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Sample records for health drink tea

  1. Green tea and theanine: health benefits.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Raymond

    2012-03-01

    Historically, the medicinal use of green tea dates back to China 4700 years ago and drinking tea continues to be regarded traditionally in Asia as a general healthful practice. Numerous scientific publications now attest to the health benefits of both black and green teas, including clinical and epidemiological studies. Although all tea contains beneficial antioxidants, high-quality green and white teas have them in greater concentrations than black tea. Today, scientists believe that the main active ingredients of green tea include the polyphenols, in particular the catechins and the amino acid, theanine. Studies on the health benefits of drinking tea, particularly green tea, are finding exciting results, particularly in cancer research. Modern studies in both Asia and the West have provided encouraging results indicating that drinking green tea contributes to fighting many different kinds of cancers including stomach, oesophageal, ovarian and colon. Recent studies describing the health benefits of these compounds will be reviewed. PMID:22039897

  2. Tea-drinking habit among new university students: associated factors.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hsiu Chen; Wang, Chi-Jane; Cheng, Shu Hui; Sun, Zih-Jie; Chen, Po See; Lee, Chih-Ting; Lin, Shih-Hsien; Yang, Yen Kuang; Yang, Yi-Ching

    2014-02-01

    The habit of drinking tea is highly prevalent in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tea drinking and to explore the correlated factors on tea drinking among young new students in the university, using a validated self-reported questionnaire. This study was carried out with 5936 new students in a university in Taiwan. It comprised a self-administered structured questionnaire, including items related to personal and medical history, and lifestyle habits, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ-12). Anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests were also performed. In total, 2065 (36.1%) students were in the tea-drinking group. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed the following factors were significant predictors of tea drinking: postgraduate students (p < 0.001), coffee drinking (p < 0.001), alcohol drinking (p < 0.001), minor mental morbidity (p = 0.009), poorer sleepers (p = 0.037), higher body mass index (p = 0.004), and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (p < 0.001). Our data showed that the tea-drinking habit was correlated with higher body mass index, which was contrary to the findings of a previous study. In clinical practice, perhaps we could consider more tea-drinking-related factors when we suggest tea consumption. PMID:24444540

  3. Epidemiological evidence linking tea consumption to human health: a review.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Quan V

    2014-01-01

    Tea has been widely consumed around the world for thousands of years and drinking tea is a daily habit for people of all ages. Tea is a major source of flavonoids, which have become well known as antioxidants. Tea also contains caffeine and theanine, which have been found to associate with health benefits. Many animal and epidemiological studies have been conducted to investigate the link between tea consumption and human health. However, common questions that arise about tea consumption include: whether all teas are the same, why drinking tea is linked with health benefits, how do the different ways of tea preparation impact on availability of tea components, how much and how long a person should consume tea to obtain health benefits, and whether there is any negative health effect associated with drinking tea. To answer these questions, this paper outlines the tea components and their link to human health, discusses major factors affecting availability of tea components in a tea cup, and reviews the latest epidemiological evidence linking tea consumption to human health. PMID:24237002

  4. 'The English Drink a Lot of Tea!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taborn, Stretton

    1981-01-01

    Presents statistics on the most commonly held stereotypes in Germany of Britain and the British including drinking a lot of tea, eating bacon and eggs for breakfast, consumption of whiskey and beer, and the occurrence of fog in England. Suggests these stereotypes were developed in the early 1950s and are not as prevalent today. (BK)

  5. Hugging, Drinking Tea, and Listening: Mental Health Needs of Turkish Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohtorik, Yasemin; McWilliams, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Twelve Turkish immigrants were interviewed in a hypothesis-generating, qualitative investigation of their immigration experiences and mental health needs. Findings suggest high levels of psychological distress associated with homesickness, lack of English proficiency, problematic immigration status, difficulty adjusting to a new culture, and…

  6. Tea drinking habits and osteoporotic hip/femur fractures: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chenshu; Tang, Rongrui

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between tea drinking habits and osteoporotic hip/femur fractures. Methods: Paired case-control method was used for face-to-face interviews from January 2010 to June 2014. Patients (n=435) with newly osteoporotic hip/femur fracture and 435 controls with the same gender and age (±3) were given questionnaire survey. The survey content included general situation, detailed tea drinking and other diet condition, health-related behavior and family history of fractures, etc. Results: Single factor logistic analysis showed that the habit of drinking tea can significantly reduce the risk of hip/femur fracture. Cumulative year of tea drinking, the cumulative amount of tea and tea concentration (low dose group) have the maximum protection for fracture, while the high dose group is weaker in protection (trend test, P<0.05). After adjustment for age, energy, BMI, education degree, parents’ history of fracture, second hand smoke exposure, calcium supplements, and equivalent energy consumption of physical activity, etc, the above association still showed significant linear trend, but the associated strength was slightly reduced. But stratified analysis found that the effect of tea drinking was only statistically significant in men. And there were no statistically significant differences of people with different education degree. Conclusions: Regular tea drinking can reduce the risk of osteoporotic hip/femur fractures in middle-aged and elderly men. PMID:27182250

  7. Green tea and bone health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly, particularly women. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mit...

  8. TEA DRINKING AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN OLDEST-OLD CHINESE

    PubMed Central

    Feng, L.; Li, J.; Ng, T.-P.; Lee, T.-S.; Kua, E.-H.; Zeng, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined the longitudinal association between tea drinking frequency and cognitive function in a large sample of oldest-old Chinese. Design population-based longitudinal cohort study. Setting The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Participants 7139 participants aged 80 to 115 (mean age 91.4 years) who provided complete data at baseline (year 1998). Measurements Current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency at age 60 were ascertained at baseline, and baseline and follow-up cognitive assessments were performed in the years 1998 (n=7139), 2000 (n=4081), 2002 (n=2288) and 2005 (n=913) respectively. Verbal fluency test was used as measure of cognitive function. Results Tea drinking was associated at baseline with higher mean (SD) verbal fluency scores: daily=10.7 (6.6), occasional=9.2 (5.8), non-drinker=9.0 (5.5). In linear mixed effects model that adjusted for age, gender, years of schooling, physical exercise and activities score, the regression coefficient for daily drinking (at age 60) and occasional drinking was 0.72 (P<0.0001) and 0.41(P=0.01) respectively. Tea drinkers had higher verbal fluency scores throughout the follow-up period but concurrently had a steeper slope of cognitive decline as compared with non-drinkers (coefficient for the interaction term Time*Daily drinking= −0.12, P=0.02; ‘Time’ was defined as the time interval from baseline to follow-up assessments in years). Similar results were found for current tea drinking status at study baseline year (1998) as predictor variable. Conclusion Regular tea drinking is associated with better cognitive function in oldest-old Chinese. PMID:23131816

  9. [The textual research on the related names of ancient health-care drinks].

    PubMed

    Su, Nuo

    2009-03-01

    There are many kinds of related names of ancient health-care drinks such as tea, tea soup, herb soup, soup, boiled water, thirsty water and cold decoction etc. Following textual research on each connotation of all kinds of names, they have the same aspects as well as different special contents. Among them, the tea soup is some kind of health-care and curative drink, mainly containing tea with other plant decoctions; not only referring to the drinking tea, but also the decoction drunk as tea. The 'tea soup can mostly reflect the original meaning of ancient health-care drinks, and also accord with the understanding of current health-care drinks, thus comprehensively and exactly summarize the content of ancient health-care drinks. PMID:19824369

  10. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea's medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols. PMID:25644464

  11. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea’s medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols. PMID:25644464

  12. A comparison of the potential health risk of aluminum and heavy metals in tea leaves and tea infusion of commercially available green tea in Jiangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Lanhai; Fu, Qing-Long; Achal, Varenyam; Liu, Yonglin

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metals and Al in tea products are of increasing concern. In this study, contents of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in commercially available green tea and its infusions were measured by ICP-MS and ICP-AES. Both target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) were employed to assess the potential health risk of studied metals in tea leaves and infusions to drinkers. Results showed that the average contents of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in tea leaves were 487.57, 0.055, 0.29, 1.63, 17.04, 7.71, and 0.92 mg/kg, respectively. Except for Cu, metal contents were within their maximum limits (1, 5, 30, and 5 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb, respectively) of current standards for tea products. Concentrations of metals in tea infusions were all below their maximum limits (0.2, 0.005, 0.05, 1.0, 0.02, and 0.01 mg/L for Al, Cd, Cr(VI), Cu, Ni, and Pb, respectively) for drinking water, and decreased with the increase of infusion times. Pb, Cd, Cu, and Al mainly remained in tea leaves. The THQ from 2.33 × 10(-5) to 1.47 × 10(-1) and HI from1.41 × 10(-2) to 3.45 × 10(-1) values in tea infusions were all less than 1, suggesting that consumption of tea infusions would not cause significant health risks for consumers. More attention should be paid to monitor Co content in green tea. Both THQ and HI values decreased with the increase of infusion times. Results of this study suggest that tea drinkers should discard the first tea infusion and drink the following infusions. PMID:25840958

  13. Drinking Water and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  14. The relationship of fluorosis and brick tea drinking in Chinese Tibetans.

    PubMed Central

    Cao, J; Bai, X; Zhao, Y; Liu, J; Zhou, D; Fang, S; Jia, M; Wu, J

    1996-01-01

    Brick tea-drinking fluorosis is an unusual environmental problem. As a result of an investigation of tea-drinking habits, total fluoride intakes, dental fluorosis, and skeletal fluorosis, this disease has been found in the Sichuan Province of China in Tibetans with a long history of drinking brick tea. The dental fluorosis investigation of 375 Tibetan children (213 males, 162 females) and 161 Han children (86 males, 75 females), 8-15 years of age, was carried out in Daofu County, Sichuan Province. According to the standard of the Chinese Health Ministry, a skeletal fluorosis survey of 658 Tibetans (264 males, 394 females) and 41 Hans (20 males, 11 females), all over 16 years old, was performed. The total fluoride intake and fluorosis were determined from a question--calculation method in all participants. The morbidities of dental fluorosis in Tibetan and Han children are 51.2% and 11.05%, respectively, and the indexes of dental fluorosis are 1.33 and 0.17 (chi 2 = 75.7, p < 0.01) respectively. The morbidity of skeletal fluorosis is 32.83% for Tibetan children and zero for the Han children. The fluoride intakes of Tibetan children and adults were 5.49 mg/person/day and 10.43 mg/person/day, respectively, in this area. Of total everyday fluoride intake, 94.2% by children and 94.4% by adults was from brick tea and zanba (r = 0.99). PMID:9118877

  15. Removal of fluoride from drinking water using tea waste loaded with Al/Fe oxides: A novel, safe and efficient biosorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hui-mei; Chen, Gui-jie; Peng, Chuan-yi; Zhang, Zheng-zhu; Dong, Yang-yang; Shang, Guang-zhi; Zhu, Xiao-hui; Gao, Hong-jian; Wan, Xiao-chun

    2015-02-01

    A low-cost and highly efficient biosorbent was prepared by loading Al/Fe oxides onto tea waste and was tested for the ability to remove fluoride from drinking water. Key factors, including adsorbent dosage, initial fluoride concentration, contact time and initial pH of the biosorbent, were investigated. It was found that the solution pH played an important role in the removal of fluoride. The biosorbent combinations Tea-Al or Tea-Al-Fe could reduce the fluoride concentration to below 1.5 mg/L in the drinking water, a level which meets the drinking water standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the residual concentrations of Al and Fe in the drinking water after Tea-Al-Fe treatment were below the standards set by WHO when treatment was conducted at pH values ranging from 5.0 to 10.0. The experimental data were analyzed using two-parameter theoretical models. The maximum fluoride adsorption capacities for the original tea, Tea-Fe, Tea-Al and Tea-Al-Fe biosorbents were 3.83, 10.47, 13.79 and 18.52 mg/g, respectively. These findings demonstrate the suitability of a prepared biosorbent based on tea waste for the removal of fluoride from drinking water.

  16. Green tea extract for periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswara, Babu; Sirisha, K.; Chava, Vijay K.

    2011-01-01

    Tea, the commonly consumed beverage, is gaining increased attention in promoting overall health. In specific, green tea is considered a healthful beverage due to the biological activity of its polyphenols namely catechins. Among the polyphenols Epigallo catechin 3 gallate and Epicatechin 3 Gallate are the most predominant catechins. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticollagenase, antimutagenic, and c hemopreventive properties of these catechins proved to be helpful in the treatment of chronic diseases like periodontal disease. Studies have demonstrated that the type of processing mainly effects the concentration of catechins. Several epidemiological studies have proved that green tea also has some general health benefitting properties like antihypertensive, reduction of cardiovascular risk, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. The present review concentrates on the effects of green tea in periodontal and general health. PMID:21772716

  17. Interaction Between the FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking Is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting; Ruan, Rongping; Nie, Chao; Liu, Xiaomin; Feng, Lei; Zhang, Fengyu; Lu, Jiehua; Li, Jianxin; Li, Yang; Tao, Wei; Gregory, Simon G; Gottschalk, William; Lutz, Michael W; Land, Kenneth C; Yashin, Anatoli; Tan, Qihua; Yang, Ze; Bolund, Lars; Ming, Qi; Yang, Huanming; Min, Junxia; Willcox, D Craig; Willcox, Bradley J; Gu, Jun; Hauser, Elizabeth; Tian, Xiao-Li; Vaupel, James W

    2016-06-01

    On the basis of the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality at advanced ages. Such a significant association is replicated in two independent Han Chinese CLHLS cohorts (p = 0.028-0.048 in the discovery and replication cohorts, and p = 0.003-0.016 in the combined dataset). We found the associations between tea drinking and reduced mortality are much stronger among carriers of the FOXO1A-209 genotype compared to non-carriers, and drinking tea is associated with a reversal of the negative effects of carrying FOXO1A-209 minor alleles, that is, from a substantially increased mortality risk to substantially reduced mortality risk at advanced ages. The impacts are considerably stronger among those who carry two copies of the FOXO1A minor allele than those who carry one copy. On the basis of previously reported experiments on human cell models concerning FOXO1A-by-tea-compounds interactions, we speculate that results in the present study indicate that tea drinking may inhibit FOXO1A-209 gene expression and its biological functions, which reduces the negative impacts of FOXO1A-209 gene on longevity (as reported in the literature) and offers protection against mortality risk at oldest-old ages. Our empirical findings imply that the health outcomes of particular nutritional interventions, including tea drinking, may, in part, depend upon individual genetic profiles, and the research on the effects of nutrigenomics interactions could potentially be useful for rejuvenation therapies in the clinic or associated healthy aging intervention programs. PMID:26414954

  18. Tea and cognitive health in late life: current evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Song, J; Xu, H; Liu, F; Feng, L

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the literature on the association between tea consumption and cognitive health in late life. Population-based studies reviewed in this article suggest that tea drinking has beneficial effects on cognitive function of elderly persons. However, a cause-effect relationship between tea consumption and cognitive decline and dementia could not be drawn given inconsistent findings from only two longitudinal cohort studies. The neuroprotective effects of tea consumption could be due to catechins, L-theanine and other compounds in tea leaves. More longitudinal observational study is needed. Information on life-time tea consumption and blood concentrations of catechins and L-theanine could be collected in future studies. PMID:22237999

  19. Clinical trial on the effect of regular tea drinking on iron accumulation in genetic haemochromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaltwasser, J; Werner, E; Schalk, K; Hansen, C; Gottschalk, R; Seidl, C

    1998-01-01

    Background—Black tea is known to be a potent inhibitor of intestinal absorption of non-haem iron at least in healthy subjects. 
Aims—To investigate this effect in patients with genetic haemochromatosis, and, more importantly, the effect of regular tea drinking on the accumulation of storage iron in these patients over one year. 
Patients—Investigations were carried out on 18 patients with clinically proven genetic haemochromatosis. For the study of storage iron accumulation, they were separated into a group instructed to drink a particularly tannin rich tea regularly with meals and a control group. 
Methods—Intestinal iron absorption from a test meal was measured using whole body counting. Body iron stores were evaluated quantitatively by exhaustive phlebotomy, using haemoglobin, saturation of serum iron binding capacity, and serum ferritin for the assessment of body iron status. 
Results—A significant reduction in iron absorption was observed when the test meal was accompanied by drinks of tea instead of water. In the tea drinking group, the increase in storage iron was reduced by about one third compared with that of the control group. 
Conclusions—Regular tea drinking with meals reduces the frequency of phlebotomies required in the management of patients with haemochromatosis. 

 Keywords: genetic haemochromatosis; iron absorption; tea; storage iron accumulation PMID:9824354

  20. The effect of drinking tea at high altitude on hydration status and mood.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Rycroft, Jane A; Aspen, Jennifer; Chapman, Clare; Brown, Bryce

    2004-04-01

    The effect of drinking tea on hydration status and mood was studied in nine male and four female members of expeditions based at Mt. Everest base camp at an altitude of 5,345 m. Whilst exposed to altitude-cold diuresis, participants were subjected to a crossover experimental design comprising two 24-h dietary interventions. In the "tea" condition, hot brewed tea formed a major part of fluid intake, whereas in the "no-tea" condition tea was excluded from the diet. Subjects were prohibited in both cases from consuming other caffeinated beverages, caffeinated foods, and alcoholic drinks. Mean fluids ingested [mean (SE); tea=3,193 (259) ml versus no tea=3,108 (269) ml] and urine volume (tea=2,686 (276) ml versus no tea=2,625 (342) ml] were similar under both conditions. Statistical analysis found no difference in urine stimulated as a result of the tea intervention (P=0.81). Several markers of hydration status were also taken immediately pre and post each condition, including measures of urine specific gravity, urine electrolyte balance (K+, Na+), and urine colour. None of these measures indicated a difference in hydration status as a result of the dietary intervention in either the control or tea condition. A difference was, however, found in mood, with subjects reporting reduced fatigue when tea was included in the diet (P=0.005). The study shows therefore that even when drunk at high altitude where fluid balance is stressed, there is no evidence that tea acts as a diuretic when consumed through natural routes of ingestion by regular tea drinkers, but that it does have a positive effect on mood. PMID:14872247

  1. Oolong tea drinking could help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guibin; Liu, Guibin; Liu, Liu Hongmei; Zhao, Huanli; Zhang, Fengfang; Li, Shufa; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Zhenchun

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between oolong tea drinking and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Han Chinese women, while living and diet habits, fertility, disease elements and other baseline conditions were controlled. One group included 124 cases who routinely drank oolong tea, and the other included 556 who did not drink tea. Data were collected on participant age, lifestyle habits, fertility condition, disease elements, and lumbar, and hip bone densities. It was found that the bone densities of the greater trochanteric bone in tea drinkers were higher (0.793 ± 0.119 kg/cm(2)) than that in non-tea drinkers (0.759 ± 0.116 kg/cm(2), F = 6.248, p = 0.013). Similarly, the bone density of Ward's triangular bone in tea drinkers was higher (0.668 ± 0.133 kg/cm(2)) than that in non-tea drinkers (0.637 ± 0.135 kg/cm(2), F = 6.152, p = 0.013). Oolong tea drinking could help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal Chinese women. PMID:24989680

  2. Evaluating the buffering capacity of various soft drinks, fruit juices and tea

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Smita; Jindal, Rahul

    2010-01-01

    Aims and Objective: The purpose of this study is to measure the initial pH of various commonly used beverages and to determine their ability to maintain a low pH by measuring their buffering capacities. Materials and Methods: Twelve commercially available drinks were taken and divided into four groups (preserved fruit juices, tea, mineral water and carbonated drinks. Each group comprised of three drinks. Their initial pH were measured with pH meter and their buffering capacities were measured by adding 1M NaOH in the increments of 0.2 ml into 100 ml of each drink till the pH raised to 5.5 and 7 respectively. Statistical Analysis: The volume of NaOH required to raise the pH to 5.5 and 7 were recorded in all the groups. This data was subjected to statistical analysis using Mann- Whitney tests. Results: Total titratable acidity measurement shows that among all the drinks, there was no significant difference between carbonated drinks and preserved fruit juices while a significant difference was present between carbonated drinks, preserved fruit juices and tea. Conclusion: In this in vitro study, it was found that packaged apple juice had the most buffering capacity with maximum erosive potential whereas green tea had the least. PMID:21116386

  3. GxE interactions between FOXO genotypes and drinking tea are significantly associated with prevention of cognitive decline in advanced age in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting; Ruan, Rongping; Feng, Lei; Nie, Chao; Cheng, Lingguo; Li, Yang; Tao, Wei; Gu, Jun; Land, Kenneth C; Yashin, Anatoli; Tan, Qihua; Yang, Ze; Bolund, Lars; Yang, Huanming; Hauser, Elizabeth; Willcox, D Craig; Willcox, Bradley J; Tian, Xiao-Li; Vaupel, James W

    2015-04-01

    Logistic regression analysis based on data from 822 Han Chinese oldest old aged 92+ demonstrated that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 and tea drinking at around age 60 or at present time were significantly associated with lower risk of cognitive disability at advanced ages. Associations between tea drinking and reduced cognitive disability were much stronger among carriers of the genotypes of FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 compared with noncarriers, and it was reconfirmed by analysis of three-way interactions across FOXO genotypes, tea drinking at around age 60, and at present time. Based on prior findings from animal and human cell models, we postulate that intake of tea compounds may activate FOXO gene expression, which in turn may positively affect cognitive function in the oldest old population. Our empirical findings imply that the health benefits of particular nutritional interventions, including tea drinking, may, in part, depend upon individual genetic profiles. PMID:24895270

  4. Intermittent drinking, oxytocin and human health.

    PubMed

    Pruimboom, L; Reheis, D

    2016-07-01

    Looking at a waterhole, it is surprising that so many animals share the same space without visible signs of anxiety or aggression. Although waterholes are the preferred feeding locations of large carnivores, waterholes are shared by all type of herbivores of all sizes and shapes, including elephants. Recent research shows that the homeostatic disturbances leading to the "thirst feeling" not only activate specific substances regulating water and mineral household, but also the "trust and love" hormone oxytocin, while decreasing the production of the typical stress hormone cortisol. People using drugs, seem to be in search for oxytocin, as evidenced in studies with individuals on drugs such as ecstasy and gamma-hydroxybyturate. Hot environment, drought and increased sweating also activate specific oxytocin-producing parts of the hypothalamus, just as breastfeeding does in mother and infant. Water homeostasis is the only allostatic system activating trust neuro-anatomy and we suggest that this is due to the fact that all animals depend on water, whereas food type is species specific. Our hypothesis; regulating drinking behaviour through intermittent bulk drinking could increase oxytocin signalling, recover human trust and increase health by down-regulation of stress axis activity and inflammatory activity of the immune system. Intermittent bulk drinking should be defined as water (including tea and coffee) drinking up to a feeling of satiety and regulated by a mild feeling of thirst. This would mean that people would not drink less quantity but less frequently and that's how all animals, but also human newborns behave. It is the latter group, which is probably the only group of humans with a normal fluid homeostasis. PMID:27241263

  5. U.S. Rep. William Nelson drinking tea from shuttle beverage container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    U.S. Rep. William Nelson of Florida tries drinking tea from a straw-equipped beverage dispenser in JSC's life sciences laboratory during a space food orientation session. The congressman is in early stages of training for a position on the STS 61-C mission.

  6. Tea drinking habits and oesophageal cancer in a high risk area in northern Iran: population based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Kamangar, Farin; Fahimi, Saman; Shakeri, Ramin; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Merat, Shahin; Vahedi, Homayoon; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C; Brennan, Paul; Møller, Henrik; Saidi, Farrokh; Dawsey, Sanford M

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between tea drinking habits in Golestan province, northern Iran, and risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Design Population based case-control study. In addition, patterns of tea drinking and temperature at which tea was drunk were measured among healthy participants in a cohort study. Setting Golestan province, northern Iran, an area with a high incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Participants 300 histologically proved cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and 571 matched neighbourhood controls in the case-control study and 48 582 participants in the cohort study. Main outcome measure Odds ratio of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma associated with drinking hot tea. Results Nearly all (98%) of the cohort participants drank black tea regularly, with a mean volume consumed of over one litre a day. 39.0% of participants drank their tea at temperatures less than 60°C, 38.9% at 60-64°C, and 22.0% at 65°C or higher. A moderate agreement was found between reported tea drinking temperature and actual temperature measurements (weighted κ 0.49). The results of the case-control study showed that compared with drinking lukewarm or warm tea, drinking hot tea (odds ratio 2.07, 95% confidence interval 1.28 to 3.35) or very hot tea (8.16, 3.93 to 16.9) was associated with an increased risk of oesophageal cancer. Likewise, compared with drinking tea four or more minutes after being poured, drinking tea 2-3 minutes after pouring (2.49, 1.62 to 3.83) or less than two minutes after pouring (5.41, 2.63 to 11.1) was associated with a significantly increased risk. A strong agreement was found between responses to the questions on temperature at which tea was drunk and interval from tea being poured to being drunk (weighted κ 0.68). Conclusion Drinking hot tea, a habit common in Golestan province, was strongly associated with a higher risk of oesophageal cancer. PMID:19325180

  7. Green tea: A boon for periodontal and general health

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Saluja, Mini; Agarwal, Gunjan; Alam, Mahtab

    2012-01-01

    Green tea is particularly rich in health-promoting flavonoids (which account for 30% of the dry weight of a leaf), including catechins and their derivatives. The most abundant catechin in green tea is epigallocatechin-3-gallate, which is thought to play a pivotal role in the green tea's anticancer and antioxidant effects. Catechins should be considered right alongside of the better-known antioxidants like vitamins E and C as potent free radical scavengers and health-supportive for this reason. It has been suggested that green tea also promotes periodontal health by reducing inflammation, preventing bone resorption and limiting the growth of certain bacteria associated with periodontal diseases. PMID:23055579

  8. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S.; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health. PMID:27386001

  9. Maori Identification, Drinking Motivation and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Dave; Ebbett, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or…

  10. Colon Cancer Chemoprevention by Sage Tea Drinking: Decreased DNA Damage and Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Dalila F N; Ramos, Alice A; Lima, Cristovao F; Baltazar, Fatima; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Salvia officinalis and some of its isolated compounds have been found to be preventive of DNA damage and increased proliferation in vitro in colon cells. In the present study, we used the azoxymethane model to test effects of S. officinalis on colon cancer prevention in vivo. The results showed that sage treatment reduced the number of ACF formed only if administered before azoxymethane injection, demonstrating that sage tea drinking has a chemopreventive effect on colorectal cancer. A decrease in the proliferation marker Ki67 and in H2 O2 -induced and azoxymethane-induced DNA damage to colonocytes and lymphocytes were found with sage treatment. This confirms in vivo the chemopreventive effects of S. officinalis. Taken together, our results show that sage treatment prevented initiation phases of colon carcinogenesis, an effect due, at least in part, to DNA protection, and reduced proliferation rates of colon epithelial cell that prevent mutations and their fixation through cell replication. These chemopreventive effects of S. officinalis on colon cancer add to the many health benefits attributed to sage and encourage its consumption. PMID:26661587

  11. Naphthalene: Drinking water health advisory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, naphthalene. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of phthalic and anthranilic acids and other derivatives, and in making dyes; in the manufacture of resins, celluloid, lampblack and smokeless gunpowder; and as moth repellant, insecticide, anthelmintic, vermicide, and intestinal antiseptic. The report covers the following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its environmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the human body; and its health effects on humans and animals, including its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicological effects.

