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Sample records for health evaluation ii

  1. Assessment of determinants of compliance to twelve health behaviors: psychometric evaluation of the Health Behavior schedule II.

    PubMed

    Frank, Maxwell R; Heiby, Elaine M; Lee, Judy H

    2007-06-01

    The test-retest reliability and content and construct validity of the Health Behavior Schedule II were examined. The Health Behavior Schedule II is a self-report intended to assess 45 potential predictors of compliance for 12 mainstream health practices: (1) eating a healthy diet, (2) exercising regularly, (3) flossing teeth daily, (4) protecting skin from sun, (5) wearing a seat belt, (6) practicing safe sex, (7) wearing a bike safety helmet, (8) not smoking cigarettes, (9) limiting alcohol consumption, (10) taking medication as prescribed, (11) obtaining cervical cancer screen, and (12) breast self-examination. The predictor items of the Health Behavior Schedule II were rationally derived from the Health Compliance Model-II and independently evaluated by three expert judges for content validity. The psychometric status of the Schedule was assessed using a multiethnic sample of 461 college students. 12 stepwise multiple regression analyses yielded 24 items as significant predictors of compliance. The configuration of predictor items varied across the 12 health behaviors with self-efficacy as the only common predictor. Effect size estimates were greatest for cervical cancer screening (R2 = .65) and least for breast self-exams (R2 = .38). Each predictor has implications for compliance enhancement strategies. These findings provide preliminary support for the utility of the questionnaire in assessing potential improvements in health compliance outcomes among young adults. PMID:17886518

  2. The Effects of Head Start Health Services: Report of the Head Start Health Evaluation. Volume I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosburg, Linda B.; And Others

    In 1977, a longitudinal study was initiated to assess the effectiveness of health services provided by Head Start. The study provided for 10 domains: pediatric health examinations, health history recordings, dental evaluation, anthropometric assessment, diet and nutrition assessment, and hematology evaluations, as well as for developmental,…

  3. Comparison of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation IV to predict intensive care unit mortality

    PubMed Central

    Parajuli, Bashu Dev; Shrestha, Gentle S.; Pradhan, Bishwas; Amatya, Roshana

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical assessment of severity of illness is an essential component of medical practice to predict the outcome of critically ill-patient. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) model is one of the widely used scoring systems. Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the Performance of APACHE II and IV scoring systems in our Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Settings and Design: A prospective study in 6 bedded ICU, including 76 patients all above 15 years. Subjects and Methods: APACHE II and APACHE IV scores were calculated based on the worst values in the first 24 h of admission. All enrolled patients were followed, and outcome was recorded as survivors or nonsurvivors. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 17. Results: The mean APACHE score was significantly higher among nonsurvivors than survivors (P < 0.005). Discrimination for APACHE II and APACHE IV was fair with area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73 and 0.79 respectively. The cut-off point with best Youden index for APACHE II was 17 and for APACHE IV was 85. Above cut-off point, mortality was higher for both models (P < 0.005). Hosmer–Lemeshow Chi-square coefficient test showed better calibration for APACHE II than APACHE IV. A positive correlation was seen between the models with Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.748 (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Discrimination was better for APACHE IV than APACHE II model however Calibration was better for APACHE II than APACHE IV model in our study. There was good correlation between the two models observed in our study. PMID:25722550

  4. Consumer evaluation of a community mental health service, II: Perceptions of clinical care.

    PubMed

    Lorefice, L S; Borus, J F

    1984-11-01

    Using patient self-report and therapist questionnaires, the authors investigated the perceptions of patients at a community mental health service about several aspects of their clinical care: what they expected from treatment, what they found helpful about treatment, how they thought treatment could be improved, their therapist preferences, and their perceptions of their treatment outcome. The patients' desire for advice and the perceived helpfulness of the advice given in therapy, the patients' limited preference for a therapist of their own ethnicity, and other findings are discussed, as is the usefulness of such consumer evaluations in mental health care delivery. PMID:6496790

  5. Validation of acute physiologic and chronic health evaluation II scoring system software developed at The Aga Khan University, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, M; Asghar, A; Shamim, F; Khan, FH

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the predictive performance of Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) software available on the hospital intranet and analyze interrater reliability of calculating the APACHE II score by the gold standard manual method or automatically using the software. Materials and Methods: An expert scorer not involved in the data collection had calculated APACHE II score of 213 patients admitted to surgical Intensive Care Unit using the gold standard manual method for a previous study performed in the department. The same data were entered into the computer software available on the hospital intranet (http://intranet/apacheii) to recalculate the APACHE II score automatically along with the predicted mortality. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistical test and Pearson's correlation coefficient was computed. Results: The 213 patients had an average APACHE II score of 17.20 ± 8.24, the overall mortality rate was 32.8% and standardized mortality ratio was 1.00. The area under the ROC curve of 0.827 was significantly >0.5 (P < 0.01) and had confidence interval of 0.77-0.88. The goodness-of-fit test showed a good calibration (H = 5.46, P = 0.71). Interrater reliability using Pearson's product moment correlations demonstrated a strong positive relationship between the computer and the manual expert scorer (r = 0.98, P = 0.0005). Conclusion: APACHE II software available on the hospital's intranet has satisfactory calibration and discrimination and interrater reliability is good when compared with the gold standard manual method. PMID:26955310

  6. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part II: The Disaster Health Conceptual Framework Revisited.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P; Loretti, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    A Conceptual Framework upon which the study of disasters can be organized is essential for understanding the epidemiology of disasters, as well as the interventions/responses undertaken. Application of the structure provided by the Conceptual Framework should facilitate the development of the science of Disaster Health. This Framework is based on deconstructions of the commonly used Disaster Management Cycle. The Conceptual Framework incorporates the steps that occur as a hazard progresses to a disaster. It describes an event that results from the changes in the release of energy from a hazard that may cause Structural Damages that in turn, may result in Functional Damages (decreases in levels of function) that produce needs (goods and services required). These needs can be met by the goods and services that are available during normal, day-to-day operations of the community, or the resources that are contained within the community's Response Capacity (ie, an Emergency), or by goods and services provided from outside of the affected area (outside response capacities). Whenever the Local Response Capacity is unable to meet the needs, and the Response Capacities from areas outside of the affected community are required, a disaster occurs. All responses, whether in the Relief or Recovery phases of a disaster, are interventions that use the goods, services, and resources contained in the Response Capacity (local or outside). Responses may be directed at preventing/mitigating further deterioration in levels of functions (damage control, deaths, injuries, diseases, morbidity, and secondary events) in the affected population and filling the gaps in available services created by Structural Damages (compromise in available goods, services, and/or resources; ie, Relief Responses), or may be directed toward returning the affected community and its components to the pre-event functional state (ie, Recovery Responses). Hazard Mitigation includes interventions designed to

  7. Health Hazard Evaluations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Programs Contact NIOSH HHE Media Health Hazard Evaluations (HHEs) Language: English en Español Recommend on Facebook ... or employers can ask the NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) Program to help learn whether health hazards ...

  8. [Evaluation of eight Clinical Protocols and Therapeutic Guidelines under the Brazilian Ministry of Health using the AGREE II instrument: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Ronsoni, Ricardo De March; Pereira, Claudia Cristina de Aguiar; Stein, Airton Tetelbom; Osanai, Mário Henrique; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2015-06-01

    The number of clinical guidelines is increasing worldwide, while there are concerns regarding their quality. In 2000, the Brazilian Ministry of Health began its process of creating clinical guidelines, called Clinical Protocols and Therapeutic Guidelines (PCDT). The goal of this study was to assess the quality of Brazilian guidelines approved since 2009 using the AGREE II instrument (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation). We identified 59 PCDT from 2009 to 2012, of which eight were randomly selected and evaluated by three independent evaluators. For the item "recommends the guidelines", two evaluators recommended the use of all eight, but with modifications, and one did not recommend any to the guidelines. Regarding the item "global quality of the guidelines" (varying from 1 to 7), the mean was 4.25 (SD = 0.46). The results showed the need for adjustments in the PCDT in relation to AGREE II domains. However, due to the instrument's limitations, further studies are needed, including the quality of evidence used in the PCDT. PMID:26200364

  9. Teacher Evaluation: II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saif, Philip S.

    1976-01-01

    This article on teacher evaluation stresses the importance of clearly outlining a job description for teachers, delineating tasks that all teachers should perform and describing abilities that teachers should demonstrate. Six major categories of competency are covered: (1) planning and preparation (identifying objectives and selecting and…

  10. Health Activities Project (HAP), Trial Edition II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) trial edition (set II) are a teacher information folio and numerous student activity folios which center around the idea that students in grades 5-8 can control their own health and safety. Each student folio is organized into a Synopsis, Health Background, Materials, Setting Up, and Activities…

  11. Evaluative Report on Phase II of the Secondary Schools Project for an Introduction to the Allied Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielstra, Clarence; Chrispin, Barbara Rosenquist

    The most difficult problem to be solved by this demonstration project was the high dropout rate in the target schools. More than half of the students routinely dropped out in the tenth grade, leading to the decision to start the program at that level in an effort to hold potential dropouts by stimulating their interest in health-care occupations.…

  12. Health Occupations Education II. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Nancy; And Others

    This instructor's manual accompanies the 46 modules in Health Occupations Education II, the second course of a two-year course of study. Contents include a list of the modules and the performance skills covered in each module, a listing of tools and supplies required for learning activities in the modules cited by module title, an instructional…

  13. Evaluation of the computerized procedures Manual II (COPMA II)

    SciTech Connect

    Converse, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computerized procedure system, the Computerized Procedure Manual II (COPMA-II), on the performance and mental workload of licensed reactor operators. To evaluate COPMA-II, eight teams of two operators were trained to operate a scaled pressurized water reactor facility (SPWRF) with traditional paper procedures and with COPMA-II. Following training, each team operated the SPWRF under normal operating conditions with both paper procedures and COPMA-II. The teams then performed one of two accident scenarios with paper procedures, but performed the remaining accident scenario with COPMA-II. Performance measures and subjective estimates of mental workload were recorded for each performance trial. The most important finding of the study was that the operators committed only half as many errors during the accident scenarios with COPMA-II as they committed with paper procedures. However, time to initiate a procedure was fastest for paper procedures for accident scenario trials. For performance under normal operating conditions, there was no difference in time to initiate or to complete a procedure, or in the number of errors committed with paper procedures and with COPMA-II. There were no consistent differences in the mental workload ratings operators recorded for trials with paper procedures and COPMA-II.

  14. Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Report - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I.

    1994-09-28

    This report describes the results from Phase II of the Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Program, a joint effort to compare analytical laboratory performance on samples from the Hanford Site`s high-level waste tanks. In Phase II, the program has been expanded to include inorganic constituents in addition to radionuclides. Results from Phase II that exceeded 20% relative percent difference criteria are identified.

  15. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring; Volume II of II, Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1991-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Participating agencies included: Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). This is the final data report for the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project. Data collected and sampling results for 1990 and 1991 are presented within this report. An evaluation of this project can be found in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Volume 1, Completion Report.'' May, 1991. Pathogen detection methods remained the same from methods described in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Annual Report 1989,'' May, 1990. From January 1, 1990 to June 30, 1991 fish health monitoring sampling was conducted. In 1990 21 returning adult stocks were sampled. Juvenile pre-release exams were completed on 20 yearling releases, and 13 sub-yearling releases in 1990. In 1991 17 yearling releases and 11 sub-yearling releases were examined. Midterm sampling was completed on 19 stocks in 1990. Organosomatic analysis was performed at release on index station stocks; Cowlitz spring and fall chinook, Lewis river early coho and Lyons Ferry fall chinook.

  16. Evaluating Health Information

    MedlinePlus

    Millions of consumers get health information from magazines, TV or the Internet. Some of the information is reliable and up to date; some is not. ... a branch of the government, a university, a health organization, a hospital or a business? Focus on ...

  17. Dam health diagnosis and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhongru; Su, Huaizhi

    2005-06-01

    Based on the bionics principle in the life sciences field, we regard a dam as a vital and intelligent system. A bionics model is constructed to observe, diagnose and evaluate dam health. The model is composed of a sensing system (nerve), central processing unit (cerebrum) and decision-making implement (organism). In addition, the model, index system and engineering method on dam health assessment are presented. The proposed theories and methods are applied to evaluate dynamically the health of one concrete dam.

  18. Evaluating Health Information

    MedlinePlus

    Millions of consumers get health information from magazines, TV or the Internet. Some of the information is reliable and up to date; some is not. How can ... the site have an editorial board? Is the information reviewed before it is posted? Be skeptical. Things ...

  19. Economic Evaluation of Health IT.

    PubMed

    Luzi, Daniela; Pecoraro, Fabrizio; Tamburis, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Economic evaluation in health care supports decision makers in prioritizing interventions and maximizing the available limited resources for social benefits. Health Information Technology (health IT) constitutes a promising strategy to improve the quality and delivery of health care. However, to determine whether the appropriate health IT solution has been selected in a specific health context, its impact on the clinical and organizational process, on costs, on user satisfaction as well as on patient outcomes, a rigorous and multidimensional evaluation analysis is necessary. Starting from the principles of evaluation introduced since the mid-1980s within the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) guidelines, this contribution provides an overview of the main challenging issues related to the complex task of performing an economic evaluation of health IT. A set of necessary key principles to deliver a proper design and implementation of a multidimensional economic evaluation study is described, focusing in particular on the classification of costs and outcomes as well as on the type of economic analysis to be performed. A case study is eventually described to show how the key principles introduced are applied. PMID:27198101

  20. SUPERFUND PUBLIC HEALTH EVALUATION MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Public Health Evaluation Manual has been developed for use by a diverse audience, including EPA regional staff, state Superfund program staff, federal and state remedial contractors, and potentially responsible parties. Individuals having different levels of scienti...

  1. Health economic evaluation in England.

    PubMed

    Raftery, James

    2014-01-01

    The 2010 National Health Service Constitution for England specified rights and responsibilities, including health economic evaluation for the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and the Joint Committee on Vaccinations and Immunisations. The National Screening Committee and the Health Protection Agency also provide advice to the Government based on health economic evaluation. Each agency largely follows the methods specified by NICE. To distinguish the methods from neoclassical economics they have been termed "extra-welfarist". Key differences include measurement and valuation of both benefits (QALYs) and costs (healthcare related). Policy on discounting has also changed over time and by agency. The debate over having NICE's methods align more closely with neoclassical economics has been prominent in the ongoing development of "value based pricing". The political unacceptability of some decisions has led to special funding for technologies not recommended by NICE. These include the 2002 Multiple Sclerosis Risk Sharing Scheme and the 2010 Cancer Drugs Fund as well as special arrangements for technologies linked to the end of life and for innovation. Since 2009 Patient Access Schemes have made price reductions possible which sometimes enables drugs to meet NICE's cost-effectiveness thresholds. As a result, the National Health Service in England has denied few technologies on grounds of cost-effectiveness. PMID:25444294

  2. Health Education Teaching Ideas: Elementary. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakala, Jane, Ed.; Buckner, W. P., Jr., Ed.; King, Karen, Ed.

    This guide contains innovative learning activities and teaching ideas to enhance classroom instruction. The 40 papers are divided into 12 areas: "Health Attitudes and Values" (e.g., understanding elementary students' perceptions of health through art, narrative and discussion); "Mental Health" (e.g., building community through friendship and…

  3. [Gastric cancer in the health area II of Asturias].

    PubMed

    Rubio Barbón, S; Aguirre Losada, A; Claros González, I; Viso Ciudad, S; García Fernández, M

    1990-12-01

    The gastric cancer cases diagnosed in "Asturias II" Health Area, are presented. The epidemiological features of incidence, prevalence, morbidity and diagnostic stages were analysed, as well as diagnosis methods. Comments on etiology, diagnosis and treatment are also included. PMID:2135573

  4. Child disaster mental health interventions, part II

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sweeton, Jennifer L.; Newman, Elana; Varma, Vandana; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Shaw, Jon A.; Chrisman, Allan K.; Nitiéma, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on the timing of child disaster mental health intervention delivery, the settings for intervention delivery, the expertise of providers, and therapeutic approaches. Studies have been conducted on interventions delivered during all phases of disaster management from pre event through many months post event. Many interventions were administered in schools which offer access to large numbers of children. Providers included mental health professionals and school personnel. Studies described individual and group interventions, some with parent involvement. The next generation of interventions and studies should be based on an empirical analysis of a number of key areas. PMID:26295009

  5. Health Occupations: Grade 8. Cluster II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Health Occupations." It is divided into four units: the hospital, preventive medicine, drug use and abuse, and alcohol and tobacco. Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's purpose, main ideas, quests, and a list of career opportunities…

  6. Allied Health Occupations II (Health Careers--Core Curriculum).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middletown Public Schools, CT.

    This volume outlines the requirements and content of a second-year course in allied health occupations education that is designed to provide students with background informational material and practical skills used in various health fields. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: safety; ethical and legal…

  7. Health Precautions. Child Health and Safety Series (Module II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides guidelines on developing and maintaining health records and permission forms, establishing daily cleanliness routines, making daily health checks, and conducting periodic screening to identify children with problems requiring professional help. Section I focuses on…

  8. Health Occupations Module. Communication in Health Occupations--II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on communication in health occupations is one of eight modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module contains an introduction to the module topic and one learning experience. The learning experience contains six activities (e.g., read…

  9. Public mental health. II: The psychological dimension.

    PubMed

    Curle, A

    1997-01-01

    Alienation, which is the source of much violence, is widespread throughout the world, deriving from and connected with adverse social and economic conditions. It is a state of estrangement from society often associated with bitterness and resentment; these exacerbate conflict and lead to war and other types of violence. Alienation is the antithesis of compassion and other feelings on which the good society is based. It is partially maintained by a web of psychological falsehoods, knots, relating to: awareness, happiness, identity, permanence, separateness, guilt and inferiority, and violence. These knots foster confused thinking that makes us more vulnerable to alienation. Unravelling the knots and cutting through the web of psychological falsehoods helps to release the human potential for positive, peaceful and non-violent action. Medicine can best contribute to weakening wide-spread alienation through the development of public mental health, working at the interface with the social, economic and cultural actors in the development of civil society. PMID:9080784

  10. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring; Volume I of II, Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1991-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Historically, all agencies involved with fish health in the Columbia Basin were conducting various levels of fish health monitoring, pathogen screening and collection. The goals of this project were; to identify, develop and implement a standardized level of fish health methodologies, develop a common data collection and reporting format in the area of artificial production, evaluate and monitor water quality, improve communications between agencies and provide annual evaluation of fish health information for production of healthier smolts. This completion report will contain a project evaluation, review of the goals of the project, evaluation of the specific fish health analyses, an overview of highlights of the project and concluding remarks. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. SECOND NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (NHANES II)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES II, is a nationwide probability sample of 27,801 persons from 6 months 74 years of age. From this sample, 25,286 people were interviewed and 20,322 people were examined, resulting in an overall response rate of 7...

  12. Anatomy and Physiology. Module No. IV. Health Occupations Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Nancy; And Others

    This package of 31 modules on anatomy and physiology is one of six such packages containing a total of 46 modules that comprise Health Occupations Education II, the second course of a two-year course of study. Each module may contain some or all of the following components: introduction, directions, objectives, a list of learning activities,…

  13. Health effects of the alkylbenzenes. II. Xylenes.

    PubMed

    Low, L K; Meeks, J R; Mackerer, C R

    1989-01-01

    The alkylbenzenes are a class of six-membered ring aromatic compounds that have a variety of alkyl groups attached. These chemicals are liquids with relatively low boiling points used primarily as solvents or as starting materials in the synthesis of other chemicals and drugs. They are integral components of gasoline, distillate fuels and other petroleum products and are economically important in the chemical, petroleum, pharmaceutical, polymer, paint and dye industries. Alkylbenzenes such as toluene, the xylenes, ethylbenzene, styrene and cumene are produced and utilized in large quantities and therefore, present the possibility of exposure to humans and to wildlife. Fortunately, the toxicity of alkylbenzenes has been found to be rather low and therefore, the human and environmental risks are probably low. In modern industrial activities, exposures to the alkylbenzenes are minimized by workplace controls or personal protective equipment which meet guidelines for maximum allowable exposure concentrations that have been established for the workplace. Nevertheless, considerable quantities of alkylbenzenes are released to the environment each year through solvent and fuel evaporation, accidental spills and misuse, and considerable toxicological information for these materials has appeared in the recent literature. This present paper, the second in a series reviewing the potential health effects of alkylbenzenes, covers the toxicology and disposition of the dimethyl-substituted benzenes (the xylenes) in animals and man. PMID:2655179

  14. Microcomputer Applications for Health Care Professionals. Volume II. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Lucy

    This volume is one of three in a self-paced computer literacy course that gives allied health students a firm base of knowledge concerning computer usage in the hospital environment. It also develops skill in several applications software packages. Volume II contains materials for three one-hour courses on word processing applications, spreadsheet…

  15. Client Outcome Evaluation in Mental Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    Outcome evaluation assesses the results or benefits of mental health services received by clients or communities by comparing descriptive data on the mental health status of clients at different points in time. It aids clinicians and managers in planning programs and managing clinical services. A mental health center should establish goal-oriented…

  16. Evaluating Health Action in the Third World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontaine, Denis

    1992-01-01

    The theme of this serial issue is helping individuals involved in community health programs at the local level to devise and apply a protocol for the evaluation of a community health program. In the opening sections of the issue evaluation is defined, the difference between a direct quantifying measure and an indicator is clarified, obstacles to…

  17. Teaching Practical Public Health Evaluation Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mary V.

    2006-01-01

    Human service fields, and more specifically public health, are increasingly requiring evaluations to prove the worth of funded programs. Many public health practitioners, however, lack the required background and skills to conduct useful, appropriate evaluations. In the late 1990s, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created the…

  18. Measuring functional health among the elderly: development of the Japanese version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II.

    PubMed

    Tazaki, Miyako; Yamaguchi, Tesuo; Yatsunami, Mitsutoshi; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    2014-03-01

    The Japanese version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II-J) was developed and its psychometric properties were evaluated, and then used to determine the influence of disability on quality of life among the elderly in Japan. The study included three phases: qualitative, preliminary and field. For the qualitative portion of the study, six key informants were interviewed before the translation/back-translation procedure. For the preliminary study, 17 healthy elderly individuals were interviewed using the 12-item interview version of the WHODAS II-J. For the field study, different versions of the WHODAS II-J and the Japanese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) were tested with different participants (the 36-item interview version with 30 participants living in a nursing home, the 36-item proxy version with 30 caregivers working in the nursing home, and the 12-item and 36-item self-report versions with 132 and 129 healthy elderly living in Kanto and Kinki regions, respectively). In total, 321 elderly individuals participated in the field study. Of these participants, physical or mental disabilities were present in 47. Cronbach's α scores calculated for each of six domains of the WHODAS II ranged from 0.67 to 0.98. A significant correlation was observed between the results of the WHODAS II-J and the degree of disability (P<0.01), and a negative correlation was observed between WHOQOL-BREF and WHODAS II-J scores (P<0.01). A significant difference was found between healthy elderly individuals and those with disabilities in three domains: getting around, self-care, and life activities (P<0.01). In conclusion, the WHODAS II-J is a reliable and valid instrument for assessment of function in the elderly population in Japan. PMID:24051962

  19. Anniston community health survey: Follow-up and dioxin analyses (ACHS-II)--methods.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Dutton, N D; Cusack, C; Mennemeyer, S T; Pavuk, M

    2016-02-01

    High serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been reported previously among residents of Anniston, Alabama, where a PCB production facility was located in the past. As the second of two cross-sectional studies of these Anniston residents, the Anniston Community Health Survey: Follow-Up and Dioxin Analyses (ACHS-II) will yield repeated measurements to be used to evaluate changes over time in ortho-PCB concentrations and selected health indicators in study participants. Dioxins, non-ortho PCBs, other chemicals, heavy metals, and a variety of additional clinical tests not previously measured in the original ACHS cohort will be examined in ACHS-II. The follow-up study also incorporates a questionnaire with extended sections on diet and occupational history for a more comprehensive assessment of possible exposure sources. Data collection for ACHS-II from 359 eligible participants took place in 2014, 7 to 9 years after ACHS. PMID:25982988

  20. Drag evaluation of the Bellanca Skyrocket II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregorek, G. M.; Hoffmann, M. J.; Payne, H. E.; Harris, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    The Bellanca Skyrocket II, possessor of five world speed records, is a single engine aircraft with high performance that has been attributed to a laminar flow airfoil and an all composite structure. Utilization of composite materials in the Skyrocket II is unique since this selection was made to increase the aerodynamic efficiency of the aircraft. Flight tests are in progress to measure the overall aircraft drag and the wing section drag for comparison with the predicted performance of the Skyrocket. Initial results show the zero lift drag is indeed low, equalling 0.016.

  1. State of evaluation: community health workers.

    PubMed

    Nemcek, Mary Ann; Sabatier, Rosemary

    2003-01-01

    Disparity groups, especially racial and ethnic minority groups, are at greater risk for poor health yet experience numerous obstacles in accessing health care. Community health workers (CHWs) are indigenous, trusted, and respected members of the underserved community. They can serve as a bridge between peers and health professionals. Use of CHWs has fluctuated since the federal government first endorsed their use for expanded health access to the underserved in the 1960s. National demands to eliminate health disparities and recent socioeconomic pressures have focused attention on use of CHWs to improve community health. Still, underutilization exists due to, in part, a lack of understanding of the CHW concept and a dearth of evaluation literature on CHWs. This article describes the CHW concept, provides a summary of CHW evaluation literature, and suggests quality care indicators to strengthen evaluation. The review of evaluation research relating to CHWs provides a preliminary state of the science for nurses to begin building an evidence-based practice. Quality of care indicators pertinent to CHW are summarized from the existing evaluation literature. The three best practice domains (therapeutic alliance, risk reduction and health care utilization) are proposed along with suggestions for using quality indicators to improve evaluation. A reduction in health disparities can occur with enhanced CHW utilization. PMID:12823786

  2. Organization and evaluation of health fairs.

    PubMed

    Germer, P; Price, J H

    1981-02-01

    In summary, the success of a health fair as a source of health education and promoter of healthful behaviors depends to a great extent upon the organizational expertise of the sponsor and cooperating forces. However, even more essential is the stimulation of health fair visitors' interest and participation, the provision of information and health status feedback and the reinforcement of positive health values. The health fair which best achieves these objectives will have a greater likelihood of also attaining its original preventive health goals and objectives. Although evaluation articles tend to stress the positive findings, this review does not imply that every health fair is a success or that every successful health fair is without criticism. Long waiting lines, unexpected equipment malfunctions, inadequate hours for visiting, understaffed activities, limited floor space and/or visual distractions and noise disturbances may still occur despite the most thorough organizational efforts. This review has attempted to synthesize from the existing sources on health fairs those essential organizational and evaluative factors necessary for a health fair to maximize its potential health education impact. PMID:6907548

  3. Assessment of the Health IT Usability Evaluation Model (Health-ITUEM) for Evaluating Mobile Health (mHealth) Technology

    PubMed Central

    Brown, William; Yen, Po-Yin; Rojas, Marlene; Schnall, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Background Over two decades of research has been conducted using mobile devices for health related behaviors yet many of these studies lack rigor. There are few evaluation frameworks for assessing the usability of mHealth, which is critical as the use of this technology proliferates. As the development of interventions using mobile technology increase, future work in this domain necessitates the use of a rigorous usability evaluation framework. Methods We used two exemplars to assess the appropriateness of the Health IT Usability Evaluation Model (Health-ITUEM) for evaluating the usability of mHealth technology. In the first exemplar, we conducted 6 focus group sessions to explore adolescents’ use of mobile technology for meeting their health Information needs. In the second exemplar, we conducted 4 focus group sessions following an Ecological Momentary Assessment study in which 60 adolescents were given a smartphone with pre-installed health-related applications (apps). Data Analysis We coded the focus group data using the 9 concepts of the Health-ITUEM: Error prevention, Completeness, Memorability, Information needs, Flexibility/Customizability, Learnability, Performance speed, Competency, Other outcomes. To develop a finer granularity of analysis, the nine concepts were broken into positive, negative, and neutral codes. A total of 27 codes were created. Two raters (R1 & R2) initially coded all text and a third rater (R3) reconciled coding discordance between raters R1 and R2. Results A total of 133 codes were applied to Exemplar 1. In Exemplar 2 there were a total of 286 codes applied to 195 excerpts. Performance speed, Other outcomes, and Information needs were among the most frequently occurring codes. Conclusion Our two exemplars demonstrated the appropriateness and usefulness of the Health-ITUEM in evaluating mobile health technology. Further assessment of this framework with other study populations should consider whether Memorability and Error prevention

  4. Challenges in evaluating rural health programs.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Joyce; Webb, John

    2002-01-01

    Complex community-based prevention programs are being held to scientific evidence of their effectiveness and rural public health departments that implement such programs often are not equipped to evaluate them. Rural public health departments are fettered by small budgets, small staffs, and less access to evaluation experts and similar resources. Community-based health promotion programs can include complex designs that may work differently in rural areas and evaluation of rural programs can be hampered by lack of control groups and the instability of results from small populations. The University of Kentucky has entered into a contract with the state Department for Public Health to implement an internal, participatory model of evaluation. In this model, the university evaluation expert trains local public health department staff in technical skills for program evaluation and acts as mentor and technical consultant to local public health departments on an ongoing basis. Through training and site visits, this model is one approach to addressing the challenges of evaluating rural health promotion programs. PMID:12135148

  5. [Health economic evaluation of AIDS response].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiangping

    2015-06-01

    During the past over 20 years of AIDS response in China, different fields from the international society and domestic sources provide significant amounts of resources for China's AIDS response. The investment, distribution and use of these resources and their effect has become the concern of the society. The health economic evaluation method is used to scientifically answer these questions, which is also the motivation of the evaluation studies. Based on several studies on health economic evaluation of AIDS response in this issue, concepts and issues related to this area are summarized. It is important for the readers to make a point of health economics evaluation, and it is also of great importance to know its limitations to provide the basis for future proper use of AIDS health economic evaluation results. PMID:26310326

  6. The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes Predicts Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Maxwell T.; Cho, Sungkun; Heiby, Elaine M.; Lee, Chun-I; Lahtela, Adrienne L.

    2006-01-01

    The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes (HBS-IID) is a 27-item questionnaire that was evaluated as a predictor of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). The HBS-IID was completed by 96 adults with Type 2 diabetes. Recent glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c and fasting blood glucose results were taken from participants' medical records. Only 31.3%…

  7. Multidisciplinary eHealth Survey Evaluation Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karras, Bryant T.; Tufano, James T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development process of an evaluation framework for describing and comparing web survey tools. We believe that this approach will help shape the design, development, deployment, and evaluation of population-based health interventions. A conceptual framework for describing and evaluating web survey systems will enable the…

  8. Modeling the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II using non-parametric item response models.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Guilera, Georgina; Pino, Oscar; Rojo, J Emilio; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a multidimensional instrument developed for measuring disability. It comprises six domains (getting around, self-care, getting along with others, life activities and participation in society). The main purpose of this paper is the evaluation of the psychometric properties for each domain of the WHO-DAS II with parametric and non-parametric Item Response Theory (IRT) models. A secondary objective is to assess whether the WHO-DAS II items within each domain form a hierarchy of invariantly ordered severity indicators of disability. A sample of 352 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder is used in this study. The 36 items WHO-DAS II was administered during the consultation. Partial Credit and Mokken scale models are used to study the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II scale are satisfactory for all the domains. However, we identify a few items that do not discriminate satisfactorily between different levels of disability and cannot be invariantly ordered in the scale. In conclusion the WHO-DAS II can be used to assess overall disability in patients with schizophrenia, but some domains are too general to assess functionality in these patients because they contain items that are not applicable to this pathology. PMID:25524862

  9. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) Complexes With Cephradine

    PubMed Central

    Jaffery, Maimoon F.

    2000-01-01

    Some Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes of antibacterial drug cephradine have been prepared and characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical data. Cephradine acts as bidentate and the complexes have compositions, [M(L)2X2] where [M = Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II), L = cephradine and X = Cl2] showing octahedral geometry, and [M(L)2] where [M = Cu(II), L = cephradine] showing square planar geometry. In order to evaluate the effect of metal ions upon chelation, eephradine and its complexes have been screened for their antibacterial activity against bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:18475955

  10. Women's Health. Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health Issues. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report identifies a broad spectrum of issues affecting women's health and is divided into four sections: (1) social factors affecting women's health; (2) women's physical health and well-being; (3) health concerns of older women; and (4) issues related to alcohol, drug use and abuse, and the mental health of women. The Public Health Service…

  11. Evaluating Health Information Systems Using Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Anderberg, Peter; Larsson, Tobias C; Fricker, Samuel A; Berglund, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several frameworks that attempt to address the challenges of evaluation of health information systems by offering models, methods, and guidelines about what to evaluate, how to evaluate, and how to report the evaluation results. Model-based evaluation frameworks usually suggest universally applicable evaluation aspects but do not consider case-specific aspects. On the other hand, evaluation frameworks that are case specific, by eliciting user requirements, limit their output to the evaluation aspects suggested by the users in the early phases of system development. In addition, these case-specific approaches extract different sets of evaluation aspects from each case, making it challenging to collectively compare, unify, or aggregate the evaluation of a set of heterogeneous health information systems. Objectives The aim of this paper is to find a method capable of suggesting evaluation aspects for a set of one or more health information systems—whether similar or heterogeneous—by organizing, unifying, and aggregating the quality attributes extracted from those systems and from an external evaluation framework. Methods On the basis of the available literature in semantic networks and ontologies, a method (called Unified eValuation using Ontology; UVON) was developed that can organize, unify, and aggregate the quality attributes of several health information systems into a tree-style ontology structure. The method was extended to integrate its generated ontology with the evaluation aspects suggested by model-based evaluation frameworks. An approach was developed to extract evaluation aspects from the ontology that also considers evaluation case practicalities such as the maximum number of evaluation aspects to be measured or their required degree of specificity. The method was applied and tested in Future Internet Social and Technological Alignment Research (FI-STAR), a project of 7 cloud-based eHealth applications that were developed and

  12. EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION REMEDIES - VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume was prepared as part of an evaluation of groundwater extraction remedies completed under EPA Contract No. 68-W8-0098. It presents 19 case studies of individual sites where ground-water extraction systems have been implemented. These case studies present site characte...

  13. Affective Evaluation Techniques in School Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Mary S.

    1981-01-01

    Ways in which affective measurement and evaluation techniques could be used for health instruction include: (1) determining student behavioral information and assisting in the removal of barriers to smooth classroom functioning; (2) attitude measurement; and (3) evaluation of classroom learning. Several types of affective measurement techniques…

  14. Qualitative Evaluation of Health Information Exchange Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Joan S.; Guappone, Kenneth P.

    2007-01-01

    Because most health information exchange (HIE) initiatives are as yet immature, formative evaluation is recommended so that what is learned through evaluation can be immediately applied to assist in HIE development efforts. Qualitative methods can be especially useful for formative evaluation because they can guide ongoing HIE growth while taking context into consideration. This paper describes important HIE-related research questions and outlines appropriate qualitative research techniques for addressing them. PMID:17904914

  15. 78 FR 74173 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests: Heritage Health Index II on the State of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests: Heritage Health Index II on... of the Heritage Health Index II on the State of America's Collections (HHI II) is to assess the state.... Title: Heritage Health Index II on the State of America's Collections (HHI II). OMB Number: To...

  16. Health care evaluation, utilitarianism and distortionary taxes.

    PubMed

    Calcott, P

    2000-09-01

    Cost Utility Analysis (CUA) and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) are methods to evaluate allocations of health care resources. Problems are raised for both methods when income taxes do not meet the first best optimum. This paper explores the implications of three ways that taxes may fall short of this ideal. First, taxes may be distortionary. Second, they may be designed and administered without reference to information that is used by providers of health care. Finally, the share of tax revenue that is devoted to health care may be suboptimal. The two methods are amended to account for these factors. PMID:11184801

  17. Unpaid work in health economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Krol, Marieke; Brouwer, Werner

    2015-11-01

    Given its societal importance, unpaid work should be included in economic evaluations of health care technology aiming to take a societal perspective. However, in practice this does not often appear to be the case. This paper provides an overview of the current place of unpaid work in economic evaluations in theory and in practice. It does so first by summarizing recommendations regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor reported in health economic textbooks and national guidelines for economic evaluations. In total, three prominent health economic text-books were studied and 28 national health economic guidelines. The paper, moreover, provides an overview of the instruments available to measure lost unpaid labor and reports on a review of the place of unpaid labor in applied economic evaluations in the area of rheumatoid arthritis. The review was conducted by examining methodology of evaluations published between 1 March 2008 and 1 March 2013. The results of this study show that little guidance is offered regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor in economic evaluations in textbooks and guidelines. The review identified five productivity costs instruments including questions about unpaid work and 33 economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis of which only one included unpaid work. The results indicate that unpaid work is rarely included in applied economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, despite this disease expecting to be associated with lost unpaid work. Given the strong effects of certain diseases and treatments on the ability to perform unpaid work, unpaid work currently receives less attention in economic evaluations than it deserves. PMID:26421997

  18. Evaluation and implementation of public health registries.

    PubMed

    Solomon, D J; Henry, R C; Hogan, J G; Van Amburg, G H; Taylor, J

    1991-01-01

    A rapid proliferation of registries has occurred during the last 20 years. Given the long-term commitment of resources associated with registries and limited public health funding, proposals for new registries should be carefully considered before being funded. A registry is defined as a data base of identifiable persons containing a clearly defined set of health and demographic data collected for a specific public health purpose. Criteria for evaluating whether a registry is needed, feasible, or the most effective and efficient means of collecting a specific set of health data are presented. They include an evaluation of the stated purpose; a review of the function, duration, and scope of the registry; consideration of existing alternative data sources; an assessment of the practical feasibility of the registry; the likelihood of sufficient start-up and long-term funding; and an evaluation of the cost effectiveness of the registry. Creating a public health registry is a complex process. A range of technical and organizational skills is required for a registry to be successfully implemented. Eight requirements are identified as crucial for the successful development of a new registry. They include an implementation plan, adequate documentation, quality control procedures, case definition and case-finding (ascertainment) procedures, determination of data elements, data collection and processing procedures, data access policy, and a framework for dissemination of registry data and findings. PMID:1902306

  19. Evaluating Potential Health Risks in Relocatable Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchen, Mark; LaPierre, Adrienne; Charlin, Cary; Brucker, Barry; Ferguson, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Only limited data exist describing potential exposures to chemical and biological agents when using portable classrooms or outlining how to assess and reduce associated health risks. Evaluating indoor air quality involves examining ventilating rates, volatile organic compounds, and microbiologicals. Open communication among key stakeholders is…

  20. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  1. Evaluating the Health of Your House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthold-Bond, Annie; Dadd, Debra Lynn

    1993-01-01

    Presents a framework from which individuals can evaluate the health environment in their homes. Questions are arranged to examine the general location of the house, the house's immediate surroundings and building shell, and the finishings. Provides a resource directory for air filters, building consultants, and building supplies. (MDH)

  2. Evaluating Multidisciplinary Education in Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirrie, Anne; Wilson, Valerie; Elsegood, John; Hall, John; Hamilton, Sheila; Harden, Ronald; Lee, Diana; Stead, Joan

    A 2-year study evaluated students' and course organizers' perceptions of the effectiveness of multidisciplinary education (ME) in health care and factors that facilitate or inhibit its development. The study had three phases: a survey of ME provision in the United Kingdom; 42 qualitative interviews and focus groups in 14 sites; and data feedback.…

  3. Health metrics and evaluation: strengthening the science.

    PubMed

    Murray, Christopher J L; Frenk, Julio

    2008-04-01

    With the growing importance of health in the global agenda comes the responsibility to develop a scientific foundation of metrics and evaluation. The scope of this emerging field can be viewed in terms of key topics, including health outcomes, other social outcomes related to health systems, health services, resource inputs, evaluations of programmes and systems, and analyses to support policy choice. It can also be defined in terms of key activities that are needed to strengthen the scientific basis of the field: development of new methods, instruments, software, and hardware; setting global norms and standards for data collection; increasing the availability of high-quality primary data; systematic analysis and synthesis of existing datasets; strengthening national capacity to obtain, analyse, and use data; and reporting and disseminating results. We explore in depth topics with major scientific challenges and institutional and cultural barriers that are slowing the development of the field. Cutting across the various topical areas and disciplinary approaches to these problems are some common scientific issues, including limited comparability of measurement, uncorrected known biases in data, no standard approach to missing data, unrealistic uncertainty estimates, and the use of disease models that have not been properly validated. Only through concerted action will it be possible to assure the production, reproduction, and use of knowledge that is crucial to the advancement of global health. PMID:18395581

  4. Towards a unified theory of health-disease: II. Holopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Filho, Naomar

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a systematic framework for modeling several classes of illness-sickness-disease named as Holopathogenesis. Holopathogenesis is defined as processes of over-determination of diseases and related conditions taken as a whole, comprising selected facets of the complex object Health. First, a conceptual background of Holopathogenesis is presented as a series of significant interfaces (biomolecular-immunological, physiopathological-clinical, epidemiological-ecosocial). Second, propositions derived from Holopathogenesis are introduced in order to allow drawing the disease-illness-sickness complex as a hierarchical network of networks. Third, a formalization of intra- and inter-level correspondences, over-determination processes, effects and links of Holopathogenesis models is proposed. Finally, the Holopathogenesis frame is evaluated as a comprehensive theoretical pathology taken as a preliminary step towards a unified theory of health-disease. PMID:24897040

  5. Theoretical Basis of Health IT Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brender McNair, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this contribution is on the theoretical principles and concepts behind evaluation of IT-based systems, discussing their presuppositions, implications and interrelationships; for instance in relation to a series of issues to consider: terminology for the concepts used as that is a reason for many disputes, bias as that is a common reason for less accuracy and trustworthiness in conclusions, culture as the tacit driver of everything we do and design, constructive evaluation as this has strict time and timing issues, preparing for meta-analyses as that is in the near future, and top-level issues in choice of methodology. Awareness in these respects will lead to avoidance of major pitfalls and perils at evaluation and thereby improve the validity and trustworthiness of an evaluation outcome, supporting the initiative towards evidence-based health informatics. PMID:27198091

  6. Linguistic evaluation of Profet II: a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, T; Hunnicutt, S

    2000-01-01

    Profet, a word prediction program, was designed to accelerate the writing process and to minimize the writing effort of persons with motor dysfunction. It has also proved to be beneficial in text construction for persons with linguistic impairment such as dyslexia. With increasing linguistic demands on support for individuals with severe reading and writing difficulties/dyslexia, the need for an improved version of Profet arose. Thus, Profet II was designed. In this study, a procedure for evaluating Profet II has been developed. Results from a single-case evaluation study with a person with dyslexia are presented. The possible implications for support and aspects such as spelling, morphology and subjective judgements of and attitudes towards texts are discussed. PMID:11086802

  7. Evaluating a health video on diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joos; Johnson, Karim; Bowyer, Joshua; Muir, Josephine; Turner, Angus

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Indigenous Australians are 14 times more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to develop diabetic retinopathy (DR). Blindness can be prevented in 98% of cases if DR is identified and treated early. While the National Health and Medical Research Council recommend annual screening for Indigenous Australians, screening attendance rates remain low. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a targeted health promotion intervention improved patient compliance and screening rates. Methods Bad Sugars, Bad Eyes - a culturally appropriate video targeting DR awareness and the importance of screening among Indigenous Australians - was developed at the Lions Eye Institute, Western Australia. The study used a patient questionnaire pre and post viewing of the video, as well as semi-structured interviews with Aboriginal Health Workers, to explore the influence the resource had on patient knowledge and attitudes. Eighty-four participants, currently involved in DR screening programs, were recruited from Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS) and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHS). Results The video was found to increase patient knowledge about key DR issues as well as alter patient attitudes identified as potential barriers to screening. The areas most affected by the video resource were knowledge of recommended screening intervals, the severity of potential visual complications if DR is left undiagnosed and untreated and that screening is needed even when asymptomatic. Aboriginal Health Workers positively evaluated the video, all rating it as 'very' culturally appropriate, understandable and relatable. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that Indigenous DR screening attendance rates could be increased through the expanded use of this video. So what? Indigenous DR screening attendance rates remain low, despite annual recommendations by the National Health and Medical Research Council. This gap needs to be addressed. PMID:26855009

  8. Health perceptions among urban American Indians with type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sachin; Davila, Javier; Patel, Sonam; Norman, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1940s, American Indians (AIs) have increasingly urbanized, moving off of reservations in large part due to federal policies of tribal termination and relocation. Though previous AI research has largely focused on reservation-associated challenges, many of these same challenges persist among urban AI populations. One mutual concern is the growing prevalence and incidence of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While behavioral, genetic, and socioeconomic determinants of T2DM have been explored, much less is known about the influence of cultural and psychosocial factors. Recent studies suggest that the way AIs perceive diabetes may affect their health trajectory and explain their poor prognosis. Through the use of the Illness Perception Questionnaire, we explored this hypothesis in a pilot study of urban AI with T2DM living in Los Angeles County. We found that the majority of participants have a neutral perception about their diabetes: They view their condition to be long lasting yet treatable and indicate reasonable understanding of its symptoms and progression. We also identified "personal control," the level of perceived control one has over his or her disease, as a strong correlate of overall illness perception and, thus, a potentially useful psychological metric. PMID:25111842

  9. [Collaboration among health professionals (II). Usefulness of a model].

    PubMed

    D'Amour, Danielle; San Martín Rodríguez, Leticia

    2006-09-01

    This second article provides a model which helps one to better understand the process of collaboration by interprofessional teams and makes it possible to evaluate the quality of the aforementioned collaboration. To this end, the authors first present a structural model of inter-professional collaboration followed by a typology of collaboration which is derived from the functionality of said model. This model is composed by four interrelated dimensions; the functionality of these has given rise to a typology of collaboration at three intensities: in action, in construction and collaboration during inertia. The model and the typology constitute a useful tool for managers and for health professionals since they help to better understand, manage and develop collaboration among the distinct professionals inside of the same organization as among those who belong to distinct organizations. PMID:17061473

  10. Study Guide for the Regents External Degree Examination in Health Support--Area II (4 Credits).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Regents External Degree Program.

    A study guide for the Health Support Area II examination of the University of the State of New York Regents External Degree Program is presented. The examination tests the use of the nursing process to support the health of the client at risk for major health problems throughout the life cycle. Emphasis is placed on nursing actions related to…

  11. Evaluating a Sexual Health Patient Education Resource

    PubMed Central

    Matzo, Marianne; Troup, Sandi; Hijjazi, Kamal; Ferrell, Betty

    2015-01-01

    This article shares the findings of an evaluation of a patient teaching resource for sexual health entitled Everything Nobody Tells You About Cancer Treatment and Your Sex Life: From A to Z, which was accomplished through systematic conceptualization, construction, and evaluation with women diagnosed with breast or gynecologic cancer. This resource, which has evolved from patient-focused research and has been tested in the clinical setting, can be used in patient education and support. Oncology professionals are committed to addressing quality-of-life concerns for patients across the trajectory of illness. Sexuality is a key concern for patients and impacts relationships and overall quality of life. Through careful assessment, patient education, and support, clinicians can ensure that sexuality is respected as an essential part of patient-centered care. PMID:26557411

  12. Health Inequities: Evaluation of Two Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcroft, Rachelle

    2010-01-01

    Social work practice in health is shaped by underlying paradigms. To effectively target health inequities, practitioners need to consider appropriate paradigms. In this exploration of how six health paradigms shape theory and practice, the two health paradigms that most attended to health inequalities are social determinants of health and…

  13. [Evaluation of world health: current status].

    PubMed

    Berthet, E

    1985-12-01

    In this first article dedicated to the balance of the world health, the author gives the main reasons which explain the spectacular growth of the world population. From 1950 to 1984, population increased by 93% shifting from 2.5 to 4.8 thousand millions among which 3.5 are living in Third World countries and 1.3 in industrialized ones. Then he studies the factors which originate the inequality of men in the face of disease and death, and gives some details on causes for mortality to-day. In industrialized countries, three fourth of deaths are due to two diseases, which are cardio-vascular diseases (48%), and cancer (19%), while in Third World countries, the major risk factors are transmissible diseases, malnutrition and lack of environmental hygiene. Infantile mortality makes it clear; out of 122 millions children born in 1980, according to WHO evaluation, more than 10 millions die before they get one year old, and 5 millions between one and five years of age. This inequality of people in the face of life and death is one of the biggest scandals of our time, especially because we have the technical means to reduce it. It will require a considerable effort from governments, international organizations and NGOs to reach the WHO object of "Health for All by the year 2000". These prospects for the future will be developed in the second part of this article to be published in a next issue of Hygie. PMID:4093135

  14. The Effects of Head Start Health Services: Executive Summary of the Head Start Health Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosburg, Linda B.; And Others

    This report summarizes findings of an evaluation of Head Start health services. Chapter one presents an overview of the background of the evaluation project. Chapter two highlights findings for the major evaluation questions. These questions focus specifically on children's health status prior to entry into Head Start, health services subsequently…

  15. Cyber Security Evaluation of II&C Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a research and development program sponsored by the Department of Energy, which is conducted in close collaboration with industry to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants The LWRS Program serves to help the US nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. Within the LWRS Program, the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway conducts targeted research and development (R&D) to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control and related information systems of the U.S. operating light water reactor (LWR) fleet. The II&C Pathway is conducted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Cyber security is a common concern among nuclear utilities and other nuclear industry stakeholders regarding the digital technologies that are being developed under this program. This concern extends to the point of calling into question whether these types of technologies could ever be deployed in nuclear plants given the possibility that the information in them can be compromised and the technologies themselves can potentially be exploited to serve as attack vectors for adversaries. To this end, a cyber security evaluation has been conducted of these technologies to determine whether they constitute a threat beyond what the nuclear plants already manage within their regulatory-required cyber security programs. Specifically, the evaluation is based on NEI 08-09, which is the industry’s template for cyber security programs and evaluations, accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as responsive to the requirements of the nuclear power plant cyber security regulation found in 10 CFR 73.54. The evaluation was conducted by a

  16. A framework for evaluating eHealth research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Health care is in the midst of a consumer-oriented technology explosion. Individuals of all ages and backgrounds have discovered eHealth. But the challenges of implementing and evaluating eHealth are just beginning to surface, and, as technology changes, new challenges emerge. Evaluation is critical...

  17. Peer Sexual Health Education: Interventions for Effective Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriranganathan, Gobika; Jaworsky, Denise; Larkin, June; Flicker, Sarah; Campbell, Lisa; Flynn, Susan; Janssen, Jesse; Erlich, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Peer education is used as a health promotion strategy in a number of areas, including sexual health. Although peer education programmes have been around for some time, published systematic evaluations of youth sexual health peer education programmes are rare. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of youth sexual health peer…

  18. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2003-03-01

    In 2002, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. In addition, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2002, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Marine Fisheries Service. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to increase safe juvenile fish passage. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris should be improved at some sites.

  19. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Vucelick, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2004-05-01

    In 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2003, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve juvenile fish passage conditions. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites.

