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Sample records for health depression level

  1. IGF-I levels and depressive disorders: results from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP).

    PubMed

    Sievers, C; Auer, M K; Klotsche, J; Athanasoulia, A P; Schneider, H J; Nauck, M; Völzke, H; John, U; Schulz, A; Freyberger, H J; Friedrich, N; Biffar, R; Stalla, G K; Wallaschofski, H; Grabe, H J

    2014-06-01

    In vitro and in vivo models revealed that the somatotropic system exerts central effects on the central nervous system. Disturbances to this system such as in the case of growth hormone deficiency or growth hormone excess, are associated with a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Nonetheless, there is no epidemiological data available regarding the influence of growth hormone and its mediator, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), on depressive disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate whether endogenous IGF-I levels may predict depression in humans. We included 4079 adult subjects from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), a population-based study with a 5-year follow-up period. The main predictor was the baseline IGF-I value categorized in three levels as <10th percentile, between the 10th and the 90th percentile (the reference group) and >90th percentile. The outcome measure was the incidence of depressive disorders according to the Composite International Diagnostic-Screener (CID-S). After adjustment for potential confounding variables, females with IGF-I levels below the 10th percentile had a higher incidence of depressive disorders during follow-up (OR 2.70 95% CI 1.38-5.28, p=0.004) compared to females within the reference group (10th-90th percentile). Among males, those with IGF-I levels above the 90th percentile had a higher risk of depressive disorder (OR 3.26 95% CI 1.52-6.98, p=0.002) than those within the 10th-90th percentile. In conclusion we can demonstrate that low IGF-I levels in females and high IGF-I levels in males predict the development of depressive disorders in this general adult population sample. PMID:24507017

  2. High level of depressive symptoms as a barrier to reach an ideal cardiovascular health. The Paris Prospective Study III

    PubMed Central

    Gaye, B.; Prugger, C.; Perier, M. C.; Thomas, F.; Plichart, M.; Guibout, C.; Lemogne, C.; Pannier, B.; Boutouyrie, P.; Jouven, X.; Empana, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that depression might represent a barrier to reach an ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) as estimated by the 7-item tool proposed by the American Heart Association. Between 2008 and 2012, 9,417 subjects 50–75 years of age were examined in a large health center and enrolled in the Paris Prospective Study III (PPS3). Participants with 0–2, 3–4 and 5–7 health metrics at the ideal level were categorized as having poor, intermediate and ideal CVH, respectively. Participants with a score ≥7 on the 13-item Questionnaire of Depression 2nd version, Abridged or who were on antidepressants were referred as having high level of depressive symptoms (HLDS). The mean age of the 9417 study participants was 59.57 (SD 6.28) years and 61.16% were males. A total of 9.55% had HLDS. Poor, intermediate and ideal CVH was present in 40.38%, 49.52% and 10.10% of the participants. In multivariate polytomous logistic regression analysis, HLDS was inversely associated with ideal CVH (odds ratio = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.55;0.90). This was driven by an association with the behavioural component of the CVH. Participants with HLDS had a substantial reduced chance of reaching an ideal CVH. PMID:26743318

  3. National Dissemination of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression in the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System: Therapist and Patient-Level Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlin, Bradley E.; Brown, Gregory K.; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Zeiss, Antonette M.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system is nationally disseminating and implementing cognitive behavioral therapy for depression (CBT-D). The current article evaluates therapist and patient-level outcomes associated with national training in and implementation of CBT-D in the VA health care system. Method: Therapist…

  4. Value of health, incidence of depression, and level of self-esteem in low-income mothers of pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Burns, E I; Doremus, P C; Potter, M B

    1990-01-01

    health. Based on their high valuing of health and the potential for increasing self-esteem through activity, it can be concluded that the women in this sample will benefit from planned health activities. It is also anticipated that, because of the strong relationship between self-esteem and depression, women who participate in these activities will demonstrate lower levels of depression. PMID:2272853

  5. The Relationship of Depression to Health Risk Behaviors and Health Perceptions in Korean College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Oksoo

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of depression to health risk behaviors and health perceptions in Korean college students. The level of students' depression predicted alcohol consumption, symptom pattern, and physical health. Students who were more depressed reported more symptoms and perceived their health as worse than those who were less…

  6. Quality of Life, Health Status, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Nancy A.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Doering, Lynn V.; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B.; Child, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QOL) in adolescents and adults who have undergone the Fontan procedure and are living with only 1 ventricle is presumed to be diminished. Objectives This study aimed to compare QOL, health status, and prevalence of depression in adolescents/adults after the Fontan procedure with healthy counterparts and to identify predictors of QOL in the Fontan group. Methods Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescents and adults with single ventricle congenital heart disease who have undergone the Fontan procedure were compared with 66 age-matched healthy counterparts. Quality of life, health status, depression, and social support were measured using the Satisfaction With Life Scale, Short Form Survey Version 2, Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Module, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Clinical variables were abstracted from medical records. Predictors of QOL were determined using multiple linear regression. Results Adolescents and adults in the Fontan group reported lower physical health status (mean [SD] = 46.5 [9.3] vs mean [SD] = 55.9 [5.1], P < .001) and were more depressed (mean [SD] = 7.3 [5.9] vs mean [SD] = 4.5 [4.3], P < .004) than their healthy counterparts. There were no differences in QOL, mental health status, or social support between the 2 groups. Functional status (New York Heart Association class), depression, and social support accounted for 55% of the variance in QOL in the Fontan group. Conclusions Despite lower levels of physical health, the QOL of Fontan patients was comparable with that of their healthy counterparts; this finding contradicts previous proxy reports, self-reports, and assumptions that QOL is lower in patients with complex single ventricle congenital heart disease. However, because Fontan patients were more depressed than their healthy counterparts, the need for early screening and detection is warranted. PMID:21912272

  7. Depressive Symptoms and Serum Lipid Levels in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J.; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Longacre, Margaret L.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression (CES-D) scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-hour recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  8. Depressive symptoms and serum lipid levels in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Fang, Carolyn Y; Egleston, Brian L; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J; Kwiterovich, Peter O; Snetselaar, Linda G; Longacre, Margaret L; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-h recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  9. Engagement in Pleasant Activities and Depression Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    1975-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a low rate of engagement in pleasant activities to be a concomitant of depression. The crucial question addressed by the Hammen and Glass study (1975) is whether an increase in pleasant-activity level will produce a decrease in depression level. (Editor)

  10. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents. PMID:26733335

  11. Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Depression in Urban Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yan; Wang, Bo; Wallen, Gwenyth R.; Shao, Pei; Ni, Chunping; Hua, Qianzhen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore health-promoting lifestyles, depression and provide further insight into the relationship between health-promoting lifestyles and depression in an urban community sample of elderly Chinese people. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive and correlational study of 954 community-dwelling urban elderly Chinese (aged ≥ 60) was conducted from July to December 2010. Lifestyles and depression were assessed using the revised Chinese Version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-C) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results In this cohort, 15.8% of elderly urban adults met the criteria for depression. Over half of the sample (62.1%) scored greater than 100 on the HPLP-C, with range of score sum from 55 to 160. There were significant correlations between self-actualization (OR = 1.167, 95%CI: 1.111–1.226), nutrition (OR = 1.118, 95%CI: 1.033–1.209), physical activity (OR = 1.111, 95%CI: 1.015–1.216) and depression among community-dwelling elderly Chinese. Limitations This was a cross-sectional study. The significant associations found do not represent directional causation. Further longitudinal follow-up is recommended to investigate the specific causal relationship between lifestyles and depression. Conclusions Depression was common with medium to high levels of health-promoting lifestyles among urban elderly Chinese people. Lifestyle behaviors such as self-actualization, good nutrition habits and frequent physical activity were correlated to fewer depressive symptoms. Healthy lifestyles should be further developed in this population and measures should be taken for improving their depression. PMID:25781326

  12. Identity gaps and level of depression among Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eura; Hecht, Michael L

    2008-07-01

    Identity gaps are a new theoretical construct that provide a framework for integrating communication into the study of identity and understanding the relationship between identity and health outcomes, such as depression. Derived from the communication theory of identity, identity gaps emerge when elements of identity are inconsistent with each other. This article focuses on 2 types of identity gaps, personal-enacted and personal-relational, examining their relationships with situational variables and depression. A questionnaire was administered to a community sample of 377 Korean immigrants to test a hypothesized path model predicting that 3 situational variables (intercultural communication competence, middleperson status, and perception of racial hierarchy) would influence the identity gaps that, in turn, influence Korean immigrants' levels of depression. Results showed that all 3 situational variables predicted Korean immigrants' personal-relational identity gaps, whereas only intercultural communication competence predicted their personal-enacted identity gaps. Both types of identity gaps predicted the level of depression. The personal-relational identity gap significantly mediated the effects of all 3 situational variables on levels of depression. However, the personal-enacted identity gap mediated only the effects of intercultural communication competence on the levels of depression. PMID:18701996

  13. Maternal Depression and Childhood Health Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turney, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    An increasing body of literature documents considerable inequalities in the health of young children in the United States, though maternal depression is one important, yet often overlooked, determinant of children's health. In this article, the author uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,048) and finds that maternal…

  14. Mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD and depression

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Thomas; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Kohler, Michaela; Carraro, Giovanni E.; Schnyder, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, mental health professionals’ attitudes toward posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), compared to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression, have rarely been studied. Objective We assessed mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD compared to patients suffering from depression. Method Case vignettes of a patient with either PTSD or depression were presented to two samples of mental health professionals: attendees of a conference on posttraumatic stress (N=226) or of a lecture for psychiatry residents (N=112). Participants subsequently completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude reactions to the presented case. Results Participants showed similarly positive attitudes toward depression and PTSD. PTSD elicited a more favorable attitude with regard to prosocial reactions, estimated dependency, attributed responsibility, and interest in the case, particularly in mental health professionals specializing in psychotraumatology. Across diagnoses, higher age and longer professional experience were associated with more positive attitudes toward patients. Conclusions Mental health professionals’ positive attitudes toward patients with depression and PTSD correlate with their specific knowledge about the disorder, their level of professional training, and their years of professional experience. Limitations The instruments used, although based on established theoretical concepts in attitude research, were not validated in their present versions. PMID:26507340

  15. National Health Priority Areas Report, 1998--Mental Health: A Report Focusing on Depression, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Health and Ageing, Canberra.

    This report presents procedures for national mental health that involve many levels of government and draws advice from a range of professional organizations. Due to the enormous impact of depression on the social, human, economic, and public health costs to Australians and the Australian government, this initiative focuses efforts on dealing with…

  16. Neighborhood socioeconomic status, depression, and health status in the Look AHEAD (Action for health in diabetes) study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-le...

  17. Effects of stress, health competence, and social support on depressive symptoms after cardiac hospitalization.

    PubMed

    León-Pérez, Gabriela; Wallston, Kenneth A; Goggins, Kathryn M; Poppendeck, Heidi M; Kripalani, Sunil

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the role of stress on the psychological well-being of patients after cardiac hospitalization or about factors that protect against or exacerbate the effects of stress. We use prospective data from 1542 patients to investigate the relationship between post-discharge stress and changes in depressive symptoms, and whether the level of prior depressive symptoms, health competence, and perceived social support moderate this relationship. Net of depressive symptoms in the 2 weeks prior to hospitalization, higher levels of post-discharge stress significantly increase depressive symptoms 30 days after discharge. The level of prior depressive symptoms moderates the effect of stress. On the other hand, perceived health competence and social support buffer the negative effects of post-discharge stress. Knowing which patients are particularly vulnerable to experiencing stress and a subsequent increase in depressive symptoms can help trigger interventions prior to discharge and possibly ameliorate the prevalence of depression. PMID:26660867

  18. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... it might motivate the person to go for treatment. Treating Depression Your doctor or mental health expert can often treat your depression successfully. Different therapies seem to work for different people. For instance, ...

  19. State Psychological Reactance to Depression Public Service Announcements Among People With Varying Levels of Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Lienemann, Brianna A; Siegel, Jason T

    2016-01-01

    Campaigns seeking to help people with depression can be effective, but they can also backfire. Psychological reactance is proposed as a partial explanation. Two experimental studies examined the effect of two depression messages (i.e., autonomy-supportive language, controlling language) for participants (n = 2027, n = 777) with varying levels of depressive symptomatology. For Study 1, two versions of a print public service announcement about seeking help for depression served as the experimental stimulus. Study 2 used an existing video public service announcement about seeking help for depression, but the text was altered to create the two conditions. In both studies, increased depressive symptomatology was associated with reduced help-seeking attitudes and intentions, as well as greater state reactance to a public service announcement about depression. Increased state reactance mediated the relationship between increased depressive symptomology and unfavorable help-seeking outcomes. Further, across the two studies, participants with high levels of depressive symptomatology who were exposed to the autonomy-supportive language ad reported either as much, or more, state reactance than participants with high levels of depressive symptomatology who were in the control condition. These results warn that language perceived as autonomy-supportive by people without depression might be perceived as controlling among people with depression. PMID:26086674

  20. Supplemental private health insurance and depressive symptoms in older married couples.

    PubMed

    Min, Meeyoung Oh; Townsend, Aloen L; Miller, Baila; Rovine, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Stress process theory is applied to examine lack of supplemental private health insurance as a risk factor for depressive symptomatology among older married couples covered by Medicare. Dyadic data from 130 African-American couples and 1,429 White couples in the 1993 Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest-Old Survey were analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear modeling. Lack of supplemental insurance is operationalized at the household level in terms of neither spouse covered, one spouse covered, or both spouses covered. Controlling for covariates at both individual and couple levels, supplemental insurance has significant impact on depression, but the pattern differs by race. White couples report the highest depression when neither spouse is covered by private health insurance; African-American couples report the highest depression when only one spouse is covered. Results suggest lack of supplemental private health insurance coverage is a stressor that significantly affects depressive symptoms. PMID:16320444

  1. Serum DHEAS levels are associated with the development of depression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guang; Yin, You; Xiao, Chun-Lan; Mao, Rong-Jie; Shi, Bo-Hai; Jie, Yong; Wang, Zuo-Wei

    2015-09-30

    The aim of study was to evaluate the association between serum DHEAS levels and depression with a case-control study together with a meta-analysis. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was performed to measure the serum DHEAS levels of all participants before and after treatment. Depression Patients were divided into mild depression and severe depression based on Hamilton depression scale (HAMD24) and received 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and citalopram (20mg/d) for 8 weeks. Case-control studies related to our study theme were enrolled for meta-analysis and Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0) was used for statistical analysis. After treatment, DHEAS levels in depression patients were significantly increased, while before and after treatment, DHEAS levels were all lower in depression patients than in controls (all P<0.001); further analysis on age revealed that DHEAS levels were decreased with the rising of age. Meta-analysis results suggested that serum DHEAS levels (ng/mL) were significantly higher in healthy controls compared to depression patients (SMD=0.777, 95%CI=0.156-1.399, P=0.014). In conclusion, our study suggests that serum DHEAS levels are associated with the development of depression and it decreased with the rising of age. PMID:26205628

  2. Women's Use of Multi sector Mental Health Services in a Community-Based Perinatal Depression Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sarah Kye

    2010-01-01

    Low-income and ethnic minority women have been described as at risk for experiencing depression during and around the time of pregnancy, a finding complicated by low levels of mental health service use within this population. This study retrospectively examined data from a community-based perinatal depression project targeting low-income women in…

  3. Depression, Health, and Somatic Complaints in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahurin, Kathleen A.; Gatz, Margaret

    Although depression is considered to be common in the elderly, reliable rates of prevalence are lacking. Studies have shown that age differences on measures of depressive symptomatology can be attributed to higher levels of somatic complaints. In order to examine whether the association between somatic and depressive symptoms varies as a function…

  4. [Anxiety and depression levels in rape offenders].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Hernández, E; Marván, L; Saavedra, M; Contreras, C M

    1993-03-01

    Whether the active subject of rape possesses a particular personality trait is a much debated matter. It is an accepted fact that a small amount of rapists fall into the sadistic diagnostic category. Other psychopatologic traits likely to identify a rapist are, however, unknown. The present study was carried over at a jail near the city of Xalapa (Veracruz) Mexico. Hamilton, IDARE, and Zung scales, in their modified Spanish version were applied to a sample of imprisoned adult rapists. Compared to their control group (men serving sentences for other felonies), rapists scored higher in anxiety, and depression scales. In the light of these results, it is suggested that some rapists are likely to be anxious-depressive subjects that, after having "acquired" a sociopathic repertoire, offend other people in conditions of indefensiveness, contrary to depressive subjects who aggress themselves. PMID:8237434

  5. Health care expenditures associated with depression in adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoyun; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Background The rates of depression in adults with cancer have been reported as high as 38%–58%. How depression affects overall health care expenditures in individuals with cancer is an under-researched area. Objective To estimate excess average total health care expenditures associated with depression in adults with cancer by comparing those with and without depression after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, access to care, and other health status variables. Methods Cross-sectional data on 4,766 adult survivors of cancer from 2006–2009 of the nationally representative household survey, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), were used. The patients were older than 21 years. Cancer and depression were identified from the patients’ medical conditions files. Dependent variables consisted of total, inpatient, outpatient, emergency department, prescription drugs, and other expenditures. Ordinary least square (OLS) on logged dollars and generalized linear models with log-link function were performed. All analyses (SAS 9.3 and STATA12) accounted for the complex survey design of the MEPS. Results Overall, 14% of individuals with cancer reported having depression. In those with cancer and depression, the average annual health care expenditures were $18,401 compared with $12,091 in those without depression. After adjusting for demographic, socio-economic, access to care, and other health status variables, those with depression had about 31.7% greater total expenditures compared with those without depression. Total, outpatient, and prescription expenditures were higher in individuals with depression than in those without depression. Individuals with cancer and depression were significantly more likely to use emergency departments (adjusted odds ratio, 1.46) compared with their counterparts without depression. Limitations Cancer patients who died during the reporting year were excluded. The financial burden of depression may have been underestimated because

  6. Maternal Depressive Symptoms During Childhood and Risky Adolescent Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Maeve E.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Wild, T. Cameron; Hoglund, Wendy L.G.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maternal depression is a risk factor for adolescent depression; however, the effect of childhood exposure to maternal depression on adolescent engagement in health risk behaviors (eg, substance use, delinquency) is unclear. METHODS: We examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms (child’s age 4–15) and engagement in health risk behaviors at age 16 to 17 by using data from 2910 mother–youth pairs in a nationally representative prospective Canadian cohort. Maternal depressive trajectories were estimated through finite mixture modeling, and multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and engagement in various health risk behaviors (linear regression) and age of debut of various behaviors (Cox regression). RESULTS: Five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms were found: recurrent maternal symptoms, midchildhood exposure to maternal symptoms, adolescent exposure to maternal symptoms, mild maternal symptoms, and low symptoms. Adolescents exposed to maternal depressive symptoms during middle childhood were more likely to use common substances (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana), engage in violent and nonviolent delinquent behavior, and have an earlier debut ages of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hallucinogen use. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, particularly in middle childhood, is associated with greater and earlier engagement in health risk behaviors. PMID:25535266

  7. High occupational level is associated with poor response to treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Mandelli, Laura; Serretti, Alessandro; Souery, Daniel; Mendlewicz, Julien; Kasper, Siegfried; Montgomery, Stuart; Zohar, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Depression may be complicated by work-related stress and, in turn, depression is a leading cause of disability in workplaces. Though available effective treatments, only one third of patients reach full remission after a first treatment trial and nearly half of the patients are non-responders. Occupational level has been found to be a reliable predictor of health outcome in the general population. In the present study we tested the potential association of occupational level of those in work with response to treatment of depression in a large multinational sample. Major depressive disorder patients (n=654) stratified in three occupational levels (high, middle, low) were considered for the present study. Response to last treatment for current episode and treatment resistant depression, defined as non-response to 2 or more previous adequate treatment trials, were considered the outcome variables. Depressed patients from the high occupational level had a higher level of educational achievement. They showed a significantly poorer response to the last treatment with lower remission rates and more treatment resistance than the other occupational level groups. They were treated less with Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SRIs). Potential confounding factors did not influence the main effect. The present findings indicate that those working at a high occupational level may be a risk factor for poor response to medication for depression and this has potential implications for clinicians and their patients, for future research, for employers and for public policy. PMID:27211903

  8. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing

    PubMed Central

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Hanklang, Suda; Chumchai, Pornlert

    2015-01-01

    Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation. PMID:25954515

  9. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing.

    PubMed

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Hanklang, Suda; Chumchai, Pornlert

    2015-01-01

    Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation. PMID:25954515

  10. Elevated morning cortisol is a stratified population-level biomarker for major depression in boys only with high depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Matthew; Herbert, Joe; Jones, Peter B.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Wilkinson, Paul O.; Dunn, Valerie J.; Croudace, Timothy J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MD) is a debilitating public mental health problem with severe societal and personal costs attached. Around one in six people will suffer from this complex disorder at some point in their lives, which has shown considerable etiological and clinical heterogeneity. Overall there remain no validated biomarkers in the youth population at large that can aid the detection of at-risk groups for depression in general and for boys and young men in particular. Using repeated measurements of two well-known correlates of MD (self-reported current depressive symptoms and early-morning cortisol), we undertook a population-based investigation to ascertain subtypes of adolescents that represent separate longitudinal phenotypes. Subsequently, we tested for differential risks for MD and other mental illnesses and cognitive differences between subtypes. Through the use of latent class analysis, we revealed a high-risk subtype (17% of the sample) demarcated by both high depressive symptoms and elevated cortisol levels. Membership of this class of individuals was associated with increased levels of impaired autobiographical memory recall in both sexes and the greatest likelihood of experiencing MD in boys only. These previously unidentified findings demonstrate at the population level a class of adolescents with a common physiological biomarker specifically for MD in boys and for a mnemonic vulnerability in both sexes. We suggest that the biobehavioral combination of high depressive symptoms and elevated morning cortisol is particularly hazardous for adolescent boys. PMID:24550453

  11. Elevated morning cortisol is a stratified population-level biomarker for major depression in boys only with high depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Owens, Matthew; Herbert, Joe; Jones, Peter B; Sahakian, Barbara J; Wilkinson, Paul O; Dunn, Valerie J; Croudace, Timothy J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2014-03-01

    Major depressive disorder (MD) is a debilitating public mental health problem with severe societal and personal costs attached. Around one in six people will suffer from this complex disorder at some point in their lives, which has shown considerable etiological and clinical heterogeneity. Overall there remain no validated biomarkers in the youth population at large that can aid the detection of at-risk groups for depression in general and for boys and young men in particular. Using repeated measurements of two well-known correlates of MD (self-reported current depressive symptoms and early-morning cortisol), we undertook a population-based investigation to ascertain subtypes of adolescents that represent separate longitudinal phenotypes. Subsequently, we tested for differential risks for MD and other mental illnesses and cognitive differences between subtypes. Through the use of latent class analysis, we revealed a high-risk subtype (17% of the sample) demarcated by both high depressive symptoms and elevated cortisol levels. Membership of this class of individuals was associated with increased levels of impaired autobiographical memory recall in both sexes and the greatest likelihood of experiencing MD in boys only. These previously unidentified findings demonstrate at the population level a class of adolescents with a common physiological biomarker specifically for MD in boys and for a mnemonic vulnerability in both sexes. We suggest that the biobehavioral combination of high depressive symptoms and elevated morning cortisol is particularly hazardous for adolescent boys. PMID:24550453

  12. Inattention Symptoms Predict Level of Depression in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Khushmand; O’Neill, Sarah; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential bidirectional relationships between severity of inattention and depression across early childhood. Methods Children (N = 216) from the New York, NY, metropolitan area were recruited when they were aged 3 to 4 years (T1) and studied again at age 6 (T2) and 7 (T3) years. Child inattention symptoms were measured using the Kiddie–Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children–Present and Lifetime, along with both parent and teacher reports on the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2). Severity of child depression was assessed at each time point using parent and teacher reports on the BASC-2. After examining correlations between child inattention and depression, structural equation modeling was used to investigate whether child inattention was longitudinally related to child depression, and whether child depression symptoms were associated with later child inattention. Results Severity of child inattention at T1 and T2 was longitudinally associated with increased severity of child depression at T2 and T3, respectively. Early child depression was not longitudinally associated with later child inattention. Conclusion Child inattention is a risk factor for increased levels of child depression. Pediatricians and clinicians who assess children’s inattention symptoms also need to investigate symptoms of depression. This study makes a case for treating children’s inattention symptoms at preschool and early childhood, before emotional problems become more severe. PMID:23391681

  13. Depression Screening Patterns for Women in Rural Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudiver, Fred; Edwards, Joellen Beckett; Pfortmiller, Deborah T.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Rates and types of screening for depression in rural primary care practices are unknown. Purpose: To identify rates of depression screening among rural women in a sample of rural health clinics (RHCs). Methods: A chart review of 759 women's charts in 19 randomly selected RHCs across the nation. Data were collected from charts of female…

  14. Depression and diabetes: treatment and health-care delivery.

    PubMed

    Petrak, Frank; Baumeister, Harald; Skinner, Timothy C; Brown, Alex; Holt, Richard I G

    2015-06-01

    Despite research efforts in the past 20 years, scientific evidence about screening and treatment for depression in diabetes remains incomplete and is mostly focused on North American and European health-care systems. Validated instruments to detect depression in diabetes, although widely available, only become effective and thus recommended if subsequent treatment pathways are accessible, which is often not the case. Because of the well known adverse effects of the interaction between depression and diabetes, treatment goals should focus on the remission or improvement of depression as well as improvement in glycaemic control as a marker for subsequent diabetes outcome. Scientific evidence evaluating treatment for depression in type 1 and type 2 diabetes shows that depression can be treated with moderate success by various psychological and pharmacological interventions, which are often implemented through collaborative care and stepped-care approaches. The evidence for improved glycaemic control in the treatment of depression by use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or psychological approaches is conflicting; only some analyses show small to moderate improvements in glycaemic control. More research is needed to evaluate treatment of different depression subtypes in people with diabetes, the cost-effectiveness of treatments, the use of health-care resources, the need to account for cultural differences and different health-care systems, and new treatment and prevention approaches. PMID:25995125

  15. Optimism and depression as predictors of physical and mental health functioning: the Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Achat, H; Kawachi, I; Spiro, A; DeMolles, D A; Sparrow, D

    2000-01-01

    Dispositional optimism has been linked in previous studies to better health outcomes. We sought to examine the independent associations of dispositional optimism and depressive symptoms with physical and mental functioning in a cohort of healthy middle-aged and older men. The study was conducted among 659 subjects in the Veterans Administration (VA) Normative Aging Study. Dispositional optimism and depressive symptomatology were measured in 1991 and 1990, respectively, by the Life Orientation Test and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression Scale (CES-D). The dependent variables, functioning and well-being, were measured in 1992 by the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). In multivariate regression models, optimism was associated with higher levels of general health perceptions, vitality, and mental health, and lower levels of bodily pain, but not to physical functioning, social functioning, or role limitations due to physical or emotional problems. Depressive symptomatology was associated with reduced levels of functioning across all SF-36 domains. The findings for optimism and depression were statistically significant after mutual adjustment in multivariate regression models. Optimism and depression are independent predictors of functional status among aging men. PMID:10962705

  16. Pesticide Exposure and Self-Reported Incident Depression among Wives in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.; Kamel, Freya

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression in women is a public health problem. Studies have reported positive associations between pesticides and depression, but few studies were prospective or presented results for women separately. Objectives We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and incident depression among farmers’ wives in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods We used data on 16,893 wives who did not report physician-diagnosed depression at enrollment (1993-1997) and who completed a follow-up telephone interview (2005-2010). Among these wives, 1,054 reported physician diagnoses of depression at follow-up. We collected information on potential confounders and on ever use of any pesticide, 11 functional and chemical classes of pesticides, and 50 specific pesticides by wives and their husbands via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for possible selection bias induced by the death or loss of 10,639 wives during follow-up. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results After weighting for age at enrollment, state of residence, education level, diabetes diagnosis, and not dropping out of the cohort, wives’ incident depression was positively associated with diagnosed pesticide poisoning, but was not associated with ever using any pesticide. Use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives’ depression. Among wives who never used pesticides, husbands’ ever use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives’ incident depression. Conclusions Our study adds further evidence that high level pesticide exposure, such as pesticide poisoning, is associated with increased risk of depression and sets a lower bound on the level of

  17. Recession depression: mental health effects of the 2008 stock market crash.

    PubMed

    McInerney, Melissa; Mellor, Jennifer M; Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2013-12-01

    Do sudden, large wealth losses affect mental health? We use exogenous variation in the interview dates of the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to assess the impact of large wealth losses on mental health among older U.S. adults. We compare cross-wave changes in wealth and mental health for respondents interviewed before and after the October 2008 stock market crash. We find that the crash reduced wealth and increased feelings of depression and use of antidepressant drugs, and that these effects were largest among respondents with high levels of stock holdings prior to the crash. These results suggest that sudden wealth losses cause immediate declines in subjective measures of mental health. However, we find no evidence that wealth losses lead to increases in clinically-validated measures of depressive symptoms or indicators of depression. PMID:24113241

  18. Recession Depression: Mental Health Effects of the 2008 Stock Market Crash*

    PubMed Central

    McInerney, Melissa; Mellor, Jennifer M.; Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2013-01-01

    Do sudden, large wealth losses affect mental health? We use exogenous variation in the interview dates of the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to assess the impact of large wealth losses on mental health among older U.S. adults. We compare cross-wave changes in wealth and mental health for respondents interviewed before and after the October 2008 stock market crash. We find that the crash reduced wealth and increased feelings of depression and use of antidepressant drugs, and that these effects were largest among respondents with high levels of stock holdings prior to the crash. These results suggest that sudden wealth losses cause immediate declines in subjective measures of mental health. However, we find no evidence that wealth losses lead to increases in clinically-validated measures of depressive symptoms or indicators of depression. PMID:24113241

  19. 'Love Hormone' Levels in Pregnancy May Point to Risk for Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... their oxytocin levels in the third trimester of pregnancy and their depression symptoms six weeks after they gave birth. Among the 13 women with a history of depression before pregnancy, the higher their oxytocin levels, the more depression ...

