressant medication and service use costs of absenteeism and presenteeism were significantly higher for white-collar workers. Health outcomes differed for absenteeism versus presenteeism amongst white-collar workers only. Conclusions Costs and health outcomes for absenteeism and presenteeism were not significantly different; service use costs excepted. Significant variation by occupation type was identified. These findings provide the first occupation-specific cost evidence which can be used by clinicians, employees, and employers to review their management of depression-related work attendance, and may

  10. Replaceable neurons and neurodegenerative disease share depressed UCHL1 levels

    PubMed Central

    Lombardino, Anthony J.; Li, Xiao-Ching; Hertel, Moritz; Nottebohm, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    Might there be systematic differences in gene expression between neurons that undergo spontaneous replacement in the adult brain and those that do not? We first explored this possibility in the high vocal center (HVC) of male zebra finches by using a combination of neuronal tracers, laser capture microdissection, and RNA profiling. HVC has two kinds of projection neurons, one of which continues to be produced and replaced in adulthood. HVC neurons of the replaceable kind showed a consistent and robust underexpression of the deubiquitination gene ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase (UCHL1) that is involved with protein degradation. Singing behavior, known to increase the survival of adult-born HVC neurons in birds, significantly up-regulated the levels of UCHL1 in the replaceable neurons but not in their equally active nonreplaceable counterparts. We then looked in the mouse brain and found relatively low UCHL1 expression in granule neurons of the hippocampus and olfactory bulb, two well characterized types of replaceable neurons in mammals. UCHL1 dysfunction has been associated with neurodegeneration in Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's disease patients. In all these instances, reduced UCHL1 function may jeopardize the survival of CNS neurons. PMID:15911766

  11. Inflammatory insults and mental health consequences: does timing matter when it comes to depression?

    PubMed

    Du Preez, A; Leveson, J; Zunszain, P A; Pariante, C M

    2016-07-01

    It has become widely accepted that the immune system, and specifically increased levels of inflammation, play a role in the development of depression. However, not everyone with increased inflammation develops depression, and as with all other diseases, there are risk factors that may contribute to an increased vulnerability in certain individuals. One such risk factor could be the timing of an inflammatory exposure. Here, using a combination of PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid Medline and PsycINFO, we systematically reviewed whether exposure to medically related inflammation in utero, in childhood, and in adolescence, increases the risk for depression in adulthood. Moreover, we tried to determine whether there was sufficient evidence to identify a particular time point during the developmental trajectory in which an immune insult could be more damaging. While animal research shows that early life exposure to inflammation increases susceptibility to anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour, human studies surprisingly find little evidence to support the notion that medically related inflammation in utero and in adolescence contributes to an increased risk of developing depression in later life. However, we did find an association between childhood inflammation and later life depression, with most studies reporting a significantly increased risk of depression in adults who were exposed to inflammation as children. More robust clinical research, measuring direct markers of inflammation throughout the life course, is greatly needed to expand on, and definitively address, the important research questions raised in this review. PMID:27181594

  12. Alliance in Two Telephone-Administered Treatments: Relationship with Depression and Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckner, Victoria; Vella, Lea; Howard, Isa; Mohr, David C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between therapeutic alliance and both depression and health outcomes in a randomized clinical trial of 2 telephone-administered treatments with 97 clients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The 16-week, manualized treatments compared were telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (T-CBT) and…

  13. Plasma CRP Levels in Premenopausal Women with Major Depression: A 12-Month Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Cizza, G.; Eskandari, F.; Coyle, M.; Krishnamurthy, P.; Wright, E. C.; Mistry, S.; Csako, G.

    2009-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker of cardiovascular risk, is often elevated in major depressive disorder (MDD). The magnitude and consistency of this elevation have not been previously characterized in premenopausal women with MDD. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess plasma CRP levels, body composition, endocrine and metabolic parameters, and depressive status in premenopausal women with MDD (n = 77) and controls (n = 41), aged 21 to 45. Women were enrolled in a 12-month, controlled study of bone turnover, the P.O.W.E.R. (Premenopausal, Osteoporosis, Women, Alendronate, Depression) Study. Blood samples were taken at Baseline, Month 6, and Month 12. Most subjects with MDD were in clinical remission. These women tended to have consistently higher CRP levels than controls over 12 months (p = 0.077). BMI was positively related to log[CRP] in women with MDD only. Nine women with MDD had CRP levels greater than 10 mg/l, a value associated with a very high cardiovascular risk. This subset was obese and had significantly higher triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR than the rest of women with MDD. The variations in CRP levels over time were high (intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variations of ∼30–50% and ∼70–140%, respectively). No control had CRP levels greater than 10 mg/l. Depression was associated with increased plasma CRP in women with MDD. The clinical significance of abnormal plasma CRP for cardiovascular risk needs to be assessed in large prospective studies of women with depression. PMID:19408214

  14. Mental Health and Migration: Depression, Alcohol Abuse, and Access to Health Care among Migrants in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-01-01

    Background One fifth of Kazakhstan’s population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Methods Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N=450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Results Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. Conclusions This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359

  15. The Real World Mental Health Needs of Heart Failure Patients Are Not Reflected by the Depression Randomized Controlled Trial Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Phillip J.; Wittert, Gary; Selkow, Terina; Baumeister, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Introduction International depression screening guidelines in heart failure (HF) are partly based on depression treatment efficacy from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Our aim was to test the external validity of depression RCT criteria in a sample of real-world HF patients. Methods HF patients admitted to 3 hospitals in South Australia were referred to a HF psychologist if not already receiving current psychiatric management by psychologist or psychiatrist elsewhere. Screening and referral protocol consisted of the following; (a). Patient Health Questionnaire ≥10; (b). Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire ≥7); (c). positive response to 1 item panic attack screener; (d). evidence of suicidality. Patients were evaluated against the most common RCT exclusion criteria personality disorder, high suicide risk, cognitive impairment, psychosis, alcohol or substance abuse or dependency, bi-polar depression. Results Total 81 HF patients were referred from 404 HF admissions, and 73 were assessed (age 60.6±13.4, 47.9% female). Nearly half (47%) met at least 1 RCT exclusion criterion, most commonly personality disorder (28.5%), alcohol/substance abuse (17.8%) and high suicide risk (11.0%). RCT ineligibility criteria was more frequent among patients with major depression (76.5% vs. 46.2%, p<.01) and dysthymia (26.5% vs. 7.7%, p = .03) but not significantly associated with anxiety disorders. RCT ineligible patients reported greater severity of depression (M = 16.6±5.0 vs. M = 12.9±7.2, p = .02) and were higher consumers of HF psychotherapy services (M = 11.5±4.7 vs. M = 8.5±4.8, p = .01). Conclusion In this real-world sample comparable in size to recent RCT intervention arms, patients with depression disorders presented with complex psychiatric needs including comorbid personality disorders, alcohol/substance use and suicide risk. These findings suggest external validity of depression screening and RCTs could serve as a basis for

  16. A systematic review of the association between depression and health care utilization in children and adults with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Jonassaint, Charles R; Jones, Victor L; Leong, Sharlene; Frierson, Georita M

    2016-07-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) experience a disproportionately high use of health care resources. Several studies have examined depression and other negative mood states as risk factors for increased health care utilization; however, there have been no systematic reviews examining and summarizing this evidence in SCD. The aim of this systematic review, therefore, was to determine whether depression or depressive symptoms are associated with health care utilization among children and adults with SCD. We followed a quantitative systematic review protocol based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta- Analyses guidelines and performed a literature search of records from January 1980 to April 2014 using six databases. Empirical studies were eligible if the sample was primarily composed of patients with SCD and included data on depression, mood disorder diagnosis or depressive symptoms and health care utilization. We included 12 studies involving 54 036 unique participants. The prevalence estimates for depression ranged from 2-57%. Seven studies found a significant, or marginally significant, association between depression and utilization while five did not. Patients reporting depression had an estimated 2·8 times greater relative risk of being a high utilizer, and 2·9 versus 1·8 hospitalizations per year on average compared to patients without depression. Overall, depressive symptoms are common in SCD and may increase risk for poor outcomes including health care utilization. The available studies on depression in SCD, however, are limited by small sample sizes, retrospective designs or short follow-up. This systematic review found a modest association between depression and health care utilization in SCD. PMID:26991317

  17. Risks of Treated Insomnia, Anxiety, and Depression in Health Care-Seeking Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Wu, Ming-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Abstract High occupational stress and burnout among physicians can lead to sleep problems, anxiety, depression, and even suicide. Even so, the actual risk for these behavioral health problems in health care-seeking physicians has been seldom explored. The aim of this study was to determine whether physicians have higher odds of treated insomnia, anxiety, and depression than the normal population. This is a nationwide population-based case–control study using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan for the years 2007 to 2011. Physicians were obtained from the Registry for Medical Personnel in 2009. Hospital physicians who had at least 3 coded ambulatory care claims or 1 inpatient claim with a principal diagnosis of insomnia, anxiety, or depression were identified. A total of 15,150 physicians and 45,450 matched controls were enrolled. Odd ratios (ORs) of insomnia, anxiety, and depression between physicians and their control counterparts were measured. The adjusted ORs for treated insomnia, anxiety, and depression among all studied physicians were 2.028 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.892–2.175), 1.103 (95% CI, 1.020–1.193), and 0.716 (95% CI, 0.630–0.813), respectively. All specialties of physicians had significantly higher ORs for treated insomnia; among the highest was the emergency specialty. The adjusted ORs for treated anxiety among male and female physicians were 1.136 (95% CI, 1.039–1.242) and 0.827 (95% CI, 0.686–0.997), respectively. Among specialties, psychiatry and “others” had significantly higher risks of anxiety. Obstetrics and gynecology and surgery specialties had significantly lower risks of anxiety. The adjusted ORs for treated depression among physicians in age groups 35 to 50 years and >50 years were 0.560 (95% CI, 0.459–0.683) and 0.770 (95% CI, 0.619–0.959), respectively. Those in the psychiatry specialty had significantly higher risks of depression; internal and surgery specialties had significant lower

  18. Depression in patients with chronic pain attending a specialised pain treatment centre: prevalence and impact on health care costs.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Lauren; Hotopf, Matthew; Petkova, Hristina; Matcham, Faith; Simpson, Anna; McCracken, Lance M

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and impact of depression on health care costs in patients with complex chronic pain. The sample included 1204 patients attending a tertiary pain management service for people with chronic disabling pain, unresponsive to medical treatment. As part of routine care, patients completed a web-based questionnaire assessing mental and physical health, functioning, and service use in the preceding 3 months. Depression was assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Self-report health care utilisation was measured across 4 domains: general practitioner contacts, contacts with secondary/tertiary care doctors, accident and emergency department visits, and days hospitalised. The participation rate was 89%. Seven hundred and thirty-two patients (60.8%; 95% CI 58.0-63.6) met criteria for probable depression, and 407 (33.8%) met the threshold for severe depression. Patients with depression were more likely to be unable to work because of ill health and reported greater work absence, greater pain-related interference with functioning, lower pain acceptance, and more generalised pain. Mean total health care costs per 3-month period were £731 (95% CI £646-£817) for patients with depression, compared with £448 (95% CI £366-£530) for patients without depression. A positive association between severe depression and total health care costs persisted after controlling for key demographic, functional, and clinical covariates using multiple linear regression models. These findings reveal the extent, severity, and impact of depression in patients with chronic pain and make evident a need for action. Effective treatment of depression may improve patient health and functioning and reduce the burden of chronic pain on health care services. PMID:26963849

  19. Depression in patients with chronic pain attending a specialised pain treatment centre: prevalence and impact on health care costs

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, Lauren; Hotopf, Matthew; Petkova, Hristina; Matcham, Faith; Simpson, Anna; McCracken, Lance M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and impact of depression on health care costs in patients with complex chronic pain. The sample included 1204 patients attending a tertiary pain management service for people with chronic disabling pain, unresponsive to medical treatment. As part of routine care, patients completed a web-based questionnaire assessing mental and physical health, functioning, and service use in the preceding 3 months. Depression was assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Self-report health care utilisation was measured across 4 domains: general practitioner contacts, contacts with secondary/tertiary care doctors, accident and emergency department visits, and days hospitalised. The participation rate was 89%. Seven hundred and thirty-two patients (60.8%; 95% CI 58.0-63.6) met criteria for probable depression, and 407 (33.8%) met the threshold for severe depression. Patients with depression were more likely to be unable to work because of ill health and reported greater work absence, greater pain-related interference with functioning, lower pain acceptance, and more generalised pain. Mean total health care costs per 3-month period were £731 (95% CI £646-£817) for patients with depression, compared with £448 (95% CI £366-£530) for patients without depression. A positive association between severe depression and total health care costs persisted after controlling for key demographic, functional, and clinical covariates using multiple linear regression models. These findings reveal the extent, severity, and impact of depression in patients with chronic pain and make evident a need for action. Effective treatment of depression may improve patient health and functioning and reduce the burden of chronic pain on health care services. PMID:26963849

  20. A pilot randomized controlled trial comparing prenatal yoga to perinatal health education for antenatal depression.

    PubMed

    Uebelacker, Lisa A; Battle, Cynthia L; Sutton, Kaeli A; Magee, Susanna R; Miller, Ivan W

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing a prenatal yoga intervention to perinatal-focused health education in pregnant women with depression. Findings document acceptability and feasibility of the yoga intervention: no yoga-related injuries were observed, instructors showed fidelity to the yoga manual, and women rated interventions as acceptable. Although improvements in depression were not statistically different between groups, they favored yoga. This study provides support for a larger scale RCT examining prenatal yoga to improve mood during pregnancy. PMID:26385456

  1. Association between dental pain and depression in Korean adults using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yang, S E; Park, Y G; Han, K; Min, J A; Kim, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the prevalence of depression and dental pain using a well characterised, nationally representative, population-based study. This study analysed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 4886). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Depression was defined as the participant having been diagnosed as depression during the previous year. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates. Results demonstrated that participants included in 'root canal treatment is necessary' showed higher prevalence of self-reported dental pain; in particular, participants with depression presented more dental pain than those without depression. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-reported dental pain increased in participants with depression. The AOR (95% CI) for having self-reported dental pain was 1·58 (1·08-2·33) in dentists' diagnosis of no dental pain/depression group, 1·62 (1·32-1·98) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/no depression group and 2·84 (1·10-7·37) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/depression group. It was concluded that depression was associated with dental pain after adjustment for potential confounders in Korean adults. Thus, dentists should consider the possible presence of psychopathology when treating patients with dental pain. PMID:26337763

  2. Screening and Referral for Postpartum Depression among Low-Income Women: A Qualitative Perspective from Community Health Workers.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Mogul, Marjie; Newman, Deena; Coyne, James C

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a serious and common psychiatric illness. Mothers living in poverty are more likely to be depressed and have greater barriers to accessing treatment than the general population. Mental health utilization is particularly limited for women with postpartum depression and low-income, minority women. As part of an academic-community partnership, focus groups were utilized to examine staff practices, barriers, and facilitators in mental health referrals for women with depression within a community nonprofit agency serving low-income pregnant and postpartum women. The focus groups were analyzed through content analyses and NVIVO-8. Three focus groups with 16 community health workers were conducted. Six themes were identified: (1) screening and referral, (2) facilitators to referral, (3) barriers to referral, (4) culture and language, (5) life events, and (6) support. The study identified several barriers and facilitators for referring postpartum women with depression to mental health services. PMID:21603131

  3. Predicting the Impact of the 2011 Conflict in Libya on Population Mental Health: PTSD and Depression Prevalence and Mental Health Service Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Charlson, Fiona J.; Steel, Zachary; Degenhardt, Louisa; Chey, Tien; Silove, Derrick; Marnane, Claire; Whiteford, Harvey A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mental disorders are likely to be elevated in the Libyan population during the post-conflict period. We estimated cases of severe PTSD and depression and related health service requirements using modelling from existing epidemiological data and current recommended mental health service targets in low and middle income countries (LMIC’s). Methods Post-conflict prevalence estimates were derived from models based on a previously conducted systematic review and meta-regression analysis of mental health among populations living in conflict. Political terror ratings and intensity of exposure to traumatic events were used in predictive models. Prevalence of severe cases was applied to chosen populations along with uncertainty ranges. Six populations deemed to be affected by the conflict were chosen for modelling: Misrata (population of 444,812), Benghazi (pop. 674,094), Zintan (pop. 40,000), displaced people within Tripoli/Zlitan (pop. 49,000), displaced people within Misrata (pop. 25,000) and Ras Jdir camps (pop. 3,700). Proposed targets for service coverage, resource utilisation and full-time equivalent staffing for management of severe cases of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are based on a published model for LMIC’s. Findings Severe PTSD prevalence in populations exposed to a high level of political terror and traumatic events was estimated at 12.4% (95%CI 8.5–16.7) and was 19.8% (95%CI 14.0–26.3) for severe depression. Across all six populations (total population 1,236,600), the conflict could be associated with 123,200 (71,600–182,400) cases of severe PTSD and 228,100 (134,000–344,200) cases of severe depression; 50% of PTSD cases were estimated to co-occur with severe depression. Based upon service coverage targets, approximately 154 full-time equivalent staff would be required to respond to these cases sufficiently which is substantially below the current level of resource estimates for these regions. Discussion

  4. C-reactive protein gene variants: independent association with late-life depression and circulating protein levels.

    PubMed

    Ancelin, M-L; Farré, A; Carrière, I; Ritchie, K; Chaudieu, I; Ryan, J

    2015-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a heritable biomarker of systemic inflammation that is commonly elevated in depressed patients. Variants in the CRP gene that influence protein levels could thus be associated with depression but this has seldom been examined, especially in the elderly. Depression was assessed in 990 people aged at least 65 years as part of the ESPRIT study. A clinical level of depression (DEP) was defined as having a score of ⩾16 on The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale or a diagnosis of current major depression based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms spanning the CRP gene were genotyped, and circulating levels of high-sensitivity CRP were determined. Multivariable analyses adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, ischemic pathologies, cognitive impairment and inflammation-related chronic pathologies. The minor alleles of rs1130864 and rs1417938 were associated with a decreased risk of depression in women at Bonferroni-corrected significance levels (P=0.002). CRP gene variants were associated with serum levels in a gender-specific manner, but only rs1205 was found to be nominally associated with both an increased risk of DEP and lower circulating CRP levels in women. Variants of the CRP gene thus influence circulating CRP levels and appear as independent susceptibility factors for late-life depression. PMID:25603415

  5. Depression and Risk for Adverse Falls in Older Home Health Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Byers, Amy L.; Sheeran, Thomas; Mlodzianowski, Amy E.; Meyers, Barnett S.; Nassisi, Pamella; Bruce, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    Because falls are highly prevalent, harmful events for older adults, identification of patients at risk is a high priority for home health care agencies. Using routine administrative data, we demonstrated that patients with depressive symptoms on the Outcome and Assessment Information Set are at risk for falls. A prospective case-control study that matched 54 patients who experienced an adverse fall with 854 controls showed that patients who fell had twice the odds of being depressed (odds ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval = 1.01 to 3.59). Bowel incontinence, high medical comorbidity, stair use, injury and poisoning, memory deficit, and antipsychotic medication use were also predictors, but no association was found for antidepressant medications. These data suggest the potential benefit of including depression screening for multifactorial fall prevention interventions. PMID:20077999

  6. Post-conflict mental health needs: a cross-sectional survey of trauma, depression and associated factors in Juba, Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Bayard; Damundu, Eliaba Yona; Lomoro, Olivia; Sondorp, Egbert

    2009-01-01

    Background The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in January 2005 marked the end of the civil conflict in Sudan lasting over 20 years. The conflict was characterised by widespread violence and large-scale forced migration. Mental health is recognised as a key public health issue for conflict-affected populations. Studies revealed high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst populations from Southern Sudan during the conflict. However, no studies have been conducted on mental health in post-war Southern Sudan. The objective of this study was to measure PTSD and depression in the population in the town of Juba in Southern Sudan; and to investigate the association ofdemographic, displacement, and past and recent trauma exposure variables, on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Methods A cross-sectional, random cluster survey with a sample of 1242 adults (aged over 18 years) was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Levels of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (original version), and levels of depression measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the association ofdemographic, displacement and trauma exposure variables on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression was also conducted to investigate which demographic and displacement variables were associated with exposure to traumatic events. Results Over one third (36%) of respondents met symptom criteria for PTSD and half (50%) of respondents met symptom criteria for depression. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed strong associations of gender, marital status, forced displacement, and trauma exposure with outcomes of PTSD and depression. Men, IDPs, and refugees and persons displaced more than once were all significantly more likely to have experienced eight or more traumatic events. Conclusion

  7. Beyond “somatization” and “psychologization”: symptom-level variation in depressed Han Chinese and Euro-Canadian outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Dere, Jessica; Sun, Jiahong; Zhao, Yue; Persson, Tonje J.; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yao, Shuqiao; Bagby, R. Michael; Ryder, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    The finding that people of Chinese heritage tend to emphasize somatic rather than psychological symptoms of depression has frequently been discussed in the culture and mental health literature since the 1970s. Recent studies have confirmed that Chinese samples report more somatic and fewer psychological depression symptoms compared to “Western” samples. The question remains, however, as to whether or not these effects are attributable to variation in all the constituent symptoms or to a subset. If the latter, there is the additional possibility that some symptoms might show a divergent pattern. Such findings would have implications for how cultural variations in symptom presentation are interpreted, and would also inform the cultural study of affective experiences more broadly. The current study addressed these issues in Chinese (n = 175) and Euro-Canadian (n = 107) psychiatric outpatients originally described by Ryder et al. (2008). Differential item functioning (DIF) was used to examine whether specific somatic and psychological symptoms diverged from the overall patterns of cultural variation. Chi-square analyses were used to examine atypical somatic symptoms (e.g., hypersomnia), previously neglected in this literature. No DIF was observed for the typical somatic symptoms, but Euro-Canadians reported greater levels of atypical somatic symptoms, and showed higher rates of atypical depression. DIF was observed for psychological symptoms—the Chinese reported high levels of “suppressed emotions” and “depressed mood,” relative to their overall psychological symptom reporting. Chinese outpatients also spontaneously reported “depressed mood” at similar levels as the Euro-Canadians, contrary to prevailing ideas about Chinese unwillingness to discuss depression. Overall, the findings provide a more nuanced picture of how culture shapes symptom presentation and point toward future studies designed to unpack cultural variation in narrower subsets of

  8. Pesticide Exposure and Depression among Male Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Umbach, David M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pesticide exposure may be positively associated with depression. Few previous studies have considered the episodic nature of depression or examined individual pesticides. Objective: We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and depression among male private pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods: We analyzed data for 10 pesticide classes and 50 specific pesticides used by 21,208 applicators enrolled in 1993–1997 who completed a follow-up telephone interview in 2005–2010. We divided applicators who reported a physician diagnosis of depression (n = 1,702; 8%) into those who reported a previous diagnosis of depression at enrollment but not follow-up (n = 474; 28%), at both enrollment and follow-up (n = 540; 32%), and at follow-up but not enrollment (n = 688; 40%) and used polytomous logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for the exclusion of 3,315 applicators with missing covariate data and 24,619 who did not complete the follow-up interview. Results: After weighting for potential confounders, missing covariate data, and dropout, ever-use of two pesticide classes, fumigants and organochlorine insecticides, and seven individual pesticides—the fumigants aluminum phosphide and ethylene dibromide; the phenoxy herbicide (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4,5-T); the organochlorine insecticide dieldrin; and the organophosphate insecticides diazinon, malathion, and parathion—were all positively associated with depression in each case group, with ORs between 1.1 and 1.9. Conclusions: Our study supports a positive association between pesticide exposure and depression, including associations with several specific pesticides. Citation: Beard JD, Umbach DM, Hoppin JA, Richards M, Alavanja MCR, Blair A, Sandler DP, Kamel F. 2014. Pesticide exposure and depression among male private pesticide applicators in the

  9. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Male Veterans and Non-Veterans: The Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Christine E.; Rideaux, Tiffany; Spira, Adam P.; Beaudreau, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether Veteran status was associated with elevated depression and anxiety symptoms in men aged 50 and older after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Methods Participants were 6,577 men aged 50 years and older who completed the 2006 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Forty-nine percent of participants were Veterans. A randomly selected subset of participants completed the HRS Psychosocial Questionnaire (N = 2,957), which contained the anxiety items. Elevated depression and anxiety symptoms were determined based on brief versions of Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression Scale (CES-D total score ≥ 4) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI total score ≥ 12). Results Elevated depression and anxiety symptoms were found in 11.0% and 9.9% of Veterans, respectively, compared with 12.8% and 12.3% of non-Veterans. Veteran status was not associated with increased odds of anxiety or depression symptoms in the multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses. Additional analyses indicated that Vietnam War Veterans were more than twice as likely as World War II or Korean War Veterans to have elevated depression symptoms (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.54–3.00) or anxiety symptoms (OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.28–3.51). Conclusions In a community-based sample of men aged 50 and older, Veteran status was not associated with the presence of elevated depression and anxiety symptoms. Rather, these symptoms were associated with age, ethnicity, education, and medical conditions. Among Veterans, cohort effects accounted for differences in psychiatric symptoms. Including younger cohorts from the Global War on Terror may yield different results in future studies. PMID:25145943

  10. Low Serum Levels of Uric Acid are Associated With Development of Poststroke Depression

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yingying; Han, Bin; Wang, Liping; Chang, Yaling; Zhu, Lin; Ren, Wenwei; Yan, Mengjiao; Zhang, Xiangyang; He, Jincai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Poststroke depression (PSD) is a frequent complication of stroke that has been associated with poorer outcome of stroke patients. This study sought to examine the possible association between serum uric acid levels and the development of PSD. We recruited 196 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 100 healthy volunteers. Serum uric acid levels were tested by uricase-PAP method within 24 hr after admission. Neuropsychological evaluations were conducted at 3-month poststroke. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale was used to assess depressive symptoms. Diagnosis of PSD was made in accordance with DSM-IV criteria for depression. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression models. Fifty-six patients (28.6%) were diagnosed as having PSD at 3 months. PSD patients showed significantly lower levels of uric acid at baseline as compared to non-PSD patients (237.02 ± 43.43 vs 309.10 ± 67.44 μmol/L, t = −8.86, P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, uric acid levels (≤239.0 and ≥328.1 μmol/L) were independently associated with the development of PSD (OR, 7.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.56–23.47, P < 0.001 and OR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01–0.43, P = 0.01, respectively) after adjustment for possible variables. Serum uric acid levels at admission are found to be correlated with PSD and may predict its development at 3 months after stroke. PMID:26559256

  11. Reported parental characteristics in relation to trait depression and anxiety levels in a non-clinical group.

    PubMed

    Parker, G

    1979-09-01

    Care and overprotection appear to reflect the principal dimensions underlying parental behaviours and attitudes. In previous studies of neurotically depressed patients and of a non-clinical group, subjects who scored their parents as lacking in care and/or overprotective had the greater depressive experience. The present study of another non-clinical group (289 psychology students) replicated those findings in regard to trait depression levels. In addition, associations between those parental dimensions and trait anxiety scores were demonstrated. Multiple regression analyses established that 9-10% of the variance in mood scores was accounted for by scores on those parental dimensions. Low maternal care scores predicted higher levels of both anxiety and depression, while high maternal overprotection scores predicted higher levels of anxiety but not levels of depression. Maternal influences were clearly of greater relevance than paternal influences. PMID:293182

  12. Prepregnancy Depressive Symptoms and Preterm Birth in the Black Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Ghasi S.; Wise, Lauren A.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To examine the association between prepregnancy depressive symptoms and preterm birth. METHODS The present study is a prospective investigation of prepregnancy depressive symptoms—measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)—and risk of preterm birth reported in the Black Women’s Health Study. With data on 2,627 singleton births (175 spontaneous and 163 medically-indicated preterm births and 2,289 term births), we used generalized estimating equation models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS Relative to mothers with CES-D scores <16, the multivariable ORs of spontaneous preterm birth for mothers with CES-D scores of 16-22, 23-32, and ≥33 were 1.17 (95% CI=0.78-1.80), 1.20 (95% CI=0.69-2.10), and 2.00 (95% CI=0.94-4.25), respectively (P-trend=0.09). There was little evidence of an association between prepregnancy depressive symptoms and medically-indicated preterm birth. CONCLUSIONS Our data provide some evidence of an increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth among women with high prepregnancy depressive symptoms. PMID:20006271

  13. Pediatricians’ and health visitors’ views towards detection and management of maternal depression in the context of a weak primary health care system: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study’s aim has been to investigate, identify and interpret the views of pediatric primary healthcare providers on the recognition and management of maternal depression in the context of a weak primary healthcare system. Methods Twenty six pediatricians and health visitors were selected by using purposive sampling. Face to face in-depth interviews of approximately 45 minutes duration were conducted. The data were analyzed by using the framework analysis approach which includes five main steps: familiarization, identifying a thematic framework, indexing, charting, mapping and interpretation. Results Fear of stigmatization came across as a key barrier for detection and management of maternal depression. Pediatric primary health care providers linked their hesitation to start a conversation about depression with stigma. They highlighted that mothers were not receptive to discussing depression and accepting a referral. It was also revealed that the fragmented primary health care system and the lack of collaboration between health and mental health services have resulted in an unfavorable situation towards maternal mental health. Conclusions Even though pediatricians and health visitors are aware about maternal depression and the importance of maternal mental health, however they fail to implement detection and management practices successfully. The inefficiently decentralized psychiatric services but also stigmatization and misconceptions about maternal depression have impeded the integration of maternal mental health into primary care and prevent pediatric primary health care providers from implementing detection and management practices. PMID:24725738

  14. Disentangling the directions of associations between structural social capital and mental health: Longitudinal analyses of gender, civic engagement and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Landstedt, Evelina; Almquist, Ylva B; Eriksson, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2016-08-01

    The present paper analysed the directions of associations between individual-level structural social capital, in the form of civic engagement, and depressive symptoms across time from age 16-42 years in Swedish men and women. More specifically, we asked whether civic engagement was related to changes in depressive symptoms, if it was the other way around, or whether the association was bi-directional. This longitudinal study used data from a 26-year prospective cohort material of 1001 individuals in Northern Sweden (482 women and 519 men). Civic engagement was measured by a single-item question reflecting the level of engagement in clubs/organisations. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a composite index. Directions of associations were analysed by means of gender-separate cross-lagged structural equation models. Models were adjusted for parental social class, parental unemployment, parental health, and family type at baseline (age 16). Levels of both civic engagement and depressive symptoms were relatively stable across time. The model with the best fit to data showed that, in men, youth civic engagement was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in adulthood, thus supporting the hypothesis that involvement in social networks promotes health, most likely through provision of social and psychological support, perceived influence, and sense of belonging. Accordingly, interventions to promote civic engagement in young men could be a way to prevent poor mental health for men later on in life. No cross-lagged effects were found among women. We discuss this gender difference in terms of gendered experiences of civic engagement which in turn generate different meanings and consequences for men and women, such as civic engagement not being as positive for women's mental health as for that of men. We conclude that theories on structural social capital and interventions to facilitate civic engagement for health promoting purposes need to acknowledge gendered life

  15. Depression Screening in Chronic Disease Management: A Worksite Health Promotion Initiative.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Elizabeth; Dumas, Bonnie P; Edlund, Barbara J

    2016-03-01

    This pilot project aimed to improve depression symptoms and quality-of-life measures for individuals in a worksite disease management program. Two hundred forty-three individuals were invited to participate, out of which 69 enrolled. The participants had a history of diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia, and demonstrated depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). The project consisted of counseling sessions provided every 2 to 4 weeks by a family nurse practitioner. PHQ-9 scores and those of an instrument that measures quality of life, the Veteran's Rand-12 (VR-12), were compared pre-intervention and post-intervention to evaluate the effectiveness of the project. PHQ-9 and VR-12 Mental Health Component (MHC) scores improved significantly after 3 months of nurse practitioner-led individual counseling sessions. This project demonstrated that depression screening and therapeutic management, facilitated by a nurse practitioner, can improve depression and perceived quality of life in individuals with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or type 2 diabetes. PMID:26458410

  16. Association of hormonal contraceptive use with reduced levels of depressive symptoms: a national study of sexually active women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Katherine M; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Westhoff, Carolyn; Heim, Christine M; Haloossim, Michelle; Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan

    2013-11-01

    An estimated 80% of sexually active young women in the United States use hormonal contraceptives during their reproductive years. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and mood disturbances remain understudied, despite the hypothesis that estrogen and progesterone play a role in mood problems. In this study, we used data from 6,654 sexually active nonpregnant women across 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-2008), focusing on women aged 25-34 years. Women were asked about hormonal contraceptive use in the context of a current sexual partnership; thus, contraceptive users were compared with other sexually active women who were using either nonhormonal contraception or no contraception. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. At ages 25-34 years, hormonal contraceptive users had lower mean levels of concurrent depressive symptoms (β = -1.04, 95% confidence interval: -1.73, -0.35) and were less likely to report a past-year suicide attempt (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.14, 0.95) than women using low-efficacy contraception or no contraception, in models adjusted for propensity scores for hormonal contraceptive use. Longitudinal analyses indicated that associations between hormonal contraception and depressive symptoms were stable. Hormonal contraception may reduce levels of depressive symptoms among young women. Systematic investigation of exogenous hormones as a potential preventive factor in psychiatric epidemiology is warranted. PMID:24043440

  17. Affects of Anxiety and Depression on Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients with Benign Breast Lumps Diagnosed via Ultrasonography in China

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Zhe; Li, Yinyan; Yang, Yilong; Wang, Lie; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    There is a high incidence of benign breast lumps among women, and these lumps may lead to physical and psychological problems. This study aims to evaluate anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with benign breast lumps diagnosed via ultrasonography and investigate their impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shenyang, China, from January to November 2013. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires, including the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), together with demographic characteristics, from patients of the Department of Breast Surgery of the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (HMR) was performed to explore the effects of anxiety and depression on HRQOL. The overall prevalences of anxiety (SAS score ≥ 40) and depression (CES-D scores ≥ 16) were 40.2% and 62.0%, respectively, and 37.5% of the participants had both of these psychological symptoms. The means and standard deviations of PCS and MCS were 75.42 (15.22) and 68.70 (17.71), respectively. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were significantly negatively associated with the HRQOL of patients with benign breast lumps diagnosed via ultrasonography. Women with benign breast lumps diagnosed via ultrasonography in China experienced relatively high levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Anxiety and depressive symptoms had significant negative impacts on both the mental and physical quality of life (QOL) of women with benign breast lumps. Beyond the necessary clinical treatment procedures, psychological guidance and detailed explanations of the disease should be offered to alleviate the anxiety and depressive symptoms and enhance the HRQOL of patients with benign breast lumps. PMID:26343700

  18. Clinical, Functional and Health-Related Quality of Life Correlates of Clinically Significant Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Christelle; Ranque, Brigitte; Baubet, Thierry; Bérezné, Alice; Mestre-Stanislas, Caroline; Rannou, François; Papelard, Agathe; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Revel, Michel; Moro, Marie-Rose; Guillevin, Loïc; Poiraudeau, Serge; Mouthon, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify clinical, functional and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) correlates of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods Three-hundred-and-eighty-one patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology and/or the Leroy and Medsger criteria for SSc were assessed for visceral involvement, disability and HRQoL (assessed by SF-36). Clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HAD) (defined cut-off≥8). Results 9.2% the patients had limited SSc, 50.5% limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc), and 40.3% diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc). Overall, 40.4% and 58.8% of the patients had clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of depression, patients with clinically significant symptoms of depression had poorer health status, HRQoL mental and physical component, and greater global disability, hand disability and aesthetic impairment. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of anxiety, patients with clinically significant symptoms of anxiety had poorer SF-36 mental and physical component scores. On multivariable analysis, excluding mental component score of SF-36, variables independently associated with clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety were global disability and physical component of SF-36, plus female gender for clinically significant symptoms of anxiety only. Remarkably, patients with and without clinically significant psychiatric symptoms were comparable for all disease-related clinical features assessed. Conclusion High levels of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression are observed among SSc patients. Clinically significant psychiatric symptoms are rather associated with increased disability and altered HRQoL, than with disease-specific organ manifestations. PMID

  19. Perceptions of Depression and Access to Mental Health Care Among Latino Immigrants: Looking Beyond One Size Fits All.