  12. Tea and health: preventive and therapeutic usefulness in the elderly?

    PubMed Central

    Bolling, Bradley W.; Chen, Chung-Yen Oliver; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To update the growing literature suggesting that tea and its constituent flavonoids are inversely related to the risk of chronic diseases common among the elderly. Recent findings Results are provided from recent observational studies and clinical trials on the relationship of tea and tea catechins to body weight control and energy metabolism, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, bone mineral density, cognitive function and neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. The evidence for the efficacy and potency of tea and tea extracts in benefiting these outcomes ranges from compelling for cardiovascular disease to equivocal at best for some forms of cancer. Summary Although randomized clinical trials of tea have generally been of short duration and with small sample sizes, together with experimental and epidemiological studies, the totality of the data suggests a role for tea in health promotion as a beverage absent in calories and rich in phytochemicals. Further research is warranted on the putative benefits of tea and the potential for synergy among its constituent flavonoids, l-theanine, and caffeine. PMID:19057186

  13. [Suppression of glucose absorption by various health teas in rats].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Toshiki; Yoshikawa, Yukako; Masui, Hironori; Sano, Mitsuaki

    2004-04-01

    The inhibitory effects on the intestinal digestion and absorption of sugar of health teas that claim beneficial dietary and diabetes-controlling effects were compared in rats using portal cannulae. The measured durations were the times during which the elevation of portal glucose levels resulting from continuous intragastric infusion of sucrose or maltose was suppressed by concentrated teas. The teas investigated included salacia oblonga, mulberry, guava, gymunema, taheebo, yacon, and banaba. The duration of the inhibitory effect on the sucrose load of salacia oblonga, mulberry, and guava were 110 min, 20 min, and 10 min, respectively. In contrast, gymunema, taheebo, yacon, and banaba had no significant effect on the continuous infusion of sucrose. These results suggest that there is considerable difference in the efficacy of commercial health teas in influencing glucose absorption. PMID:15067185

  14. Membrane clarification of tea extracts.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, R; Kumar, Chandini S; Sharma, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    The ready-to-drink (RTD) tea beverages are becoming increasingly popular owing to the health benefits associated with tea polyphenols, but instability due to development of haze and formation of tea cream is a common problem encountered in the product. Membrane technology provides a scope to produce natural, additive-free RTD teas while overcoming the major disadvantages associated with the conventional decreaming methods. Approaches employing membranes for the clarification of extracts from black and green tea have been discussed together with their relative advantages and limitations. The article also outlines the concerns to be addressed in the future attempts employing membrane technology. PMID:24499147

  15. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Tea Drinking Suppresses Subjective Short-term Appetite in Overweight Women

    PubMed Central

    Bae, JiYoung; Kim, JiEun

    2015-01-01

    Appetite controlling has been an main strategy for regulating food intake and energy balance in obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of drinking tea of the medicinal herbs, fennel and fenugreek, on the subjective appetite in overweight Korean women. The study was conducted using a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomized, and 3-way crossover design. Nine healthy women were given fennel tea (FT), fenugreek tea (FGT), or placebo tea (PT). After drinking a given tea, a lunch buffet was provided and then food consumption of subjects was analyzed. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured at seven independent time point using a visual analog scale (VAS). Mean age of 9 subjects were 49.7 ± 4.5 years and their mean body mass index were 24.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2. There was no significant difference in food consumption in the lunch buffet after drinking each tea; however, with respect to the subjective appetite scale, FGT decreased hunger, led to less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). Similarly, the consumption of FT resulted in decreased hunger, less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of VAS graph indicated that FGT resulted in a higher feeling of fullness than the PT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, drinking the FT and FGT were significantly effective aid to suppress subjective appetite among overweight women in South Korea. PMID:26251835

  16. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Tea Drinking Suppresses Subjective Short-term Appetite in Overweight Women.

    PubMed

    Bae, JiYoung; Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-07-01

    Appetite controlling has been an main strategy for regulating food intake and energy balance in obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of drinking tea of the medicinal herbs, fennel and fenugreek, on the subjective appetite in overweight Korean women. The study was conducted using a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomized, and 3-way crossover design. Nine healthy women were given fennel tea (FT), fenugreek tea (FGT), or placebo tea (PT). After drinking a given tea, a lunch buffet was provided and then food consumption of subjects was analyzed. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured at seven independent time point using a visual analog scale (VAS). Mean age of 9 subjects were 49.7 ± 4.5 years and their mean body mass index were 24.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in food consumption in the lunch buffet after drinking each tea; however, with respect to the subjective appetite scale, FGT decreased hunger, led to less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). Similarly, the consumption of FT resulted in decreased hunger, less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of VAS graph indicated that FGT resulted in a higher feeling of fullness than the PT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, drinking the FT and FGT were significantly effective aid to suppress subjective appetite among overweight women in South Korea. PMID:26251835

  17. Green Tea Catechins and Cardiovascular Health: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Velayutham, Pon; Babu, Anandh; Liu, Dongmin

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have established a positive correlation between green tea consumption and cardiovascular health. Catechins, the major polyphenolic compounds in green tea, exert vascular protective effects through multiple mechanisms, including antioxidative, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-thrombogenic, and lipid lowering effects. (1) Tea catechins present antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals, chelating redox active transition-metal ions, inhibiting redox active transcription factors, inhibiting pro-oxidant enzymes and inducing antioxidant enzymes. (2) Tea catechins inhibit the key enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis and reduce intestinal lipid absorption, thereby improving blood lipid profile. (3) Catechins regulate vascular tone by activating endothelial nitric oxide. (4) Catechins prevent vascular inflammation that plays a critical role in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. The anti-inflammatory activities of catechins may be due to their suppression of leukocyte adhesion to endothelium and subsequent transmigration through inhibition of transcriptional factor NF-kB-mediated production of cytokines and adhesion molecules both in endothelial cells and inflammatory cells. (5) Catechins inhibit proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells by interfering with vascular cell growth factors involved in atherogenesis. (6) Catechins suppress platelet adhesion, thereby inhibiting thrombogenesis. Taken together, catechins may be novel plant-derived small molecules for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This review highlights current developments in green tea extracts and vascular health, focusing specifically on the role of tea catechins in the prevention of various vascular diseases and the underlying mechanisms for these actions. In addition, the possible structure-activity relationship of catechins is discussed. PMID:18691042

  18. Tea, coffee, carbonated soft drinks and upper gastrointestinal tract cancer risk in a large United States prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ren, J S; Freedman, N D; Kamangar, F; Dawsey, S M; Hollenbeck, A R; Schatzkin, A; Abnet, C C

    2010-07-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between hot tea, iced tea, coffee and carbonated soft drinks consumption and upper gastrointestinal tract cancers risk in the NIH-AARP Study. During 2,584,953 person-years of follow-up on 481,563 subjects, 392 oral cavity, 178 pharynx, 307 larynx, 231 gastric cardia, 224 gastric non-cardia cancer, 123 Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC) and 305 Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma (EADC) cases were accrued. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by multivariate-adjusted Cox regression. Compared to non-drinking, the hazard ratio for hot tea intake of > or =1 cup/day was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.70) for pharyngeal cancer. The authors also observed a significant association between coffee drinking and risk of gastric cardia cancer (compared to <1 cup/day, the hazard ratio for drinking >3 cups/day was 1.57 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.39)), and an inverse association between coffee drinking and EADC for the cases occurring in the last 3 years of follow-up (compared to <1 cup/day, the hazard ratio for drinking >3 cups/day was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.92)), but no association in earlier follow-up. In summary, hot tea intake was inversely associated with pharyngeal cancer, and coffee was directly associated with gastric cardia cancer, but was inversely associated with EADC during some follow-up periods. PMID:20395127

  19. Identifying key non-volatile compounds in ready-to-drink green tea and their impact on taste profile.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peigen; Yeo, Angelin Soo-Lee; Low, Mei-Yin; Zhou, Weibiao

    2014-07-15

    Thirty-nine non-volatile compounds in seven ready-to-drink (RTD) green tea samples were analysed and quantified using liquid chromatography. Taste reconstruction experiments using thirteen selected compounds were conducted to identify the key non-volatile tastants. Taste profiles of the reconstructed samples did not differ significantly from the RTD tea samples. To investigate the taste contribution and significance of individual compounds, omission experiments were carried out by removing individual or a group of compounds. Sensory evaluation revealed that the astringent- and bitter-tasting (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, bitter-tasting caffeine, and the umami-tasting l-glutamic acid were the main contributors to the taste of RTD green tea. Subsequently, the taste profile of the reduced recombinant, comprising of a combination of these three compounds and l-theanine, was found to not differ significantly from the sample recombinant and RTD tea sample. Lastly, regression models were developed to objectively predict and assess the intensities of bitterness and astringency in RTD green teas. PMID:24594147

  20. Tea drinking habits and oesophagial cancer in a high-risk area in northern Iran: population based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh

    2009-05-01

    In a recently published paper in the "British Medical Journal", a joint collaboration of well-known international scientists represented by Islami et al. has tackled this issue.1 In a well-designed, laborious case-control study in Golestan, Iran, they looked at 300 cases of esophageal SCC and 571 age and sex matched neighborhood controls, assessed the temperature of the commonly used drink "tea" among them and compared it between the two groups. After adjusting for several confounders including ethnicity, daily vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, tobacco or opium use, duration of residence in rural areas, education level and car ownership (the latter two as indices of socio-economic status), they found that consuming hot tea is associated with significantly increased chance of developing esophageal SCC. The adjusted odds ratio(OR) for developing esophageal SCC in those who reported drinking "very hot tea" was 8.16 (95% CI: 3.93 to 16.91) as compared to those taking warm or lukewarm tea (P<0.001) and for those drinking "hot" tea the adjusted OR was 2.07 (95% CI: 1.28 to 3.35). According to Islami et al., 21.1% and 36.2% of the cases drank their tea "very hot" or "hot", respectively. Self-claim of "hot", "very hot", and "warm or "lukewarm" tea drinking correlated with the claimed time from pouring tea to its drinking by the individual (weighted kappa statistics: 0.69). They did not find any correlation between amount of tea consumed and development of esophageal SCC. They have also reported limited data of tea temperature measurement in addition to the self claims of tea drinking habits (as mentioned for the case-control study) from a large on-going cohort study in the same region. The authors conclude that it is probably the "hotness" rather than the "tea" which is responsible for this increased chance of SCC of esophagus. In an accompanying editorial, Whiteman suggests that people drink their tea at least 5 minutes after pouring it in their cups. PMID:19400617

  1. Rapid and selective quantification of L-theanine in ready-to-drink teas from Chinese market using SPE and UPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Yun; Song, Weiqi; Zhao, Bo; Dou, Yuling

    2012-11-15

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method combined with solid phase extraction (SPE) sample pre-treatment was developed and validated for the rapid quantification of L-theanine in ready-to-drink (RTD) teas. UPLC analysis of twenty-seven RTD teas from the Chinese market revealed that the L-theanine levels in various types of RTD teas were significantly different. RTD green teas were found to contain highest mean L-theanine level (37.85±20.54 mg/L), followed by jasmine teas (36.60±12.08 mg/L), Tieguanying teas (18.54±3.46 mg/L) black teas (16.89±6.56), Pu-erh teas (11.31±0.90 mg/L) and oolong teas (3.85±2.27 mg/L). The ratio of total polyphenols content to L-theanine content could be used as a featured parameter for differentiating RTD teas. L-theanine in RTD teas could be a reliable quality parameter that is complementary to total polyphenols. PMID:22868106

  2. Drinking water health advisory for boron

    SciTech Connect

    Cantilli, R.

    1991-04-01

    The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water, has issued its report on the element boron: included are the compounds boric acid and borax(sodium tetraborate). It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health Advisories (HAs) describe nonregulatory concentrations of drinking water contaminants at which adverse health effects would not be anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations. HAs serve as informal technical guidance to assist Federal, State, and local officials responsible for protecting public health when emergency spills or contamination situations occur. They are not legally enforceable Federal Standards and are subject to change as new information becomes available.

  3. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, Declan T.; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population. PMID:26927146

  4. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Declan T; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population. PMID:26927146

  5. Black tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... that the caffeine in black tea might slow blood clotting, though this hasn’t been shown in people. ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. Caffeine ...

  6. Change in the flavor of black tea drink during heat processing.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, K; Masuda, H

    2001-07-01

    Heat processing during canning is responsible for the change in flavor of black tea infusion. The quantitative change in the volatile components of the black tea infusion during heat processing is not sufficient for explaining the sensory evaluation. In this study, application of aroma extract dilution analysis using the volatile fraction before and after black tea (Darjeeling) samples were heat processed resulted in the detection of 10 odor-active peaks for which flavor dilution (FD) factors changed. Seven potent odorants were identified from these peaks by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among these components, 3-methylbutanal (stimulus), methional (potato-like), beta-damascenone (sweet), dimethyl trisulfide (putrid), and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like) showed the highest FD factors after heat processing of the black tea sample. Therefore, these odorants were the most important components involved in changing the black tea odor during heat processing. In addition, the precursor of beta-damascenone in black tea infusion was investigated, and 3-hydroxy-7,8-didehydro-beta-ionol was determined to be one of the beta-damascenone-generating compounds for the first time. PMID:11453767

  7. Introduction to the Proceedings of the Fourth International Scientific Symposium on Tea and Human Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article provides an introduction to the Fourth International Scientific Symposium on Tea and Human Health. Recent observational studies support a reduction in risk of cardiovascular disease among tea drinkers but a critical evaluation of this work raises the challenge of conducting long-term ra...

  8. BOOK REVIEW OF "DRINKING WATER REGULATION AND HEALTH"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the enactment of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974, several amendments and other new regulations have been developed for drinking water. The book, "Drinking Water Regulation and Health", explains these regulations and provides background on why they were developed ...

  9. Responsible drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... If you drink alcohol, health care providers advise limiting how much ... drinking in moderation, or responsible drinking. Responsible ...

  10. Tea and health: Preventive and therapeutic usefulness in the elderly?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the review is to update the growing literature suggesting that tea and its constituent flavonoids are inversely related to the risk of chronic diseases common among the elderly. Results are provided from recent observational studies and clinical trials on the relationship of tea and t...

  11. Relationships between black tea consumption and key health indicators in the world: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Beresniak, Ariel; Duru, Gerard; Berger, Genevieve; Bremond-Gignac, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate potential statistical relationships between black tea consumption and key health indicators in the world. The research question is: Does tea consumption is correlated with one or more epidemiological indicators? Design Ecological study using a systematic data-mining approach in which the unit of the analysis is a population of one country. Setting Six variables, black tea consumption data and prevalence data of respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, have been studied at a global level. Participants Data from 50 participating countries in the World Health Survey were investigated. Primary and secondary outcomes measures Level of statistical relationships between variables. Results Principal component analysis established a very high contribution of the black tea consumption parameter on the third axis (81%). The correlation circle confirmed that the ‘black tea’ vector was negatively correlated with the diabetes vector and was not correlated with any of the other four health indicators. A linear correlation model then confirmed a significant statistical correlation between high black tea consumption and low diabetes prevalence. Conclusions This innovative study establishes a linear statistical correlation between high black tea consumption and low diabetes prevalence in the world. These results are consistent with biological and physiological studies conducted on the effect of black tea on diabetes and confirm the results of a previous ecological study in Europe. Further epidemiological research and randomised studies are necessary to investigate the causality. PMID:23138107

  12. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents. PMID:26715927

  13. Implications of sleep and energy drink use for health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A; Knutson, Kristen L; Troxel, Wendy; Hale, Lauren; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Miller, Kathleen E

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of energy drinks has increased rapidly in the past decade. One of the main reasons people use energy drinks is to counteract effects of insufficient sleep or sleepiness. Risks associated with energy drink use, including those related to sleep loss, may be disproportionately borne by racial minorities and those of lower socioeconomic status. In this review, a brief introduction to the issue of health disparities is provided, population-level disparities and inequalities in sleep are described, and the social-ecological model of sleep and health is presented. Social and demographic patterns of energy drink use are then presented, followed by discussion of the potential ways in which energy drink use may contribute to health disparities, including the following: 1) effects of excessive caffeine in energy drinks, 2) effects of energy drinks as sugar-sweetened beverages, 3) association between energy drinks and risk-taking behaviors when mixed with alcohol, 4) association between energy drink use and short sleep duration, and 5) role of energy drinks in cardiometabolic disease. The review concludes with a research agenda of critical unanswered questions. PMID:25293540

  14. Effect of drinking parsley leaf tea on urinary composition and urinary stones' risk factors.

    PubMed

    Alyami, Fahad A; Rabah, Danny M

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the effect of parsley leaf tea on urine composition and the inhibitors of urinary tract stones formation, we studied 20 healthy volunteers who were divided into two groups: the first group of 10 subjects drank daily 1,200 mL of parsley leaf tea for 2 weeks, while the second group drank at least 1,200 mL daily of bottled water for the same period. This was followed by a 2-week "washout" period before the two groups were crossed over for another 2 weeks. During the experimental phase, 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline, on day 14, and at the end of the 6-week period and different urinary parameters were measured and analyzed statistically. We found no significant difference in the urine volume, pH, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, phosphorus, magnesium, uric acid, cystine, or citric acid. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of parsley leaf tea on urinary parameters in healthy and stone-forming patients. PMID:21566309

  15. Comparative studies on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of different tea extracts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Xueming; Qu, Zhishuang

    2012-06-01

    Tea is one of the most popular drinks next to water. Tea polyphenol is one of the main bioactive constituents of tea with health functions. In order to find the most bioactive tea polyphynols, polyphenol extracts from green tea, black tea and chemical oxidation products of green tea extracts were comparatively studied on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties. Results showed physicochemical and antioxidant properties of polyphenol extracts changed greatly after the chemical oxidation. Hydrogen peroxide induced oxidation products (HOP) possessed the highest antioxidant ability among the four tea polyphenol extracts. Thirteen phenolic compounds and one alkaloid in HOP were identified by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS). Hydrogen peroxide induced oxidation of tea polyphenol extracts could improve the antioxidant activity and could be used to produce antioxidants for food industry. PMID:23729856

  16. Removal of fluoride from drinking water using modified ultrafine tea powder processed using a ball-mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Huimei; Xu, Lingyun; Chen, Guijie; Peng, Chuanyi; Ke, Fei; Liu, Zhengquan; Li, Daxiang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-07-01

    A low-cost and highly efficient biosorbent was prepared by loading zirconium(IV) onto ball-milled, ultrafine tea powder (UTP-Zr) for removal of fluoride from drinking water. To evaluate the fluoride adsorption capacity of UTP-Zr over a wide range of conditions, the biosorbent dosage, contact time, initial pH, initial fluoride concentration and presence of other ions were varied. UTP-Zr performed well over the considerably wide pH range of 3-10. The residual concentration of Zr in the treated water was below the limit of detection (0.01 mg/L). Fluoride adsorption by the UTP-Zr biosorbent followed the Langmuir model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 12.43 mgF/g at room temperature. The fluoride adsorption kinetics fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The synthesized biosorbent was characterized by BET, SEM, EDS, XRD and XPS to reveal how UTP-Zr interacts with fluoride. Results from this study demonstrated that UTP-based biosorbents will be useful and safe for the removal of fluoride from drinking water.

  17. Energy drinks: Getting wings but at what health cost?

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Iftikhar, Rahila

    2014-01-01

    Energy drink consumption represents a global public health problem, especially among adolescents and young adults. The consumption of energy drinks has seen a substantial increase during the past few decades, especially in the Western and Asian countries. Although manufacturers of energy drinks claim that these beverages are beneficial in that they can boost energy, physical performance, and improve cognitive performance, there is insufficient scientific evidence to support these claims. The known and unknown pharmacology of the constituents of energy drinks, supplemented with reports of toxicity, raise concern for the potentially severe adverse events linked with energy drink use. Limited numbers of reviews have been published on this important subject..The aim of this review was to identify the major ingredients in energy drinks and to delineate the adverse effects related to their consumption. Methods: Electronic databases of PubMed, Clinical Key, and Google and Cochrane library were extensively searched for energy drink articles. More than hundred articles were reviewed, scrutinized and critically appraised and the most relevant forty articles were used Conclusion: Energy drinks & its ingredients are potentially dangerous to many aspects of health. Measures should be taken to improve awareness among adolescents and their parents regarding the potential hazards of energy drinks. Furthermore, the sale of energy drinks on college and university campuses and to adolescents below 16 years should be prohibited. PMID:25674149

  18. Drinking water regulations and health advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The report provides maximum contaminant level of goals, maximum contaminant levels, reference doses, and drinking water equivalent levels for over 250 organic and inorganic chemicals, radionuclides, and microbes.

  19. Energy Drinks: A New Health Hazard for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Nicole; Johnson, Molly; Delaney, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    A new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. Specific effects that have been reported by adolescents include jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, gastrointestinal upset, and…

  20. Determination of catechins in matcha green tea by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David J; Anderton, Christopher R

    2003-09-01

    Catechins in green tea are known to have many beneficial health properties. Recently, it has been suggested that matcha has greater potential health benefits than other green teas. Matcha is a special powdered green tea used in the Japanese tea ceremony. However, there has been no investigation to quantitate the catechin intake from matcha compared to common green teas. We have developed a rapid method of analysis of five catechins and caffeine in matcha using micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Results are presented for water and methanol extractions of matcha compared with water extraction of a popular green tea. Using a mg catechin/g of dry leaf comparison, results indicate that the concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) available from drinking matcha is 137 times greater than the amount of EGCG available from China Green Tips green tea, and at least three times higher than the largest literature value for other green teas. PMID:14518774

  1. Mental Health, Binge Drinking, and Antihypertension Medication Adherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banta, Jim E.; Haskard, Kelly B.; Haviland, Mark G.; Williams, Summer L.; Werner, Leonard S.; Anderson, Donald L.; DiMatteo, M. Robin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between self-reported mental health and binge drinking, as well as health status, sociodemographic, social support, economic resource, and health care access indicators to antihypertension medication adherence. Method: Analysis of 2003 California Health Interview Survey data. Results: Having poor mental…

  2. Characteristics associated with consumption of sports and energy drinks among US adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou

    2013-01-01

    Sales of sports and energy drinks have increased dramatically, but there is limited information on regular consumers of sports and energy drinks. Characteristics associated with sports and energy drink intake were examined among a sample representing the civilian noninstitutionalized US adult population. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data for 25,492 adults (18 years of age or older; 48% males) were used. Nationwide, 31.3% of adults were sports and energy drink consumers during the past 7 days, with 21.5% consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week and 11.5% consuming sports and energy drinks three or more times per week. Based on multivariable logistic regression, younger adults, males, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, not-married individuals, adults with higher family income, those who lived in the South or West, adults who engaged in leisure-time physical activity, current smokers, and individuals whose satisfaction with their social activities/relationships was excellent had significantly higher odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. In this model, the factor most strongly associated with weekly sports and energy drink consumption was age (odds ratio [OR]=10.70 for 18- to 24-year-olds, OR=6.40 for 25- to 39-year-olds, OR=3.17 for 40- to 59-year-olds vs 60 years or older). Lower odds for consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week were associated with other/multiracial (OR=0.80 vs non-Hispanic white) and obesity (OR=0.87 vs underweight/normal weight). Separate modeling of the association between other beverage intake and sports and energy drink intake showed that higher intake of regular soda, sweetened coffee/tea drinks, fruit drinks, milk, 100% fruit juice, and alcohol were significantly associated with greater odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. These findings can help medical care providers and public health officials identify adults most in

  3. Determination of phthalate esters in teas and tea infusions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Du, Liping; Ma, Lijuan; Qiao, Yang; Lu, Yan; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-04-15

    Phthalate esters (PAEs), a group of environmental pollutants which are carcinogenic to human body, have been detected in teas. In this work, five PAEs in teas and tea infusions were quantitatively determined by a modified simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After the optimization of SDE, the proposed method afforded a wide range of linearity and high linear regression coefficients with the limits of detection range of 0.24-3.72 μg/kg. The average recoveries were 79.83-116.67% for tea samples and 78.22-101.64% for tea infusions with all the relative standard deviations below 20%. The total content of five PAEs in teas was 1.135-3.734 mg/kg and the total dissolving ratio of five PAEs from tea to infusion was 19.05-28.07% for the selected tea samples. The risk assessment result of all the selected tea samples demonstrated that the population with the habit of drinking tea won't cause risk to human health. PMID:26675858

  4. Drinking Water (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... water. A Guide to Drinking Water Treatment and Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use (Centers for Disease Control ... runoff is and its hazardous effects on the environment. Commercially Bottled Water (Centers for Disease Control and ...

  5. Drinking Water: Health Hazards Still Not Resolved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nicholas

    1977-01-01

    Despite the suggested link between cancer deaths and drinking obtained from the Mississippi River, New Orleans still treats its water supply in the same manner as before the Environmental Defense Fund's epidemiological study. (BT)

  6. Poly(ionic liquid) immobilized magnetic nanoparticles as new adsorbent for extraction and enrichment of organophosphorus pesticides from tea drinks.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoyan; He, Lijun; Duan, Yajing; Jiang, Xiuming; Xiang, Guoqiang; Zhao, Wenjie; Zhang, Shusheng

    2014-09-01

    New poly(ionic liquid) immobilized magnetic nanoparticles (PIL-MNPs) were synthesized via co-polymerization of 1-vinyl-3-hexylimidazolium-based ionic liquid and vinyl-modified magnetic particles and were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetic measurements. The PIL-MNPs were utilized as adsorbent phases in magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). The extraction and enrichment efficiency were evaluated by using four organophosphorus pesticides (parathion, fenthion, phoxim and temephos) as test analytes. Various parameters, such as amount of adsorbent, adsorption time, desorption solvent and time, and ionic strength were investigated. The proposed method showed good linearity for the analytes in the concentration range of 1-200μgL(-1) with a correlation coefficient (R)>0.9963. Low limit of detection of 0.01μgL(-1) and high enrichment factors ranging from 84 to 161 were achieved. The proposed method has been successfully used to determine organophosphorus pesticides from three tea drink samples with satisfactory recovery of 81.4-112.6% and RSDs of 4.5-11.3%. The PIL-MNP adsorbent can be reused for 20 times without a noticeable decrease in extraction efficiency. PMID:25022482

  7. Health Safety of Soft Drinks: Contents, Containers, and Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation has been put in place to ensure that soft drinks manufacturers conform to established national and international standards. Consumers trust that the soft drinks they buy are safe and their quality is guaranteed. They also expect to be provided with information that can help them to make informed decisions about the purchase of products and that the information on product labels is not false or misleading. This paper provides a broad overview of available scientific knowledge and cites numerous studies on various aspects of soft drinks and their implications for health safety. Particular attention is given to ingredients, including artificial flavorings, colorings, and preservatives and to the lesser known risks of microbiological and chemical contamination during processing and storage. PMID:25695045

  8. Health safety of soft drinks: contents, containers, and microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kregiel, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation has been put in place to ensure that soft drinks manufacturers conform to established national and international standards. Consumers trust that the soft drinks they buy are safe and their quality is guaranteed. They also expect to be provided with information that can help them to make informed decisions about the purchase of products and that the information on product labels is not false or misleading. This paper provides a broad overview of available scientific knowledge and cites numerous studies on various aspects of soft drinks and their implications for health safety. Particular attention is given to ingredients, including artificial flavorings, colorings, and preservatives and to the lesser known risks of microbiological and chemical contamination during processing and storage. PMID:25695045

  9. Team Awareness, Problem Drinking, and Drinking Climate: Workplace Social Health Promotion in a Policy Context

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Joel B.; Patterson, Camille R.; Reynolds, G. Shawn; Wiitala, Wyndy L.; Lehman, Wayne E. K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose (1) To determine the effectiveness of classroom health promotion/prevention training designed to improve work climate and alcohol outcomes; (2) to assess whether such training contributes to improvements in problem drinking beyond standard workplace alcohol policies. Design A cross-sectional survey assessed employee problem drinking across three time periods. This was followed by a prevention intervention study; work groups were randomly assigned to an 8-hour training course in workplace social health promotion (Team Awareness), a 4-hour informational training course, or a control group. Surveys were administered 2 to 4 weeks before and after training and 6 months after posttest. Setting and Subjects Employees were surveyed from work departments in a large municipality of 3000 workers at three points in time (year, sample, and response rates are shown): (1) 1992, n = 1081, 95%; (2) 1995, n = 856, 97%; and (3) 1999, n = 587, 73%. Employees in the 1999 survey were recruited from safety-sensitive departments and were randomly assigned to receive the psychosocial (n = 201), informational (n = 192), or control (n = 194) condition. Intervention The psychosocial program (Team Awareness) provided skills training in peer referral, team building, and stress management. Informational training used a didactic review of policy, employee assistance, and drug testing. Measures Self-reports measured alcohol use (frequency, drunkenness, hangovers, and problems) and work drinking climate (enabling, responsiveness, drinking norms, stigma, and drink with coworkers). Results Employees receiving Team Awareness reduced problem drinking from 20% to 11% and working with or missing work because of a hangover from 16% to 6%. Information-trained workers also reduced problem drinking from 18% to 10%. These rates of change contrast with changes in problem drinking seen from 1992 (24%) to 1999 (17%). Team Awareness improvements differed significantly from control subjects, which showed

  10. Tea Tree Oil

    MedlinePlus

    96262 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tea/treeoil.htm ... us ... 96262 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tea/treeoil.htm ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/Specifics ... us ... 96262 ... https:// ...