  20. MATERNAL SELF-REPORTED DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND MATERNAL CORTISOL LEVELS INTERACT TO PREDICT INFANT CORTISOL LEVELS.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Jennifer E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo; Atkinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Three basic findings have emerged from research on maternal depressive symptoms and offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning: (a) Mothers' depressive symptoms are positively associated with their offsprings' cortisol stress response, (b) numerous individual and interpersonal maternal characteristics moderate this association, and (c) maternal and infant cortisol levels are highly correlated. In combination, these findings have suggested that maternal cortisol levels may moderate the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol responsivity; the current study assessed this hypothesis. Participants were 297 mother-infant dyads who were recruited from the community. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report. Dyads participated in two differentially stressful infant challenges when infants were 16 and 17 months old. Mother and infant salivary cortisol was collected before and after challenges. Results indicate that maternal cortisol levels moderated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol levels across both challenges. Infants showed higher cortisol levels if their mothers had both higher depressive symptoms and higher cortisol levels, as compared to infants of mothers with higher depressive symptoms and lower cortisol, and to infants of mothers with lower depressive symptoms and either higher or lower cortisol levels. We discuss findings in relation to environmental and biological factors that may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms. PMID:26939829

  1. Spirituality, depression, living alone, and perceived health among Korean older adults in the community.

    PubMed

    You, Kwang Soo; Lee, Hae-Ok; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Kim, Susie; Marui, Eiji; Lee, Jung Su; Cook, Paul

    2009-08-01

    Both theoretical and empirical studies have documented the protective effect of religiosity and spirituality on general health in older adults in community and hospital settings; however, no study has documented the relationship between spirituality and depression among older adults living alone in communities in Korea. We tested two hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Korean older adults living alone would be more depressed and less healthy than older adults living with family, and Hypothesis 2: Individuals who are more religious and spiritual would report a lower level of depression and a higher level of general health even when other demographic and living status variables are controlled. A descriptive, comparative, and correlational design with a convenience sampling method was conducted among community-dwelling Korean older adults in Chounbook Providence, South Korea. This study included 152 men and women older than 65 years old. Hypothesis 1 was supported as Korean older adults living alone were significantly more depressed than were older adults living with family (P<.01). However, for Hypotheses 2, only spirituality activities and Spirituality Index of Well-Being scores were significantly associated with general health and/or depression (P<.01), but there were no relationships between the variables of attendance and importance of religion with general health and depression. PMID:19631109

  2. Anxiety and physical health problems increase the odds of women having more severe symptoms of depression.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Sandra J; Simeonova, Diana I; Kimmel, Mary C; Battle, Cynthia L; Maki, Pauline M; Flynn, Heather A

    2016-06-01

    Severely depressed women incur substantial disability and suicide risk, necessitating an understanding of factors that may contribute to severe depression. The purpose of this research was to determine the degree to which age, physical morbidity, anxiety, and hormonal status predict the likelihood of severe depression among women with mood disorders (n = 298). Data arose from a standardized battery of measures in a multi-center clinical registry of patients with mood disorders. The women were being treated at 17 participating sites of the National Network of Depression Centers. Results of logistic regression analyses indicate that a woman's level of anxiety was the strongest predictor of her likelihood of having severe depression (Exp(B) = 1.33, p = .000), including thoughts of death or suicide. The number of physical health problems that a woman reported was also a significant predictor (Exp(B) = 1.09, p = .04). Neither age nor hormonal status was significant in the final model, although a trend was observed for women with surgically induced menopause to have more severe depression. Findings support the need to work closely with medical practitioners to address physical health problems as part of the treatment plan for depression and to give comorbid anxiety and depression equal priority in symptom management. PMID:26403982

  3. Depression and suicide ideation among students accessing campus health care.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Sara; Wiegel, Jennifer R; Mundt, Marlon; Brown, David; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Heiligenstein, Eric; Harahan, Brian; Fleming, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Depression and suicide are of increasing concern on college campuses. This article presents data from the College Health Intervention Projects on the frequency of depression and suicide ideation among 1,622 college students who accessed primary care services in 4 university clinics in the Midwest, Northwest, and Canada. Students completed the Beck Depression Inventory and other measures related to exercise patterns, alcohol use, sensation seeking, and violence. The frequency of depression was similar for men (25%) and women (26%). Thought of suicide was higher for men (13%) than women (10%). Tobacco use, emotional abuse, and unwanted sexual encounters were all associated with screening positive for depression. "Days of exercise per week" was inversely associated with screening positive for depression. Because the majority of students access campus-based student health centers, medical providers can serve a key role in early identification and intervention. With every 4th student reporting symptoms of depression and every 10th student having suicidal thoughts, such interventions are needed. PMID:21219281

  4. Depressive symptoms and health-related risk-taking in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Testa, C Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear bike-helmets less often, and drive while drunk more frequently. Depressive symptoms did not correlate with reported condom use. The found relations were all mediated by reported levels of hopelessness. Reported levels of anhedonia and suicidality also mediated some of the found relations. Therefore, adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms, especially those reporting hopelessness, should be considered at jeopardy for a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors. PMID:20560751

  5. Race, life course socioeconomic position, racial discrimination, depressive symptoms and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Darrell L; Puterman, Eli; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Matthews, Karen A; Adler, Nancy E

    2013-11-01

    Greater levels of socioeconomic position (SEP) are generally associated with better health. However results from previous studies vary across race/ethnicity and health outcomes. Further, the majority of previous studies do not account for the effects of life course SEP on health nor the effects of racial discrimination, which could moderate the effects of SEP on health. Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we examined the relationship between a life course SEP measure on depressive symptoms and self-rated health. A life course SEP was constructed for each participant, using a framework that included parental education and occupation along with respondents' highest level of education and occupation. Interaction terms were created between life course SEP and racial discrimination to determine whether the association between SEP and health was moderated by experiences of racial discrimination. Analyses revealed that higher levels of life course SEP were inversely related to depressive symptoms. Greater life course SEP was positively associated with favorable self-rated health. Racial discrimination was associated with more depressive symptoms and poorer self-rated health. Analyses indicated a significant interaction between life course SEP and racial discrimination on depressive symptoms in the full sample. This suggested that for respondents with greater levels of SEP, racial discrimination was associated with reports of more depressive symptoms. Future research efforts should be made to examine whether individuals' perceptions and experiences of racial discrimination at the interpersonal and structural levels limits their ability to acquire human capital as well as their advancement in education and occupational status. PMID:24161083

  6. BDNF plasma levels variations in major depressed patients receiving duloxetine.

    PubMed

    Fornaro, Michele; Escelsior, Andrea; Rocchi, Giulio; Conio, Benedetta; Magioncalda, Paola; Marozzi, Valentina; Presta, Andrea; Sterlini, Bruno; Contini, Paola; Amore, Mario; Fornaro, Pantaleo; Martino, Matteo

    2015-05-01

    It has been frequently reported that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Objective of the study was to investigate BDNF levels variations in MDD patients during antidepressant treatment with duloxetine. 30 MDD patients and 32 healthy controls were assessed using Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and monitored for BDNF plasma levels at baseline, week 6 and week 12 of duloxetine treatment (60 mg/day) and at baseline, respectively. According to early clinical response to duloxetine (defined at week 6 by reduction >50 % of baseline HAM-D score), MDD patients were distinguished in early responders (ER) and early non-responders (ENR), who reached clinical response at week 12. Laboratory analysis showed significant lower baseline BDNF levels among patients compared to controls. During duloxetine treatment, in ENR BDNF levels increased, reaching values not significantly different compared to controls, while in ER BDNF levels remained nearly unchanged. Lower baseline BDNF levels observed in patients possibly confirm an impairment of the NEI stress-adaptation system and neuroplasticity in depression, while BDNF increase and normalization observed only in ENR might suggest differential neurobiological backgrounds in ER vs. ENR within the depressive syndrome. PMID:25501804

  7. Does the level of wealth inequality within an area influence the prevalence of depression amongst older people?

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alan; Jivraj, Stephen; Nazroo, James; Tampubolon, Gindo; Vanhoutte, Bram

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers whether the extent of inequality in house prices within neighbourhoods of England is associated with depressive symptoms in the older population using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We consider two competing hypotheses: first, the wealth inequality hypothesis which proposes that neighbourhood inequality is harmful to health and, second, the mixed neighbourhood hypothesis which suggests that socially mixed neighbourhoods are beneficial for health outcomes. Our results are supportive of the mixed neighbourhood hypothesis, we find a significant association between neighbourhood inequality and depression with lower levels of depression amongst older people in neighbourhoods with greater house price inequality after controlling for individual socio-economic and area correlates of depression. The association between area inequality and depression is strongest for the poorest individuals, but also holds among the most affluent. Our results are in line with research that suggests there are social and health benefits associated with economically mixed communities. PMID:24662528

  8. Perinatal Depression Screening and Intervention: Enhancing Health Provider Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Corder-Mabe, Joan; Austin, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective The authors of this study collaborated in the analysis of public health survey data in order to inform future statewide interventions that could systematically enhance depression screening and mental health service use for women of reproductive age. The primary objective of the study was to empirically inform and test the program theory components of a motivational interviewing intervention that we anticipate will guide statewide practice and policy priorities. Methods Data were examined from a survey of healthcare practitioners statewide (n=1498) regarding their practices with and perceptions of perinatal depression care for women. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to measure two latent constructs: health provider confidence in the ability to diagnose and treat and the importance placed on screening and treatment. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test a program theory supporting motivational interviewing using a model implied relationship between confidence and importance on screening and treatment/referral practices. Results The data fit the model; the model provisionally supports motivational interviewing as an intervention influencing provider attitudes and practices surrounding perinatal depression screening and treatment/referral. Conclusions Ultimately, study findings support statewide public health efforts to expand the role of health providers in recognizing and responding to perinatal depression and suggest that motivational interviewing techniques that augment importance and confidence may lead to enhanced screening and referral/treatment outcomes for pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:22309209

  9. Mental health literacy towards depression among non‐medical students at a Malaysian university

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge and perception of depression among students of University Sains Malaysia (USM), in Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. Method Face‐to‐face interviews were conducted using a pre‐validated 21‐item questionnaire among students at USM. Results A total of 500 respondents participated in the survey comprising 24.6% (n=123) males and 75.4% (n=377) females. Half (50.0%, n=250) were Malays, followed by Chinese (44.0%, n=220) and Indians (6.0%, n=30). Whilst exploring the respondents' knowledge of the symptoms of depression, it was found that Chinese females had a comparatively better knowledge (P=0.058) of the symptoms of depression in comparison with Malays and Indians. Overall, social issues were attributed as the possible cause of depression. A cursory knowledge level was observed regarding medication for depression. Female students were more inclined towards the use of alternative and traditional medicines. However, with regard to seeking professional help, consultation with a psychiatrist was preferred by the majority. Conclusion Overall, a moderate level of knowledge about the symptoms of depression and a cursory knowledge of its therapy were observed. Those with personal experience of depression had better knowledge of the symptoms and therapy. Alternative treatments and traditional medicines were also favoured. There is a risk that this may affect the ability of Malaysian youths to seek evidence‐based mental health care. PMID:22477920

  10. Mental health literacy towards depression among non-medical students at a Malaysian university.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tahir M; Sulaiman, Syed A; Hassali, Mohamed A

    2010-03-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge and perception of depression among students of University Sains Malaysia (USM), in Penang, Peninsular Malaysia.Method Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a pre-validated 21-item questionnaire among students at USM.Results A total of 500 respondents participated in the survey comprising 24.6% (n=123) males and 75.4% (n=377) females. Half (50.0%, n=250) were Malays, followed by Chinese (44.0%, n=220) and Indians (6.0%, n=30). Whilst exploring the respondents' knowledge of the symptoms of depression, it was found that Chinese females had a comparatively better knowledge (P=0.058) of the symptoms of depression in comparison with Malays and Indians. Overall, social issues were attributed as the possible cause of depression. A cursory knowledge level was observed regarding medication for depression. Female students were more inclined towards the use of alternative and traditional medicines. However, with regard to seeking professional help, consultation with a psychiatrist was preferred by the majority.Conclusion Overall, a moderate level of knowledge about the symptoms of depression and a cursory knowledge of its therapy were observed. Those with personal experience of depression had better knowledge of the symptoms and therapy. Alternative treatments and traditional medicines were also favoured. There is a risk that this may affect the ability of Malaysian youths to seek evidence-based mental health care. PMID:22477920

  11. Self‐efficacy and the promotion of health for depressed single mothers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Single mothers are a vulnerable population at risk for poor mental and physical health. This paper discusses the mental and physical health of single mothers, as well as the psychosocial and socio‐economic risk factors placing single mothers at risk for poor health outcomes. Some of these include, gender, income level, educational status, social support, stress and certain personality characteristics. Theoretical models with the potential to explore ways to promote health in depressed single mothers will also be presented. The paper concludes with the application of these models to primary prevention and the promotion of health for single mothers along with recommendations for future research. PMID:22477937

  12. Health-related personal control predicts depression symptoms and quality of life but not health behaviour following coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Tara; Poole, Lydia; Leigh, Elizabeth; Ronaldson, Amy; Jahangiri, Marjan; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    To determine the prospective association between health-related control beliefs, quality of life (QOL), depression symptoms, and health behaviours in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients 6-8 weeks following surgery. 149 patients who were undergoing planned CABG surgery were recruited. Patients completed questionnaires measuring health related personal control, treatment control, depression symptoms, QOL, and health behaviours prior to and 6-8 weeks after surgery. Higher levels of health-related personal control predicted better QOL, and lower levels of depression symptoms, but not adherence to medication, cardiac rehabilitation attendance, or physical activity. These results were independent of demographic, behavioural, and clinical covariates. Treatment control was not associated with any outcome. These results suggest that perceived health-related personal control is associated with key aspects of short-term recovery from CABG surgery. Targeted interventions aimed at improving perceptions of health-related personal control may improve health outcomes in this cardiac population. PMID:26341356

  13. Links between depressive symptoms and unmet health and social care needs among older prisoners

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Kate; Forsyth, Katrina; Webb, Roger; Senior, Jane; Hayes, Adrian Jonathan; Challis, David; Fazel, Seena; Shaw, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Background: absolute numbers of older prisoners and their proportion of the total prison population are increasing. They have multiple health and social care needs that are prominent on entry into prison. No previous studies have identified older prisoners' health and social care needs at this crucial point. Objective: to examine unmet health and social care needs among older men entering prison and their links with depressive symptoms. Methods: a cross-sectional survey across nine prisons in the North of England was completed. One hundred male prisoners aged between 60 and 81 were interviewed, using the Camberwell Assessment of Need—Forensic short version (CANFOR-S) and Geriatric Depression Scale—Short Form (GDS-15). Descriptive statistics were generated and χ2 tests performed. Results: participants reported high levels of unmet needs as measured with the CANFOR-S, notably in the domains of knowledge about their condition and treatment (38%); psychological distress (34%); daytime activities (29%); benefits (28%); food (22%) and physical health (21%). The mean total number of unmet needs was 2.74, with a median of 2.0. More than half the sample (56%, 95% CI 45–66%) exhibited clinical signs of depression. A significant association between depressive symptomology and an unmet physical health need, as measured by the CANFOR-S, was detected (χ2 = 6.76, df = 1, P < 0.01). Conclusions: high levels of depressive symptoms were experienced by older prisoners on entry into prison. Personalised health and social care needs assessment and discrete depression screening are required on prison entry to facilitate effective management of unmet needs. PMID:26764402

  14. Does Family History of Depression Predict Major Depression in Midlife Women? Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation Mental Health Study (SWAN MHS)

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Alicia; Richardson, Gale A.; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Youk, Ada; Bromberger, Joyce T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women independent of psychosocial and health profiles at midlife. Methods Participants were 303 African American and Caucasian women (42–52 years at baseline) recruited into the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) and the Women’s Mental Health Study (MHS) in Pittsburgh. Major depression was assessed annually with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Family mental health history was collected at the 9th or 10th follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether family history of depression predicted major depression in midlife, adjusting for covariates. Results The odds of experiencing major depression during the study were three times greater for those with a family history than for those without a family history (OR=3.22, 95% CI=1.95- 5.31). Family history predicted depression (OR=2.67, 95% CI=1.50–4.78) after adjusting for lifetime history of depression, age, trait anxiety, chronic medical conditions, and stressful life events. In analyses stratified by lifetime history of depression, family history significantly predicted depression only among women with a lifetime history of depression. Conclusions Family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women generally, but particularly in those with a lifetime history of depression prior to midlife. PMID:24952069

  15. Does family history of depression predict major depression in midlife women? Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Mental Health Study (SWAN MHS).

    PubMed

    Colvin, Alicia; Richardson, Gale A; Cyranowski, Jill M; Youk, Ada; Bromberger, Joyce T

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to determine whether family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women independent of psychosocial and health profiles at midlife. Participants were 303 African American and Caucasian women (42-52 years at baseline) recruited into the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) and the Women's Mental Health Study (MHS) in Pittsburgh. Major depression was assessed annually with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Family mental health history was collected at the ninth or tenth follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether family history of depression predicted major depression in midlife, adjusting for covariates. The odds of experiencing major depression during the study were three times greater for those with a family history than for those without a family history (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.95-5.31). Family history predicted depression (OR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.50-4.78) after adjusting for lifetime history of depression, age, trait anxiety, chronic medical conditions, and stressful life events. In analyses stratified by lifetime history of depression, family history significantly predicted depression only among women with a lifetime history of depression. Family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women generally, but particularly in those with a lifetime history of depression prior to midlife. PMID:24952069

  16. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Depression, and Health Status in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Methods Individual-level data on 1010 participants at baseline in Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), a trial of long-term weight loss among adults with type 2 diabetes, were linked to neighborhood-level SES (% living below poverty) from the 2000 US Census (tracts). Dependent variables included depression (Beck Inventory), and health status (Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36) scale). Multi-level regression models were used to account simultaneously for individual-level age, sex, race, education, personal yearly income and neighborhood-level SES. Results Overall, the % living in poverty in the participants' neighborhoods varied, mean = 11% (range 0-67%). Compared to their counterparts in the lowest tertile of neighborhood poverty (least poverty), those in the highest tertile (most poverty) had significantly lower scores on the role-limitations(physical), role limitations(emotional), physical functioning, social functioning, mental health, and vitality sub-scales of the SF-36 scale. When evaluating SF-36 composite scores, those living in neighborhoods with more poverty had significantly lower scores on the physical health (β-coefficient [β] = -1.90 units, 95% CI: -3.40,-0.039), mental health (β = -2.92 units, -4.31,-1.53) and global health (β = -2.77 units, -4.21,-1.33) composite scores. Conclusion In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, lower neighborhood SES was significantly associated with poorer health status. Whether these associations might influence response to the Look AHEAD weight loss intervention requires further investigation. PMID:22182286

  17. Depression Screening Using Daily Mental-Health Ratings from a Smartphone Application for Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junetae; Lim, Sanghee; Min, Yul Ha; Shin, Yong-Wook; Lee, Byungtae; Sohn, Guiyun; Jung, Kyung Hae; Lee, Jae-Ho; Son, Byung Ho; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Shin, Soo-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile mental-health trackers are mobile phone apps that gather self-reported mental-health ratings from users. They have received great attention from clinicians as tools to screen for depression in individual patients. While several apps that ask simple questions using face emoticons have been developed, there has been no study examining the validity of their screening performance. Objective In this study, we (1) evaluate the potential of a mobile mental-health tracker that uses three daily mental-health ratings (sleep satisfaction, mood, and anxiety) as indicators for depression, (2) discuss three approaches to data processing (ratio, average, and frequency) for generating indicator variables, and (3) examine the impact of adherence on reporting using a mobile mental-health tracker and accuracy in depression screening. Methods We analyzed 5792 sets of daily mental-health ratings collected from 78 breast cancer patients over a 48-week period. Using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) as the measure of true depression status, we conducted a random-effect logistic panel regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate the screening performance of the mobile mental-health tracker. In addition, we classified patients into two subgroups based on their adherence level (higher adherence and lower adherence) using a k-means clustering algorithm and compared the screening accuracy between the two groups. Results With the ratio approach, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) is 0.8012, indicating that the performance of depression screening using daily mental-health ratings gathered via mobile mental-health trackers is comparable to the results of PHQ-9 tests. Also, the AUC is significantly higher (P=.002) for the higher adherence group (AUC=0.8524) than for the lower adherence group (AUC=0.7234). This result shows that adherence to self-reporting is associated with a higher accuracy of depression screening. Conclusions Our results

  18. Social support and physical activity as moderators of life stress in predicting baseline depression and change in depression over time in the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Eaton, Charles B.; Weisberg, Risa; Sands, Megan; Williams, Carla; Calhounm, Darren; Manson, JoAnn E.; Denburg, Natalie L.; Taylor, Teletia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether social support and/or physical activity buffer the association between stressors and increasing risk of depression symptoms at baseline and at 3 year follow-up. Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. 91,912 community-dwelling post-menopausal women participated in this prospective cohort study. Depression symptoms were measured at baseline and 3 years later; social support, physical activity, and stressors were measured at baseline. Results Stressors at baseline, including verbal abuse, physical abuse, caregiving, social strain, negative life events, financial stress, low income, acute pain, and a greater number of chronic medical conditions, were all associated with higher levels of depression symptoms at baseline and new onset elevated symptoms at three year follow-up. Social support and physical activity were associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms. Contrary to expectation, more social support at baseline strengthened the association between concurrent depression and physical abuse, social strain, caregiving, and low income. Similarly, more social support at baseline increased the association between financial stress, income, and pain on new-onset depression 3 years later. Physical activity similarly moderated the effect of caregiving, income, and pain on depression symptoms at baseline. Conclusion Stressors, social support, and physical activity showed predicted main effect associations with depression. Multiplicative interactions were small in magnitude and in the opposite direction of what was expected. PMID:23644722

  19. Depression, Social Support, and Mental Health: A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis in African American Custodial Grandmothers.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Deborah M; Kelley, Susan J; Lamis, Dorian A

    2016-03-01

    Custodial grandparents raising grandchildren experience intense levels of stress that can lead to depression and other forms of psychological distress. Drawing on a coping model of family stress, adjustment, and adaptation, we explored the relationship between depression and mental health quality of life mediated by social support and moderated by grandparent's age. The sample consisted of 667 African American custodial grandmothers, dichotomized into two age groupings, ≤55 (n = 306) and 55 + (n = 361). All grandmothers participated in a 12-month support intervention. The prospective analysis revealed social support was a mediator in the association between depressive symptoms and mental health quality of life for older African American grandmothers; however, this same relationship did not hold for their younger counterparts. Study limitations and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26798077

  20. Psychometric analysis of the Mental Health Recovery Measure in a sample of veterans with depression.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Kristen M; Nelson, C Beau; Ganoczy, Dara; Zivin, Kara; Brandfon, Samantha; Walters, Heather; Cohen, Jay L; Valenstein, Marcia

    2016-05-01

    Using data from a sample of 398 veterans diagnosed with depression, the present study used principal components analysis to shorten the Mental Health Recovery Measure (MHRM) to a 10-item instrument. Results indicated the 10-item MHRM had excellent internal reliability. Construct validity for the 10-item MHRM was evidenced by correlations with measures of depression coping self-efficacy, social adjustment, hopelessness, and depression. The 10-item MHRM derived in the present study was compared with a 10-item version of the MHRM that was previously empirically derived in a sample of veterans with schizophrenia (Armstrong, Cohen, Hellemann, Reist, & Young, 2014). Results suggest that similar items represent the underlying construct of recovery for veterans with depression and veterans with schizophrenia. Veterans with depression reported lower average levels of recovery than veterans with schizophrenia. Study limitations, directions for future investigations, and the implications of routine assessment of mental health recovery in public mental health systems are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27148954

  1. Social Class and Mental Health: Testing Exploitation as a Relational Determinant of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Muntaner, Carles; Ng, Edwin; Prins, Seth J.; Bones-Rocha, Katia; Espelt, Albert; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-01-01

    This study tests whether social class exploitation operates as a relational mechanism that generates mental health inequalities in the nursing home industry. We ask, does social class exploitation (i.e., the acquisition of economic benefits from the labor of those who are dominated) have a systematic and predictable impact on depression among nursing assistants? Using cross-sectional data from 868 nursing assistants employed in 50 nursing homes in three U.S. states, we measure social class exploitation as “ownership type” (private for-profit, private not-for-profit, and public) and “managerial domination” (labor relations violations, perceptions of labor-management conflict). Depression is assessed using the original and revised versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and CESD-R). Using two-level logistic regressions, we find that private for-profit ownership and higher managerial domination are predictive of depression among nursing assistants even after adjustment for potential confounders and mediators. Our findings confirm the theoretical and empirical value of applying a social class approach to understanding how mental health inequalities are generated through exploitative mechanisms. Ownership type and managerial domination appear to affect depression through social relations that generate mental health inequalities through the process of acquiring profits, controlling production, supervising and monitoring labor, and enforcing disciplinary sanctions. PMID:25813501

  2. Stigma and mental health treatment of adolescents with depression in jordan.

    PubMed

    Gearing, Robin E; MacKenzie, Michael J; Ibrahim, Rawan W; Brewer, Kathryne B; Batayneh, Jude S; Schwalbe, Craig S J

    2015-01-01

    Stigma is a fundamental barrier to seeking and engaging in mental health treatment for individuals managing depression. This study examines stigma perceptions of mental health treatment for Arab adolescents managing depression using a vignette survey completed by adults in public spaces in Amman, Jordan (n = 108). The vignette was systematically changed across four different conditions that varied the described youth's gender and whether or not they were receiving treatment for their depression. Two-way ANOVAs found that gender and receipt of mental health treatment influenced perceptions of stigma. Seeking treatment, however, did not increase perceived stigma, and receiving mental health treatment rather than no treatment was found as more likely to be a helpful approach for both males and females. Findings indicate that personal level stigma may have greater effects on females whereas public stigma may exert more influence on males. Participants endorsed that adolescents with depression are most likely to be helped when a family sought treatment rather than not seeking treatment. Findings also indicate that the community seems to appreciate the need for treatment and the likelihood of benefiting from formal mental health services. PMID:25027014

  3. [Depression and the complete state model of health].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Darío; Blanco, Amalio; Horcajo, Javier; Valle, Carmen

    2007-05-01

    Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. In order to specify the contents of this positive state, the Complete State Model of Health (CSMH) considers mental health as a series of symptoms of hedonia and positive functioning, operationalized by measures of subjective, psychological, and social well-being. This model has empirically confirmed two new axioms: (a) rather than forming a single bipolar dimension, health and illness are correlated unipolar dimensions, and (b) the presence of mental health implies positive personal and social functioning. In the present article, we have taken the CSMH as the theoretical framework for the study of depression. Confirmatory factor analyses did not support the first axiom. In fact, the model that posits that measures of mental illness and health form a single bipolar dimension provided the best fit to the data. PMID:17425901

  4. Relationship Between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Symptoms of Depression in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Hyun; Seok, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between depressive symptoms and serum vitamin D levels in stroke patients. Methods In total, 126 stroke patients were analyzed. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration of each patient was used to determine their vitamin D status. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9). Functional status was evaluated with the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI). We compared the clinical questionnaires of a vitamin D-deficient group and a normal group, and evaluated the correlations between BDI-II, PHQ-9, K-MBI, and serum 25-OHD levels. Results In the vitamin D-deficient group, BDI-II (16.0±12.1) and PHQ-9 (7.4±4.2) scores were significantly higher than those of the normal group (BDI-II, 9.1±7.2; PHQ-9, 4.2±2.9; p<0.01). In a Spearman correlation analysis, a significant negative correlation was found between serum 25-OHD levels and BDI-II (Spearman r=0.177, p=0.048), but there were no significant correlations between serum 25-OHD levels and PHQ-9 or K-MBI. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency was correlated with the symptoms of depression in stroke patients. PMID:26949678

  5. Flourishing after depression: Factors associated with achieving complete mental health among those with a history of depression.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Agbeyaka, Senyo; LaFond, Deborah M; Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2016-08-30

    This study investigated factors associated with complete mental health among a nationally representative sample of Canadians with a history of depression by conducting secondary analysis of the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey- Mental Health (n=20,955). Complete mental health was defined as 1) the absence of mental illness, substance abuse, or suicidal ideation in the past year; 2) happiness or life satisfaction almost every day/past month, and 3) social and psychological well-being. The prevalence of complete mental health among those with and without a history of depression was determined. In a sample of formerly depressed respondents (n=2528), a series of logistic regressions were completed controlling for demographics, socioeconomic status, health and lifetime mental health conditions, health behaviours, social support, adverse childhood experiences, and religiosity. Two in five individuals (39%) with a history of depression had achieved complete mental health in comparison to 78% of those without a history of depression. In comparison to the formally depressed adults who were not in complete mental health, those in complete mental health were more likely to be female, White, older, affluent, married, with a confidant, free of disabling pain, insomnia, and childhood adversities and without a history of substance abuse. They were also more likely to exercise regularly and use spirituality to cope. PMID:27267442

  6. Agomelatine Increases BDNF Serum Levels in Depressed Patients in Correlation with the Improvement of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Pettorruso, Mauro; De Berardis, Domenico; Varasano, Paola Annunziata; Lucidi Pressanti, Gabriella; De Remigis, Valeria; Valchera, Alessandro; Ricci, Valerio; Di Nicola, Marco; Janiri, Luigi; Biggio, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Agomelatine modulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression via its interaction with melatonergic and serotonergic receptors and has shown promising results in terms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor increase in animal models. Methods: Twenty-seven patients were started on agomelatine (25mg/d). Venous blood was collected and brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels were measured at baseline and after 2 and 8 weeks along with a clinical assessment, including Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale. Results: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum concentration increased after agomelatine treatment. Responders showed a significant increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels after 2 weeks of agomelatine treatment; no difference was observed in nonresponders. Linear regression analysis showed that more prominent brain-derived neurotrophic factor level variation was associated with lower baseline BDNF levels and greater anhedonic features at baseline. Conclusions: Patients affected by depressive disorders showed an increase of brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum concentration after a 2-week treatment with agomelatine. The increase of brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels was found to be greater in patients with lower brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and marked anhedonia at baseline. PMID:26775293

  7. Measuring depression and stigma towards depression and mental health treatment among adolescents in an Arab-American community

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, R.M.; Farroukh, M.; Ismail, M.; Najda, J.; Sobh, H.; Hammad, A.; Dalack, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research that has examined the prevalence of depression and attitudes towards depression and mental health treatment in Arab-American adolescents; we sought to assess these in a predominantly Arab-American community in metro Detroit. A health survey of adolescents aged 12–17 years was conducted (n=98). Participants were recruited from two local community organizations in Dearborn, MI. Depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Depression Scale, and attitude towards depression and willingness to seek help for mental health conditions were assessed by the Self-Stigma of Depression Scale (SSDS). To assess whether attitudes might be affected by information about mental health treatment, adolescents were randomized to view either an educational video about mental health, or a control video before responding to questions about their willingness to seek help for mental health conditions. Overall, 14% of Arab-American adolescents in this study endorsed moderate or moderately severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 11), suggesting a need to increase awareness of and access to mental health services and screening for Arab-American youth. PMID:26257824