    PubMed

    Martinez Tyson, Dinorah; Arriola, Nora B; Corvin, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    Compared with non-Latino Whites, Latino immigrants have a lower prevalence of depression. However, they are also less likely to seek professional mental health services. Our objective was to compare and contrast perceptions of depression and access to mental health care among four of the largest Latino immigrant subgroups in Florida (Puerto Rican, Cuban, Mexican, and Colombian). We conducted a total of 120 interviews (30 men and women from each subgroup). Thematic analysis of qualitative data revealed that participants across the four groups were aware of the signs and symptoms of depression and had similar perceptions of depression. However, notable differences by subgroup emerged with regard to perceptions of access to mental health care. We suggest that the variation stems from differences in life experiences and the immigration context. Understanding the variances and nuances of Latino immigrants' cultural construction of depression and immigration experience will enable practitioners to better serve this community. PMID:26035855

  20. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and Alzheimer's disease: towards an omega-3 index for mental health?

    PubMed

    Milte, Catherine M; Sinn, Natalie; Howe, Peter R C

    2009-10-01

    Interest in the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly long-chain (LC) omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs, in mental health is increasing. This review investigates whether n-3 PUFA levels are abnormal in people with three prevalent mental health problems - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and dementia. Data sources included PubMed, Web of Science, and bibliographies of papers published in English that describe PUFA levels in the circulation of individuals who have these mental health conditions. Although abnormal blood PUFA levels were reported in a number of studies, weighted comparisons of PUFA status showed no significant differences overall between people with mental health problems and controls. Whether those with low n-3 PUFA status are likely to be more responsive to n-3 PUFA supplementation is not yet resolved. Further studies assessing PUFA levels and mental status with greater uniformity are required in order to clarify the relationship between LC n-3 PUFA status and mental health. PMID:19785689

  1. Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

  2. Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

  3. Platelet hyperactivity, neurobehavioral symptoms and depression among Indian women chronically exposed to low level of arsenic.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bidisha; Bindhani, Banani; Saha, Hirak; Sinha, Dona; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of neurobehavioral symptoms (NBS) and depression has been investigated in premenopausal rural women of West Bengal, India enrolled from arsenic (As) endemic (groundwater As 11-50 μg/L; n = 342) and control areas (As level ≤ 10 μg/L; n = 312). The subjective symptoms questionnaire and Beck's 21-point depression inventory-II were used for the detection of NBS and depression, respectively. Platelet P-selectin expression was measured by flow cytometry, plasma neurotransmitter activity with high performance liquid chromatography and groundwater As level by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The As level in groundwater was 2.72 ± 1.18 μg/L in control and 28.3 ± 13.51 μg/L in endemic areas (p < 0.0001). Women residing in endemic areas demonstrated a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms (39.8 vs. 19.9%, p < 0.001) and anxiety (43.3 vs. 18.0% in control, p < 0.001), fatigue (68.4 vs. 23.4%, p < 0.0001), reduced sense of taste (15.8 vs. 4.5%, p<0.0001) and smell (14.9 vs. 5.8%, p < 0.001); burning sensation (36.8 vs. 5.4%, p < 0.0001) and tingling or numbness in the extremities (25.1 vs. 5.1%, p < 0.0001); and transient loss of memory (69.9 vs. 28.2%, p < 0.001). As-exposed women had 1.6-times more plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine (p < 0.05), 1.8-times higher level plasma serotonin with 28.9% lower intraplatelet serotonin (p < 0.05 for both), but their plasma dopamine level was not significantly different (p>0.05) from that of controls. Moreover, women from endemic areas had 2.3-times more P-selectin-expressing platelets in their circulation (p < 0.001). After controlling the potential confounders, chronic low level As (11-50 μg/L) exposure showed a positive association with the prevalence of neurobehavioral symptoms and depression among Indian women in their child-bearing age. PMID:25451969

  4. Glucose metabolism in the amygdala in depression: relationship to diagnostic subtype and plasma cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Drevets, Wayne C; Price, Joseph L; Bardgett, Mark E; Reich, Theodore; Todd, Richard D; Raichle, Marcus E

    2002-03-01

    In a previous positron emission tomography (PET) study of major depression, we demonstrated that cerebral blood flow was increased in the left amygdala in unipolar depressives with familial pure depressive disease (FPDD) relative to healthy controls [J. Neurosci. 12 (1992) 3628.]. These measures were obtained from relatively low-resolution PET images using a stereotaxic method based upon skull X-ray landmarks. The current experiments aimed to replicate and extend these results using higher-resolution glucose metabolism images and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. The specificity of this finding to FPDD was also investigated by assessing depressed samples with bipolar disorder (BD-D) and depression spectrum disease (DSD). Finally, the relationship between amygdala metabolism and plasma cortisol levels obtained during the scanning procedure was assessed. Glucose metabolism was measured using PET and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) in healthy control (n=12), FPDD (n=12), DSD (n=9) and BD-D (n=7) samples in the amygdala and the adjacent hippocampus. The left amygdala metabolism differed across groups (P<.001), being increased in both the FPDD and BD-D groups relative to the control group. The left amygdala metabolism was positively correlated with stressed plasma cortisol levels in both the unipolar (r=.69; P<.005) and the bipolar depressives (r=0.68;.1

  5. Coping with Health Stresses and Remission from Late-Life Depression in Primary Care: A Two-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Meredith L.; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Houck, Patricia R.; Frank, Ellen; Alexopoulos, George S.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Schulz, Richard

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Identifying predictors of late-life depression that are amenable to change may lead to interventions that result in better and faster remission. Thus, authors investigated the impact of two different strategies for coping with physical illness on depression in older, primary care patients. Health-oriented goal engagement strategies involve the investment of cognitive and behavioral resources to achieve health goals. Conversely, disengagement strategies involve the withdrawal of these resources from obsolete or unattainable health goals, combined with goal restructuring. METHODS Participants were 271 adults aged >59 who took part in a two-year randomized clinical trial for treating depression in the elderly (PROSPECT -- Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial). The use of engagement and disengagement strategies, along with other risk factors for depression, were included in a tree-structured survival analysis to identify subgroups of individuals at risk for not achieving depression remission. RESULTS Greater use of disengagement strategies predicted earlier remission of depression, particularly among more severely depressed elderly. Use of engagement strategies did not predict earlier remission. CONCLUSION Interventions that encourage disengagement from unattainable health goals may promote remission from depression in older, primary care patients. PMID:21452177

  6. A Little Bit of the Blues: Low-Level Symptoms of Maternal Depression and Classroom Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola Allison; Swindle, Taren; McKelvey, Lorraine; Bokony, Patti

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low-level depressive symptoms in mothers and teacher-reported child behavioral outcomes. Participants included 442 low-income mothers of preschool-age children who were screened for maternal depression by their child's preschool teacher. Teacher reports of…

  7. Making up Is Hard to Do, Especially for Mothers with High Levels of Depressive Symptoms and Their Infant Sons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katherine Weinberg, M.; Olson, Karen L.; Beeghly, Marjorie; Tronick, Edward Z.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to evaluate the interactions of mothers with normative or high levels of depressive symptomatology on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and their 3-month-old infants. Although successful mutual regulation of affect is critical to children's socio-emotional development, little is…

  8. [Health levels in San Andres Cholula].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Martinez, A; Corro Fernandez, G; Balmaceda, M

    1991-12-01

    In matters of health and curing, the community of San Andres Cholula in Puebla, Mexico, demonstrates a syncretism similar to religious syncretism. Perspectives on illness and health consistent with the traditional medical practices of curanderos coexist with modern medical practices. Curanderos and physicians often treat the same patients. A curandero's powers are viewed as a special gift transmitted by God or the saints during a dream. The curandero effects a cure not only through knowledge of the medicinal plants, rites, and ceremonies, but by understanding the context of the patient. The Western medical concept of disease emphasizes a biological model and technological control, to the detriment of mental, behavioral, and social factors and determinants. The traditional medical concept stresses the relationship of the individual to the social and ecological environment. Improvements in life expectancy in the developing countries in recent years have been attributed to improved levels of living or to importation of vaccination programs, antibiotics, and similar technologies from the developed countries. The vital register of San Andres Cholula records many deaths whose cause cannot be easily interpreted according to the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases. It is clear, however, that the root cause of many deaths is malnutrition. The proportion of deaths caused by infectious diseases has declined in Mexico since 1940, but Puebla is still included among the states with the highest incidence. There are great regional and rural-urban mortality differentials in Mexico. In the past 50 years, the infant mortality rate has declined from 250 to 40/1000 live births in San Andres Cholula, more as a result of vaccination campaigns than of improved levels of living. 89% of children have been vaccinated, but the population still lives in about the same state of material comfort as it has for generations except that most households have televisions

  9. Lack of association of acute phase response proteins with hormone levels and antidepressant medication in perimenopausal depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depression is associated with higher plasma levels of positive acute-phase proteins, as well as with lower plasma levels of negative acute-phase proteins. The aim of this study is to examine the levels of acute-phase response proteins and whether these levels are influenced by reproductive hormones and antidepressant medication in the perimenopausal depression. Methods Sixty-five women (age range: 40–58 years old) participated in this study. All women were in the perimenopausal phase. The diagnosis of depression was made through a psychiatric interview and with the aid of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17 (HAM-D 17). The acute-phase response proteins, such as haptoglobin (HP), transferrine (TRf), α1-antitrypsin, complement protein 3 (C3), complement protein 4 (C4) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and the reproductive hormones, for example follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E2), were analyzed using standard laboratory methods. Pearson’s correlations were applied to evaluate the relationship between acute-phase proteins and hormones. Results Perimenopausal women were divided into three groups. The first group consisted of normal controls, the second one involved depressed perimenopausal women, who were taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and the third one included depressed women that were not treated with SSRIs. Depressed women in perimenopause, when being compared to non-depressed women, did not differ as to serum levels of acute-phase proteins. There was a positive correlation between HP and E2 in depressed perimenopausal women, who were not taking SSRIs. Conclusions The lack of association between acute-phase proteins and depressive mood mentioned in this study does not support previous findings in patients with major depression. This negative finding in perimenopausal depression indicates either the absence or a more complex nature of the interactions between acute-phase proteins

  10. Health Related Quality of Life, Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Patients with Beta-Thalassemia Major

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Hajbaghery, M; Ahmadi, M; S, Poormansouri

    2015-01-01

    Background Awareness of factors associated with quality of life (QOL) in patients with beta-Thalassemia major (β-TM) is necessary to develop clinical programs in order to improve social support and QOL in β-TM patients. This study aimed to examine QoL, depression, anxiety, and stress in β-TM patients in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on173 β-TM patients aged ≥12 years (12-18=55, ≥19=118). Subjects were selected using a census method. Data collection instrument consisted of three parts including: demographic questions, SF-36 questionnaire and depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DAS-21). Results The participants obtained a mean score of 64.38±18.20 for QOL, 6.4±5.1 for depression, 4.8±3.9 for anxiety, and 7.3±4.9 for stress. Significant relationship was found between QOL and employment (P=0.02) and education level (P<0.001). Patients in the age group of 12-18 years old had higher mean scores in the majority of QoL dimensions than those aged ≤19. The mean scores of depression, anxiety, and stress were higher in patients aged ≤19. No significant correlation was observed between QOL and depression, anxiety, stress scores, and other demographic variables. Moreover, a significant inverse correlation was found between QOL and depression (P<0.001,r= -0.62), anxiety (P<0.001,r= -0.55), and stress scores (P<0.001, r= -0.5) . Conclusion This study showed that β-TM patients experienced a considerable decrease both in their overall QoL and in its dimensions. A majority of the β-TM patients were also suffered from mild to severe depression, anxiety, and stress. PMID:26985352

  11. Cognitive representations (Metaphorical Conceptualizations) of past, future, joy, sadness and happiness in depressive and non-depressive subjects: cognitive distortions in depression at the level of notion.

    PubMed

    Bartczak, Marlena; Bokus, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to see if and how the intensity of depression correlates with the cognitive representation of notions, and if any influence is reversed during remission. The cognitive representation indices used were the valence and number of metaphors produced for a notion. Three adult groups took part: persons with depression ([Formula: see text]), persons in remission ([Formula: see text]), and a control group ([Formula: see text]). Five notions were considered: PAST, FUTURE, JOY, SADNESS, and HAPPINESS. The Questionnaire of the Metaphorical Conceptualization of a Notion was used. The results showed that (a) depressive subjects did not have problems with metaphorical processing, (b) depressive subjects demonstrated strong interpretational negativism, (c) subjects during remission did not present distorted conceptual processing. The results are discussed in the context of theories of automatic metaphor processing, and conceptions of cognitive depressive distortions, in tasks requiring effort and substantial involvement of cognitive resources. PMID:24510583

  12. Assessing mental health literacy: What medical sciences students’ know about depression

    PubMed Central

    Sayarifard, Azadeh; Ghadirian, Laleh; Mohit, Ahmad; Eftekhar, Mehrdad; Badpa, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health literacy is an individual’s knowledge and belief about mental disorders which aid their recognition, management and prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate mental health literacy among students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data were collected by the anonymous self-administered questionnaires and finally 324 students participated in the study. Random cluster sampling was used. Questions were in different areas of the mental health literacy for depression include recognition of disorder, intended actions to seek help and perceived barriers, beliefs about interventions, prevention, stigmatization and impact of media. T-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean (±SD) age was 23.5±2.8. The participants were 188 (58.1%) females and 136 (41.9%) males. In response to the recognition of the disorder 115 (35.6%) students mentioned the correct answer. In help-seeking area, 208 (64.3%) gave positive answer. The majority of affected students sought for help from their friends and parents. Stigma was the greatest barrier for seeking help. Television and Internet were the most common sources of information related to mental health. Conclusion: Generally students’ mental health literacy on depression was low in some areas. Appropriate educational programs specifically for reducing mental disorders stigma seems necessary. Organizing networks of co-helper students for mental health could be considered. PMID:26000256

  13. Adequacy of Mental Health Services for HIV-Positive Patients with Depression: Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Stephanie K. Y.; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John; Gardner, Sandra; Collins, Evan J.; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depression can profoundly impact clinical and quality-of-life outcomes of people living with HIV, and this disease is underdiagnosed and undertreated in many HIV-positive individuals. Here, we describe the prevalence of publicly funded primary and secondary mental health service use and antidepressant use, as well as mental health care for depression in accordance with existing Canadian guidelines for HIV-positive patients with depression in Ontario, Canada. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study linking data from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study with administrative health databases in the province of Ontario, Canada. Current depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize prevalence outcomes. Results Of 990 HIV-positive patients with depression, 493 (50%) patients used mental health services; 182 (18%) used primary services (general practitioners); 176 (18%) used secondary services (psychiatrists); and 135 (14%) used both. Antidepressants were used by 407 (39%) patients. Patients who identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, as having low income or educational attainment, or as non-native English speakers or immigrants to Canada were less likely to obtain care. Of 493 patients using mental health services, 250 (51%) received mental health care for depression in accordance with existing Canadian guidelines. Conclusions Our results showed gaps in delivering publicly funded mental health services to depressed HIV-positive patients and identified unequal access to these services, particularly among vulnerable groups. More effective mental health policies and better access to mental health services are required to address HIV-positive patient needs and reduce depression’s impact on their lives. PMID:27280751

  14. Increased Serum Levels of Oxytocin in ‘Treatment Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TRDIA)’ Group

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kenji; Oda, Yasunori; Ishima, Tamaki; Yakita, Madoka; Kurata, Tsutomu; Kunou, Masaru; Takahashi, Jumpei; Kamata, Yu; Kimura, Atsushi; Niitsu, Tomihisa; Komatsu, Hideki; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Shiina, Akihiro; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Shimizu, Eiji; Iyo, Masaomi

    2016-01-01

    Objective ‘Treatment-resistant depression’ is depression that does not respond to an adequate regimen of evidence-based treatment. Treatment-resistant depression frequently becomes chronic. Children with treatment-resistant depression might also develop bipolar disorder (BD). The objective of this study was to determine whether serum levels of oxytocin (OXT) in treatment-resistant depression in adolescents (TRDIA) differ from non-treatment-resistant depression in adolescents (non-TRDIA) or controls. We also investigated the relationships between serum OXT levels and the clinical symptoms, severity, and familial histories of adolescent depressive patients. Methods We measured serum OXT levels: TRDIA (n = 10), non-TRDIA (n = 27), and age- and sex- matched, neurotypical controls (n = 25). Patients were evaluated using the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children-Japanese Version (DSRS-C-J). The patients were also assessed retrospectively using the following variables: familial history of major depressive disorder and BD (1st degree or 2nd degree), history of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, recurrent depressive disorder (RDD), history of antidepressant activation. Results Serum levels of OXT among the TRDIA and non-TRDIA patients and controls differed significantly. Interestingly, the rates of a family history of BD (1st or 2nd degree), RDD and a history of antidepressant activation in our TRDIA group were significantly higher than those of the non-TRDIA group. Conclusions Serum levels of OXT may play a role in the pathophysiology of TRDIA. PMID:27536785

  15. Low DHEAS levels are associated with depressive symptoms in elderly Chinese men: results from a large study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Samuel Y S; Leung, Jason C; Kwok, Timothy; Ohlsson, Claes; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Leung, Ping C; Woo, Jean

    2011-11-01

    This study investigated the association between depressive symptoms in elderly Chinese men and the total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulphate (DHEAS), oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels, and the free androgen index. Cross-sectional data from 1147 community-dwelling elderly men, aged 65 and older, were used. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Total testosterone, free testosterone, DHEA, DHEAS, total oestradiol, the free androgen index and SHBG levels were assessed. DHEA was significantly associated with GDS score, and there was a trend towards DHEAS association, but this was not significant (β=-0.110, P=0.015; β=-0.074, P=0.055). However, no association was seen between depressive symptoms and total testosterone levels, free testosterone levels, oestradiol levels or SHBG levels. In terms of the presence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms, there were no statistically significant differences between patients in the lowest quartile of sex steroid hormone levels and those in other quartiles of sex steroid hormone levels. Similarly to Western studies, our study shows that DHEA and DHEAS levels are associated with depressive symptoms. PMID:21874029

  16. Household Food Insufficiency, Financial Strain, Work–Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms in the Working Class: The Work, Family, and Health Network Study

    PubMed Central

    El Ayadi, Alison M.; Tamers, Sara L.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Berkman, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the association of household-level stressors with depressive symptoms among low-wage nursing home employees. Methods. Data were collected in 2006 and 2007 from 452 multiethnic primary and nonprimary wage earners in 4 facilities in Massachusetts. We used logistic regression to estimate the association of depressive symptoms with household financial strain, food insufficiency, and work–family spillover (preoccupation with work-related concerns while at home and vice versa). Results. Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with household financial strain (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 3.21) and food insufficiency (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.10, 4.18). Among primary earners, stratified analyses showed that food insufficiency was associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 3.60; 95% CI = 1.42, 9.11) but financial strain was not. Among nonprimary wage earners, depressive symptoms correlated with financial strain (OR = 3.65; 95% CI = 1.48, 9.01) and work–family spillover (OR = 3.22; 95% CI = 1.11, 9.35). Conclusions. Household financial strain, food insufficiency, and work–family spillover are pervasive problems for working populations, but associations vary by primary wage earner status. The prevalence of food insufficiency among full-time employees was striking and might have a detrimental influence on depressive symptoms and the health of working-class families. PMID:22095360

  17. Understanding Online Health Groups for Depression: Social Network and Linguistic Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental health problems have become increasingly prevalent in the past decade. With the advance of Web 2.0 technologies, social media present a novel platform for Web users to form online health groups. Members of online health groups discuss health-related issues and mutually help one another by anonymously revealing their mental conditions, sharing personal experiences, exchanging health information, and providing suggestions and support. The conversations in online health groups contain valuable information to facilitate the understanding of their mutual help behaviors and their mental health problems. Objective We aimed to characterize the conversations in a major online health group for major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in a popular Chinese social media platform. In particular, we intended to explain how Web users discuss depression-related issues from the perspective of the social networks and linguistic patterns revealed by the members’ conversations. Methods Social network analysis and linguistic analysis were employed to characterize the social structure and linguistic patterns, respectively. Furthermore, we integrated both perspectives to exploit the hidden relations between them. Results We found an intensive use of self-focus words and negative affect words. In general, group members used a higher proportion of negative affect words than positive affect words. The social network of the MDD group for depression possessed small-world and scale-free properties, with a much higher reciprocity ratio and clustering coefficient value as compared to the networks of other social media platforms and classic network models. We observed a number of interesting relationships, either strong correlations or convergent trends, between the topological properties and linguistic properties of the MDD group members. Conclusions (1) The MDD group members have the characteristics of self-preoccupation and negative thought content, according to Beck

  18. Effects of illness representation, perceived quality of information provided by the health-care professional, and perceived social support on depressive symptoms of the caregivers of children with leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bozo, Ozlem; Anahar, Selin; Ateş, Gizem; Etel, Evren

    2010-03-01

    The present study examined the effects of illness representation, perceived quality of information provided by the health-care professional, and perceived social support on the depressive symptoms of the caregivers of children with leukemia. The sample was composed of 71 caregivers of children with leukemia living in Turkey. The obtained data were analyzed by path analysis. The results show that caregivers of children with leukemia experience higher levels of depressive symptoms when they have negative illness representation and lower levels of depressive symptoms when they perceive higher levels of social support. Moreover, they perceive higher social support when they perceive high quality of information provided by health-care professionals. It can be suggested that intervention programs which aim to increase caregivers' social support and change their illness representation in a positive way would be helpful for the caregivers showing depressive symptoms. PMID:19898925

  19. High serum testosterone levels during postpartum period are associated with postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Aswathi, A; Rajendiren, Soundravally; Nimesh, Archana; Philip, R Ravi; Kattimani, Shivanand; Jayalakshmi, D; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Dhiman, Pooja

    2015-10-01

    In view of the reported cases of mood disorders that occur in mothers following childbirth and believing that sex steroid hormones contribute to mood and behavioral changes, this study has been aimed to explore the role of sex steroid hormones as an etiological factor for postpartum depression (PPD). This study was conducted at JIPMER, Puducherry, India between January 2010 and 2011. 103 women were recruited in the study after childbirth, out of which 62 women who were believed to be suffering from PPD were categorized as cases and the remaining 41 with no mood changes as controls, using Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) (cases had EPDS score ≥10 at 24-28h, controls had score <10 at 24-48h postpartum). The hormones estimated in these two groups included estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, and their levels were compared between these two groups. A significantly high testosterone levels were observed in cases with PPD at 24-28h when compared to controls. Estradiol and progesterone levels did not show significant difference between cases and controls. ROC analysis done at 24-28h showed that testosterone levels beyond 42.71ng/mL predict the development of PPD with 79% sensitivity, 63% specificity, 68% positive predictive value, 74% negative predictive value with AUC being 0.708. This study shows that there is an association between persistent high serum testosterone level in women following childbirth and PPD. PMID:26372084

  20. Electroconvulsive therapy improves clinical manifestations of treatment-resistant depression without changing serum BDNF levels.

    PubMed

    Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Curto, Martina; Serata, Daniele; Ferri, Vittoria R; Scatena, Paola; Carbonetti, Paolo; Napoletano, Flavia; Miele, Jessica; Scaccianoce, Sergio; Del Casale, Antonio; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Angeletti, Gloria; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-06-30

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is effective in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). It may act through intracellular process modulation, but its exact mechanism is still unknown. Animal research supports a neurotrophic effect for ECT. We aimed to investigate the association between changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (sBDNF) levels and clinical improvement following ECT in patients with TRD. Twenty-one patients with TRD (2 men, 19 women; mean age, 63.5 years; S.D., 11.9) were assessed through the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and the Clinical Global Impressions scale, Severity (CGIs) before and after a complete ECT cycle. At the same time-points, patients underwent blood withdrawal for measuring sBDNF levels. ECT significantly reduced HDRS, BPRS, and CGIS scores, but not sBDNF levels. No significant correlation was found between sBDNF changes, and each of HDRS, BPRS, and CGIs score changes. sBDNF levels in TRD patients were low both at baseline and post-ECT. Our results do not support that improvements in TRD following ECT are mediated through increases in sBDNF levels. PMID:25910420

  1. Mental Health Literacy in Hmong and Cambodian Elderly Refugees: A Barrier to Understanding, Recognizing, and Responding to Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lytle, Kathy; Yang, Pa Nhia; Lum, Terry

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore mental health literacy, specifically focusing on depression, among Southeast Asian (SEA) elderly refugees residing in the Twin Cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Three focus groups were held with nine mental health professionals who work with SEA elders. Jorm's mental health literacy framework guided the…

  2. Aspects of Suicidal Behavior, Depression, and Treatment in College Students: Results from the Spring 2000 National College Health Assessment Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisch, Jeremy; Leino, E. Victor; Silverman, Morton M.