  20. Ageing and Health Status in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of the European POMONA II Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Meindert; Perry, Jonathan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Kerr, Mike; Lantman-De Valk, Henny Van Schrojenstein; Van Hove, Geert; Berger, Dasa Moravec; Azema, Bernard; Buono, Serafino; Cara, Alexandra Carmen; Germanavicius, Arunas; Linehan, Christine; Maatta, Tuomo; Tossebro, Jan; Weber, Germain

    2011-01-01

    Background: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). Method: The P15 was completed in a cross-sectional design…

  1. Strand II: Sociological Health Problems. Prototype Curriculum Materials for the Elementary and Secondary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    These publications contain three of the topics for Strand II, Sociological Health Problems, which have been prepared as part of the kindergarten through twelve health syllabus revision project. The material included is intended for use in grades four through twelve. The topics covered are alcohol education, drugs and narcotics, and smoking. The…

  2. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP):  Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models;  Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36

  3. Managing Evaluation in a Federal Public Health Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooley, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    The author, a federal manager who leads development and maintenance of evaluation for specific public health programs at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, tells the story of developing an evaluation unit in the Office on Smoking and Health. Lessons about managing evaluation, including his practices and related principles, are…

  4. Using Usability Evaluation to Inform Alberta's Personal Health Record Design.

    PubMed

    Price, Morgan; Bellwood, Paule; Davies, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Alberta Health is deploying the Personal Health Portal (PHP) (MyHealth.Alberta.ca) to all people in the province of Alberta, Canada. The PHP will include several components such as a Personal Health Record (PHR) where users can enter and access their own health data. For the first PHR of its kind in Canada, Alberta Health asked the University of Victoria's eHealth Observatory to evaluate the PHP, including the PHR. The evaluation includes pre-design, design, and adoption evaluation. This paper focuses on early usability evaluations of the PHR software. Persona-based usability inspection was combined with usability testing sessions using think aloud. These evaluations found that while people were familiar with the web-based technology, several aspects of the PHR information architecture, content, and presentation could be improved to better support and provide value to the users. The findings could be helpful to others designing and implementing similar PHR software. PMID:25676994

  5. Just health care (II): Is equality too much?

    PubMed

    Fleck, L M

    1989-12-01

    In a previous essay I criticized Engelhardt's libertarian conception of justice, which grounds the view that society's obligation to assure access to adequate health care for all is a matter of beneficence. Beneficence fails to capture the moral stringency associated with many claims for access to health care. In the present paper I argue that these claims are really matters of justice proper, where justice is conceived along moderate egalitarian lines, such as those suggested by Rawls and Daniels, rather than strong egalitarian lines. Further, given the empirical complexity associated with the distribution of contemporary health care, I argue that what we really need to address the relevant policy issues adequately is a theory of health care justice, as opposed to an all-purpose conception of justice. Daniels has made an important start toward that goal, though there are some large policy areas which I discuss that his account of health care justice does not really speak to. Finally, practical matters of health care justice really need to be addressed in a 'non-ideal' mode, a framework in which philosophers have done little. PMID:2609284

  6. [Self-evaluation of health state in athletes].

    PubMed

    Razinkin, S M; Kotenko, K V; Fomkin, P A; Artamonova, I A; Shpakov, A V; Ivanova, I I; Danilova, D P

    2013-01-01

    The article covers scientific basis and elaboration of system concerning self-evaluation of athletes' health state. The study comprised 2 steps. During the first step, a group of 62 athletes (45 males and 17 females) performed methods of self-evaluation of health state through a list of changes, tests and stress testing. The second step included processing and generalization of the data obtained and specification of an integral scale of self-evaluation of athletes health state. PMID:24340765

  7. Development of a Customizable Health IT Usability Evaluation Scale

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Po-Yin; Wantland, Dean; Bakken, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    We developed a customizable questionnaire, the Health Information Technology (IT) Usability Evaluation Scale (Health-ITUES) and conducted an exploratory factor analysis to examine the scale’s psychometric properties. Nurses (n=377) completed Health-ITUES to rate the usability of a web-based communication system for scheduling nursing staff. The analysis revealed a four-factor structure of Health-ITUES. The results provided preliminary evidence for the factorial validity and internal consistency reliability of Health-ITUES. PMID:21347112

  8. Low Health Literacy and Evaluation of Online Health Information: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    van den Putte, Bas; Giani, Stefano; van Weert, Julia CM

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in consumer online health information seeking. The quality of online health information, however, remains questionable. The issue of information evaluation has become a hot topic, leading to the development of guidelines and checklists to design high-quality online health information. However, little attention has been devoted to how consumers, in particular people with low health literacy, evaluate online health information. Objective The main aim of this study was to review existing evidence on the association between low health literacy and (1) people’s ability to evaluate online health information, (2) perceived quality of online health information, (3) trust in online health information, and (4) use of evaluation criteria for online health information. Methods Five academic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Communication and Mass-media Complete) were systematically searched. We included peer-reviewed publications investigating differences in the evaluation of online information between people with different health literacy levels. Results After abstract and full-text screening, 38 articles were included in the review. Only four studies investigated the specific role of low health literacy in the evaluation of online health information. The other studies examined the association between educational level or other skills-based proxies for health literacy, such as general literacy, and outcomes. Results indicate that low health literacy (and related skills) are negatively related to the ability to evaluate online health information and trust in online health information. Evidence on the association with perceived quality of online health information and use of evaluation criteria is inconclusive. Conclusions The findings indicate that low health literacy (and related skills) play a role in the evaluation of online health information. This topic is therefore worth more scholarly

  9. Use of medical and mental health care by World War II survivors in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bramsen, I; van der Ploeg, H M

    1999-04-01

    This study examined the mental and medical health care utilization of World War II (WW II) survivors and the characteristics of survivors seeking professional health care. Forty seven years after the end of WW II, a random sample of 4,057 Dutch WW II survivors answered a four-page questionnaire; 1,461 persons subsequently answered an extensive follow-up questionnaire. Twenty-two percent had sought some form of health care for war-related complaints at some time since WW II. Most consultations were made in the 1940s. More consultations were made to general practitioners or to medical specialists as opposed to mental health specialists. Although the level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms was most important for discriminating between help-seeking and non-help-seeking respondents, 59% of the highly-exposed respondents with PTSD had not sought professional help in the years 1990-1992. The results show the importance of primary health care in recognizing PTSD symptoms and referring survivors to the appropriate professional helper. PMID:10378164

  10. The Mental Health Recovery Movement and Family Therapy, Part II: A Collaborative, Appreciative Approach for Supporting Mental Health Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehart, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    A continuation of Part I, which introduced mental health recovery concepts to family therapists, Part II of this article outlines a collaborative, appreciative approach for working in recovery-oriented contexts. This approach draws primarily upon postmodern therapies, which have numerous social justice and strength-based practices that are easily…

  11. Community health program evaluation using accreditation as a framework.

    PubMed

    Severance, Janet Hahn

    2009-03-01

    Increasingly, health system leaders seek to determine whether community health interventions make a difference to individuals in the community. However, community health improvement is difficult to measure, and health system staff may not be familiar with evaluation research methods. Health care organizations can improve their evaluation efforts relatively easily by building on what they already know: the Joint Commission accreditation process. By using accreditation as a framework, community health evaluation may be seen as more approachable when viewed through that lens. This article provides a framework for practical approaches to program planning, evaluation, and sustainability. Joint Commission accreditation functions (chapters) are similar to health program goals. Standards are similar to program objectives. Elements of performance are similar to activities or methods. Scoring comparisons are similar to measures. PMID:19116229

  12. Reported physical health in resistance veterans from World War II.

    PubMed

    Hovens, J E; Op den Velde, W; Falger, P R; de Groen, J H; van Duijn, H; Aarts, P G

    1998-06-01

    Male Dutch Resistance veterans from World War II who reported on chronic diseases were compared with subjects from a population survey. Resistance veterans in general reported significantly more disease. Veterans with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder reported more disease than those who had none. Furthermore, 13 specific disease categories were more prevalent in the Resistance veterans than in the general population. In the Resistance veterans total number of reported diseases was significantly correlated with anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. In Resistance veterans weekly tobacco use was comparable to that of the control subjects, but alcohol consumption was significantly less. PMID:9676509

  13. Health Occupations Module. The Skeletal System--II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on the skeletal system is one of eight modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module contains an introduction to the module topic, two objectives (e.g., list the types of joints and movements, and give examples), and two learning…

  14. Health Information System Simulation. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Beth H.; Lacobie, Kevin

    This volume is one of three in a self-paced computer literacy course that gives allied health students a firm base of knowledge concerning computer usage in the hospital environment. It also develops skill in several applications software packages. This volume contains five self-paced modules that allow students to interact with a health…

  15. Mental Health Computing in the 1980s: II. Clinical Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlund, James L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Presents the second of a two-part state-of-the-art review concerning current trends in mental health computing, with special clinical applications in automated psychological testing, computer interviews, computerized diagnosis, clinical consultation, computer-aided instruction, computerized treatment intervention, and user acceptance. (Author/ABB)

  16. Health of the Disadvantaged. Chart Book-II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHHS/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    The tables and charts in this book act as resources for information on the health status of racial and ethnic minorities and the poor. The four minority groups referred to are blacks, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, and Asian Americans. The poor are defined as those whose income falls below the poverty line specified by the Census Bureau.…

  17. An Annotated Bibliography on Refugee Mental Health. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Susan C.; And Others

    The second volume of this annotated bibliography contains primarily materials in published scientific literature on refugee mental health. References have been grouped into five major sections. Section 1, Understanding Refugees in Context, provides important background material in five categories: cultural and related information about different…

  18. Further Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fledderus, Martine; Oude Voshaar, Martijn A. H.; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.

    2012-01-01

    The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) is a self-report measure designed to assess experiential avoidance as conceptualized in acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The current study is the first to evaluate the psychometric properties of the AAQ-II in a large sample of adults (N = 376) with mild to moderate levels of depression…

  19. Health Evaluation of Experimental Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, Tanya; Foltz, Charmaine; Karlsson, Eleanor; Linton, C Garry; Smith, Joanne M

    2012-01-01

    Good science and good animal care go hand in hand. A sick or distressed animal does not produce the reliable results that a healthy and unstressed animal produces. This unit describes the essentials of assessing mouse health, colony health surveillance, common conditions, and determination of appropriate endpoints. Understanding the health and well-being of the mice used in research enables the investigator to optimize research results and animal care. PMID:22822473

  20. Evaluation of Telephone Health Coaching of German Health Insurants with Chronic Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Härter, Martin; Dwinger, Sarah; Seebauer, Laura; Simon, Daniela; Herbarth, Lutz; Siegmund-Schultze, Elisabeth; Temmert, Daniel; Bermejo, Isaac; Dirmaier, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate how patients with chronic conditions evaluate telephone health coaching provided by their health insurance company. Methods: A retrospective survey was conducted among coaching participants ("n" = 834). Outcomes included the general evaluation of the coaching, the evaluation of process and…

  1. Evaluation of Pb (II) biosorption utilizing sugarcane bagasse colonized by Basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Palin, D; Rufato, K B; Linde, G A; Colauto, N B; Caetano, J; Alberton, O; Jesus, D A; Dragunski, D C

    2016-05-01

    The contamination of water resources by metallic ions is a serious risk to public health and the environment. Therefore, a great emphasis has been given to alternative biosorption methods that are based on the retention of aqueous-solution pollutants; in the last decades, several agricultural residues have been explored as low-cost adsorbent. In this study, the ability of Pb (II) biosorption using sugarcane bagasse modified by different fungal species was evaluated. The presence of carbonyl, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups in the biosorbent was observed by spectroscopy in the infrared region. By scanning electron microscopy, changes in the morphology of modified material surfaces were observed. The highest adsorption capacity occurred at pH 5.0, while the shorter adsorbate-adsorbent equilibrium was at 20 min, and the system followed the pseudo-second-order model. The maximum biosorption in isotherms was found at 58.34 mg g(-1) for modified residue by Pleurotus ostreatus U2-11, and the system followed the Langmuir isotherm. The biosorption process was energetically spontaneous with low desorption values. This modification showed great potential for filters to remove Pb (II) and provide the preservation of water resources and animal health. PMID:27063515

  2. Understanding Evaluation Training in Schools and Programs of Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierro, Leslie A.; Christie, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an understanding of how the coursework required for attaining a Masters of Public Health (MPH) degree in epidemiology or health education from accredited schools or programs of public health prepares students to evaluate programs or interventions. Study data were generated using a content analysis of required coursework…

  3. Analytic evaluation of LAMPF II Booster Cavity design

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrichs, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Through the past few decades, a great deal of sophistication has evolved in the numeric codes used to evaluate electromagnetically resonant structures. The numeric methods are extremely precise, even for complicated geometries, whereas analytic methods require a simple uniform geometry and a simple, known mode configuration if the same precision is to be obtained. The code SUPERFISH, which is near the present state-of-the-art of numeric methods, does have the following limitations: No circumferential geometry variations are permissible; there are no provisions for magnetic or dielectric losses; and finally, it is impractical (because of the complexity of the code) to modify it to extract particular bits of data one might want that are not provided by the code as written. This paper describes how SUPERFISH was used as an aid in derivating an analytic model of the LAMPF II Booster Cavity. Once a satisfactory model was derived, simple FORTRAN codes were generated to provide whatever data was required. The analytic model is made up of TEM- and radial-mode transmission-line sections, as well as lumped elements where appropriate. Radial transmission-line equations, which include losses, were not found in any literature, and the extension of the lossless equations to include magnetic and dielectric losses are included in this paper.

  4. Evaluating web sites: reliable child health resources for parents.

    PubMed

    Golterman, Linda; Banasiak, Nancy C

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a framework for evaluating the quality of health care information on the Internet and identifies strategies for accessing reliable child health resources. A number of methods are reviewed, including how to evaluate Web sites for quality using the Health Information Technology Institute evaluation criteria, how to identify trustworthy Web sites accredited by Health On the Net Foundation Code of Conduct, and the use of portals to access prescreened Web sites by organizations, such as the Medical Library Association. Pediatric nurses can use one or all of these strategies to develop a list of reliable Web sites as a supplement to patient and family teaching. PMID:21661608

  5. Coded Statutory Data Sets for Evaluation of Public Health Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costich, Julia Field

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives: The evaluation of public health law requires reliable accounts of underlying statutes and regulations. States often enact public health-related statutes with nonuniform provisions, and variation in the structure of state legal codes can foster inaccuracy in evaluating the impact of specific categories of law. The optimal…

  6. Meta-Evaluation of Worksite Health Promotion Economic Return Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Larry S.

    2003-01-01

    This meta-evaluation provides a standardized look at the quality of the economic evaluation literature for multi-component worksite health promotion programs. Analysis of 42 studies suggests that the evidence is very strong for average reductions in sick leave, health plan costs, and workers' compensation and disability costs of slightly more than…

  7. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients’ family networks. It has been suggested that these “health spillovers” should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the “health care perspective”). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. PMID:26377370

  8. 76 FR 25723 - Proposed Information Collection for Growing America Through Entrepreneurship (GATE) II Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Entrepreneurship (GATE) II Evaluation; Comment Request AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor... that investigated the impact of providing entrepreneurship training services to individuals interested..., K., & Kahvecioglu, D. ``Growing America Through Entrepreneurship: Findings from the Evaluation...

  9. Health issues in men: Part II. Common psychosocial disorders.

    PubMed

    Epperly, T D; Moore, K E

    2000-07-01

    During screening examinations and, when appropriate, other health-related visits, family physicians should be alert for signs and symptoms of common psychosocial disorders in men. Health issues of concern include alcohol and substance abuse, domestic violence, midlife crisis and depression. Alcohol remains the most abused drug in America. The highest rates of alcohol abuse are in men 25 to 39 years of age, although alcoholism is also a considerable problem after 65 years of age. Disulfiram and the opioid antagonist naltrexone are the two medications currently labeled by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic alcohol dependence. Like alcohol abuse, domestic violence is a sign of psychosocial distress in men. Domestic violence may be a problem in up to 16 percent of marriages. Most men move through the midlife period without difficulty. Major depressive illness occurs in about 1 percent of elderly men, whereas minor depression or subsyndromal depression affects 13 to 27 percent of older men. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have become first-line therapy for depression. PMID:10905783

  10. Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with MPS II.

    PubMed

    Needham, Mary; Packman, Wendy; Quinn, Natasha; Rappoport, Maxwell; Aoki, Christa; Bostrom, Alan; Cordova, Matthew; Macias, Sandra; Morgan, Cynthia; Packman, Seymour

    2015-08-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), also known as Hunter syndrome, is a chronic and progressive X-linked lysosomal disease that mainly affects males. The National MPS Society (2013) reports that MPS II affects 1 in 100,000 to 1 in 150,000 males worldwide. Two distinct forms of the disease are based on age of onset and clinical course: attenuated and severe. MPS II affects many organ systems including the nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Clinical manifestations can include progressive hearing loss, mental impairment, and enlarged liver and spleen. This study focuses on the health-related quality of life of individuals (HRQOL) with MPS II as measured by the parent and self-report versions of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™). Both parents of patients with MPS II as well as patients themselves reported lower scores on all domains of the PedsQL™ (physical, emotional, social and school functioning) indicating that children with MPS II have an overall lower HRQOL when compared to a healthy sample. When compared with patients with other chronic illnesses (cancer, MSUD, galactosemia,), the MPS II sample had significantly lower scores on a number of PedsQL™ scales, suggesting an overall lower HRQOL. No significant relationships were found using scores from parent or self report PedsQL™ measures and length of time on ERT. PMID:25395377

  11. [Position of health at international relations. Part II. Organizational dimensions of health].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of some concepts and definitions related with "set up of health", used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of organizational dimensions of health at worldwide agenda. The following organizational dimensions of health were discussed: (a) health for all, (b) health promotion, intersectoral and multisectoral actions, health in all policies, (c) health development, health as an element of human development, (d) investment for health, (e) health diplomacy and (f) mainstreaming of health. The analysis was based on World Health Assembly and UN General Assembly resolutions as well as supranational reports and statements available through conventional channels, not grey literature. It is apparent that some of notions are not in common use in Poland, some seems to be unknown. It was argued that some general and discreet thoughts and statements concerning organizational aspects of health were expressed in the preamble of WHO Constitution. Nevertheless they are not comparable with later propositions and proceedings. The first modern concepts and notions related as process were developed at late seventies. They originated from efforts to realize a vision of health for all and formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action for attaining this goal. The turning point was in 1981, when WHA adopted Global Strategy for Heath for All by the Year 2000. Since then one can observe considerable progress and new concepts came into existence, more and more precise and better reflecting the sense of health actions. The evolution of organizational dimensions of health was described in the context of brand positioning. It was assumed that first step of positioning was concentrated on structural dimensions of health. That served to awareness raise, attitudes change and motivation to action. That made a foundation to the next step--positioning based on process approach to health. Among others the

  12. Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. II. Solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etnier, E. L.; Watson, A. P.

    1981-09-01

    No energy technology is risk free when all aspects of its utilization are taken into account. Every energy technology has some attendant direct and indirect health and safety concerns. Solar technologies examined in this paper are wind, ocean thermal energy gradients, passive, photovoltaic, satellite power systems, low- and high-temperature collectors, and central power stations, as well as tidal power. For many of these technologies, insufficient historical data are available from which to assess the health risks and environmental impacts. However, their similarities to other projects make certain predictions possible. For example, anticipated problems in worker safety in constructing ocean thermal energy conversion systems will be similar to those associated with other large-scale construction projects, like deep-sea oil drilling platforms. Occupational hazards associated with photovoltaic plant operation would be those associated with normal electricity generation, although for workers involved in the actual production of photovoltaic materials, there is some concern for the toxic effects of the materials used, including silicon, cadmium, and gallium arsenide. Satellite power systems have several unique risks. These include the effects of long-term space travel for construction workers, effects on the ozone layer and the attendant risk of skin cancer in the general public, and the as-yet-undetermined effects of long-term, low-level microwave exposure. Hazards may arise from three sources in solar heating and cooling systems: water contamination from corrosion inhibitors, heat transfer fluids, and bactericides; collector over-heating, fires, and “out-gassing” and handling and disposal of system fluids and wastes. Similar concerns exist for solar thermal power systems. Even passive solar systems may increase indoor exposure levels to various air pollutants and toxic substances, eitherdirectly from the solar system itself or indirectly by trapping released

  13. [Reflections on the evaluation and funding of complex public health interventions].

    PubMed

    Dupin, Cécile Marie; Breton, Éric; Kivits, Joëlle; Minary, Laetitia

    2015-01-01

    In France, in a context of growing health inequalities, the need for action on life settings and, more broadly, on the social determinants of health (SDH), requires a contribution from health promotion research. Today's challenge is not only to design interventions tailored to contexts and actively targeting SDH, but also to develop innovative evaluation strategies of these complex interventions. A group of researchers and representatives from funding agencies met in Paris on june 2nd, 2014 to discuss current experiences conducted in France. The debates yielded five conclusions: (i) the context of the intervention must be considered as one of its active ingredients, (ii) evaluation must be guided by a sound intervention logic (iii) randomized controlled trials cannot capture the complexity of the environment and evaluation must be designed using alternative models, including process evaluation, (iv) interventional research should be collaborative, or co-constructed, (v) public health training should cover the diversity of evaluative methods. The conclusions described here, in the context of France, stress that to address these challenges, funding agencies, researchers and stakeholders should further engage in discussions concerning the conduct of interventional research, evaluation and implementation of complex public health interventions. PMID:26752031

  14. Connected-Health Algorithm: Development and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vlahu-Gjorgievska, Elena; Koceski, Saso; Kulev, Igor; Trajkovik, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing interest towards the adoption of novel ICT technologies in the field of medical monitoring and personal health care systems. This paper proposes design of a connected health algorithm inspired from social computing paradigm. The purpose of the algorithm is to give a recommendation for performing a specific activity that will improve user's health, based on his health condition and set of knowledge derived from the history of the user and users with similar attitudes to him. The algorithm could help users to have bigger confidence in choosing their physical activities that will improve their health. The proposed algorithm has been experimentally validated using real data collected from a community of 1000 active users. The results showed that the recommended physical activity, contributed towards weight loss of at least 0.5 kg, is found in the first half of the ordered list of recommendations, generated by the algorithm, with the probability > 0.6 with 1 % level of significance. PMID:26922593

  15. Urban Sprawl, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index: Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II

    PubMed Central

    Troped, Philip J.; Hart, Jaime E.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Colditz, Graham A.; Brownson, Ross C.; Ewing, Reid; Laden, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the association between the county sprawl index, a measure of residential density and street accessibility, and physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Methods. We conducted a multilevel cross-sectional analysis in a sample of Nurses’ Health Study participants living throughout the United States in 2000 to 2001 (n = 136 592). Results. In analyses adjusted for age, smoking status, race, and husband’s education, a 1-SD (25.7) increase in the county sprawl index (indicating a denser, more compact county) was associated with a 0.13 kilograms per meters squared (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.18, −0.07) lower BMI and 0.41 (95% CI = 0.17, 0.65) more metabolic equivalent (MET) hours per week of total physical activity, 0.26 (95% CI = 0.19, 0.33) more MET hours per week of walking, and 0.47 (95% CI = 0.34, 0.59) more MET hours per week of walking, bicycling, jogging, and running. We detected potential effect modification for age, previous disease status, husband’s education level (a proxy for socioeconomic status), and race. Conclusions. Our results suggest that living in a dense, compact county may be conducive to higher levels of physical activity and lower BMI in women. PMID:22698015

  16. Physical and Psychological Health in Persons with Deafblindness that Is due to Usher Syndrome Type II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlqvist, Moa; Moller, Claes; Moller, Kerstin; Danermark, Berth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of the study reported here were to describe the physical and psychological health of persons with Usher syndrome Type II (USH2) and to explore any differences in terms of gender. Methods: The participants were recruited from the Swedish Usher database. In the first step, 122 persons received the questionnaire by mail,…

  17. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume II. Evaluation of the processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This Volume II presents engineering feasibility evaluations of the eleven processes for solidification of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HHLW) described in Volume I of this report. Each evaluation was based in a systematic assessment of the process in respect to six principal evaluation criteria: complexity of process; state of development; safety; process requirements; development work required; and facility requirements. The principal criteria were further subdivided into a total of 22 subcriteria, each of which was assigned a weight. Each process was then assigned a figure of merit, on a scale of 1 to 10, for each of the subcriteria. A total rating was obtained for each process by summing the products of the subcriteria ratings and the subcriteria weights. The evaluations were based on the process descriptions presented in Volume I of this report, supplemented by information obtained from the literature, including publications by the originators of the various processes. Waste form properties were, in general, not evaluated. This document describes the approach which was taken, the developent and application of the rating criteria and subcriteria, and the evaluation results. A series of appendices set forth summary descriptions of the processes and the ratings, together with the complete numerical ratings assigned; two appendices present further technical details on the rating process.

  18. Evaluation in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

    PubMed

    Marsh, A; Jansen, M; Lewis, C; Straw, R B

    1996-09-01

    The evaluation policy of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is described in this article. Three studies are presented that exemplify SAMHSA's evaluations. These include evaluations of a program to prevent substance abuse among pregnant and postpartum women and their infants; a Job Corps treatment enrichment program; and the McKinney program for homeless persons with severe mental illnesses. Each of these evaluations demonstrated the effectiveness of the programs in reducing substance abuse or homelessness and in improving the health and well-being of the consumers served. SAMHSA will use the results of these and similar evaluations to guide policy and program development. Through its evaluations, SAMHSA must identify effective approaches to prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation. By using its evaluation results to guide policy and program development, SAMHSA aims to improve the quality of the public system of substance abuse and mental health services. PMID:10186921

  19. Selecting and Recruiting Health Programs for the School Health Education Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Sandra L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The School Health Education Evaluation (SHEE) was used to review the School Health Curriculum Project and three other curricula: Project Prevention, 3 Rs and High Blood Pressure, and Health Education Curriculum Guide. The four curricula are described and the process that led to their selection for SHEE is highlighted. (Author/MT)

  20. Practical Considerations in Evaluating Patient/Consumer Health Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Nancy H.

    This report contains brief descriptions of seven evaluative efforts and outcomes of health education programs, some considerations of problems encountered in evaluating the programs, and detailed descriptions of two case studies: (1) a process evaluation of preoperative teaching and (2) a retrospective study of visiting nurse association use by…

  1. Validity and Reliability of Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II in the Iranian Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tanjani, Parisa Taheri; Azadbakht, Mojtaba; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Sahaf, Robab; Fekrizadeh, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: With increasing age, the prevalence of chronic diseases increases. Since health-promoting behaviors (HPB) are considered a basic way of preventing diseases, especially chronic diseases, it is important to assess HPB. This study examines the validity and reliability of the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II). Methods: This is a cross-sectional study which is conducted on 502 elderly individuals aged 60 and over in Tehran, Iran. In order to determine the validity, content and construct validity were used. The content validity index (CVI) was used to assess the content validity and to assess construct validity, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and item-total correlations were employed. For reliability, test-retest analysis was used, and the internal consistency of the HPLP-II was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha. For data analysis, SPSS-18 and Amos-7 software was used. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 66.3 ± 5.3 years. The CVI for the revised HPLP-II and all its subscales was higher than 0.82. The CFA confirmed a six-factor model aligned with the original HPLP-II. Pearson correlation coefficients between the revised HPLP-II and their items were in range of 0.27–0.65. Cronbach's alpha of the revised HPLP-II was obtained as 0.78 and for their subscales were in the range of 0.67–0.84. Intraclass correlation coefficient was obtained 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.59–0.86, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The Iranian HPLP-II scale is an appropriate tool for assessing HPBs of the Iranian elderly. PMID:27280010

  2. Evaluating health care quality: the moderating role of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lytle, R S; Mokwa, M P

    1992-03-01

    An integrative model of health care quality is presented. "Health care quality" is defined as provider conformance to patient requirements at three benefit levels: core, intangible, and tangible. The model is operationalized and tested in a clinical setting, a large center for fertility studies with more than 5000 patients. Health care "process variables" such as physician and patient interactions were not as important in patients' evaluations of health care quality when successful outcomes occurred (pregnancy). However, when patients experienced unsuccessful outcomes (no pregnancy), health care "process variables" were important and had a significant influence on patient perceptions of health care quality. Hence, service outcomes can significantly affect the measurement and interpretation of health care quality. Implications for health care management and research are discussed. PMID:10116754

  3. Spectroscopic evaluation of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes derived from thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Anil

    2007-12-01

    Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes were synthesized with thiosemicarbazone (L 1) and semicarbazone (L 2) derived from 2-acetyl furan. These complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, mass, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The molar conductance measurement of the complexes in DMSO corresponds to non-electrolytic nature. All the complexes are of high-spin type. On the basis of different spectral studies six coordinated geometry may be assigned for all the complexes except Co(L) 2(SO 4) and Cu(L) 2(SO 4) [where L = L 1 and L 2] which are of five coordinated square pyramidal geometry.

  4. The Long Reach of Childhood Health and Circumstance: Evidence from the Whitehall II Study. NBER Working Paper No. 15640

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Anne; Paxson, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We use data from the Whitehall II study to examine the potential role played by early-life health and circumstances in determining health and employment status in middle and older ages. The population from which the Whitehall II cohort was drawn consisted almost exclusively of white collar civil servants. We demonstrate that estimates of the…

  5. The health of Canada’s children. Part II: Health mechanisms and pathways

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The present article provides models that explain how exposures to differing quality living circumstances result in health inequalities among children. Living circumstances – the social determinants of health – operate through a variety of mechanisms to shape children’s health and cognitive, emotional and social development. Specific processes set children off on trajectories such that these exposures – in interaction with their environments – not only shape their health as children but also provide the foundations for their health status as adults. In addition to specifying the mechanisms that mediate the relationship between living circumstances and health outcomes, the article also identifies some of the economic and political factors that shape the quality of the living circumstances to which Canadian children are exposed. PMID:21286294

  6. How health economic evaluation (HEE) contributes to decision-making in public health care: the case of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Elias, Flávia Tavares Silva; Araújo, Denizar Vianna

    2014-01-01

    The universal access to a health care system for the Brazilian population was established in 1990. Brazil is a country with no tradition in the production and use of health economic evaluation (HEE) to guide decision making in the public health system. It is only within the last two decades that HEEs using a microeconomic approach have appeared in the academic field. On a national level, HEE and Health Technology Assessment (HTA), in a wider sense, were first taken into account in 2003. Two policies deserve to be mentioned - (i) the regulation of medicines in the Brazilian market, and (ii) science, technology and innovation policy. The latter required the fostering of applied research to encourage the application of methods which employ systematic reviews and economic analyses of cost-effectiveness to guide the incorporation of technologies in the Brazilian health care system. The Ministry of Health has initiated the process of incorporating these new technologies on a federal level during the last ten years. In spite of the improvement of HEE methods at Brazilian universities and research institutes, these technologies have not yet reached the governmental bodies. In Brazil, the main challenge lies in the production, interpretation and application of HEE to all technologies within the access scheme(s), and there is limited capacity building. Setting priorities can be the solution for Brazil to be able to perform HEE for relevant technologies within the access scheme(s) while the universal coverage system struggles with a triple burden of disease. PMID:25444299

  7. Benzalkonium chloride. Health hazard evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholc, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Health hazards associated with the use of benzalkonium chlorides (BAC) are reviewed. Benzalkonium chloride is extensively used as a cationic disinfectant. It is found in a great many over-the-counter and prescription eye products, disinfectants, shampoos, and deodorants, and is used in concentrations that range from 0.001 to 0.01% in eyedrops, up to 2.5% in concentrated liquid disinfectants. Solutions of 0.03 to 0.04% BAC may cause temporary eye irritation in humans but are unlikely to cause any skin response except in persons allergic to quaternary ammonium compounds. Inhalation of a vaporized 10% solution of BAC produced a bronchospasmodic reaction in a previously sensitized individual. At present no other human health effects from BAC have been documented or inferred from exposure to such dilute concentrations.

  8. Dental Health Evaluation of Children in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Begzati, Agim; Meqa, Kastriot; Siegenthaler, David; Berisha, Merita; Mautsch, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess caries prevalence of preschool and school children in Kosovo. Methods: The assessment, which was carried out between 2002 and 2005, included measurements of early childhood caries, deft and DMFT. Results: In total, 1,237 preschool and 2,556 school children were examined. The mean deft of preschool children was 5.9, and the mean DMFT of school children aged 12 was 5.8. The caries prevalence for 2- to 6-year-old preschool children was 91.2%, and the prevalence for 7- to 14-year-old school children was 94.4%. The prevalence of early childhood caries was 17.6%, with a mean deft of 10.6. Conclusions: All data assessed showed the very poor oral health status of children in Kosovo. Interviews with children and teachers indicated poor knowledge regarding oral health. Significant measures must be taken to improve this situation. PMID:21228954

  9. Evaluation of health effects from hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Andelman, J.B.; Underhill, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    This information and data for evaluating health effects from hazardous waste sites stems from the efforts of specialists representing leading research centers, hospitals, universities, government agencies and includes consultant as well as corporate viewpoints. The work evolved from the Fourth Annual Symposium on Environmental Epidemiology sponsored by the Center for Environmental Epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh and the U.S. EPA. Contents-One: Scope of the Hazardous Wastes Problems. Evaluating Health Effects at Hazardous Waste Sites. Historical Perspective on Waste Disposal. Two: Assessment of Exposure to Hazardous Wastes. Chemical Emissions Assessment for Hazardous Waste Sites. Assessing Pathways to Human Populations. Methods of Defining Human Exposures. Three: Determining Human Health Effects. Health Risks of Concern. Expectations and Limitations of Human Health Studies and Risk Assessment. Four: Case Studies. Love Canal. Hardeman County, Tennessee. Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania. Five: Defining Health Risks at Waste Sites. Engineering Perspectives from an Industrial Viewpoint. Role of Public Groups. Integration of Governmental Resources in Assessment of Hazards.

  10. PUBLIC HEALTH AIR SURVEILLANCE EVALUATION (PHASE) - A SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    NERL's Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division and other participants in the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) project will be discussing their results with European Commission, Directorate General Environment, and

    French Agency for Environment an...

  11. Health Services, Student Services Department: Program Evaluation. 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeschke, Thomas; And Others

    This document evaluates the Des Moines Public Schools health services and education program, which utilizes the professional expertise of school nurses throughout the district. The program promotes success in the learning process for students (including those with complex health care needs, conditions, and disabilities), employees, and the…

  12. Evaluating the Environmental Health Work Force. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This report contains all materials pertinent to an intensive evaluation of the environmental health work force conducted in 1986 and 1987. The materials relate to a workshop that was one of the key tools used in conducting the study to estimate environmental health personnel supply, demand, and need. The report begins with an overview and…

  13. A TRANSDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO HEALTH POLICY RESEARCH AND EVALUATION

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Thomas T.H.

    2014-01-01

    An integrated perspective consists of macro- and micro-level approaches to health policy research and evaluation is presented. Analytical strategies are suggested for policy analysis, targeting on health disparities at individual and population levels. This systems approach enables investigators to view how scientific public policy analysis can be implemented to assess policy impacts. In this special issue, five papers are introduced. PMID:25419221

  14. Arthritis Patient Education: How Economic Evaluations Can Inform Health Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ann E.

    1997-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness evaluation of an Arthritis Self-Management Program assessed direct and indirect costs through self-reporting of health services use. Diminished productivity and effectiveness were measured through a visual analog scale and the health status dimensions of the Canadian Medical Outcomes Study short form. (JOW)

  15. [Spanish version of the new World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS-II): initial phase of development and pilot study. Cantabria disability work group].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Barquero, J L; Vázquez Bourgón, E; Herrera Castanedo, S; Saiz, J; Uriarte, M; Morales, F; Gaite, L; Herrán, A; Ustün, T B

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to present the initial phases of the development of the Spanish version of the "World Health Organization Disablement Assessment Schedule II" WHO-DAS-II and also to describe the quantitative and qualitative methodological strategies used in the elaboration process of an instrument: i) compatible with the new International Classification of Functioning and Disability -ICIDH-2- of the World Health Organisation; ii) with criteria of cross-cultural applicability and; iii) to allow us to assess the disability in all its dimensions. PMID:10937388

  16. 42 CFR 85.12 - Subsequent requests for health hazard evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsequent requests for health hazard evaluations. 85.12 Section 85.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES REQUESTS FOR HEALTH HAZARD EVALUATIONS § 85.12 Subsequent requests for health...

  17. [Evaluation auditing of the quality of health care in accreditation of health facilities].

    PubMed

    Paim, Chennyfer da Rosa Paino; Zucchi, Paola

    2011-01-01

    This article shows how many health insurance companies operating in the Greater São Paulo have been performing auditing of the quality of their health care services, professionals, and which criteria are being employed to do so. Because of the legislation decreeing that health insurance companies have legal co-responsibility for the health care services and National Health Agency control the health services National Health Agency, auditing evaluations have been implemented since then. The survey was based on electronic forms e-mailed to all health insurance companies operating in the Greater São Paulo. The sample consisted of 125 health insurance companies; 29 confirmed that had monitoring and evaluation processes; 26 performed auditing of their services regularly; from those, 20 used some type of form or protocol for technical visits; all evaluation physical and administrative structure and 22 included functional structure. Regarding the professionals audited 21 were nurses, 13 administrative assistants; 04 managers and 02 doctors. Regarding criteria for accreditation the following were highlighted: region analysis (96%), localization (88.88%) and cost (36%). We conclude that this type of auditing evaluation is rather innovative and is being gradually implemented by the health insurance companies, but is not a systematic process. PMID:21503464

  18. The Value of Upward Evaluation in Libraries--Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Gay Helen

    1995-01-01

    Examines the value of upward evaluation by reviewing historical outcomes of upward evaluations in industrial psychology/business literature and library literature. Also discusses the utilization of upward evaluation in libraries and focuses on results of the Western Kentucky University Libraries' annual process of supervisor evaluation. Appendixes…

  19. Evaluation of health risks for contaminated aquifers.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T; Jacobs, T L; Medina, M A

    1997-01-01

    This review focuses on progress in the development of transport models for heterogeneous contaminated aquifers, the use of predicted contaminant concentrations in groundwater for risk assessment for heterogeneous human populations, and the evaluation of aquifer remediation technologies. Major limitations and areas for continuing research for all methods presented in this review are identified. Images Figure 2. PMID:9114282

  20. Evaluation of health and pharmacy benefit information in health plan information packages.

    PubMed

    Nair, K V

    2001-12-01

    Consumers have ready access to their health plan information packages, and the utility of this source in providing information about health and pharmacy benefits to consumers should be evaluated. A preliminary evaluation using a sample of student consumers enrolled in a variety of health plans was conducted. Findings revealed that consumer information is lacking in areas related to the definition of pharmacy benefit terminology, cost sharing for medications and services, provider selection, and referral processes. Managed care decision makers will benefit from understanding the informational needs of their members and from designing health care benefit information to accommodate these needs. PMID:11794843

  1. DUAL ALKALI TEST AND EVALUATION PROGRAM. VOLUME II. LABORATORY AND PILOT PLANT PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volume II of the report covers Tasks I and II of a three-task program to investigate, characterize, and evaluate the basic process chemistry and the various operating modes of sodium-based dual alkali scrubbing processes. The tasks were: I, laboratory studies at both Arthur D. Li...

  2. Synthesis and processing of intelligent cost-effective structures phase II (SPICES II): smart materials aircraft applications evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, James P.; Jacobs, Steven W.; Baumann, Erwin W.

    1998-06-01

    The second phase of the synthesis and processing of intelligent cost effective structures (SPICES II) program sought to identify high payoff areas for both naval and aerospace military systems and to evaluate military systems and to evaluate the benefits of smart materials incorporation based on their ability to redefine the mission scenario of the candidate platforms in their respective theaters of operation. The SPICES II consortium, consisting of The Boeing Company, Electric Boat Corporation, United Technologies Research Center, and Pennsylvania State University, surveyed the state-of-the-art in smart structures and evaluated potential applications to military aircraft, marine and propulsion systems components and missions. Eleven baseline platforms comprising a wide variety of missions were chosen for evaluation. Each platform was examined in its field of operation for areas which can be improved using smart materials insertion. Over 250 smart materials applications were proposed to enhance the platforms. The applications were examined and, when possible, quantitatively analyzed for their effect on mission performance. The applications were then ranked for payoff, risk, and time frame for development and demonstration. Details of the efforts made in the SPICES II program pertaining to smart structure applications on military and transport aircraft will be presented. A brief discussion of the core technologies will be followed by presentation of the criteria used in ranking each application. Thereafter, a selection of the higher ranking proposed concepts are presented in detail.

  3. Development of a participatory tool for the evaluation of Village Animal Health Workers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Calba, Clementine; Ponsich, Aurelia; Nam, Sophorn; Collineau, Lucie; Min, Sophoan; Thonnat, Jerome; Goutard, Flavie Luce

    2014-06-01

    In countries with a lack of primary care systems, health workers are of crucial importance to improving the delivery of health and animal health services at community level. But somehow they are rarely evaluated and usually with a top-down approach. This is the case in Cambodia, where thousands of Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) have been trained by the government, and where no standardized evaluation tool is available to accurately assess the situation. Based on methodology developed by the French NGO Agronomes et Vétérinaires Sans Frontières (AVSF) in Madagascar for farmers' association evaluation, we developed our own participatory methods to collect information about the VAHW context and build a criteria grid for their evaluation. In this framework, several participatory approaches were used such as problem trees, semi-structured interviews, pair-wise ranking and focus groups. The grid was built with the help of relevant stakeholders involved in the animal health system in Cambodia in order to (i) identify VAHW functions; (ii) set up criteria and associated questionnaires, and (iii) score the grid with all the stakeholders. The tool was divided into five categories of evaluation criteria: sustainability, treatment, production, vaccination and disease reporting. Our approach looked at local indicators of success developed and used by VAHWs themselves, which should lead to better acceptability of evaluation. This method gave priority to dialog aiming to engage decision makers and other stakeholders in a mutual learning process and could be applied in other countries to develop trust between health workers and official service representatives as well as to foster corrective action after evaluation. PMID:24583141

  4. Five Years of HHS Home Health Care Evaluations: Using Evaluation to Change National Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Paul R.; Smith, Nick L.; Grob, George F.

    2012-01-01

    In 1997, American Evaluation Association member George Grob, now retired from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and currently President of the Center for Public Program Evaluation, made a testimony on Medicare home health care fraud and abuse before the U.S. Senate Special Committee on Aging. The occasion was to announce the…

  5. Evaluating Youth Sexual Health Peer Education Programs: "Challenges and Suggestions for Effective Evaluation Practices"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaworsky, Denise; Larkin, June; Sriranganathan, Gobika; Clout, Jerri; Janssen, Jesse; Campbell, Lisa; Flicker, Sarah; Stadnicki, Dan; Erlich, Leah; Flynn, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Although peer sexual health education is a common form of sexual health promotion for youth, systematic reviews of these programs are relatively rare. In this study we interviewed youth peer educators to inquire about their experience of program evaluation and their perception of what is needed to develop effective evaluation practices. Data were…

  6. Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement.

    PubMed

    Husereau, Don; Drummond, Michael; Petrou, Stavros; Carswell, Chris; Moher, David; Greenberg, Dan; Augustovski, Federico; Briggs, Andrew H; Mauskopf, Josephine; Loder, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    Economic evaluations of health interventions pose a particular challenge for reporting. There is also a need to consolidate and update existing guidelines and promote their use in a user friendly manner. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines efforts into one current, useful reporting guidance. The primary audiences for the CHEERS statement are researchers reporting economic evaluations and the editors and peer reviewers assessing them for publication. The need for new reporting guidance was identified by a survey of medical editors. A list of possible items based on a systematic review was created. A two round, modified Delphi panel consisting of representatives from academia, clinical practice, industry, government, and the editorial community was conducted. Out of 44 candidate items, 24 items and accompanying recommendations were developed. The recommendations are contained in a user friendly, 24 item checklist. A copy of the statement, accompanying checklist, and this report can be found on the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluations Publication Guidelines Task Force website (www.ispor.org/TaskForces/EconomicPubGuidelines.asp). We hope CHEERS will lead to better reporting, and ultimately, better health decisions. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the CHEERS statement is being co-published across 10 health economics and medical journals. We encourage other journals and groups, to endorse CHEERS. The author team plans to review the checklist for an update in five years. PMID:23587340

  7. Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement.

    PubMed

    Husereau, Don; Drummond, Michael; Petrou, Stavros; Carswell, Chris; Moher, David; Greenberg, Dan; Augustovski, Federico; Briggs, Andrew H; Mauskopf, Josephine; Loder, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    Economic evaluations of health interventions pose a particular challenge for reporting. There is also a need to consolidate and update existing guidelines and promote their use in a user friendly manner. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines efforts into one current, useful reporting guidance. The primary audiences for the CHEERS statement are researchers reporting economic evaluations and the editors and peer reviewers assessing them for publication. The need for new reporting guidance was identified by a survey of medical editors. A list of possible items based on a systematic review was created. A two round, modified Delphi panel consisting of representatives from academia, clinical practice, industry, government, and the editorial community was conducted. Out of 44 candidate items, 24 items and accompanying recommendations were developed. The recommendations are contained in a user friendly, 24 item checklist. A copy of the statement, accompanying checklist, and this report can be found on the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluations Publication Guidelines Task Force website: (www.ispor.org/TaskForces/EconomicPubGuidelines.asp). We hope CHEERS will lead to better reporting, and ultimately, better health decisions. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the CHEERS statement is being co-published across 10 health economics and medical journals. We encourage other journals and groups, to endorse CHEERS. The author team plans to review the checklist for an update in five years. PMID:23537754

  8. Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement.

    PubMed

    Husereau, Don; Drummond, Michael; Petrou, Stavros; Carswell, Chris; Moher, David; Greenberg, Dan; Augustovski, Federico; Briggs, Andrew H; Mauskopf, Josephine; Loder, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    Economic evaluations of health interventions pose a particular challenge for reporting. There is also a need to consolidate and update existing guidelines and promote their use in a user friendly manner. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines efforts into one current, useful reporting guidance. The primary audiences for the CHEERS statement are researchers reporting economic evaluations and the editors and peer reviewers assessing them for publication. The need for new reporting guidance was identified by a survey of medical editors. A list of possible items based on a systematic review was created. A two round, modified Delphi panel consisting of representatives from academia, clinical practice, industry, government, and the editorial community was conducted. Out of 44 candidate items, 24 items and accompanying recommendations were developed. The recommendations are contained in a user friendly, 24 item checklist. A copy of the statement, accompanying checklist, and this report can be found on the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluations Publication Guidelines Task Force website ( www.ispor.org/TaskForces/EconomicPubGuidelines.asp). We hope CHEERS will lead to better reporting, and ultimately, better health decisions. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the CHEERS statement is being co-published across 10 health economics and medical journals. We encourage other journals and groups, to endorse CHEERS. The author team plans to review the checklist for an update in five years. PMID:23526140

  9. Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement.

    PubMed

    Husereau, Don; Drummond, Michael; Petrou, Stavros; Carswell, Chris; Moher, David; Greenberg, Dan; Augustovski, Federico; Briggs, Andrew H; Mauskopf, Josephine; Loder, Elizabeth

    2013-05-01

    Economic evaluations of health interventions pose a particular challenge for reporting. There is also a need to consolidate and update existing guidelines and promote their use in a user friendly manner. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines efforts into one current, useful reporting guidance. The primary audiences for the CHEERS statement are researchers reporting economic evaluations and the editors and peer reviewers assessing them for publication.The need for new reporting guidance was identified by a survey of medical editors. A list of possible items based on a systematic review was created. A two round, modified Delphi panel consisting of representatives from academia, clinical practice, industry, government, and the editorial community was conducted. Out of 44 candidate items, 24 items and accompanying recommendations were developed. The recommendations are contained in a user friendly, 24 item checklist. A copy of the statement, accompanying checklist, and this report can be found on the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluations Publication Guidelines Task Force website ( www.ispor.org/TaskForces/EconomicPubGuidelines.asp ).We hope CHEERS will lead to better reporting, and ultimately, better health decisions. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the CHEERS statement is being co-published across 10 health economics and medical journals. We encourage other journals and groups, to endorse CHEERS. The author team plans to review the checklist for an update in five years. PMID:23529207

  10. Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement.

    PubMed

    Husereau, Don; Drummond, Michael; Petrou, Stavros; Carswell, Chris; Moher, David; Greenberg, Dan; Augustovski, Federico; Briggs, Andrew H; Mauskopf, Josephine; Loder, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Economic evaluations of health interventions pose a particular challenge for reporting. There is also a need to consolidate and update existing guidelines and promote their use in a user friendly manner. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines efforts into one current, useful reporting guidance. The primary audiences for the CHEERS statement are researchers reporting economic evaluations and the editors and peer reviewers assessing them for publication. The need for new reporting guidance was identified by a survey of medical editors. A list of possible items based on a systematic review was created. A two round, modified Delphi panel consisting of representatives from academia, clinical practice, industry, government, and the editorial community was conducted. Out of 44 candidate items, 24 items and accompanying recommendations were developed. The recommendations are contained in a user friendly, 24 item checklist. A copy of the statement, accompanying checklist, and this report can be found on the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluations Publication Guidelines Task Force website (www.ispor.org/TaskForces/EconomicPubGuidelines.asp). We hope CHEERS will lead to better reporting, and ultimately, better health decisions. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the CHEERS statement is being co-published across 10 health economics and medical journals. We encourage other journals and groups, to endorse CHEERS. The author team plans to review the checklist for an update in five years. PMID:23529982

  11. Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement.

    PubMed

    Husereau, Don; Drummond, Michael; Petrou, Stavros; Carswell, Chris; Moher, David; Greenberg, Dan; Augustovski, Federico; Briggs, Andrew H; Mauskopf, Josephine; Loder, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Economic evaluations of health interventions pose a particular challenge for reporting. There is also a need to consolidate and update existing guidelines and promote their use in a user friendly manner. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines efforts into one current, useful reporting guidance. The primary audiences for the CHEERS statement are researchers reporting economic evaluations and the editors and peer reviewers assessing them for publication.The need for new reporting guidance was identified by a survey of medical editors. A list of possible items based on a systematic review was created. A two round, modified Delphi panel consisting of representatives from academia, clinical practice, industry, government, and the editorial community was conducted. Out of 44 candidate items, 24 items and accompanying recommendations were developed. The recommendations are contained in a user friendly, 24 item checklist. A copy of the statement, accompanying checklist, and this report can be found on the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluations Publication Guidelines Task Force website (http://www.ispor.org/TaskForces/EconomicPubGuidelines.asp).We hope CHEERS will lead to better reporting, and ultimately, better health decisions. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the CHEERS statement is being co-published across 10 health economics and medical journals. We encourage other journals and groups, to endorse CHEERS. The author team plans to review the checklist for an update in five years. PMID:23531194

  12. Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement.