  8. The Modified Depression Scale (MDS): A Brief, No-Cost Assessment Tool to Estimate the Level of Depressive Symptoms in Students and Schools

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Erin C.; Johnson, Renee M.; Green, Jennifer G.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent health researchers and practitioners are frequently interested in assessing depression as part of student screening and for school-wide prevention and intervention planning. However, this task is challenging given the lack of free, brief assessments of depressive symptoms in youth. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of an adapted version of the Modified Depression Scale (MDS). Data came from a school-based survey of 9th-12th graders in Boston (N=1,657). We assessed internal consistency reliability and known-groups validity, in addition to the feasibility of establishing a dichotomous cut-point to classify adolescents as having high versus low depressive symptoms. We also evaluated the validity of the adapted MDS as a school-wide measure. At the student-level, the adapted MDS demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. Students engaging in risk behaviors (e.g., substance use) or who were victimized (e.g., bullied) had significantly higher depressive symptom scores. Students who endorsed four or five MDS symptoms often or always had a heightened risk of suicidal ideation, substance use, and failing grades when compared to students who endorsed three or fewer symptoms often or always. At the school-level, higher mean levels of depressive symptoms in a school were associated with higher mean levels of suicidal ideation and failing grades. Results of this study suggest that the adapted MDS is a promising measurement tool that could be useful to school-based professionals and researchers to evaluate depressive symptoms in adolescents and ascertain the prevalence of depressive symptoms in schools. PMID:22639697

  9. The Onset of Depression During the Great Recession: Foreclosure and Older Adult Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Cagney, Kathleen A.; Browning, Christopher R.; Iveniuk, James; English, Ned

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined neighborhood-level foreclosure rates and their association with onset of depressive symptoms in older adults. Methods. We linked data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (2005–2006 and 2010–2011 waves), a longitudinal, nationally representative survey, to data on zip code–level foreclosure rates, and predicted the onset of depressive symptoms using logit-linked regression. Results. Multiple stages of the foreclosure process predicted the onset of depressive symptoms, with adjustment for demographic characteristics and changes in household assets, neighborhood poverty, and visible neighborhood disorder. A large increase in the number of notices of default (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14, 2.67) and properties returning to ownership by the bank (OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.47) were associated with depressive symptoms. A large increase in properties going to auction was suggestive of such an association (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 0.96, 2.19). Age, fewer years of education, and functional limitations also were predictive. Conclusions. Increases in neighborhood-level foreclosure represent an important risk factor for depression in older adults. These results accord with previous studies suggesting that the effects of economic crises are typically first experienced through deficits in emotional well-being. PMID:24446830

  10. Spousal Suffering and Partner’s Depression and Cardiovascular Disease: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Richard; Beach, Scott R.; Hebert, Randy S.; Martire, Lynn M.; Monin, Joan K.; Tompkins, Connie A.; Albert, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of suffering in a spouse on prevalent and incident psychiatric (depression) and physical morbidity (cardiovascular disease, CVD) in their partner, controlling for known risk factors for depression and CVD. Design Descriptive longitudinal study. Participants 1330 older married couples enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a large epidemiologic study of the elderly. Measurements Predictor variables were physical, psychological, and existential/spiritual indicators of suffering. Primary outcomes were prevalent and incident depression and CVD. Results Controlling for known risk factors for depression, we found a dose-response relationship between suffering in a spouse and concurrent depression in their partner as well as a relationship between suffering and the partner’s future risk for depression. With respect to CVD, and controlling for sub-clinical CVD at baseline, husbands whose wives reported high levels of suffering also had higher rates of prevalent CVD, but there were not significant associations between wives suffering and husbands incident CVD. There were no associations between husbands’ suffering and wives’ prevalent or incident CVD. Conclusion Exposure to spousal suffering is an independent and unique source of distress in married couples that contributes to psychiatric and physical morbidity. More attention should be paid to the interpersonal effects of suffering in married couples, and to its role in contributing to morbidity. PMID:19454851

  11. Social Determinants of Health and Depression: A Preliminary Investigation from Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuan; Gong, Yan-Hong; Wen, Xiao-Piao; Guan, Chao-Ping; Li, Ming-Chuan; Yin, Ping; Wang, Zhi-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Background In the last several years, research related to social determinants of health (SDH) has begun to resonate in the medical, behavioral, social and political sciences arena. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between SDH and depression, and to provide new evidences and clues for depression control and prevention. Methodology/Principal Findings This research was a cross-sectional survey executed door to door from October 2006 to April 2008, with a sample of 3,738 individuals aged 18 and older in rural China. The three variables of SDH were socioeconomic status (years of schooling and self-reported economic status of family), social cohesion and negative life events. Demographic variables and self-perceived physical health were taken as potential confounders. The cross-table analysis showed that variations in levels of depression were associated with variations in SDH, and logistic regression analysis confirmed the association even after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Conclusions Although there were some limitations, the current study provides initial evidence of the importance of SDH in depression. Findings indicate that social inequity and the role of policy action emphasized by SDH should be considered high priorities when addressing the issue of depression. In addition, cell-to-society and pill-to-policy approaches should be encouraged in the future. PMID:22276213

  12. Overeducation and depressive symptoms: diminishing mental health returns to education.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Piet; Pattyn, Elise; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2013-11-01

    In general, well-educated people enjoy better mental health than those with less education. As a result, some wonder whether there are limits to the mental health benefits of education. Inspired by the literature on the expansion of tertiary education, this article explores marginal mental health returns to education and studies the mental health status of overeducated people. To enhance the validity of the findings we use two indicators of educational attainment - years of education and ISCED97 categories - and two objective indicators of overeducation (the realised matches method and the job analyst method) in a sample of the working population of 25 European countries (unweighted sample N = 19,089). Depression is measured using an eight-item version of the CES-D scale. We find diminishing mental health returns to education. In addition, overeducated people report more depression symptoms. Both findings hold irrespective of the indicators used. The results must be interpreted in the light of the enduring expansion of education, as our findings show that the discussion of the relevance of the human capital perspective, and the diploma disease view on the relationship between education and modern society, is not obsolete. PMID:23909439

  13. Are women with major depression in pregnancy identifiable in population health data?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although record linkage of routinely collected health datasets is a valuable research resource, most datasets are established for administrative purposes and not for health outcomes research. In order for meaningful results to be extrapolated to specific populations, the limitations of the data and linkage methodology need to be investigated and clarified. It is the objective of this study to investigate the differences in ascertainment which may arise between a hospital admission dataset and a dispensing claims dataset, using major depression in pregnancy as an example. The safe use of antidepressants in pregnancy is an ongoing issue for clinicians with around 10% of pregnant women suffer from depression. As the birth admission will be the first admission to hospital during their pregnancy for most women, their use of antidepressants, or their depressive condition, may not be revealed to the attending hospital clinicians. This may result in adverse outcomes for the mother and infant. Methods Population-based de-identified data were provided from the Western Australian Data Linkage System linking the administrative health records of women with a delivery to related records from the Midwives’ Notification System, the Hospital Morbidity Data System and the national Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme dataset. The women with depression during their pregnancy were ascertained in two ways: women with dispensing records relating to dispensed antidepressant medicines with an WHO ATC code to the 3rd level, pharmacological subgroup, ‘N06A Antidepressants’; and, women with any hospital admission during pregnancy, including the birth admission, if a comorbidity was recorded relating to depression. Results From 2002 to 2005, there were 96698 births in WA. At least one antidepressant was dispensed to 4485 (4.6%) pregnant women. There were 3010 (3.1%) women with a comorbidity related to depression recorded on their delivery admission, or other admission to hospital

  14. Depression - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  15. Antenatal depression and hematocrit levels as predictors of postpartum depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Roomruangwong, Chutima; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Maes, Michael

    2016-04-30

    The aim of this study is to delineate the risk factors of antenatal depression and its consequences, including postnatal depression, and to examine whether the hematocrit (Hct) is associated with maternal depression. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Kennerley and Gath Maternity Blues Assessment Scale (KGB), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) were assessed at the end of term (T1) and 2-3 days (T2) and 4-6 weeks (T3) after delivery in 126 women with and without antenatal depression. The Hct was measured at T1. Antenatal depression was significantly predicted by lifetime depression and premenstrual syndrome and less education. Antenatal depression was not associated with obstetric or neonatal outcomes. Antenatal depression symptoms strongly predict depression and anxiety symptoms at T2 and T3. The EPDS, KGB, STAI and BDI, but not the HAMD, scores, were significantly lower at T3 than before. The incidence of depression significantly decreased from T1 (23.8%) to T2 (7.8%) and T3 (5.3%). T1 Hct values significantly predicted the T3 postnatal EPDS, STAI, KGB and BDI scores. Delivery significantly improves depression and anxiety symptoms. Increased Hct in the third trimester is a biomarker of postpartum depression and anxiety symptoms. PMID:27086235

  16. Perceived threat and depression among patients with cancer: the moderating role of health locus of control.

    PubMed

    Goldzweig, Gil; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Alon, Shirly; Shalit, Efrat

    2016-07-01

    Illness perception was found to be a better predictor of psychological outcome among cancer patients than the objective characteristics of illness. The current study explored the association between the perceived threat of illness (a major aspect of illness perception) and depression among cancer patients. We examined the hypothesis that this association will be higher for persons with low External (others) or internal (self) Health Locus of Control (HLC) than for those with high HLC. The study took an exploratory approach regarding the role that different sources of control (external and internal) may assume. Fifty-seven cancer patients completed self-report measures of Perceived Life Threat (PLT), HLC and Depression. The possible moderating role of HLC on the relationship between PLT and Depression was examined. A significant relationship between perceived threat and depression was found only among participants reporting low levels of internal locus of control. The results support the hypothesis that perception of cancer as life threatening is important factor in determining the level of depression among cancer patients. The results also support the differentiation between internal and external HLC and suggest that internal HLC may be more relevant than external HLC in managing perceived threat. Internal locus of control can be interpreted as having a sense of agency and mastery which is important in managing the cognitive perception of the threat of illness. Further research is needed in order to determine the role of external HLC in managing perceived or actual threats. PMID:26821193

  17. Likelihood of Suicidality at Varying Levels of Depression Severity: A Re-Analysis of NESARC Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Strong, David; Weinstock, Lauren M.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    Although it is clear that increasing depression severity is associated with more risk for suicidality, less is known about at what levels of depression severity the risk for different suicide symptoms increases. We used item response theory to estimate the likelihood of endorsing suicide symptoms across levels of depression severity in an…

  18. Maternal Health Factors as Risks for Postnatal Depression: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Chojenta, Catherine L.; Lucke, Jayne C.; Forder, Peta M.; Loxton, Deborah J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose While previous studies have identified a range of potential risk factors for postnatal depression (PND), none have examined a comprehensive set of risk factors at a population-level using data collected prospectively. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between a range of factors and PND and to construct a model of the predictors of PND. Methods Data came from 5219 women who completed Survey 5 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health in 2009 and reported giving birth to a child. Results Over 15% of women reported experiencing PND with at least one of their children. The strongest positive associations were for postnatal anxiety (OR = 13.79,95%CI = 10.48,18.13) and antenatal depression (OR = 9.23,95%CI = 6.10,13.97). Positive associations were also found for history of depression and PND, low SF-36 Mental Health Index, emotional distress during labour, and breastfeeding for less than six months. Conclusions Results indicate that understanding a woman’s mental health history plays an important role in the detection of those who are most vulnerable to PND. Treatment and management of depression and anxiety earlier in life and during pregnancy may have a positive impact on the incidence of PND. PMID:26785131

  19. Comparison of Health Status and Nutrient Intake between Depressed Women and Non-depressed Women: Based on the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Won, Myeong Suk; Kim, Sunghee; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to provide supporting data for the management of dietary habits in depression by comparing health and nutrition in adult Korean women according to depression status. A total of 2,236 women aged between 19 and 64 years who participated in the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into a depression group (n = 315) and a non-depression group (n = 1,921). Among 19-29-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, and suicidal thoughts than the non-depression group. The depression group showed lower intake of cereal, chocolate, meat, and carbonated drinks, as well as a lower index of nutritional quality (INQ) for protein, iron, and niacin. Among 30-49-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, chronic disease, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of rice with mixed grains and higher intake of instant and cup noodles than the non-depression group. Among 50-64-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of vegetables, mushrooms, and seaweed, lower nutritional intake of fat, saturated fat, and n-3 fatty acids, as well as a lower INQ for niacin and a lower Recommended Food Score. For all age groups, individuals with depression showed poorer health and nutritional intake than healthy individuals, demonstrating a correlation of depression with health and nutritional intake. PMID:27152301

  20. Comparison of Health Status and Nutrient Intake between Depressed Women and Non-depressed Women: Based on the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Won, Myeong Suk; Kim, Sunghee

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide supporting data for the management of dietary habits in depression by comparing health and nutrition in adult Korean women according to depression status. A total of 2,236 women aged between 19 and 64 years who participated in the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into a depression group (n = 315) and a non-depression group (n = 1,921). Among 19–29-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, and suicidal thoughts than the non-depression group. The depression group showed lower intake of cereal, chocolate, meat, and carbonated drinks, as well as a lower index of nutritional quality (INQ) for protein, iron, and niacin. Among 30–49-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, chronic disease, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of rice with mixed grains and higher intake of instant and cup noodles than the non-depression group. Among 50–64-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of vegetables, mushrooms, and seaweed, lower nutritional intake of fat, saturated fat, and n-3 fatty acids, as well as a lower INQ for niacin and a lower Recommended Food Score. For all age groups, individuals with depression showed poorer health and nutritional intake than healthy individuals, demonstrating a correlation of depression with health and nutritional intake. PMID:27152301

  1. Factors Associated with Depression Assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 in Long-Term Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Ae-Jin; Shin, Jinyoung; Ko, Hyeonyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depressive disorders and factors associated in long-term cancer survivors. Methods A total of 702 long-term cancer survivors over 5-years in remission were recruited in a university-affiliated tertiary hospital in Korea. Self-report using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 and the Fatigue Severity Scale assessed depression and fatigue, respectively. Demographic characteristics, cancer-related clinical characteristics, comorbidity, health behaviors, and physical symptoms were assessed through the review of medical records or a structured self-administered questionnaire. Results We identified 26.1% of patients who had a depressed mood or displayed a loss of interest. The most prevalent primary site of cancer was the stomach (65.2%), followed by lung, breast, colorectal, and thyroid cancer. We also found that 5.7% of subjects experienced double or triple primary cancers. Larger proportion among depressive group (89.1%) complained at least one physical problem than among non-depressive group (53.2%). Physical symptoms including sleep problems, dry mouth, indigestion, pain, decreased appetite, and febrile sense were more frequent in the depressive group than in the non-depressive group. The Fatigue Severity Scale scores were higher in the depressive group than in the non-depressive group (P<0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the highest tertile level of fatigue (odds ratio, 7.31; 95% confidence interval, 3.81–14.02) was associated with the increased risk of depression. Conclusion These findings suggest that careful concern about depression is necessary in long-term cancer survivors. Fatigue may be a surrogate sign for depression, and warrants further evaluation. PMID:27468341

  2. Depression, anxiety and stress levels in industrial workers: A pilot study in Bangalore, India

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sheldon; Ramesh, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health disorders affect around 500 million people worldwide. In India, around 10–12% of people are affected by a mental disorder either due to stress, depression, anxiety, or any other cause. Mental health of workers affects the productivity of the workplace, with estimates putting these losses to be over 100 million dollars annually. Aims: The study aims to measure depression, anxiety, and stress levels of workers in an industry and to investigate if it has any effect on productivity of the firm. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a cross-sectional design and was conducted among workmen of the firm. A sociodemographic based questionnaire and a mental health screening tool -Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS)-21 were used for the same. A total of 90 completed questionnaires were analyzed for the study. The data was analyzed for central tendencies as well as for any associations and correlations. Results: The study showed that none of the workers had a positive score for depression. It also showed that around 36% of the workers had a positive score for anxiety and 18% of the workers had a positive score for stress on DASS-21 scale. The odds ratio between stress and number of leaves taken by a worker in the last 3 months suggested a dose–response relationship, but was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The study found a prevalence rate of around 18–36% for anxiety and stress amongst the workers at the factory. Large-scale studies will help understand the effect mental health status has on the Indian workplace. PMID:26257479

  3. The relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder severity, depression severity and physical health.

    PubMed

    Rytwinski, Nina K; Avena, Jennifer S; Echiverri-Cohen, Aileen M; Zoellner, Lori A; Feeny, Norah C

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the relationship among posttraumatic stress disorder severity, depression severity, and subjective and objective physical health in a sample of 200 adults with posttraumatic stress disorder. Posttraumatic stress disorder severity was correlated with subjective, but not objective, health. Similarly, depression symptoms had an indirect effect on the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity and three measures of subjective physical health. Finally, depression symptoms had an indirect effect on the relationship between both reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms and subjective physical health. This research underscores the important role that posttraumatic stress disorder, particularly reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms, and depression may have on perceptions of physical health. PMID:23449677

  4. The relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder severity, depression severity and physical health

    PubMed Central

    Rytwinski, Nina K; Avena, Jennifer S; Echiverri-Cohen, Aileen M; Zoellner, Lori A; Feeny, Norah C

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship among posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity, depression severity, and subjective and objective physical health in a sample of 200 adults with PTSD. PTSD severity was correlated with subjective, but not objective, health. Similarly, depression symptoms had an indirect effect on the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and three measures of subjective physical health. Finally, depression symptoms had an indirect effect on the relationship between both reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms and subjective physical health. This research underscores the important role that PTSD, particularly reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms, and depression may have on perceptions of physical health. PMID:23449677

  5. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... make negative thinking worse. previous continue Depression Can Go Unrecognized People with depression may not realize they ... themselves or who have eating disorders or who go through extreme mood changes may have unrecognized depression. ...

  6. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... The depression generally lifts during spring and summer. Bipolar disorder is different from depression but is included in this list is because someone with bipolar disorder experiences episodes of extreme low moods (depression). But ...

  7. Impact of Depression on Health Care Utilization and Costs among Multimorbid Patients – Results from the MultiCare Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Jens-Oliver; Luppa, Melanie; Brettschneider, Christian; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Bickel, Horst; Fuchs, Angela; Gensichen, Jochen; Maier, Wolfgang; Mergenthal, Karola; Schäfer, Ingmar; Schön, Gerhard; Weyerer, Siegfried; Wiese, Birgitt; König, Hans-Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe and analyze the effects of depression on health care utilization and costs in a sample of multimorbid elderly patients. Method This cross-sectional analysis used data of a prospective cohort study, consisting of 1,050 randomly selected multimorbid primary care patients aged 65 to 85 years. Depression was defined as a score of six points or more on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Subjects passed a geriatric assessment, including a questionnaire for health care utilization. The impact of depression on health care costs was analyzed using multiple linear regression models. A societal perspective was adopted. Results Prevalence of depression was 10.7%. Mean total costs per six-month period were €8,144 (95% CI: €6,199-€10,090) in patients with depression as compared to €3,137 (95% CI: €2,735-€3,538; p<0.001) in patients without depression. The positive association between depression and total costs persisted after controlling for socio-economic variables, functional status and level of multimorbidity. In particular, multiple regression analyses showed a significant positive association between depression and pharmaceutical costs. Conclusion Among multimorbid elderly patients, depression was associated with significantly higher health care utilization and costs. The effect of depression on costs was even greater than reported by previous studies conducted in less morbid patients. PMID:24638040

  8. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  9. Mental Health and Functional Outcomes of Maternal and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Frances; Lifford, Kate J.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of maternal and self-ratings of adolescent depression by investigating the extent to which these reports predicted a range of mental health and functional outcomes 4 years later. The potential influence of mother's own depressed mood on her ratings of adolescent depression and suicidal ideation on adolescent outcome…

  10. Postnatal Depression and Infant Health Practices among High-Risk Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajicek-Farber, Michaela L.

    2009-01-01

    Women's postnatal depressive symptoms have been associated with many adverse outcomes for children. The current study examined the frequency association with relative risk between postnatal depressive symptoms and mothers' use of preventative infant health practices. The study used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Parental…

  11. Depression Research at the National Institute of Mental Health. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is committed to reducing the burden of mental illness through research on mind, brain, and behavior. This report presents the latest information on what is known about depression. The symptoms and types of depression are considered. Research on the treatments of depression is described, including the…

  12. Screening for depressive symptoms in older adults in the Family Health Strategy, Porto Alegre, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Eduardo Lopes; Rubin, Leonardo Librelotto; Giacobbo, Sara de Souza; Gomes, Irenio; Cataldo, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of depression in older adults and associated factors. METHODS Cross-sectional study using a stratified random sample of 621 individuals aged ≥ 60 from 27 family health teams in Porto Alegre, RS, Southern Brazil, between 2010 and 2012. Community health agents measured depression using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Scores of ≥ 6 were considered as depression and between 11 and 15 as severe depression. Poisson regression was used to search for independent associations of sociodemographic and self-perceived health with both depression and its severity. RESULTS The prevalence of depression was 30.6% and was significantly higher in women (35.9% women versus 20.9% men, p < 0.001). The variables independently associated with depression were: female gender (PR = 1.4, 95%CI 1.1;1.8); low education, especially illiteracy (PR = 1.8, 95%CI 1.2;2 6); regular self-rated health (OR = 2.2, 95%CI 1.6;3.0); and poor/very poor self-rated health (PR = 4.0, 95%CI 2.9;5.5). Except for education, the strength of association of these factors increases significantly in severe depression. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depression was observed in the evaluations conducted by community health agents, professionals who are not highly specialized. The findings identified using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale in this way are similar to those in the literature, with depression more associated with low education, female gender and worse self-rated health. From a primary health care strategic point of view, the findings become still more relevant, indicating that community health agents could play an important role in identifying depression in older adults. PMID:25119932

  13. Women's mental health nursing: depression, anxiety and stress during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Parcells, D A

    2010-11-01

    Depression affects more women than men, with a preponderance of cases occurring during prime childbearing years (15-44 years of age). Research shows newborns and infants exposed to maternal antepartum depression, anxiety and stress exhibit pronounced neurobiobehavioral dysregularities. The present study investigated the relationship between maternal psychosocial and biochemical profiles during the antepartum period. Participants were recruited from prenatal registration at a large metropolitan hospital in the southeastern USA--the sample consisted of 59 pregnant women (mean age = 22 years). Structured clinical interviews and maternal self-report were utilized to assess maternal psychosocial distress at mid- (26-28 weeks) and late- (32-34 weeks) gestation. Salivary cortisol levels served as an objective stress measure. The resultant high incidences of maternal depression, anxiety and stress provide evidence of the need for nurses to closely monitor psychosocial and biochemical profiles of all women to thwart the negative effects on the developing human foetus. Clinical nursing implications of the requisite consideration of antepartum maternal psychosocial conditions are discussed. PMID:21040227

  14. [From the Competence Network on Depression and Suicidality to the German Depression Foundation : National and international prevention of suicidal behaviour and optimizing health care through using of E‑Mental-Health].

    PubMed

    Hegerl, Ulrich; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Heinz, Ines

    2016-04-01

    Depression is a very common, severe, socio-economically highly relevant disorder and the main cause for approximately 10,000 suicides in Germany annually. There is capital room for improvement and optimization of the care for depressed patients, as effective and evidence-based treatment options are available. However, they are only used optimally by a minority of the people affected due to huge diagnostic and therapeutic deficits. The "Compentence Network on Depression and Suicidality" provided several evidence-based concepts to improve care for patients affected by depression and to prevent suicidal behaviour. Especially the four-level intervention approach of the Alliances Against Depression has been successfully adapted and implemented by more than 100 regions within Europe and globally as well. The infrastructure of the Competence Network could be efficiently sustained throughout the establishment of the German Depression Foundation and the European Alliance against Depression. Since 2014, all research activities have been extended nationally and internationally by the establishment of a Depression Research Centre with a special focus on various E‑Mental-Health-projects. PMID:26961867

  15. The Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase Levels of Depressive Patients with Suicidal Behavior in an Agricultural Area.

    PubMed

    Altinyazar, Vesile; Sirin, Fevziye Burcu; Sutcu, Recep; Eren, Ibrahim; Omurlu, Imran Kurt

    2016-10-01

    Long-term exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) without acute poisoning can lead to various OPs. Environmental exposure to organophosphate pesticides may be associated with depression and suicide attempts in a population living in a rural agricultural area. Patients (n = 149) suffering from major depressive disorder (with and without attempted suicide) and a control group of healthy individuals (n = 64) who had been living in the same rural district for at least 1 year were selected. Red blood cell acetylcholine esterase (RBC-AChE) activity was examined as the basis of evaluating the degree of chronic environmental exposure to OPs residues. There were negative association between RBC-AChE activity levels and suicide attempts, the number of past suicide attempts and hopelessness levels in the depressive patients. The results of the study may support the idea that environmental exposure to OPs may be associated with mental health in individuals living in agricultural districts who are not farmers or working in occupations with access to OPs. PMID:27605747

  16. Use of the Air Force Post-Deployment Health Reassessment for the Identification of Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Public Health Implications for Suicide Prevention

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Michael D.; Knox, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Military members are required to complete the Post-Deployment Health Assessment on return from deployment and the Post-Deployment Health Reassessment (PHDRA) 90 to 180 days later, and we assessed the PDHRA’s sensitivity and specificity in identifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression after a military deployment among US Air Force personnel. Methods. We computed the PDHRA’s sensitivity and specificity for depression and PTSD and developed a structural model to suggest possible improvements to it. Results. For depression, sensitivity and specificity were 0.704 and 0.651, respectively; for PTSD, they were 0.774 and 0.650, respectively. Several variables produced significant direct effects on depression and trauma, suggesting that modifications could increase its sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions. The PDHRA was moderately effective in identifying airmen with depression and PTSD. It identified behavioral health concerns in many airmen who did not develop a diagnostic mental health condition. Its low level of specificity may result in reduced barriers to care and increased support services, key components of a public health approach to suicide prevention, for airmen experiencing subacute levels of distress after deployment, which may, in part, account for lower suicide rates among airmen after deployment. PMID:22390604

  17. Depressive symptoms in the second trimester relate to low oxytocin levels in African-American women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Lindsey; Giurgescu, Carmen; Carter, C Sue; Holditch-Davis, Diane; McFarlin, Barbara L; Schwertz, Dorie; Seng, Julia S; White-Traut, Rosemary

    2015-02-01

    Low-income African-American women report elevated prenatal depressive symptoms more often (42 %) than the national average (20 %). In the USA in 2012, 16.5 % of African-American women experienced a premature birth (less than 36 completed gestational weeks) compared to 10.3 % of white women. In addition, 13 % of African-American women had a low-birth weight infant (less than 2,500 g) compared to 7 % of white women. Variation in the neuropeptide, oxytocin has been implicated in perinatal depression, maternal behavior, regulation of stress responses, and may be associated with this health disparity. The purpose of this investigation was to examine factors associated with prenatal depressive symptoms, including plasma oxytocin levels and birth weight, in a sample of urban African-American women. Pregnant African-American women (N = 57) completed surveys and had blood drawn twice during pregnancy at 15-22 weeks and 25-37 weeks. In addition, birth data were collected from medical records. A large number of participants reported elevated prenatal depressive symptoms at the first (n = 20, 35 %) and the second (n = 19, 33 %) data points. Depressive symptoms were higher in multigravidas (t(51) = -2.374, p = 0.02), women with higher anxiety (r(47) = 0.71, p = 0.001), women who delivered their infants at an earlier gestational age (r(51) = -0.285, p = 0.04), and those without the support of the infant's father (F(4, 48) = 2.676, p = 0.04). Depressive symptoms were also higher in women with low oxytocin levels than in women with high oxytocin levels (F(2, 47) = 3.3, p = 0.05). In addition, women who had low oxytocin tended to have infants with lower birth weights (F(2, 47) = 2.9, p = 0.06). Neither prenatal depressive symptoms nor prenatal oxytocin levels were associated with premature birth. Pregnant multigravida African-American women with increased levels of anxiety and lacking the baby's father's support during the

  18. Increased health burden associated with comorbid depression in older Brazilians with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Blay, S. L.; Fillenbaum, G.G.; Marinho, V.; Andreoli, S.B.; Gastal, F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The health burden associated with comorbid depression and diabetes in older community residents in middle income countries is unclear. Methods Data came from a statewide representative sample (N= 6,963, age ≥60) in Brazil. Controlled polytomous logistic regression was used to determine whether four mutually exclusive groups (all possible combinations of the presence or absence of depression and diabetes) differed in sociodemographic characteristics, social resources, health behaviors, and selected health conditions. Results While 2.37% were expected to have comorbid depression/diabetes given sample base rates (depression: 20.92% [1457/6963]; diabetes: 11.35% [790/6959]), comorbidity was present in 3.62% (52.5% beyond expectation; P<0.0001; OR = 1.58, 95% Confidence Interval 1.29–1.95). Depression without diabetes was reported by17.3%, and diabetes without depression by 7.7%. In controlled analyses, the depression group had poorer socioeconomic status and health behaviors, and a greater likelihood of vascular, respiratory, and musculoskeletal problems than the diabetes group. Vascular, respiratory, and urinary problems were exacerbated in comorbid depression/diabetes; the comorbid group was also more likely to be female and younger. Limitations cross-sectional design. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study that explicitly reports on all four possible depression/diabetes combinations in an older representative community-resident sample, using controlled analyses to identify unique associations with sociodemographic characteristics and other health conditions. The burden of comorbid depression/diabetes in Brazil, a middle income country, appears to be comparable to that found in higher income countries. So, similarly, depression without diabetes had a greater odds of adverse sociodemographic and health conditions than diabetes without depression; comorbid depression/diabetes was more likely in women and young elderly, and the odds of