  11. Dentist Should Advise Vegetarians on Good Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mouth Good Dental Erosion: Consume Pickles, Lemons and Soft Drinks in Moderation Give Yourself the Gift of Good ... Health? Living in a Sugar Culture Soda Attack: Soft Drinks, Especially Non-colas and Iced Tea, Hurt Hard ...

  12. Arsenic in drinking water in bangladesh: factors affecting child health.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Sonia N; Aziz, Khwaja M S; Boyle, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people's individuals' time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children's health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  13. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  14. Modelling effects of public health educational campaigns on drinking dynamics.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hong; Song, Na-Na; Huo, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the global property of a drinking model with public health educational campaigns. With the help of Lyapunov function, global stability of equilibria of the model is derived. The alcohol-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the alcohol problems are eliminated from population if [Formula: see text]. A unique alcohol present equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if [Formula: see text]. Furthermore, the basic reproductive [Formula: see text] for the model is compared with the basic reproductive number [Formula: see text] for the absence of public health educational campaigns. We conclude that the public health educational campaigns of drinking individuals can slow down the drinking dynamics. Some numerical simulations are also given to explain our conclusions. PMID:26673882

  15. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis. PMID:26499132

  16. Critical factors determining fluoride concentration in tea leaves produced from Anhui province, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huimei; Zhu, Xiaohui; Peng, Chuanyi; Xu, Wei; Li, Daxiang; Wang, Yijun; Fang, Shihui; Li, Yeyun; Hu, Shaode; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the fluoride present in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and its relationship to soils, varieties, seasons and tea leaf maturity. The study also explored how different manufacturing processes affect the leaching of fluoride into tea beverages. The fluoride concentration in the tea leaves was significantly correlate to the concentration of water-soluble fluoride in the soil. Different tea varieties accumulated different levels of fluoride, with varieties, Anji baicha having the highest and Nongkang zao having the lowest fluoride concentration. In eight different varieties of tea plant harvested over three tea seasons, fluoride concentration were highest in the summer and lowest in the spring in china. The fluoride concentration in tea leaves was directly related to the maturity of the tea leaves at harvest. Importantly, the tea manufacturing process did not introduced fluoride contamination. The leaching of fluoride was 6.8% and 14.1% higher in black and white tea, respectively, than in fresh tea leaves. The manufacturing step most affecting the leaching of fluoride into tea beverage was withering used in white, black and oolong tea rather than rolling or fermentation. The exposure and associated health risks for fluoride concentration in infusions of 115 commercially available teas from Chinese tea markets was determined. The fluoride concentration ranged from 5.0 to 306.0mgkg(-1), with an average of 81.7mgkg(-1). The hazard quotient (HQ) of these teas indicated that there was no risk of fluorosis from drinking tea, based on statistical analysis by Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:27162130

  17. Identification, quantitation, and comprehensive assessment of green, white, and pu-erh teas using UPLC/UV/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.), an important drink and a traditional medicine for thousands of years, contains many compounds of potential benefit to health. Growing season, geographic region, and fermentation method create many variations in tea composition, which contributes to the unique characteris...

  18. Tea is the major source of flavan-3-ol and flavonol in the U.S. diet.

    PubMed

    Song, Won O; Chun, Ock K

    2008-08-01

    Flavonoid intake is inversely associated with the incidence of chronic diseases, but the sources of flavonoid intake in free-living U.S. adults have not yet been reported. We tested hypotheses that tea is the major dietary source of flavonoids in U.S. adults; tea consumers differ from those of tea nonconsumers in sociodemographics, health-related behaviors, and dietary and beverage sources of flavonoid intake. We matched the flavonoid contents of the USDA Flavonoid Databases with dietary intake data of adults (n = 8809) included in NHANES of 1999-2002. Only 21.3% of U.S. adults reported drinking tea daily. Daily total flavonoid intake of tea consumers was over 20 times that of tea nonconsumers (697.9 vs. 32.6 mg/d); per capita flavonoid intake from tea was 157 mg/d. Tea consumers are more likely to be older, female, white, and to have higher income than tea nonconsumers (P < 0.001); to have lower nonleisure-time physical activity level (P < 0.01); and to take dietary supplements (P < 0.001) than tea nonconsumers. Intake of flavonols and flavan-3-ols, the major tea flavonoids, differed between the 2 groups (P < 0.01). Other dietary flavonoid sources after tea were citrus juice, wine, and citrus fruits for both tea consumer and nonconsumer groups. For tea nonconsumers, flavonoid intake from wine, fruitades, and fruit drinks was higher than that in tea consumers. Flavonoid intake differs among subgroups, mainly because of the percentage of tea consumers and the prevalence of tea consumption within each subgroup. PMID:18641204

  19. Drinking Patterns, Gender and Health III: Avoiding vs. Seeking Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Green, Carla A.; Polen, Michael R.; Leo, Michael C.; Janoff, Shannon L.; Anderson, Bradley M.; Weisner, Constance M.; Perrin, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Inability to predict most health services use and costs using demographics and health status suggests that other factors affect use, including attitudes and practices that influence health and willingness to seek care. Alcohol consumption has generated interest because heavy, chronic consumption causes adverse health consequences, acute consumption increases injury, and moderate drinking is linked to better health while hazardous drinking and alcohol-related problems are stigmatized and may affect willingness to seek care. Methods A stratified random sample of health-plan members completed a mail survey, yielding 7884 respondents (2995 male/4889 female). We linked survey data to 24 months of health-plan records to examine relationships between alcohol use, gender, health-related attitudes, practices, health, and service use. In-depth interviews with a stratified 150-respondent subsample explored individuals’ reasons for seeking or avoiding care. Results Quantitative results suggest health-related practices and attitudes predict subsequent service use. Consistent predictors of care were having quit drinking, current at-risk consumption, cigarette smoking, higher BMI, disliking visiting doctors, and strong religious/spiritual beliefs. Qualitative analyses suggest embarrassment and shame are strong motivators for avoiding care. Conclusions Although models included numerous health, functional status, attitudinal and behavioral predictors, variance explained was similar to previous reports, suggesting more complex relationships than expected. Qualitative analyses suggest several potential predictive factors not typically measured in service-use studies: embarrassment and shame, fear, faith that the body will heal, expectations about likelihood of becoming seriously ill, disliking the care process, the need to understand health problems, and the effects of self-assessments of health-related functional limitations. PMID:23795149

  20. Black tea: chemical analysis and stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiming; Lo, Chih-Yu; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Lai, Ching-Shu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Tea is the most popular flavored and functional drink worldwide. The nutritional value of tea is mostly from the tea polyphenols that are reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-oxidant properties, reduction of various cancers, inhibition of inflammation, and protective effects against diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Tea polyphenols include catechins and gallic acid in green and white teas, and theaflavins and thearubigins as well as other catechin polymers in black and oolong teas. Accurate analysis of black tea polyphenols plays a significant role in the identification of black tea contents, quality control of commercial tea beverages and extracts, differentiation of various contents of theaflavins and catechins and correlations of black tea identity and quality with biological activity, and most importantly, the establishment of the relationship between quantitative tea polyphenol content and its efficacy in animal or human studies. Global research in tea polyphenols has generated much in vitro and in vivo data rationally correlating tea polyphenols with their preventive and therapeutic properties in human diseases such as cancer, and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases etc. Based on these scientific findings, numerous tea products have been developed including flavored tea drinks, tea-based functional drinks, tea extracts and concentrates, and dietary supplements and food ingredients, demonstrating the broad applications of tea and its extracts, particularly in the field of functional food. PMID:23037977

  1. COMMUNITY HEALTH ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER IN MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates the health effects of arsenic in drinking water at levels approximately four times the maximum allowed by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Physical examinations of 250 people included evaluating dermatological and neurological health, ...

  2. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents RETHINKING DRINKING Alcohol and Your Health Visit NIAAA's Fully Interactive Web ...

  3. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents RETHINKING DRINKING Alcohol and Your Health Visit NIAAA's Fully Interactive Web site. Tools to ...

  4. Green tea: a novel functional food for the oral health of older adults.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Sumit; Agnihotri, Rupali

    2014-04-01

    Functional foods are foods with positive health effects that extend beyond their nutritional value. They affect the function of the body and help in the management of specific health conditions. Green tea, a time-honoured Chinese herb, might be regarded as a functional food because of its inherent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antimutagenic properties. They are attributed to its reservoir of polyphenols, particularly the catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Owing to these beneficial actions, this traditional beverage was used in the management of chronic systemic diseases including cancer. Recently, it has been emphasized that the host immuno-inflammatory reactions destroy the oral tissues to a greater extent than the microbial activity alone. Green tea with its wide spectrum of activities could be a healthy alternative for controlling these damaging reactions seen in oral diseases, specifically, chronic periodontitis, dental caries and oral cancer, which are a common occurrence in the elderly population. PMID:24261512

  5. The antimicrobial possibilities of green tea

    PubMed Central

    Reygaert, Wanda C.

    2014-01-01

    Green tea is a popular drink, especially in Asian countries, although its popularity continues to spread across the globe. The health benefits of green tea, derived from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, have been studied for many years. Fairly recently, researchers have begun to look at the possibility of using green tea in antimicrobial therapy, and the potential prevention of infections. The particular properties of catechins found in the tea have shown promise for having antimicrobial effects. There are four main catechins (polyphenols) found in green tea: (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Three of these, ECG, EGC, and EGCG have been shown to have antimicrobial effects against a variety of organisms. These catechins have exhibited a variety of antimicrobial mechanisms. The results of studies on the antimicrobial effects of green tea have shown that the potential for preventive and therapeutic purposes is present. Further data collection on studies performed with human consumption during the course of infections, and studies on the occurrence of infections in populations that consume regular amounts of green tea will be necessary to complete the picture of its antimicrobial possibilities. PMID:25191312

  6. A comparative analysis of chemical compositions in Camellia sinensis var. puanensis Kurihara, a novel Chinese tea, by HPLC and UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Fang; Ouyang, Shu-Hua; Chang, Yi-Qun; Wang, Ting-Mei; Li, Wei-Xi; Tian, Hai-Yan; Cao, Hong; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2017-02-01

    Camellia sinensis var. puanensis Kurihara (Puan tea) is a kind of ancient tea plant newly found in Jiangxipo and the surrounding areas of Puan County (Guizhou, China). People there always believe that drinking Puan tea is beneficial to the promotion of health and prevention of diseases. However, detailed information on its compositions has not been reported. Therefore, in this study, the varieties and contents of purine alkaloids and polyphenols in Puan tea were identified and determined by HPLC and UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Our results showed that theacrine, but not caffeine, was the dominated purine alkaloid detected in Puan tea. Meanwhile, Puan tea contained B-type procyanidin dimer, trimer and dimer monogallate, which were not detected in Camellia sinensis, Camellia ptilophylla and Camellia assamica var. kucha. The obtained results could support the local uses of Puan tea in health and nutrition and contribute to the research of tea variety. PMID:27596421

  7. Human Health Relevance of Pharmaceutically Active Compounds in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman; Nicell, Jim

    2015-05-01

    In Canada, as many as 20 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been detected in samples of treated drinking water. The presence of these PhACs in drinking water raises important questions as to the human health risk posed by their potential appearance in drinking water supplies and the extent to which they indicate that other PhACs are present but have not been detected using current analytical methods. Therefore, the goal of the current investigation was to conduct a screening-level assessment of the human health risks posed by the aquatic release of an evaluation set of 335 selected PhACs. Predicted and measured concentrations were used to estimate the exposure of Canadians to each PhAC in the evaluation set. Risk evaluations based on measurements could only be performed for 17 PhACs and, of these, all were found to pose a negligible risk to human health when considered individually. The same approach to risk evaluation, but based on predicted rather than measured environmental concentrations, suggested that 322 PhACs of the evaluation set, when considered individually, are expected to pose a negligible risk to human health due to their potential presence in drinking waters. However, the following 14 PhACs should be prioritized for further study: triiodothyronine, thyroxine, ramipril and its metabolite ramiprilat, candesartan, lisinopril, atorvastatin, lorazepam, fentanyl, atenolol, metformin, enalaprilat, morphine, and irbesartan. Finally, the currently available monitoring data for PhACs in Canadian surface and drinking waters was found to be lacking, irrespective of whether their suitability was assessed based on risk posed, predicted exposure concentrations, or potency. PMID:25739816

  8. Effect on gastric function and symptoms of drinking wine, black tea, or schnapps with a Swiss cheese fondue: randomised controlled crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Henriette; Goetze, Oliver; Menne, Dieter; Iten, Peter X; Fruehauf, Heiko; Vavricka, Stephan R; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of drinking white wine or black tea with Swiss cheese fondue followed by a shot of cherry schnapps on gastric emptying, appetite, and abdominal symptoms. Design Randomised controlled crossover study. Participants 20 healthy adults (14 men) aged 23-58. Interventions Cheese fondue (3260 kJ, 32% fat) labelled with 150 mg sodium 13Carbon-octanoate was consumed with 300 ml of white wine (13%, 40 g alcohol) or black tea in randomised order, followed by 20 ml schnapps (40%, 8 g alcohol) or water in randomised order. Main outcome measures Cumulative percentage dose of 13C substrate recovered over four hours (higher values indicate faster gastric emptying) and appetite and dyspeptic symptoms (visual analogue scales). Results Gastric emptying was significantly faster when fondue was consumed with tea or water than with wine or schnapps (cumulative percentage dose of 13C recovered 18.1%, 95% confidence interval 15.2% to 20.9% v 7.4%, 4.6% to 10.3%; P<0.001). An inverse dose-response relation between alcohol intake and gastric emptying was evident. Appetite was similar with consumption of wine or tea (difference 0.11, −0.12 to 0.34; P=0.35), but reduced if both wine and schnapps were consumed (difference −0.40, −0.01 to −0.79; P<0.046). No difference in dyspeptic symptoms was present. Conclusions Gastric emptying after a Swiss cheese fondue is noticeably slower and appetite suppressed if consumed with higher doses of alcohol. This effect was not associated with dyspeptic symptoms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00943696. PMID:21156747

  9. Health risks due to radon in drinking water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopke, P.K.; Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.; Cleaver, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Gundersen, L.C.S.; Harley, N.H.; Hess, C.T.; Kinner, N.E.; Kopecky, K.J.; Mckone, T.E.; Sextro, R.G.; Simon, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for 222Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient 222Rn concentration and the increment of 222Rn to the indoor- air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air- producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such 'multimedia mitigation programs' were explored.

  10. Gender Differences in Tea, Coffee, and Cognitive Decline in the Elderly: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Lenore; Biggs, Mary L.; O’Meara, Ellen S.; Longstreth, W.T.; Crane, Paul K.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.

    2013-01-01

    Although caffeine can enhance cognitive function acutely, long-term effects of consumption of caffeine-containing beverages such as tea and coffee are uncertain. Data on 4,809 participants aged 65 and older from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) were used to examine the relationship of consumption of tea and coffee, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, on change in cognitive function by gender. Cognitive performance was assessed using serial Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examinations, which were administered annually up to 9 times. Linear mixed models were used to estimate rates of change in standard 3MS scores and scores modeled using item response theory (IRT). Models were adjusted for age, education, smoking status, clinic site, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, coronary heart disease, depression score, and APOE genotype. Over the median 7.9 years of follow-up, participants who did not consume tea or coffee declined annually by an average of 1.30 points (women) and 1.11 points (men) on standard 3MS scores. In fully adjusted models using either standard or IRT 3MS scores, we found modestly reduced rates of cognitive decline for some, but not all, levels of coffee and tea consumption for women, with no consistent effect for men. Caffeine consumption was also associated with attenuation in cognitive decline in women. Dose-response relationships were not linear. These longitudinal analyses suggest a somewhat attenuated rate of cognitive decline among tea and coffee consumers compared to non-consumers in women but not in men. Whether this association is causal or due to unmeasured confounding requires further study. PMID:21841254

  11. Are endocrine disrupting compounds a health risk in drinking water?

    PubMed

    Falconer, Ian R

    2006-06-01

    There has been a great deal of international discussion on the nature and relevance of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment. Changes in reproductive organs of fish and mollusks have been demonstrated in rivers downstream of sewage discharges in Europe and in North America, which have been attributed to estrogenic compounds in the effluent. The anatomical and physiological changes in the fauna are illustrated by feminization of male gonads. The compounds of greatest hormonal activity in sewage effluent are the natural estrogens 17Beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol and the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol. Androgens are also widely present in wastewaters. Investigations of anthropogenic chemical contaminants in freshwaters and wastewaters have shown a wide variety of organic compounds, many of which have low levels of estrogenic activity. In many highly populated countries the drinking water is sourced from the same rivers and lakes that are the recipients of sewage and industrial discharge. The River Thames which flows through London, England, has overall passed through drinking water and sewage discharge 5 times from source to mouth of the river. Under these types of circumstance, any accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds from sewage or industry potentially affects the quality of drinking water. Neither basic wastewater treatment nor basic drinking water treatment will eliminate the estrogens, androgens or detergent breakdown products from water, due to the chemical stability of the structures. Hence a potential risk to health exists; however present data indicate that estrogenic contamination of drinking water is very unlikely to result in physiologically detectable effects in consumers. Pesticide, detergent and industrial contamination remain issues of concern. As a result of this concern, increased attention is being given to enhanced wastewater treatment in locations where the effluent is directly or indirectly in use for drinking water

  12. [The protection of drinking water in a public health department].

    PubMed

    Monari, R; Petrolo, A; Mascelli, M; Vannucchi, G

    2008-01-01

    The protection of drinking water is a key issue in a Public Health Department's activity. A substantial amount of planning and monitoring work is involved in the development and implementation of a water safety plan, aimed not only at the enforcement of public health regulations, but also at the improvement of the quality water. We provide an overview of the quality monitoring program of the municipality of Prato, a highly populated and industrialized area, where ground water is contaminated by anthropogenic pollutants such as trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and nitrate. We show how, in spite of the intrinsically poor quality of the basic water resource, the careful application of an appropriate prevention plan, with the cooperation of the local water authority, allows the delivery of drinking water of increasing safety and quality. PMID:19238879

  13. Update on Emergency Department Visits Involving Energy Drinks: A Continuing Public Health Concern

    MedlinePlus

    Update on Emergency Department Visits Involving Energy Drinks: A Continuing Public Health Concern Energy drinks are flavored beverages containing high amounts of caffeine and typically other additives, such as ...

  14. Preparation of a polymeric ionic liquid-based adsorbent for stir cake sorptive extraction of preservatives in orange juices and tea drinks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Huang, Xiaojia

    2016-04-15

    In this study, a new polymeric ionic liquid-based adsorbent was prepared and used as the extraction medium of stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) of three organic acid preservatives, namely, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, sorbic acid and cinnamic acid. The adsorbent was synthesized by the copolymerization of 1-ally-3-vinylimidazolium chloride (AV) and divinylbenzene (DVB) in the presence of a porogen solvent containing 1-propanol and 1,4-butanediol. The effect of the content of monomer and the porogen solvent in the polymerization mixture on the extraction performance was investigated thoroughly. The adsorbent was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. To obtain the optimal extraction conditions of SCSE/AVDVB for target analytes, key parameters including desorption solvent, adsorption and desorption time, ionic strength and pH value in sample matrix were studied in detail. The results showed that under the optimized conditions, the SCSE/AVDVB could extract the preservatives effectively through multiply interactions. At the same time, a simple and sensitive method by combining SCSE/AVDVB and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was developed for the simultaneous analysis of the target preservatives in orange juices and tea drinks. Low limits of detection (S/N = 3) and quantification limits (S/N = 10) of the proposed method for the target analytes were achieved within the range of 0.012-0.23 μg/L and 0.039-0.42 μg/L, respectively. The precision of the proposed method was evaluated in terms of intra- and inter-assay variability calculated as relative standard deviation (RSD), and it was found that the values were all below 10%. Finally, the proposed method was used to detect preservatives in different orange juice and tea drink samples successfully. The recoveries were in the range of 71.9-116%, and the RSDs were below 10% in the all cases. PMID:27016436

  15. [Historical consideration of tea trees and tea flowers, especially regarding the use of tea flowers as food].

    PubMed

    Harima, Shoichi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Tokuoka, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Not only tea leaves, but also many kinds of plants have been used as tea, even those plants not belonging to Camellia sinensis, and they should be called "tea out of tea" in the Lucidophyllous forest zone. Generally, the tea leaf is drank after being decocted (almost boiled). The growth distribution of tea ranges in a belt-like zone of 30-40 degrees north latitude. Therefore, tea might have grown wild as "YAMACHA (mountain tea)" from ancient times in Japan as well as China. The first recored of tea drinking in Japan is the ceremony of "GYOUCHA" at the Imperial Court of the Emperor SHOUMU in 729. On the other hand, the oldest book about tea in China (CHAKYOU) was written in 770. Therefore, it seems that tea drinking started at nearly the same time in both countries. Tea was dispensed as medical supplies by Chinese medicinal prescription (SENKYUCHACHOUSAN) in Japan, but in China, tea was used as powdered medicine for drinking (SEICHA). However, the leaf of a certain plant used as "tea out of tea," was applied as a galenical preparation for traditional Chinese medicinal constitution. However, it is not possible to judge whether or not there was adaptability in Chinese medicine theory. In Japan, when tea was first consumed as a food, other than a few exceptions tea leaves were used as a coarse tea (BANCHA) until the latter half of the Meiji period. Mixing in air by stirring a tea solution, and at the same time, letting tea match with hot water. It was wisdom to improve the taste. As a result, in order to make bubble well, both of the condition and technique were devised. One of the approaches was to add the dried plant of Leguminosae (saponin) or tea flower (saponin), when "BANCHA" was decorted. And also tools such as a bamboo tea whisk (CHASEN) as well as bowl (GOROHACHI-CHAWAN), were conceived. "FURICHA" was served as a medicine by KUUYASHOUNIN in Japan in 951. Afterwards, the prayer ceremonies at shrines and temples used CHARAZU," showing the custom to serve tea in

  16. Children's and parents' health perception of different soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Tamara; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-02-14

    Beverages are among the first independent product choices that school-aged children will make and unhealthy choices can be a threat to children's health. The present study investigated which beverage attributes shape adults' and children's health perceptions. For this purpose, 100 children (fifty-two boys; mean age 8·8 (SD 1·1) years) and their parents were invited to independently perform a beverage-sorting task. Participants were asked to place twenty commonly consumed soft drinks in a line ranging from 'unhealthy' to 'healthy'. The sorting data were analysed using multidimensional scaling with property fitting and hierarchical clustering. Sugar content (βparents= - 0·78, βchildren= - 0·68; P< 0·001), artificial sweeteners (βparents= - 0·68, βchildren= - 0·66; P< 0·001), fruit content (βparents= 0·33, βchildren= 0·36; P< 0·05) and caffeine content (βparents= - 0·45, βchildren= - 0·46; P< 0·01) were found to be the predictors of parents' and children's health perceptions. Parents' and children's estimates were strongly related (rs 0·70 (SD 0·15)); both groups classified the beverages into similar clusters. However, compared with their parents, children perceived beverages such as fruit juices and grapefruit soda to be healthier. In conclusion, parents' and children's health perceptions were strongly related based on the same relevant attributes for evaluation. However, fruit content was considered a more important criterion by children, which might lead to differences in the health perception between children and their parents. Low fruit content and the belief of beverages being 'natural' could positively bias perceptions. Therefore, certain soft drinks such as squashes or fruit lemonades are problematic, and the consumer's awareness of their low nutritional quality should be raised. PMID:25612601

  17. [Brick-tea type adult bone fluorosis].

    PubMed

    Cao, Jin; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Jianwei; Xirao, Ruodeng

    2003-03-01

    To investigate health impact of brick-tea type fluorosis in adults, the total daily fluorine intake, environment fluorine level were determined, the average urinary fluorine content assay and bone X-ray examination were conducted, the clinical manifestations were observed in the brick-tea type bone fluorosis epidemiological study conducted in Naqu County, Tibet at September, 2001. One hundred and eleven adults aged at 30-78 year-old were enrolled. It was found that the fluorine level of drinking water in Naqu County was 0.10 +/- 0.03 mg/L, but the brick-tea water processed foods-zamba and buttered tea had fluorine content of 4.52 +/- 0.74 mg/kg and 3.21 +/- 0.65 mg/kg respectively. The adult daily fluorine intake reached 11.99 mg, among which 99% is originated from the brick-tea containing foods. Positive detection rate of fluorosis osteopathy was 89% and the X-ray film confirmed that the diagnosis rate was 83%. Degenerative arthropathy and ossification of the interosteal membrane, calcification of the tendon were the characteristics that indicated by both the positive signs and reogenological examination. The prevalence of osteosclerosis type (bone matrix increased) was 74%. It is suggested that there were even more severe health impact compared with those in the water type and coal combustion type fluorosis. PMID:12793007

  18. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093

  19. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093

  20. Fast and simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and caffeine in teas, mate, instant coffee, soft drink and energetic drink by high-performance liquid chromatography using a fused-core column.