    PubMed

    Husereau, Don; Drummond, Michael; Petrou, Stavros; Carswell, Chris; Moher, David; Greenberg, Dan; Augustovski, Federico; Briggs, Andrew H; Mauskopf, Josephine; Loder, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Economic evaluations of health interventions pose a particular challenge for reporting. There is also a need to consolidate and update existing guidelines and promote their use in a user friendly manner. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines efforts into one current, useful reporting guidance. The primary audiences for the CHEERS statement are researchers reporting economic evaluations and the editors and peer reviewers assessing them for publication.The need for new reporting guidance was identified by a survey of medical editors. A list of possible items based on a systematic review was created. A two round, modified Delphi panel consisting of representatives from academia, clinical practice, industry, government, and the editorial community was conducted. Out of 44 candidate items, 24 items and accompanying recommendations were developed. The recommendations are contained in a user friendly, 24 item checklist. A copy of the statement, accompanying checklist, and this report can be found on the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluations Publication Guidelines Task Force website (http://www.ispor.org/TaskForces/EconomicPubGuidelines.asp).We hope CHEERS will lead to better reporting, and ultimately, better health decisions. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the CHEERS statement is being co-published across 10 health economics and medical journals. We encourage other journals and groups, to endorse CHEERS. The author team plans to review the checklist for an update in five years. PMID:23531108

  13. Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement.

    PubMed

    Husereau, Don; Drummond, Michael; Petrou, Stavros; Carswell, Chris; Moher, David; Greenberg, Dan; Augustovski, Federico; Briggs, Andrew H; Mauskopf, Josephine; Loder, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Economic evaluations of health interventions pose a particular challenge for reporting. There is also a need to consolidate and update existing guidelines and promote their use in a user friendly manner. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines efforts into one current, useful reporting guidance. The primary audiences for the CHEERS statement are researchers reporting economic evaluations and the editors and peer reviewers assessing them for publication. The need for new reporting guidance was identified by a survey of medical editors. A list of possible items based on a systematic review was created. A two round, modified Delphi panel consisting of representatives from academia, clinical practice, industry, government, and the editorial community was conducted. Out of 44 candidate items, 24 items and accompanying recommendations were developed. The recommendations are contained in a user friendly, 24 item checklist. A copy of the statement, accompanying checklist, and this report can be found on the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluations Publication Guidelines Task Force website: (www.ispor.org/TaskForces/EconomicPubGuidelines.asp). We hope CHEERS will lead to better reporting, and ultimately, better health decisions. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the CHEERS statement is being co-published across 10 health economics and medical journals. We encourage other journals and groups, to endorse CHEERS. The author team plans to review the checklist for an update in five years. PMID:23538200

  14. Frameworks for evaluating health research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health research capacity strengthening (RCS) projects are often complex and hard to evaluate. In order to inform health RCS evaluation efforts, we aimed to describe and compare key characteristics of existing health RCS evaluation frameworks: their process of development, purpose, target users, structure, content and coverage of important evaluation issues. A secondary objective was to explore what use had been made of the ESSENCE framework, which attempts to address one such issue: harmonising the evaluation requirements of different funders. Methods We identified and analysed health RCS evaluation frameworks published by seven funding agencies between 2004 and 2012, using a mixed methods approach involving structured qualitative analyses of documents, a stakeholder survey and consultations with key contacts in health RCS funding agencies. Results The frameworks were intended for use predominantly by the organisations themselves, and most were oriented primarily towards funders’ internal organisational performance requirements. The frameworks made limited reference to theories that specifically concern RCS. Generic devices, such as logical frameworks, were typically used to document activities, outputs and outcomes, but with little emphasis on exploring underlying assumptions or contextual constraints. Usage of the ESSENCE framework appeared limited. Conclusions We believe that there is scope for improving frameworks through the incorporation of more accessible information about how to do evaluation in practice; greater involvement of stakeholders, following evaluation capacity building principles; greater emphasis on explaining underlying rationales of frameworks; and structuring frameworks so that they separate generic and project-specific aspects of health RCS evaluation. The third and fourth of these improvements might assist harmonisation. PMID:24330628

  15. Evaluation in Adult Literacy Research. Project ALERT. Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntiri, Daphne Williams, Ed.

    This document contains an evaluation handbook for adult literacy programs and feedback from/regarding the evaluation instruments developed during the project titled Adult Literacy and Evaluation Research Team (also known as Project ALERT), a two-phase project initiated by the Detroit Literacy Coalition (DLC) for the purpose of developing and…

  16. Evaluation of health information outreach: theory, practice, and future direction*

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Wanda; Dutcher, Gale A.; Keselman, Alla

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Convincing evidence of the effectiveness of health information outreach projects is essential to ensure their continuity. This paper reviews the current state of health information outreach evaluation, characterizes strengths and weaknesses in projects' ability to measure their impact, and assesses enablers of and barriers to projects' success. It also relates the projects' characteristics to evaluation practices. The paper then makes recommendations for strengthening evaluation. Methods: Upon conducting a literature search, the authors identified thirty-three articles describing consumer health information outreach programs, published between 2000 and 2010. We then analyzed the outreach projects with respect to their goals and characteristics, evaluation methods and measures, and reported outcomes. Results: The results uncovered great variation in the quality of evaluation methods, outcome measures, and reporting. Outcome measures did not always match project objectives; few quantitative measures employed pretests or reported statistical significance; and institutional change was not measured in a structured way. While papers reported successful outcomes, greater rigor in measuring and documenting outcomes would be helpful. Conclusion: Planning outcome evaluation carefully and conducting research into mediators between health information and behavior will strengthen the ability to identify best practices and develop a theoretical framework and practical guidance for health information outreach. PMID:23646029

  17. The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973

  18. An Evaluation Tool for Agricultural Health and Safety Mobile Applications.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Iris; Ellis, Tammy; Yoder, Aaron; Keifer, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    As the use of mobile devices and their software applications, or apps, becomes ubiquitous, use amongst agricultural working populations is expanding as well. The smart device paired with a well-designed app has potential for improving workplace health and safety in the hands of those who can act upon the information provided. Many apps designed to assess workplace hazards and implementation of worker protections already exist. However, the abundance and diversity of such applications also presents challenges regarding evaluation practices and assignation of value. This is particularly true in the agricultural workspace, as there is currently little information on the value of these apps for agricultural safety and health. This project proposes a framework for developing and evaluating apps that have potential usefulness in agricultural health and safety. The evaluation framework is easily transferable, with little modification for evaluation of apps in several agriculture-specific areas. PMID:27494309

  19. [The narghile and its effects on health. Part II: the effects of the narghile on health].

    PubMed

    Ben Saad, H

    2010-04-01

    Over the last decade, smoking with a narghile pipe has taken alarming proportions and is now considered to be a worldwide epidemic. However, most knowledge about the effects of narghile smoke on health is partial and sometimes contradictory. Indeed, we are witnessing a growing confusion in biomedical studies, including the relationship between the use of the narghile and certain diseases such as lung cancer and bacterial or parasitic infections. Given this situation, the authors carried out the second part of the study to point out the health consequences of the narghile with special attention to the cardiorespiratory disorders. PMID:20413049

  20. [Pragmatism and realism for public health intervention evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ridde, V; Haddad, S

    2013-06-01

    Forty years ago, Schwartz and Lellouch invented pragmatic clinical trials. Their proposal has not yet been fully espoused. This appears to be the case today also in the domain of public health interventions evaluation, where some still insist on the superiority of experimental methods. Yet evaluations of complex public health interventions are fraught with pitfalls for researchers. Most such interventions take place in natural experimental contexts, where they have no control over the context or the factors that modify implementation and influence the effects. Experimental approaches are, in these cases, not very appropriate, and yet decision makers want to be able to take decisions to improve them. This article presents our experience over the past 5years with evaluative research in two public health interventions. We wish to show how we conduct evaluations in practice using a pragmatic approach. The article is focused on elements that have not, to date, received much attention in the francophone literature: the evaluability assesment and intervention logic, research strategies reinforced particularly by mixed methods and time series, and the analysis of implementation fidelity and mechanisms that foster effectiveness. Because the pragmatic approach to evaluative research stresses the need for good understanding of context and uses reinforced methodological strategies, it allows for rigorous responses to evaluation questions raised by those implementing complex public health interventions. Thus, experimental approaches are not necessarily required to analyze the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:23684341

  1. Rethinking the evaluation and measurement of Health in all policies.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Nutbeam, Don

    2014-06-01

    Current international attention to Health in all policies (HiAP) has its origins in a more sophisticated understanding of the impact of public policies on health, and a recognition that policies across government have an impact on the social and environmental determinants of health and related inequalities in health. As an emerging field, there has been limited attention focused on comprehensive approaches to the evaluation of HiAP to date, and the research focus around HiAP has mainly examined the processes of cross-sectoral policy development, rather than their health-related impacts or outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to explore issues in assessing the implementation of HiAP and describe an expanded evaluation framework for assessing the potential intermediate and end-point effects of HiAP actions, using a planning logic model for 'complex programs'. This meets the needs of public sector policy-makers who express an interest in understanding the relationship between HiAP and health-related and social outcomes. The paper proposes applying a contribution analysis method to estimate and model the anticipated impacts of HiAP policies on intermediate and longer term outcomes, in advance of empirical studies of these outcomes, and as an innovative input into HiAP and evaluation planning. A broader long-term evaluation framework will enhance the political saliency of HiAP initiatives, especially from governments considering HiAP approaches in financially constrained environments. PMID:25217351

  2. Consumer Health: Does Advertising Work on You? and Evaluating a Product's Health Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Carolyn C.

    This paper describes lessons for teaching middle and high school students how to determine if they are influenced by the power of advertising and how to evaluate a product's health claims. To determine the influence of advertising, teachers have high school students discuss what their latest health product/service purchase was, why they bought it,…

  3. 42 CFR 85.3-1 - Contents of a request for health hazard evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents of a request for health hazard evaluation. 85.3-1 Section 85.3-1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES REQUESTS FOR HEALTH HAZARD EVALUATIONS §...

  4. 42 CFR 85.3 - Procedures for requesting health hazard evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for requesting health hazard evaluations. 85.3 Section 85.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES REQUESTS FOR HEALTH HAZARD EVALUATIONS §...

  5. Rural Health Abstracts and Citations 1980-1987. Part II: Indian Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks. Center for Rural Health.

    Over 300 articles concerning rural health as it pertains to American Indians and Alaska Natives are cited in this bibliography. Most of the articles were published between 1980 and 1988. Abstracts are reprinted verbatim and the bibliography is organized into sections by subject matter. Within each section, annotated citations are listed…

  6. Health and Fitness Evaluations for Long Duration Microgravity Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roden, Sean Kevin; Ewert, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    The current health maintenance program for ISS is adequate; however the future of medical care and research in space requires a change where crew time efficiency and autonomy are emphasized. NASA s medical personnel are currently refining their ability to monitor and provide remote health care in such a manner. The proposed plan would evaluate health and fitness of the on orbit crew to; perform on orbit operations, and readiness to return to a terrestrial environment. A two tiered approach will utilize exercise and medical equipment, as well as periodic medical conferences with the flight surgeon, to provide a quantitative and clinical picture of the crew s health and fitness. Any off nominal health and fitness issues that could arise will be evaluated by providing an "armamentarium" of devices both medical and exercise specific to the on orbit crew to use. The ability for the crew to provide autonomous health care, with decreasing earth support, will become increasingly more important for exploration missions. This new plan of health care and maintenance will allow us to, development such efforts while continuing to monitor and provide the best possible health, care and medical research through the microgravity environment on board ISS.

  7. Health Literacy Training for Public Health Nurses in Fukushima: A Multi-site Program Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    GOTO, Aya; LAI, Alden Yuanhong; RUDD, Rima E.

    2015-01-01

    Public health nurses (PHNs) are community residents’ access points to health information and services in Japan. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, they were challenged to communicate radiation-related health information to best meet community needs. We previously developed and evaluated the outcome of a single-site health literacy training program to augment PHNs’ ability to improve community residents’ access to written health information. This paper presents an evaluation of an identical training program using data combined from multiple sites, and further included proximal and distal evaluations to document the impact of health literacy training in a post-disaster setting. A total of 64 participants, primarily experienced PHNs, attended one of three multi-session health literacy workshops conducted in multiple sites across Fukushima. Quantitative and qualitative data on PHNs’ training satisfaction, self-evaluation of achievements regarding training goals, and application of learned skills were collected and analyzed. Each workshop consisted of two 2-hour sessions introducing health literacy and assessment tools and developing skills to improve written materials, followed by a one-month follow-up assessment on PHNs’ application of the gained skills in the field. Post-training evaluations on the appropriateness and usefulness of the workshop were highly positive. At the end of the one-month follow-up, 45% of participants had gained confidence in assessing and revising written materials and had applied the skills they had gained to develop and communicate health information in various settings and modes. This increase in confidence was associated with further application of the learned skills at the municipal level. However, participants reported difficulties in explaining risks, and the need to learn more about plain language to be able to paraphrase professional terms. This paper highlighs the positive outcomes of health literacy training among PHNs

  8. Health Literacy Training for Public Health Nurses in Fukushima: A Multi-site Program Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Goto, Aya; Lai, Alden Yuanhong; Rudd, Rima E

    2015-09-01

    Public health nurses (PHNs) are community residents' access points to health information and services in Japan. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, they were challenged to communicate radiation-related health information to best meet community needs. We previously developed and evaluated the outcome of a single-site health literacy training program to augment PHNs' ability to improve community residents' access to written health information. This paper presents an evaluation of an identical training program using data combined from multiple sites, and further included proximal and distal evaluations to document the impact of health literacy training in a post-disaster setting. A total of 64 participants, primarily experienced PHNs, attended one of three multi-session health literacy workshops conducted in multiple sites across Fukushima. Quantitative and qualitative data on PHNs' training satisfaction, self-evaluation of achievements regarding training goals, and application of learned skills were collected and analyzed. Each workshop consisted of two 2-hour sessions introducing health literacy and assessment tools and developing skills to improve written materials, followed by a one-month follow-up assessment on PHNs' application of the gained skills in the field. Post-training evaluations on the appropriateness and usefulness of the workshop were highly positive. At the end of the one-month follow-up, 45% of participants had gained confidence in assessing and revising written materials and had applied the skills they had gained to develop and communicate health information in various settings and modes. This increase in confidence was associated with further application of the learned skills at the municipal level. However, participants reported difficulties in explaining risks, and the need to learn more about plain language to be able to paraphrase professional terms. This paper highlighs the positive outcomes of health literacy training among PHNs. Practical

  9. Summative Evaluation of Mountain-Plains. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Michael B.; And Others

    This second document in a three-volume summative evaluation report presents a portion of the internal evaluation conducted by the Mountain-Plains program, a residential, family-based education program developed to improve the economic potential and lifestyle of selected student families in a six-state region. (The three-volume report presents both…

  10. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Support Professional. Edition II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful evaluation and support system for support professionals will help improve student outcomes. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Support Professional Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all support professionals do their best work…

  11. Transdisciplinary Research and Evaluation for Community Health Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Gary W.; Neubauer, Leah C.; Bangi, Audrey K.; Francisco, Vincent T.

    2010-01-01

    Transdisciplinary research and evaluation projects provide valuable opportunities to collaborate on interventions to improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities. Given team members’ diverse backgrounds and roles or responsibilities in such projects, members’ perspectives are significant in strengthening a project’s infrastructure and improving its organizational functioning. This article presents an evaluation mechanism that allows team members to express the successes and challenges incurred throughout their involvement in a multisite transdisciplinary research project. Furthermore, their feedback is used to promote future sustainability and growth. Guided by a framework known as organizational development, the evaluative process was conducted by a neutral entity, the Quality Assurance Team. A mixed-methods approach was utilized to garner feedback and clarify how the research project goals could be achieved more effectively and efficiently. The multiple benefits gained by those involved in this evaluation and implications for utilizing transdisciplinary research and evaluation teams for health initiatives are detailed. PMID:18936267

  12. Evaluating health interest profiles extracted from patient-generated data.

    PubMed

    Hartzler, Andrea L; McDonald, David W; Park, Albert; Huh, Jina; Weaver, Charles; Pratt, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Patient-generated health data (PGHD) offers a promising resource for shaping patient care, self-management, population health, and health policy. Although emerging technologies bolster opportunities to extract PGHD and profile the needs and experiences of patients, few efforts examine the validity and use of such profiles from the patient's perspective. To address this gap, we explore health interest profiles built automatically from online community posts. Through a user evaluation with community members, we found that extracted profiles not only align with members' stated health interests, but also expand upon those manually entered interests with little user effort. Community members express positive attitudes toward the use and expansion of profiles to connect with peers for support. Despite this promising approach, findings also point to improvements required of biomedical text processing tools to effectively process PGHD. Findings demonstrate opportunities to leverage the wealth of unstructured PGHD available in emerging technologies that patients regularly use. PMID:25954368

  13. Evaluation of health care system reform in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-02-01

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the "Result Chain" logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally. PMID:24566052

  14. Quantitative analysis of topoisomerase II{alpha} to rapidly evaluate cell proliferation in brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Masashi; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Kano, Hideyuki; Kawabata, Yasuhiro; Katsuki, Takahisa; Shirahata, Mitsuaki; Ono, Makoto; Yamana, Norikazu; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Takahashi, Jun A. . E-mail: jat@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2005-06-17

    Immunohistochemical cell proliferation analyses have come into wide use for evaluation of tumor malignancy. Topoisomerase II{alpha} (topo II{alpha}), an essential nuclear enzyme, has been known to have cell cycle coupled expression. We here show the usefulness of quantitative analysis of topo II{alpha} mRNA to rapidly evaluate cell proliferation in brain tumors. A protocol to quantify topo II{alpha} mRNA was developed with a real-time RT-PCR. It took only 3 h to quantify from a specimen. A total of 28 brain tumors were analyzed, and the level of topo II{alpha} mRNA was significantly correlated with its immuno-staining index (p < 0.0001, r = 0.9077). Furthermore, it sharply detected that topo II{alpha} mRNA decreased in growth-inhibited glioma cell. These results support that topo II{alpha} mRNA may be a good and rapid indicator to evaluate cell proliferate potential in brain tumors.

  15. Synthesis, spectral characterization and biological evaluation of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes with thiosemicarbazone ending by pyrazole and pyridyl rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, T. A.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.; Al-Jahdali, M.; El-Rakhawy, El-Bastawesy R.

    2014-08-01

    Here we present the synthesis of the new Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes with chelating ligand (Z)-(2-((1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)methylene) hydrazinyl)(pyridin-2-ylamino)methanethiol. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, UV-vis, magnetic susceptibility measurements and EPR spectral studies. IR spectra of complexes showed that the ligand behaves as NN neutral bidentate, NSN mononegative tridentate and NSNN mononegative tetradentate. The electronic spectra and the magnetic measurements suggested the octahedral geometry for all complexes as well as the EPR confirmed the tetragonal distorted octahedral for Cu(II) complex. Cd(II) complex showed the highest inhibitory antioxidant activity either using ABTS method. The SOD-like activity exhibited those Cd(II) and Zn(II) complexes have strong antioxidative properties. We tested the synthesized compounds for antitumor activity and showed that the ability to kill liver (HePG2) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells definitely.

  16. Synthesis, spectral characterization and biological evaluation of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes with thiosemicarbazone ending by pyrazole and pyridyl rings.

    PubMed

    Yousef, T A; Abu El-Reash, G M; Al-Jahdali, M; El-Rakhawy, El-Bastawesy R

    2014-08-14

    Here we present the synthesis of the new Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes with chelating ligand (Z)-(2-((1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)methylene) hydrazinyl)(pyridin-2-ylamino)methanethiol. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR, UV-vis, magnetic susceptibility measurements and EPR spectral studies. IR spectra of complexes showed that the ligand behaves as NN neutral bidentate, NSN mononegative tridentate and NSNN mononegative tetradentate. The electronic spectra and the magnetic measurements suggested the octahedral geometry for all complexes as well as the EPR confirmed the tetragonal distorted octahedral for Cu(II) complex. Cd(II) complex showed the highest inhibitory antioxidant activity either using ABTS method. The SOD-like activity exhibited those Cd(II) and Zn(II) complexes have strong antioxidative properties. We tested the synthesized compounds for antitumor activity and showed that the ability to kill liver (HePG2) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells definitely. PMID:24727176

  17. The equity lens in the health care performance evaluation system.

    PubMed

    Barsanti, Sara; Nuti, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to describe how indicators of the equity of access to health care according to socioeconomic conditions may be included in a performance evaluation system (PES) in the regional context level and in the planning and strategic control system of healthcare organisations. In particular, the paper investigates how the PES adopted, in the experience of the Tuscany region in Italy, indicators of vertical equity over time. Studies that testify inequality of access to health services often remain just a research output and are not used as targets and measurements in planning and control systems. After a brief introduction to the concept of horizontal and vertical equity in health care systems and equity measures in PES, the paper describes the 'equity process' by which selected health indicators declined by socioeconomic conditions were shared and used in the evaluation of health care institutions and in the CEOs' rewarding system, and subsequently analyses the initial results. Results on the maternal and child path and the chronicity care path not only show improvements in addressing health care inequalities, but also verify whether the health system responds appropriately to different population groups. PMID:23722829

  18. Evaluation of Health Research: Measuring Costs and Socioeconomic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Roback, Kerstin; Dalal, Koustuv; Carlsson, Per

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The topic of this work is health research evaluation including basic and clinical medical research, as well as healthcare research. The main objects are to explore possible approaches for valuing research in economic terms and to prepare an analytical model for evaluation of health research using the Swedish context. The study also aims to identify potential effects and their significance, and to provide a basis for discussions about the effects of research investments. Methods: The study has reviewed ten articles indicating positive effects, in the form of improved health and economic growth. The study also developed a model applied to Swedish health research. Results: The review indicates that positive effects, in the form of improved health and economic growth, have a value that greatly exceeds the costs of the research investments. The tentative model applied to Swedish health research also indicates predominantly positive returns, but in a lower range than the review would imply. Methodological problems, however, entail major uncertainty in the cited results. Conclusions: Accurate determination of the economic value of research would require significantly better basic data and better knowledge of relationships between research, implementation of new knowledge, and health effects. Information in support of decisions about future allocation of research resources is preferably produced by a combination of general analyses and strategically selected case studies. PMID:22174959

  19. Evaluation of LLTR series II test A-7 results. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Knittle, D.E.; Amos, J.C.; Yang, T.M.

    1981-09-01

    This report evaluates the test A-7 data and assesses the capability of the analytical methodology (as a result of Series I program) to predict the thermal/hydraulic phenomena associated with a large SWR event occurring after the sodium system pressure has increased to near the rupture disc burst pressure due to a smaller size leak event. Evaluation of intertest examination data to determine the extent of test article damage resulting from test A-7 is also included.

  20. Maintaining Exercise and Healthful Eating in Older Adults: The SENIOR Project II: Study Design and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Phillip G.; Blissmer, Bryan J.; Greene, Geoffrey W.; Lees, Faith D.; Riebe, Deborah A.; Stamm, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    The Study of Exercise and Nutrition in Older Rhode Islanders (SENIOR) Project II is an intervention study to promote the maintenance of both exercise and healthful eating in older adults. It is the second phase of an earlier study, SENIOR Project I, that originally recruited 1,277 community-dwelling older adults to participate in behavior-specific interventions designed to increase exercise and/or fruit and vegetable consumption. The general theoretical framework for this research is the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of Health Behavior Change. The current intervention occurs over a 48-month period, using a manual, newsletters, and phone coaching calls. Annual assessments collect standardized data on behavioral outcomes (exercise and diet), TTM variables (stage of change and self-efficacy), psychosocial variables (social support, depression, resilience, and life satisfaction), physical activity and functioning (SF-36, Up and Go, Senior Fitness Test, and disability assessment), cognitive functioning (Trail Making Test and Forward and Backward Digit Span), physical measures (height, weight, and waist circumference), and demographics. The SENIOR Project II is designed to answer the following question as its primary objective: (1) Does an individualized active-maintenance intervention with older adults maintain greater levels of healthful exercise and dietary behaviors for four years, compared to a control condition? In addition, there are two secondary objectives: (2) What are the psychosocial factors associated with the maintenance of health-promoting behaviors in the very old? and (3) What are the effects of the maintenance of health-promoting behaviors on reported health outcomes, psychosocial measures, anthropometrics, and cognitive status? PMID:20955821

  1. Mixed Methods: A Paradigm for Holistic Evaluation of Health IT.

    PubMed

    Scott, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    This contribution offers an overview of the 'third research paradigm', its historical roots and its relevance for health informatics. Using illustrative studies, we explore the concepts of triangulation and integration of quantitative and qualitative data and refute common philosophical objections to mixing different types of knowledge. We consider how the mixed method paradigm relates to two programme design and evaluation frameworks that are important for health informatics: realist evaluation and Theory of Change. We discuss how to manage practical challenges to this approach and explain how mixed method studies support an evidence-based approach to real world policy, planning and investment decisions. PMID:27198096

  2. EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R. L.; Heintzelman, J. B.; Merservey, R. H.; Squires, L. N.

    2008-05-01

    The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. It was shut down in 1994; the fuel was removed by 1996; and the bulk of sodium metal coolant was removed from the reactor by 2001. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. Most of the residual sodium reacted with the carbon dioxide and water vapor to form a passivation layer of primarily sodium bicarbonate. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium in the primary and secondary systems by 2022. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in the wash water. This method would generate a minimum of 100,000 gallons of caustic, liquid, low level radioactive, hazardous waste water that must be disposed of in a permitted facility. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to look at alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The

  3. Iterative evaluation of a web-based health information resource.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Shepherd, Amy; Agunwamba, Amenah A; McCray, Alexa T

    2013-08-01

    This article presents the research process and methods used to evaluate and improve a web-based health information resource, called "Community Connect to Research," intended for the public. The research process was iterative and involved collaboration with many partners. Two formal evaluations were conducted in 2009 and 2010 using key informant interviews, usability interviews, focus groups, an online survey, and readability and suitability assessment tools. These methods provided users' perspectives on the overall design, content, and literacy demands of the website as well as valuable feedback on their interaction with the website. The authors subsequently redesigned Community Connect to Research, making significant improvements on the basis of what they learned from the evaluation. The second evaluation revealed that the redesign addressed many issues found in the first evaluation and identified additional areas of possible improvement. Overall, both evaluations suggested that participants believed that the website was useful and valuable, indicating that Community Connect to Research is a health information resource that provides patients and families with accessible, relevant, and high-quality information. Regular formal evaluation is an essential tool for effective ongoing enhancement of health information resources meant for the public. PMID:23577665

  4. Gestational Age, Infant Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses' Health Study II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses’ Health Study II Navigate This ... as 10 pounds or more at term. Gestational diabetes In the NHSII 1989 baseline questionnaire and subsequent ...

  5. Chapter I, Chapter II, And State Compensatory Education Program Evaluations, 1983-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Sherry; And Others

    This report contains administrative summaries for program evaluations of these 11 1983-84 Chapter I, Chapter II, and state compensatory education programs in the Fort Worth Independent School District, Texas. The programs evaluated are the Elementary Resource Teacher/Aide Program; the Chapter I Parochial Reading and Mathematics Program; the…

  6. Community health promotion: a framework to facilitate and evaluate supportive social environments for health.

    PubMed

    Wagemakers, Annemarie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Koelen, Maria A; Saan, Hans; Leeuwis, Cees

    2010-11-01

    The evaluation of community health promotion designed to create supportive social environments for health is still in its infancy. There is a lack of consensus on concepts, a lack of information on interventions that bring about social change, and a lack of feasible methods and tools. Consequently, the effectiveness of community health promotion may not be evaluated under all relevant headings. Therefore, this study aims to contribute to the evaluation of change in the social environment by presenting a framework. On the basis of the relevant literature we describe the relation between social environment and health predicting mediators. We selected participation and collaboration as core concepts in moderating the social environment of health because these terms give insight into the actual dynamics of health promotion practice. We synthesize the results into a framework with operational variables and offer four guidelines on how to apply the framework: use the variables as a menu, set specific aims for social change processes, use an action research approach, and triangulate data. The framework and guidelines enable the start-up, facilitation and evaluation of social change and learning processes and provide common ground for researchers and practitioners to improve the practice of their professions. PMID:20106527

  7. Radiation model for row crops: II. Model evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relatively few radiation transfer studies have considered the impact of varying vegetation cover that typifies row crops, and meth¬ods to account for partial row crop cover have not been well investigated. Our objective was to evaluate a widely used radiation model that was modified for row crops ha...

  8. Mental health, citizenship, and the memory of World War II in the Netherlands (1945-85).

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Harry

    2014-03-01

    After World War II, Dutch psychiatrists and other mental health care professionals articulated ideals of democratic citizenship. Framed in terms of self-development, citizenship took on a broad meaning, not just in terms of political rights and obligations, but also in the context of material, social, psychological and moral conditions that individuals should meet in order to develop themselves and be able to act according to those rights and obligations in a responsible way. In the post-war period of reconstruction (1945-65), as well as between 1965 and 1985, the link between mental health and ideals of citizenship was coloured by the public memory of World War II and the German occupation, albeit in completely different, even opposite ways. The memory of the war, and especially the public consideration of its victims, changed drastically in the mid-1960s, and the mental health sector played a crucial role in bringing this change about. The widespread attention to the mental effects of the war that surfaced in the late 1960s after a period of 20 years of public silence should be seen against the backdrop of the combination of democratization and the emancipation of emotions. PMID:24594819

  9. TRADEC II. An Evaluation of Trades Education Schemes. II. Research Findings. A Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen; Brown, Alan

    This report presents findings of an evaluation of the Trades Education (TRADEC) schemes to report on the approach's distinctive features and to assess its effectiveness and potential to meet the needs of the populations it serves. Chapter 1 describes the origins and key features of TRADEC courses; succeeding chapters examine how they were…

  10. Evaluation of LLTR series II test A-6 results. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Amos, J.C.; Knittle, D.E.; Chen, K.; Odegaard, T.K.; Yang, T.M.

    1981-06-01

    Series II test A-6 employed a DEG tube rupture located 222.9 inches above the bottom of the LLTI shroud at the periphery of the tube bundle. The test yielded a peak pressure at the leak site of 340 psia and peak measured temperatures of 2150/sup 0/F. The initial acoustic pressure spike measured upstream of the RD-1 rupture disc assembly of 295 psia was insufficient to burst the upstream rupture membrane. (The LLTV was supposed to be completely filled with sodium. However, review of test data has indicated that approx. 8 ft/sup 3/ of gas was present in the upper region of the LLTV at the time of test. The presence of this gas in the test article contributed to the reduction in the magnitude of the acoustic pressure spike.) The acoustic pressure spikes diminished and a gradual system pressure rise controlled by the compression of the cover gas in the surge tank occurred. When the system pressure increased to 340 psia about 6.5 seconds after leak initiation, the upstream rupture disc burst followed by burst of the downstream disc about 54 milliseconds later.

  11. Evaluating the public health impact of health promotion interventions: the RE-AIM framework.

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, R E; Vogt, T M; Boles, S M

    1999-01-01

    Progress in public health and community-based interventions has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive evaluation framework appropriate to such programs. Multilevel interventions that incorporate policy, environmental, and individual components should be evaluated with measurements suited to their settings, goals, and purpose. In this commentary, the authors propose a model (termed the RE-AIM model) for evaluating public health interventions that assesses 5 dimensions: reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. These dimensions occur at multiple levels (e.g., individual, clinic or organization, community) and interact to determine the public health or population-based impact of a program or policy. The authors discuss issues in evaluating each of these dimensions and combining them to determine overall public health impact. Failure to adequately evaluate programs on all 5 dimensions can lead to a waste of resources, discontinuities between stages of research, and failure to improve public health to the limits of our capacity. The authors summarize strengths and limitations of the RE-AIM model and recommend areas for future research and application. PMID:10474547

  12. Evaluation of Nosocomial Infection Control Programs in health services 1

    PubMed Central

    Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando; Laus, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the Nosocomial Infection Control Programs in hospital institutions regarding structure and process indicators. METHOD: this is a descriptive, exploratory and quantitative study conducted in 2013. The study population comprised 13 Nosocomial Infection Control Programs of health services in a Brazilian city of the state of São Paulo. Public domain instruments available in the Manual of Evaluation Indicators of Nosocomial Infection Control Practices were used. RESULTS: The indicators with the highest average compliance were "Evaluation of the Structure of the Nosocomial Infection Control Programs" (75%) and "Evaluation of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Nosocomial Infection" (82%) and those with the lowest mean compliance scores were "Evaluation of Operational Guidelines" (58.97%) and "Evaluation of Activities of Control and Prevention of Nosocomial Infection" (60.29%). CONCLUSION: The use of indicators identified that, despite having produced knowledge about prevention and control of nosocomial infections, there is still a large gap between the practice and the recommendations. PMID:25806637

  13. Evaluation of Health Educator Consults in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Stacia; Lopez, Patricia; McKee, M. Diane; Deen, Darwin; Fornari, Alice; Fletcher, Jason; Blank, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to evaluate a primary care obesity prevention intervention, targeting low-income minority parents in the USA. The first objective is to describe the barriers to behavior change experienced by families. The second objective is to understand the types of strategies that were used by the health educator to empower families to…

  14. Review of published criteria for evaluating health-related websites

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Paul; Eng, Thomas R; Deering, Mary Jo; Maxfield, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    •Objective To review published criteria for specifically evaluating health-related information on the World Wide Web and to identify areas of consensus in evaluation. •Design Search of Web sites and peer-reviewed medical journals for explicit criteria for evaluating health-related information on the Web using Medline and Lexis-Nexis databases and the following Internet search engines: Yahoo!, Excite, Altavista, Webcrawler, HotBot, Infoseek, Magellan Internet Guide, and Lycos. Criteria were extracted and grouped into categories. •Results Twenty-nine published rating tools and journal articles were identified that had explicit criteria for assessing health-related Web sites. Of the 165 criteria extracted from these tools and articles, 132 (80%) were grouped under 1 of 12 specific categories, and 33 (20%) were grouped as miscellaneous because they lacked specificity or were unique. The most frequently cited criteria were those dealing with the content, design, and aesthetics of a site; disclosure of authors, sponsors, or developers; currency of information (includes frequency of update, freshness, and maintenance of site); authority of source; ease of use; and accessibility and availability. •Conclusions Many authors agree on the key criteria for evaluating health-related Web sites and efforts to develop consensus criteria may be helpful. The next step is to identify and assess a clear, simple set of consensus criteria that the general public can understand and use. PMID:18751150

  15. Finding and Evaluating Online Resources on Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... people can expect from a treatment, look for references to scientific research that clearly support what’s said. Keep in ... including publications and searches of Federal databases of scientific and medical literature. The Clearinghouse does not provide medical advice, treatment ... References Benedetti J-A. Evaluating Health Web Sites. (From ...

  16. Evaluation of a Health Education Programme about Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Jane Mertz; Sellers, Debra M.; Hilgendorf, Amy E.; Burnett, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to evaluate a health education programme (TBIoptions: Promoting Knowledge) designed to increase public awareness and understanding about traumatic brain injury (TBI) through in-person (classroom) and computer-based (electronic) learning environments. Design: We used a pre-post survey design with randomization of participants…

  17. Evaluation of Web Accessibility of Consumer Health Information Websites

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiaoming; Parmanto, Bambang

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to construct a comprehensive framework for web accessibility evaluation, to evaluate the current status of web accessibility of consumer health information websites and to investigate the relationship between web accessibility and property of the websites. We selected 108 consumer health information websites from the directory service of a Web search engine. We used Web accessibility specifications to construct a framework for the measurement of Web Accessibility Barriers (WAB) of website. We found that none of the websites is completely accessible to people with disabilities, but governmental and educational health information websites exhibit better performance on web accessibility than other categories of websites. We also found that the correlation between the WAB score and the popularity of a website is statistically significant. PMID:14728272

  18. [Outcome evaluation of a health promotion among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Mnich, E; Hofreuter-Gätgens, K; Salomon, T; Swart, E; von dem Knesebeck, O

    2013-02-01

    The programme "active health promotion in old age" focuses on responsible self determination in old age (empowerment) and places special emphasis on physical activity and nutrition. The intervention, successfully conducted in an urban setting (Hamburg), was tested in a rural area (Kinzigtal, Baden-Wuerttemberg). In this paper we present the results of the outcome evaluation. The intervention group consisted of older people, without care need and without cognitive impairment who lived in their own home (N=468). For the evaluation of the results a pre-post comparison was conducted (2 measuring points within an interval of 12 months). 4 out of 5 participants reported changes in their behaviour after the intervention. However, the pre-post comparison shows significant changes only for nutrition behaviour, but not of physical activity. Health related quality of life (SF-36) did not change after 12 months. These findings indicate that health promotion in old age may lead to changes in nutrition behaviour. PMID:22615028

  19. Recommendations for evaluation of health care improvement initiatives.

    PubMed

    Parry, Gareth J; Carson-Stevens, Andrew; Luff, Donna F; McPherson, Marianne E; Goldmann, Donald A

    2013-01-01

    Intensive efforts are underway across the world to improve the quality of health care. It is important to use evaluation methods to identify improvement efforts that work well before they are replicated across a broad range of contexts. Evaluation methods need to provide an understanding of why an improvement initiative has or has not worked and how it can be improved in the future. However, improvement initiatives are complex, and evaluation is not always well aligned with the intent and maturity of the intervention, thus limiting the applicability of the results. We describe how initiatives can be grouped into 1 of 3 improvement phases-innovation, testing, and scale-up and spread-depending on the degree of belief in the associated interventions. We describe how many evaluation approaches often lead to a finding of no effect, consistent with what has been termed Rossi's Iron Law of Evaluation. Alternatively, we recommend that the guiding question of evaluation in health care improvement be, "How and in what contexts does a new model work or can be amended to work?" To answer this, we argue for the adoption of formative, theory-driven evaluation. Specifically, evaluations start by identifying a program theory that comprises execution and content theories. These theories should be revised as the initiative develops by applying a rapid-cycle evaluation approach, in which evaluation findings are fed back to the initiative leaders on a regular basis. We describe such evaluation strategies, accounting for the phase of improvement as well as the context and setting in which the improvement concept is being deployed. Finally, we challenge the improvement and evaluation communities to come together to refine the specific methods required so as to avoid the trap of Rossi's Iron Law. PMID:24268081

  20. Deep Dive: Evaluation Methods for Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians currently use electronic health records (EHR) which have often not been designed with the user in mind. Participatory design requires a thorough evaluation of the system using mixed methods. When different methods yield conflicting results, synthesis is challenging. This panel will present four cases of triangulation approaches to evaluate EHR usability and usage in multiple institutions. The audience will have a better idea how to triangulate results from multiple innovative methods such as the use of eye-tracking techniques and mixed methods approaches to evaluation. PMID:27332332

  1. Board self-evaluation: the Bayside Health experience.

    PubMed

    Duncan-Marr, Alison; Duckett, Stephen J

    2005-08-01

    Board evaluation is a critical component of good governance in any organisation. This paper describes the board self-evaluation process used by Bayside Health, a public health service in Melbourne. The question of how governing boards can assess their performance has received increasing attention over the past decade. In particular, the increasing demand for accountability to shareholders and regulators experienced by corporate sector Boards has resulted in greater scrutiny of board performance, with the market and the balance sheet providing some basis for assessment. Performance evaluation of governing boards in the public sector has been more challenging. Performance evaluation is complex in a sector that is not simply driven by the bottom line, where the stakeholders involve both government and the broader community, and where access to, and the quality and safety of the services provided, are often the major public criteria by which performance may be judged. While some practices from the corporate sector can be applied successfully in the public sector, this is not always the case, and public sector boards such as the Board of Directors of Bayside Health have been developing ways to evaluate and improve their performance. PMID:16053439

  2. Evaluation of Health in All Policies: concept, theory and application.

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Lawless, Angela; Delany, Toni; Macdougall, Colin; Williams, Carmel; Broderick, Danny; Wildgoose, Deborah; Harris, Elizabeth; Mcdermott, Dennis; Kickbusch, Ilona; Popay, Jennie; Marmot, Michael

    2014-06-01

    This article describes some of the crucial theoretical, methodological and practical issues that need to be considered when evaluating Health in All Policies (HiAP) initiatives. The approaches that have been applied to evaluate HiAP in South Australia are drawn upon as case studies, and early findings from this evaluative research are provided. The South Australian evaluation of HiAP is based on a close partnership between researchers and public servants. The article describes the South Australian HiAP research partnership and considers its benefits and drawbacks in terms of the impact on the scope of the research, the types of evidence that can be collected and the implications for knowledge transfer. This partnership evolved from the conduct of process evaluations and is continuing to develop through joint collaboration on an Australian National Health & Medical Research Council grant. The South Australian research is not seeking to establish causality through statistical tests of correlations, but instead by creating a 'burden of evidence' which supports logically coherent chains of relations. These chains emerge through contrasting and comparing findings from many relevant and extant forms of evidence. As such, program logic is being used to attribute policy change to eventual health outcomes. The article presents the preliminary program logic model and describes the early work of applying the program logic approach to HiAP. The article concludes with an assessment of factors that have accounted for HiAP being sustained in South Australia from 2008 to 2013. PMID:25217350

  3. Economic evaluation of implementation strategies in health care.

    PubMed

    Hoomans, Ties; Severens, Johan L

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluations can inform decisions about the efficiency and allocation of resources to implementation strategies-strategies explicitly designed to inform care providers and patients about the best available research evidence and to enhance its use in their practices. These strategies are increasingly popular in health care, especially in light of growing concerns about quality of care and limits on resources. But such concerns have hardly motivated health authorities and other decision-makers to spend on some form of economic evaluation in their assessments of implementation strategies. This editorial addresses the importance of economic evaluation in the context of implementation science-particularly, how these analyses can be most efficiently incorporated into decision-making processes about implementation strategies. PMID:25518730

  4. Evaluating oral health promotion activity within a general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Richards, W

    2013-07-01

    The prevention of the common dental diseases is fundamental to modern day general dental practice. Oral health promotion (OHP) is therefore key to facilitating health outcomes within organisations. The literature surrounding OHP stresses the importance of evaluation in order to assess the effectiveness of OHP activities. This paper describes the evaluation of OHP within a general dental practice setting. Early attendance, the use of adult toothpastes during childhood and consequential fluorosis are investigated. A small service evaluation study of 100 consecutive patients was undertaken. The results support the ongoing promotion of early attendance and the use of toothpastes with adequate fluoride levels. There was no evidence of unsightly fluorosis in the sample studied. PMID:23887535

  5. Trial-Based Economic Evaluations in Occupational Health

    PubMed Central

    van Wier, Marieke F.; Tompa, Emile; Bongers, Paulien M.; van der Beek, Allard J.; van Tulder, Maurits W.; Bosmans, Judith E.

    2014-01-01

    To allocate available resources as efficiently as possible, decision makers need information on the relative economic merits of occupational health and safety (OHS) interventions. Economic evaluations can provide this information by comparing the costs and consequences of alternatives. Nevertheless, only a few of the studies that consider the effectiveness of OHS interventions take the extra step of considering their resource implications. Moreover, the methodological quality of those that do is generally poor. Therefore, this study aims to help occupational health researchers conduct high-quality trial-based economic evaluations by discussing the theory and methodology that underlie them, and by providing recommendations for good practice regarding their design, analysis, and reporting. This study also helps consumers of this literature with understanding and critically appraising trial-based economic evaluations of OHS interventions. PMID:24854249

  6. SAFE II: Large systems space plasma evaluation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Young, L. E.; Purvis, C. K.; Stevens, N. J.

    1983-01-01

    A shuttle flight experiment, the purpose of which is to obtain space data on the interaction of a high voltage solar array with the ambient space plasma is addressed. This flight experiment is a reflight of the solar array flight experiment, SAFE, except that three active solar array panels, electron release devices and plasma diagnostics are added. This experiment, SAFE 2, evaluates power loss due to parasitic current collected by the solar array, arcing on the solar array and perturbations to the plasma which may increase power loss and disturb plasma and charged particle science acquisition.

  7. Published criteria for evaluating health related web sites: review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Paul; Eng, Thomas R; Deering, Mary Jo; Maxfield, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    Objective To review published criteria for specifically evaluating health related information on the world wide web, and to identify areas of consensus. Design Search of world wide web sites and peer reviewed medical journals for explicit criteria for evaluating health related information on the web, using Medline and Lexis-Nexis databases, and the following internet search engines: Yahoo!, Excite, Altavista, Webcrawler, HotBot, Infoseek, Magellan Internet Guide, and Lycos. Criteria were extracted and grouped into categories. Results 29 published rating tools and journal articles were identified that had explicit criteria for assessing health related web sites. Of the 165 criteria extracted from these tools and articles, 132 (80%) were grouped under one of 12 specific categories and 33 (20%) were grouped as miscellaneous because they lacked specificity or were unique. The most frequently cited criteria were those dealing with content, design and aesthetics of site, disclosure of authors, sponsors, or developers, currency of information (includes frequency of update, freshness, maintenance of site), authority of source, ease of use, and accessibility and availability. Conclusions Results suggest that many authors agree on key criteria for evaluating health related web sites, and that efforts to develop consensus criteria may be helpful. The next step is to identify and assess a clear, simple set of consensus criteria that the general public can understand and use. Key messagesMany organisations and individuals have published criteria to evaluate health related information on the world wide webA literature and world wide web search found that the most frequently cited criteria were those dealing with content, design and aesthetics of site, disclosure of authors, sponsors, or developers, currency of information, authority of source, and ease of useCriteria related to confidentiality and privacy were only cited by one authorConsensus regarding critical criteria for

  8. Primary Health Care Evaluation: the view of clients and professionals about the Family Health Strategy1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Simone Albino; Baitelo, Tamara Cristina; Fracolli, Lislaine Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the attributes of primary health care as for access; longitudinality; comprehensiveness; coordination; family counseling and community counseling in the Family Health Strategy, triangulating and comparing the views of stakeholders involved in the care process. Method: evaluative research with a quantitative approach and cross-sectional design. Data collected using the Primary Care Assessment Tool for interviews with 527 adult clients, 34 health professionals, and 330 parents of children up to two years old, related to 33 family health teams, in eleven municipalities. Analysis conducted in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software, with a confidence interval of 95% and error of 0.1. Results: the three groups assessed the first contact access - accessibility with low scores. Professionals evaluated with a high score the other attributes. Clients assigned low score evaluations for the attributes: community counseling; family counseling; comprehensiveness - services rendered; comprehensiveness - available services. Conclusions: the quality of performance self-reported by the professionals of the Family Health Strategy is not perceived or valued by clients, and the actions and services may have been developed inappropriately or insufficiently to be apprehended by the experience of clients. PMID:26487150

  9. The role of technology in reducing health care costs. Phase II and phase III.

    SciTech Connect

    Cilke, John F.; Parks, Raymond C.; Funkhouser, Donald Ray; Tebo, Michael A.; Murphy, Martin D.; Hightower, Marion Michael; Gallagher, Linda K.; Craft, Richard Layne, II; Garcia, Rudy John

    2004-04-01

    In Phase I of this project, reported in SAND97-1922, Sandia National Laboratories applied a systems approach to identifying innovative biomedical technologies with the potential to reduce U.S. health care delivery costs while maintaining care quality. The effort provided roadmaps for the development and integration of technology to meet perceived care delivery requirements and an economic analysis model for development of care pathway costs for two conditions: coronary artery disease (CAD) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Phases II and III of this project, which are presented in this report, were directed at detailing the parameters of telemedicine that influence care delivery costs and quality. These results were used to identify and field test the communication, interoperability, and security capabilities needed for cost-effective, secure, and reliable health care via telemedicine.

  10. Evaluation of computerized health management information system for primary health care in rural India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project Ballabgarh, run by All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi has a computerized Health Management Information System (HMIS) since 1988. The HMIS at Ballabgarh has undergone evolution and is currently in its third version which uses generic and open source software. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerized Health Management Information System in rural health system in India. Methods The data for evaluation were collected by in-depth interviews of the stakeholders i.e. program managers (authors) and health workers. Health Workers from AIIMS and Non-AIIMS Primary Health Centers were interviewed to compare the manual with computerized HMIS. A cost comparison between the two methods was carried out based on market costs. The resource utilization for both manual and computerized HMIS was identified based on workers' interviews. Results There have been no major hardware problems in use of computerized HMIS. More than 95% of data was found to be accurate. Health workers acknowledge the usefulness of HMIS in service delivery, data storage, generation of workplans and reports. For program managers, it provides a better tool for monitoring and supervision and data management. The initial cost incurred in computerization of two Primary Health Centers was estimated to be Indian National Rupee (INR) 1674,217 (USD 35,622). Equivalent annual incremental cost of capital items was estimated as INR 198,017 (USD 4213). The annual savings is around INR 894,283 (USD 11,924). Conclusion The major advantage of computerization has been in saving of time of health workers in record keeping and report generation. The initial capital costs of computerization can be recovered within two years of implementation if the system is fully operational. Computerization has enabled implementation of a good system for service delivery, monitoring and supervision. PMID:21078203

  11. Chrysotile asbestos and health in Zimbabwe: II. Health status survey of active miners and millers

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, M.R.; Lopez-Carrillo, L.; Alli, B.; Pace, P.E.; Shalat, S.L.; Baloyi, R.S. )

    1991-02-01

    As part of the effort to establish industrial practice and public policy regarding asbestos in Zimbabwe, we have conducted a cross-sectional study of the chrysotile mines and mills. A stratified random sample of workers with greater than 10 years of exposure has been evaluated by spirometry, chest radiographs, and employment history. The latter was converted to quantitative estimates of exposure dose, using a matrix based on measured and reconstructed fiber levels for each job and facility during the years of work. Based on these data, a clear dose-response between asbestos exposure and functional loss has been demonstrated, with mean losses from predicted of about 400-600 cc in vital capacity in the 10% of the population with heaviest exposures. Low-grade parenchymal radiographic abnormalities (ILO grade greater than or equal to 1/0) were evident in 8.7% of the total study group and were almost 10 times more common in those with more than 100 fibers/cc.years cumulative exposure than in those with 16 fibers/cc.years or less. Pleural disease was relatively rare, occurring in just under 10% of the study group, and was unrelated to exposure dose. Overall, these findings are compatible with results of similar studies in Quebec and Swaziland and suggest that similar control strategies are probably indicated.

  12. Health evaluation of western arctic King Eiders (Somateria spectabilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Cheryl A.; Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Powell, Abby N.

    2010-01-01

    The western arctic population of King Eiders (Somateria spectabilis) has declined by >50% in recent years. A health assessment was conducted for adult King Eiders breeding on the north slope of Alaska, USA, to evaluate body condition (n=90, 2002–2006) and baseline biochemical and hematologic values (n=20–30, 2005–2006). Body condition for males and females was excellent. Total protein, calcium, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and globulin were significantly higher in females than in males, likely because of differences in reproductive physiology. These baseline health data can be used to promote conservation of King Eiders and other closely related species of concern.