  19. Depression and Chronic Diseases: It Is Time for a Synergistic Mental Health and Primary Care Approach

    PubMed Central

    Richie, William D.; Bailey, Rahn K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify the growing significance of depression as a global leading cause of years lost to disability and its role as a major independent risk factor in many chronic illnesses. The distinct effects of depression on morbidity and mortality in cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke are investigated, including behavioral factors and plausible biological mechanisms (psychoneuroimmunology of depression). Data Sources: PubMed articles in English were searched from 1992 to 2012 (20-year span) using the following search criteria: psychoneuroimmunology of depression, immune-mediated inflammation, depression treatment recommendations, depression screening, years lost to disability, underserved populations and depression, chronic illnesses and depression, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and immune system. Data Synthesis: Evidence of the robust bidirectional relationship between depression and individual chronic diseases is presented and discussed. A brief overview of currently recommended psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic treatment approaches in regard to depression in chronic diseases is provided. Results: Discordance between mental health and primary care within the US public health system is a systematic problem that must be addressed. This situation leads to a potentially high hidden prevalence of underdiagnosed and undertreated depression, especially in the underserved populations. Conclusion: Measures must be implemented across the communities of mental health and primary care practitioners in order to achieve a synergistic approach to depression. PMID:23930236

  20. Depression and Rural Environment are Associated With Poor Oral Health Among Pregnant Women in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Daniel W; Hayes, Sarah E; Randall, Cameron L; Polk, Deborah E; Neiswanger, Kathy; Shaffer, John R; Weyant, Robert J; Foxman, Betsy; Kao, Elizabeth; Crout, Richard J; Chapman, Stella; Brown, Linda J; Maurer, Jennifer L; Marazita, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    Both oral health problems and depression among pregnant women contribute to maternal-infant health outcomes. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of clinically significant depression on the oral health status of pregnant women. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of clinically significant depression and rural- or urban-dwelling status on oral health outcomes among pregnant women. Pregnant women (N = 685) in rural (i.e., West Virginia) and urban (i.e., Pittsburgh, PA) areas of northern Appalachia were assessed by calibrated examiners regarding gingivitis, oral hygiene, and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth), completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and provided demographics. Participants were categorized based on clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) and rural/urban domicile. Women with depression and those living in rural areas had worse oral health on all three indices than their non-depressed and urban counterparts. Depression, particularly among women in rural areas, affects certain oral health indices and represents a modifiable target for intervention. Moreover, treatments designed specifically for rural populations may be of particular utility. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant may benefit from regular depression screenings from their dental and medical health care providers. PMID:26643277

  1. Major Depression During and After the Menopausal Transition: Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Chang, Yue-Fang; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Brown, Charlotte; Matthews, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether risk for major depression during the menopausal transition or immediately thereafter is increased relative to premenopause. Objectives To examine whether the odds of experiencing major depression were greater when women were perimenopausal or postmenopausal compared to when they were premenopausal, independent of a history of major depression at study entry and annual measures of vasomotor symptoms, serum levels or changes in estradiol, follicular stimulating hormone, or testosterone and relevant confounders. Methods Participants included the 221 African American and Caucasian women, aged 42–52, who were premenopausal at entry into the Pittsburgh site of a community-based study of menopause, the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). We conducted the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID) to assess diagnoses of lifetime, annual, and current major depression at baseline and annual follow-ups. Psychosocial and health factors, and blood samples for assay of reproductive hormones were obtained annually. Results Women were two to four times more likely to experience major depression episode when they were perimenopausal or early postmenopausal. Repeated measures logistic regression analyses showed that the effect of menopausal status was independent of history of major depression and annually measured upsetting life events, psychotropic medication use, vasomotor symptoms and serum levels of or changes in reproductive hormones. History of major depression was a strong predictor of major depression throughout the study. Conclusions The risk of major depression is greater for women during and immediately after the menopausal transition than when they are premenopausal. PMID:21306662

  2. Cumulative Depression Episodes Predicts Later C-Reactive Protein Levels: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E. Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is associated with elevated levels of the inflammation marker C -reactive protein (CRP), yet the direction of this association remains unclear. This study tested bi-directional longitudinal associations between CRP and depression in a sample of adolescent and young adults. The study compared the effects of current depression to the cumulative episodes of depression over time. Methods Nine waves of data from the prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (N = 1,420) were used, covering children in the community aged 9–16, 19, and 21 years old. Structured interviews were used to assess depressive symptoms, depression diagnosis, and cumulative depressive episodes. Bloodspots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. Results CRP levels were not associated with later depression status. In contrast, all depression-related variables displayed evidence of association with later CRP levels. The associations with depressive symptoms and diagnostic status were attenuated after controlling for covariates particularly body mass index, smoking, and medication use. The effect of cumulative depressive episodes, however, continued to be significant after accounting for a range of covariates. Body mass index, smoking behavior and recent infections may mediate a portion of the effect of cumulative episodes on later CRP, but cumulative depressive episodes continued to predict CRP levels independently. Conclusions The occurrence of multiple depressive episodes exerted the greatest effect on later CRP levels. This suggests that risk for the diseases of middle age - cardiovascular and metabolic disease – may begin in childhood and depend, in part, upon long-term emotional functioning. PMID:22047718

  3. Evaluating Mental Health Literacy and Adolescent Depression: What Do Teenagers "Know?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, John; Bruno, Michelle; Fernandes, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of depression increases markedly during adolescence, yet many youth are not receiving the support that they need. One factor that has been speculated as contributing to low rates of care is a lack of mental health literacy about depression and viable sources of support. This pilot study focused on mental health literacy as it…

  4. Social, Health, and Age Differences Associated with Depressive Disorders in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plach, Sandra K.; Napholz, Linda; Kelber, Sheryl T.

    2005-01-01

    Depression in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be related to social role experiences, physical health, and age. The purpose of this study was to examine the social and health factors contributing to depression in two age groups of women with RA. One-hundred and thirty-eight midlife and late-life women with a diagnosis of RA participated in…

  5. Do employers know the quality of health care benefits they provide? Use of HEDIS depression scores for health plans.

    PubMed

    Robst, John; Rost, Kathryn; Marshall, Donna

    2013-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Dissemination of health quality measures is a necessary ingredient of efforts to harness market-based forces, such as value-based purchasing by employers, to improve health care quality. This study examined reporting of Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures for depression to firms interested in improving depression care. METHODS During surveys conducted between 2009 and 2011, a sample of 325 employers that were interested in improving depression treatment were asked whether their primary health plan reports HEDIS scores for depression to the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) and if so, whether they knew the scores. Data about HEDIS reporting by the health plans were collected from the NCQA. RESULTS HEDIS depression scores were reported by the primary health plans of 154 (47%) employers, but only 7% of employers knew their plan's HEDIS scores. Because larger employers were more likely to report knowing the scores, 53% of all employees worked for employers who reported knowing the scores. A number of structural, health benefit, and need characteristics predicted knowledge of HEDIS depression scores by employers. CONCLUSIONS The study demonstrated that motivated employers did not know their depression HEDIS scores even when their plan publicly reported them. Measures of health care quality are not reaching the buyers of insurance products; however, larger employers were more likely to know the HEDIS scores for their health plan, suggesting that value-based purchasing may have some ability to affect health care quality. PMID:23945985

  6. The Effects of Intermittent Reminiscence Therapy on Nursing Home Residents' Depression Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Patricia

    Depression is regarded as the most prevalent mental health disorder in the elderly. Reminiscence, a normative and universal process which can facilitate the resolution, integration, and reorganization of past conflicts can have positive or negative effects on depression. One environment where the elderly are particularly at risk for the negative…

  7. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    Drug Fact Sheet Depressants Overview Includes barbiturates (barbs), benzodiazepines (benzos) and sedative-hypnotics. Depressants will put you ... unsafe, increasing the likelihood of coma or death. Benzodiazepines were developed to replace barbiturates, though they still ...

  8. Diabetes, Depressive Symptoms, and Inflammation in Older Adults: Results from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Todd A.; de Groot, Mary; Harris, Tamara; Schwartz, Frank; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kanaya, Alka

    2013-01-01

    Objective Up-regulated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are common to both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and elevated depressive symptoms, yet little attention has been given to the biological mechanisms associated with these co-morbidities. This study examined the association between inflammation and both T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Methods Baseline data were analyzed from 3,009 adults, aged 70–79, participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Diabetes was assessed per self-report, medication use, fasting glucose and/or glucose tolerance tests. Elevated depressive symptoms were categorized using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (cut-score≥20). Log-transformed IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results Participants with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms (T2DM+DEP n=14) demonstrated significantly (p<.05) higher IL-6 compared to (T2DM Only n=628), (DEP Only n=49), and (No T2DM or DEP n=2,067) groups following covariate adjustment. Similarly, participants with T2DM+DEP (n=14) had significantly (p<.05) higher CRP, after covariate adjustment, compared to DEP Only (n=50) and No T2DM or DEP groups (n=2,153). No association was observed for TNF-α. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that inflammation is associated with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Participants with T2DM+DEP demonstrated the highest IL-6 levels compared to all other groups. Greater CRP levels were also observed in T2DM, but not elevated depressive symptoms, which may suggest that differential associations between T2DM and depressive symptoms exist for various inflammatory markers. Further investigation into these associations could aid in understanding the biological pathways underlying both T2DM and depressive symptoms. PMID:24182629

  9. Teachers' Ratings of Social Competence of Children with High Versus Low Levels of Depressive Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Farhana; Morgan, Sam B.

    1996-01-01

    Examined the relationship between children's self-ratings of depressive symptoms and teachers' ratings of the children's situational social competence. Results show that teachers rated those children who reported high levels of depressive symptoms as having more problems in social competence when compared to children who reported low levels of…

  10. Are depression, anxiety and poor mental health risk factors for knee pain? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While it is recognized that psychosocial factors are important in the development and progression of musculoskeletal pain and disability, no systematic review has specifically focused on examining the relationship between psychosocial factors and knee pain. We aimed to systematically review the evidence to determine whether psychosocial factors, specifically depression, anxiety and poor mental health, are risk factors for knee pain. Methods Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO were performed to identify relevant studies published up to August 2012 using MESH terms and keywords. We included studies that met a set of predefined criteria and two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of the selected studies. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies, a best evidence synthesis was performed. Results Sixteen studies were included in the review, of which 9 were considered high quality. The study populations were heterogeneous in terms of diagnosis of knee pain. We found a strong level of evidence for a relationship between depression and knee pain, limited evidence for no relationship between anxiety and knee pain, and minimal evidence for no relationship between poor mental health and knee pain. Conclusions Despite the heterogeneity of the included studies, these data show that depression plays a significant role in knee pain, and that a biopsychosocial approach to the management of this condition is integral to optimising outcomes for knee pain. PMID:24405725

  11. Relationship of Somatic Symptoms With Depression Severity, Quality of Life, and Health Resources Utilization in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Seeking Primary Health Care in Spain

    PubMed Central

    García-Campayo, Javier; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Caballero, Luis; Romera, Irene; Aragonés, Enric; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Quail, Deborah; Gilaberte, Inmaculada

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the characteristics of somatic symptoms and depression severity, quality of life (QOL), and health resources utilization in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in primary care setting. Method: This cross-sectional, nationwide epidemiologic study, carried out in 1150 primary care patients with DSM-IV–defined MDD, evaluated the characteristics of somatic symptoms by means of the Standardized Polyvalent Psychiatric Interview. Depression severity and QOL were evaluated by means of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the Physical and Mental Component Summaries of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Health resources utilization was measured in terms of doctor consultations and hospitalizations. The associations were assessed by means of adjusted analyses. The study was carried out from April 2004 to July 2004. Results: Disability associated with somatic symptoms and number of somatic symptoms were strongly associated with increased depression severity (2.45 and 0.29 increase in SDS score, respectively) and health resources utilization (odds ratios of 1.42 and 1.04, respectively). Associated disability, frequency, and persistence during leisure time of somatic symptoms were strongly associated with poorer QOL. In contrast, we found a weaker relationship between duration and intensity of somatic symptoms and depression severity, QOL, and health resources utilization. Conclusions: Of the studied somatic symptom characteristics, somatic symptom–associated disability and number of somatic symptoms are strongly associated with increased depression severity and health resources utilization, as well as with decreased QOL. Our results may help physicians identify relevant characteristics of somatic symptoms to more effectively diagnose and treat depression in primary care patients. PMID:19158973

  12. Leisure Time Physical Activity in Relation to Depressive Symptoms in the Black Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Lauren A.; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity might reduce the risk of depressive symptoms, but there are limited data on Black women. Purpose The objective was to evaluate the association between leisure time physical activity and depressive symptoms in U.S. Black women. Methods Participants included 35,224 women ages 21 to 69 from the Black Women’s Health Study, a follow-up study of African American women in which data are collected biennially by mail questionnaire. Women answered questions on past and current exercise levels at baseline (1995) and follow-up (1997). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms in 1999. Women who reported a diagnosis of depression before 1999 were excluded. We used multivariate logistic regression models to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for physical activity in relation to depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥ 16) with control for potential confounders. Results Adult vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. Women who reported vigorous exercise both in high school (≥ 5 hr per week) and adulthood (≥ 2 hr per week) had the lowest odds of depressive symptoms (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.71–0.82) relative to never active women; the OR was 0.90 for women who were active in high school but not adulthood (95% CI = 0.85–0.96) and 0.83 for women who were inactive in high school but became active in adulthood (95% CI = 0.77–0.91). Although walking for exercise was not associated with risk of depressive symptoms overall, there was evidence of a weak inverse relation among obese women (Body Mass Index ≥ 30). Conclusions Leisure time vigorous physical activity was associated with a reduced odds of depressive symptoms in U.S. Black women. PMID:16827631

  13. Urinary phthalate metabolites and depression in an elderly population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-02-01

    Previous animal studies have demonstrated that phthalate exposure is associated with depression-like behaviors. However, no human study has explored this relationship. We explored the association between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and depression in a nationally representative sample of the U.S. elderly population. We analyzed 2030 participants aged 60 years or older with available data on phthalates and depression from the 2005 to 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We selected 10 urinary phthalate metabolites with a weighted detection rate >60%. Depression was defined as a 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10. The models were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education level, income-to-poverty ratio, health insurance coverage, marital status, smoking status, alcohol consumption, moderate physical activity, body mass index, comorbidity status, NHANEs cycle, and urinary creatinine levels. One-unit increases in log-transformed mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) (odds ratio [OR]=1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.02-1.52) and mono(carboxynonyl) phthalate (MCNP) (OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.15-1.75) were positively associated with depression. When we stratified the urinary phthalate metabolites into quartiles, the highest quartiles (Q4) of MCNP (OR=2.57, 95% CI=1.25-5.27) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) (OR=2.40, 95% CI=1.10-5.22) were associated with depression compared with the lowest quartiles (Q1). Concentrations of urinary phthalate metabolites MCPP, MCNP, and MBP were positively associated with the risk of depression in a representative sample of the U.S. elderly population. However, the present cross-sectional study is hypothesis generating and the associations need to be investigated through further longitudinal studies. PMID:26624239

  14. The effects of maternal depression on child mental health problems based on gender of the child.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Kim, Eu jin; Lim, Ki-Young; Lee, Ji-Won; Shin, Yun-Mi

    2015-04-01

    Depression is a common disorder among women with young children. Compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers tend to display less positive affection, provide less emotional support, and inconsistently respond to their child's every day and emotional needs. We examined the association between maternal depression and child (middle childhood) mental health problems according to the child's gender. This study was conducted between June and August 2006 on 3,911 subjects aged 7-12 years. The data for this study was collected through a questionnaire that included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Korean Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL). Most of the CBCL scores were higher for children in the depressed mother group. The two way ANOVAs (depressed group by gender) found girls to have significantly higher scores than boys on somatization. Children may experience somatic complaints when they also suffer from emotional disorders, and therefore must be observed closely. PMID:25566948

  15. Optimizing Scripted Dialogues for an e-Health Intervention for Suicidal Veterans with Major Depression.

    PubMed

    Kasckow, J; Zickmund, S; Rotondi, A; Welch, A; Gurklis, J; Chinman, M; Fox, L; Haas, G L

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is a health concern among Veterans with depression. We had previously reported on scripted dialogues adapted for an e-health system that engages at-risk veterans with schizophrenia. Here we report a further adaptation of the dialogues for Veterans with depression. Usability was assessed with nine outpatients with a history of major depression and suicidality. We noted that participants preferred greater specificity in the wording of questions. Topics that elicited an emotional response dealt with questions on suicide, social isolation and family relationships. Based on feedback, dialogues were revised for patients with depression. We also compared responses between those with depression and those with schizophrenia who were previously tested. The two groups shared similar themes. Also, individuals with a history of major depression had less trouble with vocabulary comprehension but were less willing to answer more questions daily. PMID:25342076

  16. Prevalence and Levels of Depression Among Parents of Children with Cancer in Basrah, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maliki, Shukrya K.; Al-Asadi, Jasim; Al-Waely, Akeel; Agha, Sabah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Cancer in a family member can be a major source of psychological disorders, especially for the parents of children diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and levels of depression among parents of children with cancer in Basrah, Iraq. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2014 and April 2015 at the Specialist Paediatric Hospital in Basrah City, Iraq. One parent each of 384 children with cancer admitted to the hospital for treatment or follow-up during the study period were invited to participate in the study. Age, gender, years of education, occupation, monthly income, place of residence and the overall number of children in a family were recorded. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to identify depression and assess levels of depression. Results: A total of 336 parents participated in the study (response rate: 87.5%). Of these, 70.5% were depressed, 54.1% of which had major depression. Depression was significantly more common (77.2% versus 57.1%) and more severe (60.7% versus 41.1%) among mothers compared to fathers (P = 0.001). Parents with fewer years of education were more likely to be depressed; this association was significant for mothers but not fathers (P = 0.001 and 0.814, respectively). Depression was significantly inversely associated with monthly income (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The prevalence of depression among the parents of children with cancer was high. Depression was significantly more severe among mothers compared to fathers and among mothers who were less educated. Income also had a significant association with levels of depression among parents. PMID:27606113

  17. A study of depression and anxiety, general health, and academic performance in three cohorts of veterinary medical students across the first three semesters of veterinary school.

    PubMed

    Reisbig, Allison M J; Danielson, Jared A; Wu, Tsui-Feng; Hafen, McArthur; Krienert, Ashley; Girard, Destiny; Garlock, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on previous research on predictors of depression and anxiety in veterinary medical students and reports data on three veterinary cohorts from two universities through their first three semesters of study. Across all three semesters, 49%, 65%, and 69% of the participants reported depression levels at or above the clinical cut-off, suggesting a remarkably high percentage of students experiencing significant levels of depression symptoms. Further, this study investigated the relationship between common stressors experienced by veterinary students and mental health, general health, and academic performance. A factor analysis revealed four factors among stressors common to veterinary students: academic stress, transitional stress, family-health stress, and relationship stress. The results indicated that both academic stress and transitional stress had a robust impact on veterinary medical students' well-being during their first three semesters of study. As well, academic stress negatively impacted students in the areas of depression and anxiety symptoms, life satisfaction, general health, perception of academic performance, and grade point average (GPA). Transitional stress predicted increased depression and anxiety symptoms and decreased life satisfaction. This study helped to further illuminate the magnitude of the problem of depression and anxiety symptoms in veterinary medical students and identified factors most predictive of poor outcomes in the areas of mental health, general health, and academic performance. The discussion provides recommendations for considering structural changes to veterinary educational curricula to reduce the magnitude of academic stressors. Concurrently, recommendations are suggested for mental health interventions to help increase students' resistance to environmental stressors. PMID:23187027

  18. Factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among international university students in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Romeo B; Maria, Madelene Sta; Estanislao, Susana; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Over the years, the number of international university students has been increasing in the Philippines. Depression tends to be common among this demographic sector, because of the varying challenges and expectations associated with studying abroad. Depression can be prevented if its symptoms, particularly those at higher levels, are identified and addressed early and effectively. This survey examined the social and demographic factors that are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. One hundred twenty-six international university students were interviewed using the University Students Depression Inventory. Of the 13 factors analyzed, 3 were found with statistically significant associations with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: level of satisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. In identifying international students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to their financial condition and primary group relationships can be considered. There is a need to carry out more studies to confirm this initial evidence. The findings can help guide further discourse, research and program to benefit international students with higher levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:24450248

  19. Depression, Antidepressants and Bone Health in Older Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gebara, Marie Anne; Shea, Marcie L.O.; Lipsey, Kim L; Teitelbaum, Steven L.; Civitelli, Roberto; Müller, Daniel J.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Lenze, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Some studies have reportedan association between depression or serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressant use and osteoporosis. This association raises concern about the widespread use of antidepressants in older adults and suggests the need to reevaluate this practice. This review examines the association of both depression and antidepressant use with bone health in older adults and the implications for treatment. Design A systematic review of studies of the association between depression or antidepressants and bone health in older adults. Setting All studies that measured depression or antidepressant exposure and bone mineral density (BMD). Participants Adults aged 60 and above. Measurements Age, site of BMD measurement by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), measure of depression or depressive symptoms, association between BMD changes and depression or antidepressant use. Results Nineteen observational studies met the final inclusion criteria; no experimental studies were found. Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies found that depression or depressive symptoms were associated with decreased BMD. Few studies and only two longitudinal studies addressed the association between SRI antidepressant use and a decrease in BMD and they had conflicting results. Conclusion Depression and depressive symptoms are associated with decreased bone mass and accelerated bone loss in older adults; putative mechanisms underlying this relationship are discussed. There is insufficient evidence that SRI antidepressants adversely affect bone health.Thus, a change in current recommendations for the use of antidepressants in older adults is not justified at the present time. Given the high public health significance of this question, more studies are required to determine whether (and in whom) antidepressants may be deleterious for bone health. PMID:25039259

  20. Elevated levels of NR2A and PSD-95 in the lateral amygdala in depression

    PubMed Central

    Karolewicz, Beata; Szebeni, Katalin; Gilmore, Tempestt; Maciag, Dorota; Stockmeier, Craig A.; Ordway, Gregory A.

    2008-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that major depression is associated with dysfunction of the brain glutamatergic transmission, and that the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays a role in antidepressant activity. Recent postmortem studies demonstrate that depression is associated with altered concentrations of proteins associated with NMDA receptor signaling in the brain. The present study investigated glutamate signaling proteins in the amygdala from depressed subjects, given strong evidence for amygdala pathology in depression. Lateral amygdala samples were obtained from 13-14 pairs of age- sex-, and postmortem-interval matched depressed and psychiatrically healthy control subjects. Concentrations of NR1 and NR2A subunits of the NMDA receptor, as well as NMDA receptor-associated proteins such as postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were measured by Western immunoblotting. Additionally, levels of enzymes involved in glutamate metabolism, including glutamine synthetase and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-67), were measured in the same amygdala samples. NR2A protein levels were markedly and significantly elevated (+115%, p=0.03) in depressed subjects as compared to controls. Interestingly, PSD-95 levels were also highly elevated (+128%, p=0.01) in the same depressed subjects relative to controls. Amounts of NR1, nNOS, glutamine synthetase, and GAD-67 were unchanged. Increased levels of NR2A and PSD-95 suggest that glutamate signaling at the NMDA receptor in the amygdala is disrupted in depression. PMID:18570704

  1. A "Mental-Health-at-the-Workplace" Educational Workshop Reduces Managers' Stigma Toward Depression.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Johannes; Mendel, Rosmarie; Reichhart, Tatjana; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Kissling, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination are important factors hindering people with mental health conditions to stay employed or successfully make their careers. We surveyed 580 German managers before and after visiting a "mental-health-at-the-workplace" educational workshop using the Depression Stigma Scale. The workshop significantly reduced stigma toward depression. Managers at baseline already exhibited lower stigma toward depression compared with the general population. In addition, female gender and higher education predicted lower stigma, which is in line with findings from other studies. We conclude that an educational workshop giving practical guidance regarding "mental-health-at-the-workplace" reduces managers' stigma toward depression and improves knowledge regarding depression, its course, and its treatment. PMID:26704465

  2. A conceptual framework of stress vulnerability, depression, and health outcomes in women: potential uses in research on complementary therapies for depression

    PubMed Central

    Kinser, Patricia A; Lyon, Debra E

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is a chronic mental health condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. It is well-established that psychological stress plays an integral role in depression and that depression has numerous negative health outcomes. However, a closer look at components of stress vulnerabilities and depression is required to allow for the development and testing of appropriate interventions. Aims and Discussion This article describes a conceptual framework about the complex and bidirectional relationship between stress vulnerability, depression, and health outcomes in women. The authors elucidate how the framework can be applied in clinical research about cellular aging and on the mechanisms of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for depression, using yoga as an example of a CAM modality. Conclusion The proposed conceptual framework may be helpful for adding depth to the body of knowledge about the use of mind-body therapies for individuals at high risk of stress vulnerability and/or depression. PMID:25328843

  3. Health locus of control and depression in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Christensen, A J; Turner, C W; Smith, T W; Holman, J M; Gregory, M C

    1991-06-01

    Research on the association between health locus of control and depression in chronic illness has produced contradictory findings, perhaps because of a failure to consider contextual variables. In this study of 96 hemodialysis patients, the belief that one's health is controllable was associated with less depression among Ss who had not previously experienced a failed renal transplant. This belief was associated with greater depression for Ss who had returned to dialysis following an unsuccessful transplant. This interactive effect occurred among severely ill Ss, but health locus of control was unrelated to depression among Ss with less severe disease. This pattern occurred both when control perceptions reflected a belief in the Ss' own or powerful others' (i.e., health care providers) ability to influence health outcomes. Results underscore the adaptive value of congruence between control beliefs and objective circumstances in chronic illness. PMID:2071727

  4. Level of Depression in Intellectually Gifted Secondary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahzad, Salman; Begume, Nasreen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to investigate the difference in depression between intellectually gifted and non-gifted secondary school children. After a detailed review of literature the following hypothesis was formulated; there would be a significant difference between intellectually gifted and non-gifted secondary school children on…

  5. Optimal Levels of Emotional Arousal in Experiential Therapy of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carryer, Jonathan R.; Greenberg, Leslie S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between length of time spent expressing highly aroused emotion and therapeutic outcome. Method: Thirty-eight clients (14 male, 24 female) between the ages of 22 and 60 years (M = 39.5, SD = 9.71), treated for depression with experiential therapy, were rated on working alliance and expressed emotional…

  6. Improving the cost-effectiveness of a healthcare system for depressive disorders by implementing telemedicine: a health economic modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Lokkerbol, Joran; Adema, Dirk; Cuijpers, Pim; Reynolds, Charles F.; Schulz, Richard; Weehuizen, Rifka; Smit, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Objective Depressive disorders are important causes of disease burden and are associated with substantial economic costs. Therefore, it is important to design a health care system that can effectively manage depression at sustainable costs. This paper computes the benefit-to-costs ratio of the current Dutch health care system for depression, and investigates whether offering more online preventive interventions improves the cost-effectiveness overall. Methods A health economic (Markov) model was used to synthesize clinical and economic evidence and to compute population-level costs and effects of interventions. The model compares a base-case scenario without preventive telemedicine and alternative scenarios with preventive telemedicine. The central outcome is the benefit-to-cost ratio, also known as return-on-investment (ROI). Results In terms of ROI, a health care system with preventive telemedicine for depressive disorders offers better value for money than a health care system without internet-based prevention. Overall, the ROI increases from €1.45 ($1.72) in the base-case scenario to €1.76 ($2.09) in the alternative scenario where preventive telemedicine is offered. In a scenario where the costs of offering preventive telemedicine are balanced by cutting back on the expenditure for curative interventions, ROI increases to €1.77 ($2.10), while keeping the health care budget constant. Conclusion In order for a health care system for depressive disorders to remain economically sustainable, its cost-benefit ratio needs to be improved. Offering preventive telemedicine at a large scale is likely to introduce such an improvement. PMID:23759290

  7. Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  8. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Service Use among Adolescents with Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Janet R.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of treatment for major depression in adolescents. This study examined differences in mental health service use in non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents who experienced an episode of major depression. Method: Five years of data (2004-2008) were pooled…

  9. Primary Care Screening of Depression and Treatment Engagement in a University Health Center: A Retrospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Michael C.; Ciotoli, Carlo; Chung, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This retrospective study analyzed a primary care depression screening initiative in a large urban university health center. Depression detection, treatment status, and engagement data are presented. Participants: Participants were 3,713 graduate and undergraduate students who presented consecutively for primary care services between…

  10. A High School Depression and Suicide Prevention Program: A Collaboration between Health Education and Psychological Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Donna L.; Bradbury, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Examined a collaboration between health education and psychological services in generating a high school depression and suicide prevention program. The five-component program raised awareness of teen depression and suicide, increased communication about these issues within the school and community, and provided information about available…

  11. Assessing Depression among Older Persons with Arthritis: A Nationwide Health Status Survey.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Rajesh; Rajpura, Jigar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the health status of a nationwide sample of elderly persons having arthritis and determine the prevalence of depressive symptomatology in this population. Methods. WebTV technology was utilized to administer health status and depression surveys to a nationally representative sample of 550 randomly selected older persons. Predetermined cutoff scores on Short Form-36 (SF-36) scale and Center for Epidemiological Scale for Depression (CES-D) were used to identify individuals with depressive mood. Results. Sixteen percent (n = 76) of the respondents were found to be at risk for depression. Key associations among health domains of SF-36 and CES-D variables were statistically significant and were in the expected direction. Discussion. The risk of depression among older adults who have arthritis is moderate. A significant decline in multiple domains of health of older persons is likely when depression coexists with arthritis. Early screening for depressive symptomatology and prompt treatment should be an essential part of arthritis management in primary care practice. PMID:23956874

  12. Health Locus of Control and Depression in End-Stage Renal Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Alan J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Found that, among 96 hemodialysis patients, the belief that one's health is controllable was associated with less depression among subjects who had not previously experienced a failed renal transplant. This belief was associated with greater depression for subjects who had returned to dialysis following an unsuccessful transplant. (Author/NB)

  13. Engaging Women Who Are Depressed and Economically Disadvantaged in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Zuckoff, Allan; Swartz, Holly; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Geibel, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Women disadvantaged by poverty, as well as racial or ethnic minority status, are more likely to experience depression than the rest of the U.S. population. At the same time, they are less likely to seek or remain in treatment for depression in traditional mental health settings. This article explores a therapeutic, psychosocial engagement strategy…

  14. Gender Differences in Health Literacy Among Korean Adults: Do Women Have a Higher Level of Health Literacy Than Men?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Jiwoo; Kim, Nam Keol

    2015-09-01

    The role of gender in determining the level of health literacy in Korean adults is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the level of health literacy in Korean adults and identify factors associated with health literacy by gender. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design with a convenient sample of 585 community-dwelling Korean adults age19 years and older. Health literacy was measured by using eight items selected from Chew et al.'s 16-question self-reported health literacy measure. In accordance with Andersen's health behavior model, predisposing, enabling, and need factors were included in the multiple regression model. Women indicated a higher level of health literacy than men in understanding medical forms, directions on medication bottles, and written information offered by health care providers. Additionally, for Korean women, a higher level of health literacy was associated with attaining a higher education level and having a consistent place to receive care. Unmarried men and men who had higher self-rated health reported a higher level of health literacy compared with their counterparts. Lower level of depression and higher monthly income were significantly linked to a higher level of health literacy in both men and women. This study has established the importance of gender differences in health literacy and suggests gender-specific intervention may be warranted to reduce the existing gap in health literacy in both Korean men and women. Future research should replicate this study to confirm whether or not our finding is an international phenomenon. PMID:25122719

  15. [Blood levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in major depressive disorder].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Reiji; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Hori, Hikaru; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Hayashi, Kenji; Katsuki, Asuka; Ueda, Nobuhisa; Nakamura, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that has been linked to the viability of neurons in brain circuits that regulate emotion, memory, learning, sleep, and appetite. BDNF has been most extensively studied in relation to depression. Depressed patients show reduced levels of hippocampal and cortical BDNF in postmortem studies. Recently, to the best of our knowledge, there are at least three meta-analyses regarding blood BDNF levels in depressed patients, suggesting that blood BDNF levels are decreased in depressive state, and those are recovered after treatment with biological treatments such as antidepressants, ECT, and rTMS. From these findings into account, it is possible that blood (plasma and serum) BDNF level is a biological marker for depressive state. We have recently demonstrated that a significantly negative correlation was observed between the HAMD scores and serum BDNF levels. In addition, responders to fluvoxamine, paroxetine, milnacipran, and sertraline all increased serum BDNF levels. Blood BDNF levels did not distinguish between responders and remitters to the treatment. In conclusion, blood BDNF levels partially reflect those in the brain, and there is also strong and consistent evidence indicating that these levels normalize following the biological intervention for depression. PMID:21179660

  16. Implementing Behavioral Activation and Life-Steps for Depression and HIV Medication Adherence in a Community Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Seitz-Brown, C. J.; Safren, Steven A.; Daughters, Stacey B.