    2005-01-01

    The National College Health Assessment Survey (NCHA), sponsored by the American College Health Association, measured depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among 15,977 college students in the academic year 1999? 2000. Similar to the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and…

  3. Impact of depressive symptoms and hepatic encephalopathy on health-related quality of life in cirrhotic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Katherine C; Salinas, Lilian M; Sahebjam, Farhad; Jesudian, Arun B; Weisberg, Ilan L; Sigal, Samuel H

    2016-08-01

    Depression, common in chronic medical conditions, and hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a reversible neuropsychiatric syndrome due to liver dysfunction, are associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in cirrhosis and hepatitis C (HCV). This study investigated the impact of depression and HE on HRQOL in cirrhotic patients with HCV. A convenience sample of 43 ambulatory patients, with varying degrees of cirrhosis secondary to HCV, was prospectively enrolled in this study. Participants were assessed for any current depressive, fatigue, and daytime sleepiness symptoms and underwent a psychometric evaluation to determine the presence of HE symptoms. Participants reported current HRQOL on general health and liver disease-specific questionnaires. Diagnosis and current health status were confirmed via medical records. The associations between disease severity, depressive symptoms, HE, fatigue, and daytime sleepiness were measured. Predictors of HRQOL in this sample were determined. Depressive symptoms (70 %) and HE (77 %) were highly prevalent in this sample, with 58 % actively experiencing both conditions at the time of study participation. A significant positive association was found between depressive symptoms and HE severity (P = .05). Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with fatigue (P < .001), daytime sleepiness (P < .001), general HRQOL (P < .001), and disease-specific HRQOL (P < .001). HE was significantly associated with fatigue (P = .02), general HRQOL (P < .001), and disease-specific HRQOL (P < .001). Depressive symptoms and HE were significant predictors of reduced HRQOL (P < .001), with depressive symptoms alone accounting for 58.8 % of the variance. Depressive symptoms and HE accounted for 68.0 % of the variance. Findings suggest a possible pathophysiological link between depression and HE in cirrhosis, and potentially a wider-reaching benefit of treating minimal and overt HE than previously appreciated

  4. The effect of relational continuity of care in maternity and child health clinics on parenting self-efficacy of mothers and fathers with loneliness and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Miia; Junttila, Niina; Ahonen, Pia; Rautava, Päivi

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the parenting self-efficacy of the parents of 18-month-old children in the context of Finnish maternity and child health clinics. This parenting self-efficacy was observed in relation with the relational continuity of care and parents' experienced loneliness and depressive symptoms. The relational continuity of care was provided by a public health nurse in maternity and child health clinics. The participating parents were drawn from the STEPS study that is being carried out by the Institute for Child and Youth Research at the University of Turku. The results showed that relational continuity of care provided by the same public health nurse in the maternity and child health clinics was associated with mothers' higher emotional loneliness and with lower scores on three dimensions of parents' parenting self-efficacy. Loneliness and depressive symptoms negatively influenced parents' parenting self-efficacy - however, in the case where the family had experienced relational continuity of care, the parents' higher levels of depressive symptoms had not weakened their parenting self-efficacy beliefs. These results are discussed in terms of organizing maternity and child health clinic services. PMID:27037491

  5. How important are atmospheric depressions and nocturnal low-level jets for North African dust emission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Stephanie; Schepanski, Kerstin; Knippertz, Peter; Heinold, Bernd; Tegen, Ina

    2014-05-01

    Nocturnal low-level jets (NLLJs) and atmospheric depressions are known to generate wind speeds sufficient for dust emission in North Africa, but their relative importance is not well quantified. This work presents the first climatology of dust emission associated with theses phenomenon based on ERA-Interim data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Depressions are detected as minima in the geopotential height at 925 hPa with a tracking algorithm. NLLJs are identified with a new automated detection algorithm. The results of the identification are connected with dust emissions from a dust model driven by 10m-winds from ERA-Interim. The findings highlight that atmospheric depressions are associated with 55 % of the dust emission in the annual and spatial mean. Regions south of the Atlas Mountains in spring and wide areas of North Africa during summer have contributions of up to 90 %. Lee cyclogenesis causes favourable conditions predominantly in spring while the heat low over West Africa dominates the climatology in summer. Migrating cyclones that live for more than two days are rare and associated with 4 % of the dust emission annually and spatially averaged. Maximum contributions of cyclones to dust emission are 25 % over eastern North Africa in spring. This result suggests that few depressions forming near the Atlas Mountains undergo the development to a long-lived and moving cyclone. Even though their total contribution to dust emission is small, the emission intensity is large. The climatological mean of the emission flux is exceeded by a factor of four to eight during cyclones. The presence of soil moisture during cyclones suppresses 10 % of the dust emission. The daytime fluxes are three to five times larger than at night. NLLJs are wind speed maxima at night that build at a few 100 m above the surface. Annually and spatially averaged, NLLJs form in 29 % of nights. Single regions and seasons, e.g. the Bodélé Depression in winter and the

  6. Effect of Health Comparisons on Functional Health and Depressive Symptoms - Results of a Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Older Adults in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of health comparisons on functional health and depressive symptoms in a longitudinal approach. Gender differences were examined. Methods The German Ageing Survey (DEAS) is a nationwide, representative longitudinal study of community dwelling individuals living in Germany aged 40 and older. The surveys in 2008 and 2011 were used, with n = 3,983 respondents taking part in both waves. Health comparisons were quantified by the question “How would you rate your health compared with other people your age” (Much better; somewhat better; the same; somewhat worse, much worse). Functional health was assessed by the subscale “physical functioning” of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-assessed health, social network, self-efficacy and optimism, and morbidity, fixed effects regressions revealed that functional health decreased significantly and considerably with negative health comparisons in the total sample (transitions from ‘the same’ to ‘much worse’: β = -11.8), predominantly in men. The effects of negative health comparisons (transitions from ‘the same’ to ‘much worse’: β = 4.8) on depressive symptoms were comparable (in terms of significance) to the effects on functional health, with stronger effects in women. Positive comparisons did not affect functional health and depressive symptoms. Conclusion Our findings underline the relevance of negative health comparisons on functional health (men) and depressive symptoms (women). Comparison effects are asymmetric and mostly upwards. PMID:27213731

  7. Neuron-specific enolase levels in drug-naïve young adults with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Carolina David; Molina, Mariane Lopez; Passos, Miguel; Moreira, Fernanda Pedrotti; Bittencourt, Guilherme; de Mattos Souza, Luciano Dias; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Jansen, Karen; Oses, Jean Pierre

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to assess neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels and clinical features in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). This is a cross-sectional study with drug-naïve young adults with MDD (aged 18-29 years). Serum levels of NSE were assessed using the electrochemiluminescence method. MDD diagnosis, suicidal ideation, and time of disease were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS) were used to assess depressive and anxiety symptoms. No relationship was observed between NSE levels and severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms, time of disease, and suicidal ideation. These results suggest that NSE serum levels were not associated with clinical features of MDD among drug-naïve young adults. PMID:27026487

  8. Fatty Acid Blood Levels, Vitamin D Status, Physical Performance, Activity, and Resiliency: A Novel Potential Screening Tool for Depressed Mood in Active Duty Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Barringer, Nicholas D; Kotwal, Russ S; Lewis, Michael D; Funderburk, Leslee K; Elliott, Timothy R; Crouse, Stephen F; Smith, Stephen B; Greenwood, Michael; Kreider, Richard B

    2016-09-01

    This study examined whether blood fatty acid levels, vitamin D status, and/or physical activity are associated with physical fitness scores; a measure of mood, Patient Health Questionnaire-9; and a measure of resiliency, Dispositional Resiliency Scale-15 in active duty Soldiers. 100 active duty males at Fort Hood, Texas, underwent a battery of psychometric tests, anthropometric measurements, and fitness tests, and they also provided fasting blood samples for fatty acid and vitamin D analysis. Pearson bivariate correlation analysis revealed significant correlations among psychometric tests, anthropometric measurements, physical performance, reported physical inactivity (sitting time), and fatty acid and vitamin D blood levels. On the basis of these findings, a regression equation was developed to predict a depressed mood status as determined by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The equation accurately predicted depressed mood status in 80% of our participants with a sensitivity of 76.9% and a specificity of 80.5%. Results indicate that the use of a regression equation may be helpful in identifying Soldiers at higher risk for mental health issues. Future studies should evaluate the impact of exercise and diet as a means of improving resiliency and reducing depressed mood in Soldiers. PMID:27612362

  9. Depression and Health Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Survivors of a Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Battista, Ashley; Godfrey, Celia; Soo, Cheryl; Catroppa, Cathy; Anderson, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is (TBI) a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in youth. Adult survivors of a severe pediatric TBI are vulnerable to global impairments, including greater employment difficulties, poor quality of life (HRQoL) and increased risk of mental health problems. When estimating the health related quality of life in adolescents, the presence of anxiety and depression and the quality of social relationships are important considerations, because adolescents are entrenched in social development during this phase of maturation. The influence of anxiety, depression and loneliness on health related quality of life in adolescent survivors of TBI has not been documented. This pilot study aimed to identify and measure the relationship between anxiety, depression and loneliness and perceived health related quality of life in adolescent survivors of a TBI. Method: mixed method/cohort pilot study (11 adolescents, mild to severe TBI; 9 parents), using self-report and proxy-report measures of anxiety, depression, health related quality of life, loneliness and clinical psychiatric interviews (adolescent only). Results: Self-reported depression was significantly correlated with self-reported HRQoL (rs [11] = −0.88, p<0.001). Age at injury was significantly correlated with self-reported HRQoL (rs [11] = −0.68, p = 0.02). Self-reported depression predicted self-reported HRQoL (R2 = 0.79, F [1, 10] = 33.48, p<0.001), but age at injury did not (R2 = 0.19, F [1, 10] = 2.09, p = 0.18). Conclusions: Our results suggest that depression is a predictor of health related quality of life in youth post-TBI. The possibility of using targeted assessment and therapy for depression post-TBI to improve health related quality of life should be explored. PMID:25010719

  10. Perinatal depression

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Alvarez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Perinatal depression is a common condition with significant adverse maternal, fetal, neonatal, and early childhood outcomes. The perinatal period is an opportune time to screen, diagnose, and treat depression. Improved recognition of perinatal depression, particularly among low-income women, can lead to improved perinatal health outcomes. PMID:26934457

  11. Relation of serum cholesterol, lipid, serotonin and tryptophan levels to severity of depression and to suicide attempts.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Montes, L G; Valles-Sanchez, V; Moreno-Aguilar, J; Chavez-Balderas, R A; García-Marín, J A; Cortés Sotres, J F; Hheinze-Martin, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is a relation to low serum cholesterol, lipoprotein, serotonin or tryptophan levels in patients with depression who have recently attempted suicide. DESIGN: Biochemical and behavioural study. SETTING: Inpatient and outpatient treatment at the Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three patients with a diagnosis of major depressive episode. Eighteen of these patients had attempted suicide in the month before the start of the study; 15 patients had never attempted suicide. OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, serotonin (5-HT) and tryptophan. Scores on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Carroll Depression Rating Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale and Beck Suicide Attempt Severity Scale. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between patients who had attempted suicide and those who had not in terms of serum cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride levels. Serum levels of 5-HT and tryptophan were significantly lower in patients with depression who had a recent suicide attempt than in those patients who had never attempted suicide. A comparison of patients not taking antidepressant medication found serum 5-HT levels to be more than 3 times lower in those patients with a recent suicide attempt than in patients with no history of suicide attempt. CONCLUSIONS: The study found no difference in lipid profiles between patients who had attempted suicide and those who had not. Low serum levels of 5-HT may increase the risk of suicide attempt in patients who are depressed. PMID:11022402

  12. Depression, a Hidden Mental Health Disparity in an Asian Indian Immigrant Community

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Mann, Semran K.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural influences are deeply rooted, and continue to affect the lives of Asian-Indian (AI) immigrants living in Western culture. Emerging literature suggests the powerful nature of traditions and culture on the lives, mental and physical health of AI immigrants, particularly women. The purpose of this study was to explore depression among AI women in Central California (CC). This mixed-methods research was conducted in collaboration with the CC Punjabi community and the support of local religious leaders. All interviews were conducted in Punjabi and English. Whenever possible we utilized validated scales aligned with emerging themes from the qualitative data, which also provided contextualization to survey responses. In all we conducted 11 key informant interviews, four focus groups (n = 47) and a rigorously developed anonymous survey (n = 350). Social dynamics and traditional expectations including gendered roles significantly affected mental health among women participants. Subgroups along the lines of language choice (Punjabi vs. English) experience and report depression differently in part due to the highly stigmatized nature of mental health issues in this model minority community. The findings of this study highlight the importance of utilizing mixed methods to access hard to reach populations regarding sensitive topics such as mental health. PMID:26703654

  13. Depression, a Hidden Mental Health Disparity in an Asian Indian Immigrant Community.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lisa R; Mann, Semran K; Montgomery, Susanne B

    2016-01-01

    Cultural influences are deeply rooted, and continue to affect the lives of Asian-Indian (AI) immigrants living in Western culture. Emerging literature suggests the powerful nature of traditions and culture on the lives, mental and physical health of AI immigrants, particularly women. The purpose of this study was to explore depression among AI women in Central California (CC). This mixed-methods research was conducted in collaboration with the CC Punjabi community and the support of local religious leaders. All interviews were conducted in Punjabi and English. Whenever possible we utilized validated scales aligned with emerging themes from the qualitative data, which also provided contextualization to survey responses. In all we conducted 11 key informant interviews, four focus groups (n = 47) and a rigorously developed anonymous survey (n = 350). Social dynamics and traditional expectations including gendered roles significantly affected mental health among women participants. Subgroups along the lines of language choice (Punjabi vs. English) experience and report depression differently in part due to the highly stigmatized nature of mental health issues in this model minority community. The findings of this study highlight the importance of utilizing mixed methods to access hard to reach populations regarding sensitive topics such as mental health. PMID:26703654

  14. Depression and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death and Coronary Heart Disease in Women: Results from the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Whang, William; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Kroenke, Candyce H.; Glynn, Robert J.; Garan, Hasan; Albert, Christine M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the association between depression and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and cardiac events among individuals without baseline coronary heart disease (CHD). Background Depression is a risk factor for cardiac events and mortality among those with CHD, possibly from arrhythmia. Methods We studied depressive symptoms, and a proxy variable for clinical depression consisting of severe symptoms and/or antidepressant medication use, and their relationship to cardiac events in the Nurses’ Health Study. Questionnaires in 1992, 1996, and 2000 assessed symptoms with the Mental Health Index (MHI-5), and antidepressant use was assessed in 1996 and 2000. Primary endpoints included SCD, fatal CHD, and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI). Results Among 63,469 women without prior CHD/stroke in 1992, 7.9% had MHI-5 scores (<53) previously found to predict clinical depression. Depressive symptoms were associated with CHD events, and the relationship was strongest for fatal CHD, where the association remained significant even after controlling for CHD risk factors (HR=1.49; 95% CI 1.11–2.00 for MHI-5 score<53). In models from 1996 onward, our proxy variable for clinical depression was most associated with SCD in multivariable models (HR=2.33, 95% CI 1.47–3.70), and this risk was primarily due to a specific relationship between antidepressant use and SCD (HR=3.34, 95% CI 2.03–5.50). Conclusions In this cohort of women without baseline CHD, depressive symptoms were associated with fatal CHD, and a measure of clinical depression including antidepressant use was specifically associated with SCD. Although antidepressant use may be a marker of worse depression, its specific association with SCD merits further study. CONDENSED ABSTRACT We prospectively analyzed the association between depression and cardiac events in the Nurses’ Health Study. Symptoms of depression as measured by Mental Health Index (MHI-5) score were directly associated with risk of CHD events

  15. Depressive mood mediates the influence of social support on health-related quality of life in elderly, multimorbid patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not well established how psychosocial factors like social support and depression affect health-related quality of life in multimorbid and elderly patients. We investigated whether depressive mood mediates the influence of social support on health-related quality of life. Methods Cross-sectional data of 3,189 multimorbid patients from the baseline assessment of the German MultiCare cohort study were used. Mediation was tested using the approach described by Baron and Kenny based on multiple linear regression, and controlling for socioeconomic variables and burden of multimorbidity. Results Mediation analyses confirmed that depressive mood mediates the influence of social support on health-related quality of life (Sobel’s p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression showed that the influence of depressive mood (β = −0.341, p < 0.01) on health-related quality of life is greater than the influence of multimorbidity (β = −0.234, p < 0.01). Conclusion Social support influences health-related quality of life, but this association is strongly mediated by depressive mood. Depression should be taken into consideration in research on multimorbidity, and clinicians should be aware of its importance when caring for multimorbid patients. Trial registration ISRCTN89818205 PMID:24708815

  16. Unhealthy lifestyles do not mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status and incident depressive symptoms; The Health ABC study

    PubMed Central

    Groffen, Daniëlle A.I.; Koster, Annemarie; Bosma, Hans; van den Akker, Marjan; Kempen, Gertrudis I.J.M.; van Eijk, Jacques Th M.; van Gool, Coen H.; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Harris, Tamara B.; Rubin, Susan M.; Pahor, Marco; Schulz, Richard; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Perry, Sara E.; Ayonayon, Hilsa N.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    Background The relationship between low socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms is well described, also in older persons. Although studies have found associations between low SES and unhealthy lifestyle factors and between unhealthy lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms, not much is known about unhealthy lifestyles as a potential explanation of socioeconomic differences in depressive symptoms in older persons. Methods To study the independent pathways between SES (education, income, perceived income, and financial assets), lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, and physical activity), and incident depressive symptoms (CES-D 10 and reported use of antidepressant medication), we used 9 years of follow-up data (1997–2007) from 2,694 American black and white participants aged 70–79 from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. At baseline, 12.1% of the study population showed prevalent depressive symptoms, use of antidepressant medication, or treatment of depression in the five years prior to baseline. These persons were excluded from the analyses. Results Over a period of 9 years time, 860 participants (31.9%) developed depressive symptoms. Adjusted hazard ratios for incident depressive symptoms were higher in participants from lower SES groups compared to the highest SES group. The strongest relationships were found for black men. Although unhealthy lifestyle factors were consistently associated with low SES, they were weakly related to incident depressive symptoms. Lifestyle factors did not significantly reduce hazard ratios for depressive symptoms by SES. Conclusion In generally healthy persons aged 70–79 years lifestyle factors do not explain the relationship between SES and depressive symptoms. (250) PMID:23567402

  17. Public health preparedness: a systems‐level approach

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Spencer; Mawji, Al; Shiell, Alan; Noseworthy, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Public health and emergency preparedness have become central concepts in the current restructuring of various regional‐, national‐ and global‐level public health and emergency management agencies and systems. In this article, a glossary of the most important terms and concepts currently pertaining to public health preparedness is provided with a focus on systems‐level and organisational issues. PMID:17372286

  18. Primary Care Patients with Depression Are Less Accepting of Treatment Than Those Seen by Mental Health Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhees, Benjamin W; Cooper, Lisa A; Rost, Kathryn M; Nutting, Paul; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Meredith, Lisa; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Ford, Daniel E

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined whether depressed patients treated exclusively in primary care report less need for care and less acceptability of treatment options than those depressed patients treated in the specialty mental health setting after up to 6 months of treatment. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Forty-five community primary care practices. PARTICIPANTS A total of 881 persons with major depression who had received mental health services in the previous 6 months and who enrolled in 3 of the 4 Quality Improvement for Depression Collaboration Studies. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS Patients were categorized into 1 of 2 groups: 1) having received mental health services exclusively from a primary care provider (45%), or 2) having received any services from a mental health specialist (55%) in the previous 6 months. Compared with patients who received care from mental health specialists, patients who received mental health services exclusively from primary care providers had 2.7-fold the odds (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 4.4) of reporting that no treatment was definitely acceptable and had 2.4-fold the odds (95% CI, 1.5 to 3.9) of reporting that evidence-based treatment options (antidepressant medication) were definitely not acceptable. These results were adjusted for demographic, social/behavioral, depression severity, and economic factors using multiple logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS Patients with depression treated exclusively by primary care providers have attitudes and beliefs more averse to care than those seen by mental health specialists. These differences in attitudes and beliefs may contribute to lower quality depression care observed in comparisons of primary care and specialty mental health providers. PMID:14687257

  19. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Predictors of Mental Health Treatment in Persons with Comorbid Diabetes and Depression.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Jaclynn; Watkins, Daphne C; Bonner, Timethia; Thompson, Terry L

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes and depression are two of the most frequently diagnosed health conditions in the United States and often co-occur. The present study examines racial/ethnic differences in predictors of mental health service use among a national sample of African Americans, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites with a self-reported diabetes and depression diagnosis. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze a cross-sectional sample (N = 3377) of the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. African Americans were less likely to have visited a mental health professional in the last 12 months (odds ratio [OR] = .634, confidence interval [CI] [0.429, 0.911]). Significant odds ratios also uncovered results for the "never married" (OR = 1.737, CI [1.322, 2.281]) category. Also for the entire sample, being 55 years or older (OR = .352, CI [0.234, 0.533]) was found to be strongly associated with mental health service use for individuals with diabetes. Being unemployed or not in the labor force increased the odds of mental health service use in persons with diabetes and depression, whereas having less than a high school diploma or Graduate Equivalency Diploma decreased odds of visits (OR = .611, CI [0.394, 0.945]) as did not having health insurance (OR = .540, CI [0.365, 0.800]). Racial/ethnic variation in mental health service utilization exists among persons with self-reported diabetes and depression. Due to the challenges associated with comorbid depression and diabetes, as well as the impact depression can have on diabetes self-management, it is imperative that more strategies for managing both depression and diabetes be explored. PMID:27215768

  20. Mental health literacy in Hmong and Cambodian elderly refugees: a barrier to understanding, recognizing, and responding to depression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lytle, Kathy; Yang, Pa Nhia; Lum, Terry

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore mental health literacy, specifically focusing on depression, among Southeast Asian (SEA) elderly refugees residing in the Twin Cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Three focus groups were held with nine mental health professionals who work with SEA elders. Jorm's mental health literacy framework guided the study theoretically. For data analysis, grounded theory was employed by utilizing MAX QDA2. Four themes emerged from the analysis: 1) lack of knowledge about specific mental disorders, 2) culture-specific knowledge and beliefs on the causes of depression, 3) lack of awareness about professional help, and 4) cultural attitudes toward seeking mental health services. The findings indicated that cultural beliefs of SEA elders impact their ability to understand, recognize, and respond to depression. Barriers to treatment were identified and recommendations were made to reduce mental health disparity in this elderly population. PMID:21261138

  1. The Dark Side of Top Level Sport: An Autobiographic Study of Depressive Experiences in Elite Sport Performers

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Hannah J. H.; Howells, Karen L.; Fletcher, David

    2016-01-01

    The general and sport psychology research converge to point to a complex relationship between depressive experiences and human performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the depressive experiences of top level athletes and the relationship of such experiences with sport performance. Twelve autobiographies of elite athletes representing eight sports were analyzed. The autobiographical analysis was informed by narrative tradition, using three types of narrative analysis: categorical content, categorical form, and holistic content. The analysis revealed a temporal aspect to the depressive experiences that the athletes reported. Initially, sport represented a form of escape from the depressive symptoms which had been exacerbated by both external stressors (e.g., experiencing bereavement) and internal stressors (e.g., low self-esteem). However, in time, the athletes typically reached a stage when the demands of their sport shifted from being facilitative to being debilitative in nature with an intensification of their depressive symptoms. This was accompanied by deliberations about continuing their engagement in sport and an acceptance that they could no longer escape from their symptoms, with or without sport. The findings extend the extant literature by suggesting a reciprocal relationship between depressive experiences and sport performance, and they support the general psychology literature relating to the negative impact of depression on performance. The applied implications of these findings are discussed emphasizing the importance of early identification of depressive symptoms and the adoption of a proactive approach in the prevention and management of symptoms. PMID:27375544

  2. The Dark Side of Top Level Sport: An Autobiographic Study of Depressive Experiences in Elite Sport Performers.

    PubMed

    Newman, Hannah J H; Howells, Karen L; Fletcher, David

    2016-01-01

    The general and sport psychology research converge to point to a complex relationship between depressive experiences and human performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the depressive experiences of top level athletes and the relationship of such experiences with sport performance. Twelve autobiographies of elite athletes representing eight sports were analyzed. The autobiographical analysis was informed by narrative tradition, using three types of narrative analysis: categorical content, categorical form, and holistic content. The analysis revealed a temporal aspect to the depressive experiences that the athletes reported. Initially, sport represented a form of escape from the depressive symptoms which had been exacerbated by both external stressors (e.g., experiencing bereavement) and internal stressors (e.g., low self-esteem). However, in time, the athletes typically reached a stage when the demands of their sport shifted from being facilitative to being debilitative in nature with an intensification of their depressive symptoms. This was accompanied by deliberations about continuing their engagement in sport and an acceptance that they could no longer escape from their symptoms, with or without sport. The findings extend the extant literature by suggesting a reciprocal relationship between depressive experiences and sport performance, and they support the general psychology literature relating to the negative impact of depression on performance. The applied implications of these findings are discussed emphasizing the importance of early identification of depressive symptoms and the adoption of a proactive approach in the prevention and management of symptoms. PMID:27375544

  3. Effects of music aerobic exercise on depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in community dwelling women.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Shu-Hui; Lin, Li-Wei; Chuang, Yu Kuan; Liu, Cheng-Ling; Tsai, Lu-Jen; Tsuei, Feng-Shiou; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Yang, Kuender D

    2015-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial was utilized to compare the improvement of depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between community women with and without music aerobic exercise (MAE) for 12 weeks. The MAE group involved 47 eligible participants, whereas the comparison group had 59 participants. No significant differences were recorded in the demographic characteristics between the participants in the MAE group and the comparison group. Forty-one participants in the MAE group and 26 in the comparison group completed a pre- and posttest. The MAE group displayed significant improvement in depression scores (p = 0.016), decreased depression symptoms in crying (p = 0.03), appetite (p = 0.006), and fatigue (p = 0.011). The BDNF levels of the participants significantly increased after the 12-week MAE (p = 0.042). The parallel comparison group revealed no significant changes in depression scores or BDNF levels. In summary, the 12-week MAE had a significant impact on the enhancement of BDNF levels and improvement of depression symptoms. Middle-aged community women are encouraged to exercise moderately to improve their depression symptoms and BDNF levels. PMID:26075212

  4. Effects of Music Aerobic Exercise on Depression and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Community Dwelling Women

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Shu-Hui; Lin, Li-Wei; Chuang, Yu Kuan; Liu, Cheng-Ling; Tsai, Lu-Jen; Tsuei, Feng-Shiou; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Yang, Kuender D.

    2015-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial was utilized to compare the improvement of depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between community women with and without music aerobic exercise (MAE) for 12 weeks. The MAE group involved 47 eligible participants, whereas the comparison group had 59 participants. No significant differences were recorded in the demographic characteristics between the participants in the MAE group and the comparison group. Forty-one participants in the MAE group and 26 in the comparison group completed a pre- and posttest. The MAE group displayed significant improvement in depression scores (p = 0.016), decreased depression symptoms in crying (p = 0.03), appetite (p = 0.006), and fatigue (p = 0.011). The BDNF levels of the participants significantly increased after the 12-week MAE (p = 0.042). The parallel comparison group revealed no significant changes in depression scores or BDNF levels. In summary, the 12-week MAE had a significant impact on the enhancement of BDNF levels and improvement of depression symptoms. Middle-aged community women are encouraged to exercise moderately to improve their depression symptoms and BDNF levels. PMID:26075212

  5. Preventing the onset of major depression based on the level and profile of risk of primary care attendees: protocol of a cluster randomised trial (the predictD-CCRT study)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ‘predictD algorithm’ provides an estimate of the level and profile of risk of the onset of major depression in primary care attendees. This gives us the opportunity to develop interventions to prevent depression in a personalized way. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of a new intervention, personalized and implemented by family physicians (FPs), to prevent the onset of episodes of major depression. Methods/Design This is a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT), with cluster assignment by health center and two parallel arms. Two interventions will be applied by FPs, usual care versus the new intervention predictD-CCRT. The latter has four components: a training workshop for FPs; communicating the level and profile of risk of depression; building up a tailored bio-psycho-family-social intervention by FPs to prevent depression; offering a booklet to prevent depression; and activating and empowering patients. We will recruit a systematic random sample of 3286 non-depressed adult patients (1643 in each trial arm), nested in 140 FPs and 70 health centers from 7 Spanish cities. All patients will be evaluated at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. The level and profile of risk of depression will be communicated to patients by the FPs in the intervention practices at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Our primary outcome will be the cumulative incidence of major depression (measured by CIDI each 6 months) over 18 months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be health-related quality of life (SF-12 and EuroQol), and measurements of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility. The inferences will be made at patient level. We shall undertake an intention-to-treat effectiveness analysis and will handle missing data using multiple imputations. We will perform multi-level logistic regressions and will adjust for the probability of the onset of major depression at 12 months measured at baseline as well as for unbalanced variables

  6. Interleukin-18 and CD30 serum levels in patients with moderate-severe depression.

    PubMed

    Merendino, Rosaria Alba; Di Rosa, Antonio Enrico; Di Pasquale, Giuseppe; Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Mangraviti, Carmela; Costantino, Antonella; Ruello, Antonella; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2002-08-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18), a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the T-cell-helper type 1 response, is a new member of the family of cytokines produced in the brain. CD30 is a marker of T-cell-helper type 2 lymphocytes. We evaluated IL-18 and CD30 serum levels in 10 patients affected by moderate-severe depression (MSD). We demonstrated for the first time that serum IL-18 levels of MSD patients were significantly higher than those of healthy donors. On the contrary, no significant difference was found between serum CD30 levels of MSD patients compared with those of healthy donors. These data strengthen the hypothesis that MSD disease is associated with an inflammatory response, mainly T-cell-helper type 1, and suggest an important role for IL-18 in the pathophysiology of MSD. PMID:12396479

  7. Prediction of health levels by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Vernon, S.

    1975-01-01

    Measures of the environment derived from remote sensing were compared to census population/housing measures in their ability to discriminate among health status areas in two urban communities. Three hypotheses were developed to explore the relationships between environmental and health data. Univariate and multiple step-wise linear regression analyses were performed on data from two sample areas in Houston and Galveston, Texas. Environmental data gathered by remote sensing were found to equal or surpass census data in predicting rates of health outcomes. Remote sensing offers the advantages of data collection for any chosen area or time interval, flexibilities not allowed by the decennial census.

  8. Association of urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid levels with self-reported depression symptoms in a rural elderly population in Asan, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bokyeong; Jung, Ara; Yun, Dongmin; Lee, Mira; Lee, Mee-Ri; Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Kim, Yongbae; Park, Choonghee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Sungroul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the association between presence of depression symptoms and the exposure level to insecticides among aged population in rural area, determined via measured levels of urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), after controlling for socioeconomic confounding factors. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we randomly recruited participants for our study (161 male and 239 female) from rural areas of Asan, Chungnam, Korea. Environmental risk factor exposure was assessed using a questionnaire, and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry was used to analyze urinary 3-PBA levels. We used a logistic regression analysis to assess the association of urinary 3-PBA levels with the presence of self-reported depression symptoms. Results: After controlling for creatinine levels, the median (interquartile range) concentration of 3-PBA was approximately 1.5 times (p<0.05) higher among female (1.54 [0.90 to 2.35]) μg/g) than among male (1.06 [0.64 to 1.81] μg/g). Our study found that among female participants, the unit increase in 3-PBA levels exhibited a likely positive association (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.25) with an increased risk of presence of self-reported depression symptoms, after adjusting for socioeconomic insurance type, daily physical condition, marital status, smoking status, and age. Conclusions: Given our finding of a potential association between the presence of selfreported depression symptoms and 3-PBA levels, precautions should be considered to minimize exposure to insecticides and thus protect the health of aged residents in rural areas. PMID:25997450

  9. Depression of lymphocyte traffic in sheep by anaesthesia and associated changes in efferent-lymph PGE2 and antibody levels.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, T C; Spruck, C H; Leduc, L E

    1988-01-01

    General anaesthesia of sheep with ketamine and xylazine has been found to produce a profound and prolonged depression in lymphocyte traffic through primary peripheral lymph nodes, as mirrored in the output of lymphocytes into efferent lymph. In this study, the depression has been found to be associated with a marked and sustained elevation in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in efferent lymph. The degree and duration of lymphocyte output depression was found to be modulated (diminished), both in degree and duration, by study-node drainage-area stimulation from prior surgery, inflammation or bacterial immunization. Even when the anaesthesia-associated lymphocyte-output depression was modulated by drainage-area inflammation, the period of lymphocyte-output depression was correlated still with elevated levels of PGE2 in efferent lymph. When drainage-area stimulation was produced by bacterial immunization (killed Salmonella muenchen), the anaesthesia-associated depression in lymphocyte output into efferent lymph (small as well as blast) was accompanied by a depression in antibody output into efferent lymph. PMID:3422221

  10. Association of yoga practice and serum cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis patients with stress-related anxiety and depression

    PubMed Central

    Katuri, Kishore Kumar; Dasari, Ankineedu Babu; Kurapati, Sruthi; Vinnakota, Narayana Rao; Bollepalli, Appaiah Chowdary; Dhulipalla, Ravindranath

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Reducing the psychosocial stress by various methods can improve overall health, and yoga is now considered as an easily available alternative method. The present cross-sectional pilot study was conducted mainly to find the association of yoga practice with periodontal disease by measuring serum cortisol levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 subjects with age range of 35–60 years suffering with chronic periodontitis were divided into group I (with stress), group II (without stress), and group III (practicing yoga). Psychological evaluation was carried out using Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). Periodontal parameters like plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) at 5–8 mm and >8 mm were recorded. Blood samples were collected and serum cortisol levels were measured. Results: Mean age, plaque scores, and number of teeth with PPD and CAL at 5–8 mm and >8 mm were similar in all the groups, except between group I and group III where a multiple comparison with Tukey's post-hoc test showed significant difference in plaque index (P < 0.038) and the number of teeth with CAL 5–8 mm (P < 0.016). Serum cortisol levels and HAM-A scale and ZSDS scores showed highly significant value (P < 0.001) in group I subjects when compared with group II and group III subjects. Conclusion: Cross-sectional observation done among three groups showed that individuals practicing yoga regularly had low serum cortisol levels, HAM-A scale and ZSDS scores, and better periodontal health. PMID:27011926

  11. A pilot study of yogic meditation for family dementia caregivers with depressive symptoms: Effects on mental health, cognition, and telomerase activity

    PubMed Central

    Lavretsky, H.; Siddarth, P.; Nazarian, N.; St. Cyr, N.; Khalsa, D.S.; Lin, J.; Blackburn, E.; Epel, E.S.; Irwin, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study examined the effects of brief daily yogic meditation on mental health, cognitive functioning, and immune cell telomerase activity in family dementia caregivers with mild depressive symptoms. METHODS Thirty-nine family dementia caregivers (mean age 60.3 years old (SD=10.2)) were randomized to practicing Kirtan Kriya or listening to relaxation music for 12 minutes per day for eight weeks. The severity of depressive symptoms, mental and cognitive functioning were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) was examined in peripheral PBMC pre- and post-intervention. RESULTS The meditation group showed significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms and greater improvement in mental health and cognitive functioning compared to the relaxation group. In the meditation group, 65.2% showed 50% improvement on the Hamilton Depression Rating scale and 52% of the participants showed 50% improvement on the Mental Health Composite Summary score (MCS) of the SF-36 scale; compared to 31.2% and 19% respectively in the relaxation group (pp<0.05). The meditation group showed 43% improvement in telomerase activity compared to 3.7% in the relaxation group (p=0.05). CONCLUSION This pilot study found that brief daily meditation practices by family dementia caregivers can lead to improved mental and cognitive functioning, and lower levels of depressive symptoms. This improvement is accompanied by an increase in telomerase activity suggesting improvement in stress-induced cellular aging. These results need to be confirmed in a larger sample. PMID:22407663

  12. A Framework for Classifying Online Mental Health-Related Communities With an Interest in Depression.

    PubMed

    Saha, Budhaditya; Nguyen, Thin; Phung, Dinh; Venkatesh, Svetha

    2016-07-01

    Mental illness has a deep impact on individuals, families, and by extension, society as a whole. Social networks allow individuals with mental disorders to communicate with others sufferers via online communities, providing an invaluable resource for studies on textual signs of psychological health problems. Mental disorders often occur in combinations, e.g., a patient with an anxiety disorder may also develop depression. This co-occurring mental health condition provides the focus for our work on classifying online communities with an interest in depression. For this, we have crawled a large body of 620 000 posts made by 80 000 users in 247 online communities. We have extracted the topics and psycholinguistic features expressed in the posts, using these as inputs to our model. Following a machine learning technique, we have formulated a joint modeling framework in order to classify mental health-related co-occurring online communities from these features. Finally, we performed empirical validation of the model on the crawled dataset where our model outperforms recent state-of-the-art baselines. PMID:27008680