  13. Health technology assessment. Evaluation of biomedical innovative technologies.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, Giuseppe; Spadoni, Enza; Geisler, Eliezer Elie

    2010-01-01

    This article describes health technology assessment (HTA) as an evaluation tool that applies systematic methods of inquiry to the generation and use of health technologies and new products. The focus of this article is on the contributions of HTA to the management of the new product development effort in the biomedical organization. Critical success factors (CSFs) are listed, and their role in assessing success is defined and explained. One of the conclusions of this article is that HTA is a powerful tool for managers in the biomedical sector, allowing them to better manage their innovation effort in their continuing struggle for competitiveness and survival. PMID:20659860

  14. Evaluation in health: participatory methodology and involvement of municipal managers

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Cristiane Andrea Locatelli; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze scopes and limits of the use of participatory methodology of evaluation with municipal health managers and administrators. METHODS Qualitative research with health policymakers and managers of the Comissão Intergestores Regional (CIR – Regional Interagency Commission) of a health region of the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil. Representatives from seven member cities participated in seven workshops facilitated by the researchers, with the aim of assessing a specific problem of the care line, which would be used as a tracer of the system integrality. The analysis of the collected empirical material was based on the hermeneutic-dialectic methodology and aimed at the evaluation of the applied participatory methodology, according to its capacity of promoting a process of assessment capable to be used as a support for municipal management. RESULTS With the participatory approach of evaluation, we were able to promote in-depth discussions with the group, especially related to the construction of integral care and to the inclusion of the user’s perspective in decision-making, linked to the search for solution to concrete problems of managers. By joint exploration, the possibility of using data from electronic information systems was opened, as well as information coming directly from the users of the services, to enhance discussions and negotiations between partners. The participants were disbelievers of the replication potential of this type of evaluation without the direct monitoring of the academy, given the difficulty of organizing the process in everyday life, already taken by emergency and political issues. CONCLUSIONS Evaluations of programs and services carried out within the Regional Interagency Commission, starting from the local interest and facilitating the involvement of its members by the use of participatory methodologies, can contribute to the construction of integral care. To the extent that the act of evaluating stay

  15. Reinvigorating performance evaluation: first steps in a local health department.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kathleen N; Gunzenhauser, Jeffrey D; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2010-01-01

    The ability of a local health department to assess and improve employee performance through an effective evaluation process is critical to overall organizational success. A constructive performance evaluation process not only provides meaningful feedback on work performance but also provides opportunities to reinforce work behaviors that support the organization's mission, to recognize exceptional work, and to guide future growth and learning. The Los Angeles County Department of Public Health is creating a new approach to performance evaluation that recognizes 3 distinct components of work performance: standard business practices, competencies, and standards of practice. This multidimensional perspective acknowledges that the expectations of workers are complex and that evaluations of performance are not easily captured with single-dimension assessment tools. This report describes the conceptual relationships of these 3 components and how they integrate to form a single performance evaluation process. Key elements within this structure include a base document of competencies for all workers, expanded competency sets for professional staff, role-specific duty statements for workers who perform similar work, and standards of competent practice related to the mission of units to which individuals are assigned. Key first steps are to define the terminology of performance evaluation and to create role-specific duty statements. PMID:20840712

  16. Efficacy methods to evaluate health communication and marketing campaigns.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Uhrig, Jennifer; Davis, Kevin; McCormack, Lauren

    2009-06-01

    Communication and marketing are growing areas of health research, but relatively few rigorous efficacy studies have been conducted in these fields. In this article, we review recent health communication and marketing efficacy research, present two case studies that illustrate some of the considerations in making efficacy design choices, and advocate for greater emphasis on rigorous health communication and marketing efficacy research and the development of a research agenda. Much of the outcomes research in health communication and marketing, especially mass media, utilizes effectiveness designs conducted in real time, in the media markets or communities in which messages are delivered. Such evaluations may be impractical or impossible, however, imiting opportunities to advance the state of health communication and marketing research and the knowledge base on effective campaign strategies, messages, and channels. Efficacy and effectiveness studies use similar measures of behavior change. Efficacy studies, however, offer greater opportunities for experimental control, message exposure, and testing of health communication and marketing theory. By examining the literature and two in-depth case studies, we identify advantages and limitations to efficacy studies. We also identify considerations for when to adopt efficacy and effectiveness methods, alone or in combination. Finally, we outline a research agenda to investigate issues of internal and external validity, mode of message presentation, differences between marketing and message strategies, and behavioral outcomes. PMID:19466645

  17. Is Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) a valid indicator for health systems evaluation?

    PubMed

    Romero, Martin; Vivas-Consuelo, David; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to do a discussion about the use of the HRQoL as a health measure of the populations that enable to analyze its potential use as a measure of development and efficiency of health systems. The principal use of the HRQoL is in health technologies economics evaluation; however this measure can be use in public health when need to know the health state of population. The WHO recognizes its potential use but its necessary to do a discussion about your difficulties for its application and restrictions for its use as a performance indicator for the health systems. The review show the different aspects about the use of HRQoL how a measure of efficiency ot the health system, each aspect identified in the literature is analyzed and discussed, developing the pros and cons of their possible use, especially when it comes as a cardinal measure. The analysis allows recognize that measuring HRQoL in countries could serve as a useful indicator, especially when it seeks to measure the level of health and disease, as do most of the indicators of current use. However, the methodological constraints that do not allow comparability between countries especially when you have large socioeconomic differences have yet to be resolved to allow comparison between different regions. PMID:24353981

  18. Evaluating the Accuracy of Health News Publications in a Drug Literature Evaluation Course

    PubMed Central

    Timpe, Erin M.; Eichner, Samantha F.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To design an assignment for second-professional year pharmacy students to assess the accuracy and quality of health information published in the news. Design Students in a literature evaluation course were assigned a health-related news publication to review and find the original published research article. They then critically evaluated the quality and accuracy of the news publication based on the original research. All students wrote a critique focusing on the quality and accuracy of the news article and potential responses the lay public might have. Assessment Eighty-four percent of students agreed the writing assignment reinforced critical literature evaluation skills, while 90% agreed the assignment contributed to completion of course objectives. Conclusions A writing assignment requiring comparison of a news publication to the original research reinforces critical literature evaluation and communication skills, as well as stimulates thought about the accuracy, quality, and public responses to health information published in the news. PMID:17136202

  19. A rational model for assessing and evaluating complex interventions in health care

    PubMed Central

    May, Carl

    2006-01-01

    Background Understanding how new clinical techniques, technologies and other complex interventions become normalized in practice is important to researchers, clinicians, health service managers and policy-makers. This paper presents a model of the normalization of complex interventions. Methods Between 1995 and 2005 multiple qualitative studies were undertaken. These examined: professional-patient relationships; changing patterns of care; the development, evaluation and implementation of telemedicine and related informatics systems; and the production and utilization of evidence for practice. Data from these studies were subjected to (i) formative re-analysis, leading to sets of analytic propositions; and to (ii) a summative analysis that aimed to build a robust conceptual model of the normalization of complex interventions in health care. Results A normalization process model that enables analysis of the conditions necessary to support the introduction of complex interventions is presented. The model is defined by four constructs: interactional workability; relational integration; skill set workability and contextual integration. This model can be used to understand the normalization potential of new techniques and technologies in healthcare settings Conclusion The normalization process model has face validity in (i) assessing the potential for complex interventions to become routinely embedded in everyday clinical work, and (ii) evaluating the factors that promote or inhibit their success and failure in practice. PMID:16827928

  20. Synthesis, fluorescence study and biological evaluation of three Zn(II) complexes with Paeonol Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dong-dong; Yang, Zheng-yin; Qi, Gao-fei

    2009-10-01

    The synthesis of three Paeonol Schiff base ligand and their Zn(II) complexes are reported. The complexes were fully characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, elemental analysis and molar conductivity. The experiment results show the three Zn(II) complexes can emit bright fluorescence at room temperature in DMF solution and solid state. The fluorescence quantum yields (Phi) of three Schiff base ligands and their Zn(II) complexes were calculated using quinine sulfate as the reference with a known Phi(R) of 0.546 in 1.0N sulfuric acid. Furthermore, in order to develop these Zn(II) complexes' biological value, the antioxidant activities against hydroxyl radicals (OH*) were evaluated. The results show the three complexes possess excellent ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. PMID:19632146

  1. Synthesis, fluorescence study and biological evaluation of three Zn(II) complexes with Paeonol Schiff base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Dong-dong; Yang, Zheng-yin; Qi, Gao-fei

    2009-10-01

    The synthesis of three Paeonol Schiff base ligand and their Zn(II) complexes are reported. The complexes were fully characterized by IR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and molar conductivity. The experiment results show the three Zn(II) complexes can emit bright fluorescence at room temperature in DMF solution and solid state. The fluorescence quantum yields ( Φ) of three Schiff base ligands and their Zn(II) complexes were calculated using quinine sulfate as the reference with a known ΦR of 0.546 in 1.0N sulfuric acid. Furthermore, in order to develop these Zn(II) complexes' biological value, the antioxidant activities against hydroxyl radicals (OH rad ) were evaluated. The results show the three complexes possess excellent ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals.

  2. Improving occupational health care for construction workers: a process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the process of a job-specific workers’ health surveillance (WHS) in improving occupational health care for construction workers. Methods From January to July 2012 were 899 bricklayers and supervisors invited for the job-specific WHS at three locations of one occupational health service throughout the Netherlands. The intervention aimed at detecting signs of work-related health problems, reduced work capacity and/or reduced work functioning. Measurements were obtained using a recruitment record and questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. The process evaluation included the following: reach (attendance rate), intervention dose delivered (provision of written recommendations and follow-up appointments), intervention dose received (intention to follow-up on advice directly after WHS and remembrance of advice three months later), and fidelity (protocol adherence). The workers scored their increase in knowledge from 0–10 with regard to health status and work ability, their satisfaction with the intervention and the perceived (future) effect of such an intervention. Program implementation was defined as the mean score of reach, fidelity, and intervention dose delivered and received. Results Reach was 9% (77 workers participated), fidelity was 67%, the intervention dose delivered was 92 and 63%, and the intervention dose received was 68 and 49%. The total programme implementation was 58%. The increases in knowledge regarding the health status and work ability of the workers after the WHS were graded as 7.0 and 5.9, respectively. The satisfaction of the workers with the entire intervention was graded as 7.5. The perceived (future) effects on health status were graded as 6.3, and the effects on work ability were graded with a 5.2. The economic recession affected the workers as well as the occupational health service that enacted the implementation. Conclusions Programme implementation was acceptable. Low reach, limited protocol adherence and

  3. The WHO-DAS II: psychometric properties in the measurement of functional health status in adults with acquired hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chisolm, Theresa H; Abrams, Harvey B; McArdle, Rachel; Wilson, Richard H; Doyle, Patrick J

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) Disability Assessment Scale II (WHO-DAS II) is a generic health-status instrument firmly grounded in the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO-ICF). As such, it assesses functioning for six domains: communication, mobility, self-care, interpersonal, life activities, and participation. Domain scores aggregate to a total score. Because the WHO-DAS II contains questions relevant to hearing and communication, it has good face validity for use as an outcome measure for audiologic intervention. The purpose of the present study was to determine the psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II on a sample of individuals with adult-onset hearing loss, including convergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest stability. Convergent validity was established by examining correlations between the WHO-DAS II (domain and total scores) and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) and the Hearing Aid Handicap for the Elderly (HHIE), two disease-specific measures, as well as with the Short Form-36 for veterans (SF-36V), a second generic measure. Data on all four measures were collected from 380 older individuals with adult-onset hearing loss who were not hearing aid users. The results of the convergent validity analysis revealed that the WHODAS II communication domain score was moderately and significantly correlated with scores on the APHAB and the HHIE. WHO-DAS II interpersonal and participation domain scores and the total scores were also moderately and significantly correlated with HHIE scores. These findings support the validity of using the WHO-DAS II for assessing activity limitations and participation restrictions of adult-onset hearing loss. Several WHO-DAS II domain scores and the total score were also significantly and moderately-markedly correlated with scores from the SF-36V. These findings support the validity of the WHO-DAS II as a generic health-status instrument

  4. Personal Benefits of a Health Evaluation and Enhancement Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinzelmann, F.; Durbeck, D. C.

    1970-01-01

    A study was made of the benefits reported by participants in a health evaluation and enhancement program dealing with physical activity. Program benefits were identified and defined in regard to three major areas: program effects on work; program effects on health; and program effects on habits and behavior. A strong positive and consistent relationship was found between reported benefits in each of these areas and measures of improvement in cardiovascular functioning based on treadmill performance. Significant differences in these measures of improvement were also found between participants who reported program benefits and those persons who did not. These findings provide a meaningful profile of the pattern of benefits generated by this kind of health program.

  5. GIS applications to evaluate public health effects of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Regens, J.L.; Hodges, D.G.

    1996-12-31

    Modeling projections of future climatic conditions suggest changes in temperature and precipitation patterns that might induce direct adverse effects on human health by altering the extent and severity of infectious and vector-borne diseases. The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases, for example, could increase substantially in areas where temperature and relative humidity rise. The application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offers new methodologies to evaluate the impact of global warming on changes in the incidence of infectious and vector-borne diseases. This research illustrates the potential analytical and communication uses of GIS for monitoring historical patterns of climate and human health variables and for projecting changes in these health variables with global warming.

  6. A common evaluation framework for the African Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The African Health Initiative includes highly diverse partnerships in five countries (Ghana, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia), each of which is working to improve population health by strengthening health systems and to evaluate the results. One aim of the Initiative is to generate cross-site learning that can inform implementation in the five partnerships during the project period and identify lessons that may be generalizable to other countries in the region. Collaborators in the Initiative developed a common evaluation framework as a basis for this cross-site learning. Methods This paper describes the components of the framework; this includes the conceptual model, core metrics to be measured in all sites, and standard guidelines for reporting on the implementation of partnership activities and contextual factors that may affect implementation, or the results it produces. We also describe the systems that have been put in place for data management, data quality assessments, and cross-site analysis of results. Results and conclusions The conceptual model for the Initiative highlights points in the causal chain between health system strengthening activities and health impact where evidence produced by the partnerships can contribute to learning. This model represents an important advance over its predecessors by including contextual factors and implementation strength as potential determinants, and explicitly including equity as a component of both outcomes and impact. Specific measurement challenges include the prospective documentation of program implementation and contextual factors. Methodological issues addressed in the development of the framework include the aggregation of data collected using different methods and the challenge of evaluating a complex set of interventions being improved over time based on continuous monitoring and intermediate results. PMID:23819778

  7. Economic Evaluation of Environmental Health Interventions to Support Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Environmental burden of disease represents one quarter of overall disease burden, hence necessitating greater attention from decision makers both inside and outside the health sector. Economic evaluation techniques such as cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-benefit analysis provide key information to health decision makers on the efficiency of environmental health interventions, assisting them in choosing interventions which give the greatest social return on limited public budgets and private resources. The aim of this article is to review economic evaluation studies in three environmental health areas—water, sanitation, hygiene (WSH), vector control, and air pollution—and to critically examine the policy relevance and scientific quality of the studies for selecting and funding public programmers. A keyword search of Medline from 1990–2008 revealed 32 studies, and gathering of articles from other sources revealed a further 18 studies, giving a total of 50 economic evaluation studies (13 WSH interventions, 16 vector control and 21 air pollution). Overall, the economic evidence base on environmental health interventions remains relatively weak—too few studies per intervention, of variable scientific quality and from diverse locations which limits generalisability of findings. Importantly, there still exists a disconnect between economic research, decision making and programmer implementation. This can be explained by the lack of translation of research findings into accessible documentation for policy makers and limited relevance of research findings, and the often low importance of economic evidence in budgeting decisions. These findings underline the importance of involving policy makers in the defining of research agendas and commissioning of research, and improving the awareness of researchers of the policy environment into which their research feeds. PMID:21572840

  8. Extending the infoway benefits evaluation framework for health information systems.

    PubMed

    Lau, Francis

    2009-01-01

    A proposal is made that extends the current Canada Health Infoway Benefits Evaluation (BE) Framework for Health Information Systems (HIS) being deployed in Canada. The current BE framework takes a micro view of HIS quality, use and impact at the local level whereas the extended framework takes into account the broader socio-organizational and contextual aspects known as the meso and macro views of HIS deployment. The meso view addresses the people, organization, network and implementation dimensions. The macro view focuses on the contextual dimensions of technology standard, funding/incentive, legislation/policy and professional practice. Validation of this extended BE framework is being planned through a comparative review of recent HIS evaluation literature, a Delphi-consensus process with HIS experts and users, and multiple validation studies with recent HIS implementation projects in British Columbia. PMID:19380969

  9. Diversion to the mental health system: emergency psychiatric evaluations.

    PubMed

    Janofsky, Jeffrey S; Tamburello, Anthony C

    2006-01-01

    In Maryland, any citizen may petition to have individuals brought against their will for an examination by a physician. In this retrospective chart review, we evaluated the characteristics of 300 persons referred to the Johns Hopkins Hospital on emergency petitions. Sixty-one percent of petitions described individuals who made verbal or physical threats of self-harm. Forty-seven percent of the petitions described individuals who could have been arrested based on dangerousness to others or property, but were instead diverted to the emergency room for psychiatric evaluation. Although not promoted as a jail diversion program, this process has the potential to direct mentally ill citizens appropriately from the criminal justice system into the mental health system. Greater involvement of mental health professionals at all stages, including police training and participation in crisis response teams in the community, may improve this process. PMID:17032950

  10. Evaluation of the Arizona health care cost-containment system

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Nelda; Henton, Douglas; Crane, Michael; Haber, Susan; Freund, Deborah; Wrightson, William

    1985-01-01

    This article evaluates Arizona's alternative to the acute portion of Medicaid, the Arizona Health Care Cost-Containment System (AHCCCS), during its first 18 months of operation from October 1982 through March 1984. It focuses on the program's implementation and describes and evaluates the program's innovative features. The features of the program outlined in the original AHCCCS legislation included: Competitive bidding, prepaid capitation of providers, capitation of the State by the Health Care Financing Administration, assignment of gatekeepers, beneficiary copayment, private administration, inclusion of private and public employees and county financed long-term care. An assessment of implementation during the second 18 months of the program reporting on more recent developments and is now being prepared by SRI International. PMID:10311438

  11. Public health surveillance: historical origins, methods and evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Declich, S.; Carter, A. O.

    1994-01-01

    In the last three decades, disease surveillance has grown into a complete discipline, quite distinct from epidemiology. This expansion into a separate scientific area within public health has not been accompanied by parallel growth in the literature about its principles and methods. The development of the fundamental concepts of surveillance systems provides a basis on which to build a better understanding of the subject. In addition, the concepts have practical value as they can be used in designing new systems as well as understanding or evaluating currently operating systems. This article reviews the principles of surveillance, beginning with a historical survey of the roots and evolution of surveillance, and discusses the goals of public health surveillance. Methods for data collection, data analysis, interpretation, and dissemination are presented, together with proposed procedures for evaluating and improving a surveillance system. Finally, some points to be considered in establishing a new surveillance system are presented. PMID:8205649

  12. A system dynamics evaluation model: implementation of health information exchange for public health reporting

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jacqueline A; Deegan, Michael; Wilson, Rosalind V; Kaushal, Rainu; Fredericks, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the complex dynamics involved in implementing electronic health information exchange (HIE) for public health reporting at a state health department, and to identify policy implications to inform similar implementations. Materials and methods Qualitative data were collected over 8 months from seven experts at New York State Department of Health who implemented web services and protocols for querying, receipt, and validation of electronic data supplied by regional health information organizations. Extensive project documentation was also collected. During group meetings experts described the implementation process and created reference modes and causal diagrams that the evaluation team used to build a preliminary model. System dynamics modeling techniques were applied iteratively to build causal loop diagrams representing the implementation. The diagrams were validated iteratively by individual experts followed by group review online, and through confirmatory review of documents and artifacts. Results Three casual loop diagrams captured well-recognized system dynamics: Sliding Goals, Project Rework, and Maturity of Resources. The findings were associated with specific policies that address funding, leadership, ensuring expertise, planning for rework, communication, and timeline management. Discussion This evaluation illustrates the value of a qualitative approach to system dynamics modeling. As a tool for strategic thinking on complicated and intense processes, qualitative models can be produced with fewer resources than a full simulation, yet still provide insights that are timely and relevant. Conclusions System dynamics techniques clarified endogenous and exogenous factors at play in a highly complex technology implementation, which may inform other states engaged in implementing HIE supported by federal Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) legislation. PMID:23292910

  13. Evaluating Strategies For Reducing Health Disparities By Addressing The Social Determinants Of Health.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Rachel L J; Glover, Crystal M; Cené, Crystal W; Glik, Deborah C; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Williams, David R

    2016-08-01

    The opportunities for healthy choices in homes, neighborhoods, schools, and workplaces can have decisive impacts on health. We review scientific evidence from promising interventions focused on the social determinants of health and discuss how such interventions can improve population health and reduce health disparities. We found sufficient evidence of successful outcomes to support disparity-reducing policy interventions targeted at education and early childhood; urban planning and community development; housing; income enhancements and supplements; and employment. Cost-effectiveness evaluations show that these interventions lead to long-term societal savings, but the interventions require more routine attention to cost considerations. We discuss challenges to implementation, including the need for long-term financing to scale up effective interventions for implementation at the local, state, and national levels. PMID:27503966

  14. Three evaluation methods of a community health advocate program.

    PubMed

    Rodney, M; Clasen, C; Goldman, G; Markert, R; Deane, D

    1998-10-01

    The title Community Health Advocate (CHA) is one of thirty or more titles used throughout the world for an indigenous outreach worker who is trusted and respected in his or her community and who serves as a bridge between peers and health professionals. In 1992, the Center for Healthy Communities in Dayton, Ohio developed a program to train as Advocates people indigenous to the communities in which they would be working. Since the first CHAs began work in January 1993, the effectiveness of the program has been evaluated from three perspectives: the Community Health Advocates, the managers/directors of the community sites at which the CHAs work, and the clients with whom the CHAs work. Advocates indicated that the training program adequately prepared them for their roles and functions. They also identified systematic frustrations and barriers that made it more difficult for them to perform their job. Community site directors and community leaders indicated that the CHAs were considered a positive force in meeting client needs and facilitating independence, and were very effective in outreach and coordination of resources. A survey of CHA clients revealed an overwhelmingly positive response to the Advocate's work, validating the belief that CHAs can fill an important niche in the health care community. The three evaluation processes described in this paper helped to document the need for and the effectiveness of this program and can serve as a model for similar programs. PMID:9793834

  15. Evaluation of health promotion in schools: a realistic evaluation approach using mixed methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Schools are key settings for health promotion (HP) but the development of suitable approaches for evaluating HP in schools is still a major topic of discussion. This article presents a research protocol of a program developed to evaluate HP. After reviewing HP evaluation issues, the various possible approaches are analyzed and the importance of a realistic evaluation framework and a mixed methods (MM) design are demonstrated. Methods/Design The design is based on a systemic approach to evaluation, taking into account the mechanisms, context and outcomes, as defined in realistic evaluation, adjusted to our own French context using an MM approach. The characteristics of the design are illustrated through the evaluation of a nationwide HP program in French primary schools designed to enhance children's social, emotional and physical health by improving teachers' HP practices and promoting a healthy school environment. An embedded MM design is used in which a qualitative data set plays a supportive, secondary role in a study based primarily on a different quantitative data set. The way the qualitative and quantitative approaches are combined through the entire evaluation framework is detailed. Discussion This study is a contribution towards the development of suitable approaches for evaluating HP programs in schools. The systemic approach of the evaluation carried out in this research is appropriate since it takes account of the limitations of traditional evaluation approaches and considers suggestions made by the HP research community. PMID:20109202

  16. The Clinical Teacher for Special Education. Final Report: Volume II; Evaluating the Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Louis; Oseroff, Andrew

    Effectiveness of the clinical teaching model (CTM) developed at Florida State University is documented in Volume II of the project's final report. Reviewed is literature related to teacher effectiveness and conceptual changes, conceptual models and instructional systems, and evaluation research in education. Research design and procedures are…

  17. Safety evaluation for packaging transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1996-09-11

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities.

  18. North Carolina Migrant Education Program. 1971 Project Evaluation Reports, Vol. II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    Evaluation reports for 13 of the 23 1971 Summer Migrant Projects in North Carolina are presented in Volume II of this compilation. Each report contains the following information: (1) descriptive statistics and results of student achievement; (2) description of the project as obtained from site team reports and other available information; and (3)…

  19. Evaluation of a Trainer for Sensor Operators on Gunship II Aircraft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cream, Bertram W.

    This report describes the design, development, and evaluation of a training device intended to enable ground-based practice of equipment operation and target-tracking skills that are required by the Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) and Low Light Level TV (LLLTV) sensor operators assigned to Gunship II aircraft. This trainer makes use of a…

  20. EVALUATION AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSES RESULTS OF THE MESOPUFF II MODEL WITH CAPTEX MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The MESOPUFF II regional Lagrangian puff model has been evaluated and tested against measurements from the Cross-Appalachian Tracer Experiment (CAPTEX) data base in an effort to assess its abilIty to simulate the transport and dispersion of a nonreactive, nondepositing tracer plu...

  1. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, S.L.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1999-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 19 Phase II screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. The sites were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide fish a safe, efficient return to the Yakima River.

  2. Evaluability Assessment of the Title II Basic Skills Improvement Program: Implications for State-Level Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Aurelia C.; Bourexis, Patricia S.

    The implications of the lessons learned through an evaluability assessment (EA) of the Title II Basic Skills Improvement Program (BSIP) for State Education Agency (SEA) support of model demonstration programs are discussed. The purposes, methodology and uses of the EA process are presented. Also included is a discussion of the details of the…

  3. The impact of health economic evaluations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Heintz, Emelie; Arnberg, Karl; Levin, Lars-Åke; Liliemark, Jan; Davidson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The responsibility for healthcare in Sweden is shared by the central government, county councils and municipalities. The counties and municipalities are free to make their own prioritizations within the framework of the state healthcare laws. To guide prioritization of healthcare resources in Sweden, there is consensus that cost-effectiveness constitutes one of the three principles. The objective of this paper is to describe how cost-effectiveness, and hence health economic evaluations (HEE), have a role in pricing decisions, reimbursement of pharmaceuticals as well as the overall prioritization and allocation of resources in the Swedish healthcare system. There are various organizations involved in the processes of implementing health technologies in the Swedish healthcare system, several of which consider or produce HEEs when assessing different technologies: the Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV), the county councils' group on new drug therapies (NLT), the National Board of Health and Welfare, the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment (SBU), regional HTA agencies and the Public Health Agency of Sweden. The only governmental agency that has official and mandatory guidelines for how to perform HEE is TLV (LFNAR 2003:2). Even though HEEs may seem to have a clear and explicit role in the decision-making processes in the Swedish healthcare system, there are various obstacles and challenges in the use and dissemination of the results. PMID:25444295

  4. Childhood adversity and adult health: Evaluating intervening mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Turner, R Jay; Thomas, Courtney S; Brown, Tyson H

    2016-05-01

    Substantial evidence has accumulated supporting a causal link between childhood adversity and risk for poor health years and even decades later. One interpretation of this evidence is that this linkage arises largely or exclusively from a process of biological embedding that is not modifiable by subsequent social context or experience - implying childhood as perhaps the only point at which intervention efforts are likely to be effective. This paper considers the extent to which this long-term association arises from intervening differences in social context and/or environmental experiences - a finding that would suggest that post-childhood prevention efforts may also be effective. Based on the argument that the selected research definition of adult health status may have implications for the early adversity-adult health linkage, we use a representative community sample of black and white adults (N = 1252) to evaluate this relationship across three health indices: doctor diagnosed illnesses, self-rated health, and allostatic load. Results generally indicate that observed relationships between childhood adversity and dimensions of adult health status were totally or almost totally accounted for by variations in adult socioeconomic position (SEP) and adult stress exposure. One exception is the childhood SEP-allostatic load association, for which a statistically significant relationship remained in the context of adult stress and SEP. This lone finding supports a conclusion that the impact of childhood adversity is not always redeemable by subsequent experience. However, in general, analyses suggest the likely utility of interventions beyond childhood aimed at reducing exposure to social stress and improving social and economic standing. Whatever the effects on adult health that derive from biological embedding, they appear to be primarily indirect effects through adult social context and exposure. PMID:27030896

  5. Discover Health Services Near You! The North Dakota Story: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Safratowich, Michael; Markland, Mary J.; Rieke, Judith L.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 2003 launch of NC Health Info, the National Library of Medicine has encouraged the development of Go Local databases. A team of Go Local enthusiasts at North Dakota’s only medical school library wanted to obtain NLM funding and build a resource for their rural state. Although short on staff, money, and time, the team found a way to realize a Go Local database that serves the state’s residents and helps them “Discover Health Services Near You!” A team approach and collaboration with health providers and organizations worked well in this small rural state. North Dakota’s Go Local project offers a low-cost model that stresses collaboration, teamwork and technology. Part I which appeared in the last issue describes the rural setting, explains how the project was conceived, and the processes necessary to begin building the database. Part II which appears in this issue details how records were created including developing the input style guide and indexing decisions, the NLM testing and review process, the maintenance and auditing process, and publicity and promotion of the project. PMID:20436944

  6. Discover Health Services Near You! The North Dakota Story: Part II.

    PubMed

    Safratowich, Michael; Markland, Mary J; Rieke, Judith L

    2009-07-01

    Since the 2003 launch of NC Health Info, the National Library of Medicine has encouraged the development of Go Local databases. A team of Go Local enthusiasts at North Dakota's only medical school library wanted to obtain NLM funding and build a resource for their rural state. Although short on staff, money, and time, the team found a way to realize a Go Local database that serves the state's residents and helps them "Discover Health Services Near You!" A team approach and collaboration with health providers and organizations worked well in this small rural state. North Dakota's Go Local project offers a low-cost model that stresses collaboration, teamwork and technology. Part I which appeared in the last issue describes the rural setting, explains how the project was conceived, and the processes necessary to begin building the database. Part II which appears in this issue details how records were created including developing the input style guide and indexing decisions, the NLM testing and review process, the maintenance and auditing process, and publicity and promotion of the project. PMID:20436944

  7. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Matthew

    2015-08-20

    By combining the top performing commercial laser beam stabilization system with the most ideal optical imaging configuration, the beamline for the Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) will deliver the highest quality and most stable beam to the cathode. To determine the optimal combination, LCLS-II beamline conditions were replicated and the systems tested with a He-Ne laser. The Guidestar-II and MRC active laser beam stabilization systems were evaluated for their ideal positioning and stability. Both a two and four lens optical imaging configuration was then evaluated for beam imaging quality, magnification properties, and natural stability. In their best performances when tested over fifteen hours, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable over approximately 70-110um while the MRC system kept it stable over approximately 90-100um. During short periods of time, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable between 10-20um, but was more susceptible to drift over time, while the MRC system maintained the beam between 30-50um with less overall drift. The best optical imaging configuration proved to be a four lens system that images to the iris located in the cathode room and from there, imaged to the cathode. The magnification from the iris to the cathode was 2:1, within an acceptable tolerance to the expected 2.1:1 magnification. The two lens configuration was slightly more stable in small periods of time (less than 10 minutes) without the assistance of a stability system, approximately 55um compared to approximately 70um, but the four lens configurations beam image had a significantly flatter intensity distribution compared to the two lens configuration which had a Gaussian distribution. A final test still needs to be run with both stability systems running at the same time through the four lens system. With this data, the optimal laser beam stabilization system can be determined for the beamline of LCLS-II.

  8. New English and Spanish Social Health Measures Will Facilitate Evaluating Health Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Elizabeth A.; DeWalt, Darren A.; Bode, Rita K.; Garcia, Sofia F.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Correia, Helena; Cella, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop psychometrically sound, culturally relevant and linguistically equivalent English and Spanish self-report measures of social health guided by a comprehensive conceptual model and applicable across chronic illnesses. Methods The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Social Health Workgroup implemented a mixed methods approach to evaluate earlier results (v1.0); expand and refine domain definitions and items; translate items into Spanish; and obtain qualitative feedback. Computer-based and paper/pencil questionnaire administration was conducted with a variety of U.S. respondent samples during 2009–2012. Analyses included exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), two-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) modeling, evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF), and evaluation of criterion and construct validity. Results Qualitative feedback supported the conceptualization of the Social Health domain framework (Social Function and Social Relationships sub-components). Validation testing participants (n=2,208 English; n=644 Spanish) were diverse in terms of gender, age, education and ethnicity/race. EFA, CFA and IRT identified seven unidimensional factors with good model fit. There was no DIF by language, and good evidence of criterion and construct validity. Conclusions PROMIS English and Spanish language instruments (v2.0), including computer-adaptive tests and fixed-length short forms, are publicly available for assessment of Social Function (Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities, and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities) and Social Relationships (Companionship; Emotional, Informational and Instrumental Support; and Social Isolation). Measures of social health will play a key role in applications that use ecologic (or determinants of health) models that emphasize how patients’ social environments influence their health. PMID:24447188

  9. The School Health Portfolio System: a new tool for planning and evaluating coordinated school health programs.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Robert M; Pigg, R Morgan

    2004-11-01

    The School Health Portfolio System (SHPS), developed originally to evaluate the Florida Coordinated School Health Program Pilot Schools Project, offers a new and innovative system for planning and evaluating a coordinated school health program at the individual school level. The SHPS provides practitioners a detailed but easy-to-use system that enables schools to create new programs or modify existing programs across all eight components of the CSHP model, as well as administrative support critical to sustainability. The System comes packaged as a self-contained, notebook-style manual divided into 15 sections. It includes electronic templates of key documents to guide school teams in creating a customized portfolio, and a list of sample goals and artifacts that confirm achievement of a goal related to the school's coordinated school health program. An evaluation rubric provides a structured method to assess a program portfolio's contents, and the extent to which the contents document achievement of program goals. The rubric produces both a qualitative assessment, such as a narrative summary of program strengths and areas for improvement, and a quantitative assessment, such as a numerical score (0-100), letter grade (A-F), or 5-star system (*-*****). The physical structure, function, and scoring of the rubric depend on the method of assessment. The SHPS enables schools to set goals based on individual school needs, and incorporate CSHP goals into school improvement plans--a critical factor in sustainability and accountability. The System also offers teams the option of coordinating their efforts with CDC's School Health Index as a companion assessment measure. This article outlines the process a team would follow in developing a portfolio, and includes a sample assessment for the area of School Health Education. PMID:15656262

  10. Participatory Design, User Involvement and Health IT Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kushniruk, Andre; Nøhr, Christian

    2016-01-01

    End user involvement and input into the design and evaluation of information systems has been recognized as being a critical success factor in the adoption of information systems. Nowhere is this need more critical than in the design of health information systems. Consistent with evidence from the general software engineering literature, the degree of user input into design of complex systems has been identified as one of the most important factors in the success or failure of complex information systems. The participatory approach goes beyond user-centered design and co-operative design approaches to include end users as more active participants in design ideas and decision making. Proponents of participatory approaches argue for greater end user participation in both design and evaluative processes. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of increased user involvement in design is explored in this contribution in the context of health IT. The contribution will discuss several approaches to including users in design and evaluation. Challenges in IT evaluation during participatory design will be described and explored along with several case studies. PMID:27198099

  11. [Ethic evaluation of sexual health programs on adolescence].

    PubMed

    Jara Rascón, José; Alonso Sandoica, Esmeralda

    2011-01-01

    In public health services, the interest in sexuality seems to turning from traditional topics such as potential treatments for male erectile dysfunction, psychosomatic disorders, the control of premature ejaculation and contraception. Instead, an increasingly prominent role is being given to prevention strategies carried out by means of campaigns or through sexual health programme sin schools. The different teaching strategies that underlie these programmes, which in many cases lack social consensus but are often promoted by international organizations such as WHO or UNESCO, reveal not only divergent ethical conceptions and worldviews on the meaning of sexuality, but also conflicting starting points, means and goals, focusing either on barrier-contraceptive methods or on sexual abstinence and personal responsibility. There is therefore a pressing need to understand the scientific evidence underlying each educational approach and the ethical postulates of each pedagogical proposal. This paper presents an outline of a six-point adolescent sexuality education program, which is respectful of individuals' ethical convictions. Given that few works on preventive medicine issues include an ethical evaluation of the steps followed in their development, this article also proposes a systematic evaluation of strategies for sexual health in the community that is developed through four steps verifying the following aspects: 1) the accuracy of information, 2) the level of evidence, 3) efficiency and 4) non-maleficence about the target population of each health program. The methodology used in these sexual health programs is another aspect that will verify their ethical consistence or, conversely, their absence of ethical values. We emphasize the duty of designers of programme for children not to carry then out against the will of their parents or tutors, and not conceal sensitive and relevant information. PMID:21692555

  12. The roundtrip to Fairbanks: the circumpolar health movement comes full circle, part II

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Neil J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate the course of the International Union for Circumpolar Health (IUCH) and the Proceedings of the International Congress(s) on Circumpolar Health (ICCH) in the context of the concomitant historical events. Make recommendations for future circumpolar health research. Study design Medline search and historical archive search of ICCH Proceedings. Methods Search of all PubMed resources from 1966 concerning the circumpolar health movement. Two University of Alaska, Anchorage Archive Collections were searched: the C. E. Albrecht and Frank Pauls Archive Collections. Results Fourteen sets of Proceedings manuscripts and one set of Proceedings Abstracts were evaluated. There was a trend towards consistent use of the existing journals with indexing in Index Medicus; shorter intervals between the Congress and Proceedings manuscript publication; and increased online availability of either the Table of Contents or Proceedings citations. Recent additions include online publication of full-length manuscripts and 2 instances of full peer-review evaluations of the Proceedings manuscripts. These trends in Proceedings publication are described within the course of significant events in the circumpolar health movement. During this period, the IUCH funds are at an all-time low and show little promise of increasing, unless significant alternative funds strategies are pursued. Conclusions The IUCH has matured politically over these years, but some of the same questions persist over the years. There has been a trend towards more rapid dissemination of scientific content, more analytic documentation of epidemiologic study design and trend towards wider dissemination of scientific content through the Internet. Significant progress in each of those areas is still possible and desirable. In the meantime, the IUCH should encourage alternative funding strategies by developing a foundation to support on-going expenses, for example Hildes awards; explore venues to finance Council

  13. Thinking Inside the Box: The Health Cube Paradigm for Health and Wellness Program Evaluation and Design

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Appropriately constructed health promotions can improve population health. The authors developed a practical model for designing, evaluating, and improving initiatives to provide optimal value. Three independent model dimensions (impact, engagement, and sustainability) and the resultant three-dimensional paradigm were described using hypothetical case studies, including a walking challenge, a health risk assessment survey, and an individual condition management program. The 3-dimensional model is illustrated and the dimensions are defined. Calculation of a 3-dimensional score for program comparisons, refinements, and measurement is explained. Program 1, the walking challenge, had high engagement and impact, but limited sustainability. Program 2, the health risk assessment survey, had high engagement and sustainability but limited impact. Program 3, the on-site condition management program, had measurable impact and sustainability but limited engagement, because of a lack of program capacity. Each initiative, though successful in 2 dimensions, lacked sufficient evolution along the third axis for optimal value. Calculation of a 3-dimensional score is useful for health promotion program development comparison and refinements, and overall measurement of program success. (Population Health Management 2013;16:291–295) PMID:23869538

  14. Phase II -- Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA): Safety and health action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, K.

    1994-09-01

    To establish guidelines for the implementation and administration of an injury and illness prevention program for PVUSA and to assign specific responsibilities for the execution of the program. To provide a basic Safety and Health Action Plan (hereinafter referred to as Plan) that assists management, supervision, and project personnel in the recognition, evaluation, and control of hazardous activities and/or conditions within their respective areas of responsibility.

  15. Health as Submission and Social Responsibilities: Embodied Experiences of Javanese Women With Type II Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pitaloka, Dyah; Hsieh, Elaine

    2015-08-01

    By examining women's experiences with type II diabetes, we explore how illness can provide resources to construct meanings of everyday life in Javanese culture. We conducted in-depth interviews with 30 female participants in Central Java, Indonesia, and adopted grounded theory for data analysis. We identified four themes that diabetes serves as resources for women in Indonesia to (a) normalize suffering, (b) resist social control, (c) accept fate, and (d) validate faith. We concluded by noting three unique aspects of Javanese women's illness management. First, through the performance of submission, our participants demonstrated spirituality and religiosity as essential elements of health. Second, diabetes empowers individuals in everyday suffering through two divergent processes: embracing submission and resisting control. Finally, diabetes provides opportunities for individuals within a social network to (re)negotiate social responsibilities. In summary, diabetes provides unique resources to empower our participants to obtain voices that they otherwise would not have had. PMID:25810467

  16. Evaluation of SAGE II and Balloon-Borne Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Under funding from this proposal we evaluated measurements of stratospheric sulfate aerosols from three platforms. Two were satellite platforms providing solar extinction measurements, the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II using wavelengths from 0.386 - 1.02 microns, and the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) using wavelengths from 2.45 to 5.26 microns. The third set of measurements was from in situ sampling by balloonborne optical particle counters (OPCs). The goal was to determine the consistency among these data sets. This was accomplished through analysis of the existing measurement records, and through additional balloonborne OPC flights coinciding with new SAGE II observations over Laramie, Wyoming. All analyses used the SAGE II v 6.0 data. This project supported two balloon flights per year over Laramie dedicated to SAGE II coincidence. Because logistical factors, such as poor surface weather or unfavorable payload impact location, can make it difficult to routinely obtain close coincidences with SAGE II, we attempt to conduct nearly every Laramie flight (roughly one per month) in conjunction with a SAGE II overpass. The Laramie flight frequency has varied over the years depending on field commitments and funding sources. Current support for the Laramie measurements is from the National Science Foundation in addition to support from this NASA grant. We have also completed a variety of comparisons using aerosol measurements from SAGE II, OPCs, and HALOE. The instruments were compared for their various estimates of aerosol extinction at the SAGE II wavelengths and for aerosol surface area. Additional results, such as illustrated here, can be found in a recently accepted manuscript describing comparisons between SAGE II, HALOE, and OPCs for the period 1982 - 2000. While overall, the impression from these results is encouraging, the agreement of the measurements changes with latitude, altitude, time, and parameter. In the broadest sense

  17. A Primer on Health Economic Evaluations in Thoracic Oncology.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Melanie D; Atherly, Adam J; Bocsi, Gregary T; Camidge, D Ross

    2016-08-01

    There is growing interest for economic evaluation in oncology to illustrate the value of multiple new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. As these analyses have started to move from specialist publications into mainstream medical literature, the wider medical audience consuming this information may need additional education to evaluate it appropriately. Here we review standard practices in economic evaluation, illustrating the different methods with thoracic oncology examples where possible. When interpreting and conducting health economic studies, it is important to appraise the method, perspective, time horizon, modeling technique, discount rate, and sensitivity analysis. Guidance on how to do this is provided. To provide a method to evaluate this literature, a literature search was conducted in spring 2015 to identify economic evaluations published in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology. Articles were reviewed for their study design, and areas for improvement were noted. Suggested improvements include using more rigorous sensitivity analyses, adopting a standard approach to reporting results, and conducting complete economic evaluations. Researchers should design high-quality studies to ensure the validity of the results, and consumers of this research should interpret these studies critically on the basis of a full understanding of the methodologies used before considering any of the conclusions. As advancements occur on both the research and consumer sides, this literature can be further developed to promote the best use of resources for this field. PMID:27079184

  18. [Evaluation of cost effectiveness in primary health care].

    PubMed

    Busse, R; Graf von der Schulenburg, J M; Drummond, M

    1997-08-01

    Evaluation of Cost-Effectiveness in Health Care considers the background, methodology and potential political influence of economic evaluation (EE) in health care, the following conclusions can be drawn: EE is not just about cost cutting--it considers both costs and outcomes. EE needs to be integrated with decision-making procedures at different levels, namely the macro (policy) level, the meso (management) level, and the micro (clinical) level. EE needs to be seen as a part of a broader effort in health technology assessment and in relation to parallel efforts, e.g. guidelines development, quality assurance, evidence-based medicine. EE needs to be methodologically sound, but is not always possible to undertake the perfect study due to constraints of resources, time, information availability. Ways of setting priorities for EE need to be developed; this means selecting relevant topics and researchable questions. EE needs to be locally relevant; this means taking into account the variations of setting--within and between countries--and differences between trials (efficacy) and regular practice (community effectiveness). Factors that either encourage or inhibit the adoption of study results, i.e. adequate dissemination, professional support, financial incentives or political will, have to be considered. PMID:9377699

  19. Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Young-Sang; Byun, Dong Won; Jang, Seyeon; Jeon, Dong-Su

    2013-01-01

    Background The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) is a 42-item questionnaire designed to assess susceptibility, seriousness, calcium benefits, calcium barriers, exercise benefits, exercise barriers, and health motivation related to osteoporosis. We aimed to evaluate its psychometric properties to enable the provision of educational tips regarding osteoporosis. Methods All women who had visited the department of obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) and whose bone mineral density was measured from January 2010 to December 2011 were enrolled by interview using the OHBS. We also evaluated the women's general clinical characteristics. Results One hundred seventy-seven women were enrolled in the present study. In the present study, the barriers to calcium intake subscale had the lowest mean score (15.03±3.02), and the Benefit of Exercise subscale had the highest (23.02±3.03). The scores for participants in their 20s were significantly higher than scores for those in their 70s on the Benefits of Exercise subscale and Barriers to Exercise subscale (P=0.014 and P=0.022, respectively). Conclusions Education for health motivation to prevent osteoporosis is important for young women. Additional systematic education programs are needed for the general population. PMID:24524052

  20. Design and evaluation of the ONC health information technology curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vishnu; Abbott, Patricia; Acteson, Shelby; Berner, Eta S; Devlin, Corkey; Hammond, William E; Kukafka, Rita; Hersh, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective As part of the Heath Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act, the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) implemented its Workforce Development Program, which included initiatives to train health information technology (HIT) professionals in 12 workforce roles, half of them in community colleges. To achieve this, the ONC tasked five universities with established informatics programs with creating curricular materials that could be used by community colleges. The five universities created 20 components that were made available for downloading from the National Training and Dissemination Center (NTDC) website. This paper describes an evaluation of the curricular materials by its intended audience of educators. Methods We measured the quantity of downloads from the NTDC site and administered a survey about the curricular materials to its registered users to determine use patterns and user characteristics. The survey was evaluated using mixed methods. Registered users downloaded nearly half a million units or components from the NTDC website. We surveyed these 9835 registered users. Results 1269 individuals completed all or part of the survey, of whom 339 identified themselves as educators (26.7% of all respondents). This paper addresses the survey responses of educators. Discussion Successful aspects of the curriculum included its breadth, convenience, hands-on and course planning capabilities. Several areas were identified for potential improvement. Conclusions The ONC HIT curriculum met its goals for community college programs and will likely continue to be a valuable resource for the larger informatics community in the future. PMID:23831832

  1. The new production theory for health care through clinical reengineering: a study of clinical guidelines--Part II.

    PubMed

    Sharp, J R

    1995-01-01

    In Part I of this two-part article, in the December 1994 issue of the journal, the author discussed the manufacturing theories of Peter Drucker in terms of their applicability for the health care field. He concluded that Drucker's four principles and practices of manufacturing--statistical quality control, manufacturing accounting, modular organization, and systems approach--do have application to the health care system. Clinical guidelines, a variation on the Drucker theory, are a specific example of the manufacturing process in health. The performance to date of some guidelines and their implications for the health care reform debate are discussed in Part II of the article. PMID:10139603

  2. Evaluating family partnership training in health visitor practice.

    PubMed

    Bidmead, Christine; Cowley, Sarah

    2005-07-01

    The second paper in this series of two on partnership examines the effects of family partnership (parent adviser) training which builds on health visitors' skills to facilitate partnership working with parents. This study was utilised as a pilot to identify a suitable method, to explore the interaction processes of health visitors who had undergone the training. The study draws together both quantitative and qualitative methods to seek to understand processes in depth. Three health visitors, who were part of a training group of 12, took part in the qualitative research using stimulated recall methodology. The quantitative data was collected from the whole training group using the Constructions of Helping questionnaire and the course evaluation form. The findings suggest that the family partnership training may be effective in enhancing partnership working in health visiting and that the stimulated recall methodology is an effective method of identifying the processes of interaction. The triangulation of methods led to an understanding that change in practice is dependent on the insight of the practitioner and that this may be able to be measured to some extent by the use of different methods. PMID:16095252

  3. Practice-centred evaluation and the privileging of care in health information technology evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic Patient Records (EPRs) and telemedicine are positioned by policymakers as health information technologies that are integral to achieving improved clinical outcomes and efficiency savings. However, evaluating the extent to which these aims are met poses distinct evaluation challenges, particularly where clinical and cost outcomes form the sole focus of evaluation design. We propose that a practice-centred approach to evaluation - in which those whose day-to-day care practice is altered (or not) by the introduction of new technologies are placed at the centre of evaluation efforts – can complement and in some instances offer advantages over, outcome-centric evaluation models. Methods We carried out a regional programme of innovation in renal services where a participative approach was taken to the introduction of new technologies, including: a regional EPR system and a system to support video clinics. An ‘action learning’ approach was taken to procurement, pre-implementation planning, implementation, ongoing development and evaluation. Participants included clinicians, technology specialists, patients and external academic researchers. Whilst undergoing these activities we asked: how can a practice-centred approach be embedded into evaluation of health information technologies? Discussion Organising EPR and telemedicine evaluation around predetermined outcome measures alone can be impractical given the complex and contingent nature of such projects. It also limits the extent to which unforeseen outcomes and new capabilities are recognised. Such evaluations often fail to improve understanding of ‘when’ and ‘under what conditions’ technology-enabled service improvements are realised, and crucially, how such innovation improves care. Summary Our contribution, drawn from our experience of the case study provided, is a protocol for practice-centred, participative evaluation of technology in the clinical setting that privileges care. In

  4. ATSDR evaluation of health effects of benzene and relevance to public health.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, S; Wohlers, D; Paikoff, S; Keith, L S; Faroon, O

    2008-01-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of portions of the Toxicological Profile for Benzene. The primary purpose of this article is to provide public health officials, physicians, toxicologists, and other interested individuals and groups with an overall perspective on the toxicology of benzene. It contains descriptions and evaluations of toxicological studies and epidemiological investigations and provides conclusions, where possible, on the relevance of toxicity and toxicokinetic data to public health. PMID:19022880

  5. ATSDR evaluation of the health effects of zinc and relevance to public health.

    PubMed

    Roney, Nickolette; Osier, Mark; Paikoff, Sari J; Smith, Cassandra V; Williams, Malcolm; De Rosa, Christopher T

    2006-11-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites, which have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarise toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of portions of the Toxicological Profile for Zinc. The primary purpose of this article is to provide public health officials, physicians, toxicologists, and other interested individuals and groups with an overall perspective on the toxicology of zinc. It contains descriptions and evaluations of toxicological studies and epidemiological investigations, and provides conclusions, where possible, on the relevance of toxicity and toxicokinetic data to public health. PMID:17533814

  6. ATSDR evaluation of health effects of tungsten and relevance to public health.

    PubMed

    Keith, L Samuel; Moffett, Daphne B; Rosemond, Zemoria A; Wohlers, David W

    2007-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry prepares toxicological profiles, as part of its mandate, on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act National Priorities List sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of portions of the Toxicological Profile for tungsten. The primary purpose of this article is to provide public health officials, physicians, toxicologists and other interested individuals and groups with an overall perspective on the toxicology of tungsten. It contains descriptions and evaluations of toxicological studies and epidemiological investigations and provides conclusions, where possible, on the relevance of toxicity and toxicokinetic data to public health. PMID:18386525

  7. Evaluating the educational potential of health PSAs with preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Linebarger, Deborah L; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor

    2008-11-01

    Children learn from a variety of televised programs, including the short public service announcements (PSAs) that air between children's programs. PSAs are designed to repetitively expose children to important content ranging from the benefits of reading to health-related messages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 5 PSAs containing health messages for preschoolers (i.e., nutrition, physical activity, and hand washing). Using an experimental framework, we examined children's ability to learn the messages and transfer that knowledge and apply it in novel situations. Child PSA viewers were able to recall more of the educational content, apply this knowledge to specific choices contained in each message, and transfer this knowledge to novel situations compared with their nonviewing counterparts. Implications are discussed. PMID:19089699

  8. The NASA-USPHS Health Evaluation and Enhancement Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durbeck, D. C.; Heinzelmann, F.; Moxley, R. T., III; Schacther, J.; Payne, G. H.; Limoncelli, D. D.; Fox, S. M., III; Arnoldi, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    An exercise program was initiated to assess the feasibility of an on the job health evaluation and enhancement program, as well as to identify the factors which influenced volunteering, adherence, and effectiveness of the program. The program was utilized by 237 of the 998 eligible Federal employees, with a mean attendance of 1.3 days per week. Those who volunteered perceived a need for increased physical activity, felt they had sufficient time to participate, and derived subjective as well as objective benefits. Significant improvements were found in heart rate response to the standard exercise test, body weight, skinfold measurements, and triglycerides. A consistent relationship was found between subjectively reported effects of the program on work, health habits, and behavior, and improvement in cardiovascular function, based on treadmill performance. Numerous personal and programmatic factors influencing volunteering and participation were identified.