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy to treat HIV/AIDS has substantially improved clinical outcomes among patients living with HIV/AIDS, but only in the presence of very consistent adherence. One of the most prevalent and impactful individual-level predictors of poor adherence is depressive symptoms, even at subthreshold levels. Evidence-based cognitive behavioral interventions exist to address improvements in depressive symptoms and adherence in this population, yet these techniques have largely been designed and tested as individual treatments for delivery in mental health settings. This presents a significant challenge when transporting these techniques to medical settings where other formats for delivery may be more appropriate (i.e., groups, less frequent visits) and few hands-on resources exist to guide this process. As such, primary aims of this study were to adapt and implement evidence-based cognitive behavioral techniques for depression (behavioral activation; BA) and HIV medication adherence (Life-Steps) that have potential for dissemination in an outpatient community health center. The intervention incorporated feedback from health center staff and utilized a modular, group format that did not rely on sequential session attendance. Feasibility was examined over 8 weeks (n = 13). Preliminary effects on depression, health-related quality of life, and medication adherence were examined and exit interviews were conducted with a subset of participants (n = 4) to inform future modifications. Treatment descriptions and recommendations for effective clinical implementation based on patient and clinician feedback are provided along with case material of two individual patients and an example group session. Current efforts are an important next step for disseminating evidence-based techniques for depression and HIV medication adherence to community health center or AIDS service organization settings. PMID:25419102

  17. Associations between Vitamin D Levels and Depressive Symptoms in Healthy Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, David C. R.; Zava, David T.; Piper, Walter T.; Saturn, Sarina R.; Frei, Balz; Gombart, Adrian F.

    2015-01-01

    There have been few studies of whether vitamin D insufficiency is linked with depression in healthy young women despite women’s high rates of both problems. Female undergraduates (n = 185) living in the Pacific Northwest during fall, winter, and spring academic terms completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale weekly for four weeks (W1–W5). We measured serum levels of vitamin D3 and C (ascorbate; as a control variable) in blood samples collected at W1 and W5. Vitamin D insufficiency (<30ng/mL) was common at W1 (42%) and W5 (46%), and rates of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) were 35–42% at W1–W5. Lower W1 vitamin D3 predicted clinically significant depressive symptoms across W1–W5 (β = −.20, p < .05), controlling for season, BMI, race/ethnicity, diet, exercise, and time outside. There was some evidence that lower levels of depressive symptoms in Fall participants (vs. Winter and Spring) were explained by their higher levels of vitamin D3. W1 depressive symptoms did not predict change in vitamin D3 levels from W1 to W5. Findings are consistent with a temporal association between low levels of vitamin D and clinically meaningful depressive symptoms. The preventive value of supplementation should be tested further. PMID:25791903

  18. Associations between vitamin D levels and depressive symptoms in healthy young adult women.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David C R; Zava, David T; Piper, Walter T; Saturn, Sarina R; Frei, Balz; Gombart, Adrian F

    2015-05-30

    There have been few studies of whether vitamin D insufficiency is linked with depression in healthy young women despite women׳s high rates of both problems. Female undergraduates (n=185) living in the Pacific Northwest during fall, winter, and spring academic terms completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale weekly for 4 weeks (W1-W5). We measured serum levels of vitamin D3 and C (ascorbate; as a control variable) in blood samples collected at W1 and W5. Vitamin D insufficiency (<30ng/mL) was common at W1 (42%) and W5 (46%), and rates of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were 34-42% at W1-W5. Lower W1 vitamin D3 predicted clinically significant depressive symptoms across W1-W5 (β=-0.20, p<0.05), controlling for season, BMI, race/ethnicity, diet, exercise, and time outside. There was some evidence that lower levels of depressive symptoms in Fall participants (vs. Winter and Spring) were explained by their higher levels of vitamin D3. W1 depressive symptoms did not predict change in vitamin D3 levels from W1 to W5. Findings are consistent with a temporal association between low levels of vitamin D and clinically meaningful depressive symptoms. The preventive value of supplementation should be tested further. PMID:25791903

  19. Japanese Americans' health concerns and depressive symptoms: implications for disaster counseling.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Monit; Leung, Patrick; Tsui, Venus

    2013-07-01

    This study examined factors contributing to depressive symptoms among Japanese Americans. Data were collected in Houston, Texas, in 2008, before the March 2011 Japan earthquake, through a community survey including demographic and mental health questions and the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist. Among 43 Japanese American respondents in this convenience sample, the depression prevalence was 11.6 percent. Chi-square results found that having anxiety symptoms and holding a master's degree had statistically significant relationships with depressive symptoms. An independent sample t test found that those having depressive symptoms experienced significantly more health issues than those without depressive symptoms. When these statistically significant variables were entered into a logistic regression model, the overall effect of having health issues, anxiety symptoms, and a master's degree collectively predicted depressive symptoms. It was also found that Japanese Americans rarely consult mental health professionals; in particular, female Japanese American respondents tend to seek help from religious leaders. As implied by these findings, the reluctance of Japanese Americans to seek formal help can be explained by social stigma, a health-oriented approach to treatment, and other cultural considerations. Practice implications focus on disaster counseling with a connection between mental health needs and health care support. PMID:24032301

  20. Prevalence of Depression among Households in Three Capital Cities of Pakistan: Need to Revise the Mental Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad Gadit, Amin A.; Mugford, Gerry

    2007-01-01

    Background Pakistan, among the other developing countries, has a higher prevalence rate of depression because of the current social adversities. There is, thus, a great need for systematic studies on prevalence of depression. The current study aims at exploring the prevalence of depression among households in three capital cities of Pakistan. Methodology and Principal Findings A sample of N = 820 was randomly selected, and a cross sectional telephone-based study was conducted for a duration of six months. It was found that there was a regional variation in prevalence rates for depression among the three cities. Lahore had the highest number of depressives (53.4%), as compared to Quetta (43.9%) and Karachi (35.7%). Middle age, female gender and secondary school level of education were significantly associated with depression among the study group. Conclusions/Significance The different rates of prevalence among the three cities could be attributed to local cultural influence, geographical locations and social adversities. There is a need for revision of existing health policy by the government. PMID:17299589

  1. Reproductive health and access to healthcare facilities: risk factors for depression and anxiety in women with an earthquake experience

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The reproductive and mental health of women contributes significantly to their overall well-being. Three of the eight Millennium Development Goals are directly related to reproductive and sexual health while mental disorders make up three of the ten leading causes of disease burden in low and middle-income countries. Among mental disorders, depression and anxiety are two of the most prevalent. In the context of slower progress in achieving Millennium Development Goals in developing countries and the ever-increasing man-made and natural disasters in these areas, it is important to understand the association between reproductive health and mental health among women with post-disaster experiences. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 387 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) randomly selected from the October 2005 earthquake affected areas of Pakistan. Data on reproductive health was collected using the Centers for Disease Control reproductive health assessment toolkit. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, while earthquake experiences were captured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. The association of either depression or anxiety with socio-demographic variables, earthquake experiences, reproductive health and access to health facilities was estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Results Post-earthquake reproductive health events together with economic deprivation, lower family support and poorer access to health care facilities explained a significant proportion of differences in the experiencing of clinical levels of depression and anxiety. For instance, women losing resources for subsistence, separation from family and experiencing reproductive health events such as having a stillbirth, having had an abortion, having had abnormal vaginal discharge or having had genital ulcers, were at significant risk of depression and anxiety. Conclusion The relationship between women's post

  2. Health-related quality of life and depression among medical sales representatives in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Atif, Muhammad; Bashir, Arslan; Saleem, Quratulain; Hussain, Rabia; Scahill, Shane; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies have been known to pose stress and mental harassment on medical sales representatives (MSRs) in-order to increase pharmaceutical sales. This cross sectional descriptive study, conducted during November and December 2014 in the Lahore and Bahawalpur districts of Punjab, Pakistan, evaluates the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and extent of depression among MSRs in Pakistan. The significant predictors of HRQoL and depression among the MSRs were also determined. Using a convenience sampling technique, all consenting MSRs (N = 318) of pharmaceutical companies were asked to self-complete the Short Form-36 (SF-36v2) Health Survey and Stanford Personal Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8). The standard scoring scheme for the SF36v2 and PHQ-8 questionnaires was used. The PHQ-8 scores showed that 16.4 % (n = 52) and 2.5 % of respondents were suffering from major depression and severe major depression, respectively. Being depressed and having difficulty in achieving sales targets were the factors independently associated with lower physical health. Similarly, depression, insufficient time for the family and monthly income less than 36,000 Pakistan Rupees were significant predictors of lower mental health. The factors associated with depression included insufficient time for the family and unsatisfactory behavior of the managers. Compromised mental health and the prevalence of depression among the MSRs suggest pharmaceutical companies need to devise health management strategies and interventions to ensure effective prevention and management of mental health problems among Pakistani MSRs. PMID:27462496

  3. The Coronary Health Improvement Projects Impact on Lowering Eating, Sleep, Stress, and Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Ray M.; Aldana, Stephen G.; Greenlaw, Roger L.; Diehl, Hans A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The Coronary Health Improvement Project (CHIP) is designed to lower cardiovascular risk factors among a group of generally healthy individuals through health education. Purpose: This study will evaluate the efficacy of the CHIP intervention at improving eating, sleep, stress, and depressive disorders. Methods: A health education…

  4. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... newborns, as well as jitteriness, difficulty feeding, and low blood sugar after delivery. However, moms who stop medications can ... a kind of antidepressant for treating depression and anxiety disorders. However, a number of research studies show ...

  5. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... system. Doctors use them to treat things like insomnia or anxiety . But if depressant drugs (like sedatives, ... Other long-term effects include: impaired sexual function insomnia and other sleep problems breathing problems convulsions (similar ...

  6. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... marketed in the United States. Common places of origin Generally, legitimate pharmaceutical products are diverted to the illicit market. Teens can obtain depressants from the family medicine cabinet, friends, family members, the Internet, doctors, ...

  7. Mental health and migration: depression, alcohol abuse, and access to health care among migrants in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-12-01

    One-fifth of Kazakhstan's population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N = 450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359

  8. Association of lower hemoglobin levels with depression, though not with cognitive performance, in healthy elderly men.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsi-Han; Yeh, Heng-Liang; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2012-06-01

    Lower hemoglobin (Hb) levels are a common feature in the elderly. The present study recruited 180 healthy elderly men. Participants were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument Chinese version, and the Wechsler Digit Span Task test. The mean age of the participants was 85.8 years (SD = 10.5). Pearson's correlation tests demonstrated that Hb concentrations negatively correlated with Geriatric Depression Scale (r = -0.245, P = 0.001), but did not correlate with Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Forward or Backward Digit Span tests. Lower Hb levels, therefore, were associated with depression in the elderly men. PMID:22624743

  9. Depression screening using health questionnaires in patients receiving oral isotretinoin for acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Schrom, Kory; Nagy, Terri; Mostow, Eliot

    2016-07-01

    Isotretinoin is used to treat severe and recalcitrant acne. Possible side effects include depression, suicide, and suicidal ideation; however, other studies suggest isotretinoin may improve mood and quality of life. Although iPLEDGE consenting warns about the risk of depression and suicidal ideation, there is no recommendation for screening tools. The patient health questionnaire-2 and the patient health questionnaire-9 are validated instruments that enable dermatologists to efficiently screen for depression before and after isotretinoin is initiated. PMID:27317530

  10. Predictors of and health services utilization related to depressive symptoms among elderly Koreans.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin Hee; Do, Young Kyung; Maselko, Joanna; Brouwer, Rebecca J N; Song, Sang Wook; Østbye, Truls

    2012-07-01

    While the prevalence, comorbidity, risk profile and health care utilization for late-life depression have been described for many Western countries, much less is known about the recent epidemiology of late-life depression in East Asian countries such as Korea. We investigated predictors for depressive symptoms and the association between depressive symptoms and the utilization of both medical care and preventive services in elderly Koreans. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of Koreans aged 60 and above (2226 men, 2911 women) who participated in the 2008 wave of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. Risk factors considered included sociodemographics, health behaviors, chronic diseases, and physical function. Health care utilization factors included hospitalization, outpatient clinic use and basic medical checkup. Being female, being unmarried, and having less education, lower household income, physical inactivity and lower weight were associated with depressive symptoms. Presence of chronic diseases and limited physical function also showed a significant association with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with increased odds of hospitalization and outpatient visits, but decreased the odds of utilization of basic medical checkup after controlling for potential confounders. Findings on most risk factors, except lower weight, were consistent with reports from Western countries. It is important to recognize the burden of depressive symptoms in the elderly. The interaction of such symptoms with chronic diseases should be acknowledged and considered in the clinical setting as well as in health care planning and policymaking. PMID:22531571

  11. Reconsidering the role of social disadvantage in physical and mental health: stressful life events, health behaviors, race, and depression.

    PubMed

    Mezuk, Briana; Rafferty, Jane A; Kershaw, Kiarri N; Hudson, Darrell; Abdou, Cleopatra M; Lee, Hedwig; Eaton, William W; Jackson, James S

    2010-12-01

    Prevalence of depression is associated inversely with some indicators of socioeconomic position, and the stress of social disadvantage is hypothesized to mediate this relation. Relative to whites, blacks have a higher burden of most physical health conditions but, unexpectedly, a lower burden of depression. This study evaluated an etiologic model that integrates mental and physical health to account for this counterintuitive patterning. The Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (Maryland, 1993-2004) was used to evaluate the interaction between stress and poor health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, poor diet, and obesity) and risk of depression 12 years later for 341 blacks and 601 whites. At baseline, blacks engaged in more poor health behaviors and had a lower prevalence of depression compared with whites (5.9% vs. 9.2%). The interaction between health behaviors and stress was nonsignificant for whites (odds ratio (OR = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 0.98, 1.11); for blacks, the interaction term was significant and negative (β: -0.18, P < 0.014). For blacks, the association between median stress and depression was stronger for those who engaged in zero (OR = 1.34) relative to 1 (OR = 1.12) and ≥2 (OR = 0.94) poor health behaviors. Findings are consistent with the proposed model of mental and physical health disparities. PMID:20884682

  12. Personal and Psychosocial Risk Factors for Physical and Mental Health Outcomes and Course of Depression among Depressed Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherbourne, Cathy Donald; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Data from 604 depressed patients in The Medical Outcomes Study showed improvements in measures of functioning and well-being associated with patients who were employed, drank less alcohol, had active coping styles and higher levels of social support, who had active and less avoidant coping styles, who were physically active, and who had fewer…

  13. Relationships between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and depressive symptoms: Findings of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee-Young; Kang, Gaeun; Kang, Hee-Ju; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Kim, Jae-Min

    2016-07-30

    Although serum cholesterol has been associated with late-life depression, few studies on the associations between lipids and depression among middle-aged adults have been performed. This study examined associations between serum lipid levels and depressive symptoms in Korean middle-aged adults. We used data from 8207 participants aged 40-64 years who completed a questionnaire about their experience of depressive symptoms over the last year as part of the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Higher HDL-C levels were significantly associated with an elevated risk of depressive symptoms (OR=1.32; 95% CI=1.09-1.60) after adjusting for other covariates. PMID:27179182

  14. Learned resourcefulness, danger in intimate partner relationships, and mental health symptoms of depression and PTSD in abused women.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kerry

    2013-06-01

    The study investigated the relationships among learned resourcefulness, dangerousness in abusive relationships, and symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of abused sheltered women. A cross-sectional descriptive research design was utilized and 42 women met criteria for participation. Data were collected over a ten-month period from June 2010 to March 2011 using the following instruments: (1) demographic data collection form, (2) Self-Control Schedule (SCS), (3) Danger Assessment (DA), (4) Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA), (5) Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), and (6) Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS). Results indicated that 74% of the sample reported symptoms of depression and 67% met criteria for PTSD. In addition, there was 62% comorbidity between depression and PTSD. High levels of danger and low levels of resourcefulness were associated with increased symptoms of depression and PTSD. Further research is necessary, but results of the study suggest that resourcefulness may be an important consideration for abused women in reducing the impact of violence and abuse on mental health issues. PMID:23805923

  15. Depression screening and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Depression is an important cause of disability among children and adolescents. Depression screening is one possible method for managing depression, and screening programs have been initiated in some school and medical settings. However, in 2005, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care and the United Kingdom National Institute of Clinical Excellence did not recommend depression screening among children and adolescents. By contrast, in 2009, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommended that all adolescents, but not younger children, be screened for depression in medical settings with integrated depression management services, although no trials of screening were identified. The objectives of this systematic review are to evaluate in children and adolescents the accuracy of depression screening tools; depression treatment efficacy; whether depression screening improves depression outcomes; and potential harms related to depression interventions and screening. Methods/design Data sources will include the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, LILACS and Web of Science, supplemented by reference harvesting of eligible articles, relevant systematic reviews, relevant guidelines and recommendations, and selected journals, and by searches for unpublished studies. Eligible studies will report data for children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years. Eligible diagnostic accuracy studies must compare a depression screening tool to a validated diagnostic interview for major depressive disorder and report diagnostic accuracy data. Eligible treatment studies must be randomized controlled trials of pharmacological, psychotherapeutic, or other depression treatments commonly available for children and adolescents in pediatric, primary-care, and family medicine settings. Eligible screening studies must be randomized controlled trials that compare depression outcomes between children or adolescents who underwent depression

  16. Prenatal and Postpartum Evening Salivary Cortisol Levels in Association with Peripartum Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Iliadis, Stavros I.; Comasco, Erika; Sylvén, Sara; Hellgren, Charlotte; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2015-01-01

    Background The biology of peripartum depression remains unclear, with altered stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis response having been implicated in its pathophysiology. Methods The current study was undertaken as a part of the BASIC project (Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging, Cognition), a population-based longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Uppsala County, Sweden, in order to assess the association between evening salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptoms in the peripartum period. Three hundred and sixty-five pregnant women from the BASIC cohort were recruited at pregnancy week 18 and instructed to complete a Swedish validated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at the 36th week of pregnancy as well as the sixth week after delivery. At both times, they were also asked to provide evening salivary samples for cortisol analysis. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature is also provided. Results Women with postpartum EPDS score ≥ 10 had higher salivary evening cortisol at six weeks postpartum compared to healthy controls (median cortisol 1.19 vs 0.89 nmol/L). A logistic regression model showed a positive association between cortisol levels and depressive symptoms postpartum (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 1.7–9.7). This association remained significant even after controlling for history of depression, use of tobacco, partner support, breastfeeding, stressful life events, and sleep problems, as possible confounders (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.5–14.1). Additionally, women with postpartum depressive symptoms had higher postpartum cortisol levels compared to both women with depressive symptoms antenatally and controls (p = 0.019 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions Women with depressive symptoms postpartum had higher postpartum cortisol levels, indicating an altered response of the HPA-axis in postpartum depression. PMID:26322643

  17. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I levels are higher in depressive and anxiety disorders, but lower in antidepressant medication users.

    PubMed

    Bot, Mariska; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Drent, Madeleine L

    2016-06-01

    It has been postulated that many peripheral and (neuro)biological systems are involved in psychiatric disorders such as depression. Some studies found associations of depression and antidepressant treatment with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) - a pleiotropic hormone affecting neuronal growth, survival and plasticity - but evidence is mixed. We therefore studied whether depressive and anxiety disorders were associated with plasma IGF-I, and explored the role of antidepressant medication in this association in a large observational study. The sample consisted of 2714 participants enrolled in The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, classified as healthy controls (n=602), antidepressant users (76 remitted and 571 with current depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s), n=647), persons having remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s) without antidepressant use (n=502), and persons having current depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s) without antidepressant use (n=963). Associations with IGF-I concentrations were studied and adjusted for socio-demographic, health, and lifestyle variables. Relative to healthy controls, antidepressant-free individuals with current disorders had significantly higher IGF-I levels (Cohen's d=0.08, p=0.006), whereas antidepressant-free individuals with remitted disorders had a trend towards higher IGF-I levels (d=0.06, p=0.09). Associations were evident for depressive and for anxiety disorders. In contrast, antidepressant users had significantly lower IGF-I levels compared to healthy controls (d=-0.08, p=0.028). Our findings suggests that antidepressant medication use modifies the association between depressive/anxiety disorders and plasma IGF-I. These results corroborate with findings of some previous small-scale case-control and intervention studies. The higher IGF-I levels related to depression and anxiety might point to a compensatory mechanism to counterbalance the impaired neurogenesis, although future studies are needed to

  18. Depression - elderly

    MedlinePlus

    ... highest risk. Families should pay close attention to elderly relatives who are depressed and who live alone. ... health care provider. Alternative Names Depression in the elderly Images Depression among the elderly References Abbasi O, ...

  19. Validation of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for Major Depressive Disorder in the Occupational Health Setting.

    PubMed

    Volker, D; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, M C; Brouwers, E P M; Homans, W A; Emons, W H M; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C M

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Because of the increased risk of long-term sickness leave for employees with a major depressive disorder (MDD), it is important for occupational health professionals to recognize depression in a timely manner. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) has proven to be a reliable and valid instrument for screening MDD, but has not been validated in the occupational health setting. The aim of this study was to validate the PHQ-9 for MDD within a population of employees on sickness leave by using the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) as a gold standard. Methods Participants were recruited in collaboration with the occupational health service. The study sample consisted of 170 employees on sickness leave between 4 and 26 weeks who completed the PHQ-9 and were evaluated with the MINI by telephone. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, efficiency and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated for all possible cut-off values. A receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis was computed for PHQ-9 score versus the MINI. Results The optimal cut-off value of the PHQ-9 was 10. This resulted in a sensitivity of 86.1 % [95 % CI (69.7-94.8)] and a specificity of 78.4 % [95 % CI (70.2-84.8)]. Based on the ROC analysis, the area under the curve for the PHQ-9 was 0.90 [SE = 0.02; 95 % CI (0.85-0.94)]. Conclusion The PHQ-9 shows good sensitivity and specificity as a screener for MDD within a population of employees on sickness leave. PMID:26377480

  20. Urinary heavy metals, phthalates and polyaromatic hydrocarbons independent of health events are associated with adult depression: USA NHANES, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-11-01

    Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged, but the effects on mental health such as depression were less studied. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships between different sets of urinary environmental chemical concentrations and adult depression in a national and population-based setting in recent years. Data was retrieved from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011-2012 including demographics, serum measurements, lifestyle factors, self-reported health conditions and urinary chemical concentrations. Depression was determined by using the Patient Health Questionnaire with a cutoff point at 9/10. Chi-square test, t test and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling were performed. Among 5560 American adults aged 20-80 years, 363 (7.8%) people were classified as having depression (Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥ 10). They tended to have history of health events. After full adjustment including urinary creatinine; demographic characteristics; lifestyle factors; health conditions (such as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, digestive and bone diseases, and injury); and subsample weighing; and higher levels of manganese, tin, and phthalates including mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl, mono-n-butyl, mono-isobutyl, and mono-benzyl were associated with adult depression. Similarly, urinary polyaromatic hydrocarbons including 2-hydroxyfluorene, 3-hydroxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, 1-hydroxynaphthalene (1-naphthol), 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-naphthol) and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene were associated with depression. There were no associations observed in urinary arsenic, phenols, parabens, pesticides, perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate and polyfluorinated compounds. Urinary heavy metal, phthalates and polyaromatic hydrocarbons were associated with adult depression, being independent of health events. Further elimination

  1. Describing the relationship between cat bites and human depression using data from an electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Hanauer, David A; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Seyfried, Lisa S

    2013-01-01

    Data mining approaches have been increasingly applied to the electronic health record and have led to the discovery of numerous clinical associations. Recent data mining studies have suggested a potential association between cat bites and human depression. To explore this possible association in more detail we first used administrative diagnosis codes to identify patients with either depression or bites, drawn from a population of 1.3 million patients. We then conducted a manual chart review in the electronic health record of all patients with a code for a bite to accurately determine which were from cats or dogs. Overall there were 750 patients with cat bites, 1,108 with dog bites, and approximately 117,000 patients with depression. Depression was found in 41.3% of patients with cat bites and 28.7% of those with dog bites. Furthermore, 85.5% of those with both cat bites and depression were women, compared to 64.5% of those with dog bites and depression. The probability of a woman being diagnosed with depression at some point in her life if she presented to our health system with a cat bite was 47.0%, compared to 24.2% of men presenting with a similar bite. The high proportion of depression in patients who had cat bites, especially among women, suggests that screening for depression could be appropriate in patients who present to a clinical provider with a cat bite. Additionally, while no causative link is known to explain this association, there is growing evidence to suggest that the relationship between cats and human mental illness, such as depression, warrants further investigation. PMID:23936453

  2. Development and Implementation of Health and Wellness CBT for Individuals with Depression and HIV.

    PubMed

    Kennard, B; Brown, L; Hawkins, L; Risi, A; Radcliffe, J; Emslie, G; Mayes, T; King, J; Foxwell, A; Buyukdura, J; Bethel, J; Naar-King, S; Xu, J; Lee, S; Garvie, P; London, C; Tanney, M; Thornton, S

    2014-05-01

    Rates of depression are reported to be between 22-33% in adults with HIV, which is double that of the general population. Depression negatively affects treatment adherence and health outcomes of those with medical illnesses. Further, it has been shown in adults that reducing depression may improve both adherence and health outcomes. To address the issues of depression and non-adherence, Health and Wellness (H&W) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and medication management (MM) treatment strategies have been developed specifically for youth living with both HIV and depression. H&W CBT is based on other studies with uninfected youth and upon research on adults with HIV. H&W CBT uses problem-solving, motivational interviewing, and cognitive-behavioral strategies to decrease adherence obstacles and increase wellness. The intervention is delivered in 14 planned sessions over a 6-month period, with three different stages of CBT. This paper summarizes the feasibility and acceptability data from an open depression trial with 8 participants, 16-24 years of age, diagnosed with HIV and with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) diagnosis of depression, conducted at two treatment sites in the Adolescent Trials Network (ATN). Both therapists and subjects completed a Session Evaluation Form (SEF) after each session, and results were strongly favorable. Results from The Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician (QIDS-C) also showed noteworthy improvement in depression severity. A clinical case vignette illustrates treatment response. Further research will examine the use of H&W CBT in a larger trial of youth diagnosed with both HIV and depression. PMID:24795524

  3. Multimodal E-Mental Health Treatment for Depression: A Feasibility Trial

    PubMed Central

    Duffecy, Jennifer; Jin, Ling; Ludman, Evette J; Lewis, Adam; Begale, Mark; McCarthy Jr, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background Internet interventions for depression have shown less than optimal adherence. This study describes the feasibility trial of a multimodal e-mental health intervention designed to enhance adherence and outcomes for depression. The intervention required frequent brief log-ins for self-monitoring and feedback as well as email and brief telephone support guided by a theory-driven manualized protocol. Objective The objective of this feasibility trial was to examine if our Internet intervention plus manualized telephone support program would result in increased adherence rates and improvement in depression outcomes. Methods This was a single arm feasibility trial of a 7-week intervention. Results Of the 21 patients enrolled, 2 (9.5%) dropped out of treatment. Patients logged in 23.2 ± 12.2 times over the 7 weeks. Significant reductions in depression were found on all measures, including the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8) (Cohen’s d = 1.96, P < .001), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (d = 1.34, P < .001), and diagnosis of major depressive episode (P < .001). Conclusions The attrition rate was far lower than seen either in Internet studies or trials of face-to-face interventions, and depression outcomes were substantial. These findings support the feasibility of providing a multimodal e-mental health treatment to patients with depression. Although it is premature to make any firm conclusions based on these data, they do support the initiation of a randomized controlled trial examining the independent and joint effects of Internet and telephone administered treatments for depression. PMID:21169164

  4. Describing the Relationship between Cat Bites and Human Depression Using Data from an Electronic Health Record

    PubMed Central

    Hanauer, David A.; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Seyfried, Lisa S.

