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Sample records for health organization minimum

  1. [Health care levels and minimum recommendations for neonatal care].

    PubMed

    Rite Gracia, S; Fernández Lorenzo, J R; Echániz Urcelay, I; Botet Mussons, F; Herranz Carrillo, G; Moreno Hernando, J; Salguero García, E; Sánchez Luna, M

    2013-07-01

    A policy statement on the levels of care and minimum recommendations for neonatal healthcare was first proposed by the Standards Committee and the Board of the Spanish Society of Neonatology in 2004. This allowed us to define the level of care of each center in our country, as well as the health and technical requirements by levels of care to be defined. This review takes into account changes in neonatal care in the last few years and to optimize the location of resources. Facilities that provide care for newborn infants should be organized within a regionalized system of perinatal care. The functional capabilities of each level of care should be defined clearly and uniformly, including requirements for equipment, facilities, personnel, ancillary services, training, and the organization of services (including transport) needed to cover each level of care. PMID:23266243

  2. The Health Maintenance Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Doman

    1973-01-01

    Controversial proposals to establish health organizations could drastically change the delivery of health services. Understanding the issues in this controversy can help professionals in the human services see what is needed in health reform and legislation. (Author)

  3. The right to a decent minimum of health care.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Allen E

    1984-01-01

    Buchanan examines, and finds inadequate, several philosophical approaches to justifying and specifying the content of a universal right to a decent minimum of health care: utilitarian arguments, Rawlsian ideal contract arguments, and Norman Daniels' equality of opportunity argument. Also rejecting the libertarian hypothesis that there is no right to a decent minimum of care, he contends that the claim that society should guarantee certain health care services can be supported by a pluralistic approach encompassing special right-claims, harm prevention, prudential arguments emphasizing public health benefits, and beneficence. PMID:11651753

  4. Pan American Health Organization

    MedlinePlus

    ... international partner organizations are urging strong financial and political support for a medium-term cholera plan recently ... Collaborating Centers IRIS Institutional Repository for Information Sharing Public Health Associations Bulletins Virtual Campus for Public Health ...

  5. EVALUATION OF MINIMUM DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR ACUTE TOXICITY VALUE EXTRAPOLATION WITH AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buckler, Denny R., Foster L. Mayer, Mark R. Ellersieck and Amha Asfaw. 2003. Evaluation of Minimum Data Requirements for Acute Toxicity Value Extrapolation with Aquatic Organisms. EPA/600/R-03/104. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Re...

  6. 77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... management. On May 27, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 30864- 30868, Docket No. APHIS-2011... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum Penalties for Violations AGENCY: Animal...

  7. How 'decent' is a decent minimum of health care?

    PubMed

    ter Meulen, Ruud

    2011-12-01

    This article tries to analyze the meaning of a decent minimum of health care, by confronting the idea of decent care with the concept of justice. Following the ideas of Margalith about a decent society, the article argues that a just minimum of care is not necessarily a decent minimum. The way this minimum is provided can still humiliate individuals, even if the end result is the best possible distribution of the goods as seen from the viewpoint of justice. This analysis is combined with an analysis from the perspective of solidarity, particularly of reflective solidarity, as a way to develop decent care, which is care that does not humiliate individuals and maintains their dignity. PMID:22241865

  8. The Comparison of the Minimum Data Set for Elderly Health in Selected Countries

    PubMed Central

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Shahi, Mehraban; Ahmadi, Maryam; Davaridolatabadi, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ongoing increase in the elderly population in many developed countries has drawn attention to health of this age group. Recording adequate and relevant data for the elderly is considered as the basis for future planning for this segment of society. So this study was conducted to compare minimum data about elderly health in selected countries. Methods: This review study was conducted through Internet and library studies. Key words were extracted from search engines and data bases including Google, Yahoo, Google Scholar, PubMed, ProQuest and Iranian National Medical Digital Library. Inclusion criteria included English language with no time limits. All articles, research projects, theses, guidelines and progress reports were retrieved from the United States, Sweden, Japan and Iran and reviewed. Also, websites of organizations responsible for elderly health in selected countries were visited and their documents were reviewed. Results from this search were provided narratively and finally were presented within comparison tables. Findings: The findings of this study showed that elderly data in the selected countries are collected around four axis including minimum demographic data, medical histories, health assessment and financial data of elderly health. Discussion and Conclusion: Given the importance of the minimum data set of elderly health for future planning, the use of experiences of leading countries in elderly health seems necessary; however, localization of it according to the country’s needs is inevitable. PMID:26862252

  9. 17 CFR 1.52 - Self-regulatory organization adoption and surveillance of minimum financial requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Self-regulatory organization... Miscellaneous § 1.52 Self-regulatory organization adoption and surveillance of minimum financial requirements. (a) Each self-regulatory organization must adopt rules prescribing minimum financial and...

  10. Organization theory. Analyzing health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Cors, W K

    1997-02-01

    Organization theory (OT) is a tool that can be applied to analyze and understand health care organizations. Transaction cost theory is used to explain, in a unifying fashion, the myriad changes being undertaken by different groups of constituencies in health care. Agency theory is applied to aligning economic incentives needed to ensure Integrated Delivery System (IDS) success. By using tools such as OT, a clearer understanding of organizational changes is possible. PMID:10164970

  11. 17 CFR 1.52 - Self-regulatory organization adoption and surveillance of minimum financial requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Self-regulatory organization adoption and surveillance of minimum financial requirements. 1.52 Section 1.52 Commodity and Securities... Miscellaneous § 1.52 Self-regulatory organization adoption and surveillance of minimum financial...

  12. Mental health organizations in transition.

    PubMed

    Guy, B N

    1975-03-01

    Many mental health institutions are changing their traditional treatment policies and practices and their organizational structures. Literature is reviewed which provides a model for changing mental health organizations based in general systems theory. The systems organizational model has empirical support in the growing community mental health movement. The strong interaction of technological and ideological factors determining the nature of the new mental health organizations is stressed. Also considered are some of the problems facing those planning and managing changing mental health organizations. PMID:1057420

  13. The health care learning organization.

    PubMed

    Hult, G T; Lukas, B A; Hult, A M

    1996-01-01

    To many health care executives, emphasis on marketing strategy has become a means of survival in the threatening new environment of cost attainment, intense competition, and prospective payment. This paper develops a positive model of the health care organization based on organizational learning theory and the concept of the health care offering. It is proposed that the typical health care organization represents the prototype of the learning organization. Thus, commitment to a shared vision is proposed to be an integral part of the health care organization and its diagnosis, treatment, and delivery of the health care offering, which is based on the exchange relationship, including its communicative environment. Based on the model, strategic marketing implications are discussed. PMID:10158798

  14. Democratizing the world health organization.

    PubMed

    van de Pas, R; van Schaik, L G

    2014-02-01

    A progressive erosion of the democratic space appears as one of the emerging challenges in global health today. Such delimitation of the political interplay has a particularly evident impact on the unique public interest function of the World Health Organization (WHO). This paper aims to identify some obstacles for a truly democratic functioning of the UN specialized agency for health. The development of civil society's engagement with the WHO, including in the current reform proposals, is described. The paper also analyses how today's financing of the WHO--primarily through multi-bi financing mechanisms--risks to choke the agency's role in global health. Democratizing the public debate on global health, and therefore the role of the WHO, requires a debate on its future role and engagement at the country level. This desirable process can only be linked to national debates on public health, and the re-definition of health as a primary political and societal concern. PMID:24417900

  15. Women's Health Care Minimum Data Set: pilot test and validation for use in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Farley, Cindy L; Tharpe, Nell; Miller, Liane; Ruxer, Debbie Jenkins

    2006-01-01

    Basic elements of the structure, process, and outcomes of midwifery practice have not been fully determined, particularly in the areas of women's gynecologic and primary health care. The American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) supported the development of clinical data sets to describe structure, process, and outcomes of midwifery practice for use by clinical practitioners. The Woman's Health Care Minimum Data Set was developed using a panel of expert midwives and other women's health care professionals, as well as literature resources. Students of the Graduate Midwifery Program at Philadelphia University performed pilot testing of the Woman's Health Care Minimum Data Set as a service to the profession of midwifery while applying concepts learned in their research methods courses. Each student (n = 19) recruited a midwifery practice in which she had a clinical affiliation, and gathered data sets on the previous 30 consecutive women's health care encounters by CNMs or CMs (n = 569). Item analysis and refinement were done. Criterion-related validity and construct-related validity of the Woman's Health Care Minimum Data Set were explored through comparison with the medical record and through the testing of plausible hypotheses. The Woman's Health Care Minimum Data Set has the potential to be an important instrument in documenting and understanding the evolving nature of the practice of primary women's health care by midwives and other women's health care providers. PMID:17081941

  16. Do minimum wages improve early life health? Evidence from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Majid, Muhammad Farhan; Mendoza Rodríguez, José M; Harper, Sam; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-06-01

    The impact of legislated minimum wages on the early-life health of children living in low and middle-income countries has not been examined. For our analyses, we used data from the Demographic and Household Surveys (DHS) from 57 countries conducted between 1999 and 2013. Our analyses focus on height-for-age z scores (HAZ) for children under 5 years of age who were surveyed as part of the DHS. To identify the causal effect of minimum wages, we utilized plausibly exogenous variation in the legislated minimum wages during each child's year of birth, the identifying assumption being that mothers do not time their births around changes in the minimum wage. As a sensitivity exercise, we also made within family comparisons (mother fixed effect models). Our final analysis on 49 countries reveal that a 1% increase in minimum wages was associated with 0.1% (95% CI = -0.2, 0) decrease in HAZ scores. Adverse effects of an increase in the minimum wage were observed among girls and for children of fathers who were less than 35 years old, mothers aged 20-29, parents who were married, parents who were less educated, and parents involved in manual work. We also explored heterogeneity by region and GDP per capita at baseline (1999). Adverse effects were concentrated in lower-income countries and were most pronounced in South Asia. By contrast, increases in the minimum wage improved children's HAZ in Latin America, and among children of parents working in a skilled sector. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that increases in the minimum wage unconditionally improve child health in lower-income countries, and highlight heterogeneity in the impact of minimum wages around the globe. Future work should involve country and occupation specific studies which can explore not only different outcomes such as infant mortality rates, but also explore the role of parental investments in shaping these effects. PMID:27132065

  17. 17 CFR 1.52 - Self-regulatory organization adoption and surveillance of minimum financial requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-regulatory organization adoption and surveillance of minimum financial requirements. 1.52 Section 1.52 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.52...

  18. Minimum Standards for Tribal Child Care: A Health and Safety Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Child Care Bureau is reissuing the minimum standards as a "Health and Safety Guide" for Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) Tribal Lead Agencies in conjunction with the 2005 Tribal Cluster Trainings, "Supporting the Physical, Social, and Emotional Wellness of Our Tribal Children." These voluntary guidelines represent the baseline from which…

  19. 5 CFR 890.202 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FEHB Program shall be those contained in 48 CFR subpart 1609.70. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum standards for health benefits carriers. 890.202 Section 890.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED)...

  20. Nitrogen cycling driven by organic matter export in the South Pacific oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Lam, Phyllis; Contreras, Sergio; Arteaga, Lionel; Löscher, Carolin R.; Oschlies, Andreas; Paulmier, Aurélien; Stramma, Lothar; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2013-03-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are expanding globally, and at present account for around 20-40% of oceanic nitrogen loss. Heterotrophic denitrification and anammox--anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite--are responsible for most nitrogen loss in these low-oxygen waters. Anammox is particularly significant in the eastern tropical South Pacific, one of the largest oxygen minimum zones globally. However, the factors that regulate anammox-driven nitrogen loss have remained unclear. Here, we present a comprehensive nitrogen budget for the eastern tropical South Pacific oxygen minimum zone, using measurements of nutrient concentrations, experimentally determined rates of nitrogen transformation and a numerical model of export production. Anammox was the dominant mode of nitrogen loss at the time of sampling. Rates of anammox, and related nitrogen transformations, were greatest in the productive shelf waters, and tailed off with distance from the coast. Within the shelf region, anammox activity peaked in both upper and bottom waters. Overall, rates of nitrogen transformation, including anammox, were strongly correlated with the export of organic matter. We suggest that the sinking of organic matter, and thus the release of ammonium into the water column, together with benthic ammonium release, fuel nitrogen loss from oxygen minimum zones.

  1. Capitated contracting of integrated health provider organizations.

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, G J; Dynan, L; Burns, L R

    This paper examines global capitation of integrated health provider organizations that link physicians and hospitals, such as physician-hospital organizations and management service organizations. These organizations have proliferated in recent years, but their contracting activity has not been studied. We develop a conceptual model to understand the capitated contracting bargaining process. Exploratory multivariate analysis suggests that global capitation of these organizations is more common in markets with high health maintenance organization (HMO) market share, greater numbers of HMOs, and fewer physician group practices. Additionally, health provider organizations with more complex case mix, nonprofit status, more affiliated physicians, health system affiliations, and diversity in physician organizational arrangements are more likely to have global capitation. Finally, state regulation of provider contracting with self-insured employers appears to have spillover effects on health plan risk contracting with health providers. PMID:10711318

  2. Job satisfaction in health-care organizations

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Kavita; Srivastava, Kalpana

    2012-01-01

    Job satisfaction among health-care professionals acquires significance for the purpose of maximization of human resource potential. This article is aimed at emphasizing importance of studying various aspects of job satisfaction in health-care organizations. PMID:23766585

  3. 17 CFR 1.52 - Self-regulatory organization adoption and surveillance of minimum financial requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prescribing minimum financial and related reporting requirements for all its members who are registered... minimum financial and related reporting requirements for all its members who are registered introducing... adopt, and submit for Commission approval, rules prescribing minimum financial and related...

  4. 5 CFR 890.201 - Minimum standards for health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... withdrawal of approval of the plan in accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. A health benefits plan shall: (1) Comply... the enrollment, in accordance with this part, and without regard to age, race, sex, health status, or... child, except that a plan that is sponsored or underwritten by an employee organization may not...

  5. Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... up/change plans About Medicare health plans Medicare Advantage Plans + Share widget - Select to show Subcategories Getting ... plan? About Medicare health plans , current subcategory Medicare Advantage Plans , current page Medicare Medical Savings Account (MSA) ...

  6. 17 CFR 31.28 - Self-regulatory organization adoption and surveillance of minimum financial, cover, segregation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Self-regulatory organization... TRANSACTIONS § 31.28 Self-regulatory organization adoption and surveillance of minimum financial, cover, segregation and sales practice requirements. (a) Each self-regulatory organization must adopt, and submit...

  7. 17 CFR 31.28 - Self-regulatory organization adoption and surveillance of minimum financial, cover, segregation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Self-regulatory organization... TRANSACTIONS § 31.28 Self-regulatory organization adoption and surveillance of minimum financial, cover, segregation and sales practice requirements. (a) Each self-regulatory organization must adopt, and submit...

  8. 17 CFR 31.28 - Self-regulatory organization adoption and surveillance of minimum financial, cover, segregation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Self-regulatory organization... TRANSACTIONS § 31.28 Self-regulatory organization adoption and surveillance of minimum financial, cover, segregation and sales practice requirements. (a) Each self-regulatory organization must adopt, and submit...

  9. 17 CFR 31.28 - Self-regulatory organization adoption and surveillance of minimum financial, cover, segregation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-regulatory organization... TRANSACTIONS § 31.28 Self-regulatory organization adoption and surveillance of minimum financial, cover, segregation and sales practice requirements. (a) Each self-regulatory organization must adopt, and submit...

  10. Achieving Population Health in Accountable Care Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Deborah Klein

    2013-01-01

    Although “population health” is one of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s Triple Aim goals, its relationship to accountable care organizations (ACOs) remains ill-defined and lacks clarity as to how the clinical delivery system intersects with the public health system. Although defining population health as “panel” management seems to be the default definition, we called for a broader “community health” definition that could improve relationships between clinical delivery and public health systems and health outcomes for communities. We discussed this broader definition and offered recommendations for linking ACOs with the public health system toward improving health for patients and their communities. PMID:23678910

  11. 25 CFR 900.44 - What minimum general standards apply to all Indian tribe or tribal organization financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or tribal organization financial management systems when carrying out a self-determination contract... Financial Management Systems § 900.44 What minimum general standards apply to all Indian tribe or tribal organization financial management systems when carrying out a self-determination contract? The fiscal...

  12. 25 CFR 900.44 - What minimum general standards apply to all Indian tribe or tribal organization financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or tribal organization financial management systems when carrying out a self-determination contract... Financial Management Systems § 900.44 What minimum general standards apply to all Indian tribe or tribal organization financial management systems when carrying out a self-determination contract? The fiscal...

  13. 25 CFR 900.44 - What minimum general standards apply to all Indian tribe or tribal organization financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or tribal organization financial management systems when carrying out a self-determination contract... Financial Management Systems § 900.44 What minimum general standards apply to all Indian tribe or tribal organization financial management systems when carrying out a self-determination contract? The fiscal...