  9. Evaluating partnerships for community health improvement: tracking the footprints.

    PubMed

    Shortell, Stephen M; Zukoski, Ann P; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Bazzoli, Gloria J; Conrad, Douglas A; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana; Sofaer, Shoshanna; Chan, Benjamin Y; Casey, Elizabeth; Margolin, Frances S

    2002-02-01

    Private-public partnerships are increasingly seen as an important mechanism for improving community health. Despite their popularity, traditional evaluations of these efforts have produced negative or mixed results. This is often attributed to weak interventions or an insufficient period of time to observe an impact. This study examines two additional possibilities--the need for a well-articulated shared vision and the governance and management capabilities of the partnership itself. We conducted a midstream process evaluation of twenty-five community partnerships associated with the Community Care Network (CCN) Demonstration Program. We examined how the roles of a common shared vision, strong governance, and effective management influence a partnership's ability to achieve its objectives. The findings, based on both qualitative and quantitative analyses, underscore the importance of membership organizations' perceived benefits and costs of participation and management capabilities to the partnership's progress toward a vision. Based on the qualitative data, six key governance and management characteristics are identified that separate the top performing partnerships from the lowest performing ones. We explore the implications of this research for future evaluations of public-private community health partnerships. PMID:11942419

  10. Introducing a complex health innovation--primary health care reforms in Estonia (multimethods evaluation).

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance

  11. Evaluating landscape health: Integrating societal goals and biophysical process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapport, D.J.; Gaudet, C.; Karr, J.R.; Baron, J. S.; Bohlen, C.; Jackson, W.; Jones, B.; Naiman, R.J.; Norton, B.; Pollock, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluating landscape change requires the integration of the social and natural sciences. The social sciences contribute to articulating societal values that govern landscape change, while the natural sciences contribute to understanding the biophysical processes that are influenced by human activity and result in ecological change. Building upon Aldo Leopold's criteria for landscape health, the roles of societal values and biophysical processes in shaping the landscape are explored. A framework is developed for indicators of landscape health and integrity. Indicators of integrity are useful in measuring biological condition relative to the condition in landscapes largely unaffected by human activity, while indicators of health are useful in evaluating changes in highly modified landscapes. Integrating societal goals and biophysical processes requires identification of ecological services to be sustained within a given landscape. It also requires the proper choice of temporal and spatial scales. Societal values are based upon inter-generational concerns at regional scales (e.g. soil and ground water quality). Assessing the health and integrity of the environment at the landscape scale over a period of decades best integrates societal values with underlying biophysical processes. These principles are illustrated in two contrasting case studies: (1) the South Platte River study demonstrates the role of complex biophysical processes acting at a distance; and (2) the Kissimmee River study illustrates the critical importance of social, cultural and economic concerns in the design of remedial action plans. In both studies, however, interactions between the social and the biophysical governed the landscape outcomes. The legacy of evolution and the legacy of culture requires integration for the purpose of effectively coping with environmental change.

  12. MedlinePlus: Transcript for Evaluating Internet Health Information: A Tutorial

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/webeval/webeval_transcript.html Transcript for Evaluating Internet Health Information: A Tutorial To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Evaluating Internet Health Information: A Tutorial from the National Library ...

  13. [Evaluation in the health sector: concepts and methods].

    PubMed

    Contandriopoulos, A P; Champagne, F; Denis, J L; Avargues, M C

    2000-12-01

    The practice of evaluation has existed in one form or another for as long as one can remember and is central to all processes of learning. Today, evaluation is a popular concept grouping together multiple and diverse realities. This article aims to propose a conceptual framework for evaluation that is broad and universal enough to allow all those concerned with evaluation of health services (regardless of their disciplines and interests) to better understand each other, to perform better evaluations, and to use them in a more pertinent manner. We will begin by defining evaluation as the process which consists of making a judgement on the value of an intervention by implementing a system which can provide scientifically valid and socially legitimate information on regarding this particular intervention (or any of its components) to the different stakeholders concerned, such that they can form an opinion from their perspective on the intervention and reach a judgement which can translate into action. We define "intervention" as any organized system of action (a structure, actors and their practices, processes of action, one or many finalities and an environment) aiming to, in a given environment, during a given time period, modify the foreseeable course of a phenomenon to correct a problematic situation. An intervention can be a technique, a medication, a treatment, an organisation, a program, a policy or even a complex system like the health care system. Various interventions, regardless of their nature, can be the object of two types of evaluation. Normative evaluation is based on appreciation of each component of the intervention according to criteria and standards. This type of evaluation is defined as an activity which consists of making a judgement regarding an intervention by comparing the resources utilized and their organisation (structure); services and goods produced (process) and results obtained to criteria and standards (in other words, summaries of

  14. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of marginal fit of class II ceromer inlays.

    PubMed

    Gemalmaz, D; Kükrer, D

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of class II ceromer (Targis, Vivadent) indirect inlay restorations under both in vivo and in vitro conditions. Twenty Targis inlays were produced for class II inlay cavities (13 mandibular and seven maxillary teeth) in 20 patients. The in vivo adaptation of the inlay to the tooth cavity was evaluated by means of silicone replica technique. For in vitro evaluation, 20 mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) Targis inlays were made in extracted upper molars. Half of the inlays were cemented with Variolink high-viscosity resin cement while the other half was cemented with Variolink Ultra. The replica specimens and in vitro samples were sectioned buccolingually and mesiodistally, and marginal adaptation was evaluated at both proximal and occlusal margins at 200x magnification under a light microscope. The data was analyzed with anova (P < 0.05). The in vivo mean film thickness values for occlusal and proximal locations were recorded as 73 and 132 microm respectively. In vitro mean marginal fit values were observed as 48 and 67 microm for occlusal and proximal margins of inlays luted with Variolink II high viscosity. The marginal fit values recorded under in vivo conditions were higher in magnitude than the measurements obtained under in vitro conditions. The use of a highly filled resin luting agent with an ultrasonic insertion technique did not cause an increase in marginal gap width of the inlay. PMID:16671990

  15. Synthesis, characterization, thermal study and biological evaluation of Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes of Schiff base ligand containing thiazole moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagesh, G. Y.; Mahendra Raj, K.; Mruthyunjayaswamy, B. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The novel Schiff base ligand 2-(4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene)-N-(4-phenylthiazol-2-yl)hydrazinecarboxamide (L) obtained by the condensation of N-(4-phenylthiazol-2-yl)hydrazinecarboxamide with 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and its newly synthesized Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes have been characterized by microanalysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, thermal analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, ESI mass, UV-Visible, ESR spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction data. The newly synthesized ligand behaves as a bidentate ON donor. The IR results confirmed the bidentate binding of the ligand involving oxygen atom of amide carbonyl and azomethine nitrogen. 1H NMR spectral data of the ligand (L) and its Zn(II) complex agreed well with the proposed structures. In order to evaluate the effect of antimicrobial activity of metal ions upon chelation, the newly synthesized ligand and its metal complexes were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The DNA cleavage activities were studied using plasmid DNA pBR322 as a target molecule by agarose gel electrophoresis method. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to study the in vitro cytotoxicity properties of all the compounds against Artemia salina. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the ligand (L) and its metal complexes were determined in vitro by reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), the ligand exhibited potent in vitro - antioxidant activity than its metal complexes.

  16. Evaluation of Coronal Shock Wave Velocities from the II Type Radio Bursts Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanin, V. V.; Isaeva, E. A.; Kravetz, R. O.

    The work presents the results of research of connection between the coronal shock waves and the parameters of type II (mII) meter-decameter bursts in 25-180 MHz band for 66 solar proton events. The velocities of coronal shock waves for this two cases where determined. In the first case the velocities of the shock waves was evaluated according to the Newkirck model and in the second case - directly from the type II radio burst parameters. The calculated values of shock waves velocity was compared with the same velocity values that is published on NGDC site. The comparative analysis showed that precision of coronal shock waves velocity estimation which gets directly from type II radio bursts parameters was higher than the same one which used the Newkirck model. Research showed that there is exist the sufficiently strong connection between the shock wave velocity and the delay of type II burst intensity maximum on the second harmonica. Correlation coefficient between the studied parameters was equal to ≍ 0.65.

  17. Design, Synthesis of Novel Platinum(II) Glycoconjugates, and Evaluation of Their Antitumor Effects.

    PubMed

    Han, Jianbin; Gao, Xiangqian; Liu, Ran; Yang, Jinna; Zhang, Menghua; Mi, Yi; Shi, Ying; Gao, Qingzhi

    2016-06-01

    A new series of sugar-conjugated (trans-R, R-cyclohexane-1, 2-diamine)-2-halo-malonato-platinum(II) complexes were designed and synthesized to target tumor-specific glucose transporters (GLUTs). The water solubility of the sugar-conjugated platinum (II) complexes was greatly improved by average of 570-fold, 33-fold, and 94-fold, respectively, compared to cisplatin (1.0 mg/mL), carboplatin (17.1 mg/mL), and the newest generation of clinical drug oxaliplatin (6.0 mg/mL). Despite the high water solubility, the platinum(II) glycoconjugates exhibited a notable increase in cytotoxicity by a margin of 1.5- to 6.0-fold in six different human cancer cell lines with respect to oxaliplatin. The potential GLUT1 transportability of the complexes was investigated through a molecular docking study and was confirmed with GLUT1 inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity dependency evaluation. The results showed that the sugar-conjugated platinum(II) complexes can be recognized by the glucose recognition binding site of GLUT1 and their cell killing effect depends highly on the GLUT1 inhibitor, quercetin. The research presenting a prospective concept for targeted therapy anticancer drug design, and with the analysis of the synthesis, water solubility, antitumor activity, and the transportability of the platinum(II) glycoconjugates, this study provides fundamental data supporting the inherent potential of these designed conjugates as lead compounds for GLUT-mediated tumor targeting. PMID:26706102

  18. Evaluation of a biomarker of Cd(II) exposure on Limnoperna fortunei.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Belaich; Cristian, Oliver; Marcela, Pilloff; Porta, Andrés

    2006-11-01

    The use of organisms to monitor contamination allows the access to information that cannot be acquired by chemical methods. Limnoperna fortunei, mussel frequently found in Río de la Plata estuary, fulfils the requirements to be used as a biomonitoring organism. In this work we report that a polypeptide of 22 kDa of molecular weight (LF22) is induced when L. fortunei is exposed to Cd (II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) sublethal levels. To characterize LF22, mussels were sampled from a non-polluted region and whole soft tissue was homogenized, with and without previous exposure to 100 microg/L of Cd(II). The cytosolic proteins were evaluated by mono and bidimensional SDS-PAGE, and size exclusion chromatography. All the methods showed that LF22 triples its concentration in presence of Cd(II). Purification of LF22 was achieved by fractioned precipitation, salting-out, ionic exchange and size exclusion chromatography. We conclude that LF22 is a useful biomarker of heavy metal exposure. PMID:16603290

  19. Evaluation of Pharyngeal Space in Different Combinations of Class II Skeletal Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Jay; Shyagali, Tarulatha R.; Bhayya, Deepak P.; Shah, Romil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study was aimed to evaluate the pharyngeal airway linear measurements of untreated skeletal class II subjects with normal facial vertical pattern in prognathic maxilla with orthognathic mandible and orthognathic maxilla with retrognathic mandible. Materials and method: the sample comprised of lateral Cephalograms of two groups (30 each) of class II malocclusion variants. Group 1 comprised of class II malocclusion with prognathic maxilla and orthognathic mandible, whereas group 2 comprised of class II malocclusion with orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible. Each group was traced for the linear measurements of the pharyngeal airway like the oropharynx, nasopharynx and soft palate. The obtained data was subjected to independent t test and the Mann Whitney test to check the difference between the two groups and within the groups respectively. Results: there was significant difference between all the linear measurements at the soft palate region and the distance between the tip of soft palate to its counter point on the pharyngeal wall in oropharynx region (p-ppm). Conclusion: the pharyngeal airway for class II malocclusion with various combination in an average growth pattern adult showed significant difference. The present results suggested, that the pharyngeal airway space might be the etiological factor for different sagittal growth pattern of the jaws and probable usage of different growth modification appliance can influence the pharyngeal airway. PMID:26635436

  20. 29 CFR 1960.79 - Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs. 1960.79 Section 1960.79 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Evaluation of Federal Occupational Safety and Health...

  1. 29 CFR 1960.79 - Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs. 1960.79 Section 1960.79 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Evaluation of Federal Occupational Safety and Health...

  2. Pilot Evaluation of a Web-Based Intervention Targeting Sexual Health Service Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, K. E.; Newby, K.; Caley, M.; Danahay, A.; Kehal, I.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual health service access is fundamental to good sexual health, yet interventions designed to address this have rarely been implemented or evaluated. In this article, pilot evaluation findings for a targeted public health behavior change intervention, delivered via a website and web-app, aiming to increase uptake of sexual health services among…

  3. Navigating to health: Evaluation of a community health center patient navigation program

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Monica L.; Gallivan, Leah; Lemon, Stephenie C.; Borg, Amy; Ramirez, Jose; Figueroa, Brenda; McGuire, Antonia; Rosal, Milagros C.

    2015-01-01

    Patient Navigators are trained, lay health care workers who guide patients in overcoming barriers to health care access and utilization. Little evidence exists regarding reach and impact of Patient Navigators for chronic disease management. This study evaluated a Patient Navigator program aimed at optimizing health care utilization among ethnically diverse patients with diabetes and/or hypertension at a community health center (CHC). Trained Patient Navigators contacted eligible patients who had not seen a primary care provider (PCP) for ≥ 6 months. Outcomes included number of patients reached by Patient Navigators and seen by PCPs after Patient Navigator contact. Distributions and frequencies of outcomes pre- and post-call were compared. A total of 215 patients had ≥ 1 call attempt from Patient Navigators. Of these, 74 were additionally contacted via mailed letters or at the time of a CHC visit. Among the 45 patients reached, 77.8% scheduled an appointment through the Patient Navigator. These patients had higher rates of PCP visits 6 months post-call (90%) than those not reached (42.2%) (p < 0.0001). Findings emphasize the value of direct telephone contact in patient health care re-engagement and may inform the development of future Patient Navigator programs to improve reach and effectiveness. PMID:26844134

  4. Navigating to health: Evaluation of a community health center patient navigation program.

    PubMed

    Wang, Monica L; Gallivan, Leah; Lemon, Stephenie C; Borg, Amy; Ramirez, Jose; Figueroa, Brenda; McGuire, Antonia; Rosal, Milagros C

    2015-01-01

    Patient Navigators are trained, lay health care workers who guide patients in overcoming barriers to health care access and utilization. Little evidence exists regarding reach and impact of Patient Navigators for chronic disease management. This study evaluated a Patient Navigator program aimed at optimizing health care utilization among ethnically diverse patients with diabetes and/or hypertension at a community health center (CHC). Trained Patient Navigators contacted eligible patients who had not seen a primary care provider (PCP) for ≥ 6 months. Outcomes included number of patients reached by Patient Navigators and seen by PCPs after Patient Navigator contact. Distributions and frequencies of outcomes pre- and post-call were compared. A total of 215 patients had ≥ 1 call attempt from Patient Navigators. Of these, 74 were additionally contacted via mailed letters or at the time of a CHC visit. Among the 45 patients reached, 77.8% scheduled an appointment through the Patient Navigator. These patients had higher rates of PCP visits 6 months post-call (90%) than those not reached (42.2%) (p < 0.0001). Findings emphasize the value of direct telephone contact in patient health care re-engagement and may inform the development of future Patient Navigator programs to improve reach and effectiveness. PMID:26844134

  5. Guidelines in cardiac clinical practice: evaluation of their methodological quality using the AGREE II instrument

    PubMed Central

    Sabharwal, Sanjeeve; Patel, Vanash; Nijjer, Sukhjinder S; Kirresh, Ali; Darzi, Ara; Chambers, John C; Malik, Iqbal; Kooner, Jaspal S; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2013-01-01

    Although clinical guidelines have an influential role in healthcare practice, their development process and the evidence they cite has been subject to criticism. This study evaluates the quality of guidelines in cardiac clinical practice by examining how they adhere to validated methodological standards in guideline development. A structured review of cardiac clinical practice guidelines published in seven cardiovascular journals between January 2001 and May 2011 was performed. The AGREE II assessment tool was used by two researchers to evaluate guideline quality. A total of 101 guidelines were identified. Assessment of guidelines using AGREE II found methodological quality to be highly variable (median score, 58.70%; range, 45.34–76.40%). ‘Scope and purpose’ (median score, 86.1%) and ‘clarity of development’ (median score, 83.3 %) were the two domains within AGREE II that received the highest scores. Applicability (median score, 20.80%; range, 4.20–54.20%) and editorial independence (median score, 33.30%; range, 0–62.50%) had the lowest scores. There is considerable variability in the quality of cardiac clinical practice guidelines and this has not improved over the last 10 years. Incorporating validated guideline assessment tools, such as AGREE II, may improve the quality of guidelines. PMID:23759888

  6. Studies in Ambulatory Care Quality Assessment in the Indian Health Service. Volume II: Appraisal of System Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutting, Paul A.; And Others

    Six Indian Health Service (IHS) units, chosen in a non-random manner, were evaluated via a quality assessment methodology currently under development by the IHS Office of Research and Development. A set of seven health problems (tracers) was selected to represent major health problems, and clinical algorithms (process maps) were constructed for…

  7. Evaluation of the public health impacts of traffic congestion: a health risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Traffic congestion is a significant issue in urban areas in the United States and around the world. Previous analyses have estimated the economic costs of congestion, related to fuel and time wasted, but few have quantified the public health impacts or determined how these impacts compare in magnitude to the economic costs. Moreover, the relative magnitudes of economic and public health impacts of congestion would be expected to vary significantly across urban areas, as a function of road infrastructure, population density, and atmospheric conditions influencing pollutant formation, but this variability has not been explored. Methods In this study, we evaluate the public health impacts of ambient exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations associated with a business-as-usual scenario of predicted traffic congestion. We evaluate 83 individual urban areas using traffic demand models to estimate the degree of congestion in each area from 2000 to 2030. We link traffic volume and speed data with the MOBILE6 model to characterize emissions of PM2.5 and particle precursors attributable to congestion, and we use a source-receptor matrix to evaluate the impact of these emissions on ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Marginal concentration changes are related to a concentration-response function for mortality, with a value of statistical life approach used to monetize the impacts. Results We estimate that the monetized value of PM2.5-related mortality attributable to congestion in these 83 cities in 2000 was approximately $31 billion (2007 dollars), as compared with a value of time and fuel wasted of $60 billion. In future years, the economic impacts grow (to over $100 billion in 2030) while the public health impacts decrease to $13 billion in 2020 before increasing to $17 billion in 2030, given increasing population and congestion but lower emissions per vehicle. Across cities and years, the public health impacts range from more than an order of

  8. Optimizing Digital Health Informatics Interventions Through Unobtrusive Quantitative Process Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Gude, Wouter T; van der Veer, Sabine N; de Keizer, Nicolette F; Coiera, Enrico; Peek, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Health informatics interventions such as clinical decision support (CDS) and audit and feedback (A&F) are variably effective at improving care because the underlying mechanisms through which these interventions bring about change are poorly understood. This limits our possibilities to design better interventions. Process evaluations can be used to improve this understanding by assessing fidelity and quality of implementation, clarifying causal mechanisms, and identifying contextual factors associated with variation in outcomes. Coiera describes the intervention process as a series of stages extending from interactions to outcomes: the "information value chain". However, past process evaluations often did not assess the relationships between those stages. In this paper we argue that the chain can be measured quantitatively and unobtrusively in digital interventions thanks to the availability of electronic data that are a by-product of their use. This provides novel possibilities to study the mechanisms of informatics interventions in detail and inform essential design choices to optimize their efficacy. PMID:27577453

  9. Economic evaluation and health care. What does it mean?

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, R

    1993-01-01

    Ever since the concept of value for money in health care was introduced into the NHS, economic terms and jargon have become part of our everyday lives--but do we understand what the different types of economic evaluation all mean, particularly those that sound similar to the uninitiated? This article introduces readers to the purpose of economic evaluation, and briefly explains the differences between cost-minimisation analysis (used when the outcomes of the procedures being compared are the same); cost-effectiveness analysis (used when the outcomes may vary, but can be expressed in common natural units, such as mm Hg for treatments of hypertension); cost-utility analysis (used when outcomes do vary--for example, quality of life scales); and cost-benefit analysis (used when a monetary value is being placed on services received). Further articles will deal with each one in more detail. Images p671-a p673-a PMID:8401057

  10. 21 CFR 7.41 - Health hazard evaluation and recall classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health hazard evaluation and recall classification..., and Industry Responsibilities § 7.41 Health hazard evaluation and recall classification. (a) An evaluation of the health hazard presented by a product being recalled or considered for recall will...

  11. A public health evaluation of recreational water impairment.

    PubMed

    Soller, Jeffrey A; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; DeGeorge, John F; Cooper, Robert C; Tchobanoglous, George; Olivieri, Adam W

    2006-03-01

    Water quality objectives for body contact recreation (REC-1) in Newport Bay, CA are not being attained. To evaluate the health implications of this non-attainment, a comprehensive health-based investigation was designed and implemented. Bacterial indicator data indicate that exceedances of the water quality objectives are temporally sporadic, geographically limited and most commonly occur during the time of the year and/or in areas of the bay where the REC-1 use is low or non-existent. A disease transmission model produced simulated risk estimates for recreation in the Bay that were below levels considered tolerable by the US EPA (median estimate 0.9 illnesses per 1,000 recreation events). Control measures to reduce pathogen loading to Newport Bay are predicted to reduce risk by an additional 16% to 50%. The results of this study indicate that interpreting the public health implications of fecal indicator data in recreational water may require a more rigorous approach than is currently used. PMID:16604834

  12. Evaluation of Dengue-Related Health Information on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Navya R.; Mohapatra, Manaswini; Mishra, Swayamprabha; Joshi, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the quality of dengue-related health information on the Internet. Three raters used the keyword dengue to search the Google, Yahoo!, and Bing search engines during August 2011. The first 20 websites from each search engine were examined for a total of 60 sites. Duplicate, nonfunctional, non-English, and nonoperational websites were excluded from the study, resulting in 36 sites for final analysis. The 16-item DISCERN tool was used to evaluate the quality of dengue-related health information on the Internet. Chi-square analysis and analysis of variance were performed to compare the DISCERN scores. Inter-rater reliability analysis showed significant differences in the level of agreement among the three raters. The 36 unique websites were categorized into .com, .edu, .gov, .org, and other sites. The .com sites had the lowest DISCERN scores. Educating consumers on how to find and recognize valid health information on the Internet may lead to better informed decision making. PMID:22783151

  13. Evaluation of the association of mercury(II) with some dicysteinyl tripeptides

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiuli; Brooks, Jeremy; Bronson, Matthew; Ngu-Schwemlein, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to gain insight into the associations of mercury(II) with dicysteinyl tripeptides in buffered media at pH 7.4. We investigated the effects of increasing the distance between cysteinyl residues on mercury(II) associations and complex formations. The peptide–mercury(II) formation constants and their associated thermodynamic parameters in 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS) buffered solutions were evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Complexes formed in different relative ratios of mercury(II) to cysteinyl peptides in ammonium formate buffered solutions were characterized by LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The results from these studies show that n-alkyl dicysteinyl peptides (CP 1–4), and an aryl dicysteinyl peptide (CP 5) can serve as effective “double anchors” to accommodate the coordination sites of mercury(II) to form predominantly one-to-one Hg(peptide) complexes. The aryl dicysteinyl peptide (CP 5) also forms the two-to-two Hg2(peptide)2 complex. In the presence of excess peptide, Hg(peptide)2 complexes are also detected. Notably, increasing the distance between the ligating groups or “anchor points” in CP 1–5 does not significantly affect their affinity for mercury(II). However, the enthalpy change (ΔH) values (ΔH1 ~ −91 kJ mol−1 and ΔH2 ~ −66 kJ mol−1) for complex formation between CP 4 and 5 with mercury(II) are about one and a half times larger than the related values for CP 1, 2 and 3 (ΔH1 ~ −66 kJ mol−1 and ΔH2 ~ −46 kJ mol−1). The corresponding entropy change (ΔS) values (ΔS1 ~ −129 J K−1 mol−1 and ΔS2 ~ −116 J K−1 mol−1) of the structurally larger dicysteinyl peptides CP 4 and 5 are less entropically favorable than for CP 1, 2 and 3 (ΔS1 ~ −48 J K−1 mol−1 and ΔS2 ~ −44 J K−1 mol−1). Generally, these associations result in a decrease in entropy, indicating that these peptide–mercury complexes potentially form highly ordered structures. The

  14. Evaluation of psychodynamic psychotherapy in a community mental health center.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, William; Roseborough, David; Pahwa, Rohini; Jordan, James

    2009-01-01

    This study describes an evaluation of the effectiveness of psychodynamic psychotherapy provided in an outpatient community mental health clinic. The study used a single group pretest-posttest design involving 78 clients. Clinical outcomes included overall psychosocial functioning and quality of life, level of subjective distress, interpersonal functioning and role functioning, measured by the Outcome Questionnaire (Lambert, Hansen, Umpress, Lunnen Okilshi, & Burlingame, 2000). Clients showed statistically significant improvement from pretest (first sessions) to completion of treatment in overall functioning, and quality of life, level of subjective distress, interpersonal functioning and role functioning. Eighty-five percent of clients made statistically and clinically significant change. Calculation of effect sizes for each outcome found moderate to strong change effects ranging from d = .4 to .9. The study illustrates a method of intervention research that therapists and agencies can use to integrate practical evaluation methods into their clinical services in order to improve mental health service to clients, to demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions, and to provide data to support coverage for needed services for clients. PMID:20001199

  15. Evaluating overall usage of a digital health sciences library.

    PubMed Central

    D'Alessandro, M P; D'Alessandro, D M; Galvin, J R; Erkonen, W E

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Digital health sciences library (DHSL) evaluation involves studying the usage of the DHSL by individuals as well as populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate trends in overall usage of a DHSL as part of a process of continuous quality improvement in order to learn how to enhance a DHSL in order to meet its users' needs better. METHODS: Web server log file analysis was performed on a prototype DHSL, the Virtual Hospital, using two log file analysis programs on data from the month of February over four consecutive years, 1995 to 1998. RESULTS: Overall DHSL usage increased between 1995 and 1997 and leveled off in 1998. Fifteen percent of usage came from countries outside the United States. A broad spectrum of medical information for health care providers and patients was accessed and centered around specialty medical information. CONCLUSIONS: To be of optimal assistance to users, DHSLs should (1) contain a broad base of information on common and uncommon medical problems, (2) accommodate the needs of the significant percentage of users that are international through content translation and mirroring, and (3) ensure they are indexed and catalogued in the major Web search engines and Web general and medical indices so they can be easily found by users. PMID:9803306

  16. Standard cost lists for health economic evaluation in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn

    2014-05-01

    This analysis was undertaken to generate a set of standard costs for medical services and those incurred by patient receiving treatment, for use in health economic evaluations. Medical service unit cost data were derived from a survey of 3,091 hospital medical services in five hospitals, disaggregated by type of hospital (district or provincial/regional) and analyzed using the relative value unit method. Patient-borne ambulatory cost values were derived from data gathered through 905 patient interviews that took place in six health centers, three district hospitals, and three provincial/regional hospitals. The survey gathered data on costs a rising from the distance travelled to access the medical service, the time spent in the healthcare facility, as well as travel and meal costs. The analysis generated a set of standard cost data for Thailand that will make conducting economic evaluations more accurate, faster and more convenient, as well as allowing better comparability between studies. This is the first standard cost menu that has been developed specifically for Thailand, and as such should be revised and refined in the future. Some areas that would benefit from revision are suggested. PMID:24964710

  17. Technical Assistance in Evaluating Career Education Projects. Final Report. Volume II: Final Career Education Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenner, A. Jackson; And Others

    This document contains the second of five volumes reporting the activities and results of a career education evaluation project conducted to accomplish the following two objectives: (1) to improve the quality of evaluations by career education projects funded by the United States Office of Career Education (OCE) through the provision of technical…

  18. Two-year clinical evaluation of IPS Empress II ceramic onlays/inlays.

    PubMed

    Tagtekin, D A; Ozyöney, G; Yanikoglu, F

    2009-01-01

    The stronger the ceramic material, the longer the restoration stays in the mouth. The current study evaluated the two-year clinical performance of a strong ceramic system, IPS Empress II, with increased strength on onlay/inlay restorations of molars. Teeth from 35 patients, including three premolars and 32 molars, were prepared for 28 onlay and seven inlay restorations with IPS Empress II ceramics. The restorations were cemented with a highly viscous, dual-curing luting composite cement (Bifix) and evaluated by two examiners using USPHS criteria at baseline (one week following insertion), six months, one year and two years. The baseline scores and recalls were assessed by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Statistically significant marginal discoloration at the Bravo level was found at the 12- and 24-month recalls (p=0.046). One debonding was statistically insignificant. No changes were observed with respect to anamnesis, such as any symptom from the TMJ or masticatory muscles. No restorations were replaced due to hypersensitivity or were missing at the two-year evaluation. Any wear on the restoration, antagonist tooth or any changes of proximal contacts were not observed. IPS Empress II Ceramics were found to be appropriate as onlay/inlay restorations for clinical use under the conditions of the current study. PMID:19678440

  19. Embedding Mental Health Support in Schools: Learning from the Targeted Mental Health in Schools (TaMHS) National Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolpert, Miranda; Humphrey, Neil; Belsky, Jay; Deighton, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The Targeted Mental Health in Schools (TaMHS) programme was a nationwide initiative that funded mental health provision in schools for pupils at risk of or already experiencing mental health problems. The implementation, impact and experience of this programme was evaluated using quantitative and qualitative methodology involving three main…

  20. Evaluation of a 'virtual' approach to commissioning health research

    PubMed Central

    McCourt, Christine A; Morgan, Philip A; Youll, Penny

    2006-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a 'virtual' (computer-mediated) approach to health research commissioning. This had been introduced experimentally in a DOH programme – the 'Health of Londoners Programme' – in order to assess whether is could enhance the accessibility, transparency and effectiveness of commissioning health research. The study described here was commissioned to evaluate this novel approach, addressing these key questions. Methods A naturalistic-experimental approach was combined with principles of action research. The different commissioning groups within the programme were randomly allocated to either the traditional face-to-face mode or the novel 'virtual' mode. Mainly qualitative data were gathered including observation of all (virtual and face-to-face) commissioning meetings; semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of participants (n = 32/66); structured questionnaires and interviews with lead researchers of early commissioned projects. All members of the commissioning groups were invited to participate in collaborative enquiry groups which participated actively in the analysis process. Results The virtual process functioned as intended, reaching timely and relatively transparent decisions that participants had confidence in. Despite the potential for greater access using a virtual approach, few differences were found in practice. Key advantages included physical access, a more flexible and extended time period for discussion, reflection and information gathering and a more transparent decision-making process. Key challenges were the reduction of social cues available in a computer-mediated medium that require novel ways of ensuring appropriate dialogue, feedback and interaction. However, in both modes, the process was influenced by a range of factors and was not technology driven. Conclusion There is potential for using computer-mediated communication within the research commissioning

  1. Analysis of SBIR phase I and phase II review results at the National Institutes of Health.

    PubMed

    Vener, K J; Calkins, B M

    1991-09-01

    A cohort of phase I and phase II summary statements for the SBIR grant applications was evaluated to determine the strengths and weaknesses in approved and disapproved applications. An analysis of outcome variables (disapproval or unfunded status) was examined with respect to exposure variables (strengths or shortcomings). Logistic regression models were developed for comparisons to measure the predictive value of shortcomings and strengths to the outcomes. Disapproved phase I results were compared with an earlier 1985 study. Although the magnitude of the frequencies of shortcomings was greater in the present study, the relative rankings within shortcoming class were more alike than different. Also, the frequencies of shortcomings were, with one exception, not significantly different in the two studies. Differences in the summary statement review may have accounted for some differences observed between the 1985 data and results of the present study. Comparisons of Approved/Disapproved and Approved-Unfunded/Funded yielded the following observations. For phase I applicants, a lack of a clearly stated, testable hypothesis, a poorly qualified or described investigative team, and inadequate methodological approaches contributed significantly (in that order) to a rating of disapproval. A critical flaw for phase II proposals was failure to accomplish objectives of the phase I study. Methodological issues also dominate the distinctions in both comparison groups. A clear result of the data presented here and that published previously is that SBIR applicants need continuing assistance to improve the chances of their success. These results should serve as a guide to assist NIH staff as they provide information to prospective applicants focusing on key elements of the application. A continuing review of the SBIR program would be helpful to evaluate the quality of the submitted science. PMID:1916087

  2. Evaluation of the Abbott Real Time HCV genotype II assay for Hepatitis C virus genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Berk, Elife; Gokahmetoglu, Selma; Ercal, Baris Derya; Celik, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The determination of HCV genotypes and subtypes is very important for the selection of antiviral therapy and epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay in HCV genotyping of HCV infected patients in Kayseri, Turkey. Methods: One hundred patients with chronic hepatitis C admitted to our hospital were evaluated between June 2012 and December 2012, HCV RNA levels were determined by the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® 48 HCV test. HCV genotyping was investigated by the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. With the exception of genotype 1, subtypes of HCV genotypes could not be determined by Abbott assay. Sequencing analysis was used as the reference method. Results: Genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 were observed in 70, 4, 2 and 24 of the 100 patients, respectively, by two methods. The concordance between the two systems to determine HCV major genotypes was 100%. Of 70 patients with genotype 1, 66 showed infection with subtype 1b and 4 with subtype 1a by Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. Using sequence analysis, 61 showed infection with subtype 1b and 9 with subtype 1a. In determining of HCV genotype 1 subtypes, the difference between the two methods was not statistically significant (P>0.05). HCV genotype 4 and 3 samples were found to be subtype 4d and 3a, respectively, by sequence analysis. There were four patients with genotype 2. Sequence analysis revealed that two of these patients had type 2a and the other two had type 2b. Conclusion: The Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay yielded results consistent with sequence analysis. However, further optimization of the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay for subtype identification of HCV is required. PMID:26649001

  3. Evaluation of the Quality of Guidelines for Myasthenia Gravis with the AGREE II Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenchang; Guo, Jia; Su, Gang; Li, Jiong; Wu, Hua; Xie, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are systematically developed statements to assist practitioners in making decisions about appropriate healthcare in specific clinical circumstances. The methodological quality of CPGs for myasthenia gravis (MG) are unclear. Objective To critically evaluate the methodological quality of CPGs for MG using AGREE II instrument. Method A systematical search strategy on PubMed, EMBASE, DynaMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) and the Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM) was performed on September 20th 2013. All guidelines related to MG were evaluated with AGREE II. The software used for analysis was SPSS 17.0. Results A total of 15 CPGs for MG met the inclusion criteria (12 CPGs in English, 3 CPGs in Chinese). The overall agreement among reviews was moderate or high (ICC >0.70). The mean scores (mean ± SD) for al six domains were presented as follows: scope and purpose (60.93% ±16.62%), stakeholder involvement (40.93% ±20.04%), rigor of development (37.22% ±30.46%), clarity of presentation (64.26% ±16.36%), applicability (28.19% ±20.56%) and editorial independence (27.78% ±28.28%). Compared with non-evidence-based CPGs, evidence-based CPGs had statistically significant higher quality scores for all AGREE II domains (P<0.05). All domain scores appear slightly higher for CPGs published after AGREE II instrument development and validation (P>0.05). The quality scores of CPGs developed by NGC/AAN were higher than the quality scores of CPGs developed by other organizations for all domains. The difference was statistically significant for all domains with the exception of clarity of presentation (P = 0.07). Conclusions The qualities of CPGs on MG were generally acceptable with several flaws. The AGREE II instrument should be adopted by guideline developers, particularly in China. PMID:25402504

  4. A critique of the World Health Organisation's evaluation of health system performance.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jeff; Wildman, John; Robertson, Iain K

    2003-05-01

    The World Health Organisation's (WHO) approach to the measurement of health system efficiency is briefly described. Four arguments are then presented. First, equity of finance should not be a criterion for the evaluation of a health system and, more generally, the same objectives and importance weights should not be imposed upon all countries. Secondly, the numerical value of the importance weights do not reflect their true importance in the country rankings. Thirdly, the model for combining the different objectives into a single index of system performance is problematical and alternative models are shown to alter system rankings. The WHO statistical analysis is replicated and used to support the fourth argument which is that, contrary to the author's assertion, their methods cannot separate true inefficiency from random error. The procedure is also subject to omitted variable bias. The econometric model for all countries has very poor predictive power for the subset of OECD countries and it is outperformed by two simpler algorithms. Country rankings based upon the model are correspondingly unreliable. It is concluded that, despite these problems, the study is a landmark in the evolution of system evaluation, but one which requires significant revision. PMID:12720253

  5. ADEA/AAL Institute for Allied Health Educators: Program Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Overman, Pamela R; Grzesikowski, Tami; Tucker-Lively, Felicia; Weinstein, George; Haden, N Karl

    2015-05-01

    Revised accreditation standards for dental and dental hygiene education programs have increased emphasis on faculty development that can improve teaching and learning, foster curricular change including use of teaching and learning technologies, and enhance retention and satisfaction of faculty. The American Dental Education Association (ADEA) and Academy for Academic Leadership (AAL) established the Institute for Allied Health Educators (IAHE) in 2007 to address faculty development needs for allied dental and allied health educators. In 2009, it was transitioned to an online program, which resulted in increased enrollment and diversity of participants. After seven years, a comprehensive program evaluation was warranted. The authors developed an online questionnaire based on Kirkpatrick's four-level model of training evaluation; for this study, levels one (satisfaction), two (knowledge and skill acquisition), and three (behavior change) were examined. Of the 400 program participants invited to take part in the study, a 38% response rate was achieved, with the majority indicating full-time faculty status. Nearly all (95-97%) of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed the program contributed to their teaching effectiveness, and 88-96% agreed or strongly agreed it enhanced their knowledge of educational concepts and strategies. In addition, 83% agreed or strongly agreed the program helped them develop new skills and confidence with technology, with 69% agreeing or strongly agreeing that it helped them incorporate technology into their own educational setting. Nearly 90% were highly positive or positive in their overall assessment of the program; 95% indicated they would recommend it to a colleague; and 80% agreed or strongly agreed they had discussed what they learned with faculty colleagues at their home institutions who had not attended the program. Positive findings from this evaluation provide evidence that the IAHE has been able to meet its goals. PMID:25941140

  6. Occupational safety and health objectives of Healthy People 2010: a systematic approach for occupational health nurses--Part II.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Kimberly; Parks, Carol; Chikotas, Noreen E

    2007-03-01

    Occupational safety and health objectives 20.6 through 20.11 focus on reducing work-related assaults, lead exposure, skin diseases and disorders, needlestick injuries, and work-related, noise-induced hearing loss and promoting worksite stress reduction programs. Using the intervention strategies provided, occupational health nurses can play a key role in reducing workplace-related injury, disease, disability, and death. variety of resources pertaining to occupational health and safety from the federal, national, health care, nursing, and environmental realms can assist occupational health nurses in developing and implementing programs appropriate for their workplaces. Through the Healthy People 2010 occupational health and safety objectives, occupational health nurses have the opportunity to develop and implement workplace policies and programs promoting not only a safe and healthy work environment but also improved health and disease prevention. Occupational health nurses can implement strategies to increase quality and years of life and eliminate health disparities in the American work force. PMID:17405588

  7. Participatory training in monitoring and evaluation for maternal and newborn health programmes.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jacqueline S; Marais, Debbi

    2015-01-01

    In the context of slow progress towards Millennium Development Goals for child and maternal health, an innovative participatory training programme in the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of Maternal and Newborn Health programmes was developed and delivered in six developing countries. The training, for health professionals and programme managers, aimed: (i) to strengthen participants' skills in M&E to enable more effective targeting of resources, and (ii) to build the capacity of partner institutions hosting the training to run similar courses. This review aims to assess the extent to which these goals were met and elicit views on ways to improve the training. An online survey of training participants and structured interviews with stakeholders were undertaken. Data from course reports were also incorporated. There was clearly a benefit to participants in terms of improved knowledge and skills. There is also some evidence that this translated into action through M&E implementation and tool development. Evidence of capacity-building at an institutional level was limited. Lessons for professional development training can be drawn from several aspects of the training programme that were found to facilitate learning, engagement and application. These include structuring courses around participant material, focussing on the development of practical action plans and involving multi-disciplinary teams. The need for strengthening follow-up and embedding it throughout the training was highlighted to overcome the challenges to applying learning in the 'real world'. PMID:25716377

  8. Participatory Training in Monitoring and Evaluation for Maternal and Newborn Health Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jacqueline S.; Marais, Debbi

    2015-01-01

    In the context of slow progress towards Millennium Development Goals for child and maternal health, an innovative participatory training programme in the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of Maternal and Newborn Health programmes was developed and delivered in six developing countries. The training, for health professionals and programme managers, aimed: (i) to strengthen participants’ skills in M&E to enable more effective targeting of resources, and (ii) to build the capacity of partner institutions hosting the training to run similar courses. This review aims to assess the extent to which these goals were met and elicit views on ways to improve the training. An online survey of training participants and structured interviews with stakeholders were undertaken. Data from course reports were also incorporated. There was clearly a benefit to participants in terms of improved knowledge and skills. There is also some evidence that this translated into action through M&E implementation and tool development. Evidence of capacity-building at an institutional level was limited. Lessons for professional development training can be drawn from several aspects of the training programme that were found to facilitate learning, engagement and application. These include structuring courses around participant material, focussing on the development of practical action plans and involving multi-disciplinary teams. The need for strengthening follow-up and embedding it throughout the training was highlighted to overcome the challenges to applying learning in the ‘real world’. PMID:25716377

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of 18F-labeled ATP competitive inhibitors of topoisomerase II as probes for imaging topoisomerase II expression

    PubMed Central

    Daumar, Pierre; Zeglis, Brian M.; Ramos, Nicholas; Divilov, Vadim; Sevak, Kuntal Kumar; Pillarsetty, NagaVaraKishore; Lewis, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Type II topoisomerase (Topo-II) is an ATP-dependent enzyme that is essential in the transcription, replication, and chromosome segregation processes and, as such, represents an attractive target for cancer therapy. Numerous studies indicate that the response to treatment with Topo-II inhibitors is highly dependent on both the levels and the activity of the enzyme. Consequently, a non-invasive assay to measure tumoral Topo-II levels has the potential to differentiate responders from non-responders. With the ultimate goal of developing a radiofluorinated tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, we have designed, synthesized, and evaluated a set of fluorinated compounds based on the structure of the ATP-competitive Topo-II inhibitor QAP1. Compounds 18 and 19b showed inhibition of Topo-II in in vitro assays and exhibited moderate, Topo-II level dependent cytotoxicity in SK-BR-3 and MCF-7 cell lines. Based on these results, 18F-labeled analogs of these two compounds were synthesized and evaluated as PET probes for imaging Topo-II overexpression in mice bearing SK-BR-3 xenografts. [18F]-18 and [18F]-19b were synthesized from their corresponding protected tosylated derivatives by fluorination and subsequent deprotection. Small animal PET imaging studies indicated that both compounds do not accumulate in tumors and exhibit poor pharmacokinetics, clearing from the blood pool very rapidly and getting metabolized over. The insights gained from the current study will surely aid in the design and construction of future generations of PET agents for the non-invasive delineation of Topo-II expression. PMID:25240701

  10. Taking stock of monitoring and evaluation systems in the health sector: findings from Rwanda and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Holvoet, Nathalie; Inberg, Liesbeth

    2014-07-01

    In the context of sector-wide approaches and the considerable funding being put into the health sectors of low-income countries, the need to invest in well-functioning national health sector monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems is widely acknowledged. Regardless of the approach adopted, an important first step in any strategy for capacity development is to diagnose the quality of existing systems or arrangements, taking into account both the supply and demand sides of M&E. As no standardized M&E diagnostic instrument currently exists, we first invested in the development of an assessment tool for sector M&E systems. To counter the criticism that M&E is often narrowed down to a focus on technicalities, our diagnostic tool assesses the quality of M&E systems according to six dimensions: (i) policy; (ii) quality of indicators and data (collection) and methodology; (iii) organization (further divided into iiia: structure and iiib: linkages); (iv) capacity; (v) participation of non-government actors and (vi) M&E outputs: quality and use. We subsequently applied the assessment tool to the health sector M&E systems of Rwanda and Uganda, and this article provides a comparative overview of the main research findings. Our research may have important implications for policy, as both countries receive health sector (budget) support in relation to which M&E system diagnosis and improvement are expected to be high on the agenda. The findings of our assessments indicate that, thus far, the health sector M&E systems in Rwanda and Uganda can at best be diagnosed as 'fragmentary', with some stronger and weaker elements. PMID:23759831

  11. Economic evaluation and the postponement of health care costs.

    PubMed

    van Baal, Pieter H M; Feenstra, Talitha L; Polder, Johan J; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; Brouwer, Werner B F

    2011-04-01

    The inclusion of medical costs in life years gained in economic evaluations of health care technologies has long been controversial. Arguments in favour of the inclusion of such costs are gaining support, which shifts the question from whether to how to include these costs. This paper elaborates on the issue how to include cost in life years gained in cost effectiveness analysis given the current practice of economic evaluations in which costs of related diseases are included. We combine insights from the theoretical literature on the inclusion of unrelated medical costs in life years gained with insights from the so-called 'red herring' literature. It is argued that for most interventions it would be incorrect to simply add all medical costs in life years gained to an ICER, even when these are corrected for postponement of the expensive last year of life. This is the case since some of the postponement mechanism is already captured in the unadjusted ICER by modelling the costs of related diseases. Using the example of smoking cessation, we illustrate the differences and similarities between different approaches. The paper concludes with a discussion about the proper way to account for medical costs in life years gained in economic evaluations. PMID:21210494

  12. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Positive Health Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig; Dolbier, Christyn L.; Durham, Thomas W.; Glascoff, Mary A.; Adams, Troy B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Health educators have long advocated health promotion, yet their health measurement techniques have a pathogenic focus. Pathogenesis refers to the origin of a disease and the chain of events (precursors) leading to that disease. Traditional health measurement tools with this focus therefore measure health by assessing for the absence…

  13. Oral Contraceptive Use and Colorectal Cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study I and II

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Brittany M.; Wu, Kana; Zhang, Xuehong; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Rosner, Bernard; Hankinson, Susan E.; Willett, Walter C.; Michels, Karin B.

    2015-01-01

    Background It remains unclear if oral contraceptive (OC) use is associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer. Few studies have examined this association by duration of OC use, time since last OC use, and different cancer subsites. Methods Among 88,691 participants of the Nurses’ Health Study I (NHSI) and 93,080 participants of the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII), we assessed OC use every 2 years between 1976-2010 and categorized it as ever use, duration of use, and time since last use. We included incident colorectal cancer cases through 2010 (NHSI: age at diagnosis=36-88, N=1,764, NHSII: age at diagnosis=33-64, N=206). Multivariable hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals [HR (95% CIs)] were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results Ever OC use was not associated with colorectal cancer in NHSI [1.01 (0.91, 1.12)] nor NHSII [1.03 (0.69, 1.53)]. In NHSII, when compared to never-users, longer durations (5+ years) of OC use were inversely associated with the risk of colon cancers (test for trend p=0.02) but the number of endpoints was limited. No other colorectal cancer subsites were associated with OC durations or times since last OC use in either cohort. Conclusions In two large prospective cohorts, we found little evidence that OC use may be protective for colorectal cancer, except potentially with longer durations of use among younger women. Impact Our results do not support the previous initial studies that reported an inverse association of recent OC use with colorectal cancer but instead support newer, larger studies demonstrating no such association. PMID:26063479

  14. A primer on marginal effects-part II: health services research applications.

    PubMed

    Onukwugha, E; Bergtold, J; Jain, R

    2015-02-01

    Marginal analysis evaluates changes in a regression function associated with a unit change in a relevant variable. The primary statistic of marginal analysis is the marginal effect (ME). The ME facilitates the examination of outcomes for defined patient profiles or individuals while measuring the change in original units (e.g., costs, probabilities). The ME has a long history in economics; however, it is not widely used in health services research despite its flexibility and ability to provide unique insights. This article, the second in a two-part series, discusses practical issues that arise in the estimation and interpretation of the ME for a variety of regression models often used in health services research. Part one provided an overview of prior studies discussing ME followed by derivation of ME formulas for various regression models relevant for health services research studies examining costs and utilization. The current article illustrates the calculation and interpretation of ME in practice and discusses practical issues that arise during the implementation, including: understanding differences between software packages in terms of functionality available for calculating the ME and its confidence interval, interpretation of average marginal effect versus marginal effect at the mean, and the difference between ME and relative effects (e.g., odds ratio). Programming code to calculate ME using SAS, STATA, LIMDEP, and MATLAB are also provided. The illustration, discussion, and application of ME in this two-part series support the conduct of future studies applying the concept of marginal analysis. PMID:25358482

  15. Evaluation of a combined lysate/recombinant antigen anti-HTLV-I/II ELISA in high and low endemic areas of HTLV-I/II infection.