    PubMed

    Rostagno, M A; Manchón, N; D'Arrigo, M; Guillamón, E; Villares, A; García-Lafuente, A; Ramos, A; Martínez, J A

    2011-01-31

    A fast HPLC method with diode-array absorbance detector and fluorescence detector for the analysis of 19 phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavones, flavonols and caffeine in different types of samples was developed. Using a C(18) reverse-phase fused-core column separation of all compounds was achieved in less than 5 min with an overall sample-to-sample time of 10 min. Evaluation of chromatographic performance revealed excellent reproducibility, resolution, selectivity and peak symmetry. Limits of detection for all analyzed compounds ranged from 0.5 to 211 μg L(-1), while limits of quantitation ranged between 1.5 and 704 μg L(-1). The developed method was used for the determination of analytes present in different samples, including teas (black, white, green), mate, coffee, cola soft drink and an energetic drink. Concentration of the analyzed compounds occurring in the samples ranged from 0.4 to 314 mg L(-1). Caffeine was the analyte found in higher concentrations in all samples. Phytochemical profiles of the samples were consistent with those reported in the literature. PMID:21168570

  1. Drinking pattern of wine and effects on human health: why should we drink moderately and with meals?

    PubMed

    Boban, Mladen; Stockley, Creina; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Restani, Patrizia; Fradera, Ursula; Stein-Hammer, Claudia; Ruf, Jean-Claude

    2016-07-13

    Conclusions of epidemiological studies examining the effects of alcoholic beverages on human health may be unclear and limited if they do not take into account drinking pattern parameters such as beverage type, regular moderate versus binge drinking and drinking with or without meals. This review considers different aspects of drinking patterns and effects on human health with special attention to wine. We particularly discuss the potential underlying mechanisms for epidemiological evidence that the beneficial effects of wine are more evident if consumed with food. In this context, we address the effects of food on blood alcohol concentration and acetaldehyde production in the gastrointestinal tract, the role of wine components and uric acid in counteracting the detrimental effects of postprandial oxidative stress, as well as wine's antimicrobial properties and its potential to act as a digestive aid. In addition to its biological correlates, drinking patterns with regard to different socio-cultural circumstances in different populations are also considered. In order to avoid confusion and misconceptions in the general population because of the hormetic associations of wine with human health, it is important that all medical and scientific information concerning the effect of wine consumption on human health are evidence-based and communicated in a competent, credible and unbiased manner. In conclusion, we propose several practical recommendations concerning wine consumption and consumer information to minimize the risks of alcohol-related harm and to encourage individual responsibility and a healthy lifestyle. PMID:27359203

  2. Politics and Public Health: The Flint Drinking Water Crisis.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    2016-07-01

    The Flint, Michigan, lead drinking water crisis is perhaps the most vivid current illustration of health inequalities in the United States. Since 2014, Flint citizens-among the poorest in America, mostly African American-had complained that their tap water was foul and discolored. But city, state, and federal officials took no heed. In March 2016, an independent task force found fault at every level of government and also highlighted what may amount to criminal negligence for workers who seemingly falsified water-quality results, allowing the people of Flint to continue to be exposed to water well above the federally allowed lead levels. It would have been possible to prevent lead seeping into the drinking water by treating the pipes with federally approved anticorrosives for around $100 per day. But today the cost of repairing the Flint water system is estimated at $1.5 billion, and fixing the ageing and lead-laden system across the United States would cost at least $1.3 trillion. How will Flint residents get justice and fair compensation for the wrongs caused by individual and systemic failures? And how will governments rebuild a water infrastructure that is causing and will continue to cause toxic conditions, particularly in economically marginalized cities and towns across America? PMID:27417861

  3. Green tea polyphenols and their potential role in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Afzal, M; Safer, A M; Menon, M

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that plant polyphenols such as resveratrol, anthocyanins, catechins, and terpenes like taxol are effectively used in the treatment of chronic conditions including cancer, Alzheimer, Parkinsonism, diabetes, aging, etc. The link between oxidative stress and inflammation is well accepted. Thus, the mechanism of action of these natural products is partly believed to be through their significant antioxidant properties. The main constituent of green tea, with clinical significance, is epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). It has been associated with antitumor, anti-Alzheimer, and anti-aging properties, improve redox status at the tissue level possibly preventing system level structural damage. This review focuses on EGCG and its potential therapeutic role in health and disease. PMID:26164000

  4. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tea and tea infusions].

    PubMed

    Ciemniak, Artur; Mocek, Kamila

    2010-01-01

    Tea is the one of most widely consumed beverage in the world. It is generally believed that tea consumption might have health promoting properties. But residues of certain chemical compounds might impose a health threat on tea drinkers. The main contaminants are heavy metals, fluoride, pesticides and even dioxins. Tea lives which possess a high surface area can be contaminated with atmospheric PAHs. The manufacturing processes may also introduce PAHs into tea lives. The aim of his study was to determine the contamination of black, green, red and white teas by PAHs. In this investigation, content of 23 PAH, i.e 16 EPA PAH and 15 EU PAH were determined in 18 brands of tea and its infusions. The analytical procedure was based on ultrasonic extraction for dried tea and liquid-liquid extraction for infusions. All samples were cleaned up by florisil cartridge. The total content of 23 PAH varied between 22.9 microg/kg to 2945.5 microg/kg and 2.7 microg/kg to 63,1 microg/kg microg/kg for BaP. The analysed tea samples showed an increasing presence of PAH in the following order (mean value): black tea < red tea < green tea < white tea. However the highest content of PAH was found in the one brand of black tea bag both in sum of PAH and BaP content. During tea infusion 1.6% of total PAHs contained in tea was released into the beverage. The dominant PAHs in tea infusion were 2, 3 and 4 rings PAH, while the most toxic compounds were found at trace amounts. The concentrations of total 23 PAHs and BaP in tea infusions ranged from 332.5 ng/dm3 to 2245.9 ng/dm3 and 0.35 ng/dm3 to 18.7 ng/dm3 respectively. PMID:21365858

  5. Commitment Strength, Alcohol Dependence and HealthCall Participation: Effects on Drinking Reduction in HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aharonovich, Efrat; Stohl, Malka; Ellis, James; Amrhein, Paul; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The role of three factors in drinking outcome after brief intervention among heavily drinking HIV patients were investigated: strength of commitment to change drinking, alcohol dependence, and treatment type: brief Motivational Interview (MI) only, or MI plus HealthCall, a technological extension of brief intervention. METHODS HIV primary care patients (N=139) who drank ≥4 drinks at least once in the 30 days before study entry participated in MI-only or MI+HealthCall in a randomized trial to reduce drinking. Patients were 95.0% minority; 23.0% female; 46.8% alcohol dependent; mean age 46.3. Outcome at end of treatment (60 days) was drinks per drinking day (Timeline Follow-Back). Commitment strength (CS) was rated from MI session recordings. RESULTS Overall, stronger CS predicted end-of-treatment drinking (p<.001). After finding an interaction of treatment, CS and alcohol dependence (p=.01), we examined treatment × CS interactions in alcohol dependent and non-dependent patients. In alcohol dependent patients, the treatment × commitment strength interaction was significant (p=.006); patients with low commitment strength had better outcomes in MI+HealthCall than in MI-only (lower mean drinks per drinking day; 3.5 and 4.6 drinks, respectively). In non-dependent patients, neither treatment nor CS predicted outcome. CONCLUSIONS Among alcohol dependent HIV patients, HealthCall was most beneficial in drinking reduction when MI ended with low commitment strength. HealthCall may not merely extend MI effects, but add effects of its own that compensate for low commitment strength. Thus, HealthCall may also be effective when paired with briefer interventions requiring less skill, training and supervision than MI. Replication is warranted. PMID:24332577

  6. Mental and Social Health Impacts the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies in Reducing Risky Drinking and Alcohol Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative…

  7. World Health Organization Discontinues Its Drinking-Water Guideline for Manganese

    PubMed Central

    Frisbie, Seth H.; Mitchell, Erika J.; Dustin, Hannah; Maynard, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) released the fourth edition of Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality in July 2011. In this edition, the 400-µg/L drinking-water guideline for manganese (Mn) was discontinued with the assertion that because “this health-based value is well above concentrations of manganese normally found in drinking water, it is not considered necessary to derive a formal guideline value.” Objective: In this commentary, we review the WHO guideline for Mn in drinking water—from its introduction in 1958 through its discontinuation in 2011. Methods: For the primary references, we used the WHO publications that documented the Mn guidelines. We used peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, published conference proceedings, and theses to identify countries with drinking water or potential drinking-water supplies exceeding 400 µg/L Mn and peer-reviewed journal articles to summarize the health effects of Mn. Discussion: Drinking water or potential drinking-water supplies with Mn concentrations > 400 µg/L are found in a substantial number of countries worldwide. The drinking water of many tens of millions of people has Mn concentrations > 400 µg/L. Recent research on the health effects of Mn suggests that the earlier WHO guideline of 400 µg/L may have been too high to adequately protect public health. Conclusions: The toxic effects and geographic distribution of Mn in drinking-water supplies justify a reevaluation by the WHO of its decision to discontinue its drinking-water guideline for Mn. PMID:22334150

  8. Health Risk Assessment for Groundwater Resource Used for Drinking Water in Pingtung Plain, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Shen-Wei

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater has been massively used for drinking by local residents due to deficiency in surface water in Pingtung Plain, Taiwan. A long-term survey of groundwater quality revealed that concentrations of water quality items in some of the monitoring wells exceeded the Taiwanese standards for drinking water quality. Water of poor quality can have an adverse health impact. Effective health risk-based groundwater management typically faces great challenges because of the inherent spatial variability in groundwater quality. In this study, we target to spatially analyze the health hazard and risk from consumption of groundwater for drinking. We computed the hazard quotient and health risk using exposure and risk model and hydrochemical data surveyed by Taiwan Water Resource Agency and Environmental Protection Agency. The zone suitable for groundwater used is delineated based on the results of the spatial health risk map. The results of the analysis can help government administrator in managing groundwater used for drinking in Pingtung Plain in Taiwan.

  9. [Contents of aluminum and manganese in tea leaves and tea infusions].

    PubMed

    Matsushima, F; Meshitsuka, S; Nose, T

    1993-10-01

    We measured the contents of aluminum and manganese in tea leaves and tea infusions by means of various standardized infusion conditions, and by using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and investigated the influence of infusion conditions on the elution of aluminum and manganese into the tea infusions. Furthermore, we tried to estimate the daily intake of aluminum and manganese due to drinking tea infusions. The content of aluminum in tea leaves was 1420 micrograms/g in case of wulong tea, 576 micrograms/g in black tea, and 520 micrograms/g in green tea. The content of manganese was 1440 micrograms/g in the case of wulong tea, 670 micrograms/g in green tea, and 535 micrograms/g in black tea. The concentration of aluminum in tea infusions was 1.49-5.58 micrograms/ml in wulong tea, 0.90-4.92 micrograms/ml in green tea, and 0.64-4.35 micrograms/ml in black tea. The concentration of manganese was 1.75-6.67 micrograms/ml in green tea, 0.94-4.04 micrograms/ml in wulong tea, and 0.78-3.24 micrograms/ml in black tea. The ratio of the molar concentration of aluminum to that of manganese was 1-2:1 in tea leaves, and 1-5:1 in tea infusions. In the case of elevated-temperature infusion, increases of the concentrations of aluminum and manganese in tea infusions were recognized. By repeating infusion three times according to the standard method for ingredient analysis of food, 18-29% of the total content of aluminum in tea leaves was eluted, and 12-29% of the total content of manganese was eluted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8254994

  10. Drinking patterns, health care utilization, and costs among HMO primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Polen, M R; Green, C A; Freeborn, D K; Mullooly, J P; Lynch, F

    2001-11-01

    A survey of 8,034 primary care patients in a health maintenance organization examined the relationship between alcohol consumption and health care costs and service use. Costs were estimated from service use data for 1 year before and 2 years after study enrollment. No strong, consistent relationships were identified between multiple indicators of drinking patterns and either health care costs or service use. Compared with total costs among very light drinkers, former drinkers were higher, lifetime abstainers were similar, and persons in the higher drinking levels tended to have lower but not significantly different costs. Drinking patterns did not appear to be an important predictor of short-term health care costs or service use in this setting. Further study of former drinkers is warranted to examine the role of alcohol-related illnesses in the decision to quit drinking. PMID:11732242

  11. [Energy drinks and their contribution to current health concerns for children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Cichocki, Michał

    2012-01-01

    Carbonated beverages including energy drinks make up an increasing percentage of energy intake amongst adults as well as children and adolescents. Due to high content of di- or monosaccharides and biologically active compounds (mainly caffeine), their regular intake may involve addictions and potential health risks, including diabetes. Although consumption of energy drinks is usually not recommended by the manufacturers to the children under the age of 16, due to its popularity and unrestricted availability on market energy drinks are easily accessible to younger children. Low awareness of the potential health risks involved with such beverages in society together with unrestricted distribution and advertising requires undertaking general information campaign concerning energy drinks. In this paper a critical review has been made to discuss potential somatic and psychological health risks issue. Moreover, conclusions were supported with the results of the survey conducted among college and high-school adolescents. PMID:23421046

  12. [Pay attention to the human health risk of drinking low mineral water].

    PubMed

    Shu, Weiqun

    2015-10-01

    The consumption of low mineral drinking water has been increasing around the world with the shortage of water resources and the development of advanced water treatment technologies. Evidences from systematic document reviews, ecological epidemiological observations, and experimental drinking water intervention studies indicate that lack of minerals in drinking water may cause direct or indirect harm to human health, among which, the associations of magnesium in water with cardiovascular disease, as well as calcium in water with osteoporosis, are well proved by sufficient evidence. This article points out that it is urgent to pay more attention to the issues about establishment of health risk evaluation system on susceptible consuming population, establishment of lab evaluation system on water quality and health effect for non-traditional drinking water, and program of safety mineralization for demineralized or desalinated water and so on. PMID:26813714

  13. Health Implications of PAH Release from Coated Cast Iron Drinking Water Distribution Systems in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, Bianca M.; de Jongh, Cindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coal tar and bitumen have been historically used to coat the insides of cast iron drinking water mains. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may leach from these coatings into the drinking water and form a potential health risk for humans. Objective: We estimated the potential human cancer risk from PAHs in coated cast iron water mains. Method: In a Dutch nationwide study, we collected drinking water samples at 120 locations over a period of 17 days under various operational conditions, such as undisturbed operation, during flushing of pipes, and after a mains repair, and analyzed these samples for PAHs. We then estimated the health risk associated with an exposure scenario over a lifetime. Results: During flushing, PAH levels frequently exceeded drinking water quality standards; after flushing, these levels dropped rapidly. After the repair of cast iron water mains, PAH levels exceeded the drinking water standards for up to 40 days in some locations. Conclusions: The estimated margin of exposure for PAH exposure through drinking water was > 10,000 for all 120 measurement locations, which suggests that PAH exposure through drinking water is of low concern for consumer health. However, factors that differ among water systems, such as the use of chlorination for disinfection, may influence PAH levels in other locations. PMID:23425894

  14. Dissipation Pattern, Processing Factors, and Safety Evaluation for Dimethoate and Its Metabolite (Omethoate) in Tea (Camellia Sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Ming-Lu; Wang, Qing-Hua; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Residue levels of dimethoate and its oxon metabolite (omethoate) during tea planting, manufacturing, and brewing were investigated using a modified QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography. Dissipation of dimethoate and its metabolite in tea plantation followed the first-order kinetic with a half-life of 1.08–1.27 d. Tea manufacturing has positive effects on dimethoate dissipation. Processing factors of dimethoate are in the range of 2.11–2.41 and 1.41–1.70 during green tea and black tea manufacturing, respectively. Omethoate underwent generation as well as dissipation during tea manufacturing. Sum of dimethoate and omethoate led to a large portion of 80.5–84.9% transferring into tea infusion. Results of safety evaluation indicated that omethoate could bring higher human health risk than dimethoate due to its higher hazard quotient by drinking tea. These results would provide information for the establishment of maximum residue limit and instruction for the application of dimethoate formulation on tea crop. PMID:26406463

  15. Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea and depression risk among older US adults.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuguang; Park, Yikyung; Freedman, Neal D; Sinha, Rashmi; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Blair, Aaron; Chen, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea are the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and may have important health consequences. We prospectively evaluated the consumption of various types of beverages assessed in 1995-1996 in relation to self-reported depression diagnosis after 2000 among 263,923 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from multivariate logistic regressions. The OR (95% CI) comparing ≥4 cans/cups per day with none were 1.30 (95%CI: 1.17-1.44) for soft drinks, 1.38 (1.15-1.65) for fruit drinks, and 0.91 (0.84-0.98) for coffee (all P for trend<0.0001). Null associations were observed for iced-tea and hot tea. In stratified analyses by drinkers of primarily diet versus regular beverages, the ORs were 1.31 (1.16-1.47) for diet versus 1.22 (1.03-1.45) for regular soft drinks, 1.51 (1.18-1.92) for diet versus 1.08 (0.79-1.46) for regular fruit drinks, and 1.25 (1.10-1.41) for diet versus 0.94 (0.83-1.08) for regular sweetened iced-tea. Finally, compared to nondrinkers, drinking coffee or tea without any sweetener was associated with a lower risk for depression, adding artificial sweeteners, but not sugar or honey, was associated with higher risks. Frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, especially diet drinks, may increase depression risk among older adults, whereas coffee consumption may lower the risk. PMID:24743309

  16. Sweetened Beverages, Coffee, and Tea and Depression Risk among Older US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xuguang; Park, Yikyung; Freedman, Neal D.; Sinha, Rashmi; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Blair, Aaron; Chen, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea are the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and may have important health consequences. We prospectively evaluated the consumption of various types of beverages assessed in 1995–1996 in relation to self-reported depression diagnosis after 2000 among 263,923 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from multivariate logistic regressions. The OR (95% CI) comparing ≥4 cans/cups per day with none were 1.30 (95%CI: 1.17–1.44) for soft drinks, 1.38 (1.15–1.65) for fruit drinks, and 0.91 (0.84–0.98) for coffee (all P for trend<0.0001). Null associations were observed for iced-tea and hot tea. In stratified analyses by drinkers of primarily diet versus regular beverages, the ORs were 1.31 (1.16–1.47) for diet versus 1.22 (1.03–1.45) for regular soft drinks, 1.51 (1.18–1.92) for diet versus 1.08 (0.79–1.46) for regular fruit drinks, and 1.25 (1.10–1.41) for diet versus 0.94 (0.83–1.08) for regular sweetened iced-tea. Finally, compared to nondrinkers, drinking coffee or tea without any sweetener was associated with a lower risk for depression, adding artificial sweeteners, but not sugar or honey, was associated with higher risks. Frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, especially diet drinks, may increase depression risk among older adults, whereas coffee consumption may lower the risk. PMID:24743309

  17. Green Tea and Bone metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K.; Cao, Jay; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on: (i) the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis, (ii) the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in osteoporosis, (iii) green tea composition and bioavailability, (iv) the effects of green tea and its active components on osteogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis from human epidemiological, animal, as well as cell culture studies, (v) possible mechanisms explaining the osteo-protective effects of green tea bioactive compounds, (vi) other bioactive components in tea that benefit bone health, and (vii) a summary and future direction of green tea and bone health research and the translational aspects. In general, tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density (BMD) and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities. PMID:19700031

  18. Black tea

    MedlinePlus

    Black tea is a product made from the Camellia sinesis plant. The aged leaves and stems are ... of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness as ...

  19. Green Tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References Green tea. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 8, 2009. Green tea ( Camellia sinensis ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on July ...

  20. HealthLines for Pregnancy …healthy eating, exercising, and 10 more handy sources of information

    MedlinePlus

    ... caffeine-containing beverages . If you drink lots of coffee, tea, or soda, check with your health care provider about cutting back on caffeine. Instead, try decaffeinated versions of your favorite beverage, or warm low- ...

  1. Environmental health perspectives. Volume 46. Drinking water disinfectants - December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lucier, G.W.; Hook, G.E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Among subjects considered are chlorine dioxide, N-chloramines, mutagenic activity by disinfectant reaction products, trihalomethane and behavioral toxicity, and carcinogenic risk estimation. There are 27 papers on these and related topics. The volume stems from a symposium on drinking water disinfectants and disinfectant by-products.

  2. [Health Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Tianjin Based on GIS].

    PubMed

    Fu, Gang; Zeng, Qiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Yue; Feng, Bao-jia; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yang; Hou, Chang-chun

    2015-12-01

    This study intends to assess the potential health hazards of drinking water quality and explore the application of geographic information system( GIS) in drinking water safety in Tianjin. Eight hundred and fifty water samples from 401 sampling points in Tianjin were measured according to the national drinking water standards. The risk assessment was conducted using the environmental health risk assessment model recommended by US EAP, and GIS was combined to explore the information visualization and risk factors simultaneously. The results showed that the health risks of carcinogens, non-carcinogens were 3.83 x 10⁻⁵, 5.62 x 10⁻⁹ and 3.83 x 10⁻⁵ for total health risk respectively. The rank of health risk was carcinogen > non-carcinogen. The rank of carcinogens health risk was urban > new area > rural area, chromium (VI) > cadmium > arsenic > trichlormethane > carbon tetrachloride. The rank of non-carcinogens health risk was rural area > new area > urban, fluoride > cyanide > lead > nitrate. The total health risk level of drinking water in Tianjin was lower than that of ICRP recommended level (5.0 x 10⁻⁵), while was between US EPA recommended level (1.0 x 10⁻⁴-1.0 x 10⁻⁶). It was at an acceptable level and would not cause obvious health hazards. The main health risks of drinking water came from carcinogens. More attentions should be paid to chromium (VI) for carcinogens and fluoride for non-carcinogens. GIS can accomplish information visualization of drinking water risk assessment and further explore of risk factors. PMID:27011993

  3. Use (and misuse) of the responsible drinking message in public health and alcohol advertising: a review.

    PubMed

    Barry, Adam E; Goodson, Patricia

    2010-04-01

    The objective is to present a comparative analysis examining the alcohol industry's and scholarly researchers' use of the concept "responsible drinking." Electronic databases associated with health, education, sociology, psychology, and medicine were the date sources. Results were limited to English, peer-reviewed articles and commentaries specifically addressing "responsible drinking." Search descriptors included responsible, responsibility, drinking, alcohol, brewer, and campaign. Eighteen articles constituted the final sample. The matrix method was utilized to organize and abstract pertinent information. Misunderstanding stemming from the inconsistency and counterintuitive nature of brewer-sponsored "responsible drinking" campaigns is further compounded by researchers' use of the term and concept of "responsible drinking" in their scholarly reports. In articulating the definition of "responsible drinking," researchers employ subjective notions and personal ideas, thus not differentiating the construct's meaning from the one acquired in brewer-sponsored campaigns. Researchers are consistently inconsistent when identifying specific health measures that promote and/or contradict responsible alcohol consumption. To evade the subjective notions of researchers and restrictive impressions attached by the alcohol industry, the manner in which individuals interpret, perceive, and practice responsible drinking must be systematically explored and examined using theoretically based constructs. PMID:19667064

  4. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol is the most widely abused substance among America's youth. Drinking by young people has big health ... interfere with brain development Increases the risk of alcohol problems later in life Kids often begin drinking ...

  5. Tea and Coffee Consumption and MRSA Nasal Carriage

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Eric M.; Mainous, Arch G.; Everett, Charles J.; King, Dana E.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Hot tea and coffee have been found to have antimicrobial properties. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the consumption of tea, coffee, or both is associated with less frequent nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). METHODS We performed a secondary analysis of data from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to investigate the relationship between the consumption of coffee, hot tea, cold tea, and soft drinks, and MRSA nasal carriage among the noninstitutionalized population of the United States. RESULTS An estimated 2.5 million persons (1.4% of the population) were MRSA nasal carriers. In an adjusted logistic regression analysis controlling for age, race, sex, poverty-income ratio, current health status, hospitalization in the past 12 months, and use of antibiotics in the past month, individuals who reported consuming hot tea were one-half as likely to have MRSA nasal carriage relative to individuals who drank no hot tea (odds ratio = 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.31–0.71). Similarly, individuals who reported consuming coffee had about a one-half reduction in the risk of MRSA nasal carriage relative to individuals who drank no coffee (odds ratio = 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.24–0.93). CONCLUSIONS Consumption of hot tea or coffee is associated with a lower likelihood of MRSA nasal carriage. Our findings raise the possibility of a promising new method to decrease MRSA nasal carriage that is safe, inexpensive, and easily accessible. PMID:21747100

  6. Helping someone with problem drinking: Mental health first aid guidelines - a Delphi expert consensus study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Alcohol is a leading risk factor for avoidable disease burden. Research suggests that a drinker's social network can play an integral role in addressing hazardous (i.e., high-risk) or problem drinking. Often however, social networks do not have adequate mental health literacy (i.e., knowledge about mental health problems, like problem drinking, or how to treat them). This is a concern as the response that a drinker receives from their social network can have a substantial impact on their willingness to seek help. This paper describes the development of mental health first aid guidelines that inform community members on how to help someone who may have, or may be developing, a drinking problem (i.e., alcohol abuse or dependence). Methods A systematic review of the research and lay literature was conducted to develop a 285-item survey containing strategies on how to help someone who may have, or may be developing, a drinking problem. Two panels of experts (consumers/carers and clinicians) individually rated survey items, using a Delphi process. Surveys were completed online or via postal mail. Participants were 99 consumers, carers and clinicians with experience or expertise in problem drinking from Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Items that reached consensus on importance were retained and written into guidelines. Results The overall response rate across all three rounds was 68.7% (67.6% consumers/carers, 69.2% clinicians), with 184 first aid strategies rated as essential or important by ≥80% of panel members. The endorsed guidelines provide guidance on how to: recognize problem drinking; approach someone if there is concern about their drinking; support the person to change their drinking; respond if they are unwilling to change their drinking; facilitate professional help seeking and respond if professional help is refused; and manage an alcohol-related medical emergency. Conclusion The guidelines

  7. Green Tea and Bone Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in elderly men and women. Epidemiological evidence has shown association between tea consumption and age-related bone loss in elderly men and women. The aim of this review is to provide a systemic review of green tea and bone health to cover the following topi...

  8. Drinking-Smoking Status and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students.…

  9. Advisory Report on the Health Effects of Radium 226 in Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Inst. for Environmental Quality, Chicago.

    Examined are the health effects of law concentrations of the radioactive isotope Radium-226 in drinking water. Contents include discussions of the physical properties of radium, biological and metabolic effects, health effects of exposure to Radium-226, and populations at risk. Appendices provide more technical information including equations,…

  10. Health significance and occurrence of injured bacteria in drinking water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; LeChevallier, M. W.; Singh, A.; Kippin, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Enteropathogenic and indicator bacteria become injured in drinking water with exposure to sublethal levels of various biological, chemical and physical factors. One manifestation of this injury is the inability to grow and form colonies on selective media containing surfactants. The resulting underestimation of indicator bacteria can lead to a false estimation of water potability. m-T7 medium was developed specifically for the recovery of injured coliforms (both "total" and fecal) in drinking water. The m-T7 method was used to survey operating drinking water treatment and distribution systems for the presence of injured coliforms that were undetected with currently used media. The mean recovery with m-Endo LES medium was less than 1/100 ml while it ranged between 6 and 68/100ml with m-T7 agar. The majority of samples giving positive results with m-T7 medium yielded no detectable coliforms with m-Endo LES agar. Over 95% of the coliform bacteria in these samples were injured. Laboratory experiments were also done to ascribe the virulence of injured waterborne pathogens. Enteropathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica and Shigella spp. required up to 20 times the chlorine levels to produce the same injury in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and nonpathogenic coliforms. Similar results were seen with Y. enterocolitica exposed to copper. The recovery of ETEC was followed by delayed enterotoxin production, both in vitro and in the gut of experimental animals. This indicates that injured waterborne enteropathogenic bacteria can be virulent.