  14. 25 CFR 900.44 - What minimum general standards apply to all Indian tribe or tribal organization financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or tribal organization financial management systems when carrying out a self-determination contract... Financial Management Systems § 900.44 What minimum general standards apply to all Indian tribe or tribal organization financial management systems when carrying out a self-determination contract? The fiscal...

  15. 25 CFR 900.44 - What minimum general standards apply to all Indian tribe or tribal organization financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or tribal organization financial management systems when carrying out a self-determination contract... Financial Management Systems § 900.44 What minimum general standards apply to all Indian tribe or tribal organization financial management systems when carrying out a self-determination contract? The fiscal...

  16. Physician Incentives in Health Maintenance Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaynor, Martin; Rebitzer, James B.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2004-01-01

    Managed care organizations rely on incentives that encourage physicians to limit medical expenditures, but little is known about how physicians respond to these incentives. We address this issue by analyzing the physician incentive contracts in use at a health maintenance organization. By combining knowledge of the incentive contracts with…

  17. The World Health Organization and Global Health Governance: post-1990.

    PubMed

    Lidén, J

    2014-02-01

    This article takes a historical perspective on the changing position of WHO in the global health architecture over the past two decades. From the early 1990s a number of weaknesses within the structure and governance of the World Health Organization were becoming apparent, as a rapidly changing post Cold War world placed more complex demands on the international organizations generally, but significantly so in the field of global health. Towards the end of that decade and during the first half of the next, WHO revitalized and played a crucial role in setting global health priorities. However, over the past decade, the organization has to some extent been bypassed for funding, and it lost some of its authority and its ability to set a global health agenda. The reasons for this decline are complex and multifaceted. Some of the main factors include WHO's inability to reform its core structure, the growing influence of non-governmental actors, a lack of coherence in the positions, priorities and funding decisions between the health ministries and the ministries overseeing development assistance in several donor member states, and the lack of strong leadership of the organization. PMID:24388640

  18. A new weapon for the interstellar complex organic molecule hunt: the minimum energy principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattelais, M.; Pauzat, F.; Ellinger, Y.; Ceccarelli, C.

    2010-09-01

    Context. The hunt for the interstellar complex organic molecules (COMs) supposed to be the building blocks of the molecules at the origin of life is a challenging but very expensive task. It starts with laboratory experiments, associated with theoretical calculations, that give the line frequencies and strengths of the relevant molecules to be identified and finishes with observations at the telescopes. Aims: The present study aims to suggest possible guidelines to optimize this hunt. Levering on the minimum energy principle (MEP) presented in a previous study, we discuss the link between thermodynamic stability and detectability of a number of structures in the important families of amides, sugars and aminonitriles. Methods: The question of the relative stability of these different species is addressed by means of quantum density functional theory simulations. The hybrid B3LYP formalism was used throughout. All 72 molecules part of this survey were treated on an equal footing. Each structure, fully optimized, was verified to be a stationary point by vibrational analysis. Results: A comprehensive screening of 72 isomers of CH3NO, C2H5NO, C3H7NO, C2H4O2, C3H6O3 and C2H4N2 chemical formula has been carried out. We found that formamide, acetamide and propanamide (the first two identified in the Inter-Stellar Medium) are the most stable compounds in their families demonstrating at the same time that the peptide bond >N-C=O at the origin of life is the most stable bond that can be formed. Dihydroxyacetone, whose detection awaits for confirmation, is far from being the most stable isomer of its family while aminoacetonitrile, that has been recently identified, is effectively the most stable species. Conclusions: The MEP appears to be a useful tool for optimizing the hunt for new species by identifying the potentially more abundant isomers of a given chemical formula.

  19. 17 CFR 1.52 - Self-regulatory organization adoption and surveillance of minimum financial requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... obligation to segregate customer funds, risk management requirements, financial reporting requirements... compliance with the minimum financial and related reporting requirements and risk management requirements... management requirements for futures commission merchant member registrants that shall be the same as, or...

  20. [Organizing health care: an ethical perspective].

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    Health care at population level is a complex problem. Having this in mind, the purpose of this paper is to focus on the goods that are ethically relevant in the process of caring for health at this level. We briefly analyze some of the Chilean health statistics that, although they show important improvements along the years, demonstrate that certain conditions are to be deemed as inadequate by both healthcare providers and patients. Ethics is a central component to determine how to structure and organize health care systems and how they should operate. We emphasize human dignity as an ethical corner stone of the health care system, along with other important values such as justice and humanization, under the scope of the ends of medicine, and other components such as technical competence of providers and the financing of the whole process. We conclude that as far as a health care system is organized in a way that medical practice is well ordered, primarily and fundamentally according the ends of medicine and the good of persons, such a health care system is ethically adequate. PMID:24121582

  1. [Ethical dilemmas in public health care organizations].

    PubMed

    Pereda Vicandi, M

    2014-01-01

    Today you can ask if you can apply ethics to organizations because much of the greater overall impact decisions are not made by private individuals, are decided by organizations. Any organization is legitimate because it satisfies a need of society and this legitimacy depends if the organization does with quality. To offer a good service, quality service, organizations know they need to do well, but seem to forget that should do well not only instrumental level, must also make good on the ethical level. Public health care organizations claim to promote attitudes and actions based on ethics, level of their internal functioning and level of achievement of its goals, but increased awareness and analysis of its inner workings can question it. Such entities, for its structure and procedures, may make it difficult for ethical standards actually govern its operation, also can have negative ethical consequences at the population level. A healthcare organization must not be organized, either structurally or functionally, like any other organization that offers services. In addition, members of the organization can not simply be passive actors. It is necessary that operators and users have more pro-ethical behaviors. Operators from the professionalism and users from liability. PMID:25467632

  2. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR POLYCYCLIC ORGANIC MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document responds to Section 122 of the Clean Air Act as Amended August 1977, which requires the Administrator to decide whether atmospheric emissions of polycyclic organic matter (POM) potentially endanger public health. This document reviews POM data on chemical and physica...

  3. Problem solving in health services organizations.

    PubMed

    Rakich, J S; Krigline, A B

    1996-01-01

    Health services organization managers at all levels are constantly confronted with problems. Conditions encountered that initiate the need for problem solving are opportunity, threat, crisis, deviation, and improvement. A general problem-solving model presenting an orderly process by which managers can approach this important task is described. An example of the model applied to the current strategic climate is presented. PMID:10158720

  4. Recommendations by health organizations for pulse consumption.

    PubMed

    Leterme, Pascal

    2002-12-01

    The present paper aims to study why and how health organizations recommend the consumption of pulses such as beans, chickpeas or lentils. Although it is recognized that frequent pulse consumption may reduce serum cholesterol levels and helps reduce risks of coronary heart disease and diabetes, these advantages are scarcely mentioned by health-promoting associations, i.e. vegetarians and organizations helping people to reduce the risks for chronic diseases. Pulses, especially common beans, are rather considered as whole grains that provide plenty of proteins, starch, dietary fibres, minerals and vitamins. Many organizations refer to the food guide pyramid to advise their members, and place beans either in the third part, together with meat, in the second one with fruits and vegetables, or in the bottom part with starchy foods. Whatever their place, they have acquired the status of staple food for anyone who wants to eat a healthy diet. PMID:12498622

  5. Organ Procurement Organizations and the Electronic Health Record.

    PubMed

    Howard, R J; Cochran, L D; Cornell, D L

    2015-10-01

    The adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) has adversely affected the ability of organ procurement organizations (OPOs) to perform their federally mandated function of honoring the donation decisions of families and donors who have signed the registry. The difficulties gaining access to potential donor medical record has meant that assessment, evaluation, and management of brain dead organ donors has become much more difficult. Delays can occur that can lead to potential recipients not receiving life-saving organs. For over 40 years, OPO personnel have had ready access to paper medical records. But the widespread adoption of EHRs has greatly limited the ability of OPO coordinators to readily gain access to patient medical records and to manage brain dead donors. Proposed solutions include the following: (1) hospitals could provide limited access to OPO personnel so that they could see only the potential donor's medical record; (2) OPOs could join with other transplant organizations to inform regulators of the problem; and (3) hospital organizations could be approached to work with Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to revise the Hospital Conditions of Participation to require OPOs be given access to donor medical records. PMID:26138032

  6. Communicating with Public Health Organizations: Technical Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihai, Alexandru; Catalan, Daniel; Kurapkiene, Skaidra; Felfly, Wadih

    By working with experts throughout Europe, ECDC pools Europe's health knowledge, so as to develop authoritative scientific opinions about the risks posed by current and emerging infectious diseases. Difficulties rose in the management of competent bodies' lists and the information was duplicated several times across the organization. ECDC started implementing a CRM system to organize the information in a structured data model, track the history of communication, provide contact information to application in house and support the nomination process and the user identity management for these applications.

  7. The World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ).

    PubMed

    Kessler, Ronald C; Barber, Catherine; Beck, Arne; Berglund, Patricia; Cleary, Paul D; McKenas, David; Pronk, Nico; Simon, Gregory; Stang, Paul; Ustun, T Bedirhan; Wang, Phillip

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ), a self-report instrument designed to estimate the workplace costs of health problems in terms of reduced job performance, sickness absence, and work-related accidents-injuries. Calibration data are presented on the relationship between individual-level HPQ reports and archival measures of work performance and absenteeism obtained from employer archives in four groups: airline reservation agents (n = 441), customer service representatives (n = 505), automobile company executives (n = 554), and railroad engineers (n = 850). Good concordance is found between the HPQ and the archival measures in all four occupations. The paper closes with a brief discussion of the calibration methodology used to monetize HPQ reports and of future directions in substantive research based on the HPQ. PMID:12625231

  8. Tweeting as Health Communication: Health Organizations' Use of Twitter for Health Promotion and Public Engagement.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H; Chon, Myoung-Gi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how major health organizations use Twitter for disseminating health information, building relationships, and encouraging actions to improve health. The sampled organizations were the American Heart Association, American Cancer Society, and American Diabetes Association. A content analysis was conducted on 1,583 tweets to examine these organizations' use of Twitter's interactive features and to understand the message functions and topics of their tweets. The numbers of retweets and favorites were also measured as engagement indicators and compared by different message functions. The results revealed that all of the organizations posted original tweets most, but they differed in the degree to which they used the retweet and reply functions. Hashtags and hyperlinks were the most frequently used interactive tools. The majority of the tweets were about organization-related topics, whereas personal health-related tweets represented a relatively small portion of the sample. Followers were most likely to like and retweet personal health action-based messages. PMID:26716546

  9. Health maintenance organizations; Midwest Health Plan--Health Resources and Services Administration.

    PubMed

    1983-04-26

    On January 21, 1983, the Office of Health Maintenance Organizations (OHMO) notified Midwest Health Plan (MHP), 3415 Bridgeland Drive, Bridgeton, Missouri 63044, a federally qualified health maintenance organization (HMO), that MHP had successfully reestablished compliance with its assurances to the Secretary that it would (1) maintain a fiscally sound operation, and (2) maintain satisfactory administrative and managerial arrangements. This determination took effect on January 1, 1983. PMID:10324428

  10. The EQ-5D-5L health status questionnaire in COPD: validity, responsiveness and minimum important difference

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Claire M; Longworth, Louise; Lord, Joanne; Canavan, Jane L; Jones, Sarah E; Kon, Samantha S C; Man, William D-C

    2016-01-01

    Background The EQ-5D, a generic health status questionnaire that is widely used in health economic evaluation, was recently expanded to the EQ-5D-5L to address criticisms of unresponsiveness and ceiling effect. Aims To describe the validity, responsiveness and minimum important difference of the EQ-5D-5L in COPD. Methods Study 1: The validity of the EQ-5D-5L utility index and visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) was compared with four established disease-specific health status questionnaires and other measures of disease severity in 616 stable outpatients with COPD. Study 2: The EQ-5D-5L utility index and EQ-VAS were measured in 324 patients with COPD before and after 8 weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation. Distribution and anchor-based approaches were used to estimate the minimum important difference. Results There were moderate-to-strong correlations between utility index and EQ-VAS with disease-specific questionnaires (Pearson's r=0.47–0.72). A ceiling effect was seen in 7% and 2.6% of utility index and EQ-VAS. Utility index decreased (worsening health status) with indices of worsening disease severity. With rehabilitation, mean (95% CI) changes in utility index and EQ-VAS were 0.065 (0.047 to 0.083) and 8.6 (6.5 to 10.7), respectively, with standardised response means of 0.39 and 0.44. The mean (range) anchor estimates of the minimum important difference for utility index and EQ-VAS were 0.051 (0.037 to 0.063) and 6.9 (6.5 to 8.0), respectively. Conclusions The EQ-5D-5L is a valid and responsive measure of health status in COPD and may provide useful additional cost-effectiveness data in clinical trials. PMID:27030578

  11. The Raising of Minimum Alcohol Prices in Saskatchewan, Canada: Impacts on Consumption and Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinhui; Giesbrecht, Norman; Macdonald, Scott; Thomas, Gerald; Wettlaufer, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We report impacts on alcohol consumption following new and increased minimum alcohol prices in Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods. We conducted autoregressive integrated moving average time series analyses of alcohol sales and price data from the Saskatchewan government alcohol monopoly for 26 periods before and 26 periods after the intervention. Results. A 10% increase in minimum prices significantly reduced consumption of beer by 10.06%, spirits by 5.87%, wine by 4.58%, and all beverages combined by 8.43%. Consumption of coolers decreased significantly by 13.2%, cocktails by 21.3%, and liqueurs by 5.3%. There were larger effects for purely off-premise sales (e.g., liquor stores) than for primarily on-premise sales (e.g., bars, restaurants). Consumption of higher strength beer and wine declined the most. A 10% increase in minimum price was associated with a 22.0% decrease in consumption of higher strength beer (> 6.5% alcohol/volume) versus 8.17% for lower strength beers. The neighboring province of Alberta showed no change in per capita alcohol consumption before and after the intervention. Conclusions. Minimum pricing is a promising strategy for reducing the public health burden associated with hazardous alcohol consumption. Pricing to reflect percentage alcohol content of drinks can shift consumption toward lower alcohol content beverage types. PMID:23078488

  12. 48 CFR 1609.7001 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. (1) It must be lawfully engaged in the business of supplying health benefits... instructions and directives. (2) Legal and ethical business and health care practices. (3) Compliance with the... chargeable to the contract; (2) Using fraudulent or unethical business or health care practices or...

  13. What could a strengthened right to health bring to the post-2015 health development agenda?: interrogating the role of the minimum core concept in advancing essential global health needs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Global health institutions increasingly recognize that the right to health should guide the formulation of replacement goals for the Millennium Development Goals, which expire in 2015. However, the right to health’s contribution is undercut by the principle of progressive realization, which links provision of health services to available resources, permitting states to deny even basic levels of health coverage domestically and allowing international assistance for health to remain entirely discretionary. Discussion To prevent progressive realization from undermining both domestic and international responsibilities towards health, international human rights law institutions developed the idea of non-derogable “minimum core” obligations to provide essential health services. While minimum core obligations have enjoyed some uptake in human rights practice and scholarship, their definition in international law fails to specify which health services should fall within their scope, or to specify wealthy country obligations to assist poorer countries. These definitional gaps undercut the capacity of minimum core obligations to protect essential health needs against inaction, austerity and illegitimate trade-offs in both domestic and global action. If the right to health is to effectively advance essential global health needs in these contexts, weaknesses within the minimum core concept must be resolved through innovative research on social, political and legal conceptualizations of essential health needs. Summary We believe that if the minimum core concept is strengthened in these ways, it will produce a more feasible and grounded conception of legally prioritized health needs that could assist in advancing health equity, including by providing a framework rooted in legal obligations to guide the formulation of new health development goals, providing a baseline of essential health services to be protected as a matter of right against governmental claims of

  14. Influencing Organizations to Promote Health: Applying Stakeholder Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kok, Gerjo; Gurabardhi, Zamira; Gottlieb, Nell H.; Zijlstra, Fred R. H.

    2015-01-01

    Stakeholder theory may help health promoters to make changes at the organizational and policy level to promote health. A stakeholder is any individual, group, or organization that can influence an organization. The organization that is the focus for influence attempts is called the focal organization. The more salient a stakeholder is and the more…

  15. Creating High Reliability in Health Care Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Pronovost, Peter J; Berenholtz, Sean M; Goeschel, Christine A; Needham, Dale M; Sexton, J Bryan; Thompson, David A; Lubomski, Lisa H; Marsteller, Jill A; Makary, Martin A; Hunt, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Objective The objective of this paper was to present a comprehensive approach to help health care organizations reliably deliver effective interventions. Context Reliability in healthcare translates into using valid rate-based measures. Yet high reliability organizations have proven that the context in which care is delivered, called organizational culture, also has important influences on patient safety. Model for Improvement Our model to improve reliability, which also includes interventions to improve culture, focuses on valid rate-based measures. This model includes (1) identifying evidence-based interventions that improve the outcome, (2) selecting interventions with the most impact on outcomes and converting to behaviors, (3) developing measures to evaluate reliability, (4) measuring baseline performance, and (5) ensuring patients receive the evidence-based interventions. The comprehensive unit-based safety program (CUSP) is used to improve culture and guide organizations in learning from mistakes that are important, but cannot be measured as rates. Conclusions We present how this model was used in over 100 intensive care units in Michigan to improve culture and eliminate catheter-related blood stream infections—both were accomplished. Our model differs from existing models in that it incorporates efforts to improve a vital component for system redesign—culture, it targets 3 important groups—senior leaders, team leaders, and front line staff, and facilitates change management—engage, educate, execute, and evaluate for planned interventions. PMID:16898981

  16. 78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... published in the Federal Register on June 7, 2012 (77 FR 33607-33619, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0030), and... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations... Federal Register on June 7, 2012, and effective on July 9, 2012, we amended the horse...