    PubMed

    Vrielink, H; Sisay, Y; Reesink, H W; Woerdeman, M; Winkel, C; de Leeuw, S J; Lelie, P N; van der Poel, C L

    1995-06-01

    The Wellcozyme HTLV-I/II ELISA (Murex Diagnostics) was evaluated in 7800 samples of various serum panels. Repeat activity was found by Wellcozyme in (A) 1/2181 (0.05%) Dutch blood donors, (B) 44/3036 (1.4%) Curaçao (Caribbean area) blood donors, (C) 46/2533 (1.8%) individuals of different Ethiopian population subsets, (D) 30/30 (100%) confirmed anti-HTLV-I positive samples and (E) 20/20 (100%) HTLV-II PCR-positive samples. All 91 Wellcozyme-positive samples were tested for confirmation by Western blot (WB, Diagnostic Biotechnology). Among Wellcozyme HTLV-I/II ELISA-positive individuals, HTLV-I/II WB positivity was found in 0/1 Dutch blood donors, 40/44 (88.9%) Curaçao blood donors and 20/46 (43.5%) Ethiopian individuals. HTLV-I positivity was found in 40 (1.3%) WB-positive Curaçao blood donors and in 9 (0.35%) Ethiopian individuals. HTLV-II positivity was found in 11 (0.43%) WB-positive Ethiopian individuals. The Wellcozyme HTLV-I/II ELISA had a specificity of 99.95% in Dutch blood donors and a sensitivity of 100% on confirmed HTLV-I- and HTLV-II-positive samples. In Ethiopia 55% of the HTLV-I/II WB-positive individuals were exclusively HTLV-II positive, whereas in Curaçao no HTLV-II infections were found. PMID:7655577

  16. Diabetic silkworms for evaluation of therapeutically effective drugs against type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Hayashi, Yohei; Miyazaki, Shinya; Sugita, Takuya; Sumiya, Eriko; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that sugar levels in the silkworm hemolymph, i.e., blood, increase immediately (within 1 h) after intake of a high-glucose diet, and that the administration of human insulin decreases elevated hemolymph sugar levels in silkworms. In this hyperglycemic silkworm model, however, administration of pioglitazone or metformin, drugs used clinically for the treatment of type II diabetes, have no effect. Therefore, here we established a silkworm model of type II diabetes for the evaluation of anti-diabetic drugs such as pioglitazone and metformin. Silkworms fed a high-glucose diet over a long time-period (18 h) exhibited a hyperlipidemic phenotype. In these hyperlipidemic silkworms, phosphorylation of JNK, a stress-responsive protein kinase, was enhanced in the fat body, an organ that functionally resembles the mammalian liver and adipose tissue. Fat bodies isolated from hyperlipidemic silkworms exhibited decreased sensitivity to human insulin. The hyperlipidemic silkworms have impaired glucose tolerance, characterized by high fasting hemolymph sugar levels and higher hemolymph sugar levels in a glucose tolerance test. Administration of pioglitazone or metformin improved the glucose tolerance of the hyperlipidemic silkworms. These findings suggest that the hyperlipidemic silkworms are useful for evaluating the hypoglycemic activities of candidate drugs against type II diabetes. PMID:26024298

  17. TEST & EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE HEDGEHOG-II PACKAGING SYSTEMS DOT-7A TYPE A CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, D.L.

    2003-12-29

    This report documents the US. Department of Transportation Specification 7A (DOT-7A) Type A compliance test and evaluation results for the Hedgehog-II packaging systems. The approved Hedgehog-II packaging configurations provide primary and secondary containment. The approved packaging configurations described within this report are designed to ship Type A quantities of radioactive materials, normal form. Contents may be in solid or liquid form. Liquids transported in the approved 1 L glass bottle assembly shall have a specific gravity of less than or equal to 1.6. Liquids transported in all other approved configurations shall have a specific gravity of less than or equal to 2.0. The solid contents, including packaging, are limited in weight to the gross weight of the as-tested liquids and bottles. The approved Hedgehog-II packaging configurations described in this report may be transported by air, and have been evaluated as meeting the applicable International Air Transport Association/International Civil Aviation Organization (IATA/ICAO) Dangerous Goods Regulations in addition to the DOT requirements.

  18. Status of calibration and data evaluation of AMSR on board ADEOS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaoka, Keiji; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Kachi, Misako; Takeshima, Toshiaki; Igarashi, Tamotsu; Kawanishi, Toneo; Shibata, Akira

    2004-02-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) is the multi-frequency, passive microwave radiometer on board the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II), currently called Midori-II. The instrument has eight-frequency channels with dual polarization (except 50-GHz band) covering frequencies between 6.925 and 89.0 GHz. Measurement of 50-GHz channels is the first attempt by this kind of conically scanning microwave radiometers. Basic concept of the instrument including hardware configuration and calibration method is almost the same as that of ASMR for EOS (AMSR-E), the modified version of AMSR. Its swath width of 1,600 km is wider than that of AMSR-E. In parallel with the calibration and data evaluation of AMSR-E instrument, almost identical calibration activities have been made for AMSR instrument. After finished the initial checkout phase, the instrument has been continuously obtaining the data in global basis. Time series of radiometer sensitivities and automatic gain control telemetry indicate the stable instrument performance. For the radiometric calibration, we are now trying to apply the same procedure that is being used for AMSR-E. This paper provides an overview of the instrument characteristics, instrument status, and preliminary results of calibration and data evaluation activities.

  19. A Tentative Study on the Evaluation of Community Health Service Quality*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhi-qiang; Zhu, Yong-yue

    Community health service is the key point of health reform in China. Based on pertinent studies, this paper constructed an indicator system for the community health service quality evaluation from such five perspectives as visible image, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and sympathy, according to service quality evaluation scale designed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry. A multilevel fuzzy synthetical evaluation model was constructed to evaluate community health service by fuzzy mathematics theory. The applicability and maneuverability of the evaluation indicator system and evaluation model were verified by empirical analysis.

  20. Hypertension in Adult Survivors of Child Abuse: Observations from the Nurses’ Health Study II

    PubMed Central

    Riley, EH; Wright, RJ; Jun, HJ; Hibert, EN; Rich-Edwards, JW

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited research has shown a possible association between exposure to physical or sexual abuse prior to age 18 and the risk of developing hypertension as an adult. The factors mediating this relationship are unknown. Methods We analyzed questionnaire data from 68 505 female participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II regarding exposure to physical and sexual abuse prior to age 18. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the relationship between abuse exposure and hypertension. Results Sixty-four percent of the participants (n = 41 792) reported physical and/or sexual abuse prior to age 18; 17% reported hypertension. All forms of abuse had a dose-response relationship with hypertension. Adjustments for smoking, alcohol, family history of hypertension, exercise, and oral contraceptives did not alter risk estimates. Adjustment for body mass index (BMI) significantly attenuated the associations between abuse and risk of hypertension and accounted for approximately 50% of the observed association between abuse exposure and hypertension. Women experiencing forced sexual activity as a child and as an adolescent had a 20% increased risk for developing hypertension (95% CI 8–32%) that was independent of BMI. Similarly, women reporting severe physical abuse in childhood and/or adolescence had risk estimates ranging from 14% (95% CI 5–24%) to 22% (95% CI 11–33%). Conclusion Early interpersonal violence may be a widespread risk factor for the development of hypertension in women. BMI is a significant mediator in the relationship between early abuse and adult hypertension. PMID:20445210

  1. Knowledge of women's issues and epilepsy (KOWIE-II): a survey of health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Long, Lucretia; Montouris, Georgia

    2005-02-01

    Attendees of the American College of Physicians 2003 annual meeting were invited to complete a computerized version of the Knowledge of Women's Issues and Epilepsy (KOWIE-II) questionnaire. This 10-item survey includes items specific to issues that affect women with epilepsy (WWE), including hormone sensitive seizures, effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on oral contraception, bone health, sexual function, pregnancy, and breast-feeding. A total of 202 healthcare providers (HCP) responded to the survey, 92% of which identified themselves as physicians. Few understood the effects of endogenous steroid hormones on seizure threshold (24%) and that epilepsy is associated with an increased incidence of female sexual dysfunction (37%). Most knew that enzyme-inducing AEDs may reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptives (71%) and that certain AEDs are associated with bone disease (77%). The majority were aware that most WWE have healthy children (86%), that women do not need to discontinue AEDs during pregnancy (75%), and that the most appropriate AED during pregnancy is one that best addresses the patient's seizures. Fewer than half (47%) of participants knew that women taking AEDs could breast-feed safely. This sample of HCPs was not adequately informed about the unique issues affecting WWE. An aggressive educational effort is necessary to close the gaps in knowledge. PMID:15652739

  2. Community Health Workers and Health Care Delivery: Evaluation of a Women's Reproductive Health Care Project in a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Wajid, Abdul; White, Franklin; Karim, Mehtab S.

    2013-01-01

    Background As part of the mid-term evaluation of a Women's Health Care Project, a study was conducted to compare the utilization of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services in two areas with different levels of service in Punjab, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to interview Married Women of Reproductive Age (MWRA). Information was collected on MWRA knowledge regarding danger signs during pregnancy, delivery, postnatal periods, and MNH care seeking behavior. After comparing MNH service utilization, the two areas were compared using a logistic regression model, to identify the association of different factors with the intervention after controlling for socio-demographic, economic factors and distance of the MWRA residence to a health care facility. Results The demographic characteristics of women in the two areas were similar, although socioeconomic status as indicated by level of education and better household amenities, was higher in the intervention area. Consequently, on univariate analysis, utilization of MNH services: antenatal care, TT vaccination, institutional delivery and use of modern contraceptives were higher in the intervention than control area. Nonetheless, multivariable analysis controlling for confounders such as socioeconomic status revealed that utilization of antenatal care services at health centers and TT vaccination during pregnancy are significantly associated with the intervention. Conclusions Our findings suggest positive changes in health care seeking behavior of women and families with respect to MNH. Some aspects of care still require attention, such as knowledge about danger signs and neonatal care, especially umbilical cord care. Despite overall success achieved so far in response to the Millennium Development Goals, over the past two decades decreases in maternal mortality are far from the 2015 target. This report identifies some of the key factors to improving MNH and serves as an interim measure of a

  3. Evaluation of the NASA/JSC Health Related Fitness Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, Larry T.; Jackson, A. S.; Pinkerton, Mary B.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of the NASA Health Related Fitness Program (HRFP), which includes a 12-week educational component (EC) and quarterly fitness retests (RT), on the results of periodic testing of fitness, body composition, and blood lipids were evaluated in three goups of pilots. These included the group of compliers (those who completed EC and not less than 75 percent RT), the noncompliers (completed EC and lesss than 75 percent RT), and the dropouts from EC. Results show that beneficial changes in physical activity found two years after the completion of the HRFP were related to both the completion of the EC and the periodic fitness reevaluations. These changes were associated with maximal oxygen consumption, percent body fat, body weight, and blood lipids.

  4. Evaluation of reproductive function among men occupationally exposed to a stilbene derivative: II. Perceived libido and potency.

    PubMed

    Whelan, E A; Grajewski, B; Wild, D K; Schnorr, T M; Alderfer, R

    1996-01-01

    This is the second of two reports of a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health Hazard Evaluation conducted in response to complaints of sexual dysfunction among men who manufacture the stilbene derivative 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DAS; CAS 81-11-8), an intermediate in the manufacture of fluorescent whitening agents. The first report [Grajewski et al. (1995): Am J Ind Med 29:53-61] describes results of the analysis of reproductive hormone levels. This second report provides results from the analysis of perceived libido and potency. In a cross-sectional design, self-reported sexual function of 30 male workers who manufacture DAS and 20 former DAS workers was compared to that of 35 workers who manufactured plastics additives in a different manufacturing area. Questionnaire items were examined by factor analysis, reducing the data to these components of sexual function: sexual activity/performance (two factors), interest, satisfaction, and physiologic competence. Adjusting for age, currently exposed workers were more likely than unexposed workers to have a value in the lowest quartile for interest (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-7.2), physiologic competence (adjusted OR = 1.9, 95% CI 0.6-6.4), and activity/performance factor II (adjusted OR = 5.8, 95% CI 1.3-27.3). Former DAS workers reported problems associated with activity/performance factors I and II compared to unexposed workers (adjusted OR = 2.2, 95% CI 0.5-10.1 and adjusted OR = 6.7, 95% CI 1.2-35.9, respectively). Although the small study size limits the precision of the effect estimates, the pattern of results suggests a possible effect on sexual function of working in the DAS manufacturing area. PMID:8808043

  5. Rapid evaluation methods (REM) of health services performance: methodological observations.

    PubMed

    Anker, M; Guidotti, R J; Orzeszyna, S; Sapirie, S A; Thuriaux, M C

    1993-01-01

    The rapid evaluation method (REM) was developed by WHO in order to assess the performance and quality of health care services, identify operational problems, and assist in taking managerial action. It was tested in five developing countries (Botswana, Madagascar, Papua New Guinea, Uganda and Zambia) between 1988 and 1991. REM consists of a set of observation- and survey-based diagnostic activities, carried out mainly in health care facilities. The article describes the various steps of REM, methodological issues such as setting objectives and using an issue-information matrix, preparation of survey instruments, use of computer software (Epi Info), data quality control, fieldwork, and the use of data to produce useful information for decision-makers. REM aims at bringing prompt and relevant information to planners and decision-makers who need it for a specific purpose. In the present examples, REM provided information for preparing a programme proposal for external funding, for establishing baseline data for a situation analysis, and for assessing staff performance after extensive training in order to improve the curriculum. PMID:8440033

  6. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report, Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project, Technical Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Darren

    2003-06-01

    In 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 1997. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, and yellow warbler. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project provides a total of 313.91 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Open water habitat provides 16.08 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Shoreline and island habitat provide 7.36 HUs fore Canada goose and mallard. Wet meadow provides 117.62 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 9.78 HUs for yellow warbler, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forested wetlands provide 140.47 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest provides 22.60 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  7. Dynamic evaluation of CMAQ part II: Evaluation of relative response factor metrics for ozone attainment demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Kristen M.; Dolwick, Patrick; Hogrefe, Christian; Simon, Heather; Timin, Brian; Possiel, Norm

    2015-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provides guidelines on the use of air quality models for projecting whether an emission reduction strategy will lead to future pollutant levels that are at or below the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The EPA's guidance document for ozone attainment demonstrations recommends an attainment test for the 8-h ozone NAAQS based on using the ratio of output from "future" and "base" model simulations through the calculation of location-specific Relative Response Factors (RRF). The 2007 guidance document as well as other related studies have recommended the use of retrospective evaluation studies in order to evaluate the ability of an air quality model to represent a change in air quality (dynamic evaluation) rather than relying solely on operational evaluation of model predictions under base line conditions. Here simulations from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system were conducted for 2002 and 2005, a time period characterized by significant emissions reductions associated with the EPA's Nitrogen Oxides State Implementation Plan Call (NOx SIP Call) as well as mobile sources. These simulations were used to evaluate the performance of different forms of the RRF metric for projecting 2002 to 2005 against 2005 observed ozone levels. The evaluation study showed that the current form of the RRF calculation is generally well designed for predicting the future 8-hr ozone "design value" metric used for determining attainment. Specifically, the methodology of using air quality model simulations in a relative sense provided better estimates of future ozone design values than using the modeled future year simulation alone. Alternative forms of the RRF metric were found to be very similar to the current methodology in terms of evaluation metrics. However, alternative RRF metrics were sensitive to the number of days used in the calculation of the RRF. Approaches which used more days in the RRF calculation

  8. Evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase II. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, K.L.; Howell, F.L.; Winczewski, L.M.; Wartman, B.L.; Umphrey, H.R.; Anderson, S.B.

    1981-06-01

    This evaluation of the hydrothermal resources of North Dakota is based on existing data on file with the North Dakota Geological Survey (NDGS) and other state and federal agencies, and field and laboratory studies conducted. The principal sources of data used during the Phase II study were WELLFILE, the computer library of oil and gas well data developed during the Phase I study, and WATERCAT, a computer library system of water well data assembled during the Phase II study. A field survey of the shallow geothermal gradients present in selected groundwater observation holes was conducted. Laboratory determinations of the thermal conductivity of core samples is being done to facilitate heat-flow calculations on those hole-of-convenience cased.

  9. Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study: Phase II, 1973-74, Final Report: Volume III.3. The Evaluation of Teacher Behavior Through Observation of Videotape Recordings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Jonathan

    The Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study (BTES), Phase II, was a research project on effective teaching behavior--what teachers do that significantly affects what and how pupils learn. The purposes of Phase II were to (1) develop an assessment system for measuring teacher and pupil behaviors and other factors which could influence each of them and…

  10. [A quality evaluation tableau for health institutions: an educational tool].

    PubMed

    Moll, Marie Christine; Decavel, Frédérique; Merlet, Christine

    2009-09-01

    For a few years, health institutions have had to comply with the certification and the need to establish the new governance. Thanks to the accreditation version 2 (obtained in 2005), the elaboration of the hospital project (adopted in October, 2006) and the organization in poles since 2006, the quality oriented management became a priority axis at the University Hospital of Angers. The strategic adaptation to quality requirements leads to develop the hospital management, more especially at the level of the clinical, medico technical and administrative poles. The elements of the hospital project including the part about the quality, risk and evaluation aim at being adapted by every pole according to the level of its project. This adaptation which is imposed to each pole manager requires a practical and educational accompaniment allowing at the same time to realize a diagnosis of the progress of the quality approach, a measure of the impact of the global impregnation within the institution and a comparison between pole. A eight axis dashboard with criteria and a user guide were developed from certification ISO 9001, the EFQM manual and the certification manual version 2 of the Healthcare High Authorities. The criteria are transcribed in an EXCEL grid ready to use. Succeeding in estimating your own quality system means that you demonstrate the maturity of the quality approach. The results of this evaluation confirmed those of the certification. The dashboard is a management structuring tool at the service of the multidisciplinary team. Two considerations emerge from these results: First of all, for the hospital top management, the axes to be improved emerge as a priority to determine and target the next annual action plans. The results also allow to support the auto evaluation for the certification version 2010 planned in January of the same year. It is a pragmatic tool which allows auto evaluation and comparison to estimate the pole performances. It is a strategic

  11. Mental Health Services for the Elderly: Report on a Survey of Community Mental Health Centers. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flemming, Arthur S.; And Others

    This document is the second volume of a series of reports on the Community Mental Health Center (CMHC) Survey project undertaken to assess the impact of the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Services block grant program on the delivery of mental health services to older persons. Section I of this volume presents excerpts from the reports on…

  12. Coming soon to a health sector near you: an advance look at the new Ontario Personal Health Information Protection Act (PHIPA): part II.

    PubMed

    Beardwood, John P; Kerr, J Alexis

    2005-01-01

    This is Part II of a two-part article that provides a broad overview and comparative study of the new Ontario health sector-specific privacy legislation. In Part I, which appeared in the previous issue of Healthcare Quarterly, we discussed the objectives, structure and scope of, as well as the substantive rights and obligations created by, the new Ontario Act. In Part II, we discuss the administrative obligations created by the Ontario Act, as well as the provisions relating to the enforcement of, and remedies available under, the Act. We also contrast the Ontario Act with the various approaches to the protection of personal health information that has already been adopted by other provinces, including Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. PMID:15715338

  13. 29 CFR 1960.11 - Evaluation of occupational safety and health performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evaluation of occupational safety and health performance. 1960.11 Section 1960.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Administration § 1960.11 Evaluation of occupational safety...

  14. 29 CFR 1960.80 - Secretary's evaluations of agency occupational safety and health programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... health programs. 1960.80 Section 1960.80 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Evaluation of Federal Occupational Safety and Health Programs § 1960.80 Secretary's evaluations of agency occupational safety and...

  15. 29 CFR 1960.80 - Secretary's evaluations of agency occupational safety and health programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... health programs. 1960.80 Section 1960.80 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Evaluation of Federal Occupational Safety and Health Programs § 1960.80 Secretary's evaluations of agency occupational safety and...

  16. 29 CFR 1960.11 - Evaluation of occupational safety and health performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluation of occupational safety and health performance. 1960.11 Section 1960.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Administration § 1960.11 Evaluation of occupational safety...

  17. 76 FR 77234 - Availability of Draft Vieques Report: An Evaluation of Environmental, Biological, and Health Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Evaluation of Environmental, Biological, and Health Data From the Island of Vieques, Puerto Rico AGENCY... availability of the Draft Vieques Report: An Evaluation of Environmental, Biological, and Health Data from the..., Biological, and Health Data from the Island of Vieques, Puerto Rico. ATSDR has worked to ensure that...

  18. Evaluation and diagnosis of the hair loss patient: part II. Trichoscopic and laboratory evaluations.

    PubMed

    Mubki, Thamer; Rudnicka, Lidia; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Shapiro, Jerry

    2014-09-01

    The use of trichoscopy for evaluating a number of hair and scalp disorders is gaining popularity. It is a simple and noninvasive in vivo tool for visualizing hair shafts and the scalp. Recently, alopecias have been classified according to their trichoscopic findings. The second part of this 2-part continuing medical education article reviews recent advances in this field and describes a systematic approach for using the differential diagnostic findings of trichoscopy in alopecia. PMID:25128119

  19. An Evaluation of an Interdisciplinary Rural School Mental Health Programme in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Abby; Michael, Kurt; Massey, Cameron; Sale, Rafaella; Kirk, Alex; Egan, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    School mental health (SMH) programmes serve as a necessary niche within rural communities and aim to bring accessible care to youth who may otherwise go without mental health services. The following study evaluated the impact of mental health treatment provided by the Assessment, Support, and Counseling (ASC) Center, an SMH health initiative…

  20. Development and evaluation of a pliable biological valved conduit. Part II: Functional and hemodynamic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sung, H W; Witzel, T H; Hata, C; Tu, R; Shen, S H; Lin, D; Noishiki, Y; Tomizawa, Y; Quijano, R C

    1993-04-01

    Many congenital cardiac malformations may require a valved conduit for the reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract. In spite of many endeavors made in the last 25 years, the clinical results of right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction with currently available valved conduits are still not satisfactory. Specific problems encountered clinically include suboptimal hemodynamic performance, conduit kinking or compression, and fibrous peeling from the luminal surface. To address these deficiencies, we undertook the development of a biological valved conduit: a bovine external jugular vein graft with a retained native valve cross-linked with a diglycidyl ether (DE). This study, using a canine model, was to evaluate the functional and hemodynamic performance of this newly developed valved conduit. Three 14 mm conduits, implanted as bypass grafts, right ventricle to pulmonary artery, were evaluated. The evaluation was conducted with a noninvasive color Doppler flow mapping system at pre-implantation, immediately post implantation, one- and three-months post implantation, and prior to retrieval (five-months post implantation). The two-dimensional tomographic inspection of the leaflet motion at various periods post implantation showed that the valvular leaflets in the DE treated conduit was quite pliable. No cardiac failure or valvular dysfunction was observed in any of the studied cases. The color Doppler flow mapping study demonstrated that the valve in the DE treated conduit was competent, with no conduit kinking or compression observed in any of the three cases. The spectral Doppler velocity study evidenced that the transvalvular pressure gradients of the DE treated conduit were minimal as compared to those of the currently available conduits. In conclusion, from the functional and hemodynamic performance points of view, this newly developed valved conduit is superior to those currently available. PMID:8325697

  1. 30 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18 II Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified...

  2. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part II: Parametric Evaluation and Topological Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2013-06-01

    A comprehensive numerical model has been proposed to model thermoelectric generators (TEGs) for automotive waste heat recovery. Details of the model and results from the analysis of General Motors' prototype TEG were described in part I of the study. In part II of this study, parametric evaluations are considered to assess the influence of heat exchanger, geometry, and thermoelectric module configurations to achieve optimization of the baseline model. The computational tool is also adapted to model other topologies such as transverse and circular configurations (hexagonal and cylindrical) maintaining the same volume as the baseline TEG. Performance analysis of these different topologies and parameters is presented and compared with the baseline design.

  3. Empirical impact evaluation of the energy savings resulting from BPA's Stage II irrigation system retrofit program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Tawil, J.W.; Lyke, A.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Edin, E.S.; Bailey, B.M.

    1987-07-01

    This report documents the results of an evaluation of the impacts on irrigation system energy consumption of conservation measures installed under the Bonneville Power Administration's Stage II retrofit program. Historical billing data and other farm records provided the basis for this evaluation. A number of different statistical techniques were used to estimate the actual energy savings resulting from the Stage II conservation measures. Results of the study reveal that the methodology used in predicting energy savings resulting from the Stage II program is accurate. The basis for energy savings predictions in the Stage II program are changes in brake horsepower, and, in this study, a 1% change in brake horsepower was found to result in slightly more than a 1% change in energy consumption. Overall, Stage II program conservation measures were found to reduce irrigation system energy use by an average of 34%. The average costs of obtaining these savings were 6 mills (.6 cents) per kWh saved.

  4. Functional foods: health claim-food product compatibility and the impact of health claim framing on consumer evaluation.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans C M; Luning, Pieternel

    2005-06-01

    Two studies are reported, which aim to strengthen the scientific underpinning of strategic decisions regarding functional food development, as to (1) which health benefits to claim, (2) with which product (category), and (3) in which communication format. The first exploratory study is a secondary analysis of 10 different health claims systematically combined with 10 different food carriers to evaluate their combined suitability for functional food positioning. The results show that consumers tend to prefer functional food concepts that primarily communicate disease-related health benefits in carriers with a healthy image or health positioning history. Study 2 examines health claim format and systematically varies the way in which specific health benefits are being communicated to the consumer. Two physiologically oriented claims (heart disease and osteoporosis) and two psychologically oriented food claims (stress and lack of energy) are expressed in enhanced function format versus disease risk reduction format. Also, it includes the individual difference variable of 'regulatory focus' and the health status of the respondent to explore how these factors impact health claim evaluation. The results show that consumer evaluations primarily differ to the extent that health claims are personally relevant in addressing an experienced disease state. Framing is important, but its effect differs by health benefit. No strong effects for consumers' regulatory focus were found. Underlying mechanisms of these effects and their implications for the development of functional foods are discussed. PMID:15894404

  5. Evaluation of thiosemicarbazone derivative as chelating agent for the simultaneous removal and trace determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in food and water samples.

    PubMed

    Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Lee, Kap Duk

    2014-05-01

    In the present investigation, prepared N-ethyl-3-carbazolecarbaxaldehyde-3-thiosemicarbazone (ECCT) and employed for the simultaneous removal and determination of trace amounts of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from food and water samples. Cd(II) and Pb(II) gave yellow and orange colored complexes with ECCT in acetate buffer at pH 6.0 with λmax, 380 and 440nm, respectively. Both complexes were easily extractable into kerosene at 1:1(M:L) composition. It was in accordance with Beer's law in the range of 0.0-12.0 and 0.0-10.0μgmL(-1) with 0.999 and 0.997 correlation coefficient for Cd(II) and Pb(II) complexes, respectively, indicated a good linearity between the two variables. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity were found to be 0.740×10(4)Lmol(-1)cm(-1), 1.52×10(-3)μgcm(-2) for Cd(II) and 1.809×10(4)L mol(-1)cm(-1), 1.15×10(-3)μgcm(-2) for Pb(II). The precision and accuracy of the method was checked for both metal ions by finding the relative standard deviations (n=8), which were 0.689% and 0.443%, with detection limits of 0.00151μgL(-1) and 0.00264μgL(-1) for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively. Further validation using certified reference material, NIST 1568b, resulted in determined concentrations of 0.028±0.253μgg(-1) for Cd(II) and 0.046±0.325μgg(-1) for Pb(II). These determined values agree well with the certified values in the reference materials. The interfering effects of various cations and anions were also studied. The proposed method performance was also evaluated in terms of Student 'T' test and Variance 'F' test, which indicated the significance of the present method parameters, as an inter comparison of the experimental values using ICP-OES. PMID:24360411

  6. Evaluation of mono or mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria in type II sourdough system.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Raci; Şimşek, Ömer; Küçükçuban, Ayca; Nas, Sebahattin

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mono and mixed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures to determine suitable LAB combinations for a type II sourdough system. In this context, previously isolated sourdough LAB strains with antimicrobial activity, which included Lactobacillus plantarum PFC22, Lactobacillus brevis PFC31, Pediococcus acidilactici PFC38, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis PFC80, were used as mono or mixed culture combinations in a fermentation system to produce type II sourdough, and subsequently in bread dough production. Compared to the monoculture fermentation of dough, the use of mixed cultures shortened the adaptation period by half. In addition, the use of mixed cultures ensured higher microbial viability, and enhanced the fruity flavor during bread dough production. It was determined that the combination of L. plantarum PFC22 + P. acidilactici PFC38 + L. sanfranciscensis PFC80 is a promising culture mixture that can be used in the production of type II sourdough systems, and that may also contribute to an increase in metabolic activity during bread production process. PMID:25807196

  7. Comparative evaluation of silicified microcrystalline cellulose II as a direct compression vehicle.

    PubMed

    Rojas, John; Kumar, Vijay

    2011-09-15

    The powder flow and tableting properties of novel silicified microcrystalline cellulose II (SMCCII) were evaluated and compared with current silicified cellulosic I excipients such as ProSolv(®) SMCC50 and ProSolv(®) SMCC90. This excipient was prepared by coprocessing cellulose II and silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) at a 95:5 ratio by spray drying. The novel SMCCII yielded more benefits in terms of functionality as compared with the parent cellulose II material. SMCCII had higher bulk and tap densities, better powder packing ability, reduced porosity, increased surface area, and increased flowability. This silicified excipient had the highest brittleness behavior as given by the Heckel, Leuenberger and brittle fracture index analyses. The mechanical properties of SMCCII, such as toughness and Young's modulus were comparable to those of commercial products. SMCCII was the least sensitive material to magnesium stearate, and blending time or reprocessing did not affect its compactibility. It also provided for the fastest compact disintegration and release of griseofulvin. This new material has the potential for use as a direct compression excipient. PMID:21708237

  8. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of Rutin-zinc(II) flavonoid -metal complex.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Norma Estefania Andrades; Novak, Estela Maria; Maria, Durvanei Augusto; Velosa, Adélia Segin; Pereira, Regina Mara Silva

    2015-09-01

    Synthesis of compounds analogous to natural products from secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, is a promising source of novel drugs. Rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) is a natural flavone, which has, in its chemical structure, different sites for coordination with transition metals and the complexation with these metals enhances its biological properties. Rutin-zinc(II), a flavonoid-metal complex, was synthesized and characterized by UV-VIS, FT-IR, elemental analysis and (1)H NMR. The antioxidant and antitumor activities, as well as the cytotoxicity and in vivo toxicity of this complex were evaluated and compared with the free rutin. Rutin-zinc(II) has not shown any cytotoxicity against normal cells (fibroblasts and HUVECs) or toxicity in BALB/c mice, but has shown antioxidant activity in vitro and cytotoxicity against leukemia (KG1, K562 and Jurkat), multiple myeloma (RPMI8226) and melanoma (B16F10 and SK-Mel-28) cell lines in vitro. In Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model, Rutin-zinc(II) modulated the mitochondrial membrane potential and the expression of genes related to cell cycle progression, angiogenesis and apoptosis. PMID:26091902

  9. Crystal structure, DFT, spectroscopic and biological activity evaluation of analgin complexes with Co(ii), Ni(ii) and Cu(ii).

    PubMed

    Mansour, Ahmed M

    2014-11-14

    Reaction of analgin (NaL) with Co(ii), Ni(ii) and Cu(ii) salts in ethanol affords complexes of the type [ML2], which were characterized by elemental analysis, FT IR, UV-Vis, EPR, TG/DTA, magnetic susceptibility and conductance measurements. The copper(ii) complex crystallizes in the orthorhombic Pbca space group. Analgin behaves as a mono-negatively tridentate ligand via pyrazolone O, sulfonate O and tertiary amino groups. The interaction of the tertiary nitrogen with M(n+) ions is the main factor which determines the stability of complexes as revealed from natural bond orbital analysis data, where the binding energy of [ML2] decreases with an increase in the bond length of the M-N bond. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations were applied in order to realize the electronic structures and to explain the related experimental observations. The anti-bacterial activity was studied on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Coordination of analgin to Ni(ii) and Cu(ii) leads to a significant increase in its antibacterial activity as compared with the Co(ii) complex. PMID:25231028

  10. PUBLIC HEALTH AIR SURVEILLANCE EVALUATION (PHASE): BACKGROUND AND AIR QUALITY ASPECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    NERL's Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division and other participants in the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) project will be discussing their results with the New York State Departments of Health and Environmental Conservation. The PHASE project is a ...

  11. Health Literacy INDEX: development, reliability, and validity of a new tool for evaluating the health literacy demands of health information materials.

    PubMed

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Kreuter, Matthew W; Casey, Chris; Leme, Luisa; Thompson, Tess; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Jacobsen, Heather; Sterling, Ryan; Oguntimein, Joy; Filler, Carl; Culbert, Arthur; Rooney, Megan; Lapka, Christy

    2012-01-01

    There is no consensus on how best to assess the health literacy demands of health information materials. Comprehensive, reliable, and valid assessment tools are needed. The authors report on the development, refinement, and testing of Health Literacy INDEX, a new tool reflecting empirical evidence and best practices. INDEX is comprised of 63 indicators organized into 10 criteria: plain language, clear purpose, supporting graphics, user involvement, skill-based learning, audience appropriateness, user instruction, development details, evaluation methods, and strength of evidence. In a sample of 100 materials, intercoder agreement was high: 90% or better for 52% of indicators, and above 80% for nearly all others. Overall scores generated by INDEX were highly correlated with average ratings from 12 health literacy experts (r = 0.89, p < .0001). Additional research is warranted to examine the association between evaluation ratings generated by INDEX and individual understanding, behaviors, and improved health. Health Literacy INDEX is a comprehensive tool with evidence for reliability and validity that can be used to evaluate the health literacy demands of health information materials. Although improvement in health information materials is just one aspect of mitigating the effects of limited health literacy on health outcomes, it is an essential step toward a more health literate public. PMID:23030571

  12. Urinary melatonin concentration and the risk of breast cancer in Nurses' Health Study II.

    PubMed

    Brown, Susan B; Hankinson, Susan E; Eliassen, A Heather; Reeves, Katherine W; Qian, Jing; Arcaro, Kathleen F; Wegrzyn, Lani R; Willett, Walter C; Schernhammer, Eva S

    2015-02-01

    Experimental and epidemiologic data support a protective role for melatonin in breast cancer etiology, yet studies in premenopausal women are scarce. In a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study II cohort, we measured the concentration of melatonin's major urinary metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), in urine samples collected between 1996 and 1999 among 600 breast cancer cases and 786 matched controls. Cases were predominantly premenopausal women who were diagnosed with incident breast cancer after urine collection and before June 1, 2007. Using multivariable conditional logistic regression, we computed odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Melatonin levels were not significantly associated with total breast cancer risk (for the fourth (top) quartile (Q4) of aMT6s vs. the first (bottom) quartile (Q1), odds ratio (OR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64, 1.28; Ptrend = 0.38) or risk of invasive or in situ breast cancer. Findings did not vary by body mass index, smoking status, menopausal status, or time between urine collection and diagnosis (all Pinteraction values ≥ 0.12). For example, the odds ratio for total breast cancer among women with ≤5 years between urine collection and diagnosis was 0.74 (Q4 vs. Q1; 95% CI: 0.45, 1.20; Ptrend = 0.09), and it was 1.20 (Q4 vs. Q1; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.98; Ptrend = 0.70) for women with >5 years. Our data do not support an overall association between urinary melatonin levels and breast cancer risk. PMID:25587174

  13. Urinary Melatonin Concentration and the Risk of Breast Cancer in Nurses' Health Study II

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Susan B.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Reeves, Katherine W.; Qian, Jing; Arcaro, Kathleen F.; Wegrzyn, Lani R.; Willett, Walter C.; Schernhammer, Eva S.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiologic data support a protective role for melatonin in breast cancer etiology, yet studies in premenopausal women are scarce. In a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study II cohort, we measured the concentration of melatonin's major urinary metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), in urine samples collected between 1996 and 1999 among 600 breast cancer cases and 786 matched controls. Cases were predominantly premenopausal women who were diagnosed with incident breast cancer after urine collection and before June 1, 2007. Using multivariable conditional logistic regression, we computed odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Melatonin levels were not significantly associated with total breast cancer risk (for the fourth (top) quartile (Q4) of aMT6s vs. the first (bottom) quartile (Q1), odds ratio (OR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64, 1.28; Ptrend = 0.38) or risk of invasive or in situ breast cancer. Findings did not vary by body mass index, smoking status, menopausal status, or time between urine collection and diagnosis (all Pinteraction values ≥ 0.12). For example, the odds ratio for total breast cancer among women with ≤5 years between urine collection and diagnosis was 0.74 (Q4 vs. Q1; 95% CI: 0.45, 1.20; Ptrend = 0.09), and it was 1.20 (Q4 vs. Q1; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.98; Ptrend = 0.70) for women with >5 years. Our data do not support an overall association between urinary melatonin levels and breast cancer risk. PMID:25587174

  14. Fertility Therapies, Infertility and Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Nurses’ Health Study II

    PubMed Central

    Lyall, Kristen; Pauls, David L.; Spiegelman, Donna; Santangelo, Susan L.; Ascherio, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background An increasing number of women are utilizing fertility treatments, but little is known about their relation to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Methods To determine the association between maternal fertility therapy use and risk of having a child with ASD, we conducted a nested case-control study within the Nurses’ Health Study II (n = 116,430). Maternally reported diagnoses of ASD were confirmed through a supplementary questionnaire and, in a subgroup, the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. Controls were randomly selected by frequency matching to case children’s year of birth. Associations were examined by self-reported infertility and type of therapy using conditional logistic regression. Results In all, 9% of the 507 cases and 7% of 2,529 controls indicated fertility therapy use for the index pregnancy. No significant associations with self-reported fertility therapies or history of infertility were seen in primary analyses. In subgroup analyses of women with maternal age ≥35 years (n = 1,020), artificial insemination was significantly associated with ASD; ovulation inducing drug (OID) use was significantly associated in crude but not adjusted analyses (odds ratio 1.81, 95% CI 0.96–3.42). Results were similar by diagnostic subgroup, though within the advanced maternal age group, OID and artificial insemination were significantly associated with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder not-otherwise specified, but not autistic disorder. Conculsion Assisted reproductive therapy and history of infertility did not increase risk of having a child with ASD in this study. However, the associations observed with OID and artificial insemination among older mothers, for whom these exposures are more common, warrant further investigation. PMID:22686388

  15. Evaluating a Dental Diagnostic Terminology in an Electronic Health Record

    PubMed Central

    White, Joel M.; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Stark, Paul C.; Ramoni, Rachel L.; Vaderhobli, Ram; Walji, Muhammad F.

    2011-01-01

    Standardized treatment procedure codes and terms are routinely used in dentistry. Utilization of a diagnostic terminology is common in medicine, but there is not a satisfactory or commonly standardized dental diagnostic terminology available at this time. Recent advances in dental informatics have provided an opportunity for inclusion of diagnostic codes and terms as part of treatment planning and documentation in the patient treatment history. This article reports the results of the use of a diagnostic coding system in a large dental school’s predoctoral clinical practice. A list of diagnostic codes and terms, called Z codes, was developed by dental faculty members. The diagnostic codes and terms were implemented into an electronic health record (EHR) for use in a predoctoral dental clinic. The utilization of diagnostic terms was quantified. The validity of Z code entry was evaluated by comparing the diagnostic term entered to the procedure performed, where valid diagnosis-procedure associations were determined by consensus among three calibrated academically based dentists. A total of 115,004 dental procedures were entered into the EHR during the year sampled. Of those, 43,053 were excluded from this analysis because they represent diagnosis or other procedures unrelated to treatments. Among the 71,951 treatment procedures, 27,973 had diagnoses assigned to them with an overall utilization of 38.9 percent. Of the 147 available Z codes, ninety-three were used (63.3 percent). There were 335 unique procedures provided and 2,127 procedure/diagnosis pairs captured in the EHR. Overall, 76.7 percent of the diagnoses entered were valid. We conclude that dental diagnostic terminology can be incorporated within an electronic health record and utilized in an academic clinical environment. Challenges remain in the development of terms and implementation and ease of use that, if resolved, would improve the utilization. PMID:21546594

  16. The Australian health policy changes of 1999 and 2000: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Sandra; Zweifel, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This article evaluates three measures introduced by the Australian Federal Government in 1999 and 2000 that were designed to encourage private health insurance and relieve financial pressure on the public healthcare sector. These policy changes were (i) a 30% premium rebate, (ii) health insurers offering lifetime enrolment on existing terms and the future relaxation of premium regulation by permitting premiums to increase with age, and (iii) a mandate for insurers to offer complementary coverage for bridging the gap between actual hospital billings and benefits paid. These measures were first evaluated in terms of expected benefits and costs at the individual level. In terms of the first criteria, the policy changes as a whole may have been efficiency-increasing. The Australian Government mandate to launch gap policies may well have created a spillover moral hazard effect to the extent that full insurance coverage encouraged policy holders to also use more public hospital services, thus undermining the government's stated objective to relieve public hospitals from demand pressure. Without this spillover moral hazard effect, there might have been a reduction in waiting times in the public sector. Secondly, the measures were evaluated in terms of additional benchmarks of the cost to the public purse, access and equity, and dynamic efficiency. Although public policy changes were found to be largely justifiable on the first set of criteria, they do not appear to be justifiable based on the second set. Uncertainties and doubts remain about the effect of the policy changes in terms of overall cost, access and equity, and dynamic efficiency. This is a common experience in countries that have considered shifts of their healthcare systems between the private and public sectors. PMID:16466274

  17. Health information technology and health information exchange in New York State: new initiatives in implementation and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kern, Lisa M; Kaushal, Rainu

    2007-12-01

    More research is needed to understand the effects of health information technology (HIT) and health information exchange (HIE) on quality, safety, efficiency, finances, consumers and providers in community-based settings. New York State is investing heavily in HIT and HIE adoption through the HEAL NY program. It has already provided $53 million in seed money and requires that grantee organizations match the funds. HITEC (The Health Information Technology Evaluation Collaborative) was established to measure systematically the effects of HIT and HIE on consumers, providers, health care quality, patient safety, public health, and financial return on investment in New York State, as no individual grantee is able to conduct cross-cutting evaluations. The results of these evaluations should inform decisions made by leaders in HIT and HIE in New York State and across the nation. PMID:17945542

  18. Evaluating the performance of copula models in phase I-II clinical trials under model misspecification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditionally, phase I oncology trials are designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), defined as the highest dose with an acceptable probability of dose limiting toxicities(DLT), of a new treatment via a dose escalation study. An alternate approach is to jointly model toxicity and efficacy and allow dose escalation to depend on a pre-specified efficacy/toxicity tradeoff in a phase I-II design. Several phase I-II trial designs have been discussed in the literature; while these model-based designs are attractive in their performance, they are potentially vulnerable to model misspecification. Methods Phase I-II designs often rely on copula models to specify the joint distribution of toxicity and efficacy, which include an additional correlation parameter that can be difficult to estimate. We compare and contrast three models for the joint probability of toxicity and efficacy, including two copula models that have been proposed for use in phase I-II clinical trials and a simple model that assumes the two outcomes are independent. We evaluate the performance of the various models through simulation both when the models are correct and under model misspecification. Results Both models exhibited similar performance, as measured by the probability of correctly identifying the optimal dose and the number of subjects treated at the optimal dose, regardless of whether the data were generated from the correct or incorrect copula, even when there is substantial correlation between the two outcomes. Similar results were observed for a simple model that assumes independence, even in the presence of strong correlation. Further simulation results indicate that estimating the correlation parameter in copula models is difficult with the sample sizes used in Phase I-II clinical trials. Conclusions Our simulation results indicate that the operating characteristics of phase I-II clinical trials are robust to misspecification of the copula model but that a simple

  19. The Digital Health Divide: Evaluating Online Health Information Access and Use among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Amanda K.; Bernhardt, Jay M.; Dodd, Virginia; Vollrath, Morgan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Innovations in health information technology (HIT) provide opportunities to reduce health care spending, improve quality of care, and improve health outcomes for older adults. However, concerns relating to older adults' limited access and use of HIT, including use of the Internet for health information, fuel the digital health divide…

  20. Evaluating the WHO Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems by comparing mental health policies in four countries.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Hamada; Abanilla, Karen; Bauta, Besa; Huang, Keng-Yen

    2008-06-01

    Mental health is a low priority in most countries around the world. Minimal research and resources have been invested in mental health at the national level. As a result, WHO has developed the Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) to encourage countries to gather data and to re-evaluate their national mental health policy. This paper demonstrates the utility and limitations of WHO-AIMS by applying the model to four countries with different cultures, political histories and public health policies: Iraq, Japan, the Philippines and The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. WHO-AIMS provides a useful model for analysing six domains: policy and legislative framework; mental health services; mental health in primary care; human resources; education of the public at large; and monitoring and research. This is especially important since most countries do not have experts in mental health policy or resources to design their own evaluation tools for mental health systems. Furthermore, WHO-AIMS provides a standardized database for cross-country comparisons. However, limitations of the instrument include the neglect of the politics of mental health policy development, underestimation of the role of culture in mental health care utilization, and questionable measurement validity. PMID:18568276

  1. SU-E-J-35: Clinical Performance Evaluation of a Phase II Proton CT Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Mandapaka, A; Ghebremedhin, A; Farley, D; Giacometti, V; Vence, N; Bashkirov, V; Patyal, B; Schulte, R; Plautz, T; Zatserklyaniy, A; Johnson, R; Sadrozinski, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop the methodology to evaluate the clinical performance of a Phase II Proton CT scanner Methods: Range errors on the order of 3%-5% constitute a major uncertainty in current charged particle treatment planning based on Hounsfield Unit (HU)-relative stopping power (RSP) calibration curves. Within our proton CT collaboration, we previously developed and built a Phase I proton CT scanner that provided a sensitive area of 9 cm (axial) × 18 cm (in-plane). This scanner served to get initial experience with this new treatment planning tool and to incorporate lessons learned into the next generation design. A Phase II scanner was recently completed and is now undergoing initial performance testing. It will increase the proton acquisition rate and provide a larger detection area of 9 cm x 36 cm. We are now designing a comprehensive evaluation program to test the image quality, imaging dose, and range uncertainty associated with this scanner. The testing will be performed along the lines of AAPM TG 66. Results: In our discussion of the evaluation protocol we identified the following priorities. The image quality of proton CT images, in particular spatial resolution and low-density contrast discrimination, will be evaluated with the Catphan600 phantom. Initial testing showed that the Catphan uniformity phantom did not provide sufficient uniformity; it was thus replaced by a cylindrical water phantom. The imaging dose will be tested with a Catphan dose module, and compared to a typical cone beam CT dose for comparable image quality. Lastly, we developed a dedicated dosimetry range phantom based on the CIRS pediatric head phantom HN715. Conclusion: A formal evaluation of proton CT as a new tool for proton treatment planning is an important task. The availability of the new Phase II proton CT scanner will allow us to perform this task. This research is supported by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering of the NIH under award number R01

  2. Evaluation of line focus solar central power systems. Volume II. Systems evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-15

    An evaluation was completed to ascertain the applicability of line focus technologies to electrical power applications and to compare their performance and cost potential with point focus central receiver power systems. It was concluded that although the high temperature line focus (SRI) and fixed mirror line focus (GA) concepts duplicate the heat source characteristics and power conversion technology of the central receiver concepts these configurations do not offer a sufficient improvement in cost to warrant full scale development. The systems are, however, less complex than their point focus counterpart and should the central receiver system development falter they provide reasonable technology alternatives. The parabolic trough concept (BDM) was found to provide a low temperature technology alternative to the central receiver concept with promising performance and cost potential. Its continued development is recommended, with special emphasis on lower temperature (< 700/sup 0/F) applications. Finally, a variety of new promising line focus power system configurations were identified for a range of utility and industrial applications and recommendations were made on their implementation. This volume contains the detailed report. (WHK)

  3. Transcript for Evaluating Internet Health Information: A Tutorial

    MedlinePlus

    ... others The Physicians Academy for Better Health Web site is more likely to be a reliable source of information. Be sure to look for these clues as you search online. Your health could depend on it. We ...

  4. Synthesis, molecular docking and evaluation of antifungal activity of Ni(II),Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes of porphyrin core macromolecular ligand.

    PubMed

    Singh, Urvashi; Malla, Ali Mohammad; Bhat, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Bukhari, Mohd Nadeem; Bhat, Sneha; Anayutullah, Syed; Hashmi, Athar Adil

    2016-04-01

    Porphyrin core dendrimeric ligand (L) was synthesized by Rothemund synthetic route in which p-hydroxy benzaldehyde and pyrrole were fused together. The prepared ligand was complexed with Ni(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) ions, separately. Both the ligand and its complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic studies (FT-IR, UV-Vis, (1)HNMR). Square planar geometries were proposed for Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) ions in cobalt, Nickel and copper complexes, respectively on the basis of UV-Vis spectroscopic data. The ligand and its complex were screened on Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Aspergillus fumigatus (ATCC 1022), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (ATCC 9533) and Pencillium marneffei by determining MICs and inhibition zones. The activity of the ligand and its complexes was found to be in the order: CuL ˃ CoL ≈ NiL ˃ L. Detection of DNA damage at the level of the individual eukaryotic cell was observed by commet assay. Molecular docking technique was used to understand the ligand-DNA interactions. From docking experiment, we conclude that copper complex interacts more strongly than rest two. PMID:26911647

  5. Oral Health Promotion in Schools: Rationale and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kizito, Alex; Caitlin, Meredith; Wang, Yili; Kasangaki, Arabat; Macnab, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale and potential for the WHO health promoting schools (HPS) to improve children's oral health, and describe validated quantitative methodologies and qualitative approaches to measure program impact. Design/Methodology/Approach: Critical discussion of the impact of poor oral health and…

  6. Evaluation of a Health and Fitness Social Media Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimming, Renee E.; Polsgrove, Myles Jay; Bower, Glenna G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: University health and fitness faculty members are continually striving to enhance the health knowledge of their students. Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to survey student reflections of a social media experience. Methods: Students were placed into one of two groups: Learners (N = 92) or Pre-Service Health and Fitness…

  7. The evaluation of a multi-level oral health intervention to improve oral health practices among caregivers of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Steckler, Allan; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Lexomboon, Duangjai

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. This study reports the effects of a pilot multi-level oral health intervention on caregivers' oral health practices and their determinants. Quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest evaluations using a comparison group design were employed to evaluate the effectiveness of a proposed intervention for promoting caregiver oral health behavior. The intervention consisted of three components: home visits by lay health workers (LHWs), enhancing oral health education and services at health centers, and community mobilization. These components were designed to target factors at intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational and community levels based on a Social Ecological Model (SEM). Four oral health behaviors associated with early childhood caries (infant bottle feeding, tooth brushing, snack consumption and fluoride use), and multi-level determinants were assessed during pre- and post-tests. The one-year intervention demonstrated a positive effect on tooth brushing, using toothpaste, and fluoride supplements, but did not have a significant effect on bottle feeding and snack consumption among children. The intervention also had no effect on dental caries; in fact caries increased in both control and experimental groups. The caregiver knowledge, attitudes, outcome expectations, and self-efficacy towards these behaviors were significantly increased in the experimental group after intervention. Caregivers in the experimental group received greater social support by LHWs and health center staff than those in the control group (p < 0.001). The program had an impact on integrating oral health services at health centers and community participation in children's oral health. These findings confirm multi-level factors influence reported oral health behavior, but not outcomes in terms of caries. Process evaluation is needed to determine actual implementation levels, barriers and suggests for modification of the program in the future to improve outcomes in terms of caries. PMID

  8. Health literacy training for public health nurses in fukushima: a case-study of program adaptation, implementation and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Goto, Aya; Rudd, Rima E; Lai, Alden Yuanhong; Yoshida-Komiya, Hiromi

    2014-05-01

    Health literacy comprises not only an individual's ability to gain access to, understand and use health information, but also health care providers' ability to make health information accessible and usable. The Fukushima nuclear accident has posed challenges related to the communication of radiation-related health information. Public health nurses are gatekeepers of community health in Japan, and have primary responsibility for communicating this complex information about science and risk to lay members of the community. A health literacy training program was designed to augment communication skills of participating nurses with two primary goals: changing communication practices and norms among public health nurses, and improving access to information for community residents. Training content incorporated an overview of health literacy skills (including numeracy), processes for assessing written materials and visual displays, as well as guidelines for text improvement. The workshop was spread across two days with two-hour sessions each day. A proximal post-training evaluation survey was conducted, followed by a more distal one-month follow-up evaluation to assess the application of learned skills in practice. Twenty-six nurses in Fukushima City attended the first trial. Post-training evaluations were highly positive, with agreement from 85-100% of participants on the appropriateness and usefulness of the workshop. During a one-month follow-up, the nurses reported applying new knowledge and skills to develop written materials. However, they faced difficulties sharing their new skills with colleagues and challenges changing work norms. Participants also encountered difficulties using graphics and explaining risks in practice. This paper highlights the importance of providing health literacy training opportunities for professionals to strengthen health system's ability to accessible information and services. This program also serves as important reference for future

  9. [Evaluating quality and effectiveness in the promotion of health: approaches and methods of public health and social sciences].