    2013-01-01

    Data mining approaches have been increasingly applied to the electronic health record and have led to the discovery of numerous clinical associations. Recent data mining studies have suggested a potential association between cat bites and human depression. To explore this possible association in more detail we first used administrative diagnosis codes to identify patients with either depression or bites, drawn from a population of 1.3 million patients. We then conducted a manual chart review in the electronic health record of all patients with a code for a bite to accurately determine which were from cats or dogs. Overall there were 750 patients with cat bites, 1,108 with dog bites, and approximately 117,000 patients with depression. Depression was found in 41.3% of patients with cat bites and 28.7% of those with dog bites. Furthermore, 85.5% of those with both cat bites and depression were women, compared to 64.5% of those with dog bites and depression. The probability of a woman being diagnosed with depression at some point in her life if she presented to our health system with a cat bite was 47.0%, compared to 24.2% of men presenting with a similar bite. The high proportion of depression in patients who had cat bites, especially among women, suggests that screening for depression could be appropriate in patients who present to a clinical provider with a cat bite. Additionally, while no causative link is known to explain this association, there is growing evidence to suggest that the relationship between cats and human mental illness, such as depression, warrants further investigation. PMID:23936453

  5. Mental Health Literacy of Depression: Gender Differences and Attitudinal Antecedents in a Representative British Sample

    PubMed Central

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Background Poor mental health literacy and negative attitudes toward individuals with mental health disorders may impede optimal help-seeking for symptoms of mental ill-health. The present study examined the ability to recognize cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender, as well as individual psychological differences in attitudes toward persons with depression. Methods In a representative British general population survey, the ability to correctly recognize vignettes of depression was assessed among 1,218 adults. Respondents also rated the vignettes along a number of attitudinal dimensions and completed measures of attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. Results There were significant differences in the ability to correctly identify cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender. Respondents were more likely to indicate that a male vignette did not suffer from a mental health disorder compared to a female vignette, and women were more likely than men to indicate that the male vignette suffered from a mental health disorder. Attitudes toward persons with depression were associated with attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. Conclusion Initiatives that consider the impact of gender stereotypes as well as individual differences may enhance mental health literacy, which in turn is associated with improved help-seeking behaviors for symptoms of mental ill-health. PMID:23166769

  6. A multicenter cross-sectional study of mental and physical health depression in MHD patients.

    PubMed

    Vettath, R E; Reddy, Y N V; Reddy, Y N V; Dutta, S; Singh, Z; Mathew, M; Abraham, G

    2012-07-01

    Depression is ranked fourth among the disabling diseases affecting people worldwide and is the most common psychological problem in patients with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). The aim of this study is to assess the physical and emotional health status of renal dialysis patients, based on the SF-36 scale in relation to their economic status. Sixty maintenance hemodialysis patients, with a mean age of 40±13 years were included in this cross-sectional study using the SF-36 scale. It comprises 36 questions regarding physical and mental functions, body pain, vitality, etc. An SF-36 score of 50 or less was considered as moderate to severe depression and 51-100 as mild depression to good health. 56.81% of the patients who are below poverty line under dialysis had moderate to severe depression with regard to their health status. A physical health score of up to 50 was seen in 63.63% of patients below poverty line 63.63% (P= 0.16). A mental health score of 0-50 was observed in 61.63% of the cohort studied (P = 0.22). Among the patient with diabetes (28.33%) 55.56% had depression. Dialysis duration was directly associated with deteriorating physical health status and inversely proportional to their mental health status (P<0.05). There are problems in other regular activities due to depressed physical and mental health. The factors that were identified in this study that influence depression such as poverty status, increasing age, vintage and frequency of dialysis and treatment with erythropoietin dosage should be addressed and treated accordingly to improve the quality of life. Improving self-esteem with fruitful employment opportunities, concerted rehabilitation by professionals and easing of economic burden by private-public partnership is an achievable goal. PMID:23162267

  7. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26301514

  8. Spanish consensus on the physical health of patients with depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Giner, José; Saiz Ruiz, Jerónimo; Bobes, Julio; Zamorano, Enric; López, Francisco; Hernando, Teresa; Rico-Villademoros, Fernando; Álamo, Cecilio; Cervilla, Jorge A; Ibáñez Cuadrado, Ángela; Ibáñez Guerra, Elena; López, Silvia; Morán, Pedro; Palao, Diego J; Romacho, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Comorbidity between depression and physical illnesses is very common and has a significant impact on the health and management of the patient. With the support of the Sociedades Españolas de Psiquiatría y Psiquiatría Biológica, and Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN) a consensus was prepared on physical health in patients with depression and is summarized in the present work. The literature review highlighted the high frequency of cardiovascular and endocrine-metabolic disorders in patients with depression such as diabetes and obesity, thus making the primary and secondary prevention recommendations for patients with cardiovascular or metabolic risk applicable to patients with depression. Comorbidity between depression and chronic pain is also frequent, and requires an integrated therapeutic approach. The presence of physical illness in patients with depression may condition, but not preclude, the pharmacological treatment; drug selection should take into account potential side-effect and drug-drug interactions. On the other hand, psychotherapy may contribute to the patient's recovery. Overall, coordination between the primary care physician, the psychiatrist and other health professionals involved is essential for the management of patients with depression and concomitant physical illness. PMID:25087131

  9. Beliefs and attitudes of French family practitioners toward depression: the impact of training in mental health

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Joanna L.; Pommié, Christelle; Cogneau, Joël; Haddad, Mark; Ritchie, Karen A.; Mann, Anthony H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study, in a sample of French Family Practitioners (FPs), beliefs and attitudes toward depression and how they vary according to training received in mental health. Methods The Depression Attitude Questionnaire (DAQ) was completed by 468 FPs from all regions of France, recruited by pharmaceutical company representatives to attend focus groups on the management of depression in general practice. Results A three factor model was derived from the DAQ, accounting for 37.7% of the total variance. The correlations between individual items of each component varied from 0.4 to 0.65 with an overall internal consistency of 0.47 (Cronbach’s alpha). FPs had an overall neutral position on component 1, professional ease, a positive view on the origins of depression and its amenability to change (component 2), and a belief in the necessity of medication and the benefit of antidepressant therapy (component 3). Training in mental health, specifically through continuing medical education and postgraduate psychiatric hospital training, was significantly and positively associated with both professional ease and a medication approach to treating depression. Conclusion this study is the first description of the beliefs and attitudes of French FPs towards depression using a standardized measure, the DAQ, despite the instrument’s limited psychometric properties. It shows the positive effect of training in mental health on attitudes towards depression. PMID:21675343

  10. Serum Testosterone Levels and Symptom-Based Depression Subtypes in Men

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Stephanie; grosse Holtforth, Martin; Hengartner, Michael P.; Müller, Mario; Aleksandrowicz, Aleksandra A.; Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this preliminary study was to further clarify the association between testosterone (T) levels and depression by investigating symptom-based depression subtypes in a sample of 64 men. The data were taken from the ZInEP epidemiology survey. Gonadal hormones of a melancholic (n  = 25) and an atypical (n = 14) depression subtype, derived from latent class analysis, were compared with those of healthy controls (n  = 18). Serum T was assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure. Analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, non-parametrical tests, and generalized linear regression models were performed to examine group differences. The atypical depressive subtype showed significantly lower T levels compared with the melancholic depressives. While accumulative evidence indicates that, beyond psychosocial characteristics, the melancholic and atypical depressive subtypes are also distinguishable by biological correlates, the current study expanded this knowledge to include gonadal hormones. Further longitudinal research is warranted to disclose causality by linking the multiple processes in pathogenesis of depression. PMID:25999864

  11. Bisphenol A alters transcript levels of biomarker genes for Major Depressive Disorder in vascular endothelial cells and colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Varandas, Edna; Pereira, H Sofia; Viegas, Wanda; Delgado, Margarida

    2016-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is capable of mimicking endogenous hormones with potential consequences for human health and BPA exposure has been associated with several human diseases including neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) results show that BPA at low concentrations (10 ng/mL and 1 μg/mL) induces differential transcript levels of four biomarker genes for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in HT29 human colon adenocarcinona cell line and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). These results substantiate increasing concerns of BPA exposure in levels currently detected in humans. PMID:27010169

  12. Measuring symptoms of depression: comparing the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9-Observation Version.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Lorraine J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend available psychometric data on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9-Observation Version (PHQ-9-OV) by comparing it with the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) in a new sample of long-term care residents. Data were collected post intervention in a quasi-experimental storytelling study across six communities. The sample (N = 54) was 87% women with mean age of 84.5, mean CSDD score of 3.96, and mean PHQ-9-OV score of 4.22. Prevalence of depressive symptoms by CSDD criteria was 20.4% and by PHQ-9-OV criteria was 40.7%. The CSDD and PHQ-9-OV were well correlated (r(s) = 0.78, p < 0.0001). Neither scale was significantly correlated with depression diagnosis nor antidepressant agent use. Both measures demonstrated adequate reliability. The PHQ-9-OV item scoring and established cut-off points designate a lower threshold than the CSDD to detect clinically significant depressive symptoms. Further study is needed to determine the sensitivity of the PHQ-9-OV in identifying treatment effects. PMID:22165998

  13. Limitations of the Patient Health Questionnaire in Identifying Anxiety and Depression in Community Mental Health: Many Cases Are Undetected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Lee, Bong-Jae

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the concordance between the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in diagnosing anxiety and depressive disorders. Method: Fifty women seeking psychiatric services for their children at two mental health centers in western Pennsylvania were assessed for anxiety and…

  14. S100B Serum Levels Predict Treatment Response in Patients with Melancholic Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bergink, Veerle; Grosse, Laura; Alferink, Judith; Drexhage, Hemmo A.; Rothermundt, Matthias; Arolt, Volker; Birkenhäger, Tom K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an ongoing search for biomarkers in psychiatry, for example, as diagnostic tools or predictors of treatment response. The neurotrophic factor S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B) has been discussed as a possible predictor of antidepressant response in patients with major depression, but also as a possible biomarker of an acute depressive state. The aim of the present study was to study the association of serum S100B levels with antidepressant treatment response and depression severity in melancholically depressed inpatients. Methods: After a wash-out period of 1 week, 40 inpatients with melancholic depression were treated with either venlafaxine or imipramine. S100B levels and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) scores were assessed at baseline, after 7 weeks of treatment, and after 6 months. Results: Patients with high S100B levels at baseline showed a markedly better treatment response defined as relative reduction in HAM-D scores than those with low baseline S100B levels after 7 weeks (P=.002) and 6 months (P=.003). In linear regression models, S100B was a significant predictor for treatment response at both time points. It is of interest to note that nonresponders were detected with a predictive value of 85% and a false negative rate of 7.5%. S100B levels were not associated with depression severity and did not change with clinical improvement. Conclusions: Low S100B levels predict nonresponse to venlafaxine and imipramine with high precision. Future studies have to show which treatments are effective in patients with low levels of S100B so that this biomarker will help to reduce patients’ burden of nonresponding to frequently used antidepressants. PMID:26364276

  15. Effect of Educational Intervention on General Health and Depression in Temporary Employees

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Maryam A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mental health disorders and depression are pervasive and costly problems for workplaces. The aim of this study was to examine the general health and depression in temporary employees and the effect of educational intervention on general health and depression in temporary employees in Isfahan steel company. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used to examine the effect of intervention among temporary employees of Isfahan steel company. All temporary employees of blast furnaces were studied by census method. Data were collected by questionnaires including GHQ-28, BDI-II before and after a brief three-session CB educational intervention and were analyzed by SPSS12. Results: According to the GHQ-28 scores; 16.9% were suspected to psychological disorders; 3.4% also recorded severe depression. Mean depression scores decreased significantly after the intervention (CI: 3.21-6.94). General health scores also decreased significantly after the intervention (CI: .97-5.03). Conclusion: Brief cognitive behavior educational intervention can be considered as a preliminary education for employees to develop skills to cope with depression, and included in a more extensive education to attain longer-term results. PMID:22891153

  16. Spouse health status, depressed affect, and resilience in mid and late life: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bookwala, Jamila

    2014-04-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine the effects of spousal illness on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older married individuals and the extent to which the adverse effects of illness in a spouse were mitigated by 2 psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem. Using 1,704 married participants who were 51 years of age on average, depressive symptoms were compared in 4 groups varying in their experience of spousal health transitions: those whose spouse remained ill at T1 and T2, those whose spouse declined in health from T1 to T2, those whose spouse's health improved from T1 to T2, and those whose spouse remained healthy at both time points. Mixed analyses of covariance showed that, as hypothesized, having a spouse who became or remained ill over time was linked to greater depressed affect by T2, whereas having a spouse improve in health was associated with a decline in depressive symptomatology. Moderated regression analyses indicated that while higher mastery and self-esteem were linked to lower depressed affect in general, these resources were especially protective against depressed affect for those whose spouse remained ill at both time points. These findings are at the intersection of life course theory and the stress process model highlighting the contextual forces in and the interconnectedness of individual development as well as the plasticity and resilience evident in adaptation to stress during mid and late life. PMID:24364828

  17. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... to eat at all Not being able to sleep, or sleeping too much Feeling very tired Feeling hopeless, irritable, anxious, or guilty Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems Thoughts of death or suicide Depression is a disorder of the brain. There are a variety of ...

  18. Depression-like behavior and reduced plasma testosterone levels in the senescence-accelerated mouse.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Nobuaki; Koushi, Emi; Okuno, Ryoko; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Mishima, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Oishi, Ryozo; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2010-05-01

    During aging, levels of testosterone gradually decline in men and low levels of testosterone in aged men are accompanied by increased incidence of depressive disorders. The senescence-accelerated-prone mouse 10 (SAMP10) is well known as an animal model of aging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the motor function, anxiety levels, depression-related emotional responses, attentional function and plasma levels of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in SAMP10. SAMP10 exhibited a significant prolongation of immobility time compared to that of the aged-matched control senescence-accelerated-resistant mouse 1 (SAMR1) in the tail suspension test for measuring depression. Moreover, significant low levels of plasma testosterone but not DHEA were found in SAMP10, and the testosterone levels were inversely correlated with the depression-like behavior. By contrast, we did not observe any significant differences between SAMP10 and SAMR1 in the open-field, rota-rod, elevated plus-maze, marble-burying behavior, or prepulse inhibition test. The results of the present study indicate that testosterone may play an important role in the depression-like behavior in SAMP10. PMID:20117148

  19. Maternal depressive symptoms and healthcare expenditures for publicly insured children with chronic health conditions.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jada L; Beil, Heather; Beeber, Linda S

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of maternal depressive symptoms and tested associations between maternal depressive symptoms and healthcare utilization and expenditures among United States publicly insured children with chronic health conditions (CCHC). A total of 6,060 publicly insured CCHC from the 2004-2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys were analyzed using negative binomial models to compare healthcare utilization for CCHC of mothers with and without depressive symptoms. Annual healthcare expenditures for both groups were compared using a two-part model with a logistic regression and generalized linear model. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among mothers with CCHC was 19 %. There were no differences in annual healthcare utilization for CCHC of mothers with and without depressive symptoms. Maternal depressive symptoms were associated with greater odds of ED expenditures [odds ratio (OR) 1.26; 95 % CI 1.03-1.54] and lesser odds of dental expenditures (OR 0.81; 95 % CI 0.66-0.98) and total expenditures (OR 0.71; 95 % CI 0.51-0.98). Children of symptomatic mothers had lower predicted outpatient expenditures and higher predicted expenditures for total health, prescription medications, dental care; and office based, inpatient and ED visits. Mothers with CCHC were more likely to report depressive symptoms than were mothers with children without chronic health conditions. There were few differences in annual healthcare utilization and expenditures between CCHC of mothers with and without depressive symptoms. However, having a mother with depressive symptoms was associated with higher ED expenditures and higher predicted healthcare expenditures in a population of children who comprise over three-fourths of the top decile of Medicaid spending. PMID:25047785

  20. Daily Life or Diagnosis? Dual Perspectives on Perinatal Depression within Maternal and Child Health Home Visiting

    PubMed Central

    Price, Sarah Kye; Cohen-Filipic, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a qualitative inquiry–informing program development in a maternal and child home visiting program. Low-income women's perceptions of the meaning and experiences of depression were ascertained through focus groups and interviews. Simultaneously, the study examines staff member perceptions and roles related to depression. Specific findings from clients and staff reveal culturally situated beliefs about depression and stressful life events; comparing and contrasting these beliefs offers a novel perspective on identification and intervention for maternal depression. This study offers a foundation for a translational research agenda that will be used for program and policy development to enhance mental health services situated within maternal and child health home visiting programs. PMID:23944165

  1. Adolescent Mental Health Literacy: Young People's Knowledge of Depression and Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, John R.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the mental health literacy of a group of adolescents, with particular reference to their ability to recognize symptoms of depression in their peers. Respondents were 202 Australian adolescents (122 males, 80 females) aged 15-17 years. Their mental health literacy was examined through a questionnaire that presented them with…

  2. Predictors of depressive symptoms and physical health in caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Thunyadee, Chanya; Sitthimongkol, Yajai; Sangon, Sopin; Chai-Aroon, Teradech; Hegadoren, Kathleen M

    2015-12-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relationships among factors influencing caregiver burden, depressive symptoms, and physical health in family caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia. Two hundred family caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia completed standardized questionnaires related to depressive symptoms, physical health, perceptions of burden, coping, and social support. The results revealed that 19.5% of family caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia experienced significant depressive symptoms and 65.5% perceived themselves in poor physical health. Burden, self-controlling coping strategies, and physical health status were all independently predictive of depressive symptoms. Two emotion-focused coping strategies (self-controlling and escape-avoidance) were independently predictive of caregiver burden. Only burden predicted physical health status. The findings suggest that health professionals who provide community care for those with schizophrenia need to consider the "unit of care" as the family rather than the individual. The health status of family caregivers should be routinely assessed. Individualized interventions to reduce family burden could include community-based health professionals as well as trained community volunteers, opportunities for social interaction, and improving self-care for all family members. PMID:26081195

  3. Personal Project Content and Stress: Relations to Subjective Health and Depressive Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenius, Marjut A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how personal project stress and stress related to different personal project contents are associated with subjective health and depressive mood among adults. Participants were 343 men and women (20-76 years old), who responded to the questionnaire including the Little's Personal Project Analysis, and health and…

  4. Depressive Symptoms and Health-Related Risk-Taking in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, C. Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear…

  5. Supplemental Private Health Insurance and Depressive Symptoms in Older Married Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Meeyoung Oh; Townsend, Aloen L.; Miller, Baila; Rovine, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Stress process theory is applied to examine lack of supplemental private health insurance as a risk factor for depressive symptomatology among older married couples covered by Medicare. Dyadic data from 130 African-American couples and 1,429 White couples in the 1993 Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest-Old Survey were analyzed using…

  6. Association between Ideal Cardiovascular Health Metrics and Depression in Chinese Population: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhikun; Yang, Xin; Wang, Anxin; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Wei; Song, Qiaofeng; Wang, Xizhu

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the association between ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics and depression. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study of 6,851 participants aged 20 years or older (3,525 men and 3,326 women) living in Tangshan City, China. Information on the seven CVH metrics (including smoking, body mass index, dietary intake, physical activity, blood pressure, total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose) was collected via questionnaires, physical examination and laboratory test. Depression status was assessed using the Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and a score of 16 or above was considered depression. The relationship between CVH metrics and depression was analyzed using logistic regression. Of the 6,851 participants, 525 (7.7%) were in depression status. After adjustment for potential confounders, men in the highest quartile of ideal CVH metric summary score had a reduced likelihood of having depression compared to those in the lowest quartile (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28–0.75, p = 0.002). A similar trend was found among women, even though the association was not significant (AOR = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.46–1.18, p = 0.211). This study suggested that better CVH status is associated with a lower risk of depression especially in Chinese male and young population. PMID:26176196

  7. Effects of Toxoplasma gondii infection on anxiety, depression and ghrelin level in male rats.

    PubMed

    Parvin, Zareian; Iraj, Mirzaii Dizgah; Minoo, Shaddel; Fatemeh, Khodabandehloo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection on anxiety, depression and ghrelin level in male rats. Twenty four male rats were assessed in two equal groups. T. gondii tachyzoite (ip) were injected in infected group and control group received (2 ml) physiological serum (ip). Elevated plus Maze and swimming tests were used to assess anxiety and depression in rats respectively. The ghrelin and T. gondii IgG serum levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay kits. The Student's t test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used. The ghrelin serum level was significantly lower in the infected rats than control (P = 0.03). There were no significant differences in the depression and anxiety behavior between two groups. However, here were no significant correlations between ghrelin level and anxiety or depression in rats. It seems that latent T. gondii infection decreases the ghrelin serum level but does not change anxiety and depression like behaviors. PMID:27605768

  8. An investigation of core liquid level depression in small break loss-of-coolant accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, R.R.; Watkins, J.C. ); Motley, F.E.; Stumpf, H. ); Chen, Y.S. . Div. of Systems Research)

    1991-08-01

    Core liquid level depression can result in partial core dryout and heatup early in a small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) transient. Such behavior occurs when steam, trapped in the upper regions of the reactor primary system (between the loop seal and the core inventory), moves coolant out of the core region and uncovers the rod upper elevations. The net result is core liquid level depression. Core liquid level depression and subsequent core heatups are investigated using subscale data from the ROSA-IV Program's 1/48-scale Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) and the 1/1705-scale Semiscale facility. Both facilities are Westinghouse-type, four-loop, pressurized water reactor simulators. The depression phenomena and factors which influence the minimum core level are described and illustrated using examples from the data. Analyses of the subject experiments, conducted using the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 (Version 12.7) thermal-hydraulic code, are also described and summarized. Finally, the response of a typical Westinghouse four-loop plant (RESAR-3S) was calculated to qualitatively study coal liquid level depression in a full-scale system. 31 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Coming Out in Color: Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Relationship between Level of Sexual Identity Disclosure and Depression among Lesbians

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Frances; Matthews, Alicia K.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Muramatsu, Naoko; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Riley, Barth B.

    2014-01-01

    Disclosing one's sexual minority identity, or “coming out,” has varying effects on the mental health of lesbians. Previous research indicates a negative association between disclosure and depression. However, these findings are based on research with White lesbians. To date, there is a paucity of studies that examined how the relationship between disclosure and depression may differ by race/ethnicity among lesbians. To address this gap, we examined the relationship between disclosure and depression among African American (26.5%), Latina (19.7%), and White (53.8%) self-identified lesbians (N=351) in two survey-interviews (~3-years apart). Over 50% of the participants reported a history of lifetime depression at baseline and 35.9% reported depression at T2. Disclosure levels varied: 78.9% had disclosed to their mother, 58.4% to their father, and 83.3% to a sibling. The mean level for disclosure to nonfamily individuals was 6.29 (SD 2.64; range 0–9). Disclosure results varied by race/ethnicity showing African American lesbians (versus White lesbians) were less likely to disclose to nonfamily individuals when controlling for covariates. Results for the relationship between disclosure and depression showed disclosure to either parent or sibling was not associated with depression for the total sample. Among Latinas only, disclosure to nonfamily individuals was associated with less depression. Additional research is needed to explore racial/ethnic differences in disclosure with certain individuals and to better understand the relation between disclosure and depression. Findings have implications for reducing overall rates of depression among lesbians living with multiple-minority identities. PMID:25181323

  10. Coming out in color: racial/ethnic differences in the relationship between level of sexual identity disclosure and depression among lesbians.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Frances; Matthews, Alicia K; Hughes, Tonda L; Muramatsu, Naoko; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Johnson, Timothy P; Riley, Barth B

    2015-04-01

    Disclosing one's sexual minority identity, or "coming out," has varying effects on the mental health of lesbians. Previous research indicates a negative association between disclosure and depression. However, these findings are based on research with White lesbians. To date, there is a paucity of studies that examined how the relationship between disclosure and depression may differ by race/ethnicity among lesbians. To address this gap, we examined the relationship between disclosure and depression among African American (26.5%), Latina (19.7%), and White (53.8%) self-identified lesbians (N = 351) in 2 survey-interviews (∼ 3-years apart). Over 50% of the participants reported a history of lifetime depression at baseline and 35.9% reported depression at Time 2 (T2). Disclosure levels varied: 78.9% had disclosed to their mother, 58.4% to their father, and 83.3% to a sibling. The mean level for disclosure to nonfamily individuals was 6.29 (SD 2.64; range 0-9). Disclosure results varied by race/ethnicity showing African American lesbians (vs. White lesbians) were less likely to disclose to nonfamily individuals when controlling for covariates. Results for the relationship between disclosure and depression showed disclosure to either parent or sibling was not associated with depression for the total sample. Among Latinas only, disclosure to nonfamily individuals was associated with less depression. Additional research is needed to explore racial/ethnic differences in disclosure with certain individuals and to better understand the relation between disclosure and depression. Findings have implications for reducing overall rates of depression among lesbians living with multiple-minority identities. PMID:25181323

  11. The interplay among risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicide: the role of depression, poor health, and loved ones' messages of support and criticism.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephanie L; Vinokur, Amiram D

    2003-09-01

    When individuals who receive social support are in poor physical or mental health and are criticized or made to feel unwanted, they may perceive themselves as a burden. Poor physical health and depression were hypothesized to exacerbate the harmful effects on suicidal ideation of receiving critical negative messages and of receiving social support. These hypotheses were tested using secondary analyses of data from a sample of 533 unemployed married individuals who were assessed shortly after job loss, and 6 months later. The results of our analyses supported the hypotheses and demonstrated that for participants with poor health or high level of depressive symptoms an increase in critical messages and social support (from Time 1 to Time 2) predicted increased suicidal ideation. This relationship was not observed for non-depressed participants in good health. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for suicide prevention. PMID:14570442

  12. Correlates and Predictors of Depression in College Students: Results from the Spring 2000 National College Health Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leino, E. Victor; Kisch, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The present analyses used depression-related items and co-factors from the National College Health Assessment (NCHA), Spring 2000. The results indicate 10.3 % of college students (6.2% male and 12.6% female) reported ever having been diagnosed with depression. Of those ever diagnosed with depression, 39% were diagnosed in the last year, 27% were…

  13. Similarity of Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins in Level and Lability of Subclinically Depressed Mood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wierzbicki, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Ninety-two adult twin-pairs were recruited. Twin zygosity was determined by self-report inventory. Monozygotic twins resembled one another more than dizygotic twins in most measures of both level and lability of mood, which provides modest evidence for a genetic influence on subclinical levels of depression. (Author/ABB)

  14. Adverse health behaviours are associated with depression and anxiety in multiple sclerosis: A prospective multisite study

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Kyla A.; Tremlett, Helen; Fisk, John D.; Patten, Scott B.; Fiest, Kirsten; Berrigan, Lindsay; Marrie, Ruth Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression and anxiety are common among people with multiple sclerosis (MS), as are adverse health behaviours, but the associations between these factors are unclear. Objective: To evaluate the associations between cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and depression and anxiety in MS in a cross-Canada prospective study. Methods: From July 2010 to March 2011 we recruited consecutive MS patients from four MS clinics. At three visits over two years, clinical and demographic information was collected, and participants completed questionnaires regarding health behaviours and mental health. Results: Of 949 participants, 75.2% were women, with a mean age of 48.6 years; most had a relapsing−remitting course (72.4%). Alcohol dependence was associated with increased odds of anxiety (OR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.32–2.58) and depression (OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.05–2.23) adjusting for age, sex, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and smoking status. Smoking was associated with increased odds of anxiety (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.02–1.63) and depression (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.04–1.78) adjusting for age, sex, EDSS, and alcohol dependence. Alcohol dependence was associated with an increased incidence of depression but not anxiety. Depression was associated with an increased incidence of alcohol dependence. Conclusion: Alcohol dependence and smoking were associated with anxiety and depression. Awareness of the effects of adverse health behaviours on mental health in MS might help target counselling and support for those ‘at risk’. PMID:26245214

  15. Levels of mental health problems among UK emergency ambulance workers.

    PubMed

    Bennett, P; Williams, Y; Page, N; Hood, K; Woollard, M

    2004-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety in a sample of emergency ambulance personnel. Of 1029 personnel in one ambulance service mailed a questionnaire, 617 were returned. Among respondents, the overall rate of PTSD was 22%. Levels of PTSD did not differ according to grade, but men had a higher prevalence rate than women (23% compared with 15%). Nearly one in ten reported probable clinical levels of depression, 22% reported probable clinical levels of anxiety based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores. PMID:14988360

  16. Association between depression and work stress in nursing professionals with technical education level 1

    PubMed Central

    Gherardi-Donato, Edilaine Cristina da Silva; Cardoso, Lucilene; Teixeira, Carla Araújo Bastos; Pereira, Sandra de Souza; Reisdorfer, Emilene

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to analize the relationship between depression and work stress in nursing professionals with technical education level of a teaching hospital in a city of the state of São Paulo. Methods: a cross-sectional study was carried out with 310 nursing technicians and nursing assistants, randomly selected. The outcome analyzed was the report of depression and its relationship with high levels of work stress, measured using the Job Stress Scale. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed. Results: the prevalence of depression in this study was 20%, and it was more expressive in females, aged over 40 years, living without a partner and in smokers. The chance of depression was twice as high among professionals showing high levels of work stress, even after multiple regression adjusting. Conclusion: depressive symptoms were strongly associated with high stress levels among nursing assistants and nursing technicians, evidencing a problem to be considered along with the planning of specific intervention programs for this population, as well as the need for better cases management by the supervisors. PMID:26444177

  17. Potential of e-health in relation to depression: short survey of previous research.

    PubMed

    Stjernswärd, S; Ostman, M

    2006-12-01

    E-health is developing at a high rate and represents an opportunity for the development and spreading of information and communication channels to interested parties. The aim of this study was to get an overview and comprehension of the e-health field, with special focus on depression. A survey of initiatives and studies regarding e-health and depression was carried out. Relevant articles were found through searches on databases, search engines and reference lists. This paper shows that many different initiators with differing goals and motives are active within the e-health field. In the field of e-health and depression, the following areas show interesting results: studies mapping users' profile and habits, the quality of health-related information and the effectiveness of online therapies and supportive communities. Numerous initiators have launched different kinds of e-health initiatives. The potential of the Internet to be used constructively by health-care professionals and health-care consumers for health-enhancing purposes still needs to be mapped, evaluated and developed. PMID:17087672

  18. Changes in perceived health and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal analysis with older Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A; Kim, Giyeon; Cho, Soyeon

    2009-02-01

    The present study examined changes in the perceived health of older Korean Americans (n = 141) over a 2-year period: 2003 (T1) and 2005 (T2). A hierarchical regression model of changes in perceived health was estimated with the following array of predictors: (1) background variables (age, gender, marital status, education, and length of stay in the United States), (2) initial perceived health (T1), (3) physical and mental health conditions at T1 (chronic conditions, functional disability, and depressive symptoms), and (4) changes in physical and mental health conditions (T2 - T1). When the effects of background variables and baseline perceived health were controlled, baseline chronic conditions and changes in both chronic conditions and depressive symptoms were found to predict changes in perceived health. Older individuals who initially had more chronic conditions and those who had experienced an increasing number of chronic conditions and depressive symptoms over 2 years viewed their health more negatively at follow-up. Findings highlight the importance of interventions for disease management and mental health promotion to enhance subjective health among older Korean immigrants. PMID:18066715

  19. Health-Seeking Behaviors of Filipino Migrants in Australia: The Influence of Persisting Acculturative Stress and Depression.