  13. The Effects of Mind Subtraction Meditation on Depression, Social Anxiety, Aggression, and Salivary Cortisol Levels of Elementary School Children in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yang-Gyeong; Lee, Duck-Joo; Lee, In-Soo; Shin, Namin; Park, Ju-Yeon; Yoon, Mi-Ra; Yu, Boas

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the effects of a school-based mind subtraction meditation program on depression, social anxiety, aggression, and salivary cortisol levels of 42 elementary school children in South Korea. The research design was a nonequivalent group comparison with pretest and post-test. The experimental group was given 8weeks of the meditation program. The results showed social anxiety, aggression, and salivary cortisol levels were significantly lowered in the experimental group. This demonstrated that the school-based mind subtraction meditation program could be effective in improving psychosocial and behavioral aspects of mental health in elementary school children. PMID:26790919

  14. Effects of major depression diagnosis and cortisol levels on indices of neurocognitive function.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Rowena G; Posener, Joel A; Keller, Jennifer; DeBattista, Charles; Solvason, Brent; Schatzberg, Alan F

    2009-08-01

    Although many studies have examined separately the effects of depression and cortisol on cognition, no study has examined their relative or potentially additive effects. Our study simultaneously investigated the contributions of clinical status [major depression (MD) versus psychiatrically healthy controls (HC)] and cortisol on a hippocampal/mediotemporal mediated verbal memory task (Paragraph Recall) and a prefrontal cortex/cingulate mediated executive functioning task (Stroop). Thirty-seven unmedicated nondelusional MDs and 18 HCs underwent psychiatric ratings, hourly assessments of cortisol activity over 24 h, and neuropsychological assessments. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated a significant effect of cortisol but not of diagnosis on verbal memory. Greater cortisol levels were related to poorer memory performance independent of group. In contrast, a significant interaction between cortisol and diagnosis was found for a color-word index of response inhibition. This interaction suggests that the detrimental effect of elevated cortisol level on this type of executive functioning exists only in the healthy control group but not in MDs. On an Interference score, another measure of response inhibition, cortisol had a significant independent effect, but neither the effects of diagnosis and the interaction attained full significance. Our study suggests that cortisol has an independent effect on verbal memory. Also, our study produced evidence of an interaction between diagnosis and cortisol on response inhibition. PMID:19261389

  15. Evaluation of lifetime trauma exposure and physical health in women with posttraumatic stress disorder or major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Michelle F; Flood, Amanda M; Reynolds, Victoria; Araujo, Gustavo; Clancy, Carolina P; Barefoot, John C; Beckham, Jean C

    2009-05-01

    The current study examines lifetime trauma exposure rates in 148 women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or neither diagnosis and whether this is related to measures of PTSD, depression, hostility, health symptoms, and health care utilization. Findings indicate that multiple trauma exposures were prevalent in this sample, with 96% of those with PTSD and 79% of those with MDD reporting three or more trauma exposures compared to 46% in the comparison group. Controlling for diagnostic status, regression analysis for PTSD symptom severity reveals that the trauma exposure adult physical assault category was significantly associated with more severe PTSD and depressive symptoms, whereas the childhood violence category was most associated with increased hostility. PTSD and MDD groups reported greater past year health conditions and health care utilization. PMID:19329771

  16. The Perceptions, Social Determinants, and Negative Health Outcomes Associated with Depressive Symptoms among U.S. Chinese Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, XinQi; Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Simon, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Recent demographic growth of the U.S. Chinese aging population calls for comprehensive understanding of their unique health needs. The objective of this study is to examine the perceptions, social determinants of depressive symptoms as well as their impact on health and well-being in a community-dwelling U.S. Chinese aging…

  17. Parental Reports of Global Physical Health at Ages 3 and 6 Predict Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms 17 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raikkonen, Katri; Schubert, Carla; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2004-01-01

    Research studies testing longitudinal relations between childhood physical health measures and adulthood sub-clinical depressive symptoms are rare. In the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, longitudinal relations of parental reports of the global physical health of the child (1 = good, 2 = moderately good, 3 = average/not good) and of…

  18. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  19. The Effect of Sleep Health Behavioral Education on the Depression of Pregnant Women With Sleep Disorders: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Elham; Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Hagani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: About 79% of the pregnant women experience sleep disorders and 70% of pregnant women experience some symptoms of the depression. Physiologic, hormonal, and physical changes of pregnancy can predispose mothers to depression these disorders before, during, and after childbirth and might be aggravated by neglecting health behavior. Health behavior education might be useful for the management of depression in pregnant women. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sleep health behavioral education on the improvement of depression in pregnant women with sleep disorders. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial, performed on 96 pregnant women with sleep disorder diagnosed according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Tools for data collection included demographic questionnaire and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Easy and accessible sampling was done. Participants were randomly (simple) allocated to intervention and control groups. In intervention group, sleep health behavior education was presented during a four-hour session held in weeks 22, 23, 24, and 25; then the patients were followed up to fill out the BDIQ in follow-up session at weeks 29 and 33 of pregnancy. The control group received no intervention and only received routine prenatal care. The results were assessed by Chi-square tests, independent-samples t-test, and Fischer’s exact-test by SPSS 16. Results: A statistically significant change was reported in the severity of depression in pregnant women with sleep disorders in the intervention group in comparison to the control group at weeks 29 (P < 0.000) and 33 (P < 0.00). Conclusions: Sleep health behavioral education improves depression in pregnant women who are experiencing insomnia. Findings from this study add support to the reported effectiveness of sleep health behavioral education in the prenatal care and clinical management of insomnia in pregnancy. PMID:25763271

  20. The Influence of Social Factors and Health on Depressive Symptoms and Worry: A Study of Older Vietnamese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, Amanda; Zarit, Steven H.; Nguyen, Ngoc H.; Hoang, Chuong N.; Nguyen, Ha T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Vietnam has a growing older population, many of whom experienced war and social upheavals in their lives. Prior research has described the health of the older population, but little work has explored mental health. The current study examines the frequency and correlates of two mental health indicators: depressive symptoms and worry. Method A representative sample of 600 adults 55 and older stratified by gender (50% women), age (mean = 70.33), and rural/urban (50% rural) was recruited in Da Nang, Vietnam and surrounding rural districts. Participants were interviewed in their homes by trained interviewers. Dependent variables were a Vietnamese version of the CES-D and a culturally specific worry scale. Results Forty-seven percent of the sample had scores above the cut-off for clinical depression and scores on the worry scale were high. Using multiple linear regressions we found that women, the less educated and individuals with more material hardship had higher depressive symptoms whereas rural residents, women, married, and young-old individuals were more worried. Pain, ADL assistance and emotional support were significant predictors of both depressive symptoms and worry, though the direction of the association for emotional support differed. Illnesses were only a predictor of depressive symptoms. Conclusion The high reports of depressive symptoms and worry suggests the need for incorporating mental health screening as part of health programs for older adults in Vietnam. Attention to factors associated with depressive symptoms and worry, such as economic hardship, health problems and lack of emotional support, may contribute to alleviation of symptoms. PMID:22486622

  1. Are consumers of Internet health information “cyberchondriacs”? Characteristics of 24,965 users of a depression screening site

    PubMed Central

    Leykin, Yan; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Contreras, Omar

    2011-01-01

    Background The number of individuals looking for health information on the Internet continues to expand. The purpose of the study was to understand the prevalence of major depression, among English-speaking individuals worldwide looking for information on depression online. Methods An automated online Mood Screener website was created and advertised via Google AdWords, for one year. Participants (N = 24,965) completed a depression screening measure and received feedback based on their results. Participants were then invited to participate in a longitudinal mood screening study. Results Of the 24,965 who completed the screening, 66.6% screened positive for current major depression, 44.4% indicated current suicidality, and 7.8% reported a recent (past two weeks) suicide attempt. Of those consenting to participate in the longitudinal study (n = 1,327, from 86 countries), 77.4% screened positive for past depression, 64.6% reported past suicidality, and 17.5% a past suicide attempt. Yet, only 25% of those screening positive for current depression, and only 37.2% of those reporting a recent suicide attempt are in treatment. Conclusions Many of the consumers of Internet health information may genuinely need treatment and are not “cyberchondriacs”. Online screening, treatment, and prevention efforts may have the potential to serve many currently untreated clinically depressed and suicidal individuals. PMID:21681872

  2. Korean American parental depressive symptoms and children's mental health: the mediating role of parental acceptance-rejection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjung

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of parental acceptance-rejection in the relationship between parental depressive symptoms and children's mental health. Self-report data were gathered from 95 mothers and 91 fathers of children (ages 5-10 years) in Korean American families. For mothers and fathers, the relationship between parental depressive symptoms and child psychosocial problems was mediated by parenting behaviors, with parental rejection being a much stronger mediator than parental acceptance. For fathers, the relationship between fathers' depressive symptoms and child social competence was mediated by parenting, with fathers' parental rejection being a slightly stronger mediator than fathers' parental acceptance. PMID:22608945

  3. The Influence of Health Literacy and Depression on Diabetes Self-Management: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Maneze, D; Everett, B; Astorga, C; Yogendran, D; Salamonson, Y

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increasing focus on health literacy in the clinical setting and in the literature, there is still ongoing debate about its influence on diabetes self-management. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological factors on health literacy and diabetes self-management. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 224 patients with type 2 diabetes at two diabetes centres in Sydney, Australia. Findings showed that people with low health literacy were more likely to (a) have lower educational attainment; (b) be migrants; and (c) have depressed mood. Unexpectedly, those who met HbA1c threshold of good glucose control were more likely to have low health literacy. Predictors of low diabetes self-management included (a) younger age group (AOR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24-4.64); (b) having postsecondary education (AOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.05-5.01); (c) low knowledge of diabetes management (AOR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.25-4.20); and (d) having depressed mood (AOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.30-4.06). The finding that depressed mood predicted both low health literacy and low diabetes self-management stresses the importance of screening for depression. Increasing people's understanding of diabetes self-management and supporting those with depression are crucial to enhance participation in diabetes self-management. PMID:27595113

  4. The Influence of Health Literacy and Depression on Diabetes Self-Management: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Everett, B.; Astorga, C.; Yogendran, D.; Salamonson, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increasing focus on health literacy in the clinical setting and in the literature, there is still ongoing debate about its influence on diabetes self-management. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological factors on health literacy and diabetes self-management. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 224 patients with type 2 diabetes at two diabetes centres in Sydney, Australia. Findings showed that people with low health literacy were more likely to (a) have lower educational attainment; (b) be migrants; and (c) have depressed mood. Unexpectedly, those who met HbA1c threshold of good glucose control were more likely to have low health literacy. Predictors of low diabetes self-management included (a) younger age group (AOR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24–4.64); (b) having postsecondary education (AOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.05–5.01); (c) low knowledge of diabetes management (AOR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.25–4.20); and (d) having depressed mood (AOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.30–4.06). The finding that depressed mood predicted both low health literacy and low diabetes self-management stresses the importance of screening for depression. Increasing people's understanding of diabetes self-management and supporting those with depression are crucial to enhance participation in diabetes self-management. PMID:27595113

  5. Synergistic effect of interaction between perceived health and social activity on depressive symptoms in the middle-aged and elderly: a population-based longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Sung-Youn; Han, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Seo Yoon; Kim, Chan Ok; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the synergistic effect of interaction between perceived health and social activity on depressive symptoms. Methods We investigated whether the interaction between perceived health and social activity has a synergistic effect on depressive symptoms in the middle-aged and elderly using data from 6590 respondents aged 45 and older in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging (KLoSA), 2006–2012. A generalised linear mixed-effects model was used to investigate the association in a longitudinal data form. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression 10 Scale (CES-D10). Perceived health and level of social activity were categorical variables with three values. Participation in six social activities was assessed. Results Interactions between perceived health status and social activity were statistically significant for almost all social activity/perceived health combinations. Addition of the interaction term significantly decreased CES-D10 scores, confirming the synergistic effect of the interaction between perceived health status and social activity (‘normal×moderate’, β=−0.1826; ‘poor×moderate’, β=−0.5739; ‘poor×active’, β=−0.8935). In addition, we performed stratified analyses by region: urban or rural. In urban respondents, the additional effect of the interaction term decreased CES-D10 scores and all social activity/perceived health combinations were statistically significant (‘normal×moderate’, β=−0.2578; ‘normal×active’, β=−0.3945; ‘poor×moderate’, β=−0.5739; ‘poor×active’, β=−0.8935). In rural respondents, only one social activity/perceived health combination was statistically significant, and the additional effect of the interaction term showed no consistent trend on CES-D10 scores. Conclusions The interaction between perceived health and social activity has a synergistic effect on depressive symptoms; the additional effect of the interaction

  6. Daily and cultural issues of postnatal depression in african women immigrants in South East london: tips for health professionals.

    PubMed

    Babatunde, Titilayo; Moreno-Leguizamon, Carlos Julio

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal depression has profound effects on the quality of life, social functioning, and economic productivity of women and families. This paper presents the findings of an earlier exploration of the perception of postnatal depression in African women immigrants in South East London. The aims of this research were twofold: firstly, to establish cultural elements related to postnatal depression through women's narratives regarding their daily life situations, including the nuances and complexities present in postnatal depression, and secondly, to help health professionals understand and acknowledge postnatal depression signs in these immigrant women and some of the cultural ambiguities surrounding them. The study used a qualitative approach mainly through the implementation of two focus groups. Thematic analysis of the women's narratives suggested that almost half of the participants in the study struggle with some signs of postnatal depression. The women did not perceive the signs as related to illness but as something else in their daily lives, that is, the notion "that you have to get on with it." The study also highlights the fact that the signs were not identified by health visitors, despite prolonged contact with the women, due to the lack of acknowledgement of women's silence regarding their emotional struggle, household and family politics, and intercultural communication in health services. PMID:23056936

  7. Daily and Cultural Issues of Postnatal Depression in African Women Immigrants in South East London: Tips for Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Babatunde, Titilayo; Moreno-Leguizamon, Carlos Julio

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal depression has profound effects on the quality of life, social functioning, and economic productivity of women and families. This paper presents the findings of an earlier exploration of the perception of postnatal depression in African women immigrants in South East London. The aims of this research were twofold: firstly, to establish cultural elements related to postnatal depression through women's narratives regarding their daily life situations, including the nuances and complexities present in postnatal depression, and secondly, to help health professionals understand and acknowledge postnatal depression signs in these immigrant women and some of the cultural ambiguities surrounding them. The study used a qualitative approach mainly through the implementation of two focus groups. Thematic analysis of the women's narratives suggested that almost half of the participants in the study struggle with some signs of postnatal depression. The women did not perceive the signs as related to illness but as something else in their daily lives, that is, the notion “that you have to get on with it.” The study also highlights the fact that the signs were not identified by health visitors, despite prolonged contact with the women, due to the lack of acknowledgement of women's silence regarding their emotional struggle, household and family politics, and intercultural communication in health services. PMID:23056936

  8. Prefrontal Electrical Stimulation in Non-depressed Reduces Levels of Reported Negative Affects from Daily Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Adelaide; Jiga-Boy, Gabriela M.; Rea, Sara; Newstead, Simon A.; Roderick, Sian; Davis, Nick J.; Clement, R. Marc; Boy, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Negative emotional responses to the daily life stresses have cumulative effects which, in turn, impose wide-ranging negative constraints on emotional well being and neurocognitive performance (Kalueff and Nutt, 2007; Nadler et al., 2010; Charles et al., 2013). Crucial cognitive functions such as memory and problem solving, as well more short term emotional responses (e.g., anticipation of- and response to- monetary rewards or losses) are influenced by mood. The negative impact of these behavioral responses is felt at the individual level, but it also imposes major economic burden on modern healthcare systems. Although much research has been undertaken to understand the underlying mechanisms of depressed mood and design efficient treatment pathways, comparatively little was done to characterize mood modulations that remain within the boundaries of a healthy mental functioning. In one placebo-controlled experiment, we applied daily prefrontal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) at five points in time, and found reliable improvements on self-reported mood evaluation. Using a new team of experimenters, we replicated this finding in an independent double-blinded placebo-controlled experiment and showed that stimulation over a shorter period of time (3 days) is sufficient to create detectable mood improvements. Taken together, our data show that repeated bilateral prefrontal tDCS can reduce psychological distress in non-depressed individuals. PMID:26973591

  9. Prefrontal Electrical Stimulation in Non-depressed Reduces Levels of Reported Negative Affects from Daily Stressors.

    PubMed

    Austin, Adelaide; Jiga-Boy, Gabriela M; Rea, Sara; Newstead, Simon A; Roderick, Sian; Davis, Nick J; Clement, R Marc; Boy, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Negative emotional responses to the daily life stresses have cumulative effects which, in turn, impose wide-ranging negative constraints on emotional well being and neurocognitive performance (Kalueff and Nutt, 2007; Nadler et al., 2010; Charles et al., 2013). Crucial cognitive functions such as memory and problem solving, as well more short term emotional responses (e.g., anticipation of- and response to- monetary rewards or losses) are influenced by mood. The negative impact of these behavioral responses is felt at the individual level, but it also imposes major economic burden on modern healthcare systems. Although much research has been undertaken to understand the underlying mechanisms of depressed mood and design efficient treatment pathways, comparatively little was done to characterize mood modulations that remain within the boundaries of a healthy mental functioning. In one placebo-controlled experiment, we applied daily prefrontal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) at five points in time, and found reliable improvements on self-reported mood evaluation. Using a new team of experimenters, we replicated this finding in an independent double-blinded placebo-controlled experiment and showed that stimulation over a shorter period of time (3 days) is sufficient to create detectable mood improvements. Taken together, our data show that repeated bilateral prefrontal tDCS can reduce psychological distress in non-depressed individuals. PMID:26973591

  10. Epigenetics and cortical spreading depression: changes of DNA methylation level at retrotransposon sequences.

    PubMed

    Drongitis, Denise; Rainone, Sara; Piscopo, Marina; Viggiano, Emanuela; Viggiano, Alessandro; De Luca, Bruno; Fucci, Laura; Donizetti, Aldo

    2016-08-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon that involves a slow and self-propagating depolarization wave associated with spontaneous depression of electrical neuronal activity. CSD plays a central role in the pathophysiology of several brain diseases and is considered to be able to promote "Preconditioning". This phenomenon consists of the brain protecting itself against future injury by adaptation. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying Preconditioning has significant clinical implications. We have already proposed that the long-lasting effects of CSD could be related to silencing of retrotransposon sequences by histone methylation. We analyzed DNA methylation of two retrotransposon sequences, LINE1 and L1, and their corresponding expression pattern after CSD induction. Based on immunoprecipitation assay of the methylated DNA (meDIP), we demonstrated hypermethylation of both sequences in preconditioned rat brain cortex compared with a control 24 h after CSD induction. Using quantitative PCR, we also showed that CSD induction caused a decrease of the transcript level of both retrotransposon sequences. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis of epigenetic modifications in Preconditioning-dependent neuroprotection by increasing genome stability via the silencing of retrotransposon sequences. PMID:27169424

  11. Cerebrospinal Fluid Neuropeptide Y Levels in Major Depression and Reported Childhood Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Laili; Oquendo, Maria A.; Sullivan, Gregory M.; Mathé, Aleksander A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) may enhance resilience to chronic stress. Low brain NPY reported in major depression may normalize in response to antidepressants. Methods: In this study, we examined the relationship of reported childhood trauma to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NPY–like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI) in 61 medication-free major depressive disorder (MDD) patients and 20 matched healthy volunteers. Results: Higher CSF NPY-LI was found in MDD compared to the healthy volunteer group (p = 0.01). A positive correlation of CSF NPY-LI with more adverse childhood trauma (p = 0.001) may be indicative of an intact but insufficient NPY-related stress response. Conclusions: We hypothesize that differences in published results may be explained by the existence of two groups of MDD in terms of CSF NPY levels: MDD with low CSF NPY prior to stress or in response to stress, and those with robust NPY responses to stress. Future studies should confirm the two groups and seek the molecular mechanism for their differences. PMID:25539507

  12. Teachers' Mental Health and Teaching Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Rios-Seidel, Carmen; Sevilla-Dedieu, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify the occupational risk factors of both psychiatric disorders and psychological distress for public school teachers in France depending on their teaching level. A survey was carried out on teachers aged 20-60 (N=3586). Some teaching levels, depending on the teacher's gender,…

  13. The treatment of depressed chinese americans using qigong in a health care setting: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Albert; Slipp, Lauren E; Jacquart, Jolene; Fava, Maurizio; Denninger, John W; Benson, Herbert; Fricchione, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    Background. This pilot study examined the feasibility and efficacy of providing Qigong treatment in a health center to Chinese Americans with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods. Fourteen Chinese Americans with MDD were enrolled, and they received a 12-week Qigong intervention. The key outcome measurement was the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17); the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) and -Improvement (CGI-I), the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF), and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) were also administered. Positive response was defined as a decrease of 50% or more on the HAM-D17, and remission was defined as HAM-D17 ≤ 7. Patients' outcome measurements were compared before and after the Qigong intervention. Results. Participants (N = 14) were 64% female, with a mean age of 53 (±14). A 71% of participants completed the intervention. The Qigong intervention resulted in a positive treatment-response rate of 60% and a remission rate of 40% and statistically significant improvement, as measured by the HAM-D17, CGI-S, CGI-I, Q-LES-Q-SF, and the family support subscale of the MSPSS. Conclusions. The Qigong intervention provided at a health care setting for the treatment of primary care patients with MDD is feasible. Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted. PMID:23690836

  14. Older persons' experiences of depressive ill-health and family support.

    PubMed

    Lyberg, Anne; Holm, Anne Lise; Lassenius, Erna; Berggren, Ingela; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore experiences of the meaning of family support among older persons with depressive ill-health. Data were collected from twenty-nine participants through semistructured interviews and analysed using interpretative hermeneutic and reflective methodology. The findings revealed a main theme, hovering between feelings of belongingness and aloneness in relationships with family members, based on two themes: a sense of being worthy and a sense of being unworthy. Experiences of support and lack of support from family members were not opposites but connected in internal relationships and can be pictured as a movement on a continuum of ambiguity. Family support promotes the emotional needs of older persons with depressive ill-health to be confirmed. The family plays a vital role, not always by direct assistance, but indirectly by supporting the older person's own "guiding principles" for managing her/his situation. The feelings of aloneness as well as shame and guilt at poor or absent family responsiveness should be adequately addressed. Innovative nursing care can lead to improvement by focusing on acquiescence to the older person's life situation. PMID:24078871

  15. Older Persons' Experiences of Depressive Ill-Health and Family Support

    PubMed Central

    Lyberg, Anne; Holm, Anne Lise; Lassenius, Erna; Berggren, Ingela; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore experiences of the meaning of family support among older persons with depressive ill-health. Data were collected from twenty-nine participants through semistructured interviews and analysed using interpretative hermeneutic and reflective methodology. The findings revealed a main theme, hovering between feelings of belongingness and aloneness in relationships with family members, based on two themes: a sense of being worthy and a sense of being unworthy. Experiences of support and lack of support from family members were not opposites but connected in internal relationships and can be pictured as a movement on a continuum of ambiguity. Family support promotes the emotional needs of older persons with depressive ill-health to be confirmed. The family plays a vital role, not always by direct assistance, but indirectly by supporting the older person's own “guiding principles” for managing her/his situation. The feelings of aloneness as well as shame and guilt at poor or absent family responsiveness should be adequately addressed. Innovative nursing care can lead to improvement by focusing on acquiescence to the older person's life situation. PMID:24078871

  16. The Role of an Early Head Start Mental Health Coordinator: Screening for Maternal Depression in a Comprehensive Approach to Mental Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canuso, Regina

    2007-01-01

    Screening for maternal depression was a core component of the P.E.A.C.E., Inc., Early Head Start program's comprehensive approach to supporting the mental health needs of low-income pregnant women and families with infants and toddlers. The addition of a mental health coordinator as a full-time staff member created an opportunity to develop a…

  17. A Tune in “A Minor” Can “B Major”: A Review of Epidemiology, Illness Course, and Public Health Implications of Subthreshold Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Meeks, Thomas; Vahia, Ipsit; Lavretsky, Helen; Kulkarni, Ganesh; Jeste, Dilip

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND With emphasis on dimensional aspects of psychopathology in development of the upcoming DSM-V, we systematically review data on epidemiology, illness course, risk factors for, and consequences of late-life depressive syndromes not meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for major depression or dysthymia. We termed these syndromes subthreshold depression, including minor depression and subsyndromal depression. METHODS We searched PubMed (1980–Jan 2010) using the terms: subsyndromal depression, subthreshold depression, and minor depression in combination with elderly, geriatric, older adult, and late-life. Data were extracted from 181 studies of late-life subthreshold depression. RESULTS In older adults subthreshold depression was generally at least 2–3 times more prevalent (median community point prevalence 9.8%) than major depression. Prevalence of subthreshold depression was lower in community settings versus primary care and highest in long-term care settings. Approximately 8–10% of older persons with subthreshold depression developed major depression per year. The course of late-life subthreshold depression was more favorable than that of late-life major depression, but far from benign, with a median remission rate to non-depressed status of only 27% after ≥1 year. Prominent risk factors included female gender, medical burden, disability, and low social support; consequences included increased disability, greater healthcare utilization, and increased suicidal ideation. LIMITATIONS Heterogeneity of the data, especially related to definitions of subthreshold depression limit our ability to conduct meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence and associated adverse health outcomes of late-life subthreshold depression indicate the major public health significance of this condition and suggest a need for further research on its neurobiology and treatment. Such efforts could potentially lead to prevention of considerable morbidity for the growing number of

  18. Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dina M.

    Affective disorder is characterized by maladaptive changes in mood, attitudes, energy level, and physical status. These changes constitute the basic dimensions of depression. Depression results from a combination of genetic and experiential factors. There are sex differences and age differences with regard to depression, and there is a high…

  19. Serum Levels of Growth Factors in Alcohol-dependent Patients according to Comorbid Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Ahn, Donghyun; Hahm, Woong; Nam, Junghyun; Park, Yongchon; Lim, Seulgi; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to reveal the relationship of depression with growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in inpatients diagnosed with alcohol dependence, and to identify candidate growth factors as biological markers to indicate the comorbid of alcohol dependence and depression. Methods This study examined demographic factors in 45 alcohol-dependent patients. The ADS (Korean version of the Alcohol Dependence Scale) and BDI (Korean version of Beck’s Depression Inventory) were used. BDNF, NGF, and IGF-1 were measured through ELISA. Results The average drinking quantity and the ADS score were significantly more severe in alcohol-dependent patients with depression than in those without depression. Linearly comparing BDNF, NGF, and IGF-1 with BDI values, IGF-1 was the growth factor significantly correlated with BDI scores. BDI scores were significantly correlated with ADS scores. IGF-1 was significantly higher in alcohol-dependent patients with depression. Alcohol-dependent patients with depression had greater alcohol use and more severe ADS scores. BDNF and NGF showed no significant difference between alcohol-dependent patients with and without depression, but IGF-1 was significantly higher in those with than in those without depression. Conclusion IGF-1 was found to be associated with depression in alcohol-dependent patients, suggesting that IGF-1 in alcohol-dependent patients could be an important biomarker to indicate whether alcohol-dependence is accompanied by depression. PMID:26792039

  20. The impact of cognitive behavioral therapy on IL-6 levels in unmedicated women experiencing the first episode of depression: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gazal, Marta; Souza, Luciano D; Fucolo, Briane A; Wiener, Carolina D; Silva, Ricardo A; Pinheiro, Ricardo T; Jansen, Karen; Ghislene, Gabriele; Oses, Jean P; Kaster, Manuella P

    2013-10-30

    A group of 11 women (18-29 years old) in the first episode of depression was evaluated before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Depressive scores, assessed by Hamilton Rating Scale (HRSD), and serum IL-6 levels significantly decreased after the seventh session. These results suggest that CBT reduced both depressive symptoms and the inflammatory state in women. PMID:23541242

  1. The Influence of Social Support on the Levels of Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugbey, Nuworza; Osei-Boadi, Samuel; Atefoe, Ethel Akpene

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of social support from family, friends and significant others on the levels depression, anxiety and stress among undergraduate students of University of Ghana. A total of one hundred and sixty-five (165) students were sampled from all the levels and were administered with standardized questionnaires measuring social…

  2. Job Strain, Depressive Symptoms, and Drinking Behavior Among Older Adults: Results From the Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Bohnert, Amy S. B.; Ratliff, Scott; Zivin, Kara

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relationship between job strain and two indicators of mental health, depression and alcohol misuse, among currently employed older adults. Method. Data come from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (N = 2,902). Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to determine the association between job strain, indicated by the imbalance of job stress and job satisfaction, with depression and alcohol misuse. Results. High job strain (indicated by high job stress combined with low job satisfaction) was associated with elevated depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.99–4.45) relative to low job strain after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, labor force status, and occupation. High job stress combined with high job satisfaction (OR = 1.93) and low job stress combined with low job satisfaction (OR = 1.94) were also associated with depressive symptoms to a lesser degree. Job strain was unrelated to either moderate or heavy drinking. These associations did not vary by gender or age. Discussion. Job strain is associated with elevated depressive symptoms among older workers. In contrast to results from investigations of younger workers, job strain was unrelated to alcohol misuse. These findings can inform the development and implementation of workplace health promotion programs that reflect the mental health needs of the aging workforce. PMID:21427175

  3. Effects of phase I complex decongestive physiotherapy on physical functions and depression levels in breast cancer related lymph edema

    PubMed Central

    Atalay, Orçin Telli; Özkir, Anıl; Çalik, Bilge Başakçi; Baskan, Emre; Taşkin, Harun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Breast cancer-related upper extremity lymph edema is known to cause physical, functional and psychological impairments in women after modified radical mastectomy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of phase I Complex Decongestive Physiotherapy (CDP) on physical functions and depression levels in women with breast cancer-related upper extremity lymph edema. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-eight subjects with breast cancer-related upper extremity lymph edema were the subjects of this study. The arm circumference, shoulder range of motion (ROM), muscle strength and depression levels of the subjects were assessed before and after phase I CDP treatment. [Results] After phase I CDP, there was a statistically significant reduction in circumference measurements at all levels of the affected arm. There was not any statistically significant difference in muscle strength after CDP. The shoulder ROM improved after treatment. There was a significant reduction in the Beck Depression Inventory score. A significant positive correlation was found between depression levels and circumference measurement. [Conclusion] Based on the results we suggest that by reducing limb volume, beside improving physical functions, phase I CDP can affect psychological status, especially depression which is very common in women with breast cancer-related upper extremity lymph edema. PMID:25931748

  4. Evaluation of quality of life and anxiety and depression levels in patients receiving chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: impact of patient education before treatment initiation

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Ulku; Arpacı, Afey; Demir, Satı; Erdal, Sevgi; Yalcin, Şuayib

    2014-01-01

    Background As a consequence of the improved survival due to the availability of several treatment option cost-effectiveness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) issues have gained increasing attention in colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate quality of life, level of anxiety and depression before and after a 6-month follow-up period in chemotherapy receiving patients with CRC. Methods The study was conducted in 50 patients with colon or rectal cancer. All patients were informed and educated about their disease and treatment before getting the treatment and were followed for 6 months, during which they received chemotherapy. A “Questionnaire Form” to collect patient demographic characteristics; the “EORTC QLQ-C30 Scale” and “EQ-5D Scale” to evaluate patient’s quality of life; and the “Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale” to evaluate the level of anxiety and depression status of patients, were used as data collecting tools. Results Quality of life scores in all functional fields were high in the sixth course when compared to the first according to EORTC QLQ-C30 Scale, reaching to statistically significant level in emotional function score compared to the initial ones (P<0.05). Moreover quality of life score measured in the sixth month with EQ-5D was statistically significantly higher than the initial. Conclusions These data, shows that with proper patient management, quality of life score, and the anxiety and depression levels improve during the course of treatment. PMID:25083300

  5. Experience of Health Complaints and Help Seeking Behavior in Employees Screened for Depressive Complaints and Risk of Future Sickness Absence