  17. Lack of enhanced preservation of organic matter in sediments under the oxygen minimum on the Oman Margin

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.F. ); Shimmield, G.B.; Price, N.B. )

    1992-01-01

    The impingement of oxygen minima on continental margins is widely thought to promote the accumulation of sedimentary facies enriched in well-preserved organic matter. It is shown here, however, that such a relationship does not clearly apply to the productive Oman Margin in the Arabian Sea, which hosts one of the most severe oxygen minima in the oceans. Measurements made on the 0-1 cm depth interval from fourteen box cores collected from the outer shelf-upper continental slope area off Oman show that (1) deposited organic matter is overwhelmingly of marine origin, (2) there is no significant correlation between the abundance of sedimentary organic carbon (C{sub org}) and the bottom-water O{sub 2} concentration, (3) there is no relation between the sedimentary C{sub org}:N ratio and bottom-water O{sub 2}, and (4) there is no correlation between the hydrogen index (HI) of the organic matter and bottom water oxygen. There are, however, significant correlations between the C{sub org}:N ratio and the I:C{sub org}, Cr:Al, and Zr:Al ratios, as well as between the C{sub org}:N ratio and the hydrogen index. Overall, these data suggest that the bottom water oxygen concentration has little effect in governing either the distribution of the degree of preservation of organic matter on this margin. Thus, the generally high but spatially variable C{sub org} content of the sediments on the Oman Margin may not reflect the occurrence of an oxygen minimum but instead be the result of a high settling flux of organic matter, supported by monsoon-driven upwelling, and post-depositional redistribution of the organic material by hydrodynamic influences.

  18. Medical informatics and health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Holden, F M

    1991-01-01

    A dialogue between upper management and operational elements over an organization's informatics policies and procedures could take place in an environment in which both parties could succeed. Excellent patient care practices can exist in organizational settings where upper management is not concerned with the specifics of the medical care process. But as the medical care process itself becomes costly, complex, and part of the purview of upper management, solutions to ambiguous informatics policies and practices need to be found. As the discussion of cost determination suggests, a comprehensive "top-down" solution may not be feasible. Allowing patient care expertise to drive the design and implementation of clinical computing modules without unduly restrictive specifications from above is probably the best way to proceed. But if the organization needs to know the specifics of a treatment episode, then the informatics definitions specific to treatment episodes need to be unambiguous and consistently applied. As the discussion of Social Security numbers suggests, communication of information across various parts of the organization not only requires unambiguous data structure definitions, but also suggests that the communication process not be dependent on the content of the messages. Both ideas--consistent data structure definitions for essential data and open system communication architectures--are current in the medical informatician's vocabulary. The same ideas are relevant to the management and operation of large and diffuse health care enterprises. The lessons we are learning about informatics policy and practice controls in clinical computing need to be applied to the enterprise as a whole. PMID:1921663

  19. 5 CFR 890.201 - Minimum standards for health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... withdrawal of approval of the plan in accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. A health benefits plan shall: (1) Comply... plan offering benefits for dentistry or cosmetic surgery, or both, limited to conditions arising...

  20. 5 CFR 890.201 - Minimum standards for health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... withdrawal of approval of the plan in accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. A health benefits plan shall: (1) Comply... plan offering benefits for dentistry or cosmetic surgery, or both, limited to conditions arising...

  1. 5 CFR 890.201 - Minimum standards for health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... withdrawal of approval of the plan in accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. A health benefits plan shall: (1) Comply... plan offering benefits for dentistry or cosmetic surgery, or both, limited to conditions arising...

  2. 5 CFR 890.201 - Minimum standards for health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... withdrawal of approval of the plan in accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. A health benefits plan shall: (1) Comply... plan offering benefits for dentistry or cosmetic surgery, or both, limited to conditions arising...

  3. [The right to health: a model for determining the contents of the minimum core and the periphery].

    PubMed

    Ronconi, Liliana M

    2012-01-01

    The right to health has been widely recognized in the Argentine courts, however only those who have the ability to access the justice system are able to fully enjoy that right. Therefore traditionally excluded groups, who for different reasons have not been able to make their demands heard in a judicial court, do not benefit from the recognition gained up to this point in the different judicial resolutions. Taking into account these institutionalized unequal practices, this article suggests a model for understanding the right to health truly as a right. A distinction is made between the right to health as a rule (understood as the minimum or essential core of that right) and the right to health as a principle (understood as the periphery of the right). In this way, it is shown how considering the right to health as both a rule and as a principle could offer greater equality in recognition of that right for disadvantaged groups that lack access to the justice system. PMID:23995542

  4. Health systems organization for emergency care.

    PubMed

    Pedroto, Isabel; Amaro, Pedro; Romãozinho, José Manuel

    2013-10-01

    The increasing number of acute and severe digestive diseases presenting to hospital emergency departments, mainly related with an ageing population, demands an appropriate answer from health systems organization, taking into account the escalating pressure on cost reduction. However, patients expect and deserve a response that is appropriate, effective, efficient and safe. The huge variety of variables which can influence the evolution of such cases warranting intensive monitoring, and the coordination and optimization of a range of human and technical resources involved in the care of these high-risk patients, requires their admission in hospital units with conveniently equipped facilities, as is done for heart attack and stroke patients. Little information of gastroenterology emergencies as a function of structure, processes and outcome is available at the organizational level. Surveys that have been conducted in different countries just assess local treatment outcome and question the organizational structure and existing resources but its impact on the outcome is not clear. Most studies address the problem of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and the out-of-hours endoscopy services in the hospital setting. The demands placed on emergency (part of the overall continuum of care) are obvious, as are the needs for the efficient use of resources and processes to improve the quality of care, meaning data must cover the full care cycle. Gastrointestinal emergencies, namely gastrointestinal bleeding, must be incorporated into the overall emergency response as is done for heart attack and stroke. This chapter aims to provide a review of current literature/evidence on organizational health system models towards a better management of gastroenterology emergencies and proposes a research agenda. PMID:24160936

  5. Sedimentary pigments and nature of organic matter within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Arabian Sea (Indian margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasiq, K. T.; Kurian, S.; Karapurkar, S. G.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2016-07-01

    Sedimentary pigments, carbon and nitrogen content and their stable isotopes were studied in three short cores collected from the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Arabian Sea (EAS). Nine pigments including chlorophyll a and their degradation products were quantified using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Astaxanthin followed by canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin were the major carotenoids detected in these cores. The total pigment concentration was high in the core collected from 500 m water depth (6.5 μgg-1) followed by 800 m (1.7 μgg-1) and 1100 m (1.1 μgg-1) depths respectively. The organic carbon did not have considerable control on sedimentary pigments preservation. Pigment degradation was comparatively high in the core collected from the 800 m site which depended not only the bottom dissolved oxygen levels, but also on the faunal activity. As reported earlier, the bottom water dissolved oxygen and presence of fauna have good control on the organic carbon accumulation and preservation at Indian margin OMZ sediments. The C/N ratios and δ13C values for all the cores conclude the marine origin of organic matter and δ15N profiles revealed signature of upwelling associated denitrification within the water column.

  6. 48 CFR 1609.7001 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. (1) It must be lawfully engaged in the business of supplying health benefits... (EHB) Fund less amounts set aside for the administrative and contingency reserves prescribed in 5 CFR... eligible survivor annuitants, former spouses continuing coverage with the carrier under 5 CFR...

  7. 48 CFR 1609.7001 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. (1) It must be lawfully engaged in the business of supplying health benefits... (EHB) Fund less amounts set aside for the administrative and contingency reserves prescribed in 5 CFR... eligible survivor annuitants, former spouses continuing coverage with the carrier under 5 CFR...

  8. 48 CFR 1609.7001 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. (1) It must be lawfully engaged in the business of supplying health benefits... (EHB) Fund less amounts set aside for the administrative and contingency reserves prescribed in 5 CFR... eligible survivor annuitants, former spouses continuing coverage with the carrier under 5 CFR...

  9. 48 CFR 1609.7001 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. (1) It must be lawfully engaged in the business of supplying health benefits... (EHB) Fund less amounts set aside for the administrative and contingency reserves prescribed in 5 CFR... eligible survivor annuitants, former spouses continuing coverage with the carrier under 5 CFR...

  10. Public health departments and accountable care organizations: finding common ground in population health.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Richard; Scutchfield, F Douglas; Costich, Julia F

    2015-05-01

    We examined areas of potential collaboration between accountable care organizations and public health agencies, as well as perceived barriers and facilitators. We interviewed 9 key informants on 4 topics: advantages of public health agency involvement in accountable care organizations; services public health agencies could provide; practical, cultural, and legal barriers to accountable care organization-public health agency involvement; and business models that facilitate accountable care organization-public health agency collaboration. Public health agencies could help accountable care organizations partner with community organizations and reach vulnerable patients, provide population-based services and surveillance data, and promote policies that improve member health. Barriers include accountable care organizations' need for short-term financial yield, limited public health agency technical and financial capacity, and the absence of a financial model. PMID:25790392

  11. Representations of minimum unit pricing for alcohol in UK newspapers: a case study of a public health policy debate

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Wood, Karen; Hilton, Shona

    2015-01-01

    Background Mass media influence public acceptability, and hence feasibility, of public health interventions. This study investigates newsprint constructions of the alcohol problem and minimum unit pricing (MUP). Methods Quantitative content analysis of 901 articles about MUP published in 10 UK and Scottish newspapers between 2005 and 2012. Results MUP was a high-profile issue, particularly in Scottish publications. Reporting increased steadily between 2008 and 2012, matching the growing status of the debate. The alcohol problem was widely acknowledged, often associated with youths, and portrayed as driven by cheap alcohol, supermarkets and drinking culture. Over-consumption was presented as a threat to health and social order. Appraisals of MUP were neutral, with supportiveness increasing slightly over time. Arguments focused on health impacts more frequently than more emotive perspectives or business interests. Health charities and the NHS were cited slightly more frequently than alcohol industry representatives. Conclusion Emphases on efficacy, evidence and experts are positive signs for evidence-based policymaking. The high profile of MUP, along with growing support within articles, could reflect growing appetite for action on the alcohol problem. Representations of the problem as structurally driven might engender support for legislative solutions, although cultural explanations remain common. PMID:25312002

  12. Health Human Resources Guidelines: Minimum Staffing Standards and Role Descriptions for Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Healthcare Teams

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis clinics across Canada, the most common barrier that healthcare workers face when providing care to their patients is having too little time. The Health Human Resources Guidelines were developed to define specifically what amounts of time should be allocated for each discipline of cystic fibrosis clinical care and to provide a description of all the roles involved, reinforcing how these work together to provide comprehensive multidisciplinary care. With involvement from all cystic fibrosis clinics in Canada, through the use of a tailored survey, the Health Human Resources Guidelines are an exclusively Canadian document that has been developed for implementation across the country. The guidelines have been incorporated into a national Accreditation Site Visit program for use in evaluating and improving care across the country and have been distributed to all Canadian cystic fibrosis clinics. The guidelines provide hospital administrators with clear benchmarks for allocating personnel resources to the cystic fibrosis clinics hosted within their institutions. PMID:27445556

  13. Competition between health maintenance organizations and nonintegrated health insurance companies in health insurance markets.

    PubMed

    Baranes, Edmond; Bardey, David

    2015-12-01

    This article examines a model of competition between two types of health insurer: Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) and nonintegrated insurers. HMOs vertically integrate health care providers and pay them at a competitive price, while nonintegrated health insurers work as indemnity plans and pay the health care providers freely chosen by policyholders at a wholesale price. Such difference is referred to as an input price effect which, at first glance, favors HMOs. Moreover, we assume that policyholders place a positive value on the provider diversity supplied by their health insurance plan and that this value increases with the probability of disease. Due to the restricted choice of health care providers in HMOs a risk segmentation occurs: policyholders who choose nonintegrated health insurers are characterized by higher risk, which also tends to favor HMOs. Our equilibrium analysis reveals that the equilibrium allocation only depends on the number of HMOs in the case of exclusivity contracts between HMOs and providers. Surprisingly, our model shows that the interplay between risk segmentation and input price effects may generate ambiguous results. More precisely, we reveal that vertical integration in health insurance markets may decrease health insurers' premiums. PMID:26608954

  14. Organization and evaluation of health fairs.

    PubMed

    Germer, P; Price, J H

    1981-02-01

    In summary, the success of a health fair as a source of health education and promoter of healthful behaviors depends to a great extent upon the organizational expertise of the sponsor and cooperating forces. However, even more essential is the stimulation of health fair visitors' interest and participation, the provision of information and health status feedback and the reinforcement of positive health values. The health fair which best achieves these objectives will have a greater likelihood of also attaining its original preventive health goals and objectives. Although evaluation articles tend to stress the positive findings, this review does not imply that every health fair is a success or that every successful health fair is without criticism. Long waiting lines, unexpected equipment malfunctions, inadequate hours for visiting, understaffed activities, limited floor space and/or visual distractions and noise disturbances may still occur despite the most thorough organizational efforts. This review has attempted to synthesize from the existing sources on health fairs those essential organizational and evaluative factors necessary for a health fair to maximize its potential health education impact. PMID:6907548

  15. Volatile Organic Compunds (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  16. Communicating in Multicultural Health Care Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreps, Gary L.; Kunimoto, Elizabeth

    This paper investigates the multicultural demands of health care delivery by examining the role of organizational communication in promoting effective multicultural relations in modern health care systems. The paper describes the multicultural make-up of modern health care systems--noting, for example that providers from different professional…

  17. Influencing organizations to promote health: applying stakeholder theory.

    PubMed

    Kok, Gerjo; Gurabardhi, Zamira; Gottlieb, Nell H; Zijlstra, Fred R H

    2015-04-01

    Stakeholder theory may help health promoters to make changes at the organizational and policy level to promote health. A stakeholder is any individual, group, or organization that can influence an organization. The organization that is the focus for influence attempts is called the focal organization. The more salient a stakeholder is and the more central in the network, the stronger the influence. As stakeholders, health promoters may use communicative, compromise, deinstitutionalization, or coercive methods through an ally or a coalition. A hypothetical case study, involving adolescent use of harmful legal products, illustrates the process of applying stakeholder theory to strategic decision making. PMID:25829111

  18. The organization of health services for Indian people.

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, E R; Reyes, L L; Buzzard, G D

    1987-01-01

    The Indian Health Service (IHS) is a bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration, an agency of the Public Health Service. It was formed in 1955 by a transfer of health services from the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior. Since that time, IHS has grown larger and more complicated and has become a truly complex national organization that is responsible for direct and contract health care services to approximately 1 million Indian people. The historical background of the Service, its present organization, and the services that it provides through a variety of organizational structures are outlined in this report. PMID:3112842

  19. Organic foods: health and environmental advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Forman, Joel; Silverstein, Janet

    2012-11-01

    The US market for organic foods has grown from $3.5 billion in 1996 to $28.6 billion in 2010, according to the Organic Trade Association. Organic products are now sold in specialty stores and conventional supermarkets. Organic products contain numerous marketing claims and terms, only some of which are standardized and regulated. In terms of health advantages, organic diets have been convincingly demonstrated to expose consumers to fewer pesticides associated with human disease. Organic farming has been demonstrated to have less environmental impact than conventional approaches. However, current evidence does not support any meaningful nutritional benefits or deficits from eating organic compared with conventionally grown foods, and there are no well-powered human studies that directly demonstrate health benefits or disease protection as a result of consuming an organic diet. Studies also have not demonstrated any detrimental or disease-promoting effects from an organic diet. Although organic foods regularly command a significant price premium, well-designed farming studies demonstrate that costs can be competitive and yields comparable to those of conventional farming techniques. Pediatricians should incorporate this evidence when discussing the health and environmental impact of organic foods and organic farming while continuing to encourage all patients and their families to attain optimal nutrition and dietary variety consistent with the US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate recommendations. This clinical report reviews the health and environmental issues related to organic food production and consumption. It defines the term "organic," reviews organic food-labeling standards, describes organic and conventional farming practices, and explores the cost and environmental implications of organic production techniques. It examines the evidence available on nutritional quality and production contaminants in conventionally produced and organic foods. Finally, this

  20. Civil Society Organizations and the Functions of Global Health Governance: What Role within Intergovernmental Organizations?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley

    2016-01-01

    Amid discussion of how global health governance should and could be strengthened, the potential role of civil society organizations has been frequently raised. This paper considers the role of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in four health governance instruments under the auspices of the World Health Organization – the International Code on the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, International Health Regulations and Codex Alimentarius - and maps the functions they have contributed to. The paper draws conclusions about the opportunities and limitations CSOs represent for strengthening global health governance (GHG). PMID:27274776

  1. Quantifying the linkages among soil health, organic farming, and food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic farming systems utilize organic amendments, diverse crop rotations and cover crops to promote soil fertility and enhance soil health. These practices increase biologically available forms of soil organic matter, and increase the activities of beneficial soil microbes and invertebrates. Physi...