    PubMed

    Maneze, Della; Salamonson, Yenna; Poudel, Chandra; DiGiacomo, Michelle; Everett, Bronwyn; Davidson, Patricia M

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the relationships among the constructs of acculturative stress, depression, English language use, health literacy, and social support and the influence of these factors on health-seeking behaviors of Filipino Australians. Using a self-administered questionnaire, 552 respondents were recruited from November 2010 to June 2011. Structural equation modelling was used to examine relationships. A direct and negative relationship between health-seeking behaviors and depression, and an indirect relationship with acculturative stress, was observed mediated through depression. Social support had an important moderating influence on these effects. Although there was an inverse relationship between age and English language usage and depression, age was positively related to health-seeking behavior. Despite their long duration of stay, Filipino Australian migrants continue to experience acculturative stress and depression leading to lower health-seeking behaviors. This study highlights the importance of screening for acculturative stress and depression in migrants and fostering social support. PMID:26050239

  20. Associations between early exposure to intimate partner violence, parental depression and subsequent mental health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Nerissa S.; Gilbert, Amy L.; Carroll, Aaron E.; Downs, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between parent reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) and depressive symptoms within the first 3 years of a child’s life with subsequent mental health conditions and psychotropic drug treatment. Design Prospective cohort study linking parental IPV and depression with subsequent billing and pharmacy data. Setting 4 pediatric clinics between November 2004 and June 2012 Patients/Participants 2,422 children Main Exposure Any report of IPV and/or parental depressive symptoms from birth to 3 years of age. Main Outcome Measures ICD-9 mental health diagnoses and any psychotropic drug treatment between 3 and 6 years of age. Results 2.4% of caregivers (n=58) reported both IPV and depressive symptoms before their children were 3 years of age, 3% (n=69) of caregivers reported IPV only, 29% (n=704) reported depressive symptoms only, and 65.7% (n=1,591) reported neither exposure. Children of parents reporting both IPV and depressive symptoms were more likely to have a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (AOR 4.0; 95% CI: 1.5–10.9), even after adjusting for child gender, race/ethnicity, and insurance type. Children whose parents reported depressive symptoms were more likely to have been prescribed psychotropic medication (AOR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0–3.4). Conclusions Exposure to both IPV and depression before 3 years is associated with preschool-onset ADHD; and early exposure to parental depression is associated with being prescribed psychotropic medication. PMID:23381234

  1. Pain severity in diabetic peripheral neuropathy is associated with patient functioning, symptom levels of anxiety and depression, and sleep.

    PubMed

    Gore, Mugdha; Brandenburg, Nancy A; Dukes, Ellen; Hoffman, Deborah L; Tai, Kei-Sing; Stacey, Brett

    2005-10-01

    Our goal was to evaluate pain severity, pain-related interference with function, sleep impairment, symptom levels of anxiety and depression, and quality of life among patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Participants in a burden of illness survey (n = 255) completed the modified Brief Pain Inventory-DPN (BPI-DPN), MOS Sleep Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Short Form Health Survey-12v2 (SF-12v2), and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D). Patients were 61 +/- 12.8 years old (51.4% female), had diabetes for 12 +/- 10.3 years and painful DPN for 6.4 +/- 6.4 years. Average and Worst Pain scores (BPI-DPN, 0-10 scales) were 5.0 +/- 2.5 and 5.6 +/- 2.8. Pain substantially interfered (>or=4 on 0-10 scales) with walking ability, normal work, sleep, enjoyment of life, mood, and general activity. Moderate to severe symptom levels of anxiety and depression (HADS-A and HADS-D scores >or=11 on 0-21 scales) occurred in 35% and 28% of patients, respectively. Patients reported greater sleep problems compared with the general U.S. population and significant impairment in both physical and mental functioning (SF-12v2) compared with subjects with diabetes. The mean EQ-5D utility score was 0.5 +/- 0.3. Greater pain levels in DPN (mild to moderate to severe) corresponded with higher symptom levels of anxiety and depression, more sleep problems, and lower utility ratings and physical and mental functioning, (all Ps < 0.01). Painful DPN is associated with decrements in many aspects of patients' lives: physical and emotional functioning, affective symptoms, and sleep problems. The negative impact is higher in patients with greater pain severity. PMID:16256902

  2. Does a Mobile Phone Depression-Screening App Motivate Mobile Phone Users With High Depressive Symptoms to Seek a Health Care Professional’s Help?

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Eman M; Aljadhey, Hisham; Basyouni, Mada H; Kowalski, Stefan R; Pont, Lisa G; Shaman, Ahmed M; Trevena, Lyndal; Alhawassi, Tariq M

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of disease screening is to encourage high-risk subjects to seek health care diagnosis and treatment. Mobile phone apps can effectively screen mental health conditions, including depression. However, it is not known how effective such screening methods are in motivating users to discuss the obtained results of such apps with health care professionals. Does a mobile phone depression-screening app motivate users with high depressive symptoms to seek health care professional advice? This study aimed to address this question. Method This was a single-cohort, prospective, observational study of a free mobile phone depression app developed in English and released on Apple’s App Store. Apple App Store users (aged 18 or above) in 5 countries, that is, Australia, Canada, New Zealand (NZ), the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States (US), were recruited directly via the app’s download page. The participants then completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and their depression screening score was displayed to them. If their score was 11 or above and they had never been diagnosed with depression before, they were advised to take their results to their health care professional. They were to follow up after 1 month. Results A group of 2538 participants from the 5 countries completed PHQ-9 depression screening with the app. Of them, 322 participants were found to have high depressive symptoms and had never been diagnosed with depression, and received advice to discuss their results with health care professionals. About 74% of those completed the follow-up; approximately 38% of these self-reported consulting their health care professionals about their depression score. Only positive attitude toward depression as a real disease was associated with increased follow-up response rate (odds ratio (OR) 3.2, CI 1.38-8.29). Conclusions A mobile phone depression-screening app motivated some users to seek a depression diagnosis. However, further study

  3. Living with Stigma: Depressed Elderly Persons' Experiences of Physical Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Anne Lise; Lyberg, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to deepen the understanding of depressed elderly persons' lived experiences of physical health problems. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 depressed elderly persons who suffer from physical health problems. A hermeneutic analysis was performed, yielding one main theme, living with stigma, and three themes: longing to be taken seriously, being uncertain about whether the pain is physical or mental, and a sense of living in a war zone. The second theme comprised two subthemes, feeling like a stranger and feeling dizzy, while the third had one subtheme: afraid of being helpless and dependent on others. Stigma deprives individuals of their dignity and reinforces destructive patterns of isolation and hopelessness. Nurses should provide information in a sensitive way and try to avoid diagnostic overshadowing. Effective training programmes and procedures need to be developed with more focus on how to handle depressive ill health and physical problems in older people. PMID:25013728

  4. Life-space mobility, perceived health, and depression symptoms in a sample of Mexican older adults.

    PubMed

    González, Bertha Cecilia Salazar; Delgado, Leticia Hernández; Quevedo, Juana Edith Cruz; Gallegos Cabriales, Esther C

    2013-01-01

    Mobility in older adults is essential to preserving their physical independence and health. Changes in mobility are related to cognitive, physical, and emotional factors, among others. We explored symptoms of depression as a mediator variable between chronic diseases and comorbidities and the outcomes of perceived health and life-space mobility in a convenience sample of 135 older Mexican adults. A cross-sectional design was used. Simple and multiple linear regression models were adjusted to verify the assumptions of mediation using Baron and Kenny's model. Chronic diseases and comorbidities served as independent variables in two separate models, perceived health and life-space mobility served as dependent variables, and depressive symptoms as the mediator variable. Results showed that perceived health and life-space mobility are affected by chronic diseases and comorbidities. However, when symptoms of depression enter the equation, the β coefficients decreased suggesting partial mediation. It is important to assess and treat depression symptoms in older adults rather than assuming that, at their age, depression is normal. PMID:24830480

  5. A Comparison of Levels of Quality of Life, Depression and Loneliness among Athletes with Different Levels of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unver, Saban; Atan, Tulin; Cavusoglu, Gul; Erim, Vedat; Yamak, Bade

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the levels of life quality, depression and loneliness among the students of the Faculty of Sports Sciences (FSS), national wrestlers and non national wrestlers in terms of some demographic variables. The participants of the study included 37 students from the Faculty of Sports Sciences of Ondokuz Mayis…

  6. Levels of serum immunomodulators and alterations with electroconvulsive therapy in treatment-resistant major depression

    PubMed Central

    Zincir, Serkan; Öztürk, Pelin; Bilgen, Ali Emrah; İzci, Filiz; Yükselir, Cihad

    2016-01-01

    Studies in recent years have indicated that neuroimmunological events and immune activation may have a place in the etiology of depression. It has been suggested from data that there is a causal relationship between activation of the immune system and excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and the etiology of depression. Although the mechanism of action of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is unclear, there is evidence that it can reduce cytokines and immune system changes. In our study, we aimed to determine how levels of serum immunomodulators were affected by ECT in major depression patients. This study was conducted on 50 patients with treatment-resistant major depression. The data of the patients were compared with 30 healthy individuals with similar demographic characteristics. A clinical response occurred in the patients and at the end of therapy, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-4, and interferon-gamma levels were measured. The disease severity was assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 15. Significant differences were determined between the patients with major depression and control group with respect to basal serum IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-4, and interferon-gamma levels. ECT treatment was shown to reduce these differences. ECT may cause significant changes in the activity of the immune system. The consideration of the relationship between the immune endocrine neurotransmitter systems could contribute to new theories regarding the mechanism of antidepressant treatment and biology of depression. PMID:27366071

  7. Levels of serum immunomodulators and alterations with electroconvulsive therapy in treatment-resistant major depression.

    PubMed

    Zincir, Serkan; Öztürk, Pelin; Bilgen, Ali Emrah; İzci, Filiz; Yükselir, Cihad

    2016-01-01

    Studies in recent years have indicated that neuroimmunological events and immune activation may have a place in the etiology of depression. It has been suggested from data that there is a causal relationship between activation of the immune system and excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and the etiology of depression. Although the mechanism of action of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is unclear, there is evidence that it can reduce cytokines and immune system changes. In our study, we aimed to determine how levels of serum immunomodulators were affected by ECT in major depression patients. This study was conducted on 50 patients with treatment-resistant major depression. The data of the patients were compared with 30 healthy individuals with similar demographic characteristics. A clinical response occurred in the patients and at the end of therapy, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-4, and interferon-gamma levels were measured. The disease severity was assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 15. Significant differences were determined between the patients with major depression and control group with respect to basal serum IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-4, and interferon-gamma levels. ECT treatment was shown to reduce these differences. ECT may cause significant changes in the activity of the immune system. The consideration of the relationship between the immune endocrine neurotransmitter systems could contribute to new theories regarding the mechanism of antidepressant treatment and biology of depression. PMID:27366071

  8. A Standardized Chinese Herbal Decoction, Kai-Xin-San, Restores Decreased Levels of Neurotransmitters and Neurotrophic Factors in the Brain of Chronic Stress-Induced Depressive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Ip, Siu-Po; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2012-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction being prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness in ancient China until today. However, the mechanism of its antidepression action is still unknown. Here, the chronic mild-stress-(CMS-) induced depressive rats were applied in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment. Daily intragastric administration of KXS for four weeks significantly alleviated the CMS-induced depressive symptoms displayed by enhanced sucrose consumption. In addition, the expressions of those molecular bio-markers relating to depression in rat brains were altered by the treatment of KXS. These KXS-regulated brain biomarkers included: (i) the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (ii) the transcript levels of proteins relating to neurotransmitter metabolism; (iii) the transcript levels of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The results suggested that the anti-depressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of neurotransmitters and expression of neurotrophic factors and its corresponding receptors in the brain. Thus, KXS could serve as alternative medicine, or health food supplement, for patients suffering from depression. PMID:22973399

  9. Daily Spiritual Experiences of Nurse Educators and Relationship to Depression and Health.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Paige Turner; Cheshire, Michelle; Wood, Felecia G; Dunn, Linda L; Ewell, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    This research describes the first reported assessment of spirituality in nurse educators. Faculty members at a public university in a southern U.S. state participated in a study to investigate the relationship between daily spiritual experiences (DSE), self-reported health, and depression. All participants viewed themselves as spiritual, had a religious affiliation, and recognized a difference between spirituality and religiosity. Many who reported spiritual experiences at least daily rated their health as good or excellent; those reporting less frequent DSE reported more depressive symptoms. Nurse educators' self-awareness of spirituality is important as they prepare future nursing professionals who will integrate spirituality into healthcare. PMID:27295236

  10. Are depression and poor sexual health neglected comorbidities? Evidence from a population sample

    PubMed Central

    Field, Nigel; Prah, Philip; Mercer, Catherine H; Rait, Greta; King, Michael; Cassell, Jackie A; Heath, Laura; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Clifton, Soazig; Datta, Jessica; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between sexual behaviour, sexual function and sexual health service use of individuals with depression in the British general population, to inform primary care and specialist services. Setting British general population. Participants 15 162 men and women aged 16–74 years were interviewed for the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), undertaken in 2010–2012. Using age-adjusted ORs (aAOR), relative to a comparator group reporting no treatment or symptoms, we compared the sexual health of those reporting treatment for depression in the past year. Outcome measures Sexual risk behaviour, sexual function, sexual satisfaction and sexual health service use. Results 1331 participants reported treatment for depression (5.2% men; 11.8% women). Relative to the comparator group, treatment for depression was associated with reporting 2 or more sexual partners without condoms (men aAOR 2.07 (95% CI 1.38 to 3.10); women 2.22 (1.68 to 2.92)), and concurrent partnerships (men 1.80 (1.18 to 2.76); women 2.06 (1.48 to 2.88)), in the past year. Those reporting depression treatment were more likely to be dissatisfied with their sex lives (men 2.32 (1.74 to 3.11); women 2.30 (1.89 to 2.79)), and to score in the lowest quintile on the Natsal-sexual function measure. They were also more likely to report a recent chlamydia test (men 1.92 (1.15 to 3.20)); women (1.27 (1.01 to 1.60)), and to have sought help regarding their sex life from a healthcare professional (men 2.92 (1.98 to 4.30); women (2.36 (1.83 to 3.04)), most commonly from a family doctor. Women only were more likely to report attending a sexual health clinic (1.91 (1.42 to 2.58)) and use of emergency contraception (1.98 (1.23 to 3.19)). Associations were broadly similar for individuals with depressive symptoms but not reporting treatment. Conclusions Depression, measured by reported treatment, was strongly associated with sexual risk behaviours, reduced

  11. Macronutrient intake and depressive symptoms among Japanese male workers: the Furukawa Nutrition and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Nanri, Akiko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Kochi, Takeshi; Kurotani, Kayo; Ito, Rie; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Akter, Shamima; Jacka, Felice; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kabe, Isamu

    2014-12-15

    This study was aimed to examine the cross-sectional association of protein, carbohydrate, and fat intake with depressive symptoms among 1794 Japanese male workers aged 18-69 years who participated in a health survey. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Odds ratio of depressive symptoms (CES-D scale of ≥16) was estimated by using multiple logistic regression with adjustment for covariates including folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, polyunsaturated fatty acid, magnesium, and iron intake. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of depressive symptoms for the highest quartile of protein intake was 26%, albeit not statistically significant, lower compared with the lowest. The inverse association was more evident when a cutoff value of CES-D score ≥19 was used. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest through lowest quartile of protein intake were 1.00 (reference), 0.69 (0.47-1.01), 0.69 (0.44-1.09), and 0.58 (0.31-1.06) (P for trend=0.096). Neither carbohydrate nor fat intake was associated with depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that low protein intake may be associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in Japanese male workers. PMID:25200761

  12. Utilizing a Personal Smartphone Custom App to Assess the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Depressive Symptoms in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Patrick; Shanahan, Meghan; Lin, Charlie; Peck, Pamela; Keshavan, Matcheri; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate reporting of patient symptoms is critical for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring in psychiatry. Smartphones offer an accessible, low-cost means to collect patient symptoms in real time and aid in care. Objective To investigate adherence among psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with major depressive disorder in utilizing their personal smartphones to run a custom app to monitor Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression symptoms, as well as to examine the correlation of these scores to traditionally administered (paper-and-pencil) PHQ-9 scores. Methods A total of 13 patients with major depressive disorder, referred by their clinicians, received standard outpatient treatment and, in addition, utilized their personal smartphones to run the study app to monitor their symptoms. Subjects downloaded and used the Mindful Moods app on their personal smartphone to complete up to three survey sessions per day, during which a randomized subset of PHQ-9 symptoms of major depressive disorder were assessed on a Likert scale. The study lasted 29 or 30 days without additional follow-up. Outcome measures included adherence, measured by the percentage of completed survey sessions, and estimates of daily PHQ-9 scores collected from the smartphone app, as well as from the traditionally administered PHQ-9. Results Overall adherence was 77.78% (903/1161) and varied with time of day. PHQ-9 estimates collected from the app strongly correlated (r=.84) with traditionally administered PHQ-9 scores, but app-collected scores were 3.02 (SD 2.25) points higher on average. More subjects reported suicidal ideation using the app than they did on the traditionally administered PHQ-9. Conclusions Patients with major depressive disorder are able to utilize an app on their personal smartphones to self-assess their symptoms of major depressive disorder with high levels of adherence. These app-collected results correlate with the traditionally administered PHQ-9. Scores

  13. Association between pain severity, depression severity, and use of health care services in Japan: results of a nationwide survey

    PubMed Central

    Vietri, Jeffrey; Otsubo, Tempei; Montgomery, William; Tsuji, Toshinaga; Harada, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is often associated with painful physical symptoms. Previous research has seldom assessed the relationship between the severity of physical symptoms and the severity of mental and emotional symptoms of depression or other health outcomes, and no such studies have been conducted previously among individuals with depression in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the severity of physical pain and depression and other outcomes among individuals in Japan diagnosed with depression. Methods Data for individuals aged 18 and older in Japan who reported being diagnosed with depression and also reported physical pain were obtained from the Japan National Health and Wellness Survey. These respondents were characterized on sociodemographics and health characteristics, and the relationship between ratings of severity on pain in the last week and health outcomes were assessed using bivariate correlations and generalized linear models. Measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression severity, Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form Survey Instrument for health-related quality of life, the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment for work and activity impairment, and 6-month report of health care use. Results More severe physical pain in the past week was correlated with more severe depression, worse health-related quality of life, lower health utility, greater impairment at work, and more health care provider visits. These relationships remained significant after incorporating sociodemographics and health characteristics in the statistical models. Conclusion Individuals whose depression is accompanied by more severe physical pain have a higher burden of illness than those whose depression includes less severe pain, suggesting that even partially ameliorating painful physical symptoms may significantly benefit patients with depression. Clinicians should take the presence and severity of physical pain into

  14. Expectations Among Patients and Health Professionals Regarding Web-Based Interventions for Depression in Primary Care: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Marín, Jesús; Prado-Abril, Javier; Botella, Cristina; Mayoral-Cleries, Fermin; Baños, Rosa; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Gili, Margalida; Castro, Adoración; Nogueira, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Background One-quarter of the world’s population will suffer from depression symptoms at some point in their lives. Mental health services in developed countries are overburdened. Therefore, cost-effective interventions that provide mental health care solutions such as Web-based psychotherapy programs have been proposed. Objective The intent of the study was to identify expectations regarding Web-based psychotherapy for the treatment of depression in primary care among patients and health professionals that might facilitate or hinder its effects. Methods The expectations of untreated patients and health professionals were examined by means of interviews and focus groups. There were 43 participants (20 patients with mild and moderate levels of depression, 11 primary care physicians, and 12 managers; 22 of them for interviews and 21 for groups). A thematic content analysis from the grounded theory for interviews, and an analysis of the discursive positions of participants based on the sociological model for groups were performed. Interpretations were achieved by agreement between three independent analysts. Results All participants showed a good general acceptance of Web-based psychotherapy, appreciating possible advantages and improvements. Patients, physicians, and managers shared the same conceptualization of their expectations, although highlighting different aspects. Patients focused on the need for individualized and personalized interaction, while professionals highlighted the need for the standardization of the program. Physicians were concerned with extra workload, while managers were worried about optimizing cost-effectiveness. Conclusions Expectations of the different participants can conflict with each other. Finding a balanced position among them is needed if we are to harmoniously implement effective Web-based interventions for depression in routine clinical practice. PMID:25757358

  15. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... The exact causes of postpartum depression are unknown. Changes in hormone levels during and after pregnancy may affect a woman’s mood. Many non-hormonal factors may also ...

  16. Impact of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Depression on Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mi Ah; Kang, Hyung Chang; Park, Kyung Suk; Kim, Kwang Sung; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kang, Jina; Park, Eun Ok; Hyun, Mi Yeul; Kim, Chul Soo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We aimed primarily to investigate the level of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and depression in older adults and secondly to identify the impact of LUTS and depression on HRQoL. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to November 2010. Participants were recruited from five community senior centers serving community dwelling older adults in Jeju city. Data analysis was based on 171 respondents. A structured questionnaire was used to guide interviews; the data were collected including demographic characteristics, body mass index, adherence to regular exercise, comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoarthritis), depression, urinary incontinence, LUTS (measured via the International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS]), and HRQoL as assessed by use of the EQ-5D Index. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to test predictors of HRQoL. Results Eighteen percent (18.6%) of the respondents reported depressive symptoms. The mean LUTS score was 8.9 (IPSS range, 0 to 35). The severity of LUTS, was reported to be mild (score, 0 to 7) by 53% of the respondents, moderate (score, 8 to 19) by 34.5%, and severe (score, 20 to 35) by 12.5%. HRQoL was significantly predicted by depression (Partial R2=0.193, P<0.01) and LUTS (Partial R2=0.048, P=0.0047), and 24% of the variance in HRQoL was explained. Conclusions LUTS and depression were the principal predictors of HRQoL in older adults. PMID:23094219

  17. Socio-demographic and Health Behavioral Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Korean Americans

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sunhee; Park, So-Young; Bernstein, Kunsook S; Roh, Soonhee; Jeon, Gyeong-Suk

    2015-01-01

    This study identified socio-demographic characteristics and their help seeking behaviors of depressive symptoms among adult Korean Americans (KAs). Using survey data from 230 residents of the New York City, Teaneck New Jersey, and Philadelphia areas, simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between depressive symptoms and the covariates. Women were at much lower risk of depressive symptoms than were men, even after adjusting other covariates (OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.21–0.96). Having no health insurance(OR=4.02, 95% CI=1.28–12.61) and having experience in seeking professional help for mental health problem during last year were significantly associated with depressive symptoms (OR=2.96, 95% CI=1.29–6.80). Impact of gender, lack of health insurance coverage, and previous help-seeking behavior may be possible explanations for the KA’s higher prevalence of depression. PMID:25536937

  18. Depression and Service Use Among Caregivers Dually Involved in the Child Welfare and Mental Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Acri, Mary; Gopalan, Geetha; Lalayants, Marina; McKay, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression, use of mental health services, and correlates of service use among caregivers who are dually involved in the child welfare and child mental health systems. Methods This study analyzed baseline data from 129 caregivers who reported child welfare system involvement and were participating in a Multiple Family Group service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders. Results Seventy-eight (60.5%) of caregivers met or exceed the clinical-cut off for depression; of them 50 (64.1%) reported utilizing mental health services for their emotional health. Race, employment status, and CES-D score were significantly associated with lifetime mental heath services use. Discussion Depression rates exceeded those found among caregiver involved in either the child welfare or child mental health systems. Rates of service use were higher than found in existing research. As expected, racial differences and depression were associated with service use; contrary to expectations, full time employment was not associated with service use. Discrepancies between this study and existing research are discussed, as are practice, policy, and research implications. PMID:26366130

  19. Depression and Pesticide Exposures among Private Pesticide Applicators Enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beseler, Cheryl L.; Stallones, Lorann; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Keefe, Thomas; Kamel, Freya

    2008-01-01

    Background We evaluated the relationship between diagnosed depression and pesticide exposure using information from private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods There were 534 cases who self-reported a physician-diagnosed depression and 17,051 controls who reported never having been diagnosed with depression and did not feel depressed more than once a week in the past year. Lifetime pesticide exposure was categorized in three mutually exclusive groups: low (< 226 days, the reference group), intermediate (226–752 days), and high (> 752 days). Two additional measures represented acute high-intensity pesticide exposures: an unusually high pesticide exposure event (HPEE) and physician-diagnosed pesticide poisoning. Logistic regression analyses were performed relating pesticide exposure to depression. Results After adjusting for state, age, education, marital status, doctor visits, alcohol use, smoking, solvent exposure, not currently having crops or animals, and ever working a job off the farm, pesticide poisoning was more strongly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR) = 2.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.74–3.79] than intermediate (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.87–1.31) or high (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.87–1.42) cumulative exposure or an HPEE (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.33–2.05). In analysis of a subgroup without a history of acute poisoning, high cumulative exposure was significantly associated with depression (OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.16–2.04). Conclusion These findings suggest that both acute high-intensity and cumulative pesticide exposure may contribute to depression in pesticide applicators. Our study is unique in reporting that depression is also associated with chronic pesticide exposure in the absence of a physician-diagnosed poisoning. PMID:19079725

  20. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among Haitian immigrant students: implications for access to mental health services and educational programming

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies of Haitian immigrant and refugee youth have emphasized "externalizing" behaviors, such as substance use, high risk sexual behavior, and delinquency, with very little information available on "internalizing" symptoms, such as depression and anxiety. Analyzing stressors and "internalizing" symptoms offers a more balanced picture of the type of social and mental health services that may be needed for this population. The present study aims to: 1) estimate the prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Haitian immigrant students; and 2) examine factors associated with depression and PTSD to identify potential areas of intervention that may enhance psychosocial health outcomes among immigrant youth from Haiti in the U.S. Methods A stratified random sample of Haitian immigrant students enrolled in Boston public high schools was selected for participation; 84% agreed to be interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. Diagnosis of depression and PTSD was ascertained using the best estimate diagnosis method. Results The prevalence estimates of depression and PTSD were 14.0% and 11.6%; 7.9% suffered from comorbid PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated factors most strongly associated with depression (history of father's death, self-report of schoolwork not going well, not spending time with friends) and PTSD (concern for physical safety, having many arguments with parents, history of physical abuse, and lack of safety of neighborhood). Conclusions A significant level of depression and PTSD was observed. Stressors subsequent to immigration, such as living in an unsafe neighborhood and concern for physical safety, were associated with an increased risk of PTSD and should be considered when developing programs to assist this population. Reducing exposure to these stressors and enhancing access to social support and appropriate school-based and mental health services may improve educational

  1. Health-related quality of life, treatment adherence, symptom experience and depression in adolescent renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Dobbels, Fabienne; Decorte, Anneloes; Roskams, Ann; Van Damme-Lombaerts, Rita

    2010-03-01

    Few studies comprehensively assessed psychological and behavioral functioning in adolescent kidney transplant patients. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate depression, QOL, treatment adherence and presence of side effects from the perspective of the patient and his parents, and to compare scores with norm data. All patients (age 10-18 yr) and their parents completed the following instruments: KIDSCREEN-27 (QOL), a treatment adherence interview, the MTSOSD-59R (side effects) and the Beck Depression Inventory (depression). Twenty-three of 26 patients and 22 parents agreed to participate (70% male; median age 15 yr). Adolescents rated their QOL as satisfactory, but parents reported significant problems on several QOL dimensions. Depressive symptoms occurred in 17.4%, and 75% were non-adherent with their immunosuppressive drugs (confirmed by their parents) and show other problematic health behavior, including smoking, illicit drug use, dietary non-adherence, and suboptimal exercise levels. The most frequently occurring side effects were increased appetite, fatigue and headache; the most distressing ones were hair loss or thinning of hair, warts on hands or feet, and sores in the mouth or on the lips. Our results underscore the need for regular screening and adequate treatment of the above-mentioned aspects. PMID:19497017

  2. Grief, Depressive Symptoms, and Physical Health among Recently Bereaved Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utz, Rebecca L.; Caserta, Michael; Lund, Dale

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Widowhood is among the most distressing of all life events, resulting in both mental and physical health declines. This paper explores the dynamic relationship between physical health and psychological well-being among recently bereaved spouses. Design and Methods: Using a sample of 328 bereaved persons who participated in the "Living…

  3. The Effect of Group Logotherapy on Meaning in Life and Depression Levels of Iranian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robatmili, Somaye; Sohrabi, Faramarz; Shahrak, Mohammad Ali; Talepasand, Siavash; Nokani, Mostafa; Hasani, Mohaddese

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the effectiveness of group logotherapy in reducing depression and increasing meaning in life levels of university students in Iran. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a pre- post- and follow-up test design. The instruments used were the "Purpose in Life" (PIL) test and the "Beck Depression…

  4. Review of the Relationship between the College Students' Attitudes towards Love and Depression Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Ahmet; Dashdamirov, Elshad; Ummet, Durmus

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to review the relation between college students' love attitudes and depression levels. Subjects selected were 125 male and 275 female bachelor's and master's degree students; a total of 400 students from various universities in Istanbul in academic year 2013-2014. Data for this study were collected employing both the Love Attitudes…

  5. Anxiety and Depression in Children with HFASDs: Symptom Levels and Source Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Christopher; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Fox, Jeffery D.; Volker, Martin A.; Chow, Sabrina Y.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Lee, Gloria K.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; McDonald, Christin A.; Smerbeck, Audrey M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine symptom levels of anxiety and depression in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) compared with matched control children using child self-reports and parent ratings; and (2) examine source differences within the two condition groups. An overall multivariate effect indicated…