  11. A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L.).

    PubMed

    McKay, Diane L; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2006-08-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is one of the most widely consumed single ingredient herbal teas, or tisanes. Peppermint tea, brewed from the plant leaves, and the essential oil of peppermint are used in traditional medicines. Evidence-based research regarding the bioactivity of this herb is reviewed. The phenolic constituents of the leaves include rosmarinic acid and several flavonoids, primarily eriocitrin, luteolin and hesperidin. The main volatile components of the essential oil are menthol and menthone. In vitro, peppermint has significant antimicrobial and antiviral activities, strong antioxidant and antitumor actions, and some antiallergenic potential. Animal model studies demonstrate a relaxation effect on gastrointestinal (GI) tissue, analgesic and anesthetic effects in the central and peripheral nervous system, immunomodulating actions and chemopreventive potential. Human studies on the GI, respiratory tract and analgesic effects of peppermint oil and its constituents have been reported. Several clinical trials examining the effects of peppermint oil on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms have been conducted. However, human studies of peppermint leaf are limited and clinical trials of peppermint tea are absent. Adverse reactions to peppermint tea have not been reported, although caution has been urged for peppermint oil therapy in patients with GI reflux, hiatal hernia or kidney stones. PMID:16767798

  12. Human health impacts of drinking water (surface and ground) pollution Dakahlyia Governorate, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandour, R. A.

    2012-09-01

    This study was done on 30 drinking tap water samples (surface and ground) and 30 urine samples taken from patients who attended some of Dakahlyia governorate hospitals. These patients were complaining of poor-quality tap water in their houses, which was confirmed by this study that drinking water is contaminated with trace elements in some of the studied areas. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the contaminant drinking water (surface and ground) in Dakahlyia governorate and its impact on human health. This study reports the relationship between nickel and hair loss, obviously shown in water and urine samples. Renal failure cases were related to lead and cadmium contaminated drinking water, where compatibilities in results of water and urine samples were observed. Also, liver cirrhosis cases were related to iron-contaminated drinking water. Studies of these diseases suggest that abnormal incidence in specific areas is related to industrial wastes and agricultural activities that have released hazardous and toxic materials in the drinking water and thereby led to its contamination in these areas. We conclude that trace elements should be removed from drinking water for human safety.

  13. U.S. Teens Less Sweet on Soft Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... to soda -- energy drinks, fruit juice or sweetened coffee products among them. "The question is, are they ... juice, energy drinks, sports drinks, bottled tea and coffee, and all forms of milk -- dropped from 95. ...

  14. Mental Health Service Utilization and Drinking Outcomes in a National Population Sample: Are There Racial/ Ethnic Differences?

    PubMed Central

    Minich, Lisa M.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems have been well-documented. Less information is available about possible disparities in outcomes related to mental health services utilization. The differential effect of mental health services use by race on drinking outcomes was examined. Wave 2 of a national population sample of employed adults who reported having at least one alcoholic drink in the past year (n=1058) encompassed measures of the prevalence of mental health services use in response to stress, and alcohol-related outcomes. Nonwhite participants who reported using any mental health services, 4 or more mental health visits in the past year, and 8 or more mental health visits in the past year reported lower rates of problematic drinking behaviors, including frequency of drinking to intoxication, heavy episodic drinking, and modified Brief MAST scores, than whites who reported similar use of mental health services. PMID:20155599

  15. Perceived Norms Moderate the Association Between Mental Health Symptoms and Drinking Outcomes Among At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Hunter, Sarah B.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There has been limited research examining the association between mental health symptoms, perceived peer alcohol norms, and alcohol use and consequences among samples of adolescents. The current study used a sample of 193 at-risk youths with a first-time alcohol and/or other drug offense in the California Teen Court system to explore the moderating role of perceived peer alcohol norms on the association between mental health symptoms and drinking outcomes. Method: Measures of drinking, consequences, mental health symptoms, and perceived peer alcohol norms were taken at baseline, with measures of drinking and consequences assessed again 6 months later. Regression analyses examined the association of perceived norms and mental health symptoms with concurrent and future drinking and consequences. Results: We found that higher perceived drinking peer norms were associated with heavy drinking behavior at baseline and with negative alcohol consequences both at baseline and 6 months later. Also, perceived drinking norms moderated the association between mental health symptoms and alcohol-related consequences such that better mental health was related to increased risk for alcohol-related consequences both concurrently and 6 months later among those with higher baseline perceptions of peer drinking norms. Conclusions: Findings demonstrate the value of norms-based interventions, especially among adolescents with few mental health problems who are at risk for heavy drinking. PMID:23948533

  16. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... boys binge more than girls. Alcohol use among boys Alcohol use among girls SOURCE: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. ... for children to reach these BAC levels. For boys: Ages 9–13: About 3 drinks ... 16–17: About 5 drinks For girls: Ages 9–17: About 3 drinks As children ...

  17. [Preliminary health risk assessment of heavy metals in drinking waters in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ji-jun; Zhang, Li-ping; Huang, Sheng-biao; Ma, Mei; Wang, Zi-jian

    2004-03-01

    Concentrations distribution of the Cu, Hg, Cd, As in drinking water in the 8 city districts and 10 counties in Beijing was studied based on a total of 120 random samples. Health risks associated with 4 metals in drinking water were assessed using USEPA health risk assessment model. The results showed that the concentrations of the heavy metals in drinking water in Beijing ranged from 0.81 to 6.96 micrograms.L-1 for Cu, 0.34-0.82 microgram.L-1 for Cd, 0.10-0.74 microgram.L-1 for Hg and 0.19-3.02 micrograms.L-1 for As. Among the health risks caused by the carcinogens in drinking water, the largest risk associated with As should be in Tongzhou County (2.0 x 10(-5).a-1) and that with Cd should be in Changping County (2.3 x 10(-6).a-1), while both were significantly lower than the maximum allowance levels recommended by ICRP(5 x 10(-5).a-1). Among the non-carcinogenic risks in drinking water, the largest risk was the risk associated with Hg, followed by Cu. The non-carcinogenic risks levels ranged from 10(-8) to 10(-9), much lower than the maximum allowance levels recommended by ICRP. PMID:15202233

  18. Drinking water quality in Indigenous communities in Canada and health outcomes: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Lori E. A.; Bharadwaj, Lalita A.; Okpalauwaekwe, Udoka; Waldner, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many Indigenous communities in Canada live with high-risk drinking water systems and drinking water advisories and experience health status and water quality below that of the general population. A scoping review of research examining drinking water quality and its relationship to Indigenous health was conducted. Objective The study was undertaken to identify the extent of the literature, summarize current reports and identify research needs. Design A scoping review was designed to identify peer-reviewed literature that examined challenges related to drinking water and health in Indigenous communities in Canada. Key search terms were developed and mapped on five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE/PubMED, Web of Knowledge, SciVerse Scopus, Taylor and Francis online journal and Google Scholar). Online searches for grey literature using relevant government websites were completed. Results Sixteen articles (of 518; 156 bibliographic search engines, 362 grey literature) met criteria for inclusion (contained keywords; publication year 2000–2015; peer-reviewed and from Canada). Studies were quantitative (8), qualitative (5) or mixed (3) and included case, cohort, cross-sectional and participatory designs. In most articles, no definition of “health” was given (14/16), and the primary health issue described was gastrointestinal illness (12/16). Challenges to the study of health and well-being with respect to drinking water in Indigenous communities included irregular funding, remote locations, ethical approval processes, small sample sizes and missing data. Conclusions Research on drinking water and health outcomes in Indigenous communities in Canada is limited and occurs on an opportunistic basis. There is a need for more research funding, and inquiry to inform policy decisions for improvements of water quality and health-related outcomes in Indigenous communities. A coordinated network looking at First Nations water and health outcomes, a database to store

  19. Future Challenges to Protecting Public Health from Drinking-Water Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Eileen A.; Post, Gloria B.; Buckley, Brian T.; Lippincott, Robert L.; Robson, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several decades, human health protection for chemical contaminants in drinking water has been accomplished by development of chemical-specific standards. This approach alone is not feasible to address current issues of the occurrence of multiple contaminants in drinking water, some of which have little health effects information, and water scarcity. In this article, we describe the current chemical-specific paradigm for regulating chemicals in drinking water and discuss some potential additional approaches currently being explored to focus more on sustaining quality water for specific purposes. Also discussed are strategies being explored by the federal government to screen more efficiently the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals to prioritize further intensive testing. Water reuse and water treatment are described as sustainable measures for managing water resources for potable uses as well as other uses such as irrigation. PMID:22224887

  20. Future challenges to protecting public health from drinking-water contaminants.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Eileen A; Post, Gloria B; Buckley, Brian T; Lippincott, Robert L; Robson, Mark G

    2012-04-01

    Over the past several decades, human health protection for chemical contaminants in drinking water has been accomplished by development of chemical-specific standards. This approach alone is not feasible to address current issues of the occurrence of multiple contaminants in drinking water, some of which have little health effects information, and water scarcity. In this article, we describe the current chemical-specific paradigm for regulating chemicals in drinking water and discuss some potential additional approaches currently being explored to focus more on sustaining quality water for specific purposes. Also discussed are strategies being explored by the federal government to screen more efficiently the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals to prioritize further intensive testing. Water reuse and water treatment are described as sustainable measures for managing water resources for potable uses as well as other uses such as irrigation. PMID:22224887

  1. Parental decisions, child health and valuation of avoiding arsenic in drinking water in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Sonia N; Boyle, Kevin J; Crocker, Tom

    2015-03-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh is a widespread public health hazard. Water sources without high arsenic levels are scarce, affecting people's availability for work and other activities when they have to seek safe water to drink. While children are particularly susceptible to chronic arsenic exposure, limited information and heavy constraints on resources may preclude people in developing countries from taking protective actions. Since parents are primary decision-makers for children, a model of stochastic decision-making analytically linking parent health and child health is used to frame the valuation of avoiding arsenic exposure using an averting behavior model. The results show that safe drinking water programs do work and that people do take protective actions. The results can help guide public health mitigation policies, and examine whether factors such as child health and time required for remediation have an effect on mitigation measures. PMID:25719475

  2. Trace elements contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shao-You; Zhang, Hui-Min; Sojinu, Samuel O; Liu, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Qing; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    The levels of seven essential trace elements (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo) and six non-essential trace elements (Cr, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb) in a total of 89 drinking water samples collected in Shenzhen, China were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the present study. Both the essential and non-essential trace elements were frequently detectable in the different kinds of drinking waters assessed. Remarkable temporal and spatial variations were observed among most of the trace elements in the tap water collected from two tap water treatment plants. Meanwhile, potential human health risk from these non-essential trace elements in the drinking water for local residents was also assessed. The median values of cancer risks associated with exposure to carcinogenic metals via drinking water consumption were estimated to be 6.1 × 10(-7), 2.1 × 10(-8), and 2.5 × 10(-7) for As, Cd, and Cr, respectively; the median values of incremental lifetime for non-cancer risks were estimated to be 6.1 × 10(-6), 4.4 × 10(-5), and 2.2 × 10(-5) for Hg, Pb, and Sb, respectively. The median value of total incremental lifetime health risk induced by the six non-essential trace elements for the population was 3.5 × 10(-5), indicating that the potential health risks from non-carcinogenic trace elements in drinking water also require some attention. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the most important factor for health risk assessment should be the levels of heavy metal in drinking water. PMID:25514858

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life among Heavy-Drinking College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Christopher J.; Bracken-Minor, Katherine L.; McCausland, Claudia M.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Murphy, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine unique contributions of depression, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences on functional health outcomes in college students. Methods: Participants were heavy-drinking undergraduate students (N = 207) who completed self-report questionnaires. Results: For men and women, depression predicted overall general…

  4. Use (and Misuse) of the Responsible Drinking Message in Public Health and Alcohol Advertising: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Goodson, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The objective is to present a comparative analysis examining the alcohol industry's and scholarly researchers' use of the concept "responsible drinking." Electronic databases associated with health, education, sociology, psychology, and medicine were the date sources. Results were limited to English, peer-reviewed articles and commentaries…

  5. USING A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING RISKS TO HEALTH FROM MICROBES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States goal to reduce health risks from environmental exposures of all kinds of hazards has resulted in the need to assess the risks from exposure to microbes in drinking water. The model for a risk-based conceptual framework and strategy is provided by the US Environm...

  6. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: VI. DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA:
    VI. DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS

    Richard K. Kwok, M.S.P.H., Judy L. Mumford, Ph.D., Pauline Mendola, Ph.D. Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency; Yajua...

  7. Integrating mHealth Mobile Applications to Reduce High Risk Drinking among Underage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemi, Donna M.; Cochran, Allyson R.; Kelly, John F.; Cornelius, Judith B.; Belk, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: College students embrace mobile cell phones (MCPs) as a primary communication and entertainment device. The aim of this study was to investigate college students' perceptions toward using mHealth technology to deliver interventions to prevent high-risk drinking and associated consequences. Design/setting: Four focus group…

  8. ESCHERICHIA COLI: THE BEST BIOLOGICAL DRINKING WATER INDICATOR FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health protection requires an indicator of fecal pollution. It is not to analyze drinking water for all pathogens. Escherichia coli is found in all mammal feces at concentrations of 10 log 9/gram. It does not multiply appreciably in the environment. In the 1890s, it was ch...

  9. Usefulness of a Survey on Underage Drinking in a Rural American Indian Community Health Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, David A.; Luna, Juan A.; Roberts, Jennifer; Calac, Daniel; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic. One hundred ninety-seven youth (90 male, 107 female; age range 8-20 years) were recruited from clinic waiting rooms and through community outreach. The study revealed that the usefulness of the survey was twofold: Survey results…

  10. HEALTH RISK ISSUES RELATED TO MTBE IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite the attention given to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as a contaminant in ground water and surface water, the implications of such contamination for human health have not been clearly established to date. Limitations in the databases for both exposure and health effe...

  11. Drinking-smoking status and health risk behaviors among high school students in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F

    2012-01-01

    Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students. The interaction between gender and drinking-smoking status was significant for all health risk behaviors except for having sex and unprotected sex. Alcohol and tobacco had a stronger association with illegal substance use in boys than in girls. In contrast, their use had a stronger association with fighting, depression, and suicidal thoughts in girls than in boys. The intervention program for Thai youths in school should take into account the strong relationship between alcohol-tobacco consumption and these health risk behaviors. PMID:23185837

  12. Backyard Teas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Darrell D.

    1996-01-01

    Describes plants commonly found in residential areas that can be used for making tea: chicory, chickweed, red clover, goldenrod, gill-over-the-ground, pineapple weed, plantain, self-heal, sheep sorrel, and wild strawberry. Includes proper plant name, areas where the plant grows, identifying plant features, what part is used in making tea, and tea…

  13. A Review of Energy Drinks and Mental Health, with a Focus on Stress, Anxiety, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Concerns have been expressed regarding the potential for caffeinated energy drinks to negatively affect mental health, and particularly so in young consumers at whom they are often targeted. The products are frequently marketed with declarations of increasing mental and physical energy, providing a short-term boost to mood and performance. Although a certain amount of evidence has accumulated to substantiate some of these claims, the chronic effects of energy drinks on mental health also need to be addressed. Methods: To review the relevant literature, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for all peer-reviewed articles published in English that addressed associations between energy drink use and mental health outcomes. Case reports were also considered, though empirical studies investigating acute mood effects were excluded as a review of such articles had recently been published. Fifty-six articles were retrieved: 20 of these (along with eight more identified through other means) were included in the current review, and, because the majority addressed aspects of stress, anxiety, and depression, particular focus was placed on these outcomes. Results: Though a number of null findings (and one negative relationship) were observed, the majority of studies examined reported positive associations between energy drink consumption and symptoms of mental health problems. Conclusions: Though the findings imply that energy drink use may increase the risk of undesirable mental health outcomes, the majority of research examined utilized cross-sectional designs. In most cases, it was therefore not possible to determine causation or direction of effect. For this reason, longitudinal and intervention studies are required to increase our understanding of the nature of the relationships observed. PMID:27274415

  14. USEFULNESS OF A SURVEY ON UNDERAGE DRINKING IN A RURAL AMERICAN INDIAN COMMUNITY HEALTH CLINIC

    PubMed Central

    Gilder, David A.; Luna, Juan A.; Roberts, Jennifer; Calac, Daniel; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic. One hundred ninety-seven youth (90 male, 107 female; age range 8–20 years) were recruited from clinic waiting rooms and through community outreach. The study revealed that the usefulness of the survey was twofold: Survey results could be used by clinic staff to screen for underage drinking and associated problems in youth served by the clinic, and the process of organizing, evaluating, and implementing the survey results accomplished several important goals of community-based participatory research. PMID:23824640

  15. Usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic.

    PubMed

    Gilder, David A; Luna, Juan A; Roberts, Jennifer; Calac, Daniel; Grube, Joel W; Moore, Roland S; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic. One hundred ninety-seven youth (90 male, 107 female; age range 8-20 years) were recruited from clinic waiting rooms and through community outreach. The study revealed that the usefulness of the survey was twofold: Survey results could be used by clinic staff to screen for underage drinking and associated problems in youth served by the clinic, and the process of organizing, evaluating, and implementing the survey results accomplished several important goals of community-based participatory research. PMID:23824640

  16. Is regular drinking in later life an indicator of good health? Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Holdsworth, Clare; Mendonça, Marina; Pikhart, Hynek; Frisher, Martin; de Oliveira, Cesar; Shelton, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Background Older people who drink have been shown to have better health than those who do not. This might suggest that moderate drinking is beneficial for health, or, as considered here, that older people modify their drinking as their health deteriorates. The relationship between how often older adults drink and their health is considered for two heath states: self-rated health (SRH) and depressive symptoms. Methods Data were analysed from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a prospective cohort study of older adults, using multilevel ordered logit analysis. The analysis involved 4741 participants present at wave 0, (1998/1999 and 2001), wave 4 (2008/2009) and wave 5 (2010/2011). The outcome measure was frequency of drinking in last year recorded at all three time points. Results Older adults with fair/poor SRH at the onset of the study drank less frequently compared with adults with good SRH (p<0.05). Drinking frequency declined over time for all health statuses, though respondents with both continual fair/poor SRH and declining SRH experienced a sharper reduction in the frequency of their drinking over time compared with older adults who remained in good SRH or whose health improved. The findings were similar for depression, though the association between depressive symptoms and drinking frequency at the baseline was not significant after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusions The frequency of older adults’ drinking responds to changes in health status and drinking frequency in later life may be an indicator, rather than a cause, of health status. PMID:26797821

  17. Can student health professionals accurately estimate alcohol content in commonly occurring drinks?

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Julia; Searle, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Correct identification of alcohol as a contributor to, or comorbidity of, many psychiatric diseases requires health professionals to be competent and confident to take an accurate alcohol history. Being able to estimate (or calculate) the alcohol content in commonly consumed drinks is a prerequisite for quantifying levels of alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to assess this ability in medical and nursing students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 891 medical and nursing students across different years of training was conducted. Students were asked the alcohol content of 10 different alcoholic drinks by seeing a slide of the drink (with picture, volume and percentage of alcohol by volume) for 30 s. Results: Overall, the mean number of correctly estimated drinks (out of the 10 tested) was 2.4, increasing to just over 3 if a 10% margin of error was used. Wine and premium strength beers were underestimated by over 50% of students. Those who drank alcohol themselves, or who were further on in their clinical training, did better on the task, but overall the levels remained low. Conclusions: Knowledge of, or the ability to work out, the alcohol content of commonly consumed drinks is poor, and further research is needed to understand the reasons for this and the impact this may have on the likelihood to undertake screening or initiate treatment. PMID:27536344

  18. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks. PMID:22444601

  19. [Methods for assessing the potential health risks of traces of pharmaceuticals in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Kozísek, Frantisek; Jeligová, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Increasing consumption of pharmaceuticals leads also to higher release of its non-metabolized residues into environment, mostly hydrosphere. Some of these substances may reach also processed drinking water. Although it is found in traces, it causes public concern as it can represent a non-targeted and unwanted medication. Toxicologists and public health authorities are appealed to assess potential health risks carefully and to communicate the risk adequately to public. As health risks assessment of environmental exposure to pharmaceuticals is a new field of expertise, its methodology has not been unified and standardized yet, but several different procedures have been proposed and used. The paper provides overview of these methods. PMID:22442888

  20. Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond

    PubMed Central

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

  1. Maternal total caffeine intake, mainly from Japanese and Chinese tea, during pregnancy was associated with risk of preterm birth: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Yoshio

    2015-04-01

    The relation of maternal caffeine intake with birth outcomes is still inconclusive and has not been examined in Japan, where the sources of caffeine intake are different from those in Western countries. We hypothesized that maternal consumption of total caffeine and culture-specific major sources of caffeine would be associated with birth outcomes among Japanese pregnant. The study subjects were 858 Japanese women who delivered singleton infants. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Birth outcomes considered were low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), preterm birth (PTB; <37 weeks of gestation), and small for gestational age (SGA; <10th percentile). The main caffeine sources were Japanese and Chinese tea (73.5%), coffee (14.3%), black tea (6.6%), and soft drinks (3.5%). After controlling for confounders, maternal total caffeine intake during pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB (odds ratio per 100 mg/d caffeine increase, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.58; P for trend = .03). However, no evident relationships were observed between total caffeine intake and risk of LBW or SGA. As for caffeine sources, higher Japanese and Chinese tea consumption was associated with an increased risk of PTB (odds ratio per 1 cup/d increase, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.30; P for trend = .04), but not LBW or SGA. There were no associations between consumption of the other beverages examined and birth outcomes. In conclusion, this prospective birth cohort in Japan suggests that higher maternal total caffeine intake, mainly in the form of Japanese and Chinese tea, during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk of PTB. PMID:25773355

  2. Alcohol, Binge Drinking and Associated Mental Health Problems in Young Urban Chileans

    PubMed Central

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Cabieses, Báltica

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans. Methods Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010. Results Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54]) or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]). Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78]), feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]). Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05]). Conclusion Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed. PMID:25830508

  3. Health-risk based approach to setting drinking water standards for long-term space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Dunsky, Elizabeth C.

    1992-01-01

    In order to develop plausible and appropriate drinking water contaminant standards for longer-term NASA space missions, such as those planned for the Space Exploration Initiative, a human health risk characterization was performed using toxicological and exposure values typical of space operations and crew. This risk characterization showed that the greatest acute waterborne health concern was from microbial infection leading to incapacitating gastrointestinal illness. Ingestion exposure pathways for toxic materials yielded de minimus acute health risks unlikely to affect SEI space missions. Risks of chronic health problems were within acceptable public health limits. Our analysis indicates that current Space Station Freedom maximum contamination levels may be unnecessarily strict. We propose alternative environmental contaminant values consistent with both acceptable short and long-term crew health safety.

  4. Assessing Health Risk due to Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water in Hanam Province, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bui Huy, Tung; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Johnston, Richard; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

    2014-01-01

    We assessed health risks related to Arsenic (As) in contaminated drinking water in Hanam, applying the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework, which promotes stakeholder involvement in risk assessments. As concentrations in 300 tube-well water samples, before and after filtration, were analyzed and the water consumption levels in 150 households were estimated. Skin cancer risk was characterized using Cancer Slope Factor index and lifetime average daily dose with a probabilistic approach. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in tube-well water ranged from 8–579 ppb (mean 301 ppb) before filtration and current sand filters used by the households did not meet the standard for As removal. Arsenic daily consumption of 40% of the adults exceeded the level of TDI (Tolerable Daily Intake) at 1 µg/kg/day. The average skin cancer risk in adults due to consuming filtered tube-well water for drinking purpose were 25.3 × 10−5 (using only well water) and 7.6 × 10−5 (using both well and rain water). The skin cancer risk would be 11.5 times higher if the water was not filtered. Improvement of filtration measures or the replacement of the current drinking water sources to minimize the health risks to the local population is urgently needed. PMID:25062276

  5. Assessing health risk due to exposure to arsenic in drinking water in Hanam Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huy, Tung Bui; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Johnston, Richard; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

    2014-08-01

    We assessed health risks related to Arsenic (As) in contaminated drinking water in Hanam, applying the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework, which promotes stakeholder involvement in risk assessments. As concentrations in 300 tube-well water samples, before and after filtration, were analyzed and the water consumption levels in 150 households were estimated. Skin cancer risk was characterized using Cancer Slope Factor index and lifetime average daily dose with a probabilistic approach. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in tube-well water ranged from 8-579 ppb (mean 301 ppb) before filtration and current sand filters used by the households did not meet the standard for As removal. Arsenic daily consumption of 40% of the adults exceeded the level of TDI (Tolerable Daily Intake) at 1 µg/kg/day. The average skin cancer risk in adults due to consuming filtered tube-well water for drinking purpose were 25.3 × 10-5 (using only well water) and 7.6 × 10-5 (using both well and rain water). The skin cancer risk would be 11.5 times higher if the water was not filtered. Improvement of filtration measures or the replacement of the current drinking water sources to minimize the health risks to the local population is urgently needed. PMID:25062276

  6. Chlorinated drinking water, cancers and adverse health outcomes in Gangtok, Sikkim, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rabi N; Goel, Sudha

    2007-10-01

    Long-term impacts of drinking chlorinated water on the incidence of cancers and other adverse health outcomes were assessed in a population-based cross-sectional study. The study was conducted by comparing a group exposed to chlorinated drinking water for more than thirty years with control groups with less or no exposure to chlorine. A house-to-house survey was completed to gather information on residential history, age, education, income, source and extent of treatment of water and health characteristics. All residents below thirty years of age were excluded from the database used for analyses to ensure that the groups were comparable. Fourteen cancer cases were found in the long-term exposed groups of 1085 persons and 9 cancer cases in the two control populations of 725 persons. The odds ratio for cancers (OR) was 1.05 (95% CI = 0.43-2.65) and is not statistically significant. Reciprocal or inverse odds [corrected] ratios for gastrointestinal disorders, kidney problems and skin infections were statistically significant ranging from 2.06 (95% CI = 1.01-4.17) to 2.2 (95% CI = 1.45-3.33). These OR values indicate that there is no significant association between the incidence of cancer and exposure to chlorinated water while chlorinating drinking water significantly reduced the incidence of non-carcinogenic adverse health effects like gastrointestinal diseases, skin infections, and kidney diseases. PMID:18476370

  7. Tea Consumption and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Sen-Tien; Ou, Chun-Yen; Lo, Hung-I; Wong, Tung-Yiu; Fang, Sheen-Yie; Chen, Ken-Chung; Huang, Jehn-Shyun; Wu, Jiunn-Liang; Yen, Chia-Jui; Hsueh, Wei-Ting; Wu, Yuan-Hua; Yang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Forn-Chia; Chang, Jang-Yang; Chang, Kwang-Yu; Wu, Shang-Yin; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Lin, Chen-Lin; Wang, Yi-Hui; Weng, Ya-Ling; Yang, Han-Chien; Chang, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The current study evaluated the association between tea consumption and head and neck cancer (HNC) in Taiwan, where tea is a major agricultural product and a popular beverage. Methods Interviews regarding tea consumption (frequency, duration, and types) were conducted with 396 HNC cases and 413 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of HNC risk associated with tea drinking, adjusted for sex, age, education, cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing, and alcohol drinking. Results A reduced HNC risk associated with tea drinking (OR for every cup per day = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93–0.99; OR for ≧5 cups per day = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39–0.94) was observed. The association was especially significant for pharyngeal cancer (OR for every cup per day = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0.98; OR for ≧5 cups per day = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.16–0.66). A significant inverse association between HNC and tea consumption was observed particularly for green tea. Conclusions This study suggests that tea drinking may reduce the risk of HNC. The anticancer property of tea, if proven, may offer a natural chemopreventive measure to reduce the occurrence of HNC. PMID:24796481