    PubMed

    Deccache, A

    1997-06-01

    Health promotion and health education have often been limited to evaluation of the effectiveness of actions and programmes. However, since 1996 with the Third European Conference on Health Promotion and Education Effectiveness, many researchers have become interested in "quality assessment" and new ways of thinking have emerged. Quality assurance is a concept and activity developed in industry with the objective of increasing production efficiency. There are two distinct approaches: External Standard Inspection (ESI) and Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI). ESI involves establishing criteria of quality, evaluating them and improving whatever needs improvement. CQI views the activity or service as a process and includes the quality assessment as part of the process. This article attempts to answer the questions of whether these methods are sufficient and suitable for operationalising the concepts of evaluation, effectiveness and quality in health promotion and education, whether it is necessary to complement them with other methods, and whether the ESI approach is appropriate. The first section of the article explains that health promotion is based on various paradigms from epidemiology to psychology and anthropology. Many authors warn against the exclusive use of public health disciplines for understanding, implementing and evaluating health promotion. The author argues that in practice, health promotion: -integrates preventive actions with those aiming to maintain and improve health, a characteristic which widens the actions of health promotion from those of classic public health which include essentially an epidemiological or "risk" focus; -aims to replace vertical approaches to prevention with a global approach based on educational sciences; -involves a community approach which includes the individual in a "central position of power" as much in the definition of needs as in the evaluation of services; -includes the participation and socio-political actions

  10. Health Physics Code System for Evaluating Accidents Involving Radioactive Materials.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-10-01

    Version 03 The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes provide a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. The developer's website is: http://www.llnl.gov/nhi/hotspot/. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosivemore » release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Additional programs deal specifically with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. The FIDLER program can calibrate radiation survey instruments for ground survey measurements and initial screening of personnel for possible plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented in electronic help files. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Tables and graphical output can be directed to the computer screen, printer, or a disk file. The graphical output consists of dose and ground contamination as a function of plume centerline downwind distance, and radiation dose and ground contamination contours. Users have the option of displaying scenario text on the plots. HOTSPOT 3.0.1 fixes three significant Windows 7 issues: � Executable installed properly under "Program Files/HotSpot 3.0". Installation package now smaller: removed dependency on older Windows DLL files which previously needed to \\ � Forms now properly scale based on DPI instead of font for users who change their screen resolution to something other than 100%. This is a more common feature in Windows 7

  11. Health Physics Code System for Evaluating Accidents Involving Radioactive Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    Version 03 The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes provide a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. The developer's website is: http://www.llnl.gov/nhi/hotspot/. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Additional programs deal specifically with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. The FIDLER program can calibrate radiation survey instruments for ground survey measurements and initial screening of personnel for possible plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented in electronic help files. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Tables and graphical output can be directed to the computer screen, printer, or a disk file. The graphical output consists of dose and ground contamination as a function of plume centerline downwind distance, and radiation dose and ground contamination contours. Users have the option of displaying scenario text on the plots. HOTSPOT 3.0.1 fixes three significant Windows 7 issues: � Executable installed properly under "Program Files/HotSpot 3.0". Installation package now smaller: removed dependency on older Windows DLL files which previously needed to \\ � Forms now properly scale based on DPI instead of font for users who change their screen resolution to something other than 100%. This is a more common feature in Windows 7.

  12. DRAINMOD-N II: Evaluated for an agricultural system in Iowa and compared to RZWQM-DSSAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new simulation model for N dynamics, DRAINMOD-N II, has been previously evaluated for only a few sites. We evaluated the model using ten years (1996-2005) of measured data from a subsurface-drained, corn-soybean agricultural system near Story City, Iowa. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied to plots ...

  13. A Psychometric Evaluation of the STAI-Y, BDI-II, and PAI Using Single and Multifactorial Models in Young Adults Seeking Psychoeducational Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Benjamin D.; Musso, Mandi; Jones, Glenn N.; Pella, Russell D.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2013-01-01

    A psychometric evaluation on the measurement of self-report anxiety and depression using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Form-Y (STAI-Y), and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was performed using a sample of 534 generally young adults seeking psychoeducational evaluation at a university-based clinic.…

  14. Medical care for interned enemy aliens: a role for the US Public Health Service in World War II.

    PubMed

    Fiset, Louis

    2003-10-01

    During World War II, the US Public Health Service (USPHS) administered health care to 19 000 enemy aliens and Axis merchant seamen interned by the Justice Department through its branch, the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The Geneva Prisoners of War Convention of 1929, which the United States applied to civilian internees, provided guidelines for belligerent nations regarding humanitarian treatment of prisoners of war, including for their health. The INS forged an agreement with the USPHS to meet these guidelines for the German, Italian, and Japanese internees and, in some cases, their families. Chronic shortages and crowded camps continuously challenged USPHS administrators. Nevertheless, the USPHS offered universal access to care and provided treatment often exceeding care received by many American citizens. PMID:14534217

  15. Medical Care for Interned Enemy Aliens: A Role for the US Public Health Service in World War II

    PubMed Central

    Fiset, Louis

    2003-01-01

    During World War II, the US Public Health Service (USPHS) administered health care to 19 000 enemy aliens and Axis merchant seamen interned by the Justice Department through its branch, the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The Geneva Prisoners of War Convention of 1929, which the United States applied to civilian internees, provided guidelines for belligerent nations regarding humanitarian treatment of prisoners of war, including for their health. The INS forged an agreement with the USPHS to meet these guidelines for the German, Italian, and Japanese internees and, in some cases, their families. Chronic shortages and crowded camps continuously challenged USPHS administrators. Nevertheless, the USPHS offered universal access to care and provided treatment often exceeding care received by many American citizens. PMID:14534217

  16. Evaluating Public Health Interventions: 1. Examples, Definitions, and a Personal Note.

    PubMed

    Spiegelman, Donna

    2016-01-01

    In the first contribution to a new section in AJPH that will address critical methodological issues in evaluations of public health interventions, I will discuss topics in study design and analysis, covering the most innovative emerging methodologies and providing an overview of best practices. The methods considered are motivated by public health evaluations, both domestic and global. In this first contribution, I also define implementation science, program evaluation, impact evaluation, and cost-effectiveness research, disciplines that have tremendous methodological and substantive overlap with evaluation of public health interventions--the focus of this section. PMID:26562122

  17. Evaluating Public Health Interventions: 1. Examples, Definitions, and a Personal Note

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In the first contribution to a new section in AJPH that will address critical methodological issues in evaluations of public health interventions, I will discuss topics in study design and analysis, covering the most innovative emerging methodologies and providing an overview of best practices. The methods considered are motivated by public health evaluations, both domestic and global. In this first contribution, I also define implementation science, program evaluation, impact evaluation, and cost-effectiveness research, disciplines that have tremendous methodological and substantive overlap with evaluation of public health interventions—the focus of this section. PMID:26562122

  18. What is a health benefit? An evaluation of EFSA opinions on health benefits with reference to probiotics.

    PubMed

    Binnendijk, K H; Rijkers, G T

    2013-09-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms that have a beneficial effect on the health of the host. However, before these effects can be referred to as beneficial to human health, such claims need to be evaluated by regulatory institutes such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and allergies (NDA) has published their opinions regarding health claims including probiotics, most of which were rejected in the past years. Using the EFSA database, the NDA dossiers published between 2005 and 2013 were analysed to provide an overview on what grounds certain health effects were accepted as beneficial and others not. The NDA Panel distinguishes between claims that are definitely beneficial, possibly beneficial or non-beneficial to human health. Overall, 78% of all analysed health claims are considered by the NDA Panel as (possibly) beneficial to human health, in particular the gut health effects. Since, in many cases, the scientific substantiation of a particular health claim was deemed insufficient, most applications were turned down. For future health claim applications concerning probiotics to be successful, they should include specific statements on what exactly the microorganism affects, and the scientific substantiation of the particular health claim should be based on the targeted (general) population. PMID:23685375

  19. Use of social media in health promotion: purposes, key performance indicators, and evaluation metrics.

    PubMed

    Neiger, Brad L; Thackeray, Rosemary; Van Wagenen, Sarah A; Hanson, Carl L; West, Joshua H; Barnes, Michael D; Fagen, Michael C

    2012-03-01

    Despite the expanding use of social media, little has been published about its appropriate role in health promotion, and even less has been written about evaluation. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) outline purposes for social media in health promotion, (b) identify potential key performance indicators associated with these purposes, and (c) propose evaluation metrics for social media related to the key performance indicators. Process evaluation is presented in this article as an overarching evaluation strategy for social media. PMID:22382491

  20. Protocol—the RAMESES II study: developing guidance and reporting standards for realist evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Wong, Geoff; Jagosh, Justin; Greenhalgh, Joanne; Manzano, Ana; Westhorp, Gill; Pawson, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Realist evaluation is an increasingly popular methodology in health services research. For realist evaluations (RE) this project aims to: develop quality and reporting standards and training materials; build capacity for undertaking and critically evaluating them; produce resources and training materials for lay participants, and those seeking to involve them. Methods To achieve our aims, we will: (1) Establish management and governance infrastructure; (2) Recruit an interdisciplinary Delphi panel of 35 participants with diverse relevant experience of RE; (3) Summarise current literature and expert opinion on best practice in RE; (4) Run an online Delphi panel to generate and refine items for quality and reporting standards; (5) Capture ‘real world’ experiences and challenges of RE—for example, by providing ongoing support to realist evaluations, hosting the RAMESES JISCmail list on realist research, and feeding problems and insights from these into the deliberations of the Delphi panel; (6) Produce quality and reporting standards; (7) Collate examples of the learning and training needs of researchers, students, reviewers and lay members in relation to RE; (8) Develop, deliver and evaluate training materials for RE and deliver training workshops; and (9) Develop and evaluate information and resources for patients and other lay participants in RE (eg, draft template information sheets and model consent forms) and; (10) Disseminate training materials and other resources. Planned outputs: (1) Quality and reporting standards and training materials for RE. (2) Methodological support for RE. (3) Increase in capacity to support and evaluate RE. (4) Accessible, plain-English resources for patients and the public participating in RE. Discussion The realist evaluation is a relatively new approach to evaluation and its overall place in the is not yet fully established. As with all primary research approaches, guidance on quality assurance and uniform

  1. A long-term cephalometric evaluation of treated Class II division 2 malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Binda, S K; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Maertens, J K; van 't Hof, M A

    1994-08-01

    A retrospective study was conducted in order to evaluate post-retention changes of skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue variables in Class II division 2 malocclusions. Data were obtained from lateral cephalograms of children with Class II division 2 malocclusions which were taken before orthodontic treatment (T00; n = 81), post-retention (T0; n = 81), 2 years post-retention (T2; n = 65) and 5 years post-retention (T5; n = 44). A two-way ANOVA with sex and age as predictors was applied. Significant sex and age influences for the increments were mostly found during treatment (T00-T0), but especially for skeletal variables also during T0-T5. The changes over time were more pronounced for males than for females. The changes over time were less pronounced in older age groups. Sagittal and vertical facial dimensions were increased by growth and therapy. The skeletal Class II pattern was reduced significantly during T00-T0. Several skeletal variables indicated an anterior rotational growth pattern of the mandible post-retention. The interincisal angle and the overbite were reduced, and the upper incisors were torqued during treatment. The inclination of upper and especially lower incisors showed some relapse post-retention. The overbite and the interincisal angle increased significantly post-retention. The lip line was lowered during treatment. The soft-tissues showed horizontal and vertical growth during treatment while there were no remarkable changes afterwards. Due to growth the nose and the chin became more pronounced in the face.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7957655

  2. Spectroscopic evaluation for VO(II), Ni(II), Pd(II) and Cu(II) complexes derived from thiosemicarbazide: A special emphasis on EPR study and DNA cleavage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Metwally, Nashwa M.; Al-Hazmi, Gamil A. A.

    2013-04-01

    Some thiosemicarbazide complexes were prepared and deliberately investigated by all allowed tools. The ligand coordinates as a mono negative bidentate towards VO(II) and Ni(II) as well as a neutral bidentate towards Pd(II) and Cu(II) ions. Electronic spectral data beside the magnetic measurements facilitate the structural geometry proposal. EPR spectra of Cu(II) and VO(II) complexes were recorded in their solid state. Spin Hamiltonian parameters and molecular orbital coefficient for Cu(II) and VO(II) complexes were calculated and supporting the octahedral geometry of Cu(II) complex and a square pyramidal for VO(II) one. The biological activity investigation was studied by the use of all prepared compounds. The VO(II) and Cu(II) complexes display the susceptible biotoxicity against a gram-positive bacterium. Also, Cu(II) complex displays the same toxicity against gram-negative bacteria used. The effect of all compounds on DNA were photographed. A successive degradation for the DNA target was observed with Pd(II) and Ni(II) complexes beside their original ligand.

  3. Lessons from the Trenches: Meeting Evaluation Challenges in School Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Denny, George; Donnelly, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Background: Those involved in school health education programs generally believe that health-education programs can play an important role in helping young people make positive health decisions. Thus, it is to document the effects of such programs through rigorous evaluations published in peer-reviewed journals. Methods: This paper helps the…

  4. 38 CFR 1.17 - Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... relating to health effects of radiation exposure. 1.17 Section 1.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... health effects of radiation exposure. (a) From time to time, the Secretary shall publish evaluations of scientific or medical studies relating to the adverse health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in...

  5. An Evaluation of Participation in a Schools-Based Youth Mental Health Peer Education Training Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Aileen; Barry, James; Neary, Marie-Louise; Lane, Sabrina; O'Keeffe, Lynsey

    2016-01-01

    The use of peer education has been well documented within the discipline of health promotion, but not within the youth mental health domain. This paper describes an evaluation of an innovative schools-based peer education training programme that involved preparing young people to deliver a mental health workshop to their peers. Participants…

  6. Development and Evaluation of a Doctoral-Level Public Health Pedagogy Course for Graduate Student Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Alyssa M.; Sherwood-Laughlin, Catherine M.; Kearns, Katherine D.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation, and systematic evaluation of a public health pedagogy course for first-time graduate student instructors in a Health Behavior doctoral program at a Midwestern School of Public Health. The pedagogy course focused on intensive pedagogical training in the first 8 weeks of a 16-week semester and…

  7. Consumer Satisfaction: Its Role in the Evaluation of Mental Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Harvey

    Specific ways were investigated for using evaluative date generated from two consumer satisfaction surveys in two different mental health settings. The first survey, consisting of 225 randomly selected current consumers of mental health services from Rochester Mental Health Center in Rochester, New York, explored global satisfaction, structural…

  8. Evaluating measures to assess soil health in long-term agroecosystem trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring and assessing soil health is an important component of any land management system with a vision of sustaining soil resources. Soil organic matter(SOM)characteristics are key to soil health and responsive to tillage regime and crop management. As metrics of soil health, we evaluated surfac...

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new angiotensin II receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Zheng, H-l; Zhu, W-b; Wu, D; Da, Y-j; Yan, Y-J; Bian, J; Chen, Z-l

    2014-12-01

    The design, synthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of (2 R,6 S)-4-({1-[2-(1 H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl]-1 H-indol-4-yl}methyl)-2,6-dimethylmorpholine, compound 1, as a novel angiotensin II receptor antagonist is outlined. Radioligand binding assays showed that 1 displayed a high affinity for the angiotensin II type 1receptor with IC50 value of 0.82 nM. It acted as a potent anti-hypertensive derivative (maximal reduction of mean arterial pressure of 47 mm Hg at 10 mg/kg po in spontaneously hypertensive rat producing a dose-dependent fall in blood pressure following oral administration lasting beyond 10 h. Acute toxicity tests measured the LD50 of 1 value as 2431.7 mg/kg, which is higher than Losartan (LD50=2248 mg/kg). In addition further testing showed that 1 also demonstrated efficient anti-proliferative activity in vitro and anti-prostate cancer activity in vivo were also found. Taken together this compound could be considered as an effective and durable anti-hypertension drug candidate with additional anti-prostate cancer activity. These encouraging results are deserved of further investigation towards its use for therapeutic benefit. PMID:24573978

  10. Evaluation of particulate contamination under the storage environment of ADEOS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Nobunari

    2004-02-01

    Contamination monitoring of spacecrafts during ground processing operations is essential to maintain performance of optical systems. The cleanliness level of spacecrafts is usually evaluated by counting particles fall on collector plates, but the manual counting is taken a considerable time and subject to human errors. Computer-aided counting of particles was performed on silicon wafers with various cleanliness levels using a scanning laser microscope. It was possible to detect particles larger than 1μm. Number of deposited particles, μparticle size distribution, and area coverage were measured and the correlation between the surface cleanliness level and the area coverage was obtained within the range of cleanliness level from 250 to 800. Concurrently with laboratory measurement, the contamination monitoring of storage environment of ADEOS-II at Tanegashima Space Center was performed with collector plates. The area coverage of collector plates agreed very well with the results of the laboratory experiments. The chemical component analysis was also carried out to the particles accreted on the collector plates set in the ADEOS-II storage clean room by an electron probe micro-analyzer. It found that a maximum of 70% of the particles on collector plates were organic and these were thought to come from human sources. Fibrous particles accounted for 11% of measured particles. Moreover, the percentage of particles containing heavy metals was significantly higher than in outdoor environment.

  11. Professionalization of Evaluative Research: Conflict as a Sign of Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Ross F.; Dickman, Frances Baker

    1979-01-01

    Issues concerning the professionalization of evaluative research that are discussed in this reply to Morell and Flaherty include: the nature and substance of conflicts in evaluative research, conflicts over methodological perspectives, the role of the evaluator in program planning, and the appropriate uses and users of evaluative information.…

  12. Racism and Health II: A Needed Research Agenda for Effective Interventions.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the empirical evidence that suggests that there is a solid foundation for more systematic research attention to the ways in which interventions that seek to reduce the multiple dimensions of racism can improve health and reduce disparities in health. First, research reveals that policies and procedures that seek to reduce institutional racism by improving neighborhood and educational quality and enhancing access to additional income, employment opportunities and other desirable resources can improve health. Second, research is reviewed that shows that there is the potential to improve health through interventions that can reduce cultural racism at the societal and individual level. Finally, research is presented that suggests that the adverse consequences of racism on health can be reduced through policies that maximize the health-enhancing capacities of medical care, address the social factors that initiate and sustain risk behaviors and empower individuals and communities to take control of their lives and health. Directions for future research are outlined. PMID:24347667

  13. Racism and Health II: A Needed Research Agenda for Effective Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Mohammed, Selina A.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical evidence that suggests that there is a solid foundation for more systematic research attention to the ways in which interventions that seek to reduce the multiple dimensions of racism can improve health and reduce disparities in health. First, research reveals that policies and procedures that seek to reduce institutional racism by improving neighborhood and educational quality and enhancing access to additional income, employment opportunities and other desirable resources can improve health. Second, research is reviewed that shows that there is the potential to improve health through interventions that can reduce cultural racism at the societal and individual level. Finally, research is presented that suggests that the adverse consequences of racism on health can be reduced through policies that maximize the health-enhancing capacities of medical care, address the social factors that initiate and sustain risk behaviors and empower individuals and communities to take control of their lives and health. Directions for future research are outlined. PMID:24347667

  14. An Evaluation of a Voluntary Academic Medical Center Website Designed to Improve Access to Health Education among Consumers: Implications for E-Health and M-Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Hollingsworth, Nicole Rosella

    2012-01-01

    Academic Medical Centers across the United States provide health libraries on their web portals to disseminate health promotion and disease prevention information, in order to assist patients in the management of their own care. However, there is a need to obtain consumer input, consumer satisfaction, and to conduct formal evaluations. The purpose…

  15. An Evaluation of Partnerships for Early Childhood Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamblin, Sherry R.

    2013-01-01

    Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation (ECMHC) has been linked to increased teacher competence and efficacy, as well as increased social skills and decreased challenging behaviors for participating children (Green, 2009). Partnerships for Early Childhood Mental Health ("Partnerships") is an ECMHC program in Southeastern Ohio. This…

  16. Framework for Evaluating Efficacy in Health Promoting Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Albert; Keung, Vera Mei-wan; Lo, Amelia Siu-chee; Kwong, Amy Chi-ming; Armstrong, Erin Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Successful implementation of Health Promoting Schools (HPS) depends on putting the model in the schools' context for both health improvement and school improvement. HPS can only be effective if the change can be sustained over an extended duration. The purpose of this paper is to discuss development of the HPS process by University…

  17. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 98-0152-2729, Wolfeboro Public Safety Building, Wolfeboro, New Hampshire

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvain, D.; Echt, A.

    1999-03-01

    On March 17, 1998, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a Health Hazard Evaluation request (HHE) from the New Hampshire Department of Labor to conduct an evaluation of diesel exhaust exposure at the Wolfeboro Public Safety Building, in Wolfeboro, New Hampshire. The request indicated that Fire and Police personnel were exposed to diesel exhaust from fire apparatus. Asthmatic bronchitis was listed as a health problem resulting from this exposure. On June 23, 1998, NIOSH investigators, accompanied by an industrial hygienist from the New Hampshire Bureau of Health Risk Assessment, conducted an industrial hygiene evaluation at the Wolfeboro Public Safety Building.

  18. 76 FR 78661 - Correction for Draft Vieques Report: An Evaluation of Environmental, Biological, and Health Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... Register published a 30-day public comment period notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 77234) for the Draft Vieques Report: An Evaluation of Environmental, Biological, and Health Data From the Island of... Evaluation of Environmental, Biological, and Health Data From the Island of Vieques, PR AGENCY: Agency...

  19. Evaluation in Health Promotion: Principles and Perspectives. WHO Regional Publications, European Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rootman, Irving, Ed.; Goodstadt, Michael, Ed.; Hyndman, Brian, Ed.; McQueen, David V., Ed.; Potvin, Louise, Ed.; Springett, Jane, Ed.; Ziglio, Erio, Ed.

    This book includes a collection of papers on the theories, methodologies, and practice of health promotion initiatives in Europe and the Americas. The 23 chapters are: (1) "A Framework for Health Promotion Evaluation" (Irving Rootman, Michael Goodstadt, Louise Potvin, and Jane Springett); (2) "Beyond Process and Outcome Evaluation: A Comprehensive…

  20. National School Health Services Program Evaluation, 1981-1982 [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Howard; Meeker, Robert J.

    The National School Health Services Program Evaluation machine-readable data files (MRDF) are the result of a series of surveys conducted during the 1979-1980, 1980-1981, and 1981-1982 school years. The purpose of these surveys was to evaluate a demonstration health service program sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The principal…

  1. Using the RE-AIM framework to evaluate physical activity public health programs in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) public health programming has been widely used in Mexico; however, few studies have documented individual and organizational factors that might be used to evaluate their public health impact. The RE-AIM framework is an evaluation tool that examines individual and organizationa...

  2. Analytical performance evaluation of Anyplex II HPV28 and Euroarray HPV for genotyping of cervical samples.

    PubMed

    Latsuzbaia, Ardashel; Tapp, Jessica; Nguyen, Trung; Fischer, Marc; Arbyn, Marc; Weyers, Steven; Mossong, Joël

    2016-07-01

    Analytically accurate human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping methods are required to assess the impact of HPV vaccination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance of Anyplex II HPV28 (Seegene, Korea) and Euroarray HPV (Euroimmun, Germany) genotyping kits, for conducting a future HPV vaccine efficacy monitoring study in Luxembourg. A total number of 150 cervical swabs were collected from women with mean age 31.4 years. Agreements for detecting any HPV between Aptima/Anyplex (88.0%) and Aptima/Euroarray (90.7%) were similar. Agreement of Anyplex/EuroArray with Aptima was higher for Genotypes 16, 18 or 45 than for the other 11 HPVs. The average number of HPV genotypes detected per sample was similar with 2.6 and 2.5, for Anyplex and EuroArray, respectively. In conclusion, Anyplex and Euroarray showed high agreement in general and in particular for detecting genotypes contained in HPV vaccines. PMID:27156793

  3. Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Biological Properties of Heteroleptic Palladium(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Hizbullah; Daraz, Nek; Khan, Muhammad Nasim; Said, Muhammad; Akhtar, Nosheen; Badshah, Amin; Khan, Amir Sada; Ali, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Five heteroleptic palladium(II) complexes of the general formula Pd(PR3)(tu)Cl2, where PR3 = triphenylphosphine (1), diphenyl-o-tolylphosphine (2), diphenyl-p-tolylphosphine (3), diphenyl-t-butylphosphine (4), and diphenyl-o-methoxyphenylphosphine (5), and tu = 1,3-bis(2-methoxyphenyl) thiourea. They all have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques (elemental analysis, FTIR, and 1H NMR and the ligand 1,3-bis(2-methoxyphenyl) thiourea was synthesized by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique). The synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against four strains of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis). The antitumor potential was evaluated in terms of activity against brine shrimp eggs and DNA interaction. The mixed ligand complexes have exhibited moderate antibacterial activity and promising antitumor potential. PMID:25276113

  4. Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Biological Properties of Heteroleptic Palladium(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hizbullah; Daraz, Nek; Khan, Muhammad Nasim; Said, Muhammad; Akhtar, Nosheen; Badshah, Amin; Khan, Amir Sada; Ali, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Five heteroleptic palladium(II) complexes of the general formula Pd(PR3)(tu)Cl2, where PR3 = triphenylphosphine (1), diphenyl-o-tolylphosphine (2), diphenyl-p-tolylphosphine (3), diphenyl-t-butylphosphine (4), and diphenyl-o-methoxyphenylphosphine (5), and tu = 1,3-bis(2-methoxyphenyl) thiourea. They all have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques (elemental analysis, FTIR, and (1)H NMR and the ligand 1,3-bis(2-methoxyphenyl) thiourea was synthesized by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique). The synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against four strains of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis). The antitumor potential was evaluated in terms of activity against brine shrimp eggs and DNA interaction. The mixed ligand complexes have exhibited moderate antibacterial activity and promising antitumor potential. PMID:25276113

  5. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.; McMichael, G.; Chamness, M.

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. In addition, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2002, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Marine Fisheries Service. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to increase safe juvenile fish passage. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris should be improved at some sites.

  6. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vucelick, J.; McMichael, G.; Chamness, M.

    2004-05-01

    In 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service [NMFS]) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2003, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the NOAA Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve juvenile fish passage conditions. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites.

  7. Process Evaluation of an Integrated Health Promotion/Occupational Health Model in WellWorks-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Mary Kay; Lederman, Ruth; Stoddard, Anne M.; LaMontagne, Anthony D.; McLellan, Deborah; Combe, Candace; Barbeau, Elizabeth; Sorensen, Glorian

    2005-01-01

    Disparities in chronic disease risk by occupation call for new approaches to health promotion. WellWorks-2 was a randomized, controlled study comparing the effectiveness of a health promotion/occupational health program (HP/OHS) with a standard intervention (HP). Interventions in both studies were based on the same theoretical foundations. Results…

  8. Longitudinal Evaluation of Peer Health Education on a College Campus: Impact on Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sabina; Park, Yong S.; Israel, Tania; Cordero, Elizabeth D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated the longitudinal impact of peer health education on the health behaviors of undergraduate students pertaining to alcohol and drug use, eating and nutrition, and sexual health. Participants: From fall 2003 to spring 2006, the authors annually administered a Web-based survey to a cohort of 2,000 randomly selected…

  9. Strand I - Physical Health; Health Status for Grades K-3. Special Edition for Evaluation and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Curriculum Development Center.

    This health curriculum guide, intended for use with children in kindergarten through grade three, is based upon the discovery of the multi-dimensionality of the concept of health and fitness, with its physical, emotional, and social components. The contents of the guide are presented in outline form and cover health measurement, getting to know…

  10. Methods for thermodynamic evaluation of battery state of health

    DOEpatents

    Yazami, Rachid; McMenamin, Joseph; Reynier, Yvan; Fultz, Brent T

    2013-05-21

    Described are systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and battery systems and for characterizing the state of health of electrodes and battery systems. Measurement of physical attributes of electrodes and batteries corresponding to thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions permit determination of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and battery systems, such as energy, power density, current rate, cycle life and state of health. Also provided are systems and methods for charging a battery according to its state of health.

  11. Evaluation of SAGE II and Balloon-Borne Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements: Evaluation of Aerosol Measurements from SAGE II, HALOE, and Balloonborne Optical Particle Counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hervig, Mark; Deshler, Terry; Moddrea, G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol measurements from the University of Wyoming balloonborne optical particle counters (OPCs), the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, and the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) were compared in the period 1982-2000, when measurements were available. The OPCs measure aerosol size distributions, and HALOE multiwavelength (2.45-5.26 micrometers) extinction measurements can be used to retrieve aerosol size distributions. Aerosol extinctions at the SAGE II wavelengths (0.386-1.02 micrometers) were computed from these size distributions and compared to SAGE II measurements. In addition, surface areas derived from all three experiments were compared. While the overall impression from these results is encouraging, the agreement can change with latitude, altitude, time, and parameter. In the broadest sense, these comparisons fall into two categories: high aerosol loading (volcanic periods) and low aerosol loading (background periods and altitudes above 25 km). When the aerosol amount was low, SAGE II and HALOE extinctions were higher than the OPC estimates, while the SAGE II surface areas were lower than HALOE and the OPCS. Under high loading conditions all three instruments mutually agree to within 50%.

  12. Health evaluation of a pronghorn antelope population in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunbar, M.R.; Velarde, R.; Gregg, M.A.; Bray, M.

    1999-01-01

    During 1996 and 1997, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a study to determine the cause(s) of population decline and low survival of pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) fawns on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge (HMNAR) located in southeastern Oregon (USA). As part of that study, blood, fecal, and tissue samples from 104 neonatal fawns, 40 adult does, and nine adult male pronghorns were collected to conduct a health evaluation of the population. Physiological parameters related to nutrition and/or disease were studied. No abnormalities were found in the complete blood cell counts of adults (n = 40) or fawns (n = 44 to 67). Serum total protein and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were lower compared to other pronghorn populations. Does had mean BUN values significantly lower (P < 0.001) in December 1996 than March 1997. Serum copper (Cu) levels in does (range 0.39 to 0.74 ppm) were considered marginal when compared to domestic animals and other wild ungulates. Fawns had low (0.28 ppm) Cu levels at birth and reached the does' marginal values in about 3 days Whole blood, serum and liver selenium (Se) levels were considered marginal to low in most segments of the pronghorn population. However, serum levels of vitamin E (range 1.98 to 3.27 ??g/ml), as determined from the does captured in March, were apparently sufficient to offset any signs of Se deficiency. No clinical signs of Cu or Se deficiency were observed. Fifty-five of 87 dead fawns were necropsied. Trauma, due to predation by coyotes (Canis latrans), accounted for 62% of the mortality during mid-May to mid-July of each year. Other causes included predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) (4%), dystocia (2%), septicemic pasteurellosis (4%), starvation (5%), and unknown (23%). Adult females were tested for serum neutralizing antibodies to Brucella spp. (n = 20, negative), Leptospira interrogans (n = 20, negative), bluetongue virus (n = 20, 35% positive), epizootic hemorrhagic disease

  13. Change in the height of Korean children and adolescents: analysis from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey II and V

    PubMed Central

    Ryoo, Na Yung; Shin, Ha Young; Moon, Jin Soo; Lee, Chong Guk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The mean adult height of Koreans has increased since nationwide anthropological measurements began in 1967. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in heights of Korean late adolescents and young adults within and between the Second and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES II and V). Methods Koreans aged ≤22 years with available measurements of height were enrolled from the KNHANES surveys (KNHANES II: n=3,372 [1,732 males and 1,640 females]; KNHANES V: n=6,190 [3,198 males and 2,992 females]). Differences in the height of KNHANES respondents within and between surveys were evaluated according to age and sex. Results In KNHANES II, there was no significant difference in height between males aged 17-19 years and those aged 20-22 years (174.3±0.5 cm vs. 174.3±0.6 cm, P=0.995). Females aged 20-22 years were taller than those aged 17-19 years (159.8±0.4 cm vs. 161.0±0.4 cm, P=0.017). Females aged 17-19 years were significantly taller in KNHANES V than in KNHANES II (161.2±0.3 cm vs. 159.8±0.4 cm, P=0.004). Respondents aged 20-22 years were taller in KNHANES V than in KNHANES II, although not significantly so; the difference was 0.3±0.8 cm in males (P=0.721) and 0.5±0.6 cm in females (P=0.386). Conclusion Koreans appear to continue growing even in their late adolescence and early twenties. Consequently, it may be necessary to expand the reference age ranges of the Korean growth chart. Additionally, a longitudinal growth survey is needed to determine growth patterns and secular trend in height among Koreans. PMID:26512259

  14. [Evaluation of Livestock Carcasses and Performance.] Student Materials. V.A. III. [II-B-1 through II-B-2; II-D-1].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Part of a series of eight student learning modules in vocational agriculture, this booklet deals with evaluation of livestock. It contains sections on carcass evaluation, the evaluation of performance and production, and the design of livestock production facilities. Each of the first two sections has a glossary, and all three conclude with a…

  15. Evaluating Public Health Interventions: 4. The Nurses' Health Study and Methods for Eliminating Bias Attributable to Measurement Error and Misclassification.

    PubMed

    Spiegelman, Donna

    2016-09-01

    The Nurses' Health Study and many other large longitudinal cohorts around the world use the food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary intake over time, and to relate diet to health. Controversies concerning this questionnaire's ability to adequately measure diet have led to a flurry of methods for evaluating the magnitude of measurement error and misclassification in exposure assessment, and for correcting the point and interval estimates of effect on the basis of these assessment methods for this error. Nurses' Health Study investigators have been in the forefront of these developments and their applications, although hundreds of other investigators have also used them. This commentary provides an overview of the methods and their uses, and concludes with remarks on their potential applications in the evaluation of public health interventions. PMID:27509282

  16. Evaluating Public Health Interventions: 4. The Nurses’ Health Study and Methods for Eliminating Bias Attributable to Measurement Error and Misclassification

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Nurses’ Health Study and many other large longitudinal cohorts around the world use the food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary intake over time, and to relate diet to health. Controversies concerning this questionnaire’s ability to adequately measure diet have led to a flurry of methods for evaluating the magnitude of measurement error and misclassification in exposure assessment, and for correcting the point and interval estimates of effect on the basis of these assessment methods for this error. Nurses’ Health Study investigators have been in the forefront of these developments and their applications, although hundreds of other investigators have also used them. This commentary provides an overview of the methods and their uses, and concludes with remarks on their potential applications in the evaluation of public health interventions. PMID:27509282

  17. Multivitamins in the Prevention of Cancer in Men: The Physicians’ Health Study II Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gaziano, J. Michael; Sesso, Howard D.; Christen, William G.; Bubes, Vadim; Smith, Joanne P.; MacFadyen, Jean; Schvartz, Miriam; Manson, JoAnn E.; Glynn, Robert J.; Buring, Julie E.

    2012-01-01

    Context Multivitamin preparations are the most common dietary supplement, taken by at least one-third of all US adults. Limited observational studies have not provided evidence regarding associations of multivitamin use with total and site-specific cancer incidence or mortality. Objective To determine whether long-term multivitamin supplementation decreases the risk of total and site-specific cancer events among men. Design The Physicians’ Health Study II is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a common multivitamin that began in 1997 with treatment and follow-up through June 1, 2011. Setting and Participants A total of 14,641 male U.S. physicians initially aged ≥50 years (mean [± SD] age; 64.3 [± 9.2] years), including 1,312 men with a history of cancer at randomization, were enrolled. Intervention Daily multivitamin, as Centrum Silver. Main Outcome Measures A primary outcome was total cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer), with prostate, colorectal, and other site-specific cancers among secondary endpoints included in this report. Results During a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 11.2 (10.7 to 13.3) years, there were 2,669 men with confirmed cancer, including 1,373 cases of prostate cancer and 210 cases of colorectal cancer. Compared with placebo, men taking a daily multivitamin had a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of total cancer (active and placebo multivitamin groups, 17.0 and 18.3 events, respectively, per 1,000 person-years; hazard ratio [HR], 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86–0.998; P=0.044). There was no significant effect of a daily multivitamin on prostate cancer (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.88–1.09; P=0.76), colorectal cancer (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.68–1.17; P=0.39), or other site-specific cancers There was a lower risk of cancer mortality that did not reach statistical significance (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.77–1.01; P=0.07). Daily multivitamin use was associated with a reduction in total

  18. Petroleum and Health Care: Evaluating and Managing Health Care's Vulnerability to Petroleum Supply Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Bednarz, Daniel; Bae, Jaeyong; Pierce, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum is used widely in health care—primarily as a transport fuel and feedstock for pharmaceuticals, plastics, and medical supplies—and few substitutes for it are available. This dependence theoretically makes health care vulnerable to petroleum supply shifts, but this vulnerability has not been empirically assessed. We quantify key aspects of petroleum use in health care and explore historical associations between petroleum supply shocks and health care prices. These analyses confirm that petroleum products are intrinsic to modern health care and that petroleum supply shifts can affect health care prices. In anticipation of future supply contractions lasting longer than previous shifts and potentially disrupting health care delivery, we propose an adaptive management approach and outline its application to the example of emergency medical services. PMID:21778473

  19. Piezoelectric Sensor Evaluation for Structural Health Monitoring of Cryogenic Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lassiter, John; Engberg, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), and profiles piezoelectric sensors useful for SHM of cryogenic structures. The presentation also profiles impedance tests and other SHM tests conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  20. Improving Process Evaluations of Health Behavior Interventions: Learning From the Social Sciences.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Trimmer, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    This article reflects on the current state of process evaluations of health behavior interventions and argues that evaluation practice in this area could be improved by drawing on the social science literature to a greater degree. While process evaluations of health behavior interventions have increasingly engaged with the social world and sociological aspects of interventions, there has been a lag in applying relevant and potentially useful approaches from the social sciences. This has limited the scope for health behavior process evaluations to address pertinent contextual issues and methodological challenges. Three aspects of process evaluations are discussed: the incorporation of contexts of interventions; engagement with the concept of "process" in process evaluation; and working with theory to understand interventions. Following on from this, the article also comments on the need for new methodologies and on the implications for addressing health inequalities. PMID:24064427

  1. Health hazard evaluation report no. HHE-80-094-840, Ford Motor Company, San Jose, California

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, P.; Whorton, D.

    1981-03-01

    In March 1980 the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a request for a health hazard evaluation at Ford Motor Co., San Jose, CA. The request originated from an employee's concern for potential health effects, both short and long term, to approximately 60 workers from carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, benzene, ozone, dibutyl phthalates, and oil mist. The jobs evaluated were: Truck and Passenger Tow-In Operators, Road Test Operators, Start-Up Operators, Top-Off Operators, and Hood Adjustors. The health concerns mentioned in the request were lung damage, emphysema, petrochemical sensitivities, upper respiratory tract irritation, and heart disease. To evaluate these problems, NIOSH conducted an industrial hygiene and medical evaluation. Personal and area environmental samples were obtained during May and July 1980. Exhaust and make-up ventilation systems, as well as information collected from personal interviews with the employees, were also evaluated. The medical evaluation consisted of reviewing medical and personnel records and interviews.

  2. Evaluation of Training Effectiveness in the Spanish Health Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineda-Herrero, Pilar; Belvis, Esther; Moreno, Victoria; Duran-Bellonch, Maria M.; Ucar, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The evaluation of training results in large groups with limited resources is one of the challenges of organisations. This paper aims to provide a methodological approach to facilitate evaluation of training among large groups. The paper presents the tools and the results of an evaluation of a whole training plan on the rational use of…

  3. Programme costs in the economic evaluation of health interventions

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Benjamin; Baltussen, Rob; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Estimating the costs of health interventions is important to policy-makers for a number of reasons including the fact that the results can be used as a component in the assessment and improvement of their health system performance. Costs can, for example, be used to assess if scarce resources are being used efficiently or whether there is scope to reallocate them in a way that would lead to improvements in population health. As part of its WHO-CHOICE project, WHO has been developing a database on the overall costs of health interventions in different parts of the world as an input to discussions about priority setting. Programme costs, defined as costs incurred at the administrative levels outside the point of delivery of health care to beneficiaries, may comprise an important component of total costs. Cost-effectiveness analysis has sometimes omitted them if the main focus has been on personal curative interventions or on the costs of making small changes within the existing administrative set-up. However, this is not appropriate for non-personal interventions where programme costs are likely to comprise a substantial proportion of total costs, or for sectoral analysis where questions of how best to reallocate all existing health resources, including administrative resources, are being considered. This paper presents a first effort to systematically estimate programme costs for many health interventions in different regions of the world. The approach includes the quantification of resource inputs, choice of resource prices, and accounts for different levels of population coverage. By using an ingredients approach, and making tools available on the World Wide Web, analysts can adapt the programme costs reported here to their local settings. We report results for a selected number of health interventions and show that programme costs vary considerably across interventions and across regions, and that they can contribute substantially to the overall costs of

  4. The development of the intramural research program at the National Institutes of Health after World War II.

    PubMed

    Park, Buhm Soon

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the rise of the National Institutes of Health after World War II from the perspective of intramural scientists working at the NIH's main campus in Bethesda. Several postwar social circumstances-the local research tradition, the wartime experience of civilian scientists, the doctor draft, and anti-nepotism rules in academia-affected the recruitment of research-oriented scientists into the NIH. These historically contingent factors were no less important than the larger political, legislative context for the development of the NIH intramural program as a prominent research institution. PMID:12878809

  5. Psychometric evaluation of Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire: Spanish version.

    PubMed

    Wells, J N; Bush, H A; Marshall, D

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the psychometric properties of a culturally sensitive and theory-based instrument: the Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire. This instrument was translated into Spanish and back-translated at a third- to fourth-grade reading level. The pilot group consisted of 70 Hispanic women who attended a class at a local church. Subsequent to pilot testing, another 40 Hispanic women who attended a class at the local health department comprised the study sample. The participants responded to the 15-item questionnaire, which is formatted as a Likert scale. Content validity of the Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire was determined by a panel of experts. A factor analysis of this instrument showed five separate dimensions accounting for 71.82% of the instrument's variance. The three major components of self-regulation theory (schema, coping, and appraisal criteria) were found clustered within the first three dimensions after three items were discarded. The Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire demonstrated an internal consistency reliability coefficient of .7172. The psychometric properties of the Spanish version of this questionnaire warrant further research. The instrument may support a better understanding of the Hispanic woman's practice of breast health behavior. Eventually, the Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire may assist nurses in the formulation of culturally grounded interventions. PMID:11502042

  6. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Matthew

    2015-08-19

    This presentation covers data collected on two commercial laser stabilization systems, Guidestar-II and MRC, and two optical imaging systems. Additionally, general information about LCLS-II and how to go about continuing-testing is covered.

  7. Occupational health and safety: Designing and building with MACBETH a value risk-matrix for evaluating health and safety risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, D. F.; Oliveira, M. D.; Costa, C. A. Bana e.

    2015-05-01

    Risk matrices (RMs) are commonly used to evaluate health and safety risks. Nonetheless, they violate some theoretical principles that compromise their feasibility and use. This study describes how multiple criteria decision analysis methods have been used to improve the design and the deployment of RMs to evaluate health and safety risks at the Occupational Health and Safety Unit (OHSU) of the Regional Health Administration of Lisbon and Tagus Valley. ‘Value risk-matrices’ (VRMs) are built with the MACBETH approach in four modelling steps: a) structuring risk impacts, involving the construction of descriptors of impact that link risk events with health impacts and are informed by scientific evidence; b) generating a value measurement scale of risk impacts, by applying the MACBETH-Choquet procedure; c) building a system for eliciting subjective probabilities that makes use of a numerical probability scale that was constructed with MACBETH qualitative judgments on likelihood; d) and defining a classification colouring scheme for the VRM. A VRM built with OHSU members was implemented in a decision support system which will be used by OHSU members to evaluate health and safety risks and to identify risk mitigation actions.

  8. Effectiveness of an International Health Elective As Measured by NBME Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Wendy; And Others

    1976-01-01

    National Board of Medical Examiner's exam results show that U.S. medical students who participated between 1968 and 1974 in Yugoslav or Israeli international fellowship programs sponsored by the Association of American Medical Schools and the U.S. Public Health Service gained knowledge of preventive medicine and public health. (JT)

  9. Adoption of Soil Health Improvement Strategies by Australian Farmers: II. Impediments and Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, J. McL.; Cattle, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Many farmers remain hesitant to implement structured management plans and strategies tailored to address soil health, irrespective of mounting scientific evidence for the credibility of certain soil health indicators, an increase in the reporting of program benefits and progress in communicating these benefits. Hence, the purpose of this…

  10. Allied Health Occupations II. Physical Therapy Aide Component. Student Learning Guide. Middletown Public Schools Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middletown Public Schools, CT.

    This volume outlines the requirements and content of a second-year course in allied health occupations education that is designed to provide students with a practical understanding of the work done by physical therapists and physical therapy assistants. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: the health team for…

  11. Treating Attention in Mild Aphasia: Evaluation of Attention Process Training-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Laura L.; Keeton, R. Jessica; Karcher, Laura

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether attention processing training-II [Sohlberg, M. M., Johnson, L., Paule, L., Raskin, S. A., & Mateer, C. A. (2001). "Attention Process Training-II: A program to address attentional deficits for persons with mild cognitive dysfunction" (2nd ed.). Wake Forest, NC: Lash & Associates.; APT-II], when applied in the context of…

  12. The Factor Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanheule, Stijn; Desmet, Mattias; Groenvynck, Hans; Rosseel, Yves; Fontaine, Johnny

    2008-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a frequently used scale for measuring depressive severity. BDI-II data (404 clinical; 695 nonclinical adults) were analyzed by means of confirmatory factor analysis to test whether the factor structure model with a somatic-affective and cognitive component of depression, formulated by Beck and…

  13. A Conceptual Framework for Evaluation of Public Health and Primary Care System Performance in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jahanmehr, Nader; Rashidian, Arash; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Farzadfar, Farshad; Shariati, Mohammad; Majdzadeh, Reza; Sari, Ali Akbari; Mesdaghinia, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of this study was to design a conceptual framework, according to the policies and priorities of the ministry of health to evaluate provincial public health and primary care performance and to assess their share in the overall health impacts of the community. Methods: We used several tools and techniques, including system thinking, literature review to identify relevant attributes of health system performance framework and interview with the key stakeholders. The PubMed, Scopus, web of science, Google Scholar and two specialized databases of Persian language literature (IranMedex and SID) were searched using main terms and keywords. Following decision-making and collective agreement among the different stakeholders, 51 core indicators were chosen from among 602 obtained indicators in a four stage process, for monitoring and evaluation of Health Deputies. Results: We proposed a conceptual framework by identifying the performance area for Health Deputies between other determinants of health, as well as introducing a chain of results, for performance, consisting of Input, Process, Output and Outcome indicators. We also proposed 5 dimensions for measuring the performance of Health Deputies, consisting of efficiency, effectiveness, equity, access and improvement of health status. Conclusion: The proposed Conceptual Framework illustrates clearly the Health Deputies success in achieving best results and consequences of health in the country. Having the relative commitment of the ministry of health and Health Deputies at the University of Medical Sciences is essential for full implementation of this framework and providing the annual performance report. PMID:25946937

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of novel angiotensin II receptor 1 antagonists as anti-hypertension drugs.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiaolu; Zhu, Weibo; Zhang, Ruijing; Wen, Caihong; Wang, Li; Yan, Yijia; Tang, Hesheng; Chen, Zhilong

    2016-05-01

    Three new angiotensin II receptor 1 antagonists, 1, 2 and 3 were designed, synthesized and evaluated. The AT1 receptor-binding assays in vitro showed that all the synthesized compounds had nanomolar affinity for the AT1 receptor. From which compound 3 was found to be the most potent ligands with an IC50 value of 2.67±0.23 nM. Biological evaluation in vivo revealed that all the compounds could cause significant decrease on MBP in a dose dependent manner in spontaneously hypertensive rats, and compound 3 especially showed an efficient and long-lasting effect in reducing blood pressure, whose maximal response lowered 41 mmHg of MBP at 10mg/kg and 62 mmHg at 15 mg/kg after oral administration, the significant anti-hypertensive effect lasted beyond 12 h, which is better than the reference compound losartan. The pharmacokinetic experiments showed that compound 3 could be absorbed efficiently and metabolized smoothly both in blood and in tissues in Wistar rats. The acute toxicity assay suggested that it has low toxicity with the LD50 value of 2974.35 mg/kg. These results demonstrate that compound 3 is a potent angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist which could be considered as a novel anti-hypertension candidate and deserved for further investigation. PMID:27004954

  15. Groundwater contamination by PCE and TCE: ATSDR's approach to evaluating public health hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, B.K.; Susten, A.S.

    1999-07-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducts public health assessments and consultations that evaluate the potential health impacts from human exposure to hazardous substances and recommend appropriate actions needed to mitigate or prevent exposures. ATSDR has conducted health evaluations for more than 80 federal facilities. Eighteen sites involve human exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) or trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater. ATSDR uses a two-tiered approach to evaluate health hazard or risk from exposure. The first tier of analysis is described as a rote algorithmic determination of risk (RAD) and is used to screen exposure conditions that do not pose a health hazard under conservative assumptions of exposure. The second tier is a weight-of-evidence analysis that incorporates the traditional elements of risk assessment within the broader context of professional and biomedical health hazard for exposure pathways involving groundwater contamination at federal facilities.