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, N. W. H.; Stevens, F. C. J.; van Amelsvoort, L. G. P. M.; Kant, IJ.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the associations between on the one hand depressive complaints and risk of future sickness absence and on the other hand experience of health complaints and help seeking behavior in the working population. Methods Cross-sectional data were used from employees working in the banking sector (n = 8,498). The screening instrument included measures to examine the risk of future sickness absence, depressive complaints and help seeking behavior. Results Of employees reporting health complaints, approximately 80% had already sought help for these complaints. Experience of health complaints and subsequent help seeking behavior differed between employees with mild to severe depressive complaints and employees at risk of future sickness absence. Experience of health complaints was highest in employees identified with both concepts (69%) compared with employees identified at risk of future sickness absence only (48%) and with mild to severe depressive complaints only (57%). In those employees identified with one or both concepts and who had not sought help already, intention to seek help was about 50%. Conclusions From a screening perspective, employees who do not experience health complaints or who do not have the intention to seek help may refuse participation in early intervention. This might be a bottleneck in the implementation of preventive interventions in the occupational health setting. PMID:20467796

  6. Serum Levels of High-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein at Admission Are More Strongly Associated with Poststroke Depression in Acute Ischemic Stroke than Homocysteine Levels.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chao-Zhi; Zhang, Yu-Ling; Wang, Wen-Sheng; Li, Wei-Guo; Shi, Ji-Peng

    2016-05-01

    Inflammatory processes have fundamental roles in depression. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and homocysteine (HCY) at admission to the presence of poststroke depression (PSD). From December 2012 to December 2013, first-ever acute ischemic stroke patients who were admitted to the hospital within the first 24 h after stroke onset were consecutively recruited and followed up for 6 months. Serum levels of Hs-CRP and HCY were tested at admission. Based on the symptoms, diagnoses of depression were made in accordance with DSM-IV criteria for depression at 6 months after stroke. Ninety-five patients (42.0 %) showed depression (major + minor) at 6 months after admission, and in 69 patients (30.5 %), this depression was classified as major. In the 69 patients with major depression, our results showed significantly higher Hs-CRP and HCY levels at admission than patients without major depression. After adjusting all other possible covariates, Hs-CRP and HCY still were independent predicators of PSD with adjusted OR of 1.332 (95 % CI, 1.230-1.452; P < 0.001) and 1.138 (95 % CI, 1.072-1.274; P < 0.001), respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values of Hs-CRP and HCY were 0.765 (95 % CI, 0.701-0.9825) and 0.684 (95 % CI, 0.610-0.757) for PSD, respectively. The prognostic accuracy of combined model (HCY and Hs-CRP) was higher compared to those biomarkers alone and other markers. Elevated serum levels of Hs-CRP and HCY at admission were found to be associated with depression 6 months after stroke, suggesting that these alterations might participate in the pathophysiology of depression symptoms in stroke patients. PMID:25941076

  7. Depression and Psychological Trauma: An Overview Integrating Current Research and Specific Evidence of Studies in the Treatment of Depression in Public Mental Health Services in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Vitriol, Verónica; Cancino, Alfredo; Weil, Kristina; Salgado, Carolina; Asenjo, Maria Andrea; Potthoff, Soledad

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, different research has demonstrated the high prevalence of childhood trauma, including sexual abuse, among depressive women. These findings are associated with a complex, severe, and chronic psychopathology. This can be explained considering the neurobiological changes secondary to early trauma that can provoke a neuroendocrine failure to compensate in response to challenge. It suggests the existence of a distinguishable clinical-neurobiological subtype of depression as a function of childhood trauma that requires specific treatments. Among women with depression and early trauma receiving treatment in a public mental health service in Chile, it was demonstrated that a brief outpatient intervention (that screened for and focused on childhood trauma and helped patients to understand current psychosocial difficulties as a repetition of past trauma) was effective in reducing psychiatric symptoms and improving interpersonal relationships. However, in this population, this intervention did not prevent posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to the extreme earthquake that occurred in February 2010. Therefore in adults with depression and early trauma, it is necessary to evaluate prolonged multimodal treatments that integrate pharmacotherapy, social support, and interpersonal psychotherapies with trauma focused interventions (specific interventions for specific traumas). PMID:24695633

  8. Relationship between the intensity of physical activity and depressive symptoms among Korean adults: analysis of Korea Health Panel data

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Lee, Sang Ah; Choi, Hyo Jin; Hong, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Min Hee; Kwon, Young Dae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the intensity of physical activity and symptoms of depression. [Subjects and Methods] We analyzed the influence of different intensities of physical activity on depressive symptoms using the data of 12,350 adults over the age of 20 years who had completed the 2011 Korea Health Panel. After controlling for confounding variables, a multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the association between the intensity of physical activity and depressive symptoms. [Results] The results showed that vigorous physical activity had a significant effect on depressive symptoms. The incidence of depressive symptoms was 1.487 (95% CI 1.137, 1.943) OR higher among people who did not participate in regular activity than it was among those who took part in regular intense physical activity. [Conclusion] It appears that physical activity affects depressive symptoms, a result which is in agreement with previous studies. However, we also showed a difference in influence according to activity intensity. Thus, the intensity of physical activity should be considered when developing physical activity programs for improving depressive symptoms. PMID:25995596

  9. Barriers to access to treatment for mothers with postpartum depression in primary health care centers: a predictive model.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Pablo; Vöhringer, Paul A; Rojas, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    Objective to develop a predictive model to evaluate the factors that modify the access to treatment for Postpartum Depression (PPD). Methods prospective study with mothers who participated in the monitoring of child health in primary care centers. For the initial assessment and during 3 months, it was considered: sociodemographic data, gyneco-obstetric data, data on the services provided, depressive symptoms according to the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) and quality of life according to the Short Form-36 Health Status Questionnaire (SF-36). The diagnosis of depression was made based on MINI. Mothers diagnosed with PPD in the initial evaluation, were followed-up. Results a statistical model was constructed to determine the factors that prevented access to treatment, which consisted of: item 2 of EPDS (OR 0.43, 95%CI: 0.20-0.93) and item 5 (OR 0.48, 95%CI: 0.21-1.09), and previous history of depression treatment (OR 0.26, 95%CI: 0.61-1.06). Area under the ROC curve for the model=0.79; p-value for the Hosmer-Lemershow=0.73. Conclusion it was elaborated a simple, well standardized and accurate profile, which advises that nurses should pay attention to those mothers diagnosed with PPD, presenting low/no anhedonia (item 2 of EPDS), scarce/no panic/fear (item 5 of EPDS), and no history of depression, as it is likely that these women do not initiate treatment. PMID:27027674

  10. Recurrent Major Depression Predicts Progression of Coronary Calcification in Healthy Women: Study of Women’s Health across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Karen A.; Chang, Yue-Fang; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Bromberger, Joyce T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms and major depression are risk factors for clinical coronary heart disease (CHD) among CHD patients and among healthy individuals. It is less clear whether depression is related to the progression of atherosclerosis prior to the onset of CHD events. Design Longitudinal cohort study Methods 149 middle-aged healthy women (113 white and 36 African American) who reported no heart disease, stroke, or diabetes were enrolled simultaneously in two ancillary studies of the Study Women’s Health across the Nation (SWAN) at the Pittsburgh site: the Mental Health Study and the SWAN Heart Study. These women were administered psychiatric interviews annually and coronary calcification computed tomography measures (CAC) on two occasions approximately 2¼ years apart. Results Women who had recurrent major depression (N = 33) had greater progression of CAC (logged difference scores) than did women with a single or no episodes, b = 0.09 (0.04), p = .01. The other significant covariates were BMI, SBP, initial CAC, and time between scans. Stratified analyses showed that the effect was obtained in those women who had any CAC at the first examination. Conclusions Recurrent major depression may be a risk factor for progression of atherosclerosis, especially in those who have at least some initial calcification. Women with a history of depression may be candidates for aggressive cardiovascular risk factor prevention therapy. PMID:20668281

  11. Barriers to access to treatment for mothers with postpartum depression in primary health care centers: a predictive model1

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Pablo; Vöhringer, Paul A.; Rojas, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    Objective to develop a predictive model to evaluate the factors that modify the access to treatment for Postpartum Depression (PPD). Methods prospective study with mothers who participated in the monitoring of child health in primary care centers. For the initial assessment and during 3 months, it was considered: sociodemographic data, gyneco-obstetric data, data on the services provided, depressive symptoms according to the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) and quality of life according to the Short Form-36 Health Status Questionnaire (SF-36). The diagnosis of depression was made based on MINI. Mothers diagnosed with PPD in the initial evaluation, were followed-up. Results a statistical model was constructed to determine the factors that prevented access to treatment, which consisted of: item 2 of EPDS (OR 0.43, 95%CI: 0.20-0.93) and item 5 (OR 0.48, 95%CI: 0.21-1.09), and previous history of depression treatment (OR 0.26, 95%CI: 0.61-1.06). Area under the ROC curve for the model=0.79; p-value for the Hosmer-Lemershow=0.73. Conclusion it was elaborated a simple, well standardized and accurate profile, which advises that nurses should pay attention to those mothers diagnosed with PPD, presenting low/no anhedonia (item 2 of EPDS), scarce/no panic/fear (item 5 of EPDS), and no history of depression, as it is likely that these women do not initiate treatment. PMID:27027674

  12. Evaluations of treatment efficacy of depression from perspective of both patients' symptoms and general sense of mental health and wellbeing: A large scale, multi-centered, longitudinal study in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qingzhi; Wang, Wei Chun; Fang, Yiru; Mellor, David; Mccabe, Marita; Byrne, Linda; Zuo, Sai; Xu, Yifeng

    2016-07-30

    Relying on the absence, presence of level of symptomatology may not provide an adequate indication of the effects of treatment for depression, nor sufficient information for the development of treatment plans that meet patients' needs. Using a prospective, multi-centered, and observational design, the present study surveyed a large sample of outpatients with depression in China (n=9855). The 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17) and the Remission Evaluation and Mood Inventory Tool (REMIT) were administered at baseline, two weeks later and 4 weeks, to assess patients' self-reported symptoms and general sense of mental health and wellbeing. Of 9855 outpatients, 91.3% were diagnosed as experiencing moderate to severe depression. The patients reported significant improvement over time on both depressive symptoms and general sense after 4-week treatment. The effect sizes of change in general sense were lower than those in symptoms at both two week and four week follow-up. Treatment effects on both general sense and depressive symptomatology were associated with demographic and clinical factors. The findings indicate that a focus on both general sense of mental health and wellbeing in addition to depressive symptomatology will provide clinicians, researchers and patients themselves with a broader perspective of the status of patients. PMID:27156024

  13. Do bonding and bridging social capital affect self-rated health, depressive mood and cognitive decline in older Japanese? A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Nishi, Mariko; Matsuo, Eri; Nofuji, Yu; Shimizu, Yumiko; Taniguchi, Yu; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji

    2013-12-01

    Little is known regarding the longitudinal effects of bonding and bridging social capital on health. This study examined the longitudinal associations of bonding and bridging social capital with self-rated health, depressive mood, and cognitive decline in community-dwelling older Japanese. Data analyzed in this study were from the 2010 (baseline) and 2012 (follow-up) Hatoyama Cohort Study. Bonding social capital was assessed by individual perception of homogeneity of the neighborhood (the level of homogeneity among neighbors) and of networks (the amount of homogeneous personal networks) in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Bridging social capital was assessed by individual perception of heterogeneity of networks (the amount of heterogeneous personal networks) in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the effects of baseline social capital on poor health outcome at follow-up by logistic regression analysis. In total, 681 people completed baseline and follow-up surveys. The mean age of participants was 71.8 ± 5.1 years, and 57.9% were male. After adjusting for sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, comorbidity, functional capacity, baseline score of each outcome, and other bonding/bridging social capital, stronger perceived neighborhood homogeneity was inversely associated with poor self-rated health (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.30-1.00) and depressive mood assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.34-0.99). When participants who reported a depressive mood at baseline were excluded, stronger perceived heterogeneous network was inversely associated with depressive mood (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19-0.87). Neither bonding nor bridging social capital was significantly associated with cognitive decline assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination. In conclusion, bonding and bridging social capital affect health in different ways, but they both have

  14. Poststroke Depression as a Factor Adversely Affecting the Level of Oxidative Damage to Plasma Proteins during a Brain Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cichoń, Natalia; Bijak, Michał; Miller, Elżbieta; Niwald, Marta; Saluk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Poststroke depression, the second most serious psychosomatic complication after brain stroke, leads to delay of the rehabilitation process and is associated with an increased disability and cognitive impairment along with increase in term mortality. Research into the biochemical changes in depression is still insufficiently described. The aim of our study was therefore to evaluate the possible association between plasma protein oxidative/nitrative damages and the development of poststroke depression. We evaluated oxidative/nitrative modifications of specific proteins by measurement of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups levels using ELISA test. Additionally, we checked differences in proteins thiol groups by spectrophotometric assay based on reaction between DTNB and thiols. We also evaluated catalase activity in erythrocytes measured as ability to decompose H2O2. Correlation analysis was performed using Spearman's rank. We observed significant (P < 0.001) differences in all oxidative/nitrative stress parameters in brain stroke patients compared to healthy group. Our research shows that oxidative damage of proteins is correlated with the degree of poststroke depression, while nitrative changes do not show any relationship. We demonstrate a positive correlation between the concentration of carbonyl groups and the Geriatric Depression Scale and a negative correlation between the degree of depression and the concentration of -SH groups or catalase activity. PMID:25838867

  15. Family Matters: The Role of Mental Health Stigma and Social Support on Depressive Symptoms and Subsequent Help Seeking Among African American Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Joe, Sean; Nebbitt, Von

    2010-01-01

    African American adolescent boys underutilize mental health service due to stigma associated with depression. Gaining an increased understanding of how depressed, African American adolescent boys perceive their mental health needs and engage in help-seeking behaviors might play an essential role in efforts to improve their symptoms and access to care. Using a mixed-methods design, this study examined the influence of mental health stigma and social support on depressive symptoms among African American adolescent boys. Findings indicated the protective effects of social support in decreasing depressive symptoms, especially when participants experienced mental health stigma. Results also revealed the pivotal role of family social support over both professional and peer support for participants who struggled with depressive symptoms. The primacy of family support among the sample, combined with the frequent distrust of professionals and peer networks, would indicate that working with families may improve initial identification of depression among African American adolescent boys and decrease their barriers to care. PMID:20953336

  16. Depression and Self-Rated Health Among Rural Women Who Experienced Adolescent Dating Abuse: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Burton, Candace W; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rehm, Roberta S; Rankin, Sally H; Humphreys, Janice C

    2016-03-01

    This study used mixed methods to examine the experiences and health of rural, young adult women (N = 100) who self-reported past experience of physical, emotional and verbal, sexual, and relational abuse in adolescent dating relationships. Few studies have examined the lasting health ramifications of adolescent dating abuse adolescent dating abuse in rural populations, and almost no mixed methods studies have explored adolescent dating abuse. Participants completed questionnaires on demographics, relationship behaviors, and mental health symptoms. A subsample (n = 10) of participants also completed semi-structured, in-depth interviews with the primary investigator. Results suggest that depressive symptoms and self-rating of health in these women are associated with particular kinds and severity of abusive experiences, and that adolescent dating abuse has ramifications for health and development beyond the duration of the original relationship. Self-rated health (SRH) was inversely associated with abusive behaviors in the relationship, whereas depressive symptoms were positively correlated with such behaviors. Self-rated health was also negatively correlated with depressive symptoms. The results of this study represent an important step toward establishing lifetime health risks posed by adolescent dating abuse. PMID:25392389

  17. Increased plasma levels of competing amino acids, rather than lowered plasma tryptophan levels, are associated with a non-response to treatment in major depression.

    PubMed

    Ormstad, Heidi; Dahl, Johan; Verkerk, Robert; Andreassen, Ole A; Maes, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Lowered plasma tryptophan (TRP) and TRP/competing amino acid (CAA) ratio may be involved in the pathophysiology of major depression (MDD). Increased cortisol and immune-inflammatory mediators in MDD may affect the availability of TRP to the brain. We investigated whether baseline or post-treatment TRP, CAAs and TRP/CAA ratio are associated with a treatment response in MDD and whether these effects may be mediated by cortisol or immune biomarkers. We included 50 medication-free MDD patients with a depressive episode (DSM diagnosis) and assessed symptom severity with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) before and after treatment as usual for 12 weeks (endpoint). Plasma levels of TRP, CAAs, the ratio, cortisol, CRP and 6 selected cytokines were assayed. The primary outcome was a 50% reduction in the IDS, while the secondary was a remission of the depressive episode. In IDS non-responders, CAAs increased and the TRP/CAA ratio decreased, while in IDS responders CAAs decreased and the TRP/CAA ratio increased from baseline to endpoint. In patients who were still depressed at endpoint TRP and CAAs levels had increased from baseline, while in remitted patients no such effects were found. Increases in CAAs were inversely correlated with changes in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist levels. The results show that increased CAA levels from baseline to endpoint are associated with a non-response to treatment in MDD patients. This suggests that the mechanism underpinning the CAA-related treatment resistance may be related to changes in immune pathways. CAA levels and amino acid metabolism may be new drug targets in depression. PMID:27237997

  18. Rumination mediates the relationships between depressed mood and both sleep quality and self-reported health in young adults.

    PubMed

    Slavish, Danica C; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E

    2015-04-01

    The psychological mechanisms by which depressed mood can lead to impaired sleep and poorer overall health remain unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which a tendency to ruminate accounts for the associations between depressed mood and both sleep quality and self-reported health in 165 healthy young adults. Self-reported assessments of anxiety, depressed mood, rumination, sleep quality, and general health were collected at two different time points approximately 2 months apart. Structural equation modeling revealed that rumination measured at the earlier time point mediated the relationships between depressed mood and both sleep quality and health, all measured at the later time point, in a model that was a good fit to the data overall, χ(2) (50, N = 165) = 103.08, p < 0.001; RMSEA = 0.08 (0.06-0.10), TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.94. Results were similar whether or not anxiety was controlled. Results indicate that rumination may be a psychological mechanism by which negative mood leads to impaired sleep and poorer perceived health. PMID:25195078

  19. Rumination Mediates the Relationships between Depressed Mood and both Sleep Quality and Self-Reported Health in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Slavish, Danica C.; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The psychological mechanisms by which depressed mood can lead to impaired sleep and poorer overall health remain unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which a tendency to ruminate accounts for the associations between depressed mood and both sleep quality and self-reported health in 165 healthy young adults. Self-reported assessments of anxiety, depressed mood, rumination, sleep quality, and general health were collected at two different time points approximately two months apart. Structural equation modeling revealed that rumination measured at the earlier time point mediated the relationships between depressed mood and both sleep quality and health, all measured at the later time point, in a model that was a good fit to the data overall, χ2 (50, N = 165) = 103.08, p < .001; RMSEA = .08 (.06 – .10), TLI = .91, CFI = .94. Results were similar whether or not anxiety was controlled. Results indicate that rumination may be a psychological mechanism by which negative mood leads to impaired sleep and poorer perceived health. PMID:25195078

  20. Overweight and depression.

    PubMed

    Ross, C E

    1994-03-01

    Is being overweight distressing? If it is, is the distress due to negative appraisals by others, to the stresses of trying to fit norms of thinness by dieting, or to the health consequences of being overweight? If being overweight is stigmatizing, negative evaluations by others may be internalized as high levels of depression. This perspective predicts that being overweight has a direct effect on depression, and that the effect is greater in social groups where being overweight is less common, especially among women, Whites, younger people, the well-educated, and the well-to-do. Alternatively, overweight may not be distressing per se. Instead, attempting to fit norms of appearance that equate thinness with attractiveness by dieting is distressing. According to this perspective, the association between being overweight and depression is explained by dieting. Finally, this association may be due to the health consequences of being overweight. A random sample of 2,020 U.S. adults aged 18-90 were interviewed by telephone in 1990. Results showed that being overweight has no direct effect on depression in any social group except among the well-educated. Overweight persons are more likely to diet and to experience worse physical health, both of which are associated with depression. Combined, these explain the negative effects of being overweight on depression. PMID:8014430

  1. Use of mental health telemetry to enhance identification and predictive value of early changes during augmentation treatment of major depression.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Ayal; Kreindler, David; Reis, Catherine; Levitt, Anthony J

    2013-12-01

    Standard clinical trial methodology in depression does not allow for careful examination of early changes in symptom intensity. The purpose of this study was to use daily "Mental Health Telemetry" (MHT) to prospectively record change in depressive and anxiety symptoms for depressed patients receiving augmentation treatment, and determine the extent and predictive capacity of early changes. We report results of a 6-week, open-label study of the addition of quetiapine XR (range, 50-300 mg) for adult patients (n = 26) with major depressive disorder who were nonresponsive to antidepressant treatment. In addition to regular study visits, all participants completed daily, wirelessly transmitted self-report ratings of symptoms on a Smartphone. Daily and 3-day moving average mean scores were calculated, and associations between early symptom change and eventual response to treatment were determined. Improvement in depressive and anxiety symptoms was identified as early as day 1 of treatment. Of the total decline in depression severity over 6 weeks, 9% was present at day 1, 28% at day 2, 39% at days 3 and 4, 65% at day 7, and 80% at day 10. Self-report rating of early improvement (≥20%) in depressive symptoms at day 7 significantly predicted responder status at week 6 (P = 0.03). Clinician-rated depressive and anxiety symptoms only became significantly associated with responder status at day 14. In conclusion, very early changes in depressive symptoms were identified using MHT, early changes accounted for most of total change, and MHT-recorded improvement as early as day 7 significantly predicted response to treatment at study end point. PMID:24100787

  2. Sleep Problems, Suicidality and Depression among American Indian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; McCall, Vaughn W; Anderson, Andrea; Bryant, Alfred; Bell, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    Study background Mental health and sleep problems are important public health concerns among adolescents yet little is known about the relationship between sleep, depressive symptoms, and suicidality among American Indian youth. Methods This study examined the impact of sleep and other factors on depressive symptoms and suicidality among Lumbee American Indian adolescents (N=80) ages 11–18. Results At the bivariate level, sleepiness, was associated with depression but not with suicidality. Time in bed (TIB) was not associated with depression, but more TIB decreased the likelihood of suicidality. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with increased likelihood of suicidality. At the multivariate level, sleepiness, suicidality, and self-esteem were associated with depression. TIB and depressive symptoms were the only variables associated with suicidality. Conclusion In working with American Indian youth, it may be helpful to consider sleep patterns as part of a comprehensive assessment process for youth who have or are at risk for depression and suicide. PMID:25309936

  3. Trajectories of depressive symptoms after hip fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cristancho, P.; Lenze, E. J.; Avidan, M. S.; Rawson, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hip fracture is often complicated by depressive symptoms in older adults. We sought to characterize trajectories of depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture and examine their relationship with functional outcomes and walking ability. We also investigated clinical and psychosocial predictors of these trajectories. Method We enrolled 482 inpatients, aged ≥60 years, who were admitted for hip fracture repair at eight St Louis, MO area hospitals between 2008 and 2012. Participants with current depression diagnosis and/or notable cognitive impairment were excluded. Depressive symptoms and functional recovery were assessed with the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Functional Recovery Score, respectively, for 52 weeks after fracture. Health, cognitive, and psychosocial variables were gathered at baseline. We modeled depressive symptoms using group-based trajectory analysis and subsequently identified correlates of trajectory group membership. Results Three trajectories emerged according to the course of depressive symptoms, which we termed ‘resilient’, ‘distressed’, and ‘depressed’. The depressed trajectory (10% of participants) experienced a persistently high level of depressive symptoms and a slower time to recover mobility than the other trajectory groups. Stressful life events prior to the fracture, current smoking, higher anxiety, less social support, antidepressant use, past depression, and type of implant predicted membership of the depressed trajectory. Conclusions Depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture are associated with poorer functional status. Clinical and psychosocial variables predicted membership of the depression trajectory. Early identification and intervention of patients in a depressive trajectory may improve functional outcomes after hip fracture. PMID:27032698

  4. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression. PMID:27610907

  5. Depressive symptoms and longitudinal changes in cognition: Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Goveas, Joseph S.; Espeland, Mark A.; Hogan, Patricia E.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Shih, Regina A.; Kotchen, Jane M.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Barnes, Deborah E.; Resnick, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated Depressive symptoms (DS) are associated with incident mild cognitive impairment and probable dementia in postmenopausal women. We examined the association of elevated DS with domain-specific cognitive changes, and the moderating role of cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) severity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). 2221 elderly women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging were separated into those with (N = 204) and without (N = 2017) elevated DS. DS and multi-domain cognitive outcomes were measured annually for an average follow-up of 5.04 years. Women with elevated DS showed baseline multi-domain cognitive deficits, but longitudinal declines in global cognition only. Persistent DS was related to greater global cognition, and verbal knowledge and fluency, and memory declines. Significant DS-CVD interactions were observed cross-sectionally (but not longitudinally) for figural memory and fine motor speed. Future studies should investigate the role of nonvascular mechanisms linking DS and cognitive decline. PMID:24584465

  6. [Health-related quality of life (SF-36) in chronic low back pain and comorbid depression].

    PubMed

    Ahrens, C; Schiltenwolf, M; Wang, H

    2010-06-01

    The purpose is to clarify if comorbidity of depression reduces health-related quality of life (SF-36) in patients with chronic low back pain (CR) and if those comorbid patients (CR+DE) benefit from multimodal pain treatment. Two groups (CR and CR+DE) each with 29 patients are compared over 6 months on study days 0, 21 (inpatient) and 180 (outpatient). Differences exist only at days 0 and 21, not at day 180, with group CR exhibiting higher SF-36 values in each case. Group CR+DE improves in the inpatient phase and especially in the outpatient phase and therefore over the entire study period more than group CR which increases solely in the inpatient phase. The comorbid group is more severely affected by their illness, but improves very constantly. The outpatient improvement suggests a good long-term prognosis. PMID:20458502

  7. Family Matters: The Role of Mental Health Stigma and Social Support on Depressive Symptoms and Subsequent Help Seeking among African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Joe, Sean; Nebbitt, Von

    2010-01-01

    African American adolescent boys underutilize mental health service due to stigma associated with depression. Gaining an increased understanding of how depressed, African American adolescent boys perceive their mental health needs and engage in help-seeking behaviors might play an essential role in efforts to improve their symptoms and access to…

  8. Comorbidity of 9/11-related PTSD and depression in the World Trade Center Health Registry 10-11 years postdisaster.

    PubMed

    Caramanica, Kimberly; Brackbill, Robert M; Liao, Tim; Stellman, Steven D

    2014-12-01

    Many studies report elevated prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among persons exposed to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) disaster compared to those unexposed; few have evaluated long-term PTSD with comorbid depression. We examined prevalence and risk factors for probable PTSD, probable depression, and both conditions 10-11 years post-9/11 among 29,486 World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees who completed surveys at Wave 1 (2003-2004), Wave 2 (2006-2007), and Wave 3 (2011-2012). Enrollees reporting physician diagnosed pre-9/11 PTSD or depression were excluded. PTSD was defined as scoring ≥ 44 on the PTSD Checklist and depression as scoring ≥ 10 on the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire. We examined 4 groups: comorbid PTSD and depression, PTSD only, depression only, and neither. Among enrollees, 15.2% reported symptoms indicative of PTSD at Wave 3, 14.9% of depression, and 10.1% of both. Comorbid PTSD and depression was associated with high 9/11 exposures, low social integration, health-related unemployment, and experiencing ≥ 1 traumatic life event post-9/11. Comorbid persons experienced poorer outcomes on all PTSD-related impairment measures, life satisfaction, overall health, and unmet mental health care need compared to those with only a single condition. These findings highlight the importance of ongoing screening and treatment for both conditions, particularly among those at risk for mental health comorbidity. PMID:25470556

  9. Chronological and subjective age differences in flourishing mental health and major depressive episode.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Corey L M; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2012-01-01

    Mental health is more than the absence of psychopathology, but few studies use positive mental health along with a measure of past year major depressive episode (MDE). This study addresses this gap by investigating the association of MDE and flourishing mental health (FMH) with chronological age and subjective (felt and ideal) age. Data are from the Midlife in the United States random digit dialing sample of adults ages 25 to 74, collected in 1995 (n = 3032). Rates of MDE were lowest, and FMH highest, among the three oldest age cohorts (45-54, 55-64, 65-74 years). Subjective age was linked with chronological age; with age, adults tend to feel younger, and want to be an age that is younger, than their actual age. As predicted by the model of subjective age as an adaptive strategy, feeling younger was related to a lower risk of MDE and a higher risk of FMH. However, wanting to be younger was related to a lower risk of FMH and unrelated to MDE. PMID:21780972

  10. Surviving depressive ill-health: a qualitative systematic review of older persons' narratives.

    PubMed

    Holm, Anne Lise; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this qualitative systematic review was to report a comprehensive literature synthesis of older persons' narratives about what they need in order to survive when suffering from depression. Their survival strategies seem to be a state rarely outlined in the literature. A systematic search of EBSCOhost/Academic Search Premier, ProQuest and PubMed was conducted for the period January 2000 to April 2012. Data were analyzed by means of thematic analysis. Thirteen studies were selected and three themes emerged from synthesis: the need for courage, strength, and self-reliance; the meaning of responsibility; and wearing a mask of normalcy to hide the shame. The first comprised two subthemes: the value of faith and distraction and activity; the second had no subtheme; and the third had one subtheme: reaching out of loneliness towards aloneness and connectivity. Further research should be focused on how community projects can improve health services such as enhancing the safety of health care and disseminating health information. PMID:23692267

  11. The Effectiveness of Clinician Feedback in the Treatment of Depression in the Community Mental Health System

    PubMed Central

    Connolly Gibbons, Mary Beth; Kurtz, John E.; Thompson, Donald L.; Mack, Rachel A.; Lee, Jacqueline K.; Rothbard, Aileen; Eisen, Susan V.; Gallop, Robert; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective We describe the development and evaluation of a clinician feedback intervention for use in community mental health settings. The Community Clinician Feedback System (CCFS) was developed in collaboration with a community partner to meet the needs of providers working in such community settings. Method The CCFS consists of weekly performance feedback to clinicians as well as a clinical feedback report that assists clinicians with patients who are not progressing as expected. Patients in the randomized sample (N=100) were pre-dominantly female African-Americans, with a mean age of 39. Results Satisfaction ratings of the CCFS indicate that the system was widely accepted by clinicians and patients. An HLM analysis comparing rates of change across conditions controlling for baseline gender, age, and racial group indicated a moderate effect in favor of the feedback condition for symptom improvement (t(94) = 2.41, p = .017, d = .50). Thirty-six percent of feedback patients compared to only 13% of patients in the no feedback condition demonstrated clinically significant change across treatment (χ2(1) = 6.13, p = .013). Conclusions These results indicate that our CCFS is acceptable to providers and patients of mental health services, and has the potential to improve the effectiveness of services for clinically meaningful depression in the community mental health setting. PMID:26052874

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Depressive Symptoms and Resiliency among African American Women in a Community-Based Primary Health Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Kisha B.; Bradford, L. Dianne; Hall, Stephanie P.; Belton, Allyson S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional pilot study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms and resiliency among 290 African American women (AAW) in a community-based primary health care center. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlation, and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Findings indicate that depressive symptoms are experienced by 49% of the participants, while 10% indicated a history of suicidal ideation. Participants had moderately high resiliency scores that had a statistically significant inverse relationship with depressive symptoms. This suggests that resiliency is potentially a protective factor for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were positively correlated with participants’ diagnosis of at least one chronic disease. The strongest predictors of depressive symptoms were previous diagnoses of a mental health condition and unemployment. This study identifies risk and potential protective factors for depression among a clinic sample of AAW. PMID:24241263

  13. Persistent reflux symptoms cause anxiety, depression, and mental health and sleep disorders in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshihide; Kamiya, Takeshi; Senoo, Kyouji; Tsuchida, Kenji; Hirano, Atsuyuki; Kojima, Hisayo; Yamashita, Hiroaki; Yamakawa, Yoshihiro; Nishigaki, Nobuhiro; Ozeki, Tomonori; Endo, Masatsugu; Nakanishi, Kazuhisa; Sando, Motoki; Inagaki, Yusuke; Shikano, Michiko; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Kubota, Eiji; Tanida, Satoshi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Katsumi, Kohei; Joh, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    Some patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease experience persistent reflux symptoms despite proton pump inhibitor therapy. These symptoms reduce their health-related quality of life. Our aims were to evaluate the relationship between proton pump inhibitor efficacy and health-related quality of life and to evaluate predictive factors affecting treatment response in Japanese patients. Using the gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaire, 145 gastroesophageal reflux disease patients undergoing proton pump inhibitor therapy were evaluated and classified as responders or partial-responders. Their health-related quality of life was then evaluated using the 8-item Short Form Health Survey, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaires. Sixty-nine patients (47.6%) were partial responders. These patients had significantly lower scores than responders in 5/8 subscales and in the mental health component summary of the 8-item Short Form Health Survey. Partial responders had significantly higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, including anxiety and depression scores, than those of responders. Non-erosive reflux disease and double proton pump inhibitor doses were predictive factors of partial responders. Persistent reflux symptoms, despite proton pump inhibitor therapy, caused mental health disorders, sleep disorders, and psychological distress in Japanese gastroesophageal reflux disease patients. PMID:27499583