  8. Focus on: ethnicity and the social and health harms from drinking.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Karen G; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is differentially associated with social and health harms across U.S. ethnic groups. Native Americans, Hispanics, and Blacks are disadvantaged by alcohol-attributed harms compared with Whites and Asians. Ethnicities with higher rates of risky drinking experience higher rates of drinking harms. Other factors that could contribute to the different effects of alcohol by ethnicity are social disadvantage, acculturation, drink preferences, and alcohol metabolism. This article examines the relationship of ethnicity and drinking to (1) unintentional injuries, (2) intentional injuries, (3) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), (4) gastrointestinal diseases, (5) cardiovascular diseases, (6) cancers, (7) diabetes, and (8) infectious diseases. Reviewed evidence shows that Native Americans have a disproportionate risk for alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities, suicides and violence, FAS, and liver disease mortality. Hispanics are at increased risk for alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities, suicide, liver disease, and cirrhosis mortality; and Blacks have increased risk for alcohol-related relationship violence, FAS, heart disease, and some cancers. However, the scientific evidence is incomplete for each of these harms. More research is needed on the relationship of alcohol consumption to cancers, diabetes, and HIV/AIDS across ethnic groups. Studies also are needed to delineate the mechanisms that give rise to and sustain these disparities in order to inform prevention strategies. PMID:24881331

  9. Modelling the Health Impact of an English Sugary Drinks Duty at National and Local Levels

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Brendan; Capewell, Simon; O’Flaherty, Martin; Timpson, Hannah; Razzaq, Abdul; Cheater, Sylvia; Ireland, Robin; Bromley, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence associates excess refined sugar intakes with obesity, Type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Worryingly, the estimated volume of sugary drinks purchased in the UK has more than doubled between 1975 and 2007, from 510ml to 1140ml per person per week. We aimed to estimate the potential impact of a duty on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) at a local level in England, hypothesising that a duty could reduce obesity and related diseases. Methods and Findings We modelled the potential impact of a 20% sugary drinks duty on local authorities in England between 2010 and 2030. We synthesised data obtained from the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS), drinks manufacturers, Office for National Statistics, and from previous studies. This produced a modelled population of 41 million adults in 326 lower tier local authorities in England. This analysis suggests that a 20% SSB duty could result in approximately 2,400 fewer diabetes cases, 1,700 fewer stroke and coronary heart disease cases, 400 fewer cancer cases, and gain some 41,000 Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) per year across England. The duty might have the biggest impact in urban areas with young populations. Conclusions This study adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting health benefits for a duty on sugary drinks. It might also usefully provide results at an area level to inform local price interventions in England. PMID:26121677

  10. A Possible Effect of Concentrated Oolong Tea Causing Transient Ischemic Attack-Like Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Layher, John W.; Poling, Jon S.; Ishihara, Mayumi; Azadi, Parastoo; Alvarez-Manilla, Gerardo; Puett, David

    2014-01-01

    Aims Tea (green, oolong, and black) is the second most widely consumed beverage worldwide, second only to water. Aside from a few reported adverse effects, tea, particularly green tea, appears to be beneficial for human health. In the case described herein, a male experienced several transient ischemic attack-like symptoms immediately following the consumption of a cup of high quality oolong tea. A thorough medical evaluation uncovered no evidence of such an attack and leads to the suggestion of a heretofore unreported response to oolong tea. Presentation of Case A 72-year old male with hypertension and atrial fibrillation, who takes valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide to control hypertension and warfarin to reduce the risk of thrombosis and thromboembolism, presented at the emergency room of a local hospital describing several transient ischemic attack-like symptoms immediately after consuming a cup of oolong tea. His symptoms included presyncope, disequilibrium, bilateral hand parathesias, mild dysphasia, and visual problems (but apparently not presbyopia or amaurosis fugax), all of which had disappeared in approximately two hours after drinking the tea. (Mild presyncope was previously noted by the patient when ingesting a strong green tea.) No unusual features emerged from his physical examination, and his blood work was unremarkable except for elevation of his partial thromboplastin time (39 sec) and prothrombin time (22.5 sec), giving an international reference of 2.0, all consistent with the effects of warfarin. A battery of tests by the emergency room physician, a cardiologist, and a neurologist, e.g. electrocardiogram, brain computerized tomography, 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiogram, brain magnetic resonance imaging, with and without 20 ml Gadolinium, and a magnetic resonance angiogram, confirmed the earlier diagnosis of atrial fibrillation but disclosed no additional malfunction in his heart. His brain showed no evidence of a prior hemorrhage, and his

  11. Green tea prevents non-melanoma skin cancer by enhancing DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive exposure of the skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the major factors for the development of skin cancers, including nonmelanoma. For the last several centuries the consumption of dietary phytochemicals has been linked to numerous health benefits including the photoprotection of the skin. Green tea has been consumed as a popular beverage world-wide and skin photoprotection by green tea polyphenols (GTPs) has been widely investigated. In this article, we have discussed the recent investigations and mechanistic studies which define the potential efficacy of GTPs on the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. UV-induced DNA damage, particularly the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, has been implicated in immunosuppression and initiation of skin cancer. Topical application or oral administration of green tea through drinking water of mice prevents UVB-induced skin tumor development, and this prevention is mediated, at least in part, through rapid repair of DNA. The DNA repair by GTPs is mediated through the induction of interleukin (IL)-12 which has been shown to have DNA repair ability. The new mechanistic investigations support and explain the anti-photocarcinogenic activity, in particular anti-non-melanoma skin cancer, of green tea and explain the benefits of green tea for human health. PMID:21094124

  12. Do free-living amoebae in treated drinking water systems present an emerging health risk?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jacqueline M; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2011-02-01

    There is an expanding body of evidence that free-living amoebae (FLA) increase both the numbers and virulence of water-based, human-pathogenic, amoeba-resisting microorganisms (ARM). Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., and other opportunistic human pathogens are known to be both ARM and also the etiologic agents of potentially fatal human lung infections. However, comparatively little is known about the FLA that may facilitate ARM growth in drinking water. This review examines the available literature on FLA in treated drinking water systems; in total 26 studies from 18 different countries. FLA were reported to breakthrough the water treatment barrier and enter distribution systems, in addition to the expected post-treatment system ingress. Once in the distribution system there is evidence of FLA colonization and regrowth especially in reservoirs and in-premise plumbing storage tanks. At the point of use the average FLA detection rate was 45% but highly variable (n = 16, σ = 31) due to both differences in both assay methods and the type of water systems examined. This review reveals that FLA are consistently detected in treated drinking water systems around the world and present a yet unquantified emerging health risk. However, more research is urgently required before accurate risks assessments can be undertaken to assess the impacts on human health, in households and institutions, due to exposure to FLA facilitated pathogenic ARM. PMID:21194220

  13. Environmental health sciences center task force review on halogenated organics in drinking water

    PubMed Central

    Deinzer, M.; Schaumburg, F.; Klein, E.

    1978-01-01

    The disinfection of drinking water by chlorination has in recent years come under closer scrutiny because of the potential hazards associated with the production of stable chlorinated organic chemicals. Organic chemical contaminants are common to all water supplies and it is now well-established that chlorinated by-products are obtained under conditions of disinfection, or during tertiary treatment of sewage whose products can ultimately find their way into drinking water supplies. Naturally occurring humic substances which are invariably present in drinking waters are probably the source of chloroform and other halogenated methanes, and chloroform has shown up in every water supply investigated thus far. The Environmental Protection Agency is charged with the responsibility of assessing the public health effects resulting from the consumption of contaminated drinking water. It has specifically undertaken the task of determining whether organic contaminants or their chlorinated derivatives have a special impact, and if so, what alternatives there are to protect the consumer against bacterial and viral diseases that are transmitted through infected drinking waters. The impetus to look at these chemicals is not entirely without some prima facie evidence of potential trouble. Epidemiological studies suggested a higher incidence of cancer along the lower Mississippi River where the contamination from organic chemicals is particularly high. The conclusions from these studies have, to be sure, not gone unchallenged. The task of assessing the effects of chemicals in the drinking water is a difficult one. It includes many variables, including differences in water supplies and the temporal relationship between contamination and consumption of the finished product. It must also take into account the relative importance of the effects from these chemicals in comparison to those from occupational exposure, ingestion of contaminated foods, inhalation of polluted air, and many

  14. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis; Shen, Heqing; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Syeda Maria; Bokhari, Habib; Schäfer, Ralf B; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150-200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. PMID:26312405

  15. Responsible drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation ... If you drink alcohol, doctors advise limiting how much you drink. This is called drinking in moderation, or responsible drinking. Responsible drinking means ...

  16. Influence of regular black tea consumption on tobacco associated DNA damage and HPV prevalence in human oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Pal, Debolina; Banerjee, Sarmistha; Indra, Dipanjana; Mandal, Shyamsundar; Dum, Anirudha; Bhowmik, Anup; Panda, Chinmay Kr; Das, Sukta

    2007-01-01

    Black tea is more widely consumed than green tea worldwide, particularly in India. Therefore, it is necessary to focus attention on black tea with respect to its health promoting and anti-cancer actions. In order to establish the concept that black tea is a potential candidate for cancer prevention, it is important to provide epidemiological evidence derived from investigations of human populations. In view of this, the objective of the present study was to determine the correlation between nature of black tea consumption and DNA damage in normal subjects with or without tobacco habit and oral cancer patients, taking the latter as positive controls. Much experimental evidence points to associations between tobacco habit and HPV 16 and HPV 18 (Human Papilloma virus) infection. But no studies have taken into account the possible confounding effect of black tea consumption on DNA damage along with HPV infection. A pilot study was therefore undertaken. Comet assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage among normal subjects including tobacco users (n = 86), non-tobacco users (n = 45) and Oral cancer patients (n = 37). Percentage of damaged cells was scored in the buccal squamous cells of all subjects mentioned above. HPV analysis was performed on 79 samples (including 37 oral cancer patients). The evaluation of various confounding factors like age, tenure of tobacco habit and tea habit showed significant associations with DNA damage. The observations strongly indicate that regular intake of black tea at least above four cups can reduce tobacco associated DNA damage among normal tobacco users. HPV prevalence was not seen to be associated with age, tenure of tobacco habit or the tea drinking habit. PMID:17696743

  17. A Cross-Sectional Study of Self-Rated Health among Older Adults: Association with Drinking Profiles and Other Determinants of Health.

    PubMed

    Moriconi, Pascale Audrey; Nadeau, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the relationship between drinking profiles and self-rated health with and without adjusting for other determinants of health among a sample of older adults from the general population. Respondents were 1,494 men and 2,176 women aged between 55 and 74 from the GENACIS Canadian survey. The dependent variable was self-rated health, an individual's perception of his or her own general health, a measure used as a proxy for health status. The independent variables were drinking profiles (types of drinkers and nondrinkers) as well as other demographic, psychosocial, and health-related variables (control variables). After adjustment for other determinants of health, regression analyses showed that (1) frequent/moderate drinkers were more likely to have a better self-rated health compared with nondrinkers (lifetime abstainers and former drinkers) and (2) self-rated health did not differ significantly between frequent/moderate drinkers and other types of drinkers (frequent/nonmoderate and infrequent drinkers). Our results suggest that drinking is related to a better self-rated health compared with nondrinking regardless of the drinking profile. Drinking and healthy lifestyle guidelines specific to older adults should be studied, discussed, and integrated into public health practices. PMID:26843861

  18. A Cross-Sectional Study of Self-Rated Health among Older Adults: Association with Drinking Profiles and Other Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Moriconi, Pascale Audrey; Nadeau, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the relationship between drinking profiles and self-rated health with and without adjusting for other determinants of health among a sample of older adults from the general population. Respondents were 1,494 men and 2,176 women aged between 55 and 74 from the GENACIS Canadian survey. The dependent variable was self-rated health, an individual's perception of his or her own general health, a measure used as a proxy for health status. The independent variables were drinking profiles (types of drinkers and nondrinkers) as well as other demographic, psychosocial, and health-related variables (control variables). After adjustment for other determinants of health, regression analyses showed that (1) frequent/moderate drinkers were more likely to have a better self-rated health compared with nondrinkers (lifetime abstainers and former drinkers) and (2) self-rated health did not differ significantly between frequent/moderate drinkers and other types of drinkers (frequent/nonmoderate and infrequent drinkers). Our results suggest that drinking is related to a better self-rated health compared with nondrinking regardless of the drinking profile. Drinking and healthy lifestyle guidelines specific to older adults should be studied, discussed, and integrated into public health practices. PMID:26843861

  19. HealthLines - Heavy Drinking Poor Eating | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents Heavy Drinking, Poor Eating A recent study finds that heavy ... parts of the diet that suffer with heavy drinking. For instance, men who drink a lot of ...

  20. Rhabdomyolysis induced by excessive coffee drinking.

    PubMed

    Chiang, W-F; Liao, M-T; Cheng, C-J; Lin, S-H

    2014-08-01

    Excessive ingestion of caffeine-containing beverages is a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis. Here, we describe the case of a 44-year-old woman presented with nausea, vomiting, palpitations, and tea-colored urine 6 h after drinking a liter of black coffee containing approximately 565 mg of caffeine for mental alertness. Laboratory studies were notable for myoglobinuria and markedly elevated plasma creatine kinase (CK) level of 7315 U/L. With volume expansion and alkalization, her plasma CK level returned to normal within 5 days. Rhabdomyolysis should be considered a potential health hazard from excessive consumption of caffeine-containing products. PMID:24220878

  1. On cooling tea and coffee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, W. G.; Viney, C.

    1988-05-01

    Factors influencing the rate of cooling of hot coffee and tea have been investigated theoretically and studied experimentally using deliberately ``domestic'' apparatus. It is demonstrated that black coffee cools faster than white coffee under the same conditions. Under most (but not all) circumstances, if coffee is required to be as hot as possible several minutes after its preparation, any milk or cream should be added immediately, rather than just before drinking.

  2. Heavy Drinking, Poor Mental Health, and Substance Use Among Asian Americans in the NLAAS: A Gender-Based Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Alice W.; Lee, Christina S.; Iwamoto, Derek K.

    2014-01-01

    The severity of heavy drinking among Asian Americans has often been dismissed because of relatively low rates compared to other racial/ethnic groups. However, higher depression and suicide rates among Asian Americans and their association to alcohol use suggest serious detrimental effects of heavy alcohol use among Asian Americans. Gender differences in heavy drinking have been documented among other immigrant based ethnic minorities, little is known of this pattern for Asian Americans. The purpose of the present study was to examine gender differences in heavy drinking, poor mental health, and substance use among a national sample of Asian Americans (N = 581) in the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS). Using National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) guidelines, heavy drinkers were categorized as those who exceeded the recommended weekly number of drinks (≥14 drinks/week for male and ≥7 drinks/week for female). Accordingly, six comparison groups were created (male non, light, and heavy drinkers, and female non, light, and heavy drinkers). Pearson’s chi-square test was conducted to examine percentage distribution for the six groups for mental health disorders (i.e., suicidality, DSM–IV mental health endorsement for past 12-month and lifetime). Logistic regression was followed to determined predictors for heavy drinking behavior for men and for women. Female heavy drinkers reported significantly poorer mental health than non drinkers, light drinkers and male heavy drinkers, as indicated by higher rates of lifetime generalized anxiety, and depressive disorders. In contrast, male heavy drinkers were more likely to have lifetime substance use disorders. Findings suggest the need to develop gender-specific drinking interventions for Asian Americans that focus on improving mental health among women and substance treatment among men. PMID:25554732

  3. A Decision Support System for Drinking Water Production Integrating Health Risks Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Delpla, Ianis; Monteith, Donald T.; Freeman, Chris; Haftka, Joris; Hermens, Joop; Jones, Timothy G.; Baurès, Estelle; Jung, Aude-Valérie; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The issue of drinking water quality compliance in small and medium scale water services is of paramount importance in relation to the 98/83/CE European Drinking Water Directive (DWD). Additionally, concerns are being expressed over the implementation of the DWD with respect to possible impacts on water quality from forecast changes in European climate with global warming and further anticipated reductions in north European acid emissions. Consequently, we have developed a decision support system (DSS) named ARTEM-WQ (AwaReness Tool for the Evaluation and Mitigation of drinking Water Quality issues resulting from environmental changes) to support decision making by small and medium plant operators and other water stakeholders. ARTEM-WQ is based on a sequential risk analysis approach that includes consideration of catchment characteristics, climatic conditions and treatment operations. It provides a holistic evaluation of the water system, while also assessing human health risks of organic contaminants potentially present in treated waters (steroids, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, bisphenol-a, polychlorobiphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petrochemical hydrocarbons and disinfection by-products; n = 109). Moreover, the system provides recommendations for improvement while supporting decision making in its widest context. The tool has been tested on various European catchments and shows a promising potential to inform water managers of risks and appropriate mitigative actions. Further improvements should include toxicological knowledge advancement, environmental background pollutant concentrations and the assessment of the impact of distribution systems on water quality variation. PMID:25046634

  4. Drinking water and health: Disinfectants and disinfectant by-products. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the toxicity of the by-products of disinfectants have focused on the trihalomethanes (THMs), which are formed during chlorination and for which considerable data on carcinogenicity have been developed. The level of total THMs in finished drinking water, currently regulated at 100 micrograms/L, should be reduced. Noting that chloroform is the principal THM produced by chlorination, the subcommittee found this level to be unsupportable on the basis of the risk values for chloroform developed in this review. Other, non-volatile by-products of chlorination may be important in contributing mutagenic properties to drinking water, especially when the natural water being treated contains high levels of organic matter. Short-term animal skin tests, although not conclusive, provide indications that organic concentrates from chlorinated water are tumorigenic under some experimental conditions. Unfortunately, many by-products of chlorination and other disinfection practices have not been identified. Consequently, the risks of ingesting cannot be quantified at present, but are potentially high enough to warrant continued efforts to analyze them. The use of alternative methods of drinking water disinfection is increasing, largely due to health and regulatory concerns about trihalomethanes. Thus, the nature and toxicity of the by-products of some other widely used water treatments (chloramination, ozonation, and chlorine dioxide) are also evaluated in the report to the extent allowed by available data. The subcommittee calculated quantitative risk assessment for disinfectants or their by-products when there was sufficient data.

  5. Deployment Risk Factors and Postdeployment Health Profiles Associated With Traumatic Brain Injury in Heavy Drinking Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Joah L.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Murphy, James G.; Crouse, Ellen M.

    2014-01-01

    Along with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is considered one of the “signature wounds” of combat operations in Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom [OIF]) and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom [OEF]), but the role of mTBI in the clinical profiles of Veterans with other comorbid forms of postdeployment psychopathology is poorly understood. The current study explored the deployment risk and postdeployment health profiles of heavy drinking OIF and OEF Veterans as a function of mTBI. Sixty-nine heavy-drinking OIF/OEF Veterans were recruited through a Veterans’ Affairs Medical Center and completed questionnaires and structured interviews assessing war-zone experiences, postdeployment drinking patterns, and PTSD symptoms. Veterans with positive mTBI screens and confirmed mTBI diagnoses endorsed higher rates of combat experiences, including direct and indirect killing, and met criteria for PTSD at a higher rate than Veterans without a history of mTBI. Both PTSD and combat experiences independently predicted screening positive for mTBI, whereas only combat experiences predicted receiving a confirmed mTBI diagnosis. mTBI was not associated with any dimension of alcohol use. These results support a growing body of literature linking mTBI with PTSD. PMID:22808885

  6. A decision support system for drinking water production integrating health risks assessment.

    PubMed

    Delpla, Ianis; Monteith, Donald T; Freeman, Chris; Haftka, Joris; Hermens, Joop; Jones, Timothy G; Baurès, Estelle; Jung, Aude-Valérie; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-07-01

    The issue of drinking water quality compliance in small and medium scale water services is of paramount importance in relation to the 98/83/CE European Drinking Water Directive (DWD). Additionally, concerns are being expressed over the implementation of the DWD with respect to possible impacts on water quality from forecast changes in European climate with global warming and further anticipated reductions in north European acid emissions. Consequently, we have developed a decision support system (DSS) named ARTEM-WQ (AwaReness Tool for the Evaluation and Mitigation of drinking Water Quality issues resulting from environmental changes) to support decision making by small and medium plant operators and other water stakeholders. ARTEM-WQ is based on a sequential risk analysis approach that includes consideration of catchment characteristics, climatic conditions and treatment operations. It provides a holistic evaluation of the water system, while also assessing human health risks of organic contaminants potentially present in treated waters (steroids, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, bisphenol-a, polychlorobiphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petrochemical hydrocarbons and disinfection by-products; n = 109). Moreover, the system provides recommendations for improvement while supporting decision making in its widest context. The tool has been tested on various European catchments and shows a promising potential to inform water managers of risks and appropriate mitigative actions. Further improvements should include toxicological knowledge advancement, environmental background pollutant concentrations and the assessment of the impact of distribution systems on water quality variation. PMID:25046634

  7. Reexamining the Risks of Drinking-Water Nitrates on Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Alyce M.; Diaz, James H.; Kaye, Alan David

    2014-01-01

    Background Nitrates in drinking water are generally considered the sole source of nitrite poisoning with methemoglobinemia in infantile methomoglobinemia (IM). However, IM, which occurs during the first 4 months of life, is actually a constellation of cyanosis and hypoxia associated with methemoglobinemia that can result from several other causes. Methods This review reexamines the role of nitrate levels in drinking water as a cause of IM and identifies other sources of nitrates that can affect public health and cause chronic diseases. Results Causes of IM include nitrites in foods, environmental chemical exposures, commonly prescribed pharmaceuticals, and the endogenous generation of oxides of nitrogen. Infants with congenital enzyme deficiencies in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and methemoglobin reductase are at greater risk of nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia from nitrates in water and food and from exposures to hemoglobin oxidizers. Conclusion Early epidemiological studies demonstrated significant associations between high groundwater nitrate levels and elevated methemoglobin levels in infants fed drinking water–diluted formulas. However, more recent epidemiological investigations suggest other sources of nitrogenous substance exposures in infants, including protein-based formulas and foods and the production of nitrate precursors (nitric acid) by bacterial action in the infant gut in response to inflammation and infection. PMID:25249806

  8. Health risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in drinking water sources of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Long; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Wang, Chao; He, Tao; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2015-03-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) with endocrine disruption effects and carcinogenicity are widely detected in water environment. Occurrences of PAEs in source water and removal efficiencies of PAEs by drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in China were surveyed from publications in the last 10 years. Concentration of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in source water with median value of 1.3 μg/L was higher than that of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). If the removal efficiencies of DEHP and DnBP reached 60 and 90 %, respectively, the calculated PAE concentration in drinking water can generally meet Standards for Drinking Water Quality in China. The health risks of PAEs, including non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks via the "water source-DWTP-oral ingestion/dermal permeation" pathway, were evaluated with Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis under certain removal efficiencies from 0 to 95 %. The carcinogenic risk of DEHP was lower than the upper acceptable carcinogenic risk level (10(-4)), while the probability of DEHP's carcinogenic risk between lower (10(-6)) and upper (10(-4)) acceptable carcinogenic risk level decreased from about 21.2 to 0.4 % through increasing DEHP removal efficiency from 0 to 95 %. The non-carcinogenic risk of DEHP was higher than that of DEP and DnBP. In all cases, the total non-carcinogenic risk of DEP, DnBP, and DEHP was lower than 1, indicating that there would be unlikely incremental non-carcinogenic risk to humans. Both carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk of PAEs in drinking water to female were a little higher than those to male. PMID:25253058

  9. Green, oolong and black tea extracts modulate lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemia rats fed high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Yang, M -H.; Wang, C -H.; Chen, H -L.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare effects of ethanol-soluble fractions prepared from various types of teas on sucrose-induced hyperlipidemia in 5-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats (n = 6-8 per group) weighed approximately 200 g were randomly divided into control diet, sucrose-rich diet, green tea, oolong tea and black tea groups. Control-diet group was provided with modified AIN-93 diet while the others consumed sucrose-rich diet. Tea extracts (1% w/v) were supplied in the drink for green tea, oolong tea and black tea groups. Results indicated sucrose-rich diet induced hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. Food intake was reduced by oolong tea extract. Consuming oolong and black tea extracts also significantly decreased body weight gains and food efficiency. Hypertriglyceridemia was normalized by green and black tea drink on day 18 and by oolong tea extract on day 25, respectively. Hypercholesterolemia was normalized by green tea on day 18 and by oolong tea and black tea on day 25, respectively. Plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations were not affected by any tea extract. The triglyeride content in the liver as well as the cholesterol content in the heart of rats fed sucrose-rich diet were elevated and were normalized by all types of tea drink tested. Although green and oolong tea extracts contained similar composition of catechin, our findings suggest green tea exerted greater antihyperlipidemic effect than oolong tea. Apparent fat absorption may be one of the mechanisms by which green tea reduced hyperlipidemia as well as fat storage in the liver and heart of rats consumed sucrose-rich diet. PMID:11179857

  10. Tea and its consumption: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Khizar; Iqbal, Hira; Malik, Uzma; Bilal, Uzma; Mushtaq, Sobia

    2015-01-01

    The recent convention of introducing phytochemicals to support the immune system or combat diseases is a centuries' old tradition. Nutritional support is an emerging advancement in the domain of diet-based therapies; tea and its constituents are one of the significant components of these strategies to maintain the health and reduce the risk of various malignancies. Tea is the most frequently consumed beverage worldwide, besides water. All the three most popular types of tea, green (unfermented), black (fully fermented), and oolong (semifermented), are manufactured from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. Tea possesses significant antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive, neuroprotective, cholesterol-lowering, and thermogenic properties. Several research investigations, epidemiological studies, and meta-analyses suggest that tea and its bioactive polyphenolic constituents have numerous beneficial effects on health, including the prevention of many diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, genital warts, and obesity. Controversies regarding beneficialts and risks of tea consumption still exist but the limitless health-promoting benefits of tea outclass its few reported toxic effects. However, with significant rise in the scientific investigation of role of tea in human life, this review is intended to highlight the beneficial effects and risks associated with tea consumption. PMID:24915350

  11. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: V. BIOMARKER STUDIES - A PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Effects of Chronic Exposure to Arsenic via Drinking Water in Inner Mongolia: V. Biomarker Studies - a Pilot Study

    Michael T. Schmitt, M.S.P.H., Judy S. Mumford, Ph.D., National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agenc...

  12. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: I. BIOMARKERS FOR ASSESSING EXPOSURE AND EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Effects of Chronic Exposure to Arsenic via Drinking Water in Inner Mongolia: I. Biomarkers for Assessing Exposure and Effects

    Judy L. Mumford, Ph.D., Mike Schmitt, M.S.P.H., Richard K. Kwok, M.S.P.H., Rebecca Calderon, Ph.D., National Health and Environmental Effect...