  6. Mental health resilience in the adolescent offspring of parents with depression: a prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Collishaw, Stephan; Hammerton, Gemma; Mahedy, Liam; Sellers, Ruth; Owen, Michael J; Craddock, Nicholas; Thapar, Ajay K; Harold, Gordon T; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Young people whose parents have depression have a greatly increased risk of developing a psychiatric disorder, but poor outcomes are not inevitable. Identification of the contributors to mental health resilience in young people at high familial risk is an internationally recognised priority. Our objectives were to identify protective factors that predict sustained good mental health in adolescents with a parent with depression and to test whether these contribute beyond what is explained by parent illness severity. Methods The Early Prediction of Adolescent Depression study (EPAD) is a prospective longitudinal study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression. Parents with recurrent major depressive disorder, co-parents, and offspring (aged 9–17 years at baseline) were assessed three times over 4 years in a community setting. Offspring outcomes were operationalised as absence of mental health disorder, subthreshold symptoms, or suicidality on all three study occasions (sustained good mental health); and better than expected mental health (mood and behavioural symptoms at follow-up lower than predicted given severity of parental depression). Family, social, cognitive, and health behaviour predictor variables were assessed using interview and questionnaire measures. Findings Between February and June, 2007, we screened 337 families at baseline, of which 331 were eligible. Of these, 262 completed the three assessments and were included in the data for sustained mental health. Adolescent mental health problems were common, but 53 (20%) of the 262 adolescents showed sustained good mental health. Index parent positive expressed emotion (odds ratio 1·91 [95% CI 1·31–2·79]; p=0·001), co-parent support (1·90 [1·38–2·62]; p<0·0001), good-quality social relationships (2·07 [1·35–3·18]; p=0·001), self-efficacy (1·49 [1·05–2·11]; p=0·03), and frequent exercise (2·96 [1·26–6·92]; p=0·01) were associated with sustained good

  7. Acculturation Level, Perceived English Fluency, Perceived Social Support Level, and Depression among Taiwanese International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dao, Tam K.; Lee, Donghyuck; Chang, Huang L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between acculturation, perceived English fluency, social support, and depression among 112 graduate Taiwanese international students. Ordinary Least Squares analyses were conducted on 112 graduate Taiwanese international students from a university in southeastern United States. Results indicated that those…

  8. A comparison of four different approaches to measuring health utility in depressed patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A variety of instruments are used to measure health related quality of life. Few data exist on the performance and agreement of different instruments in a depressed population. The aim of this study was to investigate agreement between, and suitability of, the EQ-5D-3L, EQ-5D Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-5D VAS), SF-6D and SF-12 new algorithm for measuring health utility in depressed patients. Methods The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland and Altman approaches were used to assess agreement. Instrument sensitivity was analysed by: (1) plotting utility scores for the instruments against one another; (2) correlating utility scores and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)); and (3) using Tukey’s procedure. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis assessed instrument responsiveness to change. Acceptability was assessed by comparing instrument completion rates. Results The overall ICC was 0.57. Bland and Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement for each pair wise comparison, except between the SF-6D and SF-12 new algorithm. Plots of utility scores displayed ’ceiling effects’ in the EQ-5D-3L index and ’floor effects’ in the SF-6D and SF-12 new algorithm. All instruments showed a negative monotonic relationship with BDI, but the EQ-5D-3L index and EQ-5D VAS could not differentiate between depression severity sub-groups. The SF-based instruments were better able to detect changes in health state over time. There was no difference in completion rates of the four instruments. Conclusions There was a lack of agreement between utility scores generated by the different instruments. According to the criteria of sensitivity, responsiveness and acceptability that we applied, the SF-6D and SF-12 may be more suitable for the measurement of health related utility in a depressed population than the EQ-5D-3L, which is the instrument currently recommended by NICE. PMID:23659557

  9. Depression in Working Adults: Comparing the Costs and Health Outcomes of Working When Ill

    PubMed Central

    Cocker, Fiona; Nicholson, Jan M.; Graves, Nicholas; Oldenburg, Brian; Palmer, Andrew J.; Martin, Angela; Scott, Jenn; Venn, Alison; Sanderson, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    Objective Working through a depressive illness can improve mental health but also carries risks and costs from reduced concentration, fatigue, and poor on-the-job performance. However, evidence-based recommendations for managing work attendance decisions, which benefit individuals and employers, are lacking. Therefore, this study has compared the costs and health outcomes of short-term absenteeism versus working while ill (“presenteeism”) amongst employed Australians reporting lifetime major depression. Methods Cohort simulation using state-transition Markov models simulated movement of a hypothetical cohort of workers, reporting lifetime major depression, between health states over one- and five-years according to probabilities derived from a quality epidemiological data source and existing clinical literature. Model outcomes were health service and employment-related costs, and quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs), captured for absenteeism relative to presenteeism, and stratified by occupation (blue versus white-collar). Results Per employee with depression, absenteeism produced higher mean costs than presenteeism over one- and five-years ($42,573/5-years for absenteeism, $37,791/5-years for presenteeism). However, overlapping confidence intervals rendered differences non-significant. Employment-related costs (lost productive time, job turnover), and antidepressant medication and service use costs of absenteeism and presenteeism were significantly higher for white-collar workers. Health outcomes differed for absenteeism versus presenteeism amongst white-collar workers only. Conclusions Costs and health outcomes for absenteeism and presenteeism were not significantly different; service use costs excepted. Significant variation by occupation type was identified. These findings provide the first occupation-specific cost evidence which can be used by clinicians, employees, and employers to review their management of depression-related work attendance, and may

  10. Inflammatory insults and mental health consequences: does timing matter when it comes to depression?

    PubMed

    Du Preez, A; Leveson, J; Zunszain, P A; Pariante, C M

    2016-07-01

    It has become widely accepted that the immune system, and specifically increased levels of inflammation, play a role in the development of depression. However, not everyone with increased inflammation develops depression, and as with all other diseases, there are risk factors that may contribute to an increased vulnerability in certain individuals. One such risk factor could be the timing of an inflammatory exposure. Here, using a combination of PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid Medline and PsycINFO, we systematically reviewed whether exposure to medically related inflammation in utero, in childhood, and in adolescence, increases the risk for depression in adulthood. Moreover, we tried to determine whether there was sufficient evidence to identify a particular time point during the developmental trajectory in which an immune insult could be more damaging. While animal research shows that early life exposure to inflammation increases susceptibility to anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour, human studies surprisingly find little evidence to support the notion that medically related inflammation in utero and in adolescence contributes to an increased risk of developing depression in later life. However, we did find an association between childhood inflammation and later life depression, with most studies reporting a significantly increased risk of depression in adults who were exposed to inflammation as children. More robust clinical research, measuring direct markers of inflammation throughout the life course, is greatly needed to expand on, and definitively address, the important research questions raised in this review. PMID:27181594

  11. Replaceable neurons and neurodegenerative disease share depressed UCHL1 levels

    PubMed Central

    Lombardino, Anthony J.; Li, Xiao-Ching; Hertel, Moritz; Nottebohm, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    Might there be systematic differences in gene expression between neurons that undergo spontaneous replacement in the adult brain and those that do not? We first explored this possibility in the high vocal center (HVC) of male zebra finches by using a combination of neuronal tracers, laser capture microdissection, and RNA profiling. HVC has two kinds of projection neurons, one of which continues to be produced and replaced in adulthood. HVC neurons of the replaceable kind showed a consistent and robust underexpression of the deubiquitination gene ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase (UCHL1) that is involved with protein degradation. Singing behavior, known to increase the survival of adult-born HVC neurons in birds, significantly up-regulated the levels of UCHL1 in the replaceable neurons but not in their equally active nonreplaceable counterparts. We then looked in the mouse brain and found relatively low UCHL1 expression in granule neurons of the hippocampus and olfactory bulb, two well characterized types of replaceable neurons in mammals. UCHL1 dysfunction has been associated with neurodegeneration in Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's disease patients. In all these instances, reduced UCHL1 function may jeopardize the survival of CNS neurons. PMID:15911766

  12. Alliance in Two Telephone-Administered Treatments: Relationship with Depression and Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckner, Victoria; Vella, Lea; Howard, Isa; Mohr, David C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between therapeutic alliance and both depression and health outcomes in a randomized clinical trial of 2 telephone-administered treatments with 97 clients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The 16-week, manualized treatments compared were telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (T-CBT) and…

  13. Plasma CRP Levels in Premenopausal Women with Major Depression: A 12-Month Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Cizza, G.; Eskandari, F.; Coyle, M.; Krishnamurthy, P.; Wright, E. C.; Mistry, S.; Csako, G.

    2009-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker of cardiovascular risk, is often elevated in major depressive disorder (MDD). The magnitude and consistency of this elevation have not been previously characterized in premenopausal women with MDD. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess plasma CRP levels, body composition, endocrine and metabolic parameters, and depressive status in premenopausal women with MDD (n = 77) and controls (n = 41), aged 21 to 45. Women were enrolled in a 12-month, controlled study of bone turnover, the P.O.W.E.R. (Premenopausal, Osteoporosis, Women, Alendronate, Depression) Study. Blood samples were taken at Baseline, Month 6, and Month 12. Most subjects with MDD were in clinical remission. These women tended to have consistently higher CRP levels than controls over 12 months (p = 0.077). BMI was positively related to log[CRP] in women with MDD only. Nine women with MDD had CRP levels greater than 10 mg/l, a value associated with a very high cardiovascular risk. This subset was obese and had significantly higher triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR than the rest of women with MDD. The variations in CRP levels over time were high (intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variations of ∼30–50% and ∼70–140%, respectively). No control had CRP levels greater than 10 mg/l. Depression was associated with increased plasma CRP in women with MDD. The clinical significance of abnormal plasma CRP for cardiovascular risk needs to be assessed in large prospective studies of women with depression. PMID:19408214

  14. Mental Health and Migration: Depression, Alcohol Abuse, and Access to Health Care among Migrants in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-01-01

    Background One fifth of Kazakhstan’s population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Methods Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N=450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Results Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. Conclusions This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359

  15. The Real World Mental Health Needs of Heart Failure Patients Are Not Reflected by the Depression Randomized Controlled Trial Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Phillip J.; Wittert, Gary; Selkow, Terina; Baumeister, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Introduction International depression screening guidelines in heart failure (HF) are partly based on depression treatment efficacy from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Our aim was to test the external validity of depression RCT criteria in a sample of real-world HF patients. Methods HF patients admitted to 3 hospitals in South Australia were referred to a HF psychologist if not already receiving current psychiatric management by psychologist or psychiatrist elsewhere. Screening and referral protocol consisted of the following; (a). Patient Health Questionnaire ≥10; (b). Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire ≥7); (c). positive response to 1 item panic attack screener; (d). evidence of suicidality. Patients were evaluated against the most common RCT exclusion criteria personality disorder, high suicide risk, cognitive impairment, psychosis, alcohol or substance abuse or dependency, bi-polar depression. Results Total 81 HF patients were referred from 404 HF admissions, and 73 were assessed (age 60.6±13.4, 47.9% female). Nearly half (47%) met at least 1 RCT exclusion criterion, most commonly personality disorder (28.5%), alcohol/substance abuse (17.8%) and high suicide risk (11.0%). RCT ineligibility criteria was more frequent among patients with major depression (76.5% vs. 46.2%, p<.01) and dysthymia (26.5% vs. 7.7%, p = .03) but not significantly associated with anxiety disorders. RCT ineligible patients reported greater severity of depression (M = 16.6±5.0 vs. M = 12.9±7.2, p = .02) and were higher consumers of HF psychotherapy services (M = 11.5±4.7 vs. M = 8.5±4.8, p = .01). Conclusion In this real-world sample comparable in size to recent RCT intervention arms, patients with depression disorders presented with complex psychiatric needs including comorbid personality disorders, alcohol/substance use and suicide risk. These findings suggest external validity of depression screening and RCTs could serve as a basis for

  16. A systematic review of the association between depression and health care utilization in children and adults with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Jonassaint, Charles R; Jones, Victor L; Leong, Sharlene; Frierson, Georita M

    2016-07-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) experience a disproportionately high use of health care resources. Several studies have examined depression and other negative mood states as risk factors for increased health care utilization; however, there have been no systematic reviews examining and summarizing this evidence in SCD. The aim of this systematic review, therefore, was to determine whether depression or depressive symptoms are associated with health care utilization among children and adults with SCD. We followed a quantitative systematic review protocol based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta- Analyses guidelines and performed a literature search of records from January 1980 to April 2014 using six databases. Empirical studies were eligible if the sample was primarily composed of patients with SCD and included data on depression, mood disorder diagnosis or depressive symptoms and health care utilization. We included 12 studies involving 54 036 unique participants. The prevalence estimates for depression ranged from 2-57%. Seven studies found a significant, or marginally significant, association between depression and utilization while five did not. Patients reporting depression had an estimated 2·8 times greater relative risk of being a high utilizer, and 2·9 versus 1·8 hospitalizations per year on average compared to patients without depression. Overall, depressive symptoms are common in SCD and may increase risk for poor outcomes including health care utilization. The available studies on depression in SCD, however, are limited by small sample sizes, retrospective designs or short follow-up. This systematic review found a modest association between depression and health care utilization in SCD. PMID:26991317

  17. Risks of Treated Insomnia, Anxiety, and Depression in Health Care-Seeking Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Wu, Ming-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Abstract High occupational stress and burnout among physicians can lead to sleep problems, anxiety, depression, and even suicide. Even so, the actual risk for these behavioral health problems in health care-seeking physicians has been seldom explored. The aim of this study was to determine whether physicians have higher odds of treated insomnia, anxiety, and depression than the normal population. This is a nationwide population-based case–control study using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan for the years 2007 to 2011. Physicians were obtained from the Registry for Medical Personnel in 2009. Hospital physicians who had at least 3 coded ambulatory care claims or 1 inpatient claim with a principal diagnosis of insomnia, anxiety, or depression were identified. A total of 15,150 physicians and 45,450 matched controls were enrolled. Odd ratios (ORs) of insomnia, anxiety, and depression between physicians and their control counterparts were measured. The adjusted ORs for treated insomnia, anxiety, and depression among all studied physicians were 2.028 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.892–2.175), 1.103 (95% CI, 1.020–1.193), and 0.716 (95% CI, 0.630–0.813), respectively. All specialties of physicians had significantly higher ORs for treated insomnia; among the highest was the emergency specialty. The adjusted ORs for treated anxiety among male and female physicians were 1.136 (95% CI, 1.039–1.242) and 0.827 (95% CI, 0.686–0.997), respectively. Among specialties, psychiatry and “others” had significantly higher risks of anxiety. Obstetrics and gynecology and surgery specialties had significantly lower risks of anxiety. The adjusted ORs for treated depression among physicians in age groups 35 to 50 years and >50 years were 0.560 (95% CI, 0.459–0.683) and 0.770 (95% CI, 0.619–0.959), respectively. Those in the psychiatry specialty had significantly higher risks of depression; internal and surgery specialties had significant lower

  18. Depression in patients with chronic pain attending a specialised pain treatment centre: prevalence and impact on health care costs.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Lauren; Hotopf, Matthew; Petkova, Hristina; Matcham, Faith; Simpson, Anna; McCracken, Lance M

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and impact of depression on health care costs in patients with complex chronic pain. The sample included 1204 patients attending a tertiary pain management service for people with chronic disabling pain, unresponsive to medical treatment. As part of routine care, patients completed a web-based questionnaire assessing mental and physical health, functioning, and service use in the preceding 3 months. Depression was assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Self-report health care utilisation was measured across 4 domains: general practitioner contacts, contacts with secondary/tertiary care doctors, accident and emergency department visits, and days hospitalised. The participation rate was 89%. Seven hundred and thirty-two patients (60.8%; 95% CI 58.0-63.6) met criteria for probable depression, and 407 (33.8%) met the threshold for severe depression. Patients with depression were more likely to be unable to work because of ill health and reported greater work absence, greater pain-related interference with functioning, lower pain acceptance, and more generalised pain. Mean total health care costs per 3-month period were £731 (95% CI £646-£817) for patients with depression, compared with £448 (95% CI £366-£530) for patients without depression. A positive association between severe depression and total health care costs persisted after controlling for key demographic, functional, and clinical covariates using multiple linear regression models. These findings reveal the extent, severity, and impact of depression in patients with chronic pain and make evident a need for action. Effective treatment of depression may improve patient health and functioning and reduce the burden of chronic pain on health care services. PMID:26963849

  19. Depression in patients with chronic pain attending a specialised pain treatment centre: prevalence and impact on health care costs

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, Lauren; Hotopf, Matthew; Petkova, Hristina; Matcham, Faith; Simpson, Anna; McCracken, Lance M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and impact of depression on health care costs in patients with complex chronic pain. The sample included 1204 patients attending a tertiary pain management service for people with chronic disabling pain, unresponsive to medical treatment. As part of routine care, patients completed a web-based questionnaire assessing mental and physical health, functioning, and service use in the preceding 3 months. Depression was assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Self-report health care utilisation was measured across 4 domains: general practitioner contacts, contacts with secondary/tertiary care doctors, accident and emergency department visits, and days hospitalised. The participation rate was 89%. Seven hundred and thirty-two patients (60.8%; 95% CI 58.0-63.6) met criteria for probable depression, and 407 (33.8%) met the threshold for severe depression. Patients with depression were more likely to be unable to work because of ill health and reported greater work absence, greater pain-related interference with functioning, lower pain acceptance, and more generalised pain. Mean total health care costs per 3-month period were £731 (95% CI £646-£817) for patients with depression, compared with £448 (95% CI £366-£530) for patients without depression. A positive association between severe depression and total health care costs persisted after controlling for key demographic, functional, and clinical covariates using multiple linear regression models. These findings reveal the extent, severity, and impact of depression in patients with chronic pain and make evident a need for action. Effective treatment of depression may improve patient health and functioning and reduce the burden of chronic pain on health care services. PMID:26963849

  20. A pilot randomized controlled trial comparing prenatal yoga to perinatal health education for antenatal depression.

    PubMed

    Uebelacker, Lisa A; Battle, Cynthia L; Sutton, Kaeli A; Magee, Susanna R; Miller, Ivan W

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing a prenatal yoga intervention to perinatal-focused health education in pregnant women with depression. Findings document acceptability and feasibility of the yoga intervention: no yoga-related injuries were observed, instructors showed fidelity to the yoga manual, and women rated interventions as acceptable. Although improvements in depression were not statistically different between groups, they favored yoga. This study provides support for a larger scale RCT examining prenatal yoga to improve mood during pregnancy. PMID:26385456

  1. Association between dental pain and depression in Korean adults using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yang, S E; Park, Y G; Han, K; Min, J A; Kim, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the prevalence of depression and dental pain using a well characterised, nationally representative, population-based study. This study analysed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 4886). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Depression was defined as the participant having been diagnosed as depression during the previous year. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates. Results demonstrated that participants included in 'root canal treatment is necessary' showed higher prevalence of self-reported dental pain; in particular, participants with depression presented more dental pain than those without depression. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-reported dental pain increased in participants with depression. The AOR (95% CI) for having self-reported dental pain was 1·58 (1·08-2·33) in dentists' diagnosis of no dental pain/depression group, 1·62 (1·32-1·98) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/no depression group and 2·84 (1·10-7·37) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/depression group. It was concluded that depression was associated with dental pain after adjustment for potential confounders in Korean adults. Thus, dentists should consider the possible presence of psychopathology when treating patients with dental pain. PMID:26337763

  2. Screening and Referral for Postpartum Depression among Low-Income Women: A Qualitative Perspective from Community Health Workers.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Mogul, Marjie; Newman, Deena; Coyne, James C

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a serious and common psychiatric illness. Mothers living in poverty are more likely to be depressed and have greater barriers to accessing treatment than the general population. Mental health utilization is particularly limited for women with postpartum depression and low-income, minority women. As part of an academic-community partnership, focus groups were utilized to examine staff practices, barriers, and facilitators in mental health referrals for women with depression within a community nonprofit agency serving low-income pregnant and postpartum women. The focus groups were analyzed through content analyses and NVIVO-8. Three focus groups with 16 community health workers were conducted. Six themes were identified: (1) screening and referral, (2) facilitators to referral, (3) barriers to referral, (4) culture and language, (5) life events, and (6) support. The study identified several barriers and facilitators for referring postpartum women with depression to mental health services. PMID:21603131

  3. Predicting the Impact of the 2011 Conflict in Libya on Population Mental Health: PTSD and Depression Prevalence and Mental Health Service Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Charlson, Fiona J.; Steel, Zachary; Degenhardt, Louisa; Chey, Tien; Silove, Derrick; Marnane, Claire; Whiteford, Harvey A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mental disorders are likely to be elevated in the Libyan population during the post-conflict period. We estimated cases of severe PTSD and depression and related health service requirements using modelling from existing epidemiological data and current recommended mental health service targets in low and middle income countries (LMIC’s). Methods Post-conflict prevalence estimates were derived from models based on a previously conducted systematic review and meta-regression analysis of mental health among populations living in conflict. Political terror ratings and intensity of exposure to traumatic events were used in predictive models. Prevalence of severe cases was applied to chosen populations along with uncertainty ranges. Six populations deemed to be affected by the conflict were chosen for modelling: Misrata (population of 444,812), Benghazi (pop. 674,094), Zintan (pop. 40,000), displaced people within Tripoli/Zlitan (pop. 49,000), displaced people within Misrata (pop. 25,000) and Ras Jdir camps (pop. 3,700). Proposed targets for service coverage, resource utilisation and full-time equivalent staffing for management of severe cases of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are based on a published model for LMIC’s. Findings Severe PTSD prevalence in populations exposed to a high level of political terror and traumatic events was estimated at 12.4% (95%CI 8.5–16.7) and was 19.8% (95%CI 14.0–26.3) for severe depression. Across all six populations (total population 1,236,600), the conflict could be associated with 123,200 (71,600–182,400) cases of severe PTSD and 228,100 (134,000–344,200) cases of severe depression; 50% of PTSD cases were estimated to co-occur with severe depression. Based upon service coverage targets, approximately 154 full-time equivalent staff would be required to respond to these cases sufficiently which is substantially below the current level of resource estimates for these regions. Discussion

  4. C-reactive protein gene variants: independent association with late-life depression and circulating protein levels.

    PubMed

    Ancelin, M-L; Farré, A; Carrière, I; Ritchie, K; Chaudieu, I; Ryan, J

    2015-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a heritable biomarker of systemic inflammation that is commonly elevated in depressed patients. Variants in the CRP gene that influence protein levels could thus be associated with depression but this has seldom been examined, especially in the elderly. Depression was assessed in 990 people aged at least 65 years as part of the ESPRIT study. A clinical level of depression (DEP) was defined as having a score of ⩾16 on The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale or a diagnosis of current major depression based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms spanning the CRP gene were genotyped, and circulating levels of high-sensitivity CRP were determined. Multivariable analyses adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, ischemic pathologies, cognitive impairment and inflammation-related chronic pathologies. The minor alleles of rs1130864 and rs1417938 were associated with a decreased risk of depression in women at Bonferroni-corrected significance levels (P=0.002). CRP gene variants were associated with serum levels in a gender-specific manner, but only rs1205 was found to be nominally associated with both an increased risk of DEP and lower circulating CRP levels in women. Variants of the CRP gene thus influence circulating CRP levels and appear as independent susceptibility factors for late-life depression. PMID:25603415

  5. Depression and Risk for Adverse Falls in Older Home Health Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Byers, Amy L.; Sheeran, Thomas; Mlodzianowski, Amy E.; Meyers, Barnett S.; Nassisi, Pamella; Bruce, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    Because falls are highly prevalent, harmful events for older adults, identification of patients at risk is a high priority for home health care agencies. Using routine administrative data, we demonstrated that patients with depressive symptoms on the Outcome and Assessment Information Set are at risk for falls. A prospective case-control study that matched 54 patients who experienced an adverse fall with 854 controls showed that patients who fell had twice the odds of being depressed (odds ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval = 1.01 to 3.59). Bowel incontinence, high medical comorbidity, stair use, injury and poisoning, memory deficit, and antipsychotic medication use were also predictors, but no association was found for antidepressant medications. These data suggest the potential benefit of including depression screening for multifactorial fall prevention interventions. PMID:20077999

  6. Post-conflict mental health needs: a cross-sectional survey of trauma, depression and associated factors in Juba, Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Bayard; Damundu, Eliaba Yona; Lomoro, Olivia; Sondorp, Egbert

    2009-01-01

    Background The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in January 2005 marked the end of the civil conflict in Sudan lasting over 20 years. The conflict was characterised by widespread violence and large-scale forced migration. Mental health is recognised as a key public health issue for conflict-affected populations. Studies revealed high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst populations from Southern Sudan during the conflict. However, no studies have been conducted on mental health in post-war Southern Sudan. The objective of this study was to measure PTSD and depression in the population in the town of Juba in Southern Sudan; and to investigate the association ofdemographic, displacement, and past and recent trauma exposure variables, on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Methods A cross-sectional, random cluster survey with a sample of 1242 adults (aged over 18 years) was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Levels of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (original version), and levels of depression measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the association ofdemographic, displacement and trauma exposure variables on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression was also conducted to investigate which demographic and displacement variables were associated with exposure to traumatic events. Results Over one third (36%) of respondents met symptom criteria for PTSD and half (50%) of respondents met symptom criteria for depression. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed strong associations of gender, marital status, forced displacement, and trauma exposure with outcomes of PTSD and depression. Men, IDPs, and refugees and persons displaced more than once were all significantly more likely to have experienced eight or more traumatic events. Conclusion

  7. Beyond “somatization” and “psychologization”: symptom-level variation in depressed Han Chinese and Euro-Canadian outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Dere, Jessica; Sun, Jiahong; Zhao, Yue; Persson, Tonje J.; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yao, Shuqiao; Bagby, R. Michael; Ryder, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    The finding that people of Chinese heritage tend to emphasize somatic rather than psychological symptoms of depression has frequently been discussed in the culture and mental health literature since the 1970s. Recent studies have confirmed that Chinese samples report more somatic and fewer psychological depression symptoms compared to “Western” samples. The question remains, however, as to whether or not these effects are attributable to variation in all the constituent symptoms or to a subset. If the latter, there is the additional possibility that some symptoms might show a divergent pattern. Such findings would have implications for how cultural variations in symptom presentation are interpreted, and would also inform the cultural study of affective experiences more broadly. The current study addressed these issues in Chinese (n = 175) and Euro-Canadian (n = 107) psychiatric outpatients originally described by Ryder et al. (2008). Differential item functioning (DIF) was used to examine whether specific somatic and psychological symptoms diverged from the overall patterns of cultural variation. Chi-square analyses were used to examine atypical somatic symptoms (e.g., hypersomnia), previously neglected in this literature. No DIF was observed for the typical somatic symptoms, but Euro-Canadians reported greater levels of atypical somatic symptoms, and showed higher rates of atypical depression. DIF was observed for psychological symptoms—the Chinese reported high levels of “suppressed emotions” and “depressed mood,” relative to their overall psychological symptom reporting. Chinese outpatients also spontaneously reported “depressed mood” at similar levels as the Euro-Canadians, contrary to prevailing ideas about Chinese unwillingness to discuss depression. Overall, the findings provide a more nuanced picture of how culture shapes symptom presentation and point toward future studies designed to unpack cultural variation in narrower subsets of

  8. Pesticide Exposure and Depression among Male Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Umbach, David M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pesticide exposure may be positively associated with depression. Few previous studies have considered the episodic nature of depression or examined individual pesticides. Objective: We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and depression among male private pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods: We analyzed data for 10 pesticide classes and 50 specific pesticides used by 21,208 applicators enrolled in 1993–1997 who completed a follow-up telephone interview in 2005–2010. We divided applicators who reported a physician diagnosis of depression (n = 1,702; 8%) into those who reported a previous diagnosis of depression at enrollment but not follow-up (n = 474; 28%), at both enrollment and follow-up (n = 540; 32%), and at follow-up but not enrollment (n = 688; 40%) and used polytomous logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for the exclusion of 3,315 applicators with missing covariate data and 24,619 who did not complete the follow-up interview. Results: After weighting for potential confounders, missing covariate data, and dropout, ever-use of two pesticide classes, fumigants and organochlorine insecticides, and seven individual pesticides—the fumigants aluminum phosphide and ethylene dibromide; the phenoxy herbicide (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4,5-T); the organochlorine insecticide dieldrin; and the organophosphate insecticides diazinon, malathion, and parathion—were all positively associated with depression in each case group, with ORs between 1.1 and 1.9. Conclusions: Our study supports a positive association between pesticide exposure and depression, including associations with several specific pesticides. Citation: Beard JD, Umbach DM, Hoppin JA, Richards M, Alavanja MCR, Blair A, Sandler DP, Kamel F. 2014. Pesticide exposure and depression among male private pesticide applicators in the

  9. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Male Veterans and Non-Veterans: The Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Christine E.; Rideaux, Tiffany; Spira, Adam P.; Beaudreau, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether Veteran status was associated with elevated depression and anxiety symptoms in men aged 50 and older after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Methods Participants were 6,577 men aged 50 years and older who completed the 2006 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Forty-nine percent of participants were Veterans. A randomly selected subset of participants completed the HRS Psychosocial Questionnaire (N = 2,957), which contained the anxiety items. Elevated depression and anxiety symptoms were determined based on brief versions of Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression Scale (CES-D total score ≥ 4) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI total score ≥ 12). Results Elevated depression and anxiety symptoms were found in 11.0% and 9.9% of Veterans, respectively, compared with 12.8% and 12.3% of non-Veterans. Veteran status was not associated with increased odds of anxiety or depression symptoms in the multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses. Additional analyses indicated that Vietnam War Veterans were more than twice as likely as World War II or Korean War Veterans to have elevated depression symptoms (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.54–3.00) or anxiety symptoms (OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.28–3.51). Conclusions In a community-based sample of men aged 50 and older, Veteran status was not associated with the presence of elevated depression and anxiety symptoms. Rather, these symptoms were associated with age, ethnicity, education, and medical conditions. Among Veterans, cohort effects accounted for differences in psychiatric symptoms. Including younger cohorts from the Global War on Terror may yield different results in future studies. PMID:25145943

  10. Reported parental characteristics in relation to trait depression and anxiety levels in a non-clinical group.

    PubMed

    Parker, G

    1979-09-01

    Care and overprotection appear to reflect the principal dimensions underlying parental behaviours and attitudes. In previous studies of neurotically depressed patients and of a non-clinical group, subjects who scored their parents as lacking in care and/or overprotective had the greater depressive experience. The present study of another non-clinical group (289 psychology students) replicated those findings in regard to trait depression levels. In addition, associations between those parental dimensions and trait anxiety scores were demonstrated. Multiple regression analyses established that 9-10% of the variance in mood scores was accounted for by scores on those parental dimensions. Low maternal care scores predicted higher levels of both anxiety and depression, while high maternal overprotection scores predicted higher levels of anxiety but not levels of depression. Maternal influences were clearly of greater relevance than paternal influences. PMID:293182