  16. Clinical evaluation of the ZstatFlu-II test: a chemiluminescent rapid diagnostic test for influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Marilyn S; Abel, David M; Ballam, Yolanda J; Otto, Mary K; Nickell, Angela F; Pence, Lisa M; Appleman, James R; Shimasaki, Craig D; Achyuthan, Komandoor E

    2002-07-01

    Exploiting the high sensitivity of the chemiluminescence phenomenon, an accurate and sensitive point-of-care test, called the ZstatFlu-II test (ZymeTx, Inc., Oklahoma City, Okla.), was developed to detect influenza virus infections. The ZstatFlu-II test takes 20 min and requires approximately 2 min of "hands-on" time for operational steps. The ZstatFlu-II test does not distinguish between infections with influenza virus types A and B. ZstatFlu-II test results are printed on Polaroid High-Speed Detector Film, allowing test results to be archived. A prototype version of the ZstatFlu-II test was evaluated during the 2000-to-2001 flu season with 300 nasal aspirate specimens from children at a pediatric hospital. Compared to culture, the ZstatFlu-II test had 88% sensitivity and 92% specificity. The Directigen test had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 93%. The sensitivity of the ZstatFlu-II test was significantly higher than that of the Directigen test (P < 0.0574). PMID:12089243

  17. Economic Evaluation of Mental Health Interventions: A Guide to Costing Approaches.

    PubMed

    Shearer, James; McCrone, Paul; Romeo, Renee

    2016-07-01

    Costing approaches in the economic evaluation of mental health interventions are complicated by the broad societal impacts of mental health, and the multidisciplinary nature of mental health interventions. This paper aims to provide a practical guide to costing approaches across a wide range of care inputs and illness consequences relevant to the treatment of mental health. The resources needed to deliver mental health interventions are highly variable and depend on treatment settings (institutional, community), treatment providers (medical, non-medical) and formats (individual, group, electronic). Establishing the most appropriate perspective is crucial when assessing the costs associated with a particular mental health problem or when evaluating interventions to treat them. We identify five key cost categories (social care, informal care, production losses, crime and education) impacted by mental health and discuss contemporary issues in resource use measurement and valuation, including data sources and resource use instruments. PMID:26922076

  18. Evaluation of dynamic target options for dual axis radiography hydrotest facility II (DARHT II) and advanced hydrotest facility (AHF) programs

    SciTech Connect

    Krogh, M; Neurath, R; Sampayan, S; Sanders, D

    1999-03-01

    Initial results indicate that electron beams hitting targets used to generate x-rays during multipulse operation in advanced radiography facilities will generate plasma plumes which will disturb the electron beam during subsequent pulses. This, in turn, degrades the x-ray spot quality generated by the subsequent pulses. If this concern is substantiated, new facilities such as the Dual Axia Radiography Hydrotest Facility (DARHT II) and the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF) will need a provision for mitigating this effect. one such provision involves moving the target with sufficient velocity that any plasmas formed are carried adequately far from the electron beam that they do not disturb it. They report the various approaches which have been considered and present data showing the maximum target rates which can be achieved with each approach.

  19. Clinical guidelines in pediatric headache: evaluation of quality using the AGREE II instrument

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) tool is a validated questionnaire used to assess the methodological quality of clinical guidelines (CGs). We used the AGREE II tool to assess the development process, the methodological quality, and the quality of reporting of available pediatric CGs for the management of headache in children. We also studied the variability in responses related to the characteristics of eleven Italian neuropediatric centers, showing similarities and differences in the main recommendations reported in CGs. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted from January 2002 to June 2013 on Mediline, the Cochrane database, the National Guideline Clearinghouse website and the NHS evidence search tool, using the following terms: headache, cephalalgia, guidelines and children (MESH or text words). Six CGs providing information on the diagnosis and management of headache and specific recommendations for children were selected. Eleven neuropediatric centers assessed the overall quality and the appropriateness of all available CGs using of the AGREE II instrument. Results Six CGs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified and assessed by 11 reviewers. Our study showed that the NICE CGs was “strongly recommended” while the French and Danish CGs were mainly “not recommended”. The comparison between the overall quality score of the French CGs and the NICE CGs was statistically significant (6.54 ± 0.69 vs 4.18 ± 1.08; p =0.001). The correlation analysis between quality domain score and guideline publication date showed a statistically significant association only for the “editorial independence” domain (r = 0.842 p = 0.035). The intra-class coefficients showed that the 11 reviewers had the highest agreement for the Lewis CGs (r = 0.857), and the lowest one for the NICE CGs (r = 0.656). Statistical analyses showed that professionals from outpatient services

  20. Vitamins E and C in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Men: The Physicians’ Health Study II Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sesso, Howard D.; Buring, Julie E.; Christen, William G.; Kurth, Tobias; Belanger, Charlene; MacFadyen, Jean; Bubes, Vadim; Manson, JoAnn E.; Glynn, Robert J.; Gaziano, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Context Basic and observational studies suggest vitamins E or C may reduce risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, few long-term trials have evaluated men at initially low risk of CVD, and no previous trial in men has examined vitamin C alone in the prevention of CVD. Objective To test whether long-term vitamin E or C supplementation decreases risk of major cardiovascular events among men. Design, Setting, and Participants The Physicians’ Health Study II (PHS II) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled factorial trial of vitamins E and C that began in 1997 and continued until its scheduled completion on August 31, 2007. We enrolled 14,641 U.S. male physicians initially aged ≥50 years, including 754 (5.1%) men with prevalent CVD at randomization. Intervention Individual supplements of 400 IU vitamin E every other day and 500 mg vitamin C daily. Main Outcome Measures A composite endpoint of major cardiovascular events (nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), nonfatal stroke, and CVD death). Results During a mean follow-up of 8.0 years, there were 1,245 confirmed major cardiovascular events. Compared with placebo, vitamin E had no effect on the incidence of major cardiovascular events (both active and placebo vitamin E groups, 10.9 events per 1,000 person-years; hazard ratio [HR], 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90–1.13; P=0.86), as well as total MI (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.75–1.07; P=0.22), total stroke (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.89–1.29; P=0.45), and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.90–1.29; P=0.43). There was also no significant effect of vitamin C on major cardiovascular events (active and placebo vitamin E groups, 10.8 and 10.9 events per 1,000 person-years, respectively; HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.89–1.11; P=0.91), as well as total MI (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.87–1.24; P=0.65), total stroke (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.74–1.07; P=0.21), and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.85–1.21; P=0.86). Neither vitamin E (HR, 1.07; 95% CI

  1. Evaluating interprofessional learning modules: health students' attitudes to interprofessional practice.

    PubMed

    Wakely, Luke; Brown, Leanne; Burrows, Julie

    2013-09-01

    Interprofessional learning opportunities are thought to assist health students to work in a more collaborative, patient focussed manner during their career. In line with this thinking, the University of Newcastle's Department of Rural Health delivers monthly interprofessional learning modules (ILMs) to students on a range of health topics. Students' attitudes towards interprofessional learning were assessed pre- and post-ILM, using the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning scale (RIPLS). Thirty-eight students completed both pre- and post-surveys with a return rate of 36%. Our results demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in students' attitudes to interprofessional learning in three of four domains. Based on the findings from this study, ILMs appear to be a worthwhile educational opportunity and may improve student attitudes to interprofessional learning in the short term. PMID:23672605

  2. [Quality and subjectivity in the evaluation of health services and programs].

    PubMed

    Uchimura, Kátia Yumi; Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2002-01-01

    This essay focuses on the evaluation of health programs and services, emphasizing the subjectivity emerging from the evaluation process. The text is a theoretical construction that targets the various meanings of evaluation, the influence of the positivist paradigm on the field of health program and service evaluation, the polysemous nature of the term "quality", and its close overlapping with subjectivity. In addition, the authors highlight the importance of studies that incorporate the perspectives of social actors into the evaluation processes, recommending qualitative social research methodology as a productive instrument. PMID:12488882

  3. Evaluation of Home Health Care Devices: Remote Usability Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background An increasing amount of health care is now performed in a home setting, away from the hospital. While there is growing anecdotal evidence about the difficulty patients and caregivers have using increasingly complex health care devices in the home, there has been little systematic scientific study to quantify the global nature of home health care device usability in the field. Research has tended to focus on a handful of devices, making it difficult to gain a broad view of the usability of home-care devices in general. Objective The objective of this paper is to describe a remote usability assessment method using the System Usability Scale (SUS), and to report on the usability of a broad range of health care devices using this metric. Methods A total of 271 participants selected and rated up to 10 home health care devices of their choice using the SUS, which scores usability from 0 (unusable) to 100 (highly usable). Participants rated a total of 455 devices in their own home without an experimenter present. Results Usability scores ranged from 98 (oxygen masks) to 59 (home hormone test kits). An analysis conducted on devices that had at least 10 ratings showed that the effect of device on SUS scores was significant (P<.001), and that the usability of these devices was on the low end when compared with other commonly used items in the home, such as microwave ovens and telephones. Conclusions A large database of usability scores for home health care devices collected using this remote methodology would be beneficial for physicians, patients, and their caregivers. PMID:27025664

  4. Evaluation of NOC standardized outcome of "health seeking behavior" in nurse-managed clinics.

    PubMed

    Macnee, Carol L; Edwards, Joellen; Kaplan, Amy; Reed, Sue; Bradford, Susanne; Walls, Jennie; Schaller-Ayers, Jennifer M

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the accomplishment of the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) outcome "Health Seeking Behavior" in 5 nurse-managed clinics. Nurse practitioners and registered nurses rated patients on 11 indicators of health seeking behaviors, and recorded their level of knowledge of the patient. A total of 556 evaluations were collected. Health seeking behavior scores were lowest in a rural county school-based clinic and highest in a federally qualified health center. Ratings increased with nurses' knowledge of patients and for older patients. PMID:16816605

  5. Evaluation of health determinants for sustaining workability in aging US workforce.

    PubMed

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Karch, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Growth of older population in United States requires multi-generational evaluation to characterize health measures for sustaining workability. Investigation of measures that working population would need and use with their work-life in an attempt to stay healthy and fit, could potentially reveal significant association that could extend workability and enhance work productivity such as performance, presenteeism, job satisfaction. Evaluation with selective longitudinal health profiling; employment prerequisites; socio-economic and psychological scales could characterize health measures significantly associated with work sustainability. Such health measures could potentially be employed by US working population early in their life and occupation to sustain and improve workability in their later epoch. PMID:25285260

  6. Business models for cost effective use of health information technologies: lessons learned in the CHCS II project.

    PubMed

    Riley, David L

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has embarked on an initiative to create an electronic medical record for all of its eligible beneficiaries. The Clinical Information Technology Program Office (CITPO) is the joint-service program office established to centrally manage this multi-year project. The Composite Health Care System II (CHCS II) is the name of the system under development. Given the historical failure rate of large-scale government information system projects, CITPO has employed an incremental acquisition approach and striven to use industry best practices to the greatest degree possible within the constraints of federal acquisition law. Based on lessons learned during the concept exploration phase of this project, CITPO, in partnership with Integic Corporation, the prime integration contractor, has reengineered its software acquisition process to include industry best practices. The result of this reengineering process has resulted in a reduction of the total projected life cycle costs for CHCS II from the original estimate of $7.6 billion over a 14-year period to between $3.9 and $4.3 billion. PMID:15455852

  7. Adapting the Empowerment Evaluation Model: A Mental Health Drop-In Center Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullins, Carolyn D.

    2003-01-01

    Empowerment evaluation involves a program's stakeholders in designing and implementing an evaluation of their own program, thus contributing to the program's improvement and self-determination (Fetterman, 1994, 1996). It appeared to be an appropriate approach for evaluating a mental health drop-in center, which had congruent goals of collaboration…

  8. Beyond Resistance: Exploring Health Managers' Propensity for Participatory Evaluation in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Pernelle A.; Champagne, Francois; Farand, Lambert

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of interventions is becoming increasing common and now often seeks to involve managers in the process. Such practical participatory evaluation (PPE) aims to increase the use of evaluation results through the participation of stakeholders. This study focuses on the propensity of health managers for PPE, as measured through the…

  9. Project Health: Evaluation of a Project-Based Health Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusevics, Kaija L.; Lemke, Melissa A.; Harley, Amy E.; Florsheim, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Milwaukee has very high rates of risky sexual behavior and low rates of academic achievement among adolescents. Milwaukee school representatives partnered with researchers to create and implement an innovative project-based learning (PBL) high school health curriculum to engage students in school. This health education program, Project…

  10. Quality and Safety in Health Care, Part II: Three Early Reports on Quality.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay A

    2015-09-01

    The 1990 Institute of Medicine report Medicare: A Strategy for Quality Assurance offered a definition of quality in health care and recommendations on how to achieve it. The forces for change would include different activities by the federal government, informed consumers, professionalism, and private initiatives. Eight years later, the National Roundtable report Statement on Quality of Care indicated that there were major problems of underuse, overuse, and misuse of health care services. In the same year, the President's Advisory Commission report Quality First: Better Health Care for All Americans discussed major problems with health care and proposed many initiatives to correct them, and also recommended a Bill of Rights and Responsibilities for the patients. PMID:26244402

  11. Complexity and reflexivity: two important issues for economic evaluation in health care.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Chantale

    2007-04-01

    Economic evaluations are analytic techniques to assess the relative costs and consequences of health care programmes and technologies. Their role is to provide rigorous data to inform the health care decision-making process. Economic evaluation may oversimplify complex health care decisions. These analyses often ignore important health consequences, contextual elements, relationships or other relevant modifying factors, which might not be appropriate in a multi-objective, multi-stakeholder issue. One solution would be to develop a new paradigm based on the issues of perspective and context. Complexity theory may provide a useful conceptual framework for economic evaluation in health care. Complexity thinking develops an awareness of issues including uncertainty, contextual issues, multiple perspectives, broader societal involvement, and transdisciplinarity. This points the economic evaluation field towards an accountability and epistemology based on pluralism and uncertainty, requiring new forms of lay-expert engagement and roles of lay knowledge into decision-making processes. This highlights the issue of reflexivity in economic evaluation in health care. A reflexive approach would allow economic evaluators to analyze how objective structures and subjective elements influence their practices. In return, this would point increase the integrity and reliability of economic evaluations. Reflexivity provides opportunities for critically thinking about the organization and activities of the intellectual field, and perhaps the potential of moving in new, creative directions. This paper argues for economic evaluators to have a less positivist attitude towards what is useful knowledge, and to use more imagination about the data and methodologies they use. PMID:17258367

  12. An Evaluation of an Occupational Health Advice Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearn, P.; Ford, Norma J.; Murphy, R. G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this article is to identify the profile of service users of an occupational health (OH) support service and establish areas of need, and to gather client feedback on the experience of participating in the support service and perceived outcomes and the impact of the advice received. Design and Setting: We carried out…

  13. Genomic evaluation of health traits in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is growing interest from dairy producers in traits related to health and fitness of cattle, which often have low heritabilities but high economic values. Traits with low heritability can be improved by genetic selection, but large numbers of daughter records are required to produce predicted t...

  14. Health Literacy Instruction and Evaluation among Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Betty; Rainey, Jacquie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use, poor eating habits, and physical inactivity are the modifiable risk behaviors most associated with the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Because these risk behaviors are established during adolescence, the nation's schools are uniquely positioned to develop health literacy in students.…

  15. Evaluating integrated health care: a model for measurement

    PubMed Central

    Ahgren, Bengt; Axelsson, Runo

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Purpose In the development of integrated care, there is an increasing need for knowledge about the actual degree of integration between different providers of health services. The purpose of this article is to describe the conceptualisation and validation of a practical model for measurement, which can be used by managers to implement and sustain integrated care. Theory The model is based on a continuum of integration, extending from full segregation through intermediate forms of linkage, coordination and cooperation to full integration. Methods The continuum was operationalised into a ratio scale of functional clinical integration. This scale was used in an explorative study of a local health authority in Sweden. Data on integration were collected in self-assessment forms together with estimated ranks of optimum integration between the different units of the health authority. The data were processed with statistical methods and the results were discussed with the managers concerned. Results Judging from this explorative study, it seems that the model of measurement collects reliable and valid data of functional clinical integration in local health care. The model was also regarded as a useful instrument for managers of integrated care. Discussion One of the main advantages with the model is that it includes optimum ranks of integration beside actual ranks. The optimum integration rank between two units is depending on the needs of both differentiation and integration. PMID:16773158

  16. Evaluation of Outpatient Treatment Program on 20 Mental Health Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, M. Wayne; Lloyd, Paul; Johnson, Judith L.; McCuan, Richard A.

    As a component of a consulting engagement with a Midwestern comprehensive mental health center, an Outpatient Assessment Questionnaire (OAQ) was administered pre-post to 124 outpatient clients in a three month time series design. These comparisons yielded significant changes on thirteen of the twenty dimensions, including general affect, positive…

  17. Evaluating the Science of Discovery in Complex Health Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Cameron D.; Best, Allan; Mortimer, Sharon; Huerta, Timothy; Buchan, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Complex health problems such as chronic disease or pandemics require knowledge that transcends disciplinary boundaries to generate solutions. Such transdisciplinary discovery requires researchers to work and collaborate across boundaries, combining elements of basic and applied science. At the same time, calls for more interdisciplinary health…

  18. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN DEEP AQUIFER MEDIA - PHASE II

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj Gupta; Bruce Sass; Jennifer Ickes

    2000-11-28

    In 1998 Battelle was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under a Novel Concepts project grant to continue Phase II research on the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in deep saline formations. The focus of this investigation is to conduct detailed laboratory experiments to examine factors that may affect chemical sequestration of CO{sub 2} in deep saline formations. Reactions between sandstone and other geologic media from potential host reservoirs, brine solutions, and CO{sub 2} are being investigated under high-pressure conditions. Some experiments also include sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) gases to evaluate the potential for co-injection of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} related gases in the deep formations. In addition, an assessment of engineering and economic aspects is being conducted. This current Technical Progress Report describes the status of the project as of September 2000. The major activities undertaken during the quarter included several experiments conducted to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature, time, and brine composition on rock samples from potential host reservoirs. Samples (both powder and slab) were taken from the Mt. Simon Sandstone, a potential CO{sub 2} host formation in the Ohio, the Eau Claire Shale, and Rome Dolomite samples that form the caprock for Mt. Simon Sandstone. Also, a sample with high calcium plagioclase content from Frio Formation in Texas was used. In addition, mineral samples for relatively pure Anorthite and glauconite were experimented on with and without the presence of additional clay minerals such as kaolinite and montmorillonite. The experiments were run for one to two months at pressures similar to deep reservoirs and temperatures set at 50 C or 150 C. Several enhancements were made to the experimental equipment to allow for mixing of reactants and to improve sample collection methods. The resulting fluids (gases and liquids) as

  19. Review of US Department of Energy health and environmental research and development program support to SRC-II technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, M.J.; Fillo, J.P.; Kreisher, J.H.; Sgro, G.A.

    1980-07-01

    This document outlines the technical framework of DOE's overall synthetic fuels health and environmental characterization program. Current project environmental activities directly associated with SRC-II technology development are summarized for the convenience of the Environmental Impact Statement reviewers. An extended, technically detailed statement of the SRC-II health and environmental program, activities, and plans was released in late 1980, as part of the final Environmental Impact Statement of the SRC-II Demonstration Project. Program development is necessarily iterative. Early screening results on a small scale equipment suggest the need for further screening studies on a larger-scale system. Results of screening studies set the priorities for more extensive and costly long-term baseline biological and ecological studies. Parametric studies establish the sensitivity of measured screening and baseline characteristics to changes in processing conditions and also provide a basis for correlating low- and high-tier biological and ecological test information. Monitoring system development is stimulated by findings in screening and baseline characterization efforts. Choice of monitoring systems is dependent upon screening and baseline biological and ecological test results and results of initial site analyses. As a result, the overall characterization program necessarily emerges in phases, each with a distribution of activities in the four component areas. Characterization efforts on PDU- and pilot-scale equipment focus on screening and baseline studies of steady state and non-steady state production. At the demonstration scale, these activities are expanded to include extensive monitoring and the investigation of large-scale steady state and non-steady state effluent production and control characteristics.

  20. [Evaluation of the capacity for governance of a State Health Department in monitoring and evaluation of basic health care provision--lessons learned].

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Juliana; de Carvalho, Eduardo Maia Freese; Pereira, Gladys Fernanda Coelho; de Mello, Fernanda Maria Bezerra

    2011-01-01

    The decentralization of the SUS requires state health departments to assume new powers as the monitoring and evaluation of Basic Care. This article aims to evaluate the "capacity for governance" of a State Health Northeastern Brazilian Department in monitoring and evaluation of Basic Care. From the technical cooperation held via component III of Proesf, key health care managers were interviewed, strategical documents were analyzed, and participatory observation of activities was carried out at a training centre, with a "contend analysis" procedure. Among the results, are: absence of "government project", problems of physical infrastructure, human resources and material, with low professional qualification in the use of information systems, monitoring and evaluation, and strategic planning, promoting and fragile bureaucratic work use of epidemiological data. In 2006, the Department used federal resources to strengthen the monitoring and evaluation of primary care by expanding its physical infrastructure, acquiring equipment and training for staff, without investing its own resource. To conclude, the Health Department has experienced difficulties in adjusting to decentralization, with the introduction of new working procedures into the institution. PMID:21180835

  1. Health effects model for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part I. Introduction, integration, and summary. Part II. Scientific basis for health effects models

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs.

  2. Estimating productivity costs in health economic evaluations: a review of instruments and psychometric evidence.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Health economic evaluations (i.e. cost-effectiveness appraisal of an intervention) are useful aids for decision makers responsible for the allocation of scarce healthcare resources. The relevance of including health-related productivity costs (or benefits) in these evaluations is increasingly recognized and, as such, reliable and valid instruments to quantify productivity costs are needed. Over the years, a number of work productivity instruments have emerged in the literature, along with a growing body of psychometric evidence. The overall aim of this paper is to provide a review of available instruments with potential for estimating health-related productivity costs. This included the Health and Labor Questionnaire, Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, Health-Related Productivity Questionnaire Diary, Productivity and Disease Questionnaire, Quantity and Quality method, Stanford Presenteeism Scale 13, Valuation of Lost Productivity, Work and Health Interview, Work Limitations Questionnaire, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire, and Work Productivity Short Inventory. Critical discussions on the instruments' overall strengths and limitations, applicability for health economic evaluations, as well as the methodological quality of existing psychometric evidence were provided. Lastly, a set of reflective questions were proposed for users to consider when selecting an instrument for health economic evaluations. PMID:25169062

  3. Validation of an instrument to evaluate health promotion at schools

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Raquel Oliveira; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Fontoura, Larissa do Prado; Poletto, Simone; Grapiglia, Valenca Lemes; Balbinot, Alexandre Didó; Teixeira, Vanessa Andina; Horta, Rogério Lessa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate an instrument designed to assess health promotion in the school environment. METHODS A questionnaire, based on guidelines from the World Health Organization and in line with the Brazilian school health context, was developed to validate the research instrument. There were 60 items in the instrument that included 40 questions for the school manager and 20 items with direct observations made by the interviewer. The items’ content validation was performed using the Delphi technique, with the instrument being applied in 53 schools from two medium-sized cities in the South region of Brazil. Reliability (Cronbach’s alpha and split-half) and validity (principal component analysis) analyses were performed. RESULTS The final instrument remained composed of 28 items, distributed into three dimensions: pedagogical, structural and relational. The resulting components showed good factorial loads (> 0.4) and acceptable reliability (> 0.6) for most items. The pedagogical dimension identifies educational activities regarding drugs and sexuality, violence and prejudice, auto care and peace and quality of life. The structural dimension is comprised of access, sanitary structure, and conservation and equipment. The relational dimension includes relationships within the school and with the community. CONCLUSIONS The proposed instrument presents satisfactory validity and reliability values, which include aspects relevant to promote health in schools. Its use allows the description of the health promotion conditions to which students from each educational institution are exposed. Because this instrument includes items directly observed by the investigator, it should only be used during periods when there are full and regular activities at the school in question. PMID:26982958

  4. 78 FR 17744 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction... Federal Register on February 20, 2013. (78 FR 11939). On page 11940, in the first column, under...

  5. CONSORT-EHEALTH: Improving and Standardizing Evaluation Reports of Web-based and Mobile Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Web-based and mobile health interventions (also called “Internet interventions” or "eHealth/mHealth interventions") are tools or treatments, typically behaviorally based, that are operationalized and transformed for delivery via the Internet or mobile platforms. These include electronic tools for patients, informal caregivers, healthy consumers, and health care providers. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement was developed to improve the suboptimal reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). While the CONSORT statement can be applied to provide broad guidance on how eHealth and mHealth trials should be reported, RCTs of web-based interventions pose very specific issues and challenges, in particular related to reporting sufficient details of the intervention to allow replication and theory-building. Objective To develop a checklist, dubbed CONSORT-EHEALTH (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials of Electronic and Mobile HEalth Applications and onLine TeleHealth), as an extension of the CONSORT statement that provides guidance for authors of eHealth and mHealth interventions. Methods A literature review was conducted, followed by a survey among eHealth experts and a workshop. Results A checklist instrument was constructed as an extension of the CONSORT statement. The instrument has been adopted by the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR) and authors of eHealth RCTs are required to submit an electronic checklist explaining how they addressed each subitem. Conclusions CONSORT-EHEALTH has the potential to improve reporting and provides a basis for evaluating the validity and applicability of eHealth trials. Subitems describing how the intervention should be reported can also be used for non-RCT evaluation reports. As part of the development process, an evaluation component is essential; therefore, feedback from authors will be solicited, and a before-after study will evaluate whether reporting has been improved

  6. Health economic evaluations in reimbursement decision making in the Netherlands: time to take it seriously?

    PubMed

    Franken, Margreet; Koopmanschap, Marc; Steenhoek, Adri

    2014-01-01

    Health technology assessment already informed Dutch policymaking in the early 1980s. Evidence of health economic evaluations is, however, only systematically used in drug reimbursement decision making. Outpatient drugs with an added therapeutic value and expensive specialist drugs require evidence from an economic evaluation. Due to many exemptions, however, the availability of evidence of health economic evaluations remains rather low. Although the Dutch reimbursement agency suggested a cost-effectiveness threshold range depending on the severity of the disease (i.e., €10,000 - 80,000 per Quality Adjusted Life Year), it was never confirmed nor endorsed by the Ministry of Health. It is highly questionable whether health economic evaluations currently play a role in actual Dutch reimbursement decision making. Although the requirements exist in policy procedures, recent cases show that Dutch policymakers experience great difficulties in putting restrictions on reimbursement based on evidence from health economic evaluations. The near future will show whether the need will increase to base decisions on societal value for money, and whether Dutch policymakers show the courage to take health economic evaluations seriously. PMID:25444296

  7. The challenges of evaluating health systems networks: lessons learned from an early evaluation of the Child Health Network for the Greater Toronto Area.

    PubMed

    Alidina, Shehnaz; Jordan, Michele

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the first system-wide evaluation of the Child Health Network (CHN) for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), a partnership of 29 community and hospital care providers. The CHN performance evaluation sought to identify the impact of the network on the delivery of maternal, newborn and child health services in the GTA. CHN members identified seven criteria to be evaluated (appropriate care, accessibility, effectiveness, satisfaction, integrated and coordinated care, accountability and affordability) and then collaborated in selecting measurable indicators for each criterion. Data were compiled from administrative data sets, or collected as needed. This undertaking succeeded in providing a comprehensive assessment of the network's performance, identification of strategies to improve outcomes and network sustainability, as well as practical information that will inform the important new field of network evaluation. PMID:17727205

  8. Using routine health information systems for well-designed health evaluations in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Bradley H; Sherr, Kenneth; Fernandes, Quinhas; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-02-01

    Routine health information systems (RHISs) are in place in nearly every country and provide routinely collected full-coverage records on all levels of health system service delivery. However, these rich sources of data are regularly overlooked for evaluating causal effects of health programmes due to concerns regarding completeness, timeliness, representativeness and accuracy. Using Mozambique's national RHIS (Módulo Básico) as an illustrative example, we urge renewed attention to the use of RHIS data for health evaluations. Interventions to improve data quality exist and have been tested in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). Intrinsic features of RHIS data (numerous repeated observations over extended periods of time, full coverage of health facilities, and numerous real-time indicators of service coverage and utilization) provide for very robust quasi-experimental designs, such as controlled interrupted time-series (cITS), which are not possible with intermittent community sample surveys. In addition, cITS analyses are well suited for continuously evolving development contexts in LMICs by: (1) allowing for measurement and controlling for trends and other patterns before, during and after intervention implementation; (2) facilitating the use of numerous simultaneous control groups and non-equivalent dependent variables at multiple nested levels to increase validity and strength of causal inference; and (3) allowing the integration of continuous 'effective dose received' implementation measures. With expanded use of RHIS data for the evaluation of health programmes, investments in data systems, health worker interest in and utilization of RHIS data, as well as data quality will further increase over time. Because RHIS data are ministry-owned and operated, relying upon these data will contribute to sustainable national capacity over time. PMID:25887561

  9. Does Leaders' Health (and Work-Related Experiences) Affect their Evaluation of Followers' Stress?

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Gabriele; Mancuso, Serena; Fiz Perez, Francisco Javier; Montani, Francesco; Courcy, Francois; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Background Stressed workers suffer from severe health problems which appear to have increased. Poor leadership is especially considered a source of stress. Indeed, supervisors might perceive their subordinates to be similar to them as far as stress is concerned and this might more widespread in organizations than previously thought. Methods The present research investigates the relationships between leaders' health, in terms of work-related stress, mental health, and workplace bullying and their evaluation of subordinates' stress. Five regression models were formulated to test our hypothesis. This is a cross-sectional study among 261 Italian leaders, using supervisor self-assessment and leaders' assessments of their subordinates. Results Leaders' health was related to their evaluation of staff stress. Job demand, lack of job control, and lack of support by colleagues and supervisors evaluated in their subordinates were particularly associated with the leaders' own health. Conclusion Implications for developing healthy leaders are finally discussed. PMID:26929835

  10. Global public-private partnerships: Part II--What are the health issues for global governance?

    PubMed Central

    Buse, K.; Walt, G.

    2000-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part review of global public-private partnerships (GPPPs) for health development. Part I was published in the April issue of the Bulletin (Vol. 78, No. 4). The recent emergence of GPPPs is rapidly reconfiguring the international health landscape. While most multilateral and bilateral agencies are currently grappling with how to proceed, there is little information in the public domain concerning how individual partnerships work and to date very little consideration of the many implications of this trend. This paper differentiates between product-based, product development-based and issues/systems-based GPPPs and describes a number of examples of each type in the health sector. The benefits of these initiatives, not least the major resources which they harness for specific health problems, are identified. The final section of the paper explores the implications and dilemmas posed by GPPPs. It discusses whether or not shared goals can transcend conflicting values and mandates and how governance of partnership arrangements may transform and undermine certain attributes of multilateral organizations. The paper concludes that the current climate of goodwill between public and private sectors offers an opportunity that should not be missed: it can be used not only to foster new partnership but to ensure that partnership is truly in the interests of international public health. PMID:10859865

  11. Evaluation of in vitro effects of some analgesic drugs on erythrocyte and recombinant carbonic anhydrase I and II.

    PubMed

    Gökçe, Başak; Gençer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay; Turkoğlu, Sumeyye Aydogan; Alper, Meltem; Köçkar, Feray

    2012-02-01

    The in vitro effects of the injectable form of analgesic drugs, dexketoprofen trometamol, dexamethasone sodium phosphate, metamizole sodium, diclofenac sodium, thiocolchicoside, on the activity of purified human carbonic anhydrase I and II were evaluated. The effect of these drugs on erythrocyte hCA I and hCA II was compared to recombinant hCA I and hCA II expressed in Ecoli. IC(50) values of the drugs that caused inhibition were determined by means of activity percentage diagrams. The IC(50) concentrations of dexketoprofen trometamol and dexamethasone sodium phosphate on hCA I were 683 μM and 4250 μM and for hCA II 950 μM and 6200 μM respectively. Conversely, the enzyme activity was increased by diflofenac sodium. In addition, thiocolchicoside has not any affect on hCA I and hCA II. The effect of these drugs on erythrocyte hCA I and hCA II were consistent with the inhibition of recombinant enzymes. PMID:21534860

  12. Nutritional Evaluation of Australian Microalgae as Potential Human Health Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Megan; Welladsen, Heather M.; Mangott, Arnold; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the biochemical suitability of Australian native microalgal species Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., Dunaliella sp., and a chlorophytic polyculture as nutritional supplements for human health. The four microalgal cultures were harvested during exponential growth, lyophilized, and analysed for proximate composition (moisture, ash, lipid, carbohydrates, and protein), pigments, and amino acid and fatty acid profiles. The resulting nutritional value, based on biochemical composition, was compared to commercial Spirulina and Chlorella products. The Australian native microalgae exhibited similar, and in several cases superior, organic nutritional properties relative to the assessed commercial products, with biochemical profiles rich in high-quality protein, nutritious polyunsaturated fats (such as α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid), and antioxidant pigments. These findings indicate that the microalgae assessed have great potential as multi-nutrient human health supplements. PMID:25723496

  13. Development and evaluation of a nutritional health program for adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Ramezani-Tehrani, Fahimeh; Malekafzali, Hossein; Hejazi, Farzaneh; Peykari, Niloofar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy nutritional behaviors are a threat to adolescents. In this regard, we compared different training methods through a participatory interventional study. Materials and Methods: Through proportional random selection, 1823 female students were selected from 15 middle schools of Tehran. Following 2 years of intervention, nutritional habits of three different interventional groups were assessed. Results: Eating breakfast was significantly higher in the trained groups, and the use of weight loss diets was lower in them than in the control group. Also, satisfactory consumption of various kinds of nutrients in the trained groups was more than in the control group. Conclusion: Participatory health training, especially through parents, leads to adolescence nutritional health promotion. PMID:24403948

  14. Nutritional evaluation of Australian microalgae as potential human health supplements.

    PubMed

    Kent, Megan; Welladsen, Heather M; Mangott, Arnold; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the biochemical suitability of Australian native microalgal species Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., Dunaliella sp., and a chlorophytic polyculture as nutritional supplements for human health. The four microalgal cultures were harvested during exponential growth, lyophilized, and analysed for proximate composition (moisture, ash, lipid, carbohydrates, and protein), pigments, and amino acid and fatty acid profiles. The resulting nutritional value, based on biochemical composition, was compared to commercial Spirulina and Chlorella products. The Australian native microalgae exhibited similar, and in several cases superior, organic nutritional properties relative to the assessed commercial products, with biochemical profiles rich in high-quality protein, nutritious polyunsaturated fats (such as α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid), and antioxidant pigments. These findings indicate that the microalgae assessed have great potential as multi-nutrient human health supplements. PMID:25723496

  15. Retail health marketing: evaluating consumers' choice for healthier foods.

    PubMed

    Nayga, R M

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of socioeconomic and demographic variables, nutrition and health related factors, attitudes, and use of nutritional labels on consumers' choice for healthier food products. Seven equations are estimated representing different food types: luncheon meat, milk, cheese, ice cream, salad dressing, dessert, and meats. The results generally indicate that individuals who are less likely to choose a healthier alternative of a food product include: blacks, younger individuals, males, those with smaller households, smokers, those who take less exercise, those who are not on a special diet, those who are less aware about the linkage between diet and disease, those who put more importance on taste when food shopping, and those who less frequently use nutrition panels and labels that describe health benefits on food packages. PMID:11066716

  16. [[On evaluation of public health state in Aral Sea area].

    PubMed

    Sakiev, K Z

    2014-01-01

    Inefficient and excessive use of water of Aral Sea Basin for the period of 40 years for agricultural land irrigation caused a significant deterioration of living conditions, changed the economic situation of the local population, its income, employment, working conditions, infrastructure of livelihood. All these components manifested in a sudden change of health status of population in Aral Sea area. Research project will help to develop a methodology for risk assessment and management, identify patterns of damage to various body systems and the rationale of diagnostic criteria for ecologically dependent diseases at the early stage, and to implement preventive and corrective actions to determine the conditions for the preservation of public health in environmental deviations of the habitat of the population living in the Aral Sea area. PMID:25549450

  17. Revolution then evolution: the advance of health economic evaluation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lopert, Ruth; Viney, Rosalie

    2014-01-01

    All governments face immense challenges in providing affordable healthcare for their citizens, and the diffusion of novel health technologies is a key driver of growth in expenditure for many. Although important methodological and process variations exist around the world, health economic evaluation is increasingly seen as an important tool to support decision-making around the introduction of new health technologies, interventions and programmes in countries of varying stages of economic development. In Australia, the assessment of the comparative cost-effectiveness of new medicines proposed for subsidy under the country's national drug subsidy programme, the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, was introduced in the late 1980s and became mandatory in 1993, making Australia the first country to introduce such a requirement nationally. Since then the use of health economic evaluation has expanded and been applied to support decision-making across a broader range of health technologies, as well as to programmes in public health. PMID:25444293

  18. The Use of an Adapted Health IT Usability Evaluation Model (Health-ITUEM) for Evaluating Consumer Reported Ratings of Diabetes mHealth Applications: Implications for Diabetes Care and Management

    PubMed Central

    Househ, Mowafa S.; Shubair, Mamdouh M.; Yunus, Faisel; Jamal, Amr; Aldossari, Bakheet

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this paper is to present a usability analysis of the consumer ratings of key diabetes mHealth applications using an adapted Health IT Usability Evaluation Model (Health-ITUEM). Methods: A qualitative content analysis method was used to analyze publicly available consumer reported data posted on the Android Market and Google Play for four leading diabetes mHealth applications. Health-ITUEM concepts including information needs, flexibility/customizability, learnability, performance speed, and competency guided the categorization and analysis of the data. Health impact was an additional category that was included in the study. A total of 405 consumers’ ratings collected from January 9, 2014 to February 17, 2014 were included in the study. Results: Overall, the consumers’ ratings of the leading diabetes mHealth applications for both usability and health impacts were positive. The performance speed of the mHealth application and the information needs of the consumers were the primary usability factors impacting the use of the diabetes mHealth applications. There was also evidence on the positive health impacts of such applications. Conclusions: Consumers are more likely to use diabetes related mHealth applications that perform well and meet their information needs. Furthermore, there is preliminary evidence that diabetes mHealth applications can have positive impact on the health of patients. PMID:26635437

  19. Ecohydrological model parameter selection for stream health evaluation.

    PubMed

    Woznicki, Sean A; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Ross, Dennis M; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Lizhu; Esfahanian, Abdol-Hossein

    2015-04-01

    Variable selection is a critical step in development of empirical stream health prediction models. This study develops a framework for selecting important in-stream variables to predict four measures of biological integrity: total number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa, family index of biotic integrity (FIBI), Hilsenhoff biotic integrity (HBI), and fish index of biotic integrity (IBI). Over 200 flow regime and water quality variables were calculated using the Hydrologic Index Tool (HIT) and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Streams of the River Raisin watershed in Michigan were grouped using the Strahler stream classification system (orders 1-3 and orders 4-6), k-means clustering technique (two clusters: C1 and C2), and all streams (one grouping). For each grouping, variable selection was performed using Bayesian variable selection, principal component analysis, and Spearman's rank correlation. Following selection of best variable sets, models were developed to predict the measures of biological integrity using adaptive-neuro fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS), a technique well-suited to complex, nonlinear ecological problems. Multiple unique variable sets were identified, all which differed by selection method and stream grouping. Final best models were mostly built using the Bayesian variable selection method. The most effective stream grouping method varied by health measure, although k-means clustering and grouping by stream order were always superior to models built without grouping. Commonly selected variables were related to streamflow magnitude, rate of change, and seasonal nitrate concentration. Each best model was effective in simulating stream health observations, with EPT taxa validation R2 ranging from 0.67 to 0.92, FIBI ranging from 0.49 to 0.85, HBI from 0.56 to 0.75, and fish IBI at 0.99 for all best models. The comprehensive variable selection and modeling process proposed here is a robust method that extends our

  20. [Evaluation of women's health care programs in the main institutions of the Mexican health system].

    PubMed

    Enciso, Graciela Freyermuth; Navarro, Sergio Meneses; Martínez, Martín Romero

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the institutional capacity for provision of women's health care services in Mexico in accordance with prevailing regulations. A probabilistic national sample of health care institutions was used to compare performance rates according to services packages based on analysis of variance. No package showed outstanding performance. Adequate performance was seen in referral and counter-referral centers for uterine cervical cancer, childbirth care, breast cancer diagnosis, family planning counseling, and training in sexual and reproductive health. The lowest performance was seen in the prevention of uterine cervical cancer, obstetric urgencies, family and sexual violence, and promotion of family planning. All the institutions showed low performance in the prevention of breast cancer, promotion of family planning, and management of family and gender violence. The Ministry of Health's leadership needs to be strengthened in order to overcome resistance for the institutions to adhere to the prevailing regulations. PMID:25715293

  1. Evaluating the federal role in financing health-related research.

    PubMed

    Garber, A M; Romer, P M

    1996-11-12

    This paper considers the appropriate role for government in the support of scientific and technological progress in health care; the information the federal government needs to make well-informed decisions about its role; and the ways that federal policy toward research and development should respond to scientific advances, technology trends, and changes in the political and social environment. The principal justification for government support of research rests upon economic characteristics that lead private markets to provide inappropriate levels of research support or to supply inappropriate quantities of the products that result from research. The federal government has two basic tools for dealing with these problems: direct subsidies for research and strengthened property rights that can increase the revenues that companies receive for the products that result from research. In the coming years, the delivery system for health care will continue to undergo dramatic changes, new research opportunities will emerge at a rapid pace, and the pressure to limit discretionary federal spending will intensify. These forces make it increasingly important to improve the measurement of the costs and benefits of research and to recognize the tradeoffs among alternative policies for promoting innovation in health care. PMID:8917484

  2. Evaluating the federal role in financing health-related research

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Alan M.; Romer, Paul M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers the appropriate role for government in the support of scientific and technological progress in health care; the information the federal government needs to make well-informed decisions about its role; and the ways that federal policy toward research and development should respond to scientific advances, technology trends, and changes in the political and social environment. The principal justification for government support of research rests upon economic characteristics that lead private markets to provide inappropriate levels of research support or to supply inappropriate quantities of the products that result from research. The federal government has two basic tools for dealing with these problems: direct subsidies for research and strengthened property rights that can increase the revenues that companies receive for the products that result from research. In the coming years, the delivery system for health care will continue to undergo dramatic changes, new research opportunities will emerge at a rapid pace, and the pressure to limit discretionary federal spending will intensify. These forces make it increasingly important to improve the measurement of the costs and benefits of research and to recognize the tradeoffs among alternative policies for promoting innovation in health care. PMID:8917484

  3. Evaluating the role of HLA-DM in MHC II-peptide association reactions1

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Liusong; Maben, Zachary; Becerra, Aniuska; Stern, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC II) to CD4+ T cells plays a key role in the regulation of the adaptive immune response. Loading of antigenic peptides onto MHC II is catalyzed by HLA-DM (DM), a non-classical MHC II molecule. The mechanism of DM-facilitated peptide loading is an outstanding problem in the field of antigen presentation. In this study we systemically explored possible kinetic mechanisms for DM-catalyzed peptide association, by measuring real time peptide association kinetics using fluorescence polarization assays and comparing the experimental data with numerically modeled peptide association reactions. We found that DM does not facilitate peptide association by stabilizing peptide-free MHC II against aggregation. Moreover, DM does not promote transition of an inactive peptide-averse conformation of MHC II to an active peptide-receptive conformation. Instead, DM forms an intermediate with MHC II that binds peptide with faster kinetics than MHC II in the absence of DM. In the absence of peptides, interaction of MHC II with DM leads to inactivation and formation of a peptide-averse form. This study provides novel insights into how DM efficiently catalyzes peptide loading during antigen presentation. PMID:26062997

  4. Evaluating Internet Health Information: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/webeval/webeval.html Evaluating Internet Health Information: A Tutorial from the National Library ... version of the tutorial for use when no Internet connection is available. Read the transcript of the ...

  5. Evaluating Healthful Properties of Cereals and Cereal Fractions by Their Bile-Acid-Binding Potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The healthful, cholesterol-lowering (atherosclerosis amelioration) or detoxification of harmful metabolites (cancer prevention) potential of cereals and cereal fractions could be predicted by evaluating their in vitro bile acid binding under physiological conditions. Using equal dry matter per incu...

  6. Evaluation of tetravalent and conserved synthetic peptides vaccines derived from Dengue virus Envelope domain I and II.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Raissa Prado; Livonesi, Márcia Cristina; Fumagalli, Marcilio Jorge; Rodrigues, Naiara Ferreira; da Costa, Lauro César Felipe; Dos Santos, Michelle Cristina Silva Gomes; de Oliveira Rocha, Eliseu Soares; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil

    2014-08-01

    Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Primary infection with a single Dengue virus (DENV) serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients experiencing a secondary infection with a different serotype progress to the severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. In this study, the vaccine potential of three tetravalent and conserved synthetic peptides derived from DENV envelope domain I (named Pep01) and II (named Pep02 and Pep03) was evaluated. Human dengue IgM/IgG positive serum (n=16) showed reactivity against Pep01, Pep02 and Pep03 in different degrees. Mice immunization experiments showed that these peptides were able to induce a humoral response characterized by antibodies with low neutralizing activity. The spleen cells derived from mice immunized with the peptides showed a significant cytotoxic activity (only for Pep02 and Pep03), a high expression of IL-10 (P<0.01) and a reduced expression of TNF-α and IFN-gamma (P<0.001) compared to DENV-1 infected splenocytes. Thus these peptides, and specially the Pep03, can induce a humoral response characterized by antibodies with low neutralizing activities and probably a T cell response that could be beneficial to induce an effective immune response against all DENV serotypes and do not contributed to the immunopathogenesis. However, further studies in peptide sequence will be required to induce the production of neutralizing antibodies against all four DENV serotypes and also to improve immunogenicity of these peptides. PMID:24768848

  7. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part II. Health care system delivery and workforce supply

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The United States pediatric population with chronic health conditions is expanding. Currently, this demographic comprises 12-18% of the American child and youth population. Affected children often receive fragmented, uncoordinated care. Overall, the American health care delivery system produces modest outcomes for this population. Poor, uninsured and minority children may be at increased risk for inferior coordination of services. Further, the United States health care delivery system is primarily organized for the diagnosis and treatment of acute conditions. For pediatric patients with chronic health conditions, the typical acute problem-oriented visit actually serves as a barrier to care. The biomedical model of patient education prevails, characterized by unilateral transfer of medical information. However, the evidence basis for improvement in disease outcomes supports the use of the chronic care model, initially proposed by Dr. Edward Wagner. Six inter-related elements distinguish the success of the chronic care model, which include self-management support and care coordination by a prepared, proactive team. United States health care lacks a coherent policy direction for the management of high cost chronic conditions, including rheumatic diseases. A fundamental restructure of United States health care delivery must urgently occur which places the patient at the center of care. For the pediatric rheumatology workforce, reimbursement policies and the actions of health plans and insurers are consistent barriers to chronic disease improvement. United States reimbursement policy and overall fragmentation of health care services pose specific challenges for widespread implementation of the chronic care model. Team-based multidisciplinary care, care coordination and self-management are integral to improve outcomes. Pediatric rheumatology demand in the United States far exceeds available workforce supply. This article reviews the career choice decision-making process

  8. Comparing Web search engine performance in searching consumer health information: evaluation and recommendations.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, G; Li, J

    1999-01-01

    Identifying and accessing reliable, relevant consumer health information rapidly on the Internet may challenge the health sciences librarian and layperson alike. In this study, seven search engines are compared using representative consumer health topics for their content relevancy, system features, and attributes. The paper discusses evaluation criteria; systematically compares relevant results; analyzes performance in terms of the strengths and weaknesses of the search engines; and illustrates effective search engine selection, search formulation, and strategies. PMID:10550031

  9. Public health training center evaluation: a framework for using logic models to improve practice and educate the public health workforce.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Ariela M; Simmons, Sheena; Lloyd, Laura M; Redd, Tara R; Alperin, Melissa Moose; Salek, Sahar S; Swier, Lori; Miner, Kathleen R

    2014-03-01

    The nation's 37 public health training centers (PHTCs) provide competency-based trainings and practice-based opportunities to advance the current and future public health workforces. The Emory PHTC, based in Atlanta, Georgia, has developed a comprehensive evaluation plan to address the many evaluation-related questions that must be answered to inform decisions that improve practice. This plan, based on the center's logic model, includes formative assessment, outcome evaluation, process evaluation, and programmatic evaluation. Rigorous evaluation has been used to (a) assess what is working, what is not working, and why; (b) guide decision making about program improvement; and (c) ensure efficient use of resources, such as time and money. This article describes how the Emory PHTC uses its logic model to guide development of a comprehensive evaluation plan and to create specific data collection tools. It also explains the process used to analyze data and make decisions to maximize effectiveness and ensure the best use of resources. Simply conducting trainings and providing opportunities for real-world application are not enough; it is critical to assess whether or not these educational opportunities are, in fact, educating. PMID:24578370

  10. Design and Formative Evaluation of an Information Kiosk on Cattle Health for Landless Cattle Owners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkumar, S.; Garforth, C.; Rao, S. V. N.; Heffernan, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the experience of designing, installing and evaluating a farmer-usable touch screen information kiosk on cattle health in a veterinary institution in Pondicherry. The contents of the kiosk were prepared based on identified demands for information on cattle health, arrived at through various stakeholders meetings.…

  11. The Evaluation of a Latino Community Health Worker HIV Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Molly; Camargo, Maria; Ramos, Lori; Lauderdale, Diane; Krueger, Kristin; Lantos, John

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a community health promotion project to increase HIV knowledge in an urban, immigrant Latino community in Chicago. Latino participants (N = 704) answered questions on HIV before and after an education intervention given by community health workers. Outcomes included changes in knowledge and self-perceived…

  12. Process Evaluation of an Elementary School Health Learning Intervention in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormunen, Marjorita; Saaranen, Terhi; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the process evaluation for a two-year (2008-2010) participatory action research project focusing on home-school partnership in health learning, undertaken within the Schools for Health in Europe (SHE) in Eastern Finland. Design/methodology/approach: Two intervention schools and two control schools (grade 5…

  13. Dietary Supplements and Health Aids - A Critical Evaluation Part 2 - Macronutrients and Fiber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubick, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    Part 1 of this evaluation of dietary supplements and health aids (SE 533 788) focused on various therapeutic claims made for vitamins and minerals. This part examines health-promoting claims made for selected macronutrients and fiber. Macronutrients examined include selected proteins, amino acids, enzymes, carbohydrates, and lipids. (JN)

  14. Nutrition and Health with an Evaluation on Nutritional Surveillance in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    Focusing on America's self-knowledge about its nutritional health, this report deals with the availability of nutrition evaluation and counseling to individuals and the adequacy of the national nutrition monitoring system. Bureaucratic and political problems of applying nutritional health considerations to food policy are also examined. Nutrition…

  15. Evaluating the Impact of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies on Child Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Meenakshi M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates the impact of elementary school policies on child health behaviors and obesity in the United States. Two chapters address nutrition policies, two chapters address physical activity policies, and a final chapter estimates the health care cost savings associated with a decline in childhood obesity prevalence. The use of…

  16. Evaluating the application of multipollutant exposure metrics in airpollution health studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Health effects associated with air pollution are typically evaluated using a single-pollutant approach, yet people are exposed to mixtures consisting of multiple pollutants that may have independent or combined effects on human health. Development of metrics that re...

  17. Evaluating the application of multipollutant exposure metrics in air pollution health studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Health effects associated with air pollution are typically evaluated using a single-pollutant approach, yet people are exposed to mixtures consisting of multiple pollutants that may have independent or combined effects on human health. Development of metrics that re...

  18. 48 CFR 852.273-73 - Evaluation-health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evaluation-health-care....273-73 Evaluation—health-care resources. As prescribed in 873.110(d), in lieu of FAR provision 52.212-2, the contracting officer may insert a provision substantially as follows:...

  19. 48 CFR 852.273-73 - Evaluation-health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation-health-care....273-73 Evaluation—health-care resources. As prescribed in 873.110(d), in lieu of FAR provision 52.212-2, the contracting officer may insert a provision substantially as follows:...

  20. 48 CFR 852.273-73 - Evaluation-health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluation-health-care....273-73 Evaluation—health-care resources. As prescribed in 873.110(d), in lieu of FAR provision 52.212-2, the contracting officer may insert a provision substantially as follows:...