  13. Suppressive Effects of Tea Catechins on Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Li-Ping; Wang, Ao; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Polito, Curt Anthony; Lu, Jian-Liang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Tea leaf (Camellia sinensis) is rich in catechins, which endow tea with various health benefits. There are more than ten catechin compounds in tea, among which epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast cancer were summarized, and the inhibitory effects of tea catechins on breast cancer, with EGCG as a representative compound, were reviewed in the present paper. The controversial results regarding the role of tea in breast cancer and areas for further study were discussed. PMID:27483305

  14. Suppressive Effects of Tea Catechins on Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Li-Ping; Wang, Ao; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Polito, Curt Anthony; Lu, Jian-Liang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Tea leaf (Camellia sinensis) is rich in catechins, which endow tea with various health benefits. There are more than ten catechin compounds in tea, among which epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast cancer were summarized, and the inhibitory effects of tea catechins on breast cancer, with EGCG as a representative compound, were reviewed in the present paper. The controversial results regarding the role of tea in breast cancer and areas for further study were discussed. PMID:27483305

  15. Drinking to our health: Can beverage companies cut calories while maintaining profits?

    PubMed Central

    Kleiman, Susan; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Carbonated soft drinks (CSD) and other beverages make up an increasing percentage of energy intake, and there are rising public health concerns about the links between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain, obesity, and other cardio-metabolic problems. In response, the food and beverage industry claims to be reformulating products, reducing package or portion sizes, and introducing healthier options. Comparative analysis on various changes and their potential effects on public health are needed. We conduct a case study using the two largest and most influential producers of sweetened beverages, The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo, who together control 34 percent of the global soft drink market, examining their product portfolios globally and in three critical markets (the US, Brazil, and China) from 2000-2010. On a global basis, total revenues and energy per capita sold increased, yet the average energy density (kilojoules per 100 milliliters) sold declined slightly, suggesting a shift to lower-calorie products. In the US, both total energy per capita and average energy density of beverages sold decreased, while the opposite was true in the developing markets of Brazil and China, with total per capita energy increasing greatly in China and, to a lesser extent, in Brazil. PMID:22070346

  16. Moderate and Binge Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption » Drinking Levels Defined In this Section Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Drinking Levels Defined Moderate alcohol consumption: According to the "Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015- ...

  17. HPLC ANALYSIS OF CATECHINS, THERAFLAVINS, AND ALKALOIDS IN COMMERCIAL TEAS AND GREEN TEA DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS: COMARARISON OF WATER AND 80% ETHANOL/WATER EXTRACTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To help meet the needs of consumers, producers of dietary tea supplements, and researchers for information on health-promoting tea compounds, we compared the following conditions for the extraction of tea leaves and green tea-containing dietary supplements: 80% ethanol/water at 60 'C for 15 min and ...

  18. Does the evidence about health risks associated with nitrate ingestion warrant an increase of the nitrate standard for drinking water?

    PubMed Central

    van Grinsven, Hans JM; Ward, Mary H; Benjamin, Nigel; de Kok, Theo M

    2006-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that it is safe to raise the health standard for nitrate in drinking water, and save money on measures associated with nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The major argument has been that the epidemiologic evidence for acute and chronic health effects related to drinking water nitrate at concentrations near the health standard is inconclusive. With respect to the chronic effects, the argument was motivated by the absence of evidence for adverse health effects related to ingestion of nitrate from dietary sources. An interdisciplinary discussion of these arguments led to three important observations. First, there have been only a few well-designed epidemiologic studies that evaluated ingestion of nitrate in drinking water and risk of specific cancers or adverse reproductive outcomes among potentially susceptible subgroups likely to have elevated endogenous nitrosation. Positive associations have been observed for some but not all health outcomes evaluated. Second, the epidemiologic studies of cancer do not support an association between ingestion of dietary nitrate (vegetables) and an increased risk of cancer, because intake of dietary nitrate is associated with intake of antioxidants and other beneficial phytochemicals. Third, 2–3 % of the population in Western Europe and the US could be exposed to nitrate levels in drinking water exceeding the WHO standard of 50 mg/l nitrate, particularly those living in rural areas. The health losses due to this exposure cannot be estimated. Therefore, we conclude that it is not possible to weigh the costs and benefits from changing the nitrate standard for drinking water and groundwater resources by considering the potential consequences for human health and by considering the potential savings due to reduced costs for nitrate removal and prevention of nitrate pollution. PMID:16989661

  19. Economic and Health Impacts Associated with a Salmonella Typhimurium Drinking Water Outbreak−Alamosa, CO, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Ailes, Elizabeth; Budge, Philip; Shankar, Manjunath; Collier, Sarah; Brinton, William; Cronquist, Alicia; Chen, Melissa; Thornton, Andrew; Beach, Michael J.; Brunkard, Joan M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, a large Salmonella outbreak caused by contamination of the municipal drinking water supply occurred in Alamosa, Colorado. The objectives of this assessment were to determine the full economic costs associated with the outbreak and the long-term health impacts on the community of Alamosa. We conducted a postal survey of City of Alamosa (2008 population: 8,746) households and businesses, and conducted in-depth interviews with local, state, and nongovernmental agencies, and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools to assess the economic and long-term health impacts of the outbreak. Twenty-one percent of household survey respondents (n = 369/1,732) reported diarrheal illness during the outbreak. Of those, 29% (n = 108) reported experiencing potential long-term health consequences. Most households (n = 699/771, 91%) reported municipal water as their main drinking water source at home before the outbreak; afterwards, only 30% (n = 233) drank unfiltered municipal tap water. The outbreak’s estimated total cost to residents and businesses of Alamosa using a Monte Carlo simulation model (10,000 iterations) was approximately $1.5 million dollars (range: $196,677–$6,002,879), and rose to $2.6 million dollars (range: $1,123,471–$7,792,973) with the inclusion of outbreak response costs to local, state and nongovernmental agencies and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools. This investigation documents the significant economic and health impacts associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and highlights the potential for loss of trust in public water systems following such outbreaks. PMID:23526942

  20. Frequent Marijuana Use, Binge Drinking and Mental Health Problems Among Undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Diana R.; Hart, Carl L.; McNeil, Michael P.; Silver, Rae; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives In light of the rapidly changing legal status of marijuana in the U.S., there has been increased interest in the potentially adverse outcomes of heavy marijuana use among young persons. The goal of this study was to investigate frequent marijuana use among undergraduates, and its association with the use of illicit substances, mental health problems, and stress. Methods Undergraduates from one university in the Northeast were surveyed using a questionnaire derived from the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (N =1,776). Logistic regression analyses were used to examine relationships between frequency of marijuana use and other substance use, binge drinking, negative consequences of drinking, mental health problems, and perceived stress. Analyses were adjusted for demographics differences such as gender, race, year in school, and sorority/fraternity membership. Results Approximately 1 in 12 undergraduates (8.5%) reported using marijuana more than 10 days in the past month. Frequent marijuana use was associated with increased likelihood of other substance use and alcohol-related negative outcomes. Marijuana use was associated with increased reports of anxiety, and frequent use was associated with depression and substance use problems. Perceived stress was not associated with marijuana use. Conclusions and Scientific Significance These findings, indicating that frequent use is related to depression, other substance use and negative outcomes, contribute to our understanding of marijuana use among undergraduates. Given the relatively high prevalence of marijuana use among young persons, future studies should seek to uncover potentially causal relationships between frequent marijuana use and a variety of negative outcomes. PMID:25930151

  1. Coffee, tea, soda, and caffeine intake in relation to risk of adult glioma in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Dubrow, Robert; Darefsky, Amy S.; Freedman, Neal D.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We utilized the large, prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study to further explore the hypothesis, suggested by two recent prospective cohort studies, that increased intake of coffee, tea, soda, and/or caffeine is associated with reduced adult glioma risk. Methods At baseline in 1995–1996, dietary intake, including coffee, tea, and soda, was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI) for glioma risk in relation to beverage intake. Results During follow-up of 545,771 participants through 2006, 904 participants were diagnosed with glioma. We found no trends of decreasing glioma risk with increasing intake of specific beverages or total caffeine. HR patterns for consumption of the caffeinated versus decaffeinated form of each beverage were inconsistent with a specific caffeine effect. HR patterns of reduced glioma risk for most categories of beverage intake greater than “none” prompted a post hoc analysis that revealed borderline-significant inverse associations for any versus no intake of tea (HR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.69–1.03), total coffee plus tea (HR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.48–1.03), and soda (HR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67–1.01). Conclusions The borderline-significant inverse associations could be explained by a threshold effect in which any beverage intake above a low level confers a beneficial effect, most likely due to beverage constituents other than caffeine. They also could be explained by non-drinkers of these beverages sharing unknown extraneous characteristics associated with increased glioma risk, or by chance. PMID:22457000

  2. Potential health implications for acid precipitation, corrosion, and metals contamination of drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, W E; DeWalle, D R

    1985-01-01

    Potential health effects of drinking water quality changes caused by acid precipitation are presented. Several different types of water supply are discussed and their roles in modifying acid rain impacts on drinking water are explained. Sources of metals contamination in surface water supplies are enumerated. The authors present some results from their research into acid rain impacts on roof-catchment cisterns, small surface water supplies, and lead mobilization in acid soils. A good correlation was obtained between cistern water corrosivity as measured by the Ryznar Index (RI) values and standing tapwater copper concentrations. However, lead concentrations in tapwater did not correlate well with cistern water RI. A modified linear regression model that accounted for Ryznar Index change during storage in vinyl-lined cisterns was used to predict the Ryznar Index value at a copper concentration of 1000 micrograms/L. The predicted RI was greater than the RI of precipitation with a pH of 5.3, indicating that anthropogenically acidified precipitation may result in cistern tapwater copper concentrations in excess of the 1000 micrograms/L suggested drinking water limit. Good correlations between tapwater Ryznar Index and tapwater copper and lead concentrations were not obtained for the small surface water supply. Aluminum concentrations in reservoir water were similar to those in stream source water. Limited data were also presented that indicated lead was present in acid forest soil leachate and streams draining such soils in relatively small concentrations. Where appropriate, recommendations for future research are included with the discussions of research results. PMID:4076096

  3. Assessment of variable drinking water sources used in Egypt on broiler health and welfare

    PubMed Central

    ELSaidy, N.; Mohamed, R. A.; Abouelenien, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. Materials and Methods: A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1) received farm tap water; (T2) received filtered tap water (T3) received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4) received underground (well) water. Results: All water sources showed no significant differences among treated groups at (p>0.05) for most of the performance parameters and carcass characteristics. However (T2) group showed higher records for body weight (BWT), BWT gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio, bursa weight, serum total protein, globulin (G), albumin (A) and A/G ratio, Ab titer against New castle disease virus vaccine. On the other hand, it showed lower records for water intake (WI), WI/Feed intake ratio, total leukocytes count %, heterophil %, lymphocyte %, H/L ratio, liver weight, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum uric acid and creatinine. Where filtered water reverse osmosis showed lowest records for bacterial load, the absence of coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) and salinity. On the other hand stored water showed higher numerical values for TDS, EC, alkalinity, salinity, pH, bacterial count, and coliform count. Conclusion: Base on the results of this study, it is concluded that different water sources could safely be used as drinking water for poultry; as long as it is present within the acceptable range of drinking water quality for chickens. Suggesting the benefits of treatment of water sources on improving chickens’ health and welfare. Draw attention to

  4. Hydrogeochemistry of the drinking water sources of Derebogazi Village (Kahramanmaras) and their effects on human health.

    PubMed

    Uras, Yusuf; Uysal, Yagmur; Arikan, Tugba Atilan; Kop, Alican; Caliskan, Mustafa

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sources of drinking water for Derebogazi Village, Kahramanmaras Province, Turkey, in terms of hydrogeochemistry, isotope geochemistry, and medical geology. Water samples were obtained from seven different water sources in the area, all of which are located within quartzite units of Paleozoic age, and isotopic analyses of (18)O and (2)H (deuterium) were conducted on the samples. Samples were collected from the region for 1 year. Water quality of the samples was assessed in terms of various water quality parameters, such as temperature, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, trace element concentrations, anion-cation measurements, and metal concentrations, using ion chromatography, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry, ICP-optical emission spectrometry techniques. Regional health surveys had revealed that the heights of local people are significantly below the average for the country. In terms of medical geology, the sampled drinking water from the seven sources was deficient in calcium and magnesium ions, which promote bone development. Bone mineral density screening tests were conducted on ten females using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to investigate possible developmental disorder(s) and potential for mineral loss in the region. Of these ten women, three had T-scores close to the osteoporosis range (T-score < -2.5). PMID:25446040

  5. Hypoglycemic and antilipidemic properties of kombucha tea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes has become a serious health problem and a major risk factor associated with troublesome health complications, such as metabolism disorders and liver-kidney dysfunctions. The inadequacies associated with conventional medicines have led to a determined search for alternative natural therapeutic agents. The present study aimed to investigate and compare the hypoglycemic and antilipidemic effects of kombucha and black tea, two natural drinks commonly consumed around the world, in surviving diabetic rats. Methods Alloxan diabetic rats were orally supplied with kombucha and black tea at a dose of 5 mL/kg body weight per day for 30 days, fasted overnight, and sacrificed on the 31st day of the experiment. Their bloods were collected and submitted to various biochemical measurements, including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglcerides, urea, creatinine, transaminases, transpeptidase, lipase, and amylase activities. Their pancreases were isolated and processed to measure lipase and α-amylase activities and to perform histological analysis. Results The findings revealed that, compared to black tea, kombucha tea was a better inhibitor of α-amylase and lipase activities in the plasma and pancreas and a better suppressor of increased blood glucose levels. Interestingly, kombucha was noted to induce a marked delay in the absorption of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol. Histological analyses also showed that it exerted an ameliorative action on the pancreases and efficiently protected the liver-kidney functions of diabetic rats, evidenced by significant decreases in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase activities in the plasma, as well as in the creatinine and urea contents. Conclusions The findings revealed that kombucha tea administration induced attractive curative effects on diabetic rats, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions. Kombucha tea can, therefore, be

  6. Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? KidsHealth > For ... a daily multivitamin formulated for kids. previous continue Energy Drinks These are becoming increasingly popular with middle- ...

  7. Bactericidal activity of green tea extracts: the importance of catechin containing nano particles

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Paul, Diby; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    When we drink green tea infusion, we believe we are drinking the extract of the green tea leaves. While practically each tea bag infused in 300 mL water contains about 50 mg of suspended green tea leaf particles. What is the role of these particles in the green tea effect is the objective of this study. These particles (three different size ranges) were isolated via varying speed centrifugation and their respective inputs evaluated. Live oral bacterial samples from human volunteers have been screened against green tea extracts and macro, micro and nano sized green tea particles. The results showed that the presence/absence of the macro and mico sized tea particles in the green tea extract did not contribute much. However, the nano sized particles were characterized to be nature’s nano stores of the bioactive catechins. Eradication of these nano tea particles resulted in decrease in the bactericidal property of the green tea extracts. This is a curtain raiser investigation, busting the nano as well as green tea leaf particle contribution in green tea extracts. PMID:26818408

  8. Bactericidal activity of green tea extracts: the importance of catechin containing nano particles.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Paul, Diby; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    When we drink green tea infusion, we believe we are drinking the extract of the green tea leaves. While practically each tea bag infused in 300 mL water contains about 50 mg of suspended green tea leaf particles. What is the role of these particles in the green tea effect is the objective of this study. These particles (three different size ranges) were isolated via varying speed centrifugation and their respective inputs evaluated. Live oral bacterial samples from human volunteers have been screened against green tea extracts and macro, micro and nano sized green tea particles. The results showed that the presence/absence of the macro and mico sized tea particles in the green tea extract did not contribute much. However, the nano sized particles were characterized to be nature's nano stores of the bioactive catechins. Eradication of these nano tea particles resulted in decrease in the bactericidal property of the green tea extracts. This is a curtain raiser investigation, busting the nano as well as green tea leaf particle contribution in green tea extracts. PMID:26818408

  9. Chronic arsenic poisoning in drinking water in Inner Mongolia and its associated health effects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Juan X; Hu, Lin; Yand, Peng Z; Tanabe, Kimiko; Miyatalre, Munetoshi; Chen, Yao

    2007-10-01

    Since 1990, a large number of people have been experiencing various health problems from drinking arsenic contaminated water (50-1860 microg/L) in 13 counties of Inner Mongolia, China, most of which are located in the Hetao Plain area. It is calculated that 411,243 people are currently at risk from arsenic poisoning. Clinical and epidemiological investigations were carried out on 13,021 people to ascertain the nature and degree of morbidity that occurred due to chronic arsenic toxicity. In all of the studied patients, 22% had typical hyperkeratosis on the palms or soles and some had raindrop-like hyperpigmentation and depigmentation on the trunk. Other data recorded included subjective and objective symptoms, such as chronic cough (35.0%) and insomnia (37.5%). During physical checkups of 680 villagers in arsenic affected areas, liver function tests showed elevated globulin levels in 6.8% (P value=0.006) of the subjects. Neurotoxicity manifesting as loss of hearing 5.88 (P value=0.005), loss of taste 5.44% (P value=0.001), blurred vision 17.35% (P value=0.000), tingling and numbness of the limbs 33.53% (P value=0.000) and hypertension 8.09% (P value=0.000) were significantly higher in the arsenic affected villages and arsenic pollution also seemed to affect patients' social life and mental health. To solve the problem of arsenic exposure, the quality of drinking water needs to be improved by reducing the arsenic content. We also plan to carry out a survey to detect the incidence and types of cancer among this population. PMID:17952786

  10. Arsenic exposure in drinking water: an unrecognized health threat in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Laura; Arias, M Helena Jahuira; Mihalic, Jana; Cabrera, Lilia Z; Danz, David; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the extent of arsenic contamination of groundwater and surface water in Peru and, to evaluate the accuracy of the Arsenic Econo-Quick™ (EQ) kit for measuring water arsenic concentrations in the field. Methods Water samples were collected from 151 water sources in 12 districts of Peru, and arsenic concentrations were measured in the laboratory using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The EQ field kit was validated by comparing a subset of 139 water samples analysed by laboratory measurements and the EQ kit. Findings In 86% (96/111) of the groundwater samples, arsenic exceeded the 10 µg/l arsenic concentration guideline given by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. In 56% (62/111) of the samples, it exceeded the Bangladeshi threshold of 50 µg/l; the mean concentration being 54.5 µg/l (range: 0.1–93.1). In the Juliaca and Caracoto districts, in 96% (27/28) of groundwater samples arsenic was above the WHO guideline; and in water samples collected from the section of the Rímac river running through Lima, all had arsenic concentrations exceeding the WHO limit. When validated against laboratory values, the EQ kit correctly identified arsenic contamination relative to the guideline in 95% (106/111) of groundwater and in 68% (19/28) of surface water samples. Conclusion In several districts of Peru, drinking water shows widespread arsenic contamination, exceeding the WHO arsenic guideline. This poses a public health threat requiring further investigation and action. For groundwater samples, the EQ kit performed well relative to the WHO arsenic limit and therefore could provide a vital tool for water arsenic surveillance. PMID:25177071

  11. The Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies Is Related to Reduced Risk in Heavy Drinking College Students with Poorer Mental and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample…

  12. Pharmacokinetics and biotransformation of tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jinping; Kong, Xiangyi; Kong, Aiying; Han, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Tea is an infusion of the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant and is the most widely consumed beverage in the world after water. The main chemical components in teas are phenolic compounds (tea polyphenols, mainly tea catechins). A large number of in vitro and in vivo scientific studies have supported that the tea polyphenols can provide a number of health benefits such as, reducing the incidence of coronary heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Recently, tea polyphenols have proven highly attractive as lead compounds for drug discovery programs. A clear understanding of chemistry, stability, pharmacokinetics and metabolic fate of tea will be significant to elucidate many medicinal effects by biochemical theory and pharmaceutical development. This article reviews the current literature on the pharmacoknetics and biotransformation of tea catechins. The half-lives of tea polyphenols are 2-4h and their absorption and elimination are rapid in humans. The peak times (tmax) are 1 and 3 h after oral administration and the peak plasma concentrations are low μM range. It has been reported that catechins are easily metabolized by enzyme and microbe, and the main metabolic pathways are methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation, ring-fission metabolism, and so on. The information is important to discuss some of the challenges and benefits of pursuing this family of compounds for drug discovery. PMID:24527703

  13. Association between Aluminum and Silicon Concentrations in Isfahan Drinking Water and Their Health Risk Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Pourgheysari, Hajar; Hajizadeh, Yaghoub; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad; Ebrahimi, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Background: High concentrations of elements such as aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) in drinking water can affect human health. It is suggested that high daily intake of Al is associated with increased risk of neurodegenerative disorders. Si, as an antidote of Al, may decrease Al bioavailability. The study was conducted to estimate Al and Si concentration and correlation in water and evaluate their health risk. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, water samples were collected from 20 points of water distribution system and the water treatment plant of Isfahan in spring and summer. Samples were analyzed using DR-5000. The health risk was evaluated via calculating chronic daily intake (CDI) and hazard index (HI). Results: Significant negative correlation was documented between Al and Si (R = −0.482, P = 0.037 in spring, and R = −0.452, P = 0.049 in summer). These values were approximately similar in all types of Al and Si. The amounts of CDI for Al in spring and summer were 6.67E-04 and 0.002 mg/kg/day, respectively. The Al HI values were below 1 in both seasons. Conclusions: The significant correlation between Al and Si concentrations suggests that Si can eliminate Al in water, and probably it might do the same in the body. The health risk of Al intake from tap water was negligible, it was assessed in an acceptable range with an HI value of less than the standard levels. The health risk of Si remained unknown due to lack of information regarding its toxicity and adverse health effects. PMID:26682032

  14. HEALTH RISKS FROM CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER: FINDINGS FROM THE CLINICAL INVESTIGATIONS DATA IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior studies have reported a large number of arsenicism cases in the Mongolia Autonomous Region of China due to drinking arsenic-contaminated water with concentrations up to 1.8 mg/L. However, the endemic health risks from chronic exposure to arsenic in this population have not...

  15. Health Risk Assessment Research on Heavy Metals Ingestion Through Groundwater Drinking Pathway for the Residents in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Liping; Wang, Yeyao; Guo, Yongli; Zhou, Youya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng; Xie, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Drinking groundwater is a significant pathway for human exposure to heavy metals. To evaluate the health effect of some heavy metals ingestion through the groundwater drinking pathway, the authors collected 35 groundwater samples from the drinking water wells of local residents and the exploitation wells of waterworks in Baotou, China. The monitoring results indicate that the groundwater had been polluted by heavy metals in some regions of the study area. A health risk assessment model derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was used to determine the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic effects to residents who drink groundwater. All the respondents in the study area were at potential risk of carcinogenic health effects from arsenic when using the lowest safe standard for carcinogenic risk (1E-06). The hazard quotient values for noncarcinogenic health risk of arsenic exceeded 1 in 14.3% of the sampling wells in the study area. The research results could provide baseline data for groundwater utilization and supervision in the Baotou plain area. PMID:26867296

  16. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA:
    IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    Zhixiong Ning, B.S., Zhiyi Liu,B.S., Shiying Zhang, B.S., Chenglong Ma, B.S., Inner Mongolia Ba Men Anti-epidemic Station, Michael Ri...

  17. Managing the ecosystem to improve human health: integrated approaches to safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Forget, G; Sanchez-Bain, W A

    1999-01-01

    The ecosystem approach to human health is a holistic concept of health for both humans and the environment in which they live. This approach requires a holistic management of all facets of the ecosystem, be they physical, biologic, or indeed human-such as culture, economy, and developmental needs. This paradigm may at first glance seem theoretical and difficult to put into practice in everyday field research. However, using basic human needs, such as water and sanitation, as entry points illustrates how ecosystem health can indeed prove a powerful tool for sustainable development, promoting both human well-being and sustainable ecosystems. The authors describe the efforts of international agencies, particularly the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), to promote household safe drinking water security in developing countries. Essential to the success of these endeavors are strong partnerships with communities, research institutions, and donor agencies. The roles of these players are delineated. An important feature of IDRC projects, which is critical to their success, is the establishment of a simple, community-based water-quality monitoring program that the people can maintain with the limited resources available to them. The process and outcomes of past IDRC projects are presented and ongoing efforts are described. PMID:10092746

  18. Binge Drinking among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in San Salvador: Correlates and Sexual Health Implications.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Erin; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Hembling, John

    2015-08-01

    High rates of heavy alcohol use among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) have been linked to increased vulnerability for HIV and poor mental health. While theories explaining elevated drinking levels among sexual minorities have been forwarded, few investigations have assessed the potential pathways using empirical data, particularly with an explicit focus on self-stigma and among MSM and TW in low- and middle-income countries. This study examined the relationship between stigma-related stress (specifically, self-stigma and concealment of one's sexual orientation) and binge drinking in a sample of MSM and TW (n = 670) in San Salvador, El Salvador, recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Levels of alcohol consumption among participants were high: only 39 % of the sample did not drink alcohol or did not binge drink, while 34 % engaged in binge drinking at least weekly. Among MSM, high self-stigma was associated with binge drinking at least weekly (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) = 2.1, p < 0.05). No such relationship was found with less than weekly binge drinking. Among both MSM and TW, having a female partner was associated with binge drinking less than weekly (aRRR = 3.3, p < 0.05) and binge drinking at least weekly (aRRR = 3.4, p < 0.05), while disclosure of sexual orientation to multiple types of people was associated with binge drinking less than weekly (aRRR = 2.9 for disclosure to one-two types of people, p < 0.01; aRRR = 4.0 for disclosure to three-nine types of people, p < 0.01). No such relationship was found with at least weekly binge drinking. Binge drinking at least weekly was marginally associated with a number of sexual health outcomes, including high number of lifetime partners (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7, p < 0.10), inconsistent condom use with a non-regular partner (aOR = 0.5, p < 0.10), and decreased intention to test for HIV in the next 12 months (a

  19. Investigation of free amino acid, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and purine alkaloids to assess the health properties of non-Camellia tea

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wu; He, Chunnian; Ma, Yunyun; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Linghua Harris; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Peigen

    2015-01-01

    To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia) were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea) for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs) and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC), total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay), and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62–18.99 mg/g) are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55–24.99 mg/g). However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g). Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL). Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline) were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs. PMID:27006902

  20. Investigation of free amino acid, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and purine alkaloids to assess the health properties of non-Camellia tea.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wu; He, Chunnian; Ma, Yunyun; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Linghua Harris; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Peigen

    2016-03-01

    To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia) were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea) for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs) and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC), total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay), and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62-18.99 mg/g) are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55-24.99 mg/g). However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g). Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL). Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline) were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs. PMID:27006902

  1. Clinical Protocols to Reduce High Risk Drinking in College Students: The College Drinking Prevention Curriculum for Health Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this curriculum is to help all health care professionals -- physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, social workers, health educators, counselors, psychologists, and others who work with college students -- identify and treat students who are at-risk or are having alcohol-related problems. The clinical methods…

  2. Acute health effects after accidental exposure to styrene from drinking water in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; Bellido-Blasco, Juan; Villamarin-Vazquez, Jose-Luis; Aranda-Mares, Jose-Luis; Font-Cardona, Nuria; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2003-01-01