  14. Mental health disorders among an invisible minority: depression and dementia among american Indian and alaska native elders.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Mario D; Baldridge, Dave; Benson, William; Crowder, Jolie; Aldrich, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    According to the 2010 Census, 5.2 million people identified themselves as American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN) in the United States. This was an increase of 39% from the prior Census, making AIANs one of the nation's fastest growing populations. The health and social programs reaching them, however, have experienced documented devastating shortfalls. Decades of inadequate resources have resulted in significant health and socioeconomic disparities. AIANs are often considered an "invisible minority." In 2012, there were 266,000 AIAN elders 65 or older who claimed one race alone. That number is projected to almost triple by 2030-when the nation's baby boomers move into the ranks of the older population. This article provides an overview of two primary mental health issues-depression and dementia-that will confront this emerging AIAN elder population. Although other health and social issues exist, this article addresses depression and dementia because they are hidden from the community and from health care agencies. This paper focuses both on the unique characteristics of the AIAN population and why it is important to address depression and dementia. The conclusion explores pragmatic policy recommendations for improving the health and long-term mental health care status of AIAN elders. PMID:26035598

  15. Less than Optimal Parenting Strategies Predict Maternal Low-Level Depression beyond that of Child Transgressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; d'Entremont, Marc-Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between less than optimal parenting styles, child transgressions and maternal depression were examined. It was predicted that variations in parenting styles would predict maternal depression over and above child transgressions. The present study involved approximately 68 children, their mothers and their preschool teachers.…

  16. A Review of Energy Drinks and Mental Health, with a Focus on Stress, Anxiety, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Concerns have been expressed regarding the potential for caffeinated energy drinks to negatively affect mental health, and particularly so in young consumers at whom they are often targeted. The products are frequently marketed with declarations of increasing mental and physical energy, providing a short-term boost to mood and performance. Although a certain amount of evidence has accumulated to substantiate some of these claims, the chronic effects of energy drinks on mental health also need to be addressed. Methods: To review the relevant literature, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for all peer-reviewed articles published in English that addressed associations between energy drink use and mental health outcomes. Case reports were also considered, though empirical studies investigating acute mood effects were excluded as a review of such articles had recently been published. Fifty-six articles were retrieved: 20 of these (along with eight more identified through other means) were included in the current review, and, because the majority addressed aspects of stress, anxiety, and depression, particular focus was placed on these outcomes. Results: Though a number of null findings (and one negative relationship) were observed, the majority of studies examined reported positive associations between energy drink consumption and symptoms of mental health problems. Conclusions: Though the findings imply that energy drink use may increase the risk of undesirable mental health outcomes, the majority of research examined utilized cross-sectional designs. In most cases, it was therefore not possible to determine causation or direction of effect. For this reason, longitudinal and intervention studies are required to increase our understanding of the nature of the relationships observed. PMID:27274415

  17. Effectiveness Research: Transporting Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents (IPT-A) From the Lab to School-Based Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mufson, Laura H.; Dorta, Kristen Pollack; Olfson, Mark; Weissman, Myrna M.; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the process of modifying and transporting an evidence-based treatment, Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents (IPT-A), from a university setting to school-based health clinics. It addresses conceptual issues involved in the shift from efficacy to effectiveness research as well as operational issues specific to…

  18. Brain-Derived neurotrophic factor levels in late-life depression and comorbid mild cognitive impairment: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Breno Satler; Reynolds, Charles F.; Begley, Amy; Dew, Mary Amanda; Anderson, Stewart J.; Lotrich, Francis; Erickson, Kirk I.; Lopez, Oscar; Aizenstein, Howard; Sibille, Etienne L.; Butters, Meryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level are implicated in the pathophysiology of cognitive decline in depression and neurodegenerative disorders in older adults. We aimed to evaluate the longitudinal association over two years between BDNF and persistent cognitive decline in individuals with remitted late-life depression and Mild Cognitive Impairment (LLD+MCI) compared to either individuals with remitted LLD and no cognitive decline (LLD+NCD) or never-depressed, cognitively normal, elderly control participants. We additionally evaluated the effect of double-blind, placebo-controlled donepezil treatment on BDNF levels in all of the remitted LLD participants (across the levels of cognitive function). We included 160 elderly participants in this study (72 LLD+NCD, 55 LLD+MCI and 33 never-depressed cognitively normal elderly participants). At the same visits, cognitive assessments were conducted and blood sampling to determine serum BDNF levels were collected at baseline assessment and after one and two years of follow-up. We utilized repeated measure, mixed effect models to assess: (1) the effects of diagnosis (LLD+MCI, LLD+NCD, and controls), time, and their interaction on BDNF levels; and (2) the effects of donepezil treatment (donepezil vs. placebo), time, baseline diagnosis (LLD+MCI vs. LLD+NCD), and interactions between these contrasts on BDNF levels. We found a significant effect of time on BDNF level (p=0.02) and a significant decline in BDNF levels over 2 years of follow-up in participants with LLD+MCI (p=0.004) and controls (p=0.04). We found no effect of donepezil treatment on BDNF level. The present results suggest that aging is an important factor related to decline in BDNF level. PMID:24290367

  19. The Impact of Preoperative Depression and Health State on Quality-of-Life Outcomes after Anterior Cervical Diskectomy and Fusion.

    PubMed

    Alvin, Matthew D; Miller, Jacob A; Lubelski, Daniel; Nowacki, Amy S; Scheman, Judith; Mathews, Manu; McGirt, Matthew J; Benzel, Edward C; Mroz, Thomas E

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Objective We sought to assess the predictive value of preoperative depression and health state on 1-year quality-of-life outcomes after anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF). Methods We analyzed 106 patients who underwent ACDF. All patients had either bilateral or unilateral cervical radiculopathy. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative health outcomes were assessed based on the visual analog scale, Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire. Univariable and multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess for preoperative predictors of 1-year change in health status according to the EQ-5D. Results Compared with preoperative health states, the ACDF cohort showed statistically significant improved PDQ (78.5 versus 57.9), PHQ-9 (9.7 versus 5.3), and EQ-5D (0.55 versus 0.68) scores at 1 year postoperatively and surpassed the minimum clinically important difference for the EQ-5D of 0.1 units (all p ≤ 0.01). Multivariate linear regression indicated that anxiolytic use and higher EQ-5D preoperative scores were associated with less 1-year postoperative improvement in health status. Although not statistically significant, clinically important effects of preoperative depression, as measured by the PHQ-9, were observed on postoperative QOL outcome (-0.006, 95% confidence interval -0.014 to 0.001). Conclusions Of patients who undergo ACDF with similar preoperative QOL health states, those with a greater degree of depression may have lower improvements in postoperative QOL compared with those with less depression. Patients with anxiety and better preoperative health states also attain less 1-year QOL improvements. PMID:27190731

  20. Social support mediates the association of health literacy and depression among racially/ethnically diverse smokers with low socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Diana W.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Adams, Claire E.; Cao, Yumei; Li, Yisheng; Waters, Andrew J.; Wetter, David W.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of U.S. adults have health literacy (HL) difficulties, and lack the ability to effectively obtain, process, and understand health information. Poor HL is associated with depression, yet mechanisms of this relation are unclear. This study examined whether social support mediated the relation between HL and depressive symptoms in 200 low-socioeconomic status (SES), racially/ethnically diverse smokers enrolled in cessation treatment. Mediation analyses were conducted using bootstrapping and controlling for SES and nicotine dependence. In simple mediation models, social support (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List [ISEL] total, subscales [Appraisal, Belonging, Tangible]) mediated the effect of HL on depression, such that lower HL was associated with lower perceived support, which predicted higher depressive symptoms (ps<.05). A multiple mediation model, with ISEL subscales entered simultaneously as mediators, was significant (p<.05) but only the Belonging subscale demonstrating independent significance (p<.05). Thus, social support may be a critical factor underlying the HL-depression relationship in low-SES, racially/ethnically diverse smokers. PMID:25391450

  1. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Public Mental Health: Comparison to Treatment as Usual for Treatment -Resistant Depression

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Molly A.; Basco, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    State mental health systems have been leaders in the implementation of evidence-based approaches to care for individuals with severe mental illness. Numerous case studies of the wide-scale implementation of research-supported models such as Integrated Dual Diagnosis Treatment and Assertive Community Treatment are documented. However, relatively few dissemination efforts have focused on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for individuals with major depression despite evidence indicating its efficacy with this population. A multi-site effectiveness trial of CBT was conducted within the Texas public mental health system. Eighty-three adults with major depression received CBT from community clinicians trained through a workshop and regular consultation with a master clinician. Outcomes were compared to a matched sample of individuals receiving pharmacotherapy. Outcome measures used included the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology and Beck Depression Inventory. Individuals receiving CBT showed greater improvements in depression symptoms than those in the comparison group. Greater pre-treatment symptom severity predicted better treatment response, while the presence of comorbid personality disorders was associated with poorer outcomes. PMID:24692026

  2. Depression and Relational Health in Asian American and European American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Terese J.; Chan, Pauline; Liang, Belle

    2014-01-01

    Research consistently demonstrates elevated rates of depression among college-aged women, yet evidence of racial differences in depression among this population are poorly understood. Moreover, the correlates of depression among Asian American women are also understudied. In this exploratory analysis, we examined mean differences in depression…

  3. Prefrontal inositol levels and implicit decision-making in healthy individuals and depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Jollant, Fabrice; Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Ding, Yang; Turecki, Gustavo; Bechara, Antoine; Near, Jamie

    2016-08-01

    Risky decision-making is found in several mental disorders and is associated with deleterious consequences. Current research aims at understanding the biological underpinnings of this complex cognitive function and the basis of individual variability. We used 3T proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to measure in vivo glutamate, GABA, N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), and myo-inositol levels at rest in the right dorsal prefrontal cortex of 54 participants, comprising 24 unmedicated depressed patients and 30 healthy individuals. Participants were also tested with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a classical measure of value-based decision-making. No group differences were found in terms of compound levels or decision-making performance. However, high inositol levels were associated with lower decision-making scores independently from group, notably during the initial stage of the task when explicit rules are still unknown and decisions are largely based on implicit processes (whole sample: F=4.0; p=0.02), with a large effect size (Cohen׳s d=0.8, 95% [0.2-1.5]). This effect was stronger when explicit knowledge was taken into account, with explicit knowledge showing an independent effect on performance. There was no association with other compounds. This study suggests, for the first time, a role for the inositol pathway on the implicit learning component of decision-making, without any direct effect on the explicit component. Hypothesized mechanisms implicate intracellular calcium modulation and subsequent synaptic plasticity. These findings represent a first step in the understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying decision-making and the identification of therapeutic targets. They also emphasize a dimensional approach in the study of the neurobiological determinants of mental disorders. PMID:27342631

  4. Elevated level of nitric oxide mediates the anti-depressant effect of rubidium chloride in mice.

    PubMed

    Kordjazy, Nastaran; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Amiri, Shayan; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Kordjazy, Mehdi; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2015-09-01

    Rubidium has been used to treat psychiatric conditions including depression. We examined the antidepressant activity of rubidium chloride (RbCl) in male mice and the possible interference of nitric oxide (NO) in this effect. Mouse forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were used to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of RbCl. These drugs were used in this study: N(G)-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 7-Nitroindazole and aminoguanidine, selective neuronal and inducible NOS inhibitors, respectively, and l-arginine, an NO precursor. We studied the changes of serum and hippocampus nitrite level after different treatments. RbCl (30mg/kg), when administered 60min before the tests, significantly reduced the immobility time. Non-effective doses of l-NAME (10mg/kg) and aminoguanidine (50mg/kg), co-administered with the effective dose of RbCl (30mg/kg), reversed the anti-immobility effect of RbCl, while 7-NI (25mg/kg) could not prevent the diminishing effect of RbCl on immobility time. Moreover, co-administration of non-effective doses of l-arginine (750mg/kg) and RbCl (10mg/kg) decreased the immobility time. None of the mentioned treatments altered the locomotor activity of mice in open-field test. Nitrite level was significantly increased in serum and hippocampus of animals after RbCl (30mg/kg) administration and this nitrite level elevation was reversed by non-effective dose of l-NAME and aminoguanidine, but not 7-NI. Our data for the first time reveal the role of NO pathway in the antidepressant-like activity of RbCl, concluding that this effect results from elevation of NO through involvement of iNOS in mice. PMID:26101064

  5. Knowledge level of Ayurveda practitioner on public health

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jaideep; Roy, Jayanti Dutta; Minhas, Amarjeet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Looking at the current scenario of shortage of public health professionals on one hand and intense demand of community health services on the other it is imperative that the contribution of Ayurveda practitioners is increased in the field of public health. However, the updating of the knowledge of public health issues and concepts will ultimately decide whether they can be successfully integrated into the community health arena or not. Aim: This study was conducted to assess the knowledge level of Ayurveda practitioners about public health Issues with the aim find out the competence of Ayurveda practitioners regarding knowledge of public health issues. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted in the union territory, Chandigarh and two districts each of the states of Haryana and Punjab. Public health knowledge assessment tool comprising a questionnaire was used to collect information from the respondents who were registered Ayurveda doctors and interns. The data was analyzed with the help of IBM SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solutions). Results: The respondents scored between 5 and 17 points out of a total of 19 points and majority (82%) of the respondents fell in the category of “having average knowledge”. The mean score was 8.42 ± 2. Conclusion: Curriculum and training of Ayurveda education need to have more public health related inputs and hence that the Ayurveda practitioners are well-versed with the public health concepts and could contribute in the public health field meaningfully. PMID:25364193

  6. Have Mental Health Education Programs Influenced the Mental Health Literacy of Those with Major Depression and Suicidal Ideation? A Comparison between 1998 and 2008 in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Peter N.; Goldney, Robert D.; Taylor, Anne W.; Eckert, Kerena A.

    2012-01-01

    Mental health literacy is the knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid their recognition, management, or prevention and is considered to be an important determinant of help-seeking. This has relevance in suicide prevention, as depression, the clinical condition most frequently associated with suicidality, has been the target of…

  7. Promoting health equity: WHO health inequality monitoring at global and national levels

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. Objective This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. Design We outline the scope, content, and intended uses/application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. Conclusions The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level. PMID:26387506

  8. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... Doctors do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  9. Depression, 5HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms, and plasma BDNF levels in hemodialysis patients with chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Chen, Chih-Ken; Hsu, Heng-Jung; Wu, I-Wen; Sun, Chiao-Yin; Lee, Chin-Chan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Depression is the most prevalent comorbid psychiatric disease among hemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease. This cross-sectional study investigated whether depression in hemodialysis patients is associated with the polymorphism of the 5′ flanking transcriptional region (5-HTTLPR) of the serotonin transporter gene, the valine (Val)-to-methionine (Met) substitution at codon 66 (Val66Met) polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, or plasma BDNF levels. Methods A total of 188 participants (mean age: 58.5±14.0 years; 89 men and 99 women) receiving hemodialysis at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were recruited. The diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) was confirmed using the Chinese version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The genotypes of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met were conducted using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The plasma BDNF levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results Forty-five (23.9%) patients fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for a MDD. There were no significant effects of the 5-HTTLPR or BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphism on MDD among the hemodialysis patients. The plasma BDNF levels correlated significantly with age (P=0.003) and sex (P=0.047) but not with depression, the genotypes of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met, the current antidepressant treatment, or the duration under hemodialysis. Conclusion Our results did not support the hypothesis of an involvement of the 5HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met genotypes, or plasma BDNF levels in the pathogenesis of depression, in patients receiving hemodialysis. A study with a large sample size and homogenous patient group is warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25045267

  10. Self-Rated Mental Health: Screening for Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Women Exposed to Perinatal Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Kastello, Jennifer C; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Gaffney, Kathleen F; Kodadek, Marie P; Bullock, Linda C; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the validity of a single-item, self-rated mental health (SRMH) measure in the identification of women at risk for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Baseline data of 239 low-income women participating in an intimate partner violence (IPV) intervention study were analyzed. PTSD was measured with the Davidson Trauma Scale. Risk for depression was determined using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. SRMH was assessed with a single item asking participants to rate their mental health at the time of the baseline interview. Single-item measures can be an efficient way to increase the proportion of patients screened for mental health disorders. Although SRMH is not a strong indicator of PTSD, it may be useful in identifying pregnant women who are at increased risk for depression and need further comprehensive assessment in the clinical setting. Future research examining the use of SRMH among high-risk populations is needed. PMID:26535762

  11. Depression in Aboriginal men in central Australia: adaptation of the Patient Health Questionnaire 9

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While Indigenous Australians are believed to be at a high risk of psychological illness, few screening instruments have been designed to accurately measure this burden. Rather than simply transposing western labels of symptoms, this paper describes the process by which a screening tool for depression was specifically adapted for use across multiple Indigenous Australian communities. Method Potential depression screening instruments were identified and interrogated according to a set of pre-defined criteria. A structured process was then developed which relied on the expertise of five focus groups comprising of members from primary Indigenous language groups in central Australia. First, focus group participants were asked to review and select a screening measure for adaptation. Bi-lingual experts then translated and back translated the language within the selected measure. Focus group participants re-visited the difficult items, explored their meaning and identified potential ways to achieve equivalence of meaning. Results All five focus groups independently selected the Primary Health Questionnaire 9, several key conceptual differences were exposed, largely related to the construction of hopelessness. Together with translated versions of each instrument for each of the five languages, a single, simplified English version for use across heterogeneous settings was negotiated. Importantly, the ‘code’ and specific conceptually equivalent words that could be used for other Indigenous language groups were also developed. Conclusions The extensive process of adaptation used in this study has demonstrated that within the context of Indigenous Australian communities, across multiple language groups, where English is often a third or fourth language, conceptual and linguistic equivalence of psychological constructs can be negotiated. A validation study is now required to assess the adapted instrument’s potential for measuring the burden of disease across all

  12. Replication of Epigenetic Postpartum Depression Biomarkers and Variation with Hormone Levels.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Lauren; Clive, Makena; Kimmel, Mary; Gispen, Fiona; Guintivano, Jerry; Brown, Tori; Cox, Olivia; Judy, Jennifer; Meilman, Samantha; Braier, Aviva; Beckmann, Matthias W; Kornhuber, Johannes; Fasching, Peter A; Goes, Fernando; Payne, Jennifer L; Binder, Elisabeth B; Kaminsky, Zachary

    2016-05-01

    DNA methylation variation at HP1BP3 and TTC9B is modified by estrogen exposure in the rodent hippocampus and was previously shown to be prospectively predictive of postpartum depression (PPD) when modeled in antenatal blood. The objective of this study was to replicate the predictive efficacy of the previously established model in women with and without a previous psychiatric diagnosis and to understand the effects of changing hormone levels on PPD biomarker loci. Using a statistical model trained on DNA methylation data from N=51 high-risk women, we prospectively predicted PPD status in an independent N=51 women using first trimester antenatal gene expression levels of HP1BP3 and TTC9B, with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69-0.92, p<5 × 10(-4)). Modeling DNA methylation of these genes in N=240 women without a previous psychiatric diagnosis resulted in a cross-sectional prediction of PPD status with an AUC of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.68-0.93, p=0.01). TTC9B and HP1BP3 DNA methylation at early antenatal time points showed moderate evidence for association to the change in estradiol and allopregnanolone over the course of pregnancy, suggesting that epigenetic variation at these loci may be important for mediating hormonal sensitivity. In addition both loci showed PPD-specific trajectories with age, possibly mediated by age-associated hormonal changes. The data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that PPD is mediated by differential gene expression and epigenetic sensitivity to pregnancy hormones and that modeling proxies of this sensitivity enable accurate prediction of PPD. PMID:26503311

  13. Low level communication management for e-health systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, Guillermo; Zerbini, Carlos; Voos, Javier; Centeno, Carlos; González, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The heterogeneity of e-health systems encourages the use of standards such as Health Level 7 (HL7v3) to ensure interoperability. Many actual implementations address this problem by unoptimized high level programming of top-range portable computing platforms. However, this approach could pose excessive demands on battery-powered mid-range terminals. In this work, we propose low-level support for portable HL7v3-compatible embedded systems in order to better exploit their limited processing and communications capabilities. In particular, we present our experience in mobile communication management through two different approaches, which proves the feasibility of this proposal.

  14. Sarcopenia Is Not Associated with Depression in Korean Adults: Results from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Chae-Hwa; Kang, Kee-Young; Kang, Se-Hun; Kim, Han-Kyul

    2016-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is associated with metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and mortality; however, its association with depression in the general population remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated this association in Korea. Methods This study included 8,958 and 8,518 subjects from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-1, 2. The study was restricted to participants ≥20 years of age who had completed the survey, including whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. After exclusion, 7,364 subjects were included in our final analysis. Age was categorized into three groups (20–39, 40–59, and ≥60 years), and subjects were categorized according to their sarcopenic and obesity status. Depression was categorized into three groups (not depressed, depressed, and depression). Results The sarcopenia group did not have a higher prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms compared to the nonsarcopenia group; the same was true even when obesity was considered. All age groups showed non-significant associations between sarcopenia and depression. In multivariate logistic regression models, no significant associations were observed between sarcopenia and prevalence of depression or depressed symptoms in men and women. Conclusion We found no associations between sarcopenia and the prevalence of depression or depressed symptoms in Korean adults. Future large prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to further assess this relationship. PMID:26885321

  15. Modification of levels of depression in mother-bereaved women by parental and marital relationships.

    PubMed

    Parker, G; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D

    1984-02-01

    A sample of 79 young women whose mothers had died in the subjects' childhood, and whose fathers had remarried, was studied to determine any effects on state and trait depression associated with modification of high and low risk parental style. Lack of care from fathers and lack of care from step-mothers were the parental variables most strongly associated with high trait depression, and almost all subjects scoring both these parents as uncaring affirmed a distinct life-time episode of depression. In a married sub-group of 63 subjects, low marital affection and low stepmother care accounted for 33% of the variance in trait depression scores, while low paternal care was no longer a significant predictor. Data for the married sub-group suggested that an affectionate husband largely corrected any diathesis to greater depression exerted by uncaring parenting, while the protective effects of caring parenting on adult depressive experience were largely undone by marriage to an unaffectionate husband. PMID:6709777

  16. Association of Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse with Intimate Partner Violence, Poor General Health and Depressive Symptoms among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Yasmin V.; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiuyue; Nicolaidis, Christina; Rondon, Marta B.; Garcia, Pedro J.; Sanchez, Pedro A. Mascaro; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined associations of childhood physical and sexual abuse with risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). We also evaluated the extent to which childhood abuse was associated with self-reported general health status and symptoms of antepartum depression in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. Methods In-person interviews were conducted to collect information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 1,521 women during early pregnancy. Antepartum depressive symptomatology was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results Any childhood abuse was associated with 2.2-fold increased odds of lifetime IPV (95%CI: 1.72–2.83). Compared with women who reported no childhood abuse, those who reported both, childhood physical and sexual abuse had a 7.14-fold lifetime risk of physical and sexual IPV (95%CI: 4.15–12.26). The odds of experiencing physical and sexual abuse by an intimate partner in the past year was 3.33-fold higher among women with a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse as compared to women who were not abused as children (95%CI 1.60–6.89). Childhood abuse was associated with higher odds of self-reported poor health status during early pregnancy (aOR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.04–1.68) and with symptoms of antepartum depression (aOR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.58–2.71). Conclusion These data indicate that childhood sexual and physical abuse is associated with IPV, poor general health and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. The high prevalence of childhood trauma and its enduring effects of on women’s health warrant concerted global health efforts in preventing violence. PMID:25635902

  17. Promoting social responsibility for health: health impact assessment and healthy public policy at the community level.

    PubMed

    Mittelmark, M B

    2001-09-01

    The 1997 Jakarta Declaration on Health Promotion into the 21st Century called for new responses to address the emerging threats to health. The declaration placed a high priority on promoting social responsibility for health, and it identified equity-focused health impact assessment as a high priority for action. This theme was among the foci at the 2000 Fifth Global Conference on Health Promotion held in Mexico. This paper, which is an abbreviation of a technical report prepared for the Mexico conference, advances arguments for focusing on health impact assessment at the local level. Health impact assessment identifies negative health impacts that call for policy responses, and identifies and encourages practices and policies that promote health. Health impact assessment may be highly technical and require sophisticated technology and expertise. But it can also be a simple, highly practical process, accessible to ordinary people, and one that helps a community come to grips with local circumstances that need changing for better health. To illustrate the possibilities, this paper presents a case study, the People Assessing Their Health (PATH) project from Eastern Nova Scotia, Canada. It places ordinary citizens, rather than community elites, at the very heart of local decision-making. Evidence from PATH demonstrates that low technology health impact assessment, done by and for local people, can shift thinking beyond the illness problems of individuals. It can bring into consideration, instead, how programmes and policies support or weaken community health, and illuminate a community's capacity to improve local circumstances for better health. This stands in contrast to evidence that highly technological approaches to community-level health impact assessment can be self-defeating. Further development of simple, people-centred, low technology approaches to health impact assessment at the local level is called for. PMID:11509463

  18. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and leptin levels in patients with a diagnosis of severe major depressive disorder with melancholic features

    PubMed Central

    Sarandöl, Emre; Kırhan, Emine; Özkaya, Güven; Kırlı, SelcÇuk

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and leptin have been hypothesized to be involved in the neurobiology of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate BDNF, VEGF and leptin levels in patients with severe melancholic depression. Methods: A total of 40 drug-free patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with melancholic features and 40 healthy controls were included in the study. Demographic information, psychiatric evaluation and physical examination were documented for both groups. Serum BDNF, VEGF levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and leptin with radioimmunoassay methods. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale were applied to the patients. Results: There were no significant differences in serum BDNF, VEGF and leptin levels between the patient and control groups. There was a negative correlation between BDNF levels and the number of depressive episodes. It was noted that VEGF levels decreased with increasing severity of depression. Conclusions: These findings suggest that BDNF levels might be associated with the recurrence of depression and VEGF levels might be a determinant of the severity of depression. PMID:23983958

  19. Hepatic steatosis depresses alpha-1-antitrypsin levels in human and rat acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Du, Jianjun; Yu, Pengfei; Bai, Bin; Zhao, Zhanwei; Wang, Shiqi; Zhu, Junjie; Feng, Quanxin; Gao, Yun; Zhao, Qingchuan; Liu, Chaoxu

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis (HS) can exacerbate acute pancreatitis (AP). This study aimed to investigate the relation between α1-antitrypsin (AAT) and acute pancreatitis when patients have HS. Using proteomic profiling, we identified 18 differently expressed proteins pots in the serum of rats with or without HS after surgical establishment of AP. AAT was found to be one of the significantly down-regulated proteins. AAT levels were significantly lower in hepatic steatosis acute pancreatitis (HSAP) than in non-HSAP (NHSAP) (P < 0.001). To explore the clinical significance of these observations, we measured the levels of AAT in the serum of 240 patients with HSAP, NHSAP, fatty liver disease (FLD), or no disease. Compared with healthy controls, serum AAT levels in patients with NHSAP were significantly higher (P < 0.01), while in patients with HSAP serum AAT levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01). Further studies showed that acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE-II) scores were negatively correlated with serum AAT levels (r = −0.85, P < 0.01). In conclusion, low serum levels of AAT in patients with HSAP are correlated with disease severity and AAT may represent a potential target for therapies aiming to improve pancreatitis. PMID:26634430

  20. Hepatic steatosis depresses alpha-1-antitrypsin levels in human and rat acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Du, Jianjun; Yu, Pengfei; Bai, Bin; Zhao, Zhanwei; Wang, Shiqi; Zhu, Junjie; Feng, Quanxin; Gao, Yun; Zhao, Qingchuan; Liu, Chaoxu

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis (HS) can exacerbate acute pancreatitis (AP). This study aimed to investigate the relation between α1-antitrypsin (AAT) and acute pancreatitis when patients have HS. Using proteomic profiling, we identified 18 differently expressed proteins pots in the serum of rats with or without HS after surgical establishment of AP. AAT was found to be one of the significantly down-regulated proteins. AAT levels were significantly lower in hepatic steatosis acute pancreatitis (HSAP) than in non-HSAP (NHSAP) (P < 0.001). To explore the clinical significance of these observations, we measured the levels of AAT in the serum of 240 patients with HSAP, NHSAP, fatty liver disease (FLD), or no disease. Compared with healthy controls, serum AAT levels in patients with NHSAP were significantly higher (P < 0.01), while in patients with HSAP serum AAT levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01). Further studies showed that acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE-II) scores were negatively correlated with serum AAT levels (r = -0.85, P < 0.01). In conclusion, low serum levels of AAT in patients with HSAP are correlated with disease severity and AAT may represent a potential target for therapies aiming to improve pancreatitis. PMID:26634430

  1. High glycemic index diet as a risk factor for depression: analyses from the Women’s Health Initiative1

    PubMed Central

    Gangwisch, James E; Hale, Lauren; Garcia, Lorena; Malaspina, Dolores; Opler, Mark G; Payne, Martha E; Rossom, Rebecca C; Lane, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Background: The consumption of sweetened beverages, refined foods, and pastries has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, any influence that refined carbohydrates has on mood could be commensurate with their proportion in the overall diet; studies are therefore needed that measure overall intakes of carbohydrate and sugar, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load. Objective: We hypothesized that higher dietary GI and glycemic load would be associated with greater odds of the prevalence and incidence of depression. Design: This was a prospective cohort study to investigate the relations between dietary GI, glycemic load, and other carbohydrate measures (added sugars, total sugars, glucose, sucrose, lactose, fructose, starch, carbohydrate) and depression in postmenopausal women who participated in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study at baseline between 1994 and 1998 (n = 87,618) and at the 3-y follow-up (n = 69,954). Results: We found a progressively higher dietary GI to be associated with increasing odds of incident depression in fully adjusted models (OR for the fifth compared with first quintile: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.37), with the trend being statistically significant (P = 0.0032). Progressively higher consumption of dietary added sugars was also associated with increasing odds of incident depression (OR for the fifth compared with first quintile: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.41; P-trend = 0.0029). Higher consumption of lactose, fiber, nonjuice fruit, and vegetables was significantly associated with lower odds of incident depression, and nonwhole/refined grain consumption was associated with increased odds of depression. Conclusions: The results from this study suggest that high-GI diets could be a risk factor for depression in postmenopausal women. Randomized trials should be undertaken to examine the question of whether diets rich in low-GI foods could serve as treatments and primary preventive

  2. Maximizing the Value of Mobile Health Monitoring by Avoiding Redundant Patient Reports: Prediction of Depression-Related Symptoms and Adherence Problems in Automated Health Assessment Services

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Jeremy B; Pfeiffer, Paul N; Silveira, Maria J; Singh, Satinder; Lavieri, Mariel S

    2013-01-01

    Background Interactive voice response (IVR) calls enhance health systems’ ability to identify health risk factors, thereby enabling targeted clinical follow-up. However, redundant assessments may increase patient dropout and represent a lost opportunity to collect more clinically useful data. Objective We determined the extent to which previous IVR assessments predicted subsequent responses among patients with depression diagnoses, potentially obviating the need to repeatedly collect the same information. We also evaluated whether frequent (ie, weekly) IVR assessment attempts were significantly more predictive of patients’ subsequent reports than information collected biweekly or monthly. Methods Using data from 1050 IVR assessments for 208 patients with depression diagnoses, we examined the predictability of four IVR-reported outcomes: moderate/severe depressive symptoms (score ≥10 on the PHQ-9), fair/poor general health, poor antidepressant adherence, and days in bed due to poor mental health. We used logistic models with training and test samples to predict patients’ IVR responses based on their five most recent weekly, biweekly, and monthly assessment attempts. The marginal benefit of more frequent assessments was evaluated based on Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves and statistical comparisons of the area under the curves (AUC). Results Patients’ reports about their depressive symptoms and perceived health status were highly predictable based on prior assessment responses. For models predicting moderate/severe depression, the AUC was 0.91 (95% CI 0.89-0.93) when assuming weekly assessment attempts and only slightly less when assuming biweekly assessments (AUC: 0.89; CI 0.87-0.91) or monthly attempts (AUC: 0.89; CI 0.86-0.91). The AUC for models predicting reports of fair/poor health status was similar when weekly assessments were compared with those occurring biweekly (P value for the difference=.11) or monthly (P=.81). Reports of

  3. Beta-Arrestin1 Levels in Mononuclear Leukocytes Support Depression Scores for Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Farzana; Nayyar, Sanket; Richie, William; Archibong, Anthony; Nayyar, Tultul

    2015-01-01

    Depression is very common in reproductive women particularly with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), which is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Beta-arrestins were previously implicated in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment for mood disorders. This study examined whether a measurement for beta-arrestin1 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMC), could aid to distinguish between PMDD and PMS. Study participants (n = 25) were non-pregnant women between 18–42 years of age with the symptoms of PMS/PMDD, but not taking any antidepressants/therapy and at the luteal phase of menstruation. The levels of beta-arrestin1 protein in the PBMCs were determined by ELISA using human beta-arrestin1 kit. The beta-arrestin1 levels were compared with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores among these women. The magnitude of the different parameters for Axis 1 mental disorders were significantly higher and beta arrestin1 protein levels in PBMCs were significantly lower in women with PMDD as compared to PMS women. The reduction in beta arrestin1 protein levels was significantly correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms. Beta-arrestin1 measurements in women may potentially serve for biochemical diagnostic purposes for PMDD and might be useful as evidence-based support for questionnaires. PMID:26703643

  4. Beta-Arrestin1 Levels in Mononuclear Leukocytes Support Depression Scores for Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder.