  2. Core competencies of the entrepreneurial leader in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kristina L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss core competencies that entrepreneurial health care leaders should acquire to ensure the survival and growth of US health care organizations. Three overlapping areas of core competencies are described: (1) health care system and environment competencies, (2) organization competencies, and (3) interpersonal competencies. This study offers insight into the relationship between leaders and entrepreneurship in health care organizations and establishes the foundation for more in-depth studies on leadership competencies in health care settings. The approach for identifying core competencies and designing a competency model is useful for practitioners in leadership positions in complex health care organizations, so that through the understanding and practice of these 3 areas of core competencies, they can enhance their entrepreneurial leadership skills to become more effective health care entrepreneurial leaders. This study can also be used as a tool by health care organizations to better understand leadership performance, and competencies can be used to further the organization's strategic vision and for individual improvement purposes. PMID:19225332

  3. Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H

    2013-01-01

    The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health. PMID:23326371

  4. Animal Health and Welfare Issues Facing Organic Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Mhairi A.; Webster, Jim; Sutherland, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The demand for organically grown, animal derived produce is increasing due to a growing desire for consumer products that have minimal chemical inputs and high animal welfare standards. Evaluation of the scientific literature suggests that a major challenge facing organic animal production systems is the management and treatment of health-related issues. However, implementation of effective management practices can help organic animal producers achieve and maintain high standards of health and welfare, which is necessary to assure consumers that organic animal-based food and fibre has not only been produced with minimal or no chemical input, but under high standards of animal welfare. Abstract The demand for organically-grown produce is increasing worldwide, with one of the drivers being an expectation among consumers that animals have been farmed to a high standard of animal welfare. This review evaluates whether this expectation is in fact being met, by describing the current level of science-based knowledge of animal health and welfare in organic systems. The primary welfare risk in organic production systems appears to be related to animal health. Organic farms use a combination of management practices, alternative and complementary remedies and convenional medicines to manage the health of their animals and in many cases these are at least as effective as management practices employed by non-organic producers. However, in contrast to non-organic systems, there is still a lack of scientifically evaluated, organically acceptable therapeutic treatments that organic animal producers can use when current management practices are not sufficient to maintain the health of their animals. The development of such treatments are necessary to assure consumers that organic animal-based food and fibre has not only been produced with minimal or no chemical input, but under high standards of animal welfare. PMID:26479750

  5. [Individuals and changes in health organizations: a psychosociological approach].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Creuza da Silva; Braga Neto, Francisco Campos; Sá, Marilene de Castilho

    2002-01-01

    The Brazilian health sector has undergone a severe crisis, affecting the case-resolving capacity, efficiency and governability of the health system as a whole and health organizations in particular. Although innovative management systems and tools have been encouraged, such innovations are limited in their ability to spawn organizational change, especially with regard to the challenge of enabling individual adherence to institutional projects and relations involving individuals and organizations. This paper focuses on the French psychosociological approach for analyzing and intervening in organizations, one of whose main thinkers is Eugène Enriquez. In its view of contemporary organizations, this approach focuses on the conflict between reproduction and creation as the main problem to be solved by management processes. While an organization is essentially seen as a place of order and repetition, organizational change implies the challenge of bringing creative individuals into the organization's project, avoiding the trap of controlling their minds and behavior. PMID:11910442

  6. [The Argentine Health System: organization and financial features].

    PubMed

    Arce, Hugo E

    2012-01-01

    The Argentine health system is defined by the following features: a) federal country organization; b) coexistence of public and private services with either outpatients or inpatients; c) fragmented entities of social security, most of these originated outside of the state organization. Components of the system are described and weighed; making decisions strength between national and provincial health authorities is analyzed and the Argentine system is compared with that of other countries. Statistical data on distribution of health expenditures and coverage of health services are presented as well as financial flow among diverse funding sources, insurers, providers and users of each sector. PMID:23089118

  7. Organizing the public health-clinical health interface: theoretical bases.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Michèle; Reinharz, Daniel; Gauthier, Jacques-Bernard

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of the interface between public health and clinical health within the context of the search for networking approaches geared to a more integrated delivery of health services. The articulation of an operative interface is complicated by the fact that the definition of networking modalities involves complex intra- and interdisciplinary and intra- and interorganizational systems across which a new transversal dynamics of intervention practices and exchanges between service structures must be established. A better understanding of the situation is reached by shedding light on the rationale underlying the organizational methods that form the bases of the interface between these two sectors of activity. The Quebec experience demonstrates that neither the structural-functionalist approach, which emphasizes remodelling establishment structures and functions as determinants of integration, nor the structural-constructivist approach, which prioritizes distinct fields of practice in public health and clinical health, adequately serves the purpose of networking and integration. Consequently, a theoretical reframing is imperative. In this regard, structuration theory, which fosters the simultaneous study of methods of inter-structure coordination and inter-actor cooperation, paves the way for a better understanding of the situation and, in turn, to the emergence of new integration possibilities. PMID:16645802

  8. Managing diversity in health services organizations.

    PubMed

    Muller, H J; Haase, B E

    1994-01-01

    The changing ethnic, racial, and gender workforce characteristics require innovations in management philosophy and practice. Valuing employees' differences is believed to be a competitive advantage in many modern corporations. This article offers recommendations to health care managers for rethinking and improving the management of their heterogeneous workforces. A conceptual framework and evaluative criteria are developed in an attempt to better understand the factors that influence effective diversity management. The experiences of health services institutions in the Southwest (already a multicultural region) are studied to illustrate various approaches to diversity management. Leader philosophy and support, organizational policies and programs, workforce composition, structural integration, and organizational type constitute the main elements in this study. As the nation debates restructuring the health industry, it should also take the opportunity to integrate a management philosophy that values diversity and its practice. PMID:10138715

  9. A closer look at the World Health Organization's prescribing indicators

    PubMed Central

    Ofori-Asenso, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This communication focuses on the World Health Organization's prescribing indicators. It describes the methods for computing the indicators and highlights their applicability as well as limitations in evaluating the patterns of medicines usage. PMID:27127400

  10. [Experience in organizing competition of school health education teams].

    PubMed

    Tsurikov, V T; Gavriushenko, V V

    1991-01-01

    One of the main tasks of Soviet medicine--the healthy lifestyle formation among population can be accomplished with the help of school health education teams. The training of school health education teams is one of the forms of out-of-school hours activities in hygienic education and training of pupils and can easily be accomplished through organizational plans of activities at any school or industrial training school. The organization of school health education teams should unite the efforts of teachers, specialists from the service of healthy lifestyle formation, cultural institutions, young communist league and youth organizations and other departments and public agencies concerned. Using various active publicity media school health education teams should become active healthy lifestyle promotion organizations and their performance can be conducted before any audiences. The working experience of school health education teams is in need of investigation, improvement and dissemination. PMID:1876903

  11. Personality organization, five-factor model, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Laverdière, Olivier; Gamache, Dominick; Diguer, Louis; Hébert, Etienne; Larochelle, Sébastien; Descôteaux, Jean

    2007-10-01

    Otto Kernberg has developed a model of personality and psychological functioning centered on the concept of personality organization. The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the relationships between this model, the five-factor model, and mental health. The Personality Organization Diagnostic Form (Diguer et al., The Personality Organization Diagnostic Form-II (PODF-II), 2001), the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Costa and McCrae, Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) Professional Manual. 1992a), and the Health-Sickness Rating Scale (Luborsky, Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1962;7:407-417) were used to assess these constructs. Results show that personality organization and personality factors are distinct but interrelated constructs and that both contribute in similar proportion to mental health. Results also suggest that the integration of personality organization and factors can provide clinicians and researchers with an enriched understanding of psychological functioning. PMID:18043522

  12. Contribution of organically grown crops to human health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Eva; Hussain, Abrar; Kuktaite, Ramune; Andersson, Staffan C; Olsson, Marie E

    2014-04-01

    An increasing interest in organic agriculture for food production is seen throughout the world and one key reason for this interest is the assumption that organic food consumption is beneficial to public health. The present paper focuses on the background of organic agriculture, important public health related compounds from crop food and variations in the amount of health related compounds in crops. In addition, influence of organic farming on health related compounds, on pesticide residues and heavy metals in crops, and relations between organic food and health biomarkers as well as in vitro studies are also the focus of the present paper. Nutritionally beneficial compounds of highest relevance for public health were micronutrients, especially Fe and Zn, and bioactive compounds such as carotenoids (including pro-vitamin A compounds), tocopherols (including vitamin E) and phenolic compounds. Extremely large variations in the contents of these compounds were seen, depending on genotype, climate, environment, farming conditions, harvest time, and part of the crop. Highest amounts seen were related to the choice of genotype and were also increased by genetic modification of the crop. Organic cultivation did not influence the content of most of the nutritional beneficial compounds, except the phenolic compounds that were increased with the amounts of pathogens. However, higher amounts of pesticide residues and in many cases also of heavy metals were seen in the conventionally produced crops compared to the organic ones. Animal studies as well as in vitro studies showed a clear indication of a beneficial effect of organic food/extracts as compared to conventional ones. Thus, consumption of organic food seems to be positive from a public health point of view, although the reasons are unclear, and synergistic effects between various constituents within the food are likely. PMID:24717360

  13. Contribution of Organically Grown Crops to Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Eva; Hussain, Abrar; Kuktaite, Ramune; Andersson, Staffan C.; Olsson, Marie E.

    2014-01-01

    An increasing interest in organic agriculture for food production is seen throughout the world and one key reason for this interest is the assumption that organic food consumption is beneficial to public health. The present paper focuses on the background of organic agriculture, important public health related compounds from crop food and variations in the amount of health related compounds in crops. In addition, influence of organic farming on health related compounds, on pesticide residues and heavy metals in crops, and relations between organic food and health biomarkers as well as in vitro studies are also the focus of the present paper. Nutritionally beneficial compounds of highest relevance for public health were micronutrients, especially Fe and Zn, and bioactive compounds such as carotenoids (including pro-vitamin A compounds), tocopherols (including vitamin E) and phenolic compounds. Extremely large variations in the contents of these compounds were seen, depending on genotype, climate, environment, farming conditions, harvest time, and part of the crop. Highest amounts seen were related to the choice of genotype and were also increased by genetic modification of the crop. Organic cultivation did not influence the content of most of the nutritional beneficial compounds, except the phenolic compounds that were increased with the amounts of pathogens. However, higher amounts of pesticide residues and in many cases also of heavy metals were seen in the conventionally produced crops compared to the organic ones. Animal studies as well as in vitro studies showed a clear indication of a beneficial effect of organic food/extracts as compared to conventional ones. Thus, consumption of organic food seems to be positive from a public health point of view, although the reasons are unclear, and synergistic effects between various constituents within the food are likely. PMID:24717360

  14. 17 CFR 31.28 - Self-regulatory organization adoption and surveillance of minimum financial, cover, segregation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reporting requirements for all its members who are registered leverage transaction merchants. Each self..., segregation and sales practice, and related reporting requirements adopted by such self-regulatory... such minimum financial, cover, segregation and sales practice, and related reporting requirements....

  15. Engaging Student Health Organizations in Reducing Health Disparities in Underserved Communities through Volunteerism: Developing a Student Health Corps

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.; Ly, Lichin; Allen, Erica; Young, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    One underutilized method for reducing health disparities and training culturally competent health care workers is the engagement of undergraduate student health organizations in conducting health screenings, promotion, and health education outreach activities in in underserved racial/ethnic communities. We conducted a needs assessment of 14 predominantly racial/ethnic minority undergraduate student-run health organizations. The 14 organizations annually served approximately 12,425 people (67% Hispanic, 25% African American, 6.33% Asian Pacific Islander), predominantly at health fairs within Los Angeles County (averaging 138 attendees). Student organizations provided screenings on general health conditions and diseases, with less emphasis on behavioral risk factors (e.g., drinking, smoking). Organizations indicated a need for increased and affordable trainings in preventive health screenings and help in understanding target populations’ needs. Universities are in an excellent position to train, supervise, and organize volunteer health corps in order to engage students in reducing health disparities and to train culturally competent health care providers. PMID:19648716

  16. Behavioral Groups as Preventive Care in a Health Maintenance Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Joan; And Others

    This paper describes the use of a particular therapeutic modality--behavioral groups--in a relatively new delivery system called a Health Maintenance Organization. The program described, run under the George Washington University Health Plan, offers short-term structured groups designed to aid people at particularly difficult or vulnerable…

  17. [Health care organization and health in a region of Zaire].

    PubMed

    Campanella, N; Tarantini, F

    1989-01-01

    Kampene is a roughly 10,000 inhabitants village in Kivu, eastern region of Republic of Zaire. The equatorial rainforest in river Zaire basin surrounds it, far from the main and most crowded roads. Climate is warm and wet, rainfalls constant throughout ten months a years. Eighty seven per cent of the population of Kampene and of its administrative district (around 100,000 inhabitants) work in agriculture. Most of the remainder gets by on mineral search and mining (tin, cassiterite, gold). Health facilities and their organisation should be set up as according to Zaire Health Planning, worked out of 1977 Alma Ata Conference's guidelines on Primary Health Care, but actually they are hard to be implemented because of the wide territory, of the scattered settlements to be served, because of infrastructure and funds shortages. High children death ratio (roughly from 104 to 200/1000 altogether, short mean lifetimes and generally morbidity are caused by: parasitoses (malaria, filariasis, gut worms, bilharziosis, amebiasis), bacterial infections (breast feeding babies' toxic enteritis, tuberculosis, salmonellosis, shigellosis, gonococcosis, tetanus, epidemic meningitis), viral diseases (measles, poliomyelitis, virus B hepatitis, AIDS), protein-energy malnutrition, obstetric pathology (uterus fractures, ectopic pregnancy, obstructed labour). The management of Kampene Hospital is taken over by a Zaire-Italian team, according to the "Progetto Socio-Sanitario a Kampene", project carried out by Centro Volontari Marchigiani, a not-governmental organisation recognized and financed by Italian Foreign Office. The utilization of Kampene hospital wards has been investigated throughout 20 months (since 1/1/1986 to 31/8/1987) by working some parameters out: numbers of admissions, numbers of hospital days, man length of stay, bed occupancy rate, turnover index for bed. The utilisation of outpatient clinic has been investigated by means of the number of outpatients and outpatients per

  18. Are Public Health Organizations Tweeting to the Choir? Understanding Local Health Department Twitter Followership

    PubMed Central

    Choucair, Bechara; Maier, Ryan C; Jolani, Nina; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the essential services provided by the US local health departments is informing and educating constituents about health. Communication with constituents about public health issues and health risks is among the standards required of local health departments for accreditation. Past research found that only 61% of local health departments met standards for informing and educating constituents, suggesting a considerable gap between current practices and best practice. Objective Social media platforms, such as Twitter, may aid local health departments in informing and educating their constituents by reaching large numbers of people with real-time messages at relatively low cost. Little is known about the followers of local health departments on Twitter. The aim of this study was to examine characteristics of local health department Twitter followers and the relationship between local health department characteristics and follower characteristics. Methods In 2013, we collected (using NodeXL) and analyzed a sample of 4779 Twitter followers from 59 randomly selected local health departments in the United States with Twitter accounts. We coded each Twitter follower for type (individual, organization), location, health focus, and industry (eg, media, government). Local health department characteristics were adopted from the 2010 National Association of City and County Health Officials Profile Study data. Results Local health department Twitter accounts were followed by more organizations than individual users. Organizations tended to be health-focused, located outside the state from the local health department being followed, and from the education, government, and non-profit sectors. Individuals were likely to be local and not health-focused. Having a public information officer on staff, serving a larger population, and “tweeting” more frequently were associated with having a higher percentage of local followers. Conclusions Social media has the

  19. The World Health Organization: Is It Still Relevant?

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Stephanie L

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is the United Nation's lead agency for directing and coordinating health. As leaders, nurse executives must advocate for a stronger nursing and midwifery health policy agenda at the global level and a seat at the table on WHO's technical advisory bodies and expert committees. There are no more borders as nurse executives; we are global citizens, leading global change. Nurse leaders hold the master key to shape the world's policies for sustainable global development. PMID:26281282

  20. Towards a Healthy District: Organizing and Managing District Health Systems Based on Primary Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarimo, E.