    Objectives We studied subjective health symptoms in a population accidentally exposed to high styrene concentrations in drinking tap water. The contamination occurred during the reparation of a water tank. Methods Residents of 27 apartments in two buildings using the contaminated water were contacted. A questionnaire on subjective symptoms was administered to 84 out of 93 persons living in the apartments at the time of the accident. Styrene concentration was measured in samples of water collected two days after the accident. The means of exposure associated with appearance of symptoms were examined through case-control analyses. Results Styrene in water reached concentrations up to 900 μg/L. Symptoms were reported by 46 persons (attack rate 55 %). The most frequent symptoms were irritation of the throat (26%), nose (19%), eyes (18%) and the skin (14%). General gastrointestinal symptoms were observed with 11% reporting abdominal pain and 7% diarrhea. The factors most strongly associated with symptoms were drinking tap water (OR = 7.8, 95% CI 1.3–48), exposure to vapors from the basement (OR = 10.4, 2.3–47) and eating foods prepared with tap water (OR = 8.6, 1.9–40). All residents in the ground floor reported symptoms. Conclusions This accidental contamination led to very high styrene concentrations in water and was related to a high prevalence of subjective symptoms of the eyes, respiratory tract and skin. Similar exposures have been described in workers but not in subjects exposed at their residence. Various gastrointestinal symptoms were also observed in this population probably due to a local irritative effect. PMID:12777181

  3. Role of mafic and ultramafic rocks in drinking water quality and its potential health risk assessment, Northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shaheen; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Muhammad, Said; Khan, Sardar

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the drinking water (groundwater and surface water) quality and potential risk assessment along mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Swat district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Provence, Pakistan. For this purpose, 82 groundwater and 33 surface water samples were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters. Results showed that the majority of the physico-chemical parameters were found to be within the drinking water guidelines set by the World Health Organization. However, major cationic metals such as magnesium (Mg), and trace metals (TM) including iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) showed exceeded concentrations in 13%, 4%, 2%, 20%, 20% and 55% of water samples, respectively. Health risk assessment revealed that the non-carcinogenic effects or hazard quotient values through the oral ingestion pathway of water consumption for the TM (viz., Fe, Cr and Mn) were found to be greater than 1, could result in chronic risk to the exposed population. Results of statistical analyses revealed that mafic and ultramafic rocks are the main sources of metal contamination in drinking water, especially Ni and Cr. Both Ni and Cr have toxic health effects and therefore this study suggests that contaminated sites should be avoided or treated for drinking and domestic purposes. PMID:26608774

  4. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and metalloid in drinking water from communities near gold mines in Tarkwa, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Akoto, Osei; Baidoo, Elvis; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-07-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and metalloid in borehole drinking water from 18 communities in Tarkwa, Ghana, were measured to assess the health risk associated with its consumption. Mean concentrations of heavy metals (μg/L) exceeded recommended values in some communities. If we take into consideration the additive effect of heavy metals and metalloid, then oral hazard index (HI) results raise concerns about the noncarcinogenic adverse health effects of drinking groundwater in Huniso. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) guidelines, HI values indicating noncarcinogenic health risk for adults and children in Huniso were 0.781 (low risk) and 1.08 (medium risk), respectively. The cancer risk due to cadmium (Cd) exposure in adults and children in the sampled communities was very low. However, the average risk values of arsenic (As) for adults and children through drinking borehole water in the communities indicated medium cancer risk, but high cancer risk in some communities such as Samahu and Mile 7. Based on the USEPA assessment, the average cancer risk values of As for adults (3.65E-05) and children (5.08E-05) indicated three (adults) and five (children) cases of neoplasm in a hundred thousand inhabitants. The results of this study showed that residents in Tarkwa who use and drink water from boreholes could be at serious risk from exposure to these heavy metals and metalloid. PMID:26038318

  5. Health Effects of Energy Drinks on Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Sara M.; Schaechter, Judith L.; Hershorin, Eugene R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the effects, adverse consequences, and extent of energy drink consumption among children, adolescents, and young adults. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Google using “energy drink,” “sports drink,” “guarana,” “caffeine,” “taurine,” “ADHD,” “diabetes,” “children,” “adolescents,” “insulin,” “eating disorders,” and “poison control center” to identify articles related to energy drinks. Manufacturer Web sites were reviewed for product information. RESULTS: According to self-report surveys, energy drinks are consumed by 30% to 50% of adolescents and young adults. Frequently containing high and unregulated amounts of caffeine, these drinks have been reported in association with serious adverse effects, especially in children, adolescents, and young adults with seizures, diabetes, cardiac abnormalities, or mood and behavioral disorders or those who take certain medications. Of the 5448 US caffeine overdoses reported in 2007, 46% occurred in those younger than 19 years. Several countries and states have debated or restricted energy drink sales and advertising. CONCLUSIONS: Energy drinks have no therapeutic benefit, and many ingredients are understudied and not regulated. The known and unknown pharmacology of agents included in such drinks, combined with reports of toxicity, raises concern for potentially serious adverse effects in association with energy drink use. In the short-term, pediatricians need to be aware of the possible effects of energy drinks in vulnerable populations and screen for consumption to educate families. Long-term research should aim to understand the effects in at-risk populations. Toxicity surveillance should be improved, and regulations of energy drink sales and consumption should be based on appropriate research. PMID:21321035

  6. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:27384581

  7. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:27384581

  8. Stability of Green Tea Catechins in Commercial Tea Leaves during Storage for 6 Months

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To help meet the needs of consumers, producers of dietary tea products, and researchers for information on health-promoting tea ingredients, we determined by HPLC seven catechins [(–)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (–)-catechin (C), (+)-epicatechin (EC), (–)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), (–)-gallocate...

  9. Green tea and the skin.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Stephen

    2005-06-01

    Plant extracts have been widely used as topical applications for wound-healing, anti-aging, and disease treatments. Examples of these include ginkgo biloba, echinacea, ginseng, grape seed, green tea, lemon, lavender, rosemary, thuja, sarsaparilla, soy, prickly pear, sagebrush, jojoba, aloe vera, allantoin, feverwort, bloodroot, apache plume, and papaya. These plants share a common character: they all produce flavonoid compounds with phenolic structures. These phytochemicals are highly reactive with other compounds, such as reactive oxygen species and biologic macromolecules, to neutralize free radicals or initiate biological effects. A short list of phenolic phytochemicals with promising properties to benefit human health includes a group of polyphenol compounds, called catechins, found in green tea. This article summarizes the findings of studies using green tea polyphenols as chemopreventive, natural healing, and anti-aging agents for human skin, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:15928624

  10. Suffering for water, suffering from water: access to drinking-water and associated health risks in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Yongsi, H Blaise Nguendo

    2010-10-01

    Although many African countries, along the equator, receive a great amount of rainfall and possess a dense hydrographic network, access to drinking-water remains a great challenge. In many households, water is used for various purposes, including domestic and crafts activities. According to the World Health Organization, an estimated four billion cases of diarrheoa occurs worldwide, of which 88% are ascribed to unsafe drinking-water. This study aimed at evaluating health risks in the usage of contaminated drinking-water and its relationship with the prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in Yaound6, Cameroon. In this cross-sectional epidemiological design, 3,034 households with children aged less than five years were investigated. Households were selected from among 20 representative neighbourhoods out of 105 that made up the city. The study revealed a diarrheoa prevalence of 14.4% (437 diarrheoa cases out of 3,034 children tested). Among various risk factors examined, water-supply modes and quality of drinking-water were statistically associated with diarrheoa cases. Moreover, levels of diarrheoa attacks varied considerably from one neighbourhood to the other. The spatial analysis helped determine neighbourhoods of higher and lower prevalence of diarrheoa in the city. PMID:20941893

  11. Urgent need to reevaluate the latest World Health Organization guidelines for toxic inorganic substances in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Frisbie, Seth H; Mitchell, Erika J; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has established guidelines for drinking-water quality that cover biological and chemical hazards from both natural and anthropogenic sources. In the most recent edition of Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality (2011), the WHO withdrew, suspended, did not establish, or raised guidelines for the inorganic toxic substances manganese, molybdenum, nitrite, aluminum, boron, nickel, uranium, mercury, and selenium. In this paper, we review these changes to the WHO drinking-water guidelines, examining in detail the material presented in the WHO background documents for each of these toxic substances. In some cases, these WHO background documents use literature reviews that do not take into account scientific research published within the last 10 or more years. In addition, there are instances in which standard WHO practices for deriving guidelines are not used; for example, rounding and other mathematical errors are made. According to published meeting reports from the WHO Chemical Aspects Working Group, the WHO has a timetable for revising some of its guidelines for drinking-water quality, but for many of these toxic substances the planned changes are minimal or will be delayed for as long as 5 years. Given the limited nature of the planned WHO revisions to the inorganic toxic substances and the extended timetable for these revisions, we suggest that governments, researchers, and other stakeholders might establish independent recommendations for inorganic toxic substances and possibly other chemicals to proactively protect public health, or at the very least, revert to previous editions of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, which were more protective of public health. PMID:26268322

  12. ROLE OF SHORT-TERM TESTS IN EVALUATING HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Short-term bioassays such as the Ames test are used to assess genotoxicity and potential carcinogenicity of specific drinking water contaminants as well as concentrated samples of drinking water. he authors discuss the development, limitations, and interpretation of short-term te...

  13. THE HEALTHY MEN STUDY: A MODEL APPROACH FOR EXAMINING POTENTIAL MALE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Healthy Men Study (HMS) is a prospective multisite community study on drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and male reproductive health. We are testing whether exposure to DBPs in drinking water may be associated with altered semen quality, a hypothesis derived from...

  14. PREDICTION OF PESTICIDE RISKS TO HUMAN HEALTH BY DRINKING WATER EXTRACTED FROM UNDERGROUND SOURCES.

    PubMed

    Antonenko, A; Vavrinevych, O; Omelchuk, S; Korshun, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our work was to develop the method of prediction of the risk of contamination of groundwater with different classes' fungicides in soil and climatic conditions of Ukraine and other European countries, as well as hygienic assessment of their impact on public health. The calculation and comparative evaluation of various indices of pesticides migration into groundwater were conducted. It was established that the most optimal and complete is an LEACN index according to which in soil and climatic conditions of Ukraine the risk of contamination of ground and surface water by all studied fungicides is low, except penconazole and tebuconazole for which there is medium contamination risk. We have developed a method of integrated assessment of the potential hazard of pesticide exposure on the human organism when it enters ground and surface waters, which are intensive used for drinking water supplying. Integral index of this method - IGCHI - is obtained by adding of scores assigned to main indicators characterizing the danger to humans in pesticides gets into the water: index of leaching (LEACН), half life period in water (DT50) and the allowable daily intake (ADI). According developed method all studied fungicides are low hazard for human, except benalaxy-M and tebuconazole which are hazard and highly hazard, respectively. It was established that, benalaxy-M is hazard when it leached into groundwater and surface water, tebuconazole is highly hazard, which is primarily due to their high stability in water (in both cases) and significant potential for leaching (in the latter case). PMID:26177143

  15. Environmental health aspects of drinking water-borne outbreak due to karst flooding: case study.

    PubMed

    Dura, Gyula; Pándics, Tamás; Kádár, Mihály; Krisztalovics, Katalin; Kiss, Zoltánné; Bodnár, Judit; Asztalos, Agnes; Papp, Erzsébet

    2010-09-01

    Climate change may increase the incidence of waterborne diseases due to extreme rainfall events, and consequent microbiological contamination of the water source and supply. As a result of the complexity of the pathways from the surface to the consumer, it is difficult to detect an association between rainfall and human disease. The water supply of a Hungarian city, Miskolc (174,000 inhabitant), is mainly based on karstic water, a vulnerable underground water body. A large amount of precipitation fell on the catchment area of the karstic water source, causing an unusually strong karstic water flow and flooding, and subsequent microbiological contamination. The presence of several potential sources of contamination in the protective zone of the karstic water source should be emphasized. The water supplier was unprepared to treat the risk of waterborne outbreak caused by an extreme weather event. Public health intervention and hygienic measures were taken in line with epidemiological actions, focusing on the protection of consumers by providing safe drinking water. The contamination was identified, and measures were taken for risk reduction and prevention. This case study underlines the increasing importance of preparedness for extreme water events in order to protect the karstic water sources and to avoid waterborne outbreaks. PMID:20375480

  16. Assessing Exposure and Health Consequences of Chemicals in Drinking Water: Current State of Knowledge and Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Kogevinas, Manolis; Cordier, Sylvaine; Templeton, Michael R.; Vermeulen, Roel; Nuckols, John R.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Levallois, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Safe drinking water is essential for well-being. Although microbiological contamination remains the largest cause of water-related morbidity and mortality globally, chemicals in water supplies may also cause disease, and evidence of the human health consequences is limited or lacking for many of them. Objectives: We aimed to summarize the state of knowledge, identify gaps in understanding, and provide recommendations for epidemiological research relating to chemicals occurring in drinking water. Discussion: Assessing exposure and the health consequences of chemicals in drinking water is challenging. Exposures are typically at low concentrations, measurements in water are frequently insufficient, chemicals are present in mixtures, exposure periods are usually long, multiple exposure routes may be involved, and valid biomarkers reflecting the relevant exposure period are scarce. In addition, the magnitude of the relative risks tends to be small. Conclusions: Research should include well-designed epidemiological studies covering regions with contrasting contaminant levels and sufficient sample size; comprehensive evaluation of contaminant occurrence in combination with bioassays integrating the effect of complex mixtures; sufficient numbers of measurements in water to evaluate geographical and temporal variability; detailed information on personal habits resulting in exposure (e.g., ingestion, showering, swimming, diet); collection of biological samples to measure relevant biomarkers; and advanced statistical models to estimate exposure and relative risks, considering methods to address measurement error. Last, the incorporation of molecular markers of early biological effects and genetic susceptibility is essential to understand the mechanisms of action. There is a particular knowledge gap and need to evaluate human exposure and the risks of a wide range of emerging contaminants. Citation: Villanueva CM, Kogevinas M, Cordier S, Templeton MR, Vermeulen R

  17. Effect of commercially available green and black tea beverages on drug-metabolizing enzymes and oxidative stress in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Hsu, Ya-Ru; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Chang, Keng-Hao; Yang, Hui-Ting

    2014-08-01

    The effect of commercially available green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) drinks on drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) and oxidative stress in rats was investigated. Male Wistar rats were fed a laboratory chow diet and GT or BT drink for 5 weeks. Control rats received de-ionized water instead of the tea drinks. Rats received the GT and BT drinks treatment for 5 weeks showed a significant increase in hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1A2, and a significant decrease in CYP2C, CYP2E1 and CYP3A enzyme activities. Results of immunoblot analyses of enzyme protein contents showed the same trend with enzyme activity. Significant increase in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity and reduced glutathione content in liver and lungs were observed in rats treated with both tea drinks. A lower lipid peroxide level in lungs was observed in rats treated with GT drink. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that both tea drinks decreased pregnane X receptor binding to DNA and increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 binding to DNA. These results suggest that feeding of both tea drinks to rats modulated DME activities and reduced oxidative stress in liver and lungs. GT drink is more effective on reducing oxidative stress than BT drink. PMID:24815822

  18. Drinking pattern and blood pressure among non-hypertensive current drinkers: findings from 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Amy Z; Li, Yan; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Balluz, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Context and objective Epidemiological studies show the apparent link between excessive alcohol consumption and hypertension. However, the association between alcohol intake and blood pressure among non-hypertensive individuals is scarcely examined. Methods This analysis included participants in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who were aged 20 to 84 years without a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, hypertension or pregnancy, whose systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) was lower than 140/90 mmHg, who were not on antihypertensive medication, and who consumed 12 drinks or more during the past 12 months (N = 3957). Average drinking volume (average alcohol intake per day), usual drinking quantity (drinks per day when drinking) and frequency of binge drinking were used to predict SBP/DBP. Covariates included age, gender, race/ethnicity, education level, smoking status, average physical activity level, and daily hours spent on TV/ video/computer. Results Drinking volume was directly associated with higher SBP in a linear dependent manner (an increment of 10 g of alcohol per day increased average SBP by 1 mmHg among both men and women). Drinking above the US Dietary Guidelines (men more than two drinks and women more than one drink per drinking day) was associated with higher SBP. Binge drinking was associated with both higher SBP and higher DBP. Average intake greater than two drinks per day was particularly associated with higher DBP among women (P = 0.0003). Conclusion This analysis from a population-based survey indicates a direct association between higher alcohol consumption and a higher prevalence of prehypertension among non-hypertensive drinkers. PMID:23390368

  19. Alcohol marketing, drunkenness, and problem drinking among Zambian youth: findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Swahn, Monica H; Ali, Bina; Palmier, Jane B; Sikazwe, George; Mayeya, John

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Zambia (2004) of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (N = 2257). Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.02) and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06-1.87) among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth. PMID:21647354

  20. Green tea and risk of breast cancer in Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anna H; Yu, Mimi C; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Hankin, Jean; Pike, Malcolm C

    2003-09-10

    There is substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence implicating tea polyphenols as chemopreventive agents against various cancers. However, epidemiologic data obtained from mainly Western populations are not supportive of a protective role of tea, mainly black tea, in the etiology of breast cancer. Much less is known about the relationship between green tea and breast cancer risk. During 1995-1998, we conducted a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer among Chinese, Japanese and Filipino women in Los Angeles County and successfully interviewed 501 breast cancer patients and 594 control subjects. Detailed information on menstrual and reproductive factors; dietary habits, including intake of black and green tea; and other lifestyle factors was collected. Risk of breast cancer was not related to black tea consumption. In contrast, green tea drinkers showed a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer, and this was maintained after adjusting for age, specific Asian ethnicity, birthplace, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, use of menopausal hormones, body size and intake of total calories and black tea. Compared to women who did not drink green tea regularly (i.e., less than once a month), there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing amount of green tea intake, adjusted odds ratios being 1.00, 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.99) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.35-0.78), respectively, in association with no, 0-85.7 and >85.7 ml of green tea per day. The significant inverse association between risk of breast cancer and green tea intake remained after further adjustment for other potential confounders, including smoking; alcohol, coffee and black tea intake; family history of breast cancer; physical activity; and intake of soy and dark green vegetables. While both green tea and soy intake had significant, independent protective effects on breast cancer risk, the benefit of green tea was primarily observed among subjects who were low

  1. Consumption of coffee or tea and symptoms of anxiety.

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, W W; McLeod, J

    1984-01-01

    The relationship of consumption of coffee or tea to self-reported symptoms of anxiety is examined with data from the detailed examination component of the National Center for Health Statistics Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Among this nationwide sample of 3,854 respondents, there was no significant association between consumption of coffee or tea and symptoms of anxiety. PMID:6689844

  2. Health Impact of Supplying Safe Drinking Water on Patients Having Various Clinical Manifestations of Fluorosis in an Endemic Village of West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Kunal K.; Sundarraj, Shunmuga N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is 1.5 mg/L. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride, often leads to reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or ten days) and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. Objective: To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above permissible limit and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after consumption of safe drinking water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal intervention study was conducted from October 2010 to December 2011 in a village selected randomly in Purulia District of West Bengal which is endemic for fluorosis. Thirty-six families with 104 family members in the above village having history of taking unsafe water containing high level of fluoride were selected for the study. The occurrence of various dental, skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among the study population was assessed; the impact of taking safe water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit from a supplied community filter on these clinical manifestations was studied by follow-up examination of the above participants for six months. The data obtained is compared with the collected data from the baseline survey. Results: The prevalence of signs and symptoms of dental, skeletal

  3. Heavy Drinking and Social and Health Factors in University Students from 24 Low, Middle Income and Emerging Economy Countries.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate heavy drinking and social and health correlates in university students in low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 17,590 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD 2.9) from 25 universities in 24 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 71.6 % were non-drinkers, 17.1 % moderate and 11.3 % heavy alcohol drinkers (14.2 % in men and 9.2 % in women) in the past 2 weeks. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age, poorer family background, living in a higher income country, weak beliefs in the importance of limiting alcohol use, higher country per capita alcohol consumption, other substance use (tobacco and illicit drug use), and poor life satisfaction was associated with heavy drinking. Addressing health beliefs and co-occurring addictive behaviors may be crucial in the prevention of heavy drinking in this population. PMID:26298475

  4. Characterizing the concentration of Cryptosporidium in Australian surface waters for setting health-based targets for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Petterson, S; Roser, D; Deere, D

    2015-09-01

    It is proposed that the next revision of the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines will include 'health-based targets', where the required level of potable water treatment quantitatively relates to the magnitude of source water pathogen concentrations. To quantify likely Cryptosporidium concentrations in southern Australian surface source waters, the databases for 25 metropolitan water supplies with good historical records, representing a range of catchment sizes, land use and climatic regions were mined. The distributions and uncertainty intervals for Cryptosporidium concentrations were characterized for each site. Then, treatment targets were quantified applying the framework recommended in the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality 2011. Based on total oocyst concentrations, and not factoring in genotype or physiological state information as it relates to infectivity for humans, the best estimates of the required level of treatment, expressed as log10 reduction values, ranged among the study sites from 1.4 to 6.1 log10. Challenges associated with relying on historical monitoring data for defining drinking water treatment requirements were identified. In addition, the importance of quantitative microbial risk assessment input assumptions on the quantified treatment targets was investigated, highlighting the need for selection of locally appropriate values. PMID:26322774

  5. Different Choices of Drinking Water Source and Different Health Risks in a Rural Population Living Near a Lead/Zinc Mine in Chenzhou City, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao; He, Liping; Li, Jun; Yang, Fei; Tan, Hongzhuan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the households’ choices of drinking water sources, and evaluate the risk of human exposure to heavy metals via different drinking water sources in Chenzhou City of Hunan Province, Southern China. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey of 192 householders in MaTian and ZhuDui village was conducted. The concentrations of heavy metals in their drinking water sources were analyzed. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk assessment was performed according to the method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In total, 52.60% of the households used hand-pressed well water, and 34.89% used barreled water for drinking. In total, 6.67% of the water samples exceeded the Chinese drinking water standards. The total health risk of five metals is 5.20 × 10−9~3.62 × 10−5. The total health risk of five metals was at acceptable levels for drinking water sources. However, the total risk of using hand-pressed well water’s highest value is 6961 times higher than the risk of using tap water. Household income level was significantly associated with drinking water choices. Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are priority controlled pollutants in this region. Using safe drinking water (tap water, barreled water and so on) can remarkably reduce the risk of ingesting heavy metals. PMID:26569281

  6. Different Choices of Drinking Water Source and Different Health Risks in a Rural Population Living Near a Lead/Zinc Mine in Chenzhou City, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; He, Liping; Li, Jun; Yang, Fei; Tan, Hongzhuan

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to describe the households' choices of drinking water sources, and evaluate the risk of human exposure to heavy metals via different drinking water sources in Chenzhou City of Hunan Province, Southern China. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey of 192 householders in MaTian and ZhuDui village was conducted. The concentrations of heavy metals in their drinking water sources were analyzed. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk assessment was performed according to the method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In total, 52.60% of the households used hand-pressed well water, and 34.89% used barreled water for drinking. In total, 6.67% of the water samples exceeded the Chinese drinking water standards. The total health risk of five metals is 5.20 × 10(-9)~3.62 × 10(-5). The total health risk of five metals was at acceptable levels for drinking water sources. However, the total risk of using hand-pressed well water's highest value is 6961 times higher than the risk of using tap water. Household income level was significantly associated with drinking water choices. Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are priority controlled pollutants in this region. Using safe drinking water (tap water, barreled water and so on) can remarkably reduce the risk of ingesting heavy metals. PMID:26569281

  7. Cadmium in Jamaican Bush Teas

    PubMed Central

    Hoo Fung, LA; Rattray, VR; Lalor, GC

    2014-01-01

    Samples of Jamaican plants used as bush teas were collected from households in high soil-cadmium (Cd) areas of central Jamaica and analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total cadmium and for cadmium extractable with a hot water brew as prepared for human consumption to determine their contribution to dietary cadmium exposure. The concentrations ranged from < 0.03 to 6.85 μg/g for total Cd, between 1 and 15% of which was extracted with a hot water brew. One cup (200 ml) of the teas examined was found to contain < 0.04–1.18 μg of Cd and would contribute 0.1 – 0.3 μg of Cd to a person's dietary intake. This is significantly below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 7 μg Cd/kg body weight established by the World Health Organization (WHO). While this suggests that bush tea consumption does not contribute significantly to the PTWI, some of the teas examined exceed the WHO recommendation of less than 0.3 mg/kg Cd for medicinal plants. PMID:25303189

  8. Cadmium in jamaican bush teas.

    PubMed

    Hoo Fung, L A; Rattray, V R; Lalor, G C

    2014-01-01

    Samples of Jamaican plants used as bush teas were collected from households in high soil-cadmium (Cd) areas of central Jamaica and analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total cadmium and for cadmium extractable with a hot water brew as prepared for human consumption to determine their contribution to dietary cadmium exposure. The concentrations ranged from < 0.03 to 6.85 µg/g for total Cd, between 1 and 15% of which was extracted with a hot water brew. One cup (200 ml) of the teas examined was found to contain < 0.04-1.18 µg of Cd and would contribute 0.1-0.3 µg of Cd to a person's dietary intake. This is significantly below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 7 µg Cd/kg body weight established by the World Health Organization (WHO). While this suggests that bush tea consumption does not contribute significantly to the PTWI, some of the teas examined exceed the WHO recommendation of less than 0.3 mg/kg Cd for medicinal plants. PMID:25303189

  9. Green tea in dermatology--myths and facts.

    PubMed

    Zink, Alexander; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2015-08-01

    Green tea consumption has a long tradition in Asian countries--especially China. The epidemiologically and experimentally observed anticarcinogenic and antiinflammatory effects of green tea have led to the implementation of green tea extracts in multiple therapeutic applications - both in dermatological and cosmeceutical preparations. The most abundant evidence exists for the anticarcinogenic and chemopreventive effect of green tea or its major constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Almost equally evident is the effect in infectious diseases such as cutaneous viral infections. For external genital warts, a topical ointment with green tea extracts was licensed in the USA in 2010, and recently also in Europe. Experimental evidence pinpointing the block of central signal transduction factors in inflammatory mechanisms has led to the evaluation of catechins in inflammatory disorders such as atopic dermatitis. The belief of green tea as a "wonder weapon" against diseases dates back thousands of years. According to a Chinese legend, ancient Emperor Shen Nung noted a delightful aroma after some leaves of a nearby tree had fallen into boiling water. He immediately proclaimed the new "drink" as "heaven-sent", starting the belief - persisting until today - of green tea as a medication from nature against many different diseases. This review summarizes biological effects and clinical implications of green tea. PMID:26177066

  10. Phthalate esters in main source water and drinking water of Zhejiang Province (China): Distribution and health risks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Nianhua; Ding, Gangqiang; Chen, Zhijian; Xu, Peiwei; Wu, Lizhi; Cai, Jianmin; Han, Jianlong; Qiu, Xueting

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the distributions and health risks of phthalate esters in the main source water and corresponding drinking water of Zhejiang Province, the concentrations of 16 phthalate esters in water samples from 19 sites were measured from samples taken in the dry season and wet season. The concentration of the total phthalate ester congeners in source water ranged from 1.07 μg/L to 7.12 μg/L in the wet season, from 0.01 μg/L to 1.58 μg/L in the dry season, from 1.18 μg/L to 15.28 μg/L from drinking water in the wet season, and from 0.16 μg/L to 1.86 μg/L from drinking water in the dry season. Of the 16 phthalate esters, dimethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate, di-iso-butyl phthalate, bis-2-n-butoxyethyl phthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate were present in the samples analyzed, dominated by di-iso-butyl phthalate and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate. The concentrations of phthalate esters in the wet season were all relatively higher than those in the dry season, and the drinking water had higher concentrations of phthalate esters than source water. The phthalate ester congeners studied pose little health risk to nearby citizens. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2205-2212. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25988232