    PubMed

    Alam, Farzana; Nayyar, Sanket; Richie, William; Archibong, Anthony; Nayyar, Tultul

    2016-01-01

    Depression is very common in reproductive women particularly with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), which is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Beta-arrestins were previously implicated in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment for mood disorders. This study examined whether a measurement for beta-arrestin1 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMC), could aid to distinguish between PMDD and PMS. Study participants (n = 25) were non-pregnant women between 18-42 years of age with the symptoms of PMS/PMDD, but not taking any antidepressants/therapy and at the luteal phase of menstruation. The levels of beta-arrestin1 protein in the PBMCs were determined by ELISA using human beta-arrestin1 kit. The beta-arrestin1 levels were compared with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores among these women. The magnitude of the different parameters for Axis 1 mental disorders were significantly higher and beta arrestin1 protein levels in PBMCs were significantly lower in women with PMDD as compared to PMS women. The reduction in beta arrestin1 protein levels was significantly correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms. Beta-arrestin1 measurements in women may potentially serve for biochemical diagnostic purposes for PMDD and might be useful as evidence-based support for questionnaires. PMID:26703643

  5. Global agenda, local health: including concepts of health security in preparedness programs at the jurisdictional level.

    PubMed

    Eby, Chas

    2014-01-01

    The Global Health Security Agenda's objectives contain components that could help health departments address emerging public health challenges that threaten the population. As part of the agenda, partner countries with advanced public health systems will support the development of infrastructure in stakeholder health departments. To facilitate this process and augment local programs, state and local health departments may want to include concepts of health security in their public health preparedness offices in order to simultaneously build capacity. Health security programs developed by public health departments should complete projects that are closely aligned with the objectives outlined in the global agenda and that facilitate the completion of current preparedness grant requirements. This article identifies objectives and proposes tactical local projects that run parallel to the 9 primary objectives of the Global Health Security Agenda. Executing concurrent projects at the international and local levels in preparedness offices will accelerate the completion of these objectives and help prevent disease epidemics, detect health threats, and respond to public health emergencies. Additionally, future funding tied or related to health security may become more accessible to state and local health departments that have achieved these objectives. PMID:25396695

  6. Depression and Resilience in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ristevska-Dimitrovska, Gordana; Stefanovski, Petar; Smichkoska, Snezhana; Raleva, Marija; Dejanova, Beti

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A significant number of breast cancer patients, during their life with the diagnosis, experience emotional distress in the form of depression and anxiety. Psychological resilience is the ability of a person to protect his/her mental health when faced with adverse circumstances such as the cancer diagnosis. This study aims to assess the resilience in breast cancer patients and to explore whether depression affects the resilience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred eighteen (218) women, treated for early breast cancer responded to Connor - Davidson Resilience Scale and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale, in order to assess the level of psychological resilience and the level of depression. RESULTS: There is a significant negative correlation between depression and resilience in our sample (r = - 0.562, p < 0.001). Individuals with higher levels of depression have lower levels of psychological resilience. There is no statistically significant correlation between the ages of the participants; time passed since diagnosis, cancer stage and resilience levels. CONCLUSION: This study shows that patients who are less depressed have higher levels of resilience and that psychological resilience may independently contribute to lower levels of depression among breast cancer patients. The level of psychological resilience may be a protective factor for depression and psychological distress.

  7. Elevated expression of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 mRNA at the neuronal level in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei of depressed suicides

    PubMed Central

    Bach-Mizrachi, H; Underwood, MD; Tin, A; Ellis, SP; Mann, JJ; Arango, V

    2008-01-01

    Deficient levels of serotonin are associated with suicide and depression. Paradoxically, in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) there are more serotonin neurons and more neuronal tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) expression postmortem in depressed suicides. In this study, we sought to determine whether greater TPH2 expression in depressed suicides was the result of more TPH2 expression per neuron. In situ hybridization and computer-assisted image analysis were performed on tissue sections throughout the extent of the raphe nuclei at the level of silver grains per neuron to systematically quantify TPH2 neuronal expression. Depressed suicides have 26.5% more TPH2 grain density per neuron in the DRN compared with matched controls (P= 0.04). The difference in grain density is greater at mid- and caudal anatomical levels across the rostrocaudal axis of the DRN. Densitometric analysis of TPH2 expression in the DRN subnuclei showed that higher expression levels were observed at posterior anatomical levels of depressed suicides (121% of control in the caudal subnucleus). Higher TPH2 expression in depressed suicides may explain more TPH2 protein and reflect a homeostatic response to deficient serotonin levels in the brains of depressed suicides. Localized changes in TPH2 expression in specific subnuclei of the DRN suggest that the serotonergic compensatory mechanism in depression and suicide is specifically regulated within the DRN and has implications for regions innervated by this subnucleus. PMID:18180753

  8. Depressive Symptoms and SES among the Mid-Aged and Elderly in China: Evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study National Baseline

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Sun, Xiaoting; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Yaohui

    2015-01-01

    We examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among the mid-aged and elderly in China and examine relationships between depression and current SES factors such as gender, age, education and income (per capita expenditures). In addition, we explore associations of depressive symptoms with measures of early childhood health, recent family deaths and current chronic health conditions. We use data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) national baseline, fielded in 2011/12, which contains the ten question version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) for 17,343 respondents aged 45 and older. We fill a major gap by using the CHARLS data to explore the general patterns of depression and risk factors among the Chinese elderly nationwide, which has never been possible before. We find that depressive symptoms are significantly associated with own education and per capita expenditure, and the associations are robust to the inclusion of highly disaggregated community fixed effects and to the addition of several other risk factors. Factors such as good general health during childhood are negatively associated with later depression. There exist strong gender differences, with females having higher depression scores. Being a recent widow or widower is associated with more depressive symptoms, as is having a series of chronic health problems, notably having moderate or severe pain, disability or problems with measures of physical functioning. Adding the chronic health problems to the specification greatly reduces the SES associations with depressive symptoms, suggesting that part of the pathways behind these associations are through these chronic health factors. PMID:25261616

  9. Project HealthDesign: A preliminary program-level report

    PubMed Central

    Casper, Gail R.; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2013-01-01

    Advancements in the health information technology that brought personal health records to individuals have opened the door to new insights concerning the cues people use to monitor health in their everyday lives. In order to evaluate the impact of capturing, storing, and integrating these observations of daily living (ODLs) into the clinical care process, Project HealthDesign selected five teams to create and analyze mobile health applications with ODLs in mind. These teams targeted underserved, minority populations with at least two chronic conditions. Using third-party platforms for storage, the teams were expected to bring the ODLs into the clinical workflow through the EHR. ODLs were successfully captured, interpreted and displayed; however technical and policy barriers challenge their integration outside of the mobile application. This paper serves as a preliminary, program-level report distinct from the publication of evaluation results from individual teams. PMID:24551331

  10. Music Listening Behavior, Health, Hearing and Otoacoustic Emission Levels

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson Marron, Kathleen; Sproat, Brittany; Ross, Danielle; Wagner, Sarah; Alessio, Helaine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between hearing levels, otoacoustic emission levels and listening habits related to the use of personal listening devices (PLDs) in adults with varying health-related fitness. Duration of PLD use was estimated and volume level was directly measured. Biomarkers of health-related fitness were co-factored into the analyses. 115 subjects ages 18–84 participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two sub-groups; PLD users and non-PLD users. Both groups completed audiological and health-related fitness tests. Due to the mismatch in the mean age of the PLD user versus the non-PLD user groups, age-adjusted statistics were performed to determine factors that contributed to hearing levels. Age was the most significant predictor of hearing levels across listening and health-related fitness variables. PLD user status did not impact hearing measures, yet PLD users who listened less than 8 hours per week with intensities of less than 80 dBA were found to have better hearing. Other variables found to be associated with hearing levels included: years listening to PLD, number of noise environments and use of ear protection. Finally, a healthy waist-to-hip ratio was a significant predictor of better hearing, while body mass index approached, but did not reach statistical significance. PMID:25068604

  11. Changing the course of comorbid eating disorders and depression: what is the role of public health interventions in targeting shared risk factors?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Public health has a productive history of improving global health due to its focus on reaching large populations using effective and scalable interventions. Yet, the marriage between evidence-based science and the implementation of community/public health interventions within mental illness remains underdeveloped. Research suggests that major depression is the most commonly cited comorbidity for eating disorders (EDs). Thus, identification of public health strategies that jointly impact depression and EDs, including shared risk factors, has the potential to significantly impact mental health suffering. The primary aim of this paper is to examine and discuss such public health approaches as well as explore cues taken from public health efforts to inform future directions in research and clinical practice. As a comprehensive review of all public health initiatives that address EDs and depression is beyond the scope of this paper, this paper reviews a series of programs/approaches that either are of large scale and/or have received empirical support. In particular, public health related interventions that aim to reduce variable risk factors associated with EDs and depression, as well as interventions that aim to reduce continuous measures of ED and depression symptoms are reviewed. To date, despite significant progress in modifying risk factors for EDs and depression, the field still lacks a public health study that has been appropriately designed and/or adequately powered to assess true ED/depression prevention effects. Further, although several programs show promise, many widely disseminated approaches lack empirical support, raising concerns about the potential for waste of limited resources. In summary, although the combination of prevention and public health based approaches appear to have merit when trying to move the needle on risk factors and symptoms associated with EDs and/or depression, further research is needed to investigate the reach and effectiveness

  12. Relations between Concurrent Longitudinal Changes in Cognition, Depressive Symptoms, Self-Rated Health and Everyday Function in Normally Aging Octogenarians.

    PubMed

    Classon, Elisabet; Fällman, Katarina; Wressle, Ewa; Marcusson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Ability to predict and prevent incipient functional decline in older adults may help prolong independence. Cognition is related to everyday function and easily administered, sensitive cognitive tests may help identify at-risk individuals. Factors like depressive symptoms and self-rated health are also associated with functional ability and may be as important as cognition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between concurrent longitudinal changes in cognition, depression, self-rated health and everyday function in a well-defined cohort of healthy 85 year olds that were followed-up at the age of 90 in the Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment 85 study. Regression analyses were used to determine if cognitive decline as assessed by global (the Mini-Mental State Examination) and domain specific (the Cognitive Assessment Battery, CAB) cognitive tests predicted functional decline in the context of changes in depressive symptoms and self-rated health. Results showed deterioration in most variables and as many as 83% of these community-dwelling elders experienced functional difficulties at the age of 90. Slowing-down of processing speed as assessed by the Symbol Digits Modality Test (included in the CAB) accounted for 14% of the variance in functional decline. Worsening self-rated health accounted for an additional 6%, but no other variables reached significance. These results are discussed with an eye to possible preventive interventions that may prolong independence for the steadily growing number of normally aging old-old citizens. PMID:27551749

  13. Relations between Concurrent Longitudinal Changes in Cognition, Depressive Symptoms, Self-Rated Health and Everyday Function in Normally Aging Octogenarians

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ability to predict and prevent incipient functional decline in older adults may help prolong independence. Cognition is related to everyday function and easily administered, sensitive cognitive tests may help identify at-risk individuals. Factors like depressive symptoms and self-rated health are also associated with functional ability and may be as important as cognition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between concurrent longitudinal changes in cognition, depression, self-rated health and everyday function in a well-defined cohort of healthy 85 year olds that were followed-up at the age of 90 in the Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment 85 study. Regression analyses were used to determine if cognitive decline as assessed by global (the Mini-Mental State Examination) and domain specific (the Cognitive Assessment Battery, CAB) cognitive tests predicted functional decline in the context of changes in depressive symptoms and self-rated health. Results showed deterioration in most variables and as many as 83% of these community-dwelling elders experienced functional difficulties at the age of 90. Slowing-down of processing speed as assessed by the Symbol Digits Modality Test (included in the CAB) accounted for 14% of the variance in functional decline. Worsening self-rated health accounted for an additional 6%, but no other variables reached significance. These results are discussed with an eye to possible preventive interventions that may prolong independence for the steadily growing number of normally aging old-old citizens. PMID:27551749

  14. Subjective Versus Objective: An Exploratory Analysis of Latino Primary Care Patients With Self-Perceived Depression Who Do Not Fulfill Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire Criteria for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Alvidrez, Jennifer; Paris, Manuel; Escobar, Javier I.; Dixon, Jane K.; Desai, Mayur M.; Whittemore, Robin; Scahill, Lawrence D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Identification and treatment of depression may be difficult for primary care providers when there is a mismatch between the patient's subjective experiences of illness and objective criteria. Cultural differences in presentation of symptoms among Latino immigrants may hinder access to care for treatment of depression. This article seeks to describe the self-perceptions and symptoms of Latino primary care patients who identify themselves as depressed but do not meet screening criteria for depression. Method: A convenience sample of Latino immigrants (N = 177) in Corona, Queens, New York, was obtained from a primary care practice from August 2008 to December 2008. The sample was divided into 3 groups according to whether participants met Patient Health Questionnaire diagnostic criteria for depression and whether or not participants had a self-perceived mental health problem and self-identified their problem as “depression” from a checklist of cultural idioms of distress. Psychosocial, demographic, and treatment variables were compared between the 3 groups. Results: Participants’ descriptions of symptoms had a predominantly somatic component. The most common complaints were ánimo bajo (low energy) and decaimiento (weakness). Participants with “subjective” depression had mean scores of somatic symptoms and depression severity that were significantly lower than the participants with “objective” depression and significantly higher than the group with no depression (P < .0001). Conclusions: Latino immigrants who perceive that they need help with depression, but do not meet screening criteria for depression, still have significant distress and impairment. To avoid having these patients “fall through the cracks,” it is important to take into account culturally accepted expressions of distress and the meaning of illness for the individual. PMID:21274360

  15. Simultaneous Decomposition of Depression Heterogeneity on the Person-, Symptom- and Time-Level: The Use of Three-Mode Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Monden, Rei; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Stegeman, Alwin; Conradi, Henk Jan; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although heterogeneity of depression hinders research and clinical practice, attempts to reduce it with latent variable models have yielded inconsistent results, probably because these techniques cannot account for all interacting sources of heterogeneity at the same time. Therefore, to simultaneously decompose depression heterogeneity on the person-, symptom and time-level, three-mode Principal Component Analysis (3MPCA) was applied to data of 219 Major Depression patients, who provided Beck Depression Inventory assessments every three months for two years. The resulting person-level components were correlated with external baseline clinical and demographic variables. The 3MPCA extracted two symptom-level components ('cognitive', 'somatic-affective'), two time-level components ('improving', 'persisting') and three person-level components, characterized by different interaction-patterns between the symptom- and time-components ('severe non-persisting', 'somatic depression' and 'cognitive depression'). This model explained 28% of the total variance and 65% when also incorporating the general trend in the data). Correlations with external variables illustrated the content differentiation between the person-components. Severe non-persisting depression was positively correlated with psychopathology (r=0.60) and negatively with quality of life (r=-0.50). Somatic depression was negatively correlated with physical functioning (r=-0.45). Cognitive depression was positively correlated with neuroticism (r=0.38) and negatively with self-esteem (r=-0.47). In conclusion, 3MPCA decomposes depression into homogeneous entities, while accounting for the interactions between different sources of heterogeneity, which shows the utility of the technique to investigate the underlying structure of complex psychopathology data and could help future development of better empirical depression subtypes. PMID:26177365

  16. Test Review: Kovacs, M. "Children's Depression Inventory 2 (CDI 2)" (2nd ed.). North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems Inc, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Yunhee

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Children's Depression Inventory 2 (CDI 2), published by Multi-Health Systems (MHS) to assess depressive symptoms in 7- to 17-year-old children and adolescents. Given the importance of early diagnosis and treatment (Kovacs & Devlin, 1998), the CDI 2 can assist professionals to pinpoint critical depressive…

  17. The Impact of Perceived Interpersonal Functioning on Treatment for Adolescent Depression: IPT-A versus Treatment as Usual in School-Based Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith; Mufson, Laura; Jekal, Angela; Turner, J. Blake

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Aspects of depressed adolescents' perceived interpersonal functioning were examined as moderators of response to treatment among adolescents treated with interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A; Mufson, Dorta, Moreau, & Weissman, 2004) or treatment as usual (TAU) in school-based health clinics. Method: Sixty-three…

  18. Women At Work and At Home: Implications for Depression and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanefield, Linda

    Researchers in the area of depression, aware that women are more likely than men to be depressed, have examined women's marital and employment status to explain this phenomenon. However, the meanings, perceptions, and situations encountered within marital and work roles also contribute to emotional distress. The traditional sex role explanation of…

  19. Vitamin D supplementation and depression in the women's health initiative calcium and vitamin D trial.

    PubMed

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Powers, Sally I; Spangler, Leslie; Larson, Joseph; Michael, Yvonne L; Millen, Amy E; Bueche, Maria N; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Brunner, Robert L; Ockene, Ira; Ockene, Judith K; Liu, Simin; Manson, Joann E

    2012-07-01

    While observational studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency increases risk of depression, few clinical trials have tested whether vitamin D supplementation affects the occurrence of depression symptoms. The authors evaluated the impact of daily supplementation with 400 IU of vitamin D(3) combined with 1,000 mg of elemental calcium on measures of depression in a randomized, double-blinded US trial comprising 36,282 postmenopausal women. The Burnam scale and current use of antidepressant medication were used to assess depressive symptoms at randomization (1995-2000). Two years later, women again reported on their antidepressant use, and 2,263 completed a second Burnam scale. After 2 years, women randomized to receive vitamin D and calcium had an odds ratio for experiencing depressive symptoms (Burnam score ≥0.06) of 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.56) compared with women in the placebo group. Supplementation was not associated with antidepressant use (odds ratio = 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.92, 1.12) or continuous depressive symptom score. Results stratified by baseline vitamin D and calcium intake, solar irradiance, and other factors were similar. The findings do not support a relation between supplementation with 400 IU/day of vitamin D(3) along with calcium and depression in older women. Additional trials testing higher doses of vitamin D are needed to determine whether this nutrient may help prevent or treat depression. PMID:22573431

  20. Relationship Between Quality of Life and Depression in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadeh, Fatemeh; Kafaei Atrian, Mahboobe; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Bagheri, Azam; Sadat, Zohreh; Karimian, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Quality of life differs for different people in different situations and is related to one's self-satisfaction with life. Quality of life is affected by health status. Objectives: The current study examined the relationship between quality of life and depression in pregnant women in Kashan city. Patients and Methods: A Case - control study was performed on 112 depressed pregnant women (Case Group) and 353 Non-depressed pregnant women (Control Group) who referred to the prenatal health care centers of Kashan University of Medical Sciences .They completed Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) to assess the quality of life and the Beck Depression Inventory to assess the level of depressive symptoms. T-test, chi-square and Pearson correlation coefficient statistical tests were used for data analysis. Results: The findings showed that there was an inverse relationship between quality of life and depression in pregnancy (P = 0.0001). Average scores in all eight domains of quality of life were significantly lower in depressed pregnant women compared to non- depressed women. The strongest relationship was observed between depression and vitality (r =-0.52, P = 0.0001), mental health (r = -0.50, P = 0.001) and social functioning (r =-0.38, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Depressed pregnant women had a lower quality of life. The proper management of depression during pregnancy can improve the quality of life in women. It is recommended that antenatal services integrate screening for depression into routine antenatal care. PMID:25414858

  1. St John’s wort use in Australian general practice patients with depressive symptoms: their characteristics and use of other health services

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While depression is frequently managed by general practitioners, often patients self-manage these symptoms with alternative therapies, including St John’s wort (SJW). We tested whether use of SJW was associated with different patterns of conventional and complementary health service use, strategies used for management of depression, or user dissatisfaction with or lack of trust in their general practitioner or clinic overall. Methods Secondary analysis of data collected from an Australian population screened for a longitudinal cohort study of depression. Main outcome measures were CES-D for depressive symptoms, satisfaction with their general practitioner (GPAQ), Trust in Physician scale, self-report of health services usage and strategies used to manage depression, stress or worries. Results Response rate was 7667/17,780 (43.1%). Of these, 4.3% (320/7,432) had used SJW in the past 12 months (recent ‘SJW users’). SJW users were significantly more likely to be depressed and to have a higher CES-D score. There were no statistically significant differences between recent SJW users and non-SJW users in satisfaction with their general practice or in trust in their general practitioner (GP) when adjusted for multiple factors. SJW users were significantly more likely to use all health services, whether conventional or complementary, as well as other strategies used for mental health care. SJW users were also more likely to consider themselves the main carer for their depression. Conclusions Primary care attendees with symptoms of depression who use SJW appear not to be rejecting conventional medicine. Rather, they may be proactive care seekers who try both conventional and complementary strategies to manage their depressive symptoms. If GPs enquire and find that their depressed patients are using SJW, this may indicate that they might explore for unrelieved symptoms of depression and also consider the issue of potential for interactions between SJW and

  2. Knowledge of depression and depression related stigma in immigrants from former Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Copelj, Anja; Kiropoulos, Litza

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the current research was to assess and compare level of depression literacy and level of depression related stigma in first generation immigrants from former Yugoslavia (FY) with a same aged Anglo Australian (AA) sample. The community sample comprised of 54 immigrants born in the FY and 54 AA born participants living in Melbourne. Participants were recruited through various social and recreational clubs. All participants completed questionnaires assessing depression literacy, self and perceived stigma and level of acculturation for the immigrants from FY in an interview format. After controlling for level of education, immigrants from the FY demonstrated lower depression literacy and higher personal and perceived depression stigma scores compared to the AA participants. The findings provide further insight to potential barriers impeding access to mental health care in immigrant populations living in Australia. Implications for mental health professionals working with immigrant populations in Australia are discussed. PMID:21424537

  3. Depression, anxiety and telomere length in young adults: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Needham, B L; Mezuk, B; Bareis, N; Lin, J; Blackburn, E H; Epel, E S

    2015-04-01

    Telomere length has been hypothesized to be a marker of cumulative exposure to stress, and stress is an established cause of depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between depression, anxiety and telomere length, and to assess whether this relationship is moderated by race/ethnicity, gender and/or antidepressant use. Data were from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Telomere length was assessed using the quantitative PCR method of telomere length relative to standard reference DNA. Past-year major depression (MD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD), as well as depressed affect and anxious affect, were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Inventory (N=1290). Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between depression and anxiety disorders and telomere length. Among women, those with GAD or PD had shorter telomeres than those with no anxious affect (β: -0.07, P<0.01), but there was no relationship among men (β: 0.08, P>0.05). Among respondents currently taking an antidepressant, those with MD had shorter telomeres than those without (β: -0.26, P<0.05), but there was no association between MD and telomere length among those not using antidepressants (β: -0.00, P>0.05). Neither depressive nor anxiety disorders were directly associated with telomere length in young adults. There was suggestive evidence that pharmacologically treated MD is associated with shorter telomere length, likely reflecting the more severe nature of MD that has come to clinical attention. PMID:25178165

  4. An Analysis of the Relationship between Internet Addiction and Depression Levels of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    The concept of internet addiction refers to the excessive use of internet which in turn causes various problems in individual, social and professional aspects. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between depression and internet addiction in terms of grades, sex, the existence of internet connection at home and time spent on…

  5. Predictors and Correlates of High Levels of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms among Children at Age 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Sharon L.; Larkby, Cynthia A.; Day, Richard; Day, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors that predict or are correlated with symptoms of depression and anxiety in 10-year-olds. Method: Women and their offspring were followed from the fourth prenatal month through 10 years. There were 636 mother-child pairs at 10 years, a follow-up rate of 83% of the birth cohort. Cognitive, psychological,…

  6. Health Promotion to Reduce Blood Pressure Level among Older Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    1986-01-01

    Low-income Black elders completed a 10-week health promotion program for the purpose of lowering or stabilizing blood pressure levels. Comparisons were made between classes that met weekly versus three times a week, and between yoga and aerobics formats. A peer-led program was developed that continued for 10 months after the professionally-led…

  7. The Role of Health Locus of Control in Predicting Depression Symptoms in a Sample of Iranian Older Adults with Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad-Abadi, Mohammad-Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the prediction of depression on a group of Iranian older adults based on components of health locus of control. Method: Sixty-six men and 42 women over the age of 55 were recruited from the retirement clubs in Shiraz, using convenience sampling. The participants completed the research questionnaires including the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC). Results: The findings on health locus of control revealed that the highest score was on internal locus of control followed by God, powerful others and chance. The mean score on depression was on a normal range. Multiple regression analysis showed that two independent variables including internal control (ß = −.32, p < 0.01) and God control (ß = −.20, = p < 0.03) significantly predicted depression. The other components of health locus of control such as chance and powerful others as well as age did not predict depression. Findings also revealed that the independents variables explained 26% of the total variance of depression (R2 = .26, p <0.001). Conclusion: his study provides more support for the application of theory of health locus of control on depression. PMID:27437004

  8. Depressive Symptoms among Cancer Patients in a Philippine Tertiary Hospital: Prevalence, Factors, and Influence on Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Que, Jocelyn C.; Sy Ortin, Teresa T.; Anderson, Karen O.; Gonzalez-Suarez, Consuelo B.; Feeley, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The World Health Organization recognizes depression as one of the most burdensome diseases in the world. Among cancer patients, depression is significantly associated with shorter survival, independent of the influence of biomedical prognostic factors. Although cancer is the third leading cause of morbidity and mortality among Filipinos, little is known about depressive symptoms and their influence on health-related quality of life in this population. We assessed the prevalence of, and factors associated with, depressive symptoms and their influence on health-related quality of life in Filipino patients with cancer. Methods The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-8 and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 were administered to all inpatients and outpatients, age >=18 years presenting for cancer treatment. Results Twenty-two percent (n=53/247) were categorized as depressed, using a PHQ-8 cutoff of ≥10. Depressed patients scored lower on cognitive, emotional, role, physical, and social functioning than those who scored PHQ<10 (all P<0.001). Depression varied by disease status, performance status and marital status (all P<0.001). However, only performance status (OR [odds ratio]=2.20; 95% CI=1.60, 3.00) and disease status (OR=2.4; 95% CI=1.13, 5.22) were significantly associated with depression in the multivariable model. Conclusions Depression is prevalent in Filipino cancer patients. The findings provide empirical support for the development of mental health services in this understudied population. This study, the first to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with depression in Filipino cancer patients, needs further validation. PMID:24047452

  9. Optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels for multiple health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency has harmful effects on health and that recent vitamin D intake recommendations may be associated with better health outcomes. In this chapter, evidence is summarized from different studies that evaluate threshold levels for serum 25(OH)D levels in relation to bone mineral density (BMD), lower extremity function, dental health, risk of falls, fractures, cancer prevention, incident hypertension and mortality. For all endpoints, levels in the deficient range (< 50 nmol/l; < 20 ng/ml) are associated with no benefit or adverse effects, while the most advantageous serum levels for 25(OH)D appeared to be close to 75 nmol/l (30 ng/ml). An intake of 800 IU (20 microg) of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) per day for all adults may bring 97% of the population to level of at least 50 nmol/l and about 50% up to 75 nmol/l. Thus, higher doses of vitamin D than currently recommended are needed to bring most individuals to75 nmol/l. While estimates suggest that 1600 to 2000 IU vitamin D3 per day may successfully and safely achieve this goal, the implications of higher doses for the total adult population need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:25207384

  10. Effectiveness of different corticosterone administration methods to elevate corticosterone serum levels, induce depressive-like behavior, and affect neurogenesis levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kott, J M; Mooney-Leber, S M; Shoubah, F A; Brummelte, S

    2016-01-15

    High levels of chronic stress or stress hormones are associated with depressive-like behavior in animal models. However, slight elevations in corticosterone (CORT) - the major stress hormone in rodents - have also been associated with improved performances, albeit in a sex-dependent manner. Some of the discrepancies in the literature regarding the effects of high CORT levels may be due to different administrations methods. The current study aims to compare the effects of ∼40mg/kg given either via subcutaneous injection, through an implanted pellet, or in the drinking water, for ∼21days on CORT serum levels, depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST), and neurogenesis levels in the dentate gyrus (DG) in adult female rats. We found that animals exposed to the daily injections showed elevated CORT levels throughout the administration period, while the pellet animals showed only a transient increase, and drinking water animals revealed no elevation in CORT in serum. In addition, only the injection group exhibited higher levels of immobility in the FST. Interestingly, animals receiving CORT via injection or drinking water had lower numbers of doublecortin-positive cells in the ventral DG one week after the last CORT administration compared to animals implanted with a CORT pellet. These results will contribute to the growing literature on the effects of chronic CORT exposure and may help to clarify some of the discrepancies among previous studies, particularly in females. PMID:26556064

  11. The relationship of serum cortisol levels with depression, cognitive function and sleep disorders in chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Afsar, Baris

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, the relationships between cortisol, cognitive function, depressive behavior, and sleep quality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients was investigated. Patients underwent history taking, physical examination, biochemical analysis, 24-h urine collection (for CKD patients only), measurement of dialysis adequacy (for HD patients only), evaluation of cognitive function, depressive behavior and sleep quality. Among study participants 58 had creatinine clearance ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (Group 1), 41 had creatinine clearance between 30 and 59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (Group 2), 25 had creatinine clearance between 15 and 29 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (Group 3) and 12 had creatinine clearance <15 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (Group 4). 38 patients were regular HD patients (Group 5). The cortisol levels in Group 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 patients were 472.3 ± 138.4, 490.2 ± 214.3, 541.6 ± 172.8, 569.9 ± 101.0 and 637.8 ± 153.7 nmol/L, respectively (P < 0.0001 for trend). In both non-dialysis patient group and dialysis patients linear regression analysis showed that cortisol was independently related with Beck depression inventory (BDI) score (P: 0.013 and 0.001, respectively) but not with cognitive function and sleep quality. In conclusion serum cortisol levels were independently associated with depressive behavior both in CKD and HD patients but not with cognitive function and sleep quality. PMID:25069791

  12. Depression, Stressful Life Events, and the Impact of Variation in the Serotonin Transporter: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health)

    PubMed Central

    Haberstick, Brett C.; Boardman, Jason D.; Wagner, Brandon; Smolen, Andrew; Hewitt, John K.; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.; Tabor, Joyce; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Brummett, Beverly H.; Williams, Redford B.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Mullan Harris, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background The low transcriptionally efficient short-allele of the 5HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism has been implicated to moderate the relationship between the experience of stressful life events (SLEs) and depression. Despite numerous attempts at replicating this observation, results remain inconclusive. Methods We examined this relationship in young-adult Non-Hispanic white males and females between the ages of 22 and 26 (n = 4724) participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) with follow-up information every six years since 1995. Results Linear and logistic regression models, corrected for multiple testing, indicated that carriers of one or more of the S-alleles were more sensitive to stress than those with two L-alleles and at a higher risk for depression. This relationship behaved in a dose-response manner such that the risk for depression was greatest among those who reported experiencing higher numbers of SLEs. In post-hoc analyses we were not able to replicate an interaction effect for suicide ideation but did find suggestive evidence that the effects of SLEs and 5HTTLPR on suicide ideation differed for males and females. There were no effects of childhood maltreatment. Discussion Our results provide partial support for the original hypothesis that 5-HTTLPR genotype interacts with the experience of stressful life events in the etiology of depression during young adulthood. However, even with this large sample, and a carefully constructed a priori analysis plan, the results were still not definitive. For the purposes of replication, characterizing the 5HTTLPR in other large data sets with extensive environmental and depression measures is needed. PMID:26938215

  13. Alteration in plasma corticosterone levels following long term oral administration of lead produces depression like symptoms in rats.