    This book is concerned with orienting health care workers in district health systems in developing countries to ways and means of overcoming problems, and describes briefly how district health systems can be improved. The book is organized around nine issues in nine chapters, each of which is an integral part of a district planning cycle. The…

  1. Health politics meets post-modernism: its meaning and implications for community health organizing.

    PubMed

    Rosenau, P V

    1994-01-01

    In this article, post-modern theory is described and applied to health politics with examples from community health organizing, social movements, and health promotion. Post-modernism questions conventional assumptions about concepts such as representation, participation, empowerment, community, identity, causality, accountability, responsibility, authority, and roles in community health promotion (those of expert, leader, and organizer). I compare post-modern social movements with their modern counterparts: the organizational forms, leadership styles, and substantive intellectual orientations of the two differ. I explain the social planning, community development, and social action models of community health organizing, comparing them with the priorities of post-modern social movements, and show the similarities and differences between them as to structural preferences, process, and strategies. Finally, and most importantly, I present the implicit lessons that post-modernism offers to health politics and outline the strengths and weaknesses of this approach to health politics. PMID:8077633

  2. The health maintenance organization strategy: a corporate takeover of health services delivery.

    PubMed

    Salmon, J W

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a political economic framework for viewing the social organization of the delivery of health care servies and predicting a qualitatively different institutional configuration involving the health maintenance organization. The principal forces impacting American capitalism today are leading to a fundamental restructuring for increased social efficiency of the entire social welfare sector, including the health services industry. The method to achieve this restructuring involves health policy directed at raising the contribution to the social surplus from the delivery of health care services and eventual corporate domination. The health maintenance organization conceptualization is examined with suggestions as to how the HMO strategy promoted by the state leads to this corporate takeover. The mechanism and extent of the present corporate involvement are examined and implications of health services as a social control mechanism are presented. PMID:1230440

  3. The World Health Organization Global Health Emergency Workforce: What Role Will the United States Play?

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-08-01

    During the May 2016 World Health Assembly of 194 member states, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the process of developing and launching emergency medical teams as a critical component of the global health workforce concept. Over 64 countries have either launched or are in the development stages of vetting accredited teams, both international and national, to provide surge support to national health systems through WHO Regional Organizations and the delivery of emergency clinical care to sudden-onset disasters and outbreak-affected populations. To date, the United States has not yet committed to adopting the emergency medical team concept in funding and registering an international field hospital level team. This article discusses future options available for health-related nongovernmental organizations and the required educational and training requirements for health care provider accreditation. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:531-535). PMID:27364937

  4. The normative authority of the World Health Organization.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O; Sridhar, D; Hougendobler, D

    2015-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) was born after the devastation of World War II, as a normative agency endowed with unprecedented constitutional powers. But even as it has achieved stunning successes, such as the eradication of smallpox, it has failed to live up to the exalted expectations of the postwar health and human rights movement - exemplified most recently by its inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic. Our aim is to offer innovative ideas for restoring the Organization to its leadership position by exercising its normative authority, even as it faces a crowded and often chaotic global health architecture. Before doing so, it will be helpful to summarize the main tensions the Organization faces in today's global health landscape. PMID:26100341

  5. The contributions of Henry E. Sigerist to health service organization.

    PubMed

    Terris, M

    1975-01-01

    Henry E. Sigerist made profound and strikingly original contributions to health service organization. Not only did he expand greatly our concepts of the functions of medicine, but he redefined health in a manner which was later to be paraphrased by the World Health Organization. Sigerist's account of the evolution of the physician and his discussion of the role of the people in the fight for health provide important new insights into current realities, while his remarkable analysis of the genesis of national health insurance makes it possible to understand its continued absence in the United States. Although he was in the forefront of the campaign for national health insurance, Sigbrist always considered it inferior to a national health service. His thorough studies of the Soviet national health service opened new vistas in the promotion of health and prevention of disease and the development of team practice in health centers. Sigerist's impact was world-wide, and was particularly important in Chile, Cuba, China, and Great Britain. PMID:765888

  6. Can organizations benefit from worksite health promotion?

    PubMed Central

    Leviton, L C

    1989-01-01

    A decision-analytic model was developed to project the future effects of selected worksite health promotion activities on employees' likelihood of chronic disease and injury and on employer costs due to illness. The model employed a conservative set of assumptions and a limited five-year time frame. Under these assumptions, hypertension control and seat belt campaigns prevent a substantial amount of illness, injury, and death. Sensitivity analysis indicates that these two programs pay for themselves and under some conditions show a modest savings to the employer. Under some conditions, smoking cessation programs pay for themselves, preventing a modest amount of illness and death. Cholesterol reduction by behavioral means does not pay for itself under these assumptions. These findings imply priorities in prevention for employer and employee alike. PMID:2499556

  7. [The organization of health services: the comparison as contribution].

    PubMed

    Conill, E M; Mendonça, M H; da Silva, R A; Gawryszewski, V

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses about a recent procedure in health care studies, the comparison as a methodology of analysis. The different analytical currents refer to a particular method of understanding health-disease process. They are: functionalism, the historical-materialism and the new currents. Their phylosophical and sociological basis, concepts, analysis instruments and purposes are showed here by a review of the principal works from representative authors as Navarro, Terris, Roemer, Fry, Illich, Capra and others. The paper suggests that comparative analysis can take two directions: the first is a operational approach for analysing the concrete situations of health's service organization, the second, a more conceptual one, aimed at identifying critical questions and international tendencies in health's systems. The recent discussion search for the overcoming of these dichotomies toward the progress of the production of knowledge and its effects in health's services organization. PMID:15806244

  8. Modification of Treatment of Certain Health Organizations. Final regulations.

    PubMed

    2016-06-22

    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance to Blue Cross and Blue Shield organizations, and certain other organizations, on computing and applying the medical loss ratio and the consequences for not meeting the medical loss ratio threshold. The final regulations reflect the enactment of a technical correction to section 833(c)(5) of the Internal Revenue Code by the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act of 2015. The final regulations affect Blue Cross and Blue Shield organizations, and certain other organizations involved in providing health insurance. PMID:27373011

  9. The contribution of organization theory to nursing health services research.

    PubMed

    Mick, Stephen S; Mark, Barbara A

    2005-01-01

    We review nursing and health services research on health care organizations over the period 1950 through 2004 to reveal the contribution of nursing to this field. Notwithstanding this rich tradition and the unique perspective of nursing researchers grounded in patient care production processes, the following gaps in nursing research remain: (1) the lack of theoretical frameworks about organizational factors relating to internal work processes; (2) the need for sophisticated methodologies to guide empirical investigations; (3) the difficulty in understanding how organizations adapt models for patient care delivery in response to market forces; (4) the paucity of attention to the impact of new technologies on the organization of patient care work processes. Given nurses' deep understanding of the inner workings of health care facilities, we hope to see an increasing number of research programs that tackle these deficiencies. PMID:16360704

  10. The Pan American Health Organization and international health: a history of training, conceptualization, and collective development.

    PubMed

    Auer, Annella; Guerrero Espinel, Juan Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    A constantly changing and increasingly complex global environment requires leaders with special competencies to respond effectively to this scenario. Within this context, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) goes beyond traditional leadership training models both in terms of its design as well as its conceptual approach to international health. As an intergovernmental, centenary organization in health, PAHO allows participants a unique vantage point from which to conceptualize, share experiences and develop projects relevant to international health. Derived from over two decades of experience (1985-2006) training professionals through its predessor Training Program in International Health, the Leaders in International Health Program "Edmundo Granda Ugalde" (LIHP) utilizes an innovative design, virtual and practical learning activities, and a problem-based approach to analyze the main concepts, theories, actors, forces, and processes relevant to international health. In collaboration with PAHO/WHO Representative Offices and national institutions, participants develop country projects based on priority health issues, many of which are integrated into the Organization's technical cooperation and/or implemented by relevant ministries and other entities in their respective countries/subregions. A total of 185 participants representing 31 countries have participated in the LIHP since its inception in 2008, building upon the 187 trained through its predecessor. These initiatives have contributed to the development of health professionals in the Region of the Americas devoted to international health, as well as provided important input towards a conceptual understanding of international health by fostering debate on this issue. PMID:22159721

  11. Case management in the social health maintenance organization demonstrations

    PubMed Central

    Yordi, Cathleen L.

    1988-01-01

    In this article, case management departments and roles during the early years of the social health maintenance organization (S/HMO) demonstrations are compared. These organizations provide acute and chronic care services under a prepaid plan for the elderly. Eligibility criteria for case management and chronic care services at each site are compared, followed by a description of the resultant case mix of members receiving chronic care benefits. Case managers principal activities are described, and a preliminary assessment is made about the strength of the linkages that have been developed between the case management component of these plans and the larger health care system. PMID:10312977

  12. Selection bias in health maintenance organizations: Analysis of recent evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hellinger, Fred J.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of recent research regarding selection bias in health maintenance organizations (HMO's) is presented in this article. Review of the available literature leads one to conclude that prepaid group practice HMO's do experience favorable selection. It has been demonstrated in numerous studies that prior use of health services by HMO enrollees is less than prior use of health services by those who remain in the fee-for-service sector, and there is considerable evidence that shows a statistically significant positive relationship between prior use and current use. This is true for both those under 65 years of age and those 65 years of age or over. PMID:10312393

  13. Mental Snapshots: Creating an Organized Plan for Health Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fosbrook, Susan Curro

    2015-01-01

    Beginning nursing students enter a rapidly moving and changing health care climate. Multiple stimulations can frighten and overwhelm the student's ability to find order of essential patient information. Students need to know how to collect, process, and manage important health data accurately and efficiently in the clinical setting. An integrative method for teaching nursing students to walk into the patient's room and construct a patterned sequence of focused assessments assists students in creating an organized plan for health assessment. The Mental Snapshots Method includes three components for health assessment: (a) sequential assessment steps of the patient; (b) color-coded visual images of the patient representing a bodily condition; and (c) focused assessment questions of primary health complaint(s) with a plan for nursing care. This mental snapshots strategy employs an information processing model of sensory, memory, and motor functioning, which enable students to maintain patient quality and safety. PMID:26428347

  14. Analysis and implementation of a World Health Organization health report: methodological concepts and strategies.

    PubMed

    von Groote, Per Maximilian; Giustini, Alessandro; Bickenbach, Jerome Edmond

    2014-01-01

    A long-standing scientific discourse on the use of health research evidence to inform policy has come to produce multiple implementation theories, frameworks, models, and strategies. It is from this extensive body of research that the authors extract and present essential components of an implementation process in the health domain, gaining valuable guidance on how to successfully meet the challenges of implementation. Furthermore, this article describes how implementation content can be analyzed and reorganized, with a special focus on implementation at different policy, systems and services, and individual levels using existing frameworks and tools. In doing so, the authors aim to contribute to the establishment and testing of an implementation framework for reports such as the World Health Organization World Report on Disability, the World Health Organization International Perspectives on Spinal Cord Injury, and other health policy reports or technical health guidelines. PMID:24356078

  15. Associations between state minimum wage policy and health care access: a multi-level analysis of the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor survey.

    PubMed

    McCarrier, Kelly P; Martin, Diane P; Ralston, James D; Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2010-05-01

    Minimum wage policies have been advanced as mechanisms to improve the economic conditions of the working poor. Both positive and negative effects of such policies on health care access have been hypothesized, but associations have yet to be thoroughly tested. To examine whether the presence of minimum wage policies in excess of the federal standard of $5.15 per hour was associated with health care access indicators among low-skilled adults of working age, a cross-sectional analysis of 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data was conducted. Self-reported health insurance status and experience with cost-related barriers to needed medical care were adjusted in multi-level logistic regression models to control for potential confounding at the state, county, and individual levels. State-level wage policy was not found to be associated with insurance status or unmet medical need in the models, providing early evidence that increased minimum wage rates may neither strengthen nor weaken access to care as previously predicted. PMID:20453369

  16. Community Organization and Mental Health; The Woodlawn Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael D.; Lewis, Judith A.

    A paraprofessional training program designed to provide community controlled mental health services to the Woodlawn community of Chicago, Illinois, is described in this monograph. The neighborhood and The Woodlawn Organization (T.W.O.A), a self help project formed in early 1960, are described from an historical perspective. Some of the areas…

  17. Professionalism: good for patients and health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Michael D; Monson, Verna

    2014-05-01

    Professionalism is an indispensable element in the compact between the medical profession and society that is based on trust and putting the needs of patients above all other considerations. The resurgence of interest in professionalism dates back to the 1980s when health maintenance organizations were formed and proprietary influences in health care increased. Since then, a rich and comprehensive literature has emerged in defining professionalism, including desirable individual attributes and behaviors and how they may be taught, promoted, and assessed. More recently, scholarship has shifted from individual to organizational professionalism. This literature addresses the role that health care organizations can play to establish environments that are conducive to the consistent expression of professionalism by individuals and health care teams. We reviewed interdisciplinary empirical studies from health care effectiveness and outcomes, organizational sciences, positive psychology, and social psychology, finding evidence that organizational and individual professionalism is associated with a wide range of benefits to patients and the organization. We identify actionable organizational strategies and approaches that, if adopted, can foster and promote combined organizational and individual professionalism. In doing so, trust in the medical profession and its institutions can be enhanced, which in turn will reconfirm a commitment to the social compact. PMID:24797645

  18. Organizing and managing care in a changing health system.

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, L T

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine ways in which the management and organization of medical care is changing in response to the shifting incentives created by managed care. DATA SOURCES: Site visits conducted in 12 randomly selected communities in 1996/ 1997. STUDY DESIGN: Approximately 35-60 interviews were conducted per site with key informants in healthcare and community organizations; about half were with providers. DATA COLLECTION: A standardized interview protocol was implemented across all sites, enabling cross-site comparisons. Multiple respondents were interviewed on each issue. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A great deal of experimentation and apparent duplication exist in efforts to develop programs to influence physician practice patterns. Responsibility for managing care is being contested by health plans, medical groups and hospitals, as each seeks to accrue the savings that can result from the more efficient delivery of care. To manage the financial and clinical risk, providers are aggressively consolidating and reorganizing. Most significant was the rapid formation of intermediary organizations, such as independent practice arrangements (IPAs), physician-hospital organizations (PHOs), or management services organizations (MSOs), for contracting with managed care organizations. CONCLUSIONS: Managed care appears to have only a modest effect on how healthcare organizations deliver medical care, despite the profound effect that managed care has on how providers are organized. Rather than improving the efficiency of healthcare organizations, provider efforts to build large systems and become indispensable to health plans are exacerbating problems of excess capacity. It is not clear if new organizational arrangements will help providers manage the changing incentives they face, or if their intent is to blunt the effects of the incentives by forming larger organizations to improve their bargaining power and resist change. PMID:10778823

  19. A framework for describing health care delivery organizations and systems.

    PubMed

    Piña, Ileana L; Cohen, Perry D; Larson, David B; Marion, Lucy N; Sills, Marion R; Solberg, Leif I; Zerzan, Judy

    2015-04-01

    Describing, evaluating, and conducting research on the questions raised by comparative effectiveness research and characterizing care delivery organizations of all kinds, from independent individual provider units to large integrated health systems, has become imperative. Recognizing this challenge, the Delivery Systems Committee, a subgroup of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Effective Health Care Stakeholders Group, which represents a wide diversity of perspectives on health care, created a draft framework with domains and elements that may be useful in characterizing various sizes and types of care delivery organizations and may contribute to key outcomes of interest. The framework may serve as the door to further studies in areas in which clear definitions and descriptions are lacking. PMID:24922130

  20. New systems of work organization and workers' health.

    PubMed

    Kompier, Michiel A J

    2006-12-01

    This paper aims at identifying major changes in and around work organizations, their effects upon job characteristics and the health and well-being of today's employees, and related research challenges. Increased internationalization and competition, increased utilization of information and communication technology, the changing workforce configuration, and flexibility and new organizational practices are considered. As work has changed from physical to mental in nature, job characteristics have changed significantly. Meanwhile work and family life have blended. New systems of work organization have become more prevalent, but they do not represent a radical change across the whole economy. New practices may have an adverse impact upon job characteristics, but their effects depend on their design, implementation, and management. Research recommendations include improved monitoring of changes in work organization and studies into their health and safety consequences, intervention studies, studies into the motivating potential of modern work practices, studies of marginalized workers and workers in less developed countries, and "mechanism studies". PMID:17173199

  1. A Message for Governors and State Legislators: "The Minimum Competency Approach Can Be Bad for the Health of Higher Education."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anrig, Gregory R.