    PubMed

    Haider, Saida; Saleem, Sadia; Tabassum, Saiqa; Khaliq, Saima; Shamim, Saima; Batool, Zehra; Parveen, Tahira; Inam, Qurat-ul-ain; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2013-03-01

    Lead toxicity is known to induce a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunctions that may result in adverse effects on several organs, including the central nervous system. Long-term exposure to low levels of lead (Pb(2+)) has been shown to produce behavioral deficits in rodents and humans by affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These deficits are thought to be associated with altered brain monoamine neurotransmission and due to changes in glucocorticoids levels. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Pb(2+)exposure on growth rate, locomotor activity, anxiety, depression, plasma corticosterone and brain serotonin (5-HT) levels in rats. Rats were exposed to lead in drinking water (500 ppm; lead acetate) for 5 weeks. The assessment of depression was done using the forced swimming test (FST). Estimation of brain 5-HT was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Plasma corticosterone was determined by spectrofluorimetric method. The present study showed that long term exposure to Pb(2+) significantly decreased the food intake followed by the decrease in growth rate in Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control group. No significant changes in open field activity were observed following Pb(2+)exposure while significant increase in anxiogenic effect was observed. Increased plasma corticosterone and decreased 5-HT levels were exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to controls. A significant increase in depressive like symptoms was exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control rats. The results are discussed in the context of Pb(2+) inducing a stress-like response in rats leading to changes in plasma corticosterone and brain 5-HT levels via altering tryptophan pyrrolase activity. PMID:23315312

  14. Mental Health and Well-Being in Different Levels of Perceived Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Noorbala, AA; Heris, M Agah; Alipour, A; Mousavi, E; Farazi, G

    2012-01-01

    Background To compare mental health and well-being in different levels of the perceived discrimination among Iranian people living in Tehran. Method: Using multi-stage sampling, 1255 subjects with the average age of 45 years and 9 months (including 672 women and 583 men) were selected and they completed all items of the general health questionnaire (GHQ), the social well-being inventory (SWI), personal well-being inventory (PWI), and a question to assess the perceived discrimination. Results: Data analysis by Kruskal-Wallis test revealed that there were significant differences between physical symptoms (χ2=5.93, P<0.05) and depression (χ 2=15.70, P<0.05), the subscales of mental health in different levels of the perceived discrimination. Furthermore, comparing personal well-being scores and its subscales in different levels of the perceived discrimination showed significant differences in personal hygiene (χ2=7.20, P<0.05), and security in future (χ2=7.60, P<0.05). Emotional well-being (χ2=12.25, P<0.05), self-rule (χ2=7.45, P<0.05), personal growth (χ2=19.87, P<0.05), and psychological well-being (χ2= 9.09, P<0.05) were significantly different in different levels of the perceived discrimination, too. Moreover, comparing social well-being in different levels of the perceived discrimination indicated significant differences between social acceptance (χ 2=14.91, P<0.05), and social participation (χ 2= 10.91, P<0.05). Conclusion: Therefore, people are more active in society, increases the possibility of encountering with discrimination and consequently the perception of that. PMID:23113164

  15. Gender Differences in Relations of Smoking Status, Depression, and Suicidality in Korea: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Mi; Jung, Jae-Woo; Park, In-Won; Ahn, Chul Min; Kim, Yu-Il; Yoo, Kwang-Ha; Chun, Eun Mi; Jung, Ji Ye; Park, Young Sik; Park, Ju-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Objective As mental health problems may play an important role in initiating and maintaining cigarette smoking in females and there are an increasing number of female smokers, we evaluated the relationship between smoking status and mental health problems including depression and suicide ideation in women in Korea. Methods We analyzed the 5-year cumulative data (19 years of age or older, n=32,184) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted from 2008 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate associations between cigarette smoking status and mental health parameters while controlling for potentially confounding variables. Results Among current smokers, females showed higher lifetime prevalence in having a depressive episode, a doctor-diagnosed major depression, a current diagnosis of depression, or receiving treatment for depression in comparison with males. In addition, females were more likely to report on having a depressive episode, suicidal ideation and attempts, and psychiatric counselling within the previous year, as compared to males. Female former smokers showed intermediate characteristics in parameters of mental health status within the previous year, ranking between lifetime non-smokers and the current smokers. Conclusion Identifying the factors related to mental health status among current smokers can increase opportunities for an early intervention and help reduce the prevalence of smoking and increase smoking cessation rates particularly in females. Developing adaptive coping strategies other than smoking in female youth is potentially important in reducing the initiation of smoking. PMID:27081387

  16. [Health care levels and minimum recommendations for neonatal care].

    PubMed

    Rite Gracia, S; Fernández Lorenzo, J R; Echániz Urcelay, I; Botet Mussons, F; Herranz Carrillo, G; Moreno Hernando, J; Salguero García, E; Sánchez Luna, M

    2013-07-01

    A policy statement on the levels of care and minimum recommendations for neonatal healthcare was first proposed by the Standards Committee and the Board of the Spanish Society of Neonatology in 2004. This allowed us to define the level of care of each center in our country, as well as the health and technical requirements by levels of care to be defined. This review takes into account changes in neonatal care in the last few years and to optimize the location of resources. Facilities that provide care for newborn infants should be organized within a regionalized system of perinatal care. The functional capabilities of each level of care should be defined clearly and uniformly, including requirements for equipment, facilities, personnel, ancillary services, training, and the organization of services (including transport) needed to cover each level of care. PMID:23266243

  17. Effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Immunomodulator on Cytokines Levels: An Alternative Therapy for Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, María Eugenia; Mendieta, Danelia; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Bojalil, Rafael; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Pavón, Lenin

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a psychiatric illness that presents as a deficit of serotonergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. MDD patients also experience alterations in cortisol and cytokines levels. Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is the first-line antidepressant regimen for MDD. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a combination of SSRIs and an immunomodulator—human dialyzable leukocyte extract (hDLE)—on cortisol and cytokines levels. Patients received SSRIs or SSRIs plus hDLE. The proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, and IFN-γ; anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-13 and IL-10; and 24-h urine cortisol were measured at weeks (W) 0, 5, 20, 36, and 52 of treatment. The reduction in cortisol levels in the SSRI-treated group was 30% until W52, in contrast, the combined treatment induced a 54% decrease at W36. The decline in cortisol in patients who were treated with SSRI plus hDLE correlated with reduction of anti-inflammatory cytokines and increases levels of proinflammatory cytokines at the study conclusion. These results suggest that the immune-stimulating activity of hDLE, in combination with SSRIs, restored the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine balance and cortisol levels in depressed patients versus those who were given SSRIs alone. PMID:24348675

  18. Substance Use, Depression and Mental Health Functioning in Patients Seeking Acute Medical Care in an Inner-City ED

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Maureen A.; Barry, Kristin L.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Blow, Frederic C.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the behavioral health of a consecutive sample of 5,641 adult emergency department (ED) patients aged 19 through 60 presenting for medical care in a large, inner-city hospital emergency department. Twenty-three percent met criteria for major depression; average mental health functioning, as measured by the mental health component of the SF-12, was half of a standard deviation lower than in the general population; 15% met criteria for alcohol or drug abuse/dependence in the past year. Comorbidity was high. These behavioral health disorders may complicate treatment and diagnosis of the chief presenting complaint. These findings, coupled with the high rates of these disorders, suggest the importance of screening and either beginning appropriate treatment or offering appropriate referral for such disorders in ED settings. PMID:21086057

  19. How mental health literacy and experience of mental illness relate to stigmatizing attitudes and social distance towards people with depression or psychosis: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Background Evidence suggests that mental health literacy among the public is low, and stigmatizing attitudes are widespread. So far the effects of anti-stigma campaigns are small, and studies demonstrate that negative attitudes have been quite stable through recent decades. Aims To investigate the relationships between mental health literacy, experience of mental illness and stigmatizing attitudes/social distance towards people with depression or psychosis. Methods A cross-sectional study in which staff members from public services in Sweden (n = 1027) completed questionnaires covering demographic data, self-reported experience of mental illness, identification of a vignette for depression or psychosis, beliefs about helpful interventions for the illness presented in the vignette, and attitudes and social distance towards people with the illness. Results About 50% of participants could identify depression and less than 40% psychosis. A higher degree of mental health literacy was related to less stigma and social distance but mainly towards people with depression. A similar relationship was shown for having personal or family experience of mental illness and attitudes/social distance. Negative attitudes and social distance were significantly higher in all aspects measured towards a person with psychosis than a person with depression. Conclusions A higher degree of mental health literacy relates to more positive attitudes and less desire for social distance towards people with depression. The differences between depression and psychosis should be taken into account in anti-stigma interventions. PMID:26643359

  20. Depression and mental health in the community and the role of the nurse.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Aysha

    2015-05-01

    Aysha Mendes discusses the risk of depression in patients who live alone, are elderly, or who are coping with physical illness, and the importance of community nurses quickly and correctly diagnosing any symptoms. PMID:25993376

  1. Mental health in hypertension: assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress on anti-hypertensive medication adherence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic conditions like hypertension may experience many negative emotions which increase their risk for the development of mental health disorders particularly anxiety and depression. For Ghanaian patients with hypertension, the interaction between hypertension and symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress remains largely unexplored. To fill this knowledge gap, the study sought to ascertain the prevalence and role of these negative emotions on anti-hypertensive medication adherence while taking into account patients’ belief systems. Methods The hospital-based cross-sectional study involving 400 hypertensive patients was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Ghana. Data were gathered on patient’s socio-demographic characteristics, anxiety, depression and stress symptoms, spiritual beliefs, and medication adherence. Results Hypertensive patients experienced symptoms of anxiety (56%), stress (20%) and depression (4%). As a coping mechanism, a significant relation was observed between spiritual beliefs and anxiety (x2 = 13.352, p = 0.010), depression (x2 = 6.205, p = 0.045) and stress (x2 = 14.833, p = 0.001). Stress among patients increased their likelihood of medication non-adherence [odds ratio (OR) = 2.42 (95% CI 1.06 – 5.5), p = 0.035]. Conclusion The study has demonstrated the need for clinicians to pay attention to negative emotions and their role in medication non-adherence. The recommendation is that attention should be directed toward the use of spirituality as a possible mechanism by which negative emotions could be managed among hypertensive patients. PMID:24987456

  2. Health effects of low-level exposure to formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Main, D.M.; Hogan, T.J.

    1983-12-01

    Twenty-one subjects exposed to formaldehyde (at levels between 0.12 and 1.6 parts per million (ppm)) in two mobile trailers and the remaining 18 unexposed workers of the same workforce were examined by questionnaire and spirometry. Symptoms of eye and throat irritation and increased headache and fatigue were significantly more common among the exposed group than the comparison group. Irritation of the nose, chest tightness, and shortness of breath were also more common among the exposed. Spirometry revealed no decrease in ventilatory function among the exposed workers. The significant increase in frequency of individuals with symptoms indicated an adverse health effect from exposure to formaldehyde at levels between 0.12 and 1.6 ppm. This may have implications regarding the adequacy of the US permissable exposure limit value and suggest the need for further examination of the health effects of formaldehyde in the nonoccupational environment.

  3. Are Pregnant and Postpartum Women Interested in Health-Related Apps? Implications for the Prevention of Perinatal Depression.

    PubMed

    Osma, Jorge; Barrera, Alinne Z; Ramphos, Eleni

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that women are more likely than men to use the Internet to seek health information and that the use of technology is common among perinatal women. Access to the Internet is growing through the global use of mobile phones and apps, in both developed and less developed countries. This pattern is particularly relevant for clinicians and researchers who are interested in the use of technologies to disseminate perinatal depression interventions. In a cross-sectional anonymous online survey for English and Spanish-speaking perinatal women, 509 pregnant (77.6 percent) and postpartum (22.4 percent) women provided demographic and Information and Communication Technologies data. Results indicated that the single device with greatest access was the mobile phone (47.5 percent). The majority of the sample had Internet access through mobile phones, computers, or both. Significant differences in socioeconomic status were found for Internet seeking behavior of health-related information and downloading apps between those with and without Internet access. Ninety percent of respondents (n = 267) searched for health-related information and 72.3 percent had downloaded any kind of app. More than half of respondents (57 percent, n = 188) downloaded a health-related app and 26.9 percent reported having paid for the apps. This study shows preliminary evidence to suggest the need to design, develop, and test apps that aim to disseminate prevention programs for perinatal depression. PMID:27327069

  4. High frequency and intensity of drinking may attenuate elevated inflammatory cytokine levels of major depression in alcohol-use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Lien, Lars; Martinez, Priscilla; Aukrust, Pål; Ueland, Thor; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Hestad, Knut; Bramness, Jørgen G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Since major depression (MD) is often comorbid with alcohol-use disorders (AUD) and alcohol itself modulates the immune system, we examined serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon (IFN)-γ in AUD patients with and without MD. Putative interactions between alcohol variables and MD on cytokine levels were also assessed. Methods A consecutive sample of AUD inpatients (N=176) from eight alcohol treatment centers in Kathmandu, Nepal was assessed for alcohol use and depression by administering fully-structured psychiatric interviews. Serum cytokine levels were determined using multiplex technology. Results AUD patients with a positive history of MD had higher levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (p =0.019), TNF (p =0.020) and IFN-γ (p =0.001), but not of IL-10 (p= 0.853). AUD patients with MD had higher concentrations of cytokines compared with those without, regardless of the severity of the alcohol problem, but the difference was greater among those drinking in lower frequency and intensity. Conclusion These findings provide evidence for altered functioning of the immune system in AUD patients with comorbid MD. However, frequent and intense drinking may attenuate the difference in the cytokine profiles between AUD patients with and without MD. PMID:24995667

  5. Perceptions of Vietnamese fathers' acculturation levels, parenting styles, and mental health outcomes in Vietnamese American adolescent immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Peter V

    2008-10-01

    Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. MostVietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Inventory, this exploratory study surveyed 290Vietnamese American adolescents in a major metropolitan area to examine the relationship between their fathers' acculturation levels and parenting styles and the relationships among parenting styles and self-esteem levels and depression scores of the adolescents. Findings revealed that most of the adolescents perceived that their fathers have not acculturated to the U.S. culture and continue to practice the traditional authoritarian parenting style, regardless of the amount of time spent in the United States. Furthermore, results indicate that adolescents who perceived their fathers as using the authoritarian parenting style reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher depression scores when compared with those who perceived their fathers as using the authoritative parenting style. PMID:18853670

  6. Simultaneous Decomposition of Depression Heterogeneity on the Person-, Symptom- and Time-Level: The Use of Three-Mode Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monden, Rei; Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Stegeman, Alwin; Conradi, Henk Jan; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although heterogeneity of depression hinders research and clinical practice, attempts to reduce it with latent variable models have yielded inconsistent results, probably because these techniques cannot account for all interacting sources of heterogeneity at the same time. Therefore, to simultaneously decompose depression heterogeneity on the person-, symptom and time-level, three-mode Principal Component Analysis (3MPCA) was applied to data of 219 Major Depression patients, who provided Beck Depression Inventory assessments every three months for two years. The resulting person-level components were correlated with external baseline clinical and demographic variables. The 3MPCA extracted two symptom-level components (‘cognitive’, ‘somatic-affective’), two time-level components (‘improving’, ‘persisting’) and three person-level components, characterized by different interaction-patterns between the symptom- and time-components (‘severe non-persisting’, ‘somatic depression’ and ‘cognitive depression’). This model explained 28% of the total variance and 65% when also incorporating the general trend in the data). Correlations with external variables illustrated the content differentiation between the person-components. Severe non-persisting depression was positively correlated with psychopathology (r=0.60) and negatively with quality of life (r=-0.50). Somatic depression was negatively correlated with physical functioning (r=-0.45). Cognitive depression was positively correlated with neuroticism (r=0.38) and negatively with self-esteem (r=-0.47). In conclusion, 3MPCA decomposes depression into homogeneous entities, while accounting for the interactions between different sources of heterogeneity, which shows the utility of the technique to investigate the underlying structure of complex psychopathology data and could help future development of better empirical depression subtypes. PMID:26177365

  7. Health facilities at the district level in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Heywood, Peter; Harahap, Nida P

    2009-01-01

    Background At Independence the Government of Indonesia inherited a weak and unevenly distributed health system to which much of the population had only limited access. In response, the government decided to increase the number of facilities and to locate them closer to the people. To staff these health facilities the government introduced obligatory government service for all new graduates in medicine, nursing and midwifery. Most of these staff also established private practices in the areas in which they were located. The health information system contains little information on the health care facilities established for private practice by these staff. This article reports on the results of enumerating all health facilities in 15 districts in Java. Methods We enumerated all healthcare facilities, public and private, by type in each of 15 districts in Java. Results The enumeration showed a much higher number of healthcare facilities in each district than is shown in most reports and in the health information system which concentrates on public, multi-provider facilities. Across the 15 districts: 86% of facilities were solo-provider facilities for outpatient services; 13% were multi-provider facilities for outpatient services; and 1% were multi-provider facilities offering both outpatient and inpatient services. Conclusion The relatively good distribution of health facilities in Indonesia was achieved through establishing public health centers at the sub-district level and staffing them through a system of compulsory service for doctors, nurses and midwives. Subsequently, these public sector staff also established solo-provider facilities for their own private practice; these solo-provider facilities, of which those for nurses are almost half, comprise the largest category of outpatient care facilities, most are not included in official statistics. Now that Indonesia no longer has mandatory service for newly graduated doctors, nurses and midwives, it will have

  8. Development of a Risk Index for Serious Prescription Opioid‐Induced Respiratory Depression or Overdose in Veterans’ Health Administration Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lin; Wang, Li; Joyce, Andrew; Vick, Catherine; Brigham, Janet; Kariburyo, Furaha; Baser, Onur; Murrelle, Lenn

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective Develop a risk index to estimate the likelihood of life‐threatening respiratory depression or overdose among medical users of prescription opioids. Subjects, Design, and Methods A case‐control analysis of administrative health care data from the Veterans’ Health Administration identified 1,877,841 patients with a pharmacy record for an opioid prescription between October 1, 2010 and September 30, 2012. Overdose or serious opioid‐induced respiratory depression (OSORD) occurred in 817. Ten controls were selected per case (n = 8,170). Items for an OSORD risk index (RIOSORD) were selected through logistic regression modeling, with point values assigned to each predictor. Modeling of risk index scores produced predicted probabilities of OSORD; risk classes were defined by the predicted probability distribution. Results Fifteen variables most highly associated with OSORD were retained as items, including mental health disorders and pharmacotherapy; impaired drug metabolism or excretion; pulmonary disorders; specific opioid characteristics; and recent hospital visits. The average predicted probability of experiencing OSORD ranged from 3% in the lowest risk decile to 94% in the highest, with excellent agreement between predicted and observed incidence across risk classes. The model's C‐statistic was 0.88 and Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness‐of‐fit statistic 10.8 (P > 0.05). Conclusion RIOSORD performed well in identifying medical users of prescription opioids within the Veterans’ Health Administration at elevated risk of overdose or life‐threatening respiratory depression, those most likely to benefit from preventive interventions. This novel, clinically practical, risk index is intended to provide clinical decision support for safer pain management. It should be assessed, and refined as necessary, in a more generalizable population, and prospectively evaluated. PMID:26077738

  9. Effects of Self-Rated Health and Self-Rated Economic Situation on Depressed Mood Via Life Satisfaction Among Older Adults in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Reyes Fernández, Benjamín; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study examined the relationship of self-rated health and self-rated economic situation with depressed mood, and life satisfaction as mediator of this relationship among older adults in Costa Rica. Method: A longitudinal study was conducted with a subsample (N = 1,618) from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (CRELES). Self-rated health, self-rated economic situation, depressed mood, and life satisfaction were measured at baseline, and depressed mood was reassessed 18 months later. Putative mechanisms for changes in depressed mood were examined by means of conditional process analysis. Results: Self-rated health was negatively associated to depressed mood. This effect took place via life satisfaction. An interaction showed that better economic situation compensated the effect of a low self-rated health on life satisfaction. Discussion: This study suggests that subjective variables such as self-rated health, economic situation, and life satisfaction should be considered when addressing the onset of depressed mood. PMID:26092651

  10. Childhood trauma and neighborhood-level crime interact in predicting adult posttraumatic stress and major depression symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Quinn, James W; Richards, Catherine A; Pothen, John; Rundle, Andrew; Galea, Sandro; Ressler, Kerry J; Koenen, Karestan C; Bradley, Bekh

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has identified several individual-level factors that modify the risk of childhood trauma on adult psychiatric symptoms, including symptoms of major depression (MD) and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Neighborhood-level factors also influence the impact of individual-level exposures on adult psychopathology. However, no prior studies to our knowledge have explored cross-level interactions between childhood trauma and neighborhood-level factors on MD and PTS symptoms. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore cross-level interactions between a neighborhood-level factor - neighborhood-level crime - and childhood trauma on MD and PTS symptoms. Participants in this study (N=3192) were recruited from a large public hospital, and completed self-report inventories of childhood trauma and MD and PTS symptoms. Participant addresses were mapped onto 2010 census tracts, and data on crime within each tract were collected. Multilevel models found a significant cross-level interaction between childhood trauma and neighborhood crime on MD symptoms, such that the influence of high levels of childhood trauma on MD symptoms was enhanced for participants living in high-crime neighborhoods. Supplementary analyses found variation in the strength of cross-level interaction terms by types of childhood trauma and crime, with the strongest associations including emotional neglect paired with personal and property crime. The results provide preliminary support for interventions that help childhood trauma survivors find housing in less vulnerable neighborhoods and build skills to cope with neighborhood crime. PMID:26499372

  11. [Public health relevant levels of pollutants in soil. Considerations for preventive, environmental health protection].

    PubMed

    Müller, L

    1998-07-01

    A working document on nation-wide applicable health-related guiding levels of environmental pollutants in soil has been prepared. These levels are intended to be the base for the administrative regulation of soil contaminations in connection with the German "Bundesbodenschutzgesetz" (Federal law on the protection of soil). Legislation demands these base levels to be intensely related to protection against serious health effects (i.e. health hazards). Looking more closely at the toxicological deduction of these values and at some values extracted from that process some uncertainties become obvious with regard to a clearcut limit between dangerous and noxious levels in soil. Indeed there are some arguments which suggest a more conservative approach. Health-care based recommendations should be introduced also at lower contaminant levels in soil. Therefore, development of an internal administrative manual on basic noxious values of soil pollutants (e.g. values below the threshold of danger) is suggested which may be useful for health authorities to cope with special problems in individual cases. PMID:9738353

  12. Which tinnitus-related characteristics affect current health-related quality of life and depression? A cross-sectional cohort study.

    PubMed

    Weidt, Steffi; Delsignore, Aba; Meyer, Martin; Rufer, Michael; Peter, Nicole; Drabe, Natalie; Kleinjung, Tobias

    2016-03-30

    Tinnitus is sometimes associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depressive symptoms. However, only limited evidence exists identifying which tinnitus characteristics are responsible for these associations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess associations between tinnitus, HRQoL, depressive symptoms, subjective tinnitus loudness and audiometrically assessed tinnitus characteristics (e.g., hearing threshold). Two hundred and eight outpatients reporting tinnitus completed questionnaires on tinnitus (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, THI), HRQoL (World-Health-Organisation Quality of Life Short Form Survey, WHOQOL-BREF), and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), and underwent audiometry. Patients with higher THI scores exhibited significantly lower HRQoL, and higher depression scores. THI total-score, THI subscales, and subjective tinnitus loudness explained significant variance of WHOQOL-BREF and BDI. Audiometrically measured features were not associated with WHOQOL-BREF or BDI. Overall, we confirmed findings that different features of tinnitus are associated with HRQoL and depressive symptoms but not with audiometrically assessed tinnitus characteristics. Consequently, physicians should evaluate THI total score, its sub-scores, and subjective tinnitus loudness to reliably and quickly identify patients who potentially suffer from depressive symptoms or significantly lower HRQoL. Supporting these patients early might help to prevent the development of reactive depressive symptoms and impairment of HRQoL. PMID:26850646

  13. Towards validating use of self reported health (SRH) for community-based studies: Impact of environmental chemicals, sociodemographic variables, depression, and clinical indicators of health and nutrition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental health impact assessment (HIA) studies, should consider social, behavioral, nutritional, dietary, environmental exposure and health risk factors at both the individual and community levels. Chemicals measured in blood or urine are often evaluated in relation to one ...

  14. Health effects of low-level exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, A.D.; Costas, K.; Chang, H.G.; Vallet, H.L.

    1986-10-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) spill resulting from a transformer explosion in Syracuse, New York, with no subsequent fire, provided an opportunity for the examination of the effects of low-level PCB exposure without the confounding presence of furans and dioxins. The incident provided 52 individuals exposed to PCB among building personnel, police, firemen, and public utility employees. Sixty-eight nonexposed were matched to the exposed group by sex, age, employer, and job description. Data were collected on the exposed relative to their activities at the spill site, their location, possible routes of exposure duration of exposure, and subsequent health effects. Exposed and nonexposed were interviewed for past medical history and relevant symptoms. Blood chemistries were studied inclusive of SGOT, SGPT, total protein, CBC, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as well as a fasting blood PCB level measurement. Six weeks after the spill, exposed and nonexposed were re-interviewed and had their blood work repeated except for the CBC and PCB levels. Exposed and nonexposed laboratory results were unremarkable. Some transient skin irritation believed to be associated with PCBs was noted. There were significant PCBs in blood level trends for occupation, age, duration of exposure, and level of alcohol consumption. Triglyceride level was highly correlated with PCB level. This relationship held when age and alcohol consumption were controlled for.

  15. Association between Serum Ferritin Concentrations and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Adults: A Population Study from the Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth) Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Yu, Bin; Yu, Fei; He, Haiyan; Zhang, Qing; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Shi, Hongbin; Xia, Yang; Guo, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xing; Li, Chunlei; Bao, Xue; Liu, Fangfang; Fang, Liyun; Yang, Huijun; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptoms have become the most important global public health issue. Iron plays an important role in brain function, cognition, and behavior, and its impacts on depressive symptoms may be multifactorial with both positive and negative effects. Previous observational studies focusing on the association between iron status and depressive symptoms showed inconsistent results. Ferritin is a ubiquitous intracellular protein that can store and release iron and is widely used as a clinical biomarker to evaluate iron status. We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between serum ferritin and depressive symptoms among 3,839 subjects who were from the Tianjin Chronic Low-grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth) cohort. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Chinese version of 20-item self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) with 4 cutoffs (40, 45, 48 and 50) to indicate elevated depressive symptoms (40 was the primary cut-off). The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 36.5%, 17.6%, 11.0% and 7.0% for SDS ≥40, ≥45, ≥48 and ≥50, respectively. With the primary cut-off point of 40, multiple potential confounding factors were adjusted and the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of having elevated depressive symptoms by quartiles of serum ferritin concentrations were 1.00 (reference), 1.10 (0.91, 1.34), 0.81 (0.66, 1.01) and 1.02 (0.81, 1.28) for the first, second, third and fourth quartile, respectively (P for trend = 0.76). Similar relations were observed with the use of other cut-offs as a definition of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, there is no significant relationship between serum ferritin concentrations and depressive symptoms among Chinese adults. PMID:27611581

  16. Networking health: multi-level marketing of health products in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Droney, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Multi-level marketing (MLM0), a business model in which product distributors are compensated for enrolling further distributors as well as for selling products, has experienced dramatic growth in recent decades, especially in the so-called global South. This paper argues that the global success of MLM is due to its involvement in local health markets. While MLM has been subject to a number of critiques, few have analyzed the explicit health claims of MLM distributors. The majority of the products distributed through MLM are health products, which are presented as offering transformative health benefits. Based on interviews with MLM distributors in Ghana, but focusing on the experiences of one woman, this paper shows that MLM companies become intimately entwined with Ghanaian quests for health by providing their distributors with the materials to become informal health experts, allowing their distributors to present their products as medicines, and presenting MLM as an avenue to middle class cosmopolitanism. Ghanaian distributors promote MLM products as medically powerful, and the distribution of these products as an avenue to status and profit. As a result, individuals seeking health become a part of ethically questionable forms of medical provision based on the exploitation of personal relationships. The success of MLM therefore suggests that the health industry is at the forefront of transnational corporations' extraction of value from informal economies, drawing on features of health markets to monetize personal relationships. PMID:26130429

  17. Health care utilization by United Nations peacekeeping veterans with co-occurring, self-reported, post-traumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms versus those without.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Jennifer A; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Woods, Meghan; Taylor, Steven; Stein, Murray B

    2006-06-01

    It remains to be determined whether patients with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression use more health care resources than do those without. United Nations peacekeeping veterans from Canada were divided into four groups, i.e., PTSD alone (n = 23), depression alone (n = 167), comorbid PTSD and depression (n = 119), and neither (n = 164), and compared with respect to total number of visits to any health care professional in the past year. Analysis of variance revealed that the groups significantly differed in total visits. Post hoc analyses indicated that veterans with co-occurring PTSD and depression symptoms had more visits than did those in the other groups and that veterans with PTSD symptoms alone and depression symptoms alone had more visits than did those with neither PTSD nor depression. Additional analyses revealed that veterans with co-occurring PTSD and depression symptoms made more visits to general practitioners, specialists, pharmacists, and mental health professionals than did the others. Future research directions and implications for treatment planning are discussed. PMID:16808142

  18. Effects of an Intensive Depression-Focused Intervention for Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinciripini, Paul M.; Blalock, Janice A.; Minnix, Jennifer A.; Robinson, Jason D.; Brown, Victoria L.; Lam, Cho; Wetter, David W.; Schreindorfer, Lisa; McCullough, James P., Jr.; Dolan-Mullen, Patricia; Stotts, Angela L.; Karam-Hage, Maher

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate a depression-focused treatment for smoking cessation in pregnant women versus a time and contact health education control. We hypothesized that the depression-focused treatment would lead to improved abstinence and reduced depressive symptoms among women with high levels of depressive…

  19. Mother–Child Communication and Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children With Cancer: Integrating Macro and Micro Levels of Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Madeleine J.; Zuckerman, Teddi; Hughart, Leighann; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Saylor, Megan; Schuele, C. Melanie; Compas, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examines associations between maternal depressive symptoms and macro- and micro-level aspects of mothers’ communication about their children’s cancer. Methods Mothers reported depressive symptoms after diagnosis or relapse (child mean age = 10.4 years; 53% male). Mother–child dyads (N = 94) were subsequently observed discussing the child’s cancer and maternal communication was coded. Results Macro-level indicators (positive and negative communication) were associated with certain micro-level indicators of communication (topic maintenance, reflections, reframes, and imperatives). Higher depressive symptoms predicted lower positive communication and higher negative communication. Maternal reflections and imperatives predicted positive communication, and topic maintenance and reframes predicted negative communication, beyond child age, family income, and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Findings suggest concrete targets for improving communication in families after diagnosis or relapse. PMID:23616622

  20. The Health Service Use of Frequent Users of Telephone Helplines in a Cohort of General Practice Attendees with Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Aves; Pirkis, Jane; Chondros, Patty; Bassilios, Bridget; Gunn, Jane

    2016-09-01

    We examined the relationship between frequent use of telephone helplines and health service use over time in a cohort of 789 general practice attendees with depressive symptoms. Telephone helpline use (no use, non-frequent use, frequent use) was measured at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months and analysed using ordered logistic regression. Sixteen participants (2 %) reported frequent use of telephone helplines. Reporting frequent use was associated with visiting multiple general practitioners, using emergency services and visiting mental health specialists in the previous 3 months. Despite this pattern of service use, there was evidence that these services were not meeting the needs of frequent users of telephone helplines, as they were also more likely to report dissatisfaction with their access to health services compared to non-frequent and non-users of telephone helplines. Our findings suggest that a model of care which addresses the complex needs of frequent users of telephone helplines is needed. PMID:26370273

  1. Strategies to improve anxiety and depression in patients with COPD: a mental health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tselebis, Athanasios; Pachi, Argyro; Ilias, Ioannis; Kosmas, Epaminondas; Bratis, Dionisios; Moussas, Georgios; Tzanakis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by progressive and only partially reversible symptoms. Worldwide, the incidence of COPD presents a disturbing continuous increase. Anxiety and depression are remarkably common in COPD patients, but the evidence about optimal approaches for managing psychological comorbidities in COPD remains unclear and largely speculative. Pharmacological treatment based on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors has almost replaced tricyclic antidepressants. The main psychological intervention is cognitive behavioral therapy. Of particular interest are pulmonary rehabilitation programs, which can reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms in these patients. Although the literature on treating anxiety and depression in patients with COPD is limited, we believe that it points to the implementation of personalized strategies to ad