    Aspects of proposed higher education reforms that involve assessment of students learning are clarified by the president of the Educational Testing Service. Governors and state legislators are advised not to adopt state minimum competency standards for higher education. It is claimed that the responsibility for setting instructional standards and…

  2. Determination of Minimum Data Set (MSD) in Echocardiography Reporting System to Exchange with Iran’s Electronic Health Record (EHR) System

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudvand, Zahra; Kamkar, Mehran; Shahmoradi, Leila; Nejad, Ahmadreza Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Determination of minimum data set (MDS) in echocardiography reports is necessary for documentation and putting information in a standard way, and leads to the enhancement of electrocardiographic studies through having access to precise and perfect reports and also to the development of a standard database for electrocardiographic reports. Aim: to determine the minimum data set of echocardiography reporting system to exchange with Iran’s electronic health record (EHR) system. Methods: First, a list of minimum data set was prepared after reviewing texts and studying cardiac patients’ records. Then, to determine the content validity of the prepared MDS, the expert views of 10 cardiologists and 10 health information management (HIM) specialists were obtained; to estimate the reliability of the set, test-retest method was employed. Finally, the data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The highest degree of consensus was found for the following MDSs: patient’s name and family name (5), accepting doctor’s name and family name, familial death records due to cardiac disorders, the image identification code, mitral valve, aortic valve, tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, left ventricle, hole, atrium valve, Doppler examination of ventricular and atrial movement models and diagnoses with an average of. Conclusions: To prepare a model of echocardiography reporting system to exchange with EHR system, creation a standard data set is the vital point. Therefore, based on the research findings, the minimum reporting system data to exchange with Iran’s electronic health record system include information on entity, management, medical record, carried-out acts, and the main content of the echocardiography report, which the planners of reporting system should consider. PMID:27147803

  3. Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, James C.; Mathews, John; Manross, Kevin

    1995-12-01

    Calcium K plage, H alpha plage and sunspot area have been monitored daily on the INTERNET since November of 1992. The plage and sunspot area have been measured by image processing. The purpose of the project is to investigate the degree of correlation between plage area and solar irradiance. The plage variation shows the expected variation produced by solar rotation and the longer secular changes produced by the solar cycle. The H alpha and sunspot plage area reached a minimum in about late 1994 or early 1995. This is in agreement with the K2 spectral index obtained daily from Sacramento Peak Observatory. The Calcium K plage area minimum seems delayed with respect to the others mentioned above. The minimum of the K line plage area is projected to come within the last few months of 1995.

  4. Behavioral Health and Health Care Reform Models: Patient-Centered Medical Home, Health Home, and Accountable Care Organization

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P.; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2012-01-01

    Discussions of health care delivery and payment reforms have largely been silent about how behavioral health could be incorporated into reform initiatives. This paper draws attention to four patient populations defined by the severity of their behavioral health conditions and insurance status. It discusses the potentials and limitations of three prominent models promoted by the Affordable Care Act to serve populations with behavioral health conditions: the Patient Centered Medical Home, the Health Home initiative within Medicaid, and the Accountable Care Organization. To incorporate behavioral health into health reform, policymakers and practitioners may consider embedding in the reform efforts explicit tools – accountability measures and payment designs – to improve access to and quality of care for patients with behavioral health needs. PMID:23188486

  5. 25 CFR 900.45 - What specific minimum requirements shall an Indian tribe or tribal organization's financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or tribal organization's financial management system contain to meet these standards? 900.45 Section... ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial... financial management system contain to meet these standards? An Indian tribe or tribal...

  6. 25 CFR 900.45 - What specific minimum requirements shall an Indian tribe or tribal organization's financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or tribal organization's financial management system contain to meet these standards? 900.45 Section... ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial... financial management system contain to meet these standards? An Indian tribe or tribal...

  7. 25 CFR 900.45 - What specific minimum requirements shall an Indian tribe or tribal organization's financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or tribal organization's financial management system contain to meet these standards? 900.45 Section... ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial... financial management system contain to meet these standards? An Indian tribe or tribal...

  8. 25 CFR 900.45 - What specific minimum requirements shall an Indian tribe or tribal organization's financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or tribal organization's financial management system contain to meet these standards? 900.45 Section... ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial... financial management system contain to meet these standards? An Indian tribe or tribal...

  9. 25 CFR 900.45 - What specific minimum requirements shall an Indian tribe or tribal organization's financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or tribal organization's financial management system contain to meet these standards? 900.45 Section... ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial... financial management system contain to meet these standards? An Indian tribe or tribal...

  10. 78 FR 25909 - Minimum Value of Eligible Employer-Sponsored Plans and Other Rules Regarding the Health Insurance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... that applies to qualified health plans. The preamble to the HHS regulations (see 78 FR 12833) notes... Other Rules Regarding the Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... relating to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable...

  11. Health maintenance organization environments in the 1980s and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Ellen M.; Luft, Harold S.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout the past decade, health maintenance organizations (HMOs) were buffeted by dramatic regulatory and competitive changes. In this article, literature of the 1980s is reviewed to update our knowledge on the HMO industry and to suggest future research. The influence of intensified competition on these organizations and the determinants of market entry, expansion, and exit are examined. These organizations are now beginning to require copayments and deductibles and to offer point-of-service choice, while indemnity plans are developing sophisticated utilization management techniques. Given these significant structural changes, past distinctions among HMO, preferred provider organization and fee-for-service medicine must be replaced with a distinction between degree of provider choice and level of benefits. PMID:10113465

  12. Applying total quality management concepts to public health organizations.

    PubMed Central

    Kaluzny, A D; McLaughlin, C P; Simpson, K

    1992-01-01

    Total quality management (TQM) is a participative, systematic approach to planning and implementing a continuous organizational improvement process. Its approach is focused on satisfying customers' expectations, identifying problems, building commitment, and promoting open decision-making among workers. TQM applies analytical tools, such as flow and statistical charts and check sheets, to gather data about activities within an organization. TQM uses process techniques, such as nominal groups, brainstorming, and consensus forming to facilitate communication and decision making. TQM applications in the public sector and particularly in public health agencies have been limited. The process of integrating TQM into public health agencies complements and enhances the Model Standards Program and assessment methodologies, such as the Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health (APEX-PH), which are mechanisms for establishing strategic directions for public health. The authors examine the potential for using TQM as a method to achieve and exceed standards quickly and efficiently. They discuss the relationship of performance standards and assessment methodologies with TQM and provide guidelines for achieving the full potential of TQM in public health organizations. The guidelines include redefining the role of management, defining a common corporate culture, refining the role of citizen oversight functions, and setting realistic estimates of the time needed to complete a task or project. PMID:1594734

  13. Building IT capability in health-care organizations.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Naresh

    2006-05-01

    While computer technology has revolutionized industries such as banking and airlines, it has done little for health care so far. Most of the health-care organizations continue the early-computer-era practice of buying the latest technology without knowing how it might effectively be employed in achieving business goals. By investing merely in information technology (IT) rather than in IT capabilities they acquire IT components--primarily hardware, software, and vendor-provided services--which they do not understand and, as a result, are not capable of fully utilizing for achieving organizational objectives. In the absence of internal IT capabilities, health-care organizations have relied heavily on the fragmented IT vendor market in which vendors do not offer an open architecture, and are unwilling to offer electronic interfaces that would make their 'closed' systems compatible with those of other vendors. They are hamstrung as a result because they have implemented so many different technologies and databases that information stays in silos. Health systems can meet this challenge by developing internal IT capabilities that would allow them to seamlessly integrate clinical and business IT systems and develop innovative uses of IT. This paper develops a comprehensive conception of IT capability grounded in the resource-based theory of the firm as a remedy to the woes of IT investments in health care. PMID:16643706

  14. Back to the future? Health benefits, organized labor, and universal health care.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Marie

    2007-12-01

    The umbrella of employment-based health benefits is growing increasingly threadbare. As a result, health benefits are once again a major arena of labor-management strife, and once again calls for universal health care by many labor leaders mask important differences between them over health care reform. Some labor leaders advocate a bottom-up mobilization in support of a single-payer solution that would dismantle the system of job-based benefits rooted in private insurance. Others stake their health care strategy on wooing key business leaders to be constructive partners in some kind of unspecified comprehensive reform of the health system. Organized labor faces enormous obstacles, both institutional and ideological, to forging an effective united front to fight for comprehensive, high-quality, affordable health care for all. Two entrenched features of the shadow welfare state of job-based benefits, notably the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) of 1974 and the union-run health and welfare funds created under the Taft-Hartley Act, remain daunting barriers on the road to reform, exacerbating tensions and differences within organized labor. Moreover, a dramatic ideological schism in the labor movement about its future direction vexes its stance on health care reform. These ideological differences fuel vastly different views within organized labor about how best to confront the unraveling of job-based health benefits and the growing popularity among business leaders, insurers, and public officials of the "individual-mandate" solution, which would penalize people who do not have adequate health insurance. PMID:18000156

  15. Minimum Value of Eligible Employer-Sponsored Plans and Other Rules Regarding the Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit. Final regulations.

    PubMed

    2015-12-18

    This document contains final regulations on the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, as amended by the Medicare and Medicaid Extenders Act of 2010, the Comprehensive 1099 Taxpayer Protection and Repayment of Exchange Subsidy Overpayments Act of 2011, and the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011. These final regulations affect individuals who enroll in qualified health plans through Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges, sometimes called Marketplaces) and claim the health insurance premium tax credit, and Exchanges that make qualified health plans available to individuals and employers. PMID:26685369

  16. Work organization and the health of bank employees.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juliana Lemos; Navarro, Vera Lucia

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian banking sector has undergone an intense restructuring process and taken a leading position in the incorporation of new technologies and organizational innovations. Computerization in the industry, in association with forms of work organization, has resulted in changes that reflect on the workers' health. Based on the theoretical and methodological frameworks of historical and dialectical materialism, this qualitative study investigates the work conditions of bank employees in order to identify the extent to which changes in work organization interfere with these workers' health. Data were collected through interviews held with 11 bank employees. In addition to physical sickening due to occupational diseases directly related to work intensification, the results also show an increased incidence of mental suffering and a feeling of loss of professional identity. Work-related frustration, instability and concerns related to psychological pressure resulting from the need to achieve goals predominated in the reports. PMID:22699722

  17. [Malaria and activities of the World Health Organization].

    PubMed

    Nájera, J A

    1991-08-01

    Malaria has been one of the main health problems demanding the attention of WHO from the time the Organization was created. This review of the historical record analyzes the different approaches to the malaria problem in the past 40 years and shows how WHO tried to fulfill its constitutional mandate. The article exposes the historical roots of the present situation and helps towards an understanding of current problems and approaches to malaria control. PMID:1834084

  18. Adoption of Clinical Information Systems in Health Services Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Charles J.; Holland, Gloria J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model of factors which influence organizational decisions to invest in the installation of clinical information systems. Using results of previous research as a framework, the relative influence of clinical, fiscal, and strategic-institutional decision structures are examined. These adoption decisions are important in health services organizations because clinical information is essential for managing demand and allocating resources, managing quality of care, and controlling costs.

  19. Hispanic Medical Organizations' Support for LGBT Health Issues.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, John Paul; Sola, Orlando; Ramallo, Jorge; Sánchez, Nelson Felix; Dominguez, Kenneth; Romero-Leggott, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    Hispanics represent the fastest growing ethnic segment of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States and are disproportionately burdened by LGBT-related health issues and limited political support from Hispanic medical organizations. Recently, the Latino Medical Student Association, the National Hispanic Medical Association, and the Hispanic Serving Health Professions Schools, representing over 60,000 Hispanic students and providers and 35 institutions, collaborated to support a resolution opposing discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity and recognizing the obstacles encountered by LGBTQ Hispanics. The resolution provides an important framework for organizational members and leaders to address LGBT health issues and serve to support a more positive sociopolitical climate for the Hispanic LGBT community nationally and internationally. PMID:26789708

  20. Managing corporate governance risks in a nonprofit health care organization.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Glenn T; Brashear, Andrea D; Green, Kelly J

    2005-01-01

    Triggered by corporate scandals, there is increased oversight by governmental bodies and in part by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Corporations are developing corporate governance compliance initiatives to respond to the scrutiny of regulators, legislators, the general public and constituency groups such as investors. Due to state attorney general initiatives, new legislation and heightened oversight from the Internal Revenue Service, nonprofit entities are starting to share the media spotlight with their for-profit counterparts. These developments are changing nonprofit health care organizations as well as the traditional role of the risk manager. No longer is the risk manager focused solely on patients' welfare and safe passage through a complex delivery system. The risk manager must be aware of corporate practices within the organization that could allow the personal objectives of a few individuals to override the greater good of the community in which the nonprofit organization serves. PMID:20200865

  1. Improving Coordination of Addiction Health Services Organizations with Mental Health and Public Health Services.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Erick G; Andrews, Christina; Harris, Lesley; Padwa, Howard; Kong, Yinfei; M S W, Karissa Fenwick

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-method study, we examined coordination of mental health and public health services in addiction health services (AHS) in low-income racial and ethnic minority communities in 2011 and 2013. Data from surveys and semistructured interviews were used to evaluate the extent to which environmental and organizational characteristics influenced the likelihood of high coordination with mental health and public health providers among outpatient AHS programs. Coordination was defined and measured as the frequency of interorganizational contact among AHS programs and mental health and public health providers. The analytic sample consisted of 112 programs at time 1 (T1) and 122 programs at time 2 (T2), with 61 programs included in both periods of data collection. Forty-three percent of AHS programs reported high frequency of coordination with mental health providers at T1 compared to 66% at T2. Thirty-one percent of programs reported high frequency of coordination with public health services at T1 compared with 54% at T2. Programs with culturally responsive resources and community linkages were more likely to report high coordination with both services. Qualitative analysis highlighted the role of leadership in leveraging funding and developing creative solutions to deliver coordinated care. Overall, our findings suggest that AHS program funding, leadership, and cultural competence may be important drivers of program capacity to improve coordination with health service providers to serve minorities in an era of health care reform. PMID:26350114

  2. The new organization of the health care delivery system.

    PubMed

    Shortell, S M; Hull, K E

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. health care system is restructuring at a dizzying pace. In many parts of the country, managed care has moved into third-generation models emphasizing capitated payment for enrolled lives and, in the process, turning most providers and institutions into cost centers to be managed rather than generators of revenue. While the full impact of the new managed care models remains to be seen, most evidence to date suggests that it tends to reduce inpatient use, may be associated with greater use of physician services and preventive care, and appears to result in no net differences either positive or negative with regard to quality or outcomes of care in comparison with fee-for-service plans. Some patients, however, tend to be somewhat less satisfied with scheduling of appointments and the amount of time spent with providers. There is no persuasive evidence that managed care lowers the rate of growth in overall health care costs within a given market. Further, managed care performance varies considerably across the country, and the factors influencing managed care performance are not well understood. Organized delivery systems are a somewhat more recent phenomenon representing various forms of ownership and strategic alliances among hospitals, physicians, and insurers designed to provide more cost-effective care to defined populations by achieving desired levels of functional, physician-system, and clinical integration. Early evidence suggests that organized delivery systems that are more integrated have the potential to provide more accessible coordinated care across the continuum, and appear to be associated with higher levels of inpatient productivity, greater total system revenue, greater total system cash flow, and greater total system operating margin than less integrated delivery forms. Some key success factors for developing organized delivery systems have been identified. Important roles are played by organizational culture, information systems, internal

  3. The future of global health cooperation: designing a new World Health Organization.

    PubMed

    Forss, K; Stenson, B; Sterky, G

    1996-06-01

    This article discusses some needed changes to the functioning and management of the World Health Organization (WHO). WHO is unable to meet new challenges and needs reform. The Executive Board of WHO initiated an internal review in 1992 that led to a management-related focus, while informal groups within the agency tackled funding constraints. Some governments and nongovernmental groups have proposed reorganization of international health assistance. The authors urge that the public health sector and researchers join the reform effort. WHO was established in 1948 and was the sole global health agency. The demand for greater international health cooperation has increased over time. WHO is an association of sovereign states. WHO demonstrated success in eliminating smallpox, promotion of health policy, collection and dissemination of epidemiologic information, and establishment of standards in health care and medical ethics. WHO staff comprises about 5000 persons. The annual budget is too small at about US$900 million. In 1995 only 56% of receipts were collected. WHO's constitution mandates complete health for all, but there has been a widening gap between rich and poor and those with access to health services and those without. Absolute and relative poverty are the main determinants of premature mortality and ill health. The major challenge for health policy is this disparity; the focus of international collaboration should be on this issue. The machine metaphor of organizational structure no longer works in today's world. The authors propose that WHO limit functions in health development and create a full mandate for dealing with determinants of health. WHO should be participatory, open to constituents, autonomous, and flexible. Member states must be more powerful in policy formulation. Program implementation should occur in independent programs in a decentralized system. PMID:12291612

  4. Health of returnees in Osijek Region and required special measures of health care and community organization.

    PubMed

    Prlić, Lidija; Ebling, Zdravko; Glavina, Kresimir; Gmajnić, Rudika; Vuletić, Gorka; Kovacić, Luka; Tokalić, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Many citizens from the Osijek-Baranja County, in order to survive, left their homes during the 1991/92 war in Croatia and spent between 5 and 7 years in exile. The aim of this pilot research was to assess the health status (physical, mental and social) of refugee /returnee population and their use of health services, to identify the factors influencing their adaptation, and to propose the health programs, psychological and social support, which could help foster integration into the social and community life, education and employment. The study was done on a randomized sample of 589 respondents using the 2003 Croatian Health Survey with an additional questionnaire related to the problems of returnees. The results of the study show good organization of health service in returnees' communities, with exception of gynecological and dental services. There was also a presence of health transportation problem and the problem in the supply of medicines. Finally, the results show that the returnees' communities were dominated by social problems such as lack of employment, lack of support for elderly, poverty, and concerns for children's prospects. This implies the necessity for intervention in both mental and social aspects. Measures to be undertaken in the next stage of the Project will be aimed at the work in the refugee communities and based on public health working methods such as organization of the community by stimulating intergenerational solidarity, education and raising awareness of self-help. PMID:15571108

  5. Information technology and knowledge exchange in health-care organizations.

    PubMed Central

    Vimarlund, V.; Timpka, T.; Patel, V. L.

    1999-01-01

    Despite the increasing global interest in information technology among health care institutions, little has been discussed about its importance for the effectiveness of knowledge management. In this study, economic theories are used to analyze and describe a theoretical framework for the use of information technology in the exchange of knowledge. The analyses show that health care institutions would benefit from developing global problem-solving collaboration, which allows practitioners to exchange knowledge unrestricted by time and geographical barriers. The use of information technology for vertical integration of health-care institutions would reduce knowledge transaction costs, i.e. decrease costs for negotiating and creating communication channels, and facilitating the determination of what, when, and how to produce knowledge. A global network would allow organizations to increase existing knowledge, and thus total productivity, while also supporting an environment where the generation of new ideas is unrestricted. Using all the intellectual potential of market actors and thereby releasing economic resources can reduce today's global budget conflicts in the public sector, i.e. the necessity to choose between health care services and, for instance, schools and support for the elderly. In conclusion, global collaboration and coordination would reduce the transaction costs inherent in knowledge administration and allow a more effective total use of scarce health-care resources. PMID:10566436

  6. Mental health disorders and solid-organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Chris; Armstrong, Matthew J; Parker, Richard; Webb, Kerry; Neuberger, James M

    2013-10-15

    Depression affects up to 60% of solid-organ recipients and is independently associated with both mortality (hazard ratio for death of ~2) and de novo malignancy after transplantation, although the mechanism is not clear. Both pretransplantation psychosis and depression occurring more than 2 years after transplantation are associated with increased noncompliance and graft loss. It remains to be shown that effective treatment of depression is associated with improved outcomes and quality of life. Immunosuppressive drugs (especially corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors) and physiologic challenges can precipitate deterioration in mental health. All potential transplant candidates should be assessed for mental health problems and preexisting medical conditions that can mimic mental health problems, such as uremic, hepatic, or hypoxic encephalopathy, should be identified and treated appropriately. Expert mental health review of those with identified risk factors (such as previous suicide attempts, history of mental illness or noncompliance with medications) is advisable early in the transplant assessment process to mitigate risk and support the patient. Patients with mental health disorders, when adequately controlled and socially supported, have outcomes similar to the general transplant population. Therefore, exclusion from transplantation based on the diagnosis alone is neither ethically nor medically justified. However, it is ethically and clinically justifiable to deny access to transplantation to those who, despite full support, would have a quality of life that is unacceptable to the candidate or are likely to be noncompliant with treatment or follow-up, which would lead to graft loss. PMID:23743726

  7. The Effects of Organic Pollutants in Soil on Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Lynn

    2013-04-01

    The soil has always been depository of the organic chemicals produced naturally or anthropogenically. Soil contamination is a serious human and environmental problem. A large body of evidence has shown the risks of adverse health effects with the exposure to contaminated soil due to the large quantities of organic chemicals used in agriculture and urban areas that have a legacy of environmental pollution linked to industrial activities, coal burning, motor vehicle emissions, waste incineration and waste dumping. In agricultural areas, because of the effort to provide adequate quantities of agricultural products, farmers have been using an increasing amount of organic chemicals, but the resulting pollution has enormous potential for environmental damage. The types of organic pollutants commonly found in soils are polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides, herbicides and organic fuels, especially gasoline and diesel. Another source of soil pollution is the complex mixture of organic chemicals, metals and microorganisms in the effluent from septic systems, animal wastes and other sources of biowaste. The soils of the world are a vast mixture of chemicals and although conditions are such that an individual is rarely exposed to a single compound, the great majority of people are exposed to a vast chemical mixture of organics, their metabolites, and other compounds at low concentrations Human exposure to organic pollutants in the soil is an area of toxicology that is very difficult to study due to the low concentration of the pollutants. The toxicological studies of single organic pollutants found in soils are limited and research on the metabolites and of chemical mixtures is very limited. The majority of toxicological studies are conducted at relatively high doses and for short periods of exposure. This makes the application of this data to exposure

  8. The Pan American Health Organization and the mainstreaming of human rights in regional health governance.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Ayala, Ana S

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of centralized human rights leadership in an increasingly fragmented global health policy landscape, regional health offices have stepped forward to advance the rights-based approach to health. Reviewing the efforts of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), this article explores the evolution of human rights in PAHO policy, assesses efforts to mainstream human rights in the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (PASB), and analyzes the future of the rights-based approach through regional health governance, providing lessons for other regional health offices and global health institutions. This article explores PAHO's 15-year effort to mainstream human rights through PASB technical units, national capacity-building, the Inter-American human rights system, and the PAHO Directing Council. Through documentary analysis of PAHO policies and semi-structured interviews with key PASB stakeholders, the authors analyze the understandings and actions of policymakers and technical officers in implementing human rights through PAHO governance. Analyzing the themes arising from this narrative, the authors examine the structural role of secretariat leadership, state support, legal expertise, and technical unit commitment in facilitating a rights-based approach to the health in the Americas. Human rights are increasingly framing PAHO efforts, and this analysis of the structures underlying PAHO's approach provides an understanding of the institutional determinants of the rights-based approach to health, highlighting generalizable themes for the mainstreaming of human rights through regional health governance. With this regional-level understanding of health governance, future national-level research can begin to understand the causal forces linking regional human rights work with national policy reforms and public health outcomes. PMID:25264093

  9. Tobacco and oral health--the role of the world health organization.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2003-01-01

    In addition to several other chronic diseases, tobacco use is a primary cause of many oral diseases and adverse oral conditions. For example, tobacco is a risk factor for oral cancer, periodontal disease, and congenital defects in children whose mothers smoke during pregnancy. The epidemic of tobacco use is one of the greatest threats to global health; sadly the future appears worse because of the globalization of marketing. The World Health Organization (WHO) has strengthened the work for effective control of tobacco use. At the World Health Assembly in May 2003 the Member States agreed on a groundbreaking public health treaty to control tobacco supply and consumption. The treaty covers tobacco taxation, smoking prevention and treatment, illicit trade, advertising, sponsorship and promotion, and product regulation. Oral health professionals and dental associations worldwide should consider this platform for their future work for tobacco prevention since in several countries they play an important role in communication with patients and communities. The WHO Oral Health Programme gives priority to tobacco control in many ways through the development of national and community programmes which incorporates oral health and tobacco issues, tobacco prevention through schools, tobacco risk assessment in countries, and design of modern surveillance systems on risk factors and oral health. Systematic evaluation of coordinated efforts should be carried out at country and inter-country levels. PMID:15643759

  10. 76 FR 58466 - Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... influenza preparedness via the Federal Register on September 14, 2010; 75 FR 55776-55777. The Department of... International Trade Administration Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza... the World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework (...

  11. The World Health Organization hand hygiene observation method.

    PubMed

    Sax, Hugo; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Chraïti, Marie-Noëlle; Boyce, John; Larson, Elaine; Pittet, Didier

    2009-12-01

    Monitoring hand hygiene adherence and providing performance feedback to health care workers is a critical component of multimodal hand hygiene promotion programs, but important variations exist in the way adherence is measured. Within the framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) First Global Patient Safety Challenge known as "Clean Care is Safer Care," an evidence-based, user-centered concept, "My five moments for hand hygiene," has been developed for measuring, teaching, and reporting hand hygiene adherence. This concept is an integral part of the WHO's hand hygiene improvement strategy conceived to translate the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care into practice. It has been tested in numerous health care facilities worldwide to ensure its applicability and adaptability to all settings irrespective of the resources available. Here we describe the WHO hand hygiene observation method in detail-the concept, the profile and the task of the observers, their training and validation, the data collection form, the scope, the selection of the observed staff, and the observation sessions-with the objective of making it accessible for universal use. Sample size estimates, survey analysis and report, and major bias and confounding factors associated with observation are discussed. PMID:20004812

  12. Leishmaniasis in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Postigo, Jose A Ruiz

    2010-11-01

    Leishmaniasis represents a major public health problem in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) of the World Health Organization (WHO). Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis are mainly seen in 14 of the 22 countries of the region. In several of these countries outbreaks have an apparent tendency to occur at around 10-year intervals. In 2008, some 100000 new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were reported. Foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania major, occur in Afghanistan, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Palestine, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia and Yemen. Anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by L. tropica, occurs in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Morocco, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Yemen. Anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis, caused by L. donovani, occurs mainly in Sudan and Somalia. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, caused by L. infantum, occurs in most countries of the region. In order to address the problem of leishmaniasis in the EMR, WHO is supporting ministries of health through a strategic plan focusing on (a) training programme managers and health workers on diagnosis and case management; (b) establishing a harmonized regional surveillance system; (c) creating a regional network of experts; (d) promoting political commitment of national governments. PMID:20728317

  13. Demoralization in mental health organizations: leadership and social support help.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Stewart

    2012-12-01

    Demoralization is a commonly observed feeling state that is characterized by a sense of loss of or threat to one's personal values or goals and a perceived inability to overcome obstacles toward achieving these goals. Demoralization has features in common with burnout and may precede or accompany it. Psychiatrists working in many mental health care organizational settings, be they in the public or private sectors, may be at particular risk for demoralization. This is due partly to stressors that threaten their own professional values because of factors such as programmatic cut backs, budgetary reductions and changing social emphases on the value of mental health treatments. They also may be at risk for demoralization because of the effects on them of the governance styles of the agencies in which they are employed. The leadership or governance style in large organizational settings often is authoritarian, hierarchical and bureaucratic, approaches that are antithetical to the more participative leadership styles favored by many mental health professionals in their clinical activities. Clinical leaders in mental health organizations must exhibit various competencies to successfully address demoralization in clinical staff and to provide a counterbalance to the effects of the governance style of many agencies in which they are employed. Appropriate leadership skills, sometimes too simplistically termed "social support", have been found to reduce burnout in various populations and are likely to lessen demoralization as well. This paper reviews these important leadership issues and the relationship of social support to recognized leadership competencies. PMID:22415227

  14. Serious crisis in the practice of international health by the World Health Organization: the Commission on Social Determinants of Health.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Debabar

    2006-01-01

    The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) is the latest effort by the World Health Organization to improve health and narrow health inequalities through action on social determinants. The CSDH does not note that much work has already been done in this direction, does not make a sufficient attempt to analyze why earlier efforts failed to yield the desired results, and does not seem to have devised approaches to ensure that it will be more successful this time. The CSDH intends to complement the work of the earlier WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, which has not had the desired impact, and it is unclear how the CSDH can complement work that suffers from such serious infirmities. Inadequacies of both commissions reflect a crisis in the practice of international health at the WHO, stemming from a combination of unsatisfactory administrative practices and lack of technical competence to provide insights into the problems afflicting the most needy countries. Often the WHO has ended up distorting the rudimentary health systems of the poor countries, by pressuring them into accepting health policies, plans, and programs that lack sound scientific bases. The WHO no longer seems to take into account historical and political factors when it sets out to improve the health situation in low-income countries--which is supposed to be the focus of the CSDH. An alternative approach is suggested. PMID:17175839

  15. The minimum knowledge base for predicting organ-at-risk dose-volume levels and plan-related complications in IMRT planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao H.; Meyer, Robert R.; Shi, Leyuan; D'Souza, Warren D.

    2010-04-01

    IMRT treatment planning requires consideration of two competing objectives: achieving the required amount of radiation for the planning target volume and minimizing the amount of radiation delivered to all other tissues. It is important for planners to understand the tradeoff between competing factors so that the time-consuming human interaction loop (plan-evaluate-modify) can be eliminated. Treatment-plan-surface models have been proposed as a decision support tool to aid treatment planners and clinicians in choosing between rival treatment plans in a multi-plan environment. In this paper, an empirical approach is introduced to determine the minimum number of treatment plans (minimum knowledge base) required to build accurate representations of the IMRT plan surface in order to predict organ-at-risk (OAR) dose-volume (DV) levels and complications as a function of input DV constraint settings corresponding to all involved OARs in the plan. We have tested our approach on five head and neck patients and five whole pelvis/prostate patients. Our results suggest that approximately 30 plans were sufficient to predict DV levels with less than 3% relative error in both head and neck and whole pelvis/prostate cases. In addition, approximately 30-60 plans were sufficient to predict saliva flow rate with less than 2% relative error and to classify rectal bleeding with an accuracy of 90%.

  16. Alternative geographic configurations for Medicare payments to health maintenance organizations.

    PubMed

    Porell, F W; Tompkins, C P; Turner, W M

    1990-01-01

    Under prevailing legislation, Medicare payments to health maintenance organizations (HMOs) are based upon projected fee-for-service reimbursement levels for enrollees' county of residence. These rates have been criticized in light of substantial variations in rates among neighboring counties and large fluctuations in rates over time. In this study, the use of nine alternative configurations and the county itself were evaluated on the basis of payment-area homogeneity, payment rate stability, and policy criteria, including the fiscal impacts of reconfiguration on HMOs. The results revealed rather modest differences among most alternative configurations and do not lend strong support for payment area reconfiguration at this time. PMID:10113270

  17. Effect of Mergers on Health Maintenance Organization Premiums

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Roger; Wholey, Douglas; Christianson, Jon

    1996-01-01

    This study estimated the effect of mergers on health maintenance organization (HMO) premiums, using data on all operational non-Medicaid HMOs in the United States from 1985 to 1993. Two critical issues were examined: whether HMO mergers increase or decrease premiums; and whether the effects of mergers differ according to the degree of competition among HMOs in local markets. The only significant merger effect was found in the most competitive markets, where premiums increased, but only for 1 year after the merger. Our research does not support the argument that consolidation of HMOs in local markets will benefit consumers through lower premiums. PMID:10158729

  18. Stability of frailty in the social/health maintenance organization.

    PubMed

    Hallfors, D; Leutz, W; Capitman, J; Ritter, G

    1994-01-01

    Although many long-term care (LTC) programs assume that the disabilities of their frail elderly participants are stable in nature, there has been suggestive evidence to the contrary. This study tests stability of disability among social/health maintenance organization (S/HMO) members who were judged eligible for admission into a nursing home. Identified persons were reassessed quarterly. By the end of 1 year, less than 50 percent were still considered to be nursing home eligible. Logit analysis revealed an increased likelihood of instability for persons who were newly identified as functionally disabled after hospitalization. Policy implications for capitated managed-care programs for the elderly are discussed. PMID:10138480

  19. Managing the transition to integrated health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Griffith, J R

    1996-01-01

    Today's successful community hospitals should and will evolve into integrated health care organizations (IHCOs) that will share several common characteristics. IHCOs will have a community--not a membership--orientation, and this will be a distinguishing characteristic and a source of market appeal. The transition to IHCO will be a slow one, and to prosper, the IHCO will have to accommodate both price-oriented markets and traditional ones. Successful IHCOs will expand technical skills and capabilities to control costs and quality. New strategic competencies will have to be developed, and to do this, emerging IHCOs will improve the ability of managers to support decisions and sell them both to the buyers and the public at large. Excellent patient care will rest upon better trained, advised, and informed management teams. Making the change to an IHCO will take time and money, but organizations that make steady progress are likely to succeed. PMID:10156172

  20. [Peculiarities of oral health of organized collectives and professional communities].

    PubMed

    Makeeva, I M; Avdeenko, O E

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of scientific literature on the peculiarities of the dental status of organized groups and professional associations. After reviewing the literature, it becomes clear that the studies carried out in organized groups and professional societies are very relevant today, because the prevalence of dental diseases among them remains high, fueled by a number of factors: habitat, diet, lifestyle, occupational hazards, particularly hygienic oral care. Nowadays there is no information about the features of the dental status among the clergy, whose professional activity is connected with direct close contact with people. This profession covers a large number of our population. The research of certain groups is of special interest, since a number of different factors affect dental health. PMID:27182563

  1. Preparing health care organizations for successful case management programs.

    PubMed

    Bonvissuto, C A; Kastens, J M; Atwell, S R

    1997-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study of four hospital-based providers in varying stages of implementing case management programs. Three of the providers had most of the necessary elements in place to ensure success, such as a mix of reimbursement sources, an effective and integrated information management system, a full range of clinical services, and continuous quality improvement programs. The authors make several suggestions for key activities that must be pursued by any health care organization seeking to implement a case management program in an era of managed care, tightening reimbursement, and consumer demand for quality care. These include the need to (a) organize essential case management functions under a centralized structure; (b) set realistic, quantifiable targets, and (c) design a communications plan for the program. PMID:9335724

  2. An exploratory study of organization design configurations in health care delivery organizations.

    PubMed

    Sheppeck, Mick; Militello, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Organizations are configurations of variables that support each other to achieve customer satisfaction. Based on Treacy and Wiersema (1995), we predicted the emergence of two configurations, one supporting a product leadership stance and one predicting the customer intimate approach from a set of 73 for profit health care clinics. In addition, we predicted the emergence of a configuration where the scores on most variables were near the mean for each variable. Using cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis, we identified three configurations: one a "master of two" strategy, one "stuck-in-the-middle," and one showing scores well below the mean on most variables. The implications for organization design and manager actions in the health care industry are discussed. PMID:25004706

  3. Exploring Business Strategy in Health Information Exchange Organizations.

    PubMed

    Langabeer, James R; Champagne, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Unlike consumer goods industries, healthcare has been slow to implement technolo gies that support exchange of data in patients' health records. This results in avoid able medication errors, avoidable hospital readmissions, unnecessary duplicate testing, and other inefficient or wasteful practices. Community-based regional health information exchange (HIE) organizations have evolved in response to federal aims to encourage interoperability, yet little is known about their strategic approach. We use the lens of institutional and strategic management theories to empirically explore the differences in business strategies deployed in HIEs that are, to date, financially sustainable versus those that are not. We developed a 20-question survey targeted to CEOs to assess HIE business strategies. Our sample consisted of 60 community-based exchanges distributed throughout the United States, and we achieved a 58% response rate. Questions centered on competitive strategy and financial sustainability. We relied on logistic regression methods to explore relationships between variables. Our regression identified characteristics common to sustainable organizations. We defined sustainability as revenues exceeding operational costs. Seventeen of the 35 organizations (49%) defined themselves as currently sustainable. Focus and cost leadership strategies were significantly associated with sustainability. Growth strate gies, which were much more common than other strategies, were not associated with sustainability. We saw little evidence of a differentiation strategy (i.e., the basis of competition whereby the attributes of a product or service are unmatched by rivals). Most CEOs had a relatively optimistic outlook, with 60% stating they were confident of surviving over the next 5 years; however, nearly 9% of the organizations were in some phase of divestiture or exit from the market. HIEs are evolving differently based on local leadership decisions, yet their strategic approach is

  4. The case for the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health to address gender identity.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Veale, Jaimie F

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the case of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, which did not address gender identity in their final report. We argue that gender identity is increasingly being recognized as an important social determinant of health (SDH) that results in health inequities. We identify right to health mechanisms, such as established human rights instruments, as suitable policy tools for addressing gender identity as an SDH to improve health equity. We urge the World Health Organization to add gender identity as an SDH in its conceptual framework for action on the SDHs and to develop and implement specific recommendations for addressing gender identity as an SDH. PMID:25602894

  5. Health and Welfare in Dutch Organic Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Bestman, Monique; Wagenaar, Jan-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Data on animal health and welfare and farm management during rearing and laying periods were collected from 49 flocks of organic laying hens in the Netherlands to establish how farms performed in terms of animal health and welfare and which factors affected health and welfare. Abstract From 2007–2008, data on animal health and welfare and farm management during rearing and laying periods were collected from 49 flocks of organic laying hens in the Netherlands. Our aim was to investigate how organic egg farms performed in terms of animal health and welfare and which farm factors affected this performance. The flocks in our study were kept on farms with 34 to 25,000 hens (average 9,300 hens). Seventy-one percent of the flocks consisted of ‘silver hybrids’: white hens that lay brown eggs. Fifty-five percent of the flocks were kept in floor-based housing and 45% of the flocks in aviaries. No relation was found between the amount of time spent outdoors during the laying period and mortality at 60 weeks. Flocks that used their outdoor run more intensively had better feather scores. In 40% of the flocks there was mortality caused by predators. The average feed intake was 129 g/day at 30 weeks and 133 g/day at 60 weeks of age. The average percentage of mislaid eggs decreased from three at 30 weeks to two at 60 weeks. The average mortality was 7.8% at 60 weeks. Twenty-five percent of the flocks were not treated for worms in their first 50 weeks. Flubenol© was applied to the flocks that were treated. Ten percent of the flocks followed Flubenol© instructions for use and were wormed five or more times. The other 65% percent were treated irregularly between one and four times. Sixty-eight percent of the flocks showed little or no feather damage, 24% showed moderate damage and 8% showed severe damage. The feather score was better if the hens used the free-range area more intensely, the laying percentage at 60 weeks was higher, and if they were allowed to go

  6. Workgroup Report: Developing Environmental Health Indicators for European Children: World Health Organization Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Pond, Kathy; Kim, Rokho; Carroquino, Maria-Jose; Pirard, Philippe; Gore, Fiona; Cucu, Alexandra; Nemer, Leda; MacKay, Morag; Smedje, Greta; Georgellis, Antonis; Dalbokova, Dafina; Krzyzanowski, Michal

    2007-01-01

    A working group coordinated by the World Health Organization developed a set of indicators to protect children’s health from environmental risks and to support current and future European policy needs. On the basis of identified policy needs, the group developed a core set of 29 indicators for implementation plus an extended set of eight additional indicators for future development, focusing on exposure, health effects, and action. As far as possible, the indicators were designed to use existing information and are flexible enough to be developed further to meet the needs of policy makers and changing health priorities. These indicators cover most of the priority topic areas specified in the Children’s Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE) as adopted in the Fourth Ministerial Conference on Health and Environment in 2004, and will be used to monitor the implementation of CEHAPE. This effort can be viewed as an integral part of the Global Initiative on Children’s Environmental Health Indicators, launched at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002. PMID:17805431

  7. 42 CFR 475.105 - Prohibition against contracting with health care facilities, affiliates, and payor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibition against contracting with health care facilities, affiliates, and payor organizations. 475.105 Section 475.105 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT...

  8. Global policy for improvement of oral health in the 21st century--implications to oral health research of World Health Assembly 2007, World Health Organization.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2009-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Oral Health Programme has worked hard over the past 5 years to increase the awareness of oral health worldwide as oral health is important component of general health and quality of life. Meanwhile, oral disease is still a major public health problem in high income countries and the burden of oral disease is growing in many low- and middle income countries. In the World Oral Health Report 2003, the WHO Global Oral Health Programme formulated the policies and necessary actions to the continuous improvement of oral health. The strategy is that oral disease prevention and the promotion of oral health needs to be integrated with chronic disease prevention and general health promotion as the risks to health are linked. The World Health Assembly (WHA) and the Executive Board (EB) are supreme governance bodies of WHO and for the first time in 25 years oral health was subject to discussion by those bodies in 2007. At the EB120 and WHA60, the Member States agreed on an action plan for oral health and integrated disease prevention, thereby confirming the approach of the Oral Health Programme. The policy forms the basis for future development or adjustment of oral health programmes at national level. Clinical and public health research has shown that a number of individual, professional and community preventive measures are effective in preventing most oral diseases. However, advances in oral health science have not yet benefited the poor and disadvantaged populations worldwide. The major challenges of the future will be to translate knowledge and experiences in oral disease prevention and health promotion into action programmes. The WHO Global Oral Health Programme invites the international oral health research community to engage further in research capacity building in developing countries, and in strengthening the work so that research is recognized as the foundation of oral heath policy at global level. PMID:19046331

  9. Gender stratification in management. The World Health Organization 2000.

    PubMed

    Brännström, Inger A

    2004-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is a global organization that nowadays has integrated gender issues into its policy, programmes and budget. How then is the state of affairs in the area of gender equity at the ultimate governing bodies of the modern WHO? This study aims to assess the representation of women and men and their promotion within the supreme decision-making bodies of the WHO during the year 2000. Information sources used are the official and confirmed protocols of the 53rd World Health Assembly (WHA) in 2000 and of the two Executive Board (EB) meetings of the corresponding year. A descriptive quantitative content analysis approach is used exclusively. The present study demonstrates strikingly skewed gender distribution, with men substantially at an advantage numerically in the prominent positions at the WHA 2000. Additionally, men also hold an advantage in terms of being promoted to leading positions within the bodies examined, notably all upgraded chairs of the EB during 2000. However, the formerly male-dominated supervisory positions of the WHO are, these days, challenged by women having been elected at the very top of the WHO. The present study stresses the need to elaborate a qualitative research design to advance the understanding of the social construction of gender in supreme governing positions of the modern WHO. PMID:15133880

  10. The world health organization multicountry survey on maternal and newborn health: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Effective interventions to reduce mortality and morbidity in maternal and newborn health already exist. Information about quality and performance of care and the use of critical interventions are useful for shaping improvements in health care and strengthening the contribution of health systems towards the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. The near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit are proposed as useful approaches for obtaining such information in maternal and newborn health care. This paper presents the methods of the World Health Organization Multicountry Study in Maternal and Newborn Health. The main objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of maternal near-miss cases in a worldwide network of health facilities, evaluate the quality of care using the maternal near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit, and develop the near-miss concept in neonatal health. Methods/Design This is a large cross-sectional study being implemented in a worldwide network of health facilities. A total of 370 health facilities from 29 countries will take part in this study and produce nearly 275,000 observations. All women giving birth, all maternal near-miss cases regardless of the gestational age and delivery status and all maternal deaths during the study period comprise the study population. In each health facility, medical records of all eligible women will be reviewed during a data collection period that ranges from two to three months according to the annual number of deliveries. Discussion Implementing the systematic identification of near-miss cases, mapping the use of critical evidence-based interventions and analysing the corresponding indicators are just the initial steps for using the maternal near-miss concept as a tool to improve maternal and newborn health. The findings of projects using approaches similar to those described in this manuscript will be a good starter for a more comprehensive dialogue with

  11. Microsporidiosis Acquired Through Solid Organ Transplantation: A Public Health Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hocevar, Susan N.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Spak, Cedric W.; Rosenblatt, Randall; Diaz-Luna, Hector; Castillo, Isabel; Luna, Sergio; Friedman, Glen C.; Antony, Suresh; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Tiller, Rebekah V.; Peterson, Tammie; Blau, Dianna M.; Sriram, Rama R.; da Silva, Alexandre; de Almeida, Marcos; Benedict, Theresa; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Visvesvara, Govinda S.; Kuehnert, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a microsporidial species most commonly recognized as a cause of renal, respiratory, and central nervous system infections in immunosuppressed patients, was identified as the cause of a temporally associated cluster of febrile illness among 3 solid organ transplant recipients from a common donor. Objective To confirm the source of the illness, assess donor and recipient risk factors, and provide therapy recommendations for ill recipients. Design Public health investigation. Setting Two transplant hospitals and community interview with the deceased donor’s family. Patients Three transplant recipients and the organ donor. Measurements Specimens were tested for microsporidia by using culture, immunofluorescent antibody, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Donor medical records were reviewed and a questionnaire was developed to assess for microsporidial infection. Results Kidneys and lungs were procured from the deceased donor and transplanted to 3 recipients who became ill with fever 7 to 10 weeks after the transplant. Results of urine culture, serologic, and polymerase chain reaction testing were positive for Encephalitozoon cuniculi of genotype III in each recipient; the organism was also identified in biopsy or autopsy specimens in all recipients. The donor had positive serologic test results for Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Surviving recipients received albendazole. Donor assessment did not identify factors for suspected Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection. Limitation Inability to detect organism by culture or polymerase chain reaction in donor due to lack of autopsy specimens. Conclusion Transmission of microsporidiosis through organ transplantation is described. Microsporidiosis is now recognized as an emerging transplant-associated disease and should be considered in febrile transplant recipients when tests for routinely encountered agents are unrevealing. Donor-derived disease is critical

  12. Is organic farming safer to farmers’ health? A comparison between organic and traditional farming

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Carla; García-Lestón, Julia; Costa, Solange; Coelho, Patrícia; Silva, Susana; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Mattei, Francesca; Dall’Armi, Valentina; Bonassi, Stefano; Laffon, Blanca; Snawder, John; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to pesticides is a major public health concern, because of the widespread distribution of these compounds and their possible long term effects. Recently, organic farming has been introduced as a consumer and environmental friendly agricultural system, although little is known about the effects on workers’ health. Objectives To evaluate genetic damage and immunological alterations in workers of both traditional and organic farming. Methods Eighty-five farmers exposed to several pesticides, thirty–six organic farmers and sixty-one controls took part in the study. Biomarkers of exposure (pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and thioethers in urine and butyrylcholinesterase activity in plasma), early effect (micronuclei in lymphocytes and reticulocytes, T-cell receptor mutation assay, chromosomal aberrations, comet assay and lymphocytes subpopulations) and susceptibility (genetic polymorphisms related to metabolism - EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 - and DNA repair – XRCC1 and XRCC2) were evaluated. Results When compared to controls and organic farmers, pesticide farmers presented a significant increase of micronuclei in lymphocytes (frequency ratio, FR=2.80) and reticulocytes (FR=1.89), chromosomal aberrations (FR=2.19), DNA damage assessed by comet assay (mean ratio, MR=1.71), and a significant decrease in the proportion of B lymphocytes (MR=0.88). Overall, organic farmers presented similar levels of genetic damage as controls, in some cases modulated by GSTT1 and GSTM1, GSTP1 105Ile/Ile and XRCC1 399Gln/Gln genotypes. Conclusions Results confirmed the increased presence of DNA damage in farmers exposed to pesticides, and showed as exposure conditions and genetic background influence observed effects. Findings from this study indicate that no evident genetic or immunologic damage can be observed in organic farmers. PMID:24576785

  13. Changing Policy Framing as a Deliberate Strategy for Public Health Advocacy: A Qualitative Policy Case Study of Minimum Unit Pricing of Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bond, Lyndal; Hilton, Shona

    2014-01-01

    Context Scotland is the first country in the world to pass legislation introducing a minimum unit price (MUP) for alcohol in an attempt to reduce consumption and associated harms by increasing the price of the cheapest alcohol. We investigated the competing ways in which policy stakeholders presented the debate. We then established whether a change in framing helped explain the policy's emergence. Methods We conducted a detailed policy case study through analysis of evidence submitted to the Scottish parliament, and in-depth, one-to-one interviews (n = 36) with politicians, civil servants, advocates, researchers, and industry representatives. Findings Public- and voluntary-sector stakeholders tended to support MUP, while industry representatives were more divided. Two markedly different ways of presenting alcohol as a policy problem were evident. Critics of MUP (all of whom were related to industry) emphasized social disorder issues, particularly among young people, and hence argued for targeted approaches. In contrast, advocates for MUP (with the exception of those in industry) focused on alcohol as a health issue arising from overconsumption at a population level, thus suggesting that population-based interventions were necessary. Industry stakeholders favoring MUP adopted a hybrid framing, maintaining several aspects of the critical framing. Our interview data showed that public health advocates worked hard to redefine the policy issue by deliberately presenting a consistent alternative framing. Conclusions Framing alcohol policy as a broad, multisectoral, public health issue that requires a whole-population approach has been crucial to enabling policymakers to seriously consider MUP, and public health advocates intentionally presented alcohol policy in this way. This reframing helped prioritize public health considerations in the policy debate and represents a deliberate strategy for consideration by those advocating for policy change around the world and in

  14. Reproductive health services for Syrian refugees in Zaatri Camp and Irbid City, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan: an evaluation of the Minimum Initial Services Package

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The Minimum Initial Services Package (MISP) for reproductive health, a standard of care in humanitarian emergencies, is a coordinated set of priority activities developed to prevent excess morbidity and mortality, particularly among women and girls, which should be implemented at the onset of an emergency. The purpose of the evaluation was to determine the status of MISP implementation for Syrian refugees in Jordan as part of a global evaluation of reproductive health in crises. Methods In March 2013, applying a formative evaluation approach 11 key informant interviews, 13 health facility assessments, and focus group discussions (14 groups; 159 participants) were conducted in two Syrian refugee sites in Jordan, Zaatri Camp, and Irbid City, respectively. Information was coded, themes were identified, and relationships between data explored. Results Lead health agencies addressed the MISP by securing funding and supplies and establishing reproductive health focal points, services and coordination mechanisms. However, Irbid City was less likely to be included in coordination activities and health facilities reported challenges in human resource capacity. Access to clinical management of rape survivors was limited, and both women and service provider’s knowledge about availability of these services was low. Activities to reduce the transmission of HIV and to prevent excess maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality were available, although some interventions needed strengthening. Some planning for comprehensive reproductive health services, including health indicator collection, was delayed. Contraceptives were available to meet demand. Syndromic treatment of sexually transmitted infections and antiretrovirals for continuing users were not available. In general refugee women and adolescent girls perceived clinical services negatively and complained about the lack of basic necessities. Conclusions MISP services and key elements to support implementation

  15. Implementing information systems in health care organizations: myths and challenges.

    PubMed

    Berg, M

    2001-12-01

    Successfully implementing patient care information systems (PCIS) in health care organizations appears to be a difficult task. After critically examining the very notions of 'success' and 'failure', and after discussing the problematic nature of lists of 'critical success- or failure factors', this paper discusses three myths that often hamper implementation processes. Alternative insights are presented, and illustrated with concrete examples. First of all, the implementation of a PCIS is a process of mutual transformation; the organization and the technology transform each other during the implementation process. When this is foreseen, PCIS implementations can be intended strategically to help transform the organization. Second, such a process can only get off the ground when properly supported by both central management and future users. A top down framework for the implementation is crucial to turn user-input into a coherent steering force, creating a solid basis for organizational transformation. Finally, the management of IS implementation processes is a careful balancing act between initiating organizational change, and drawing upon IS as a change agent, without attempting to pre-specify and control this process. Accepting, and even drawing upon, this inevitable uncertainty might be the hardest lesson to learn. PMID:11734382

  16. Social Health Maintenance Organizations: assessing their initial experience.

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, R; Harrington, C; Friedlob, A

    1990-01-01

    The Social/Health Maintenance Organization (S/HMO) is a four-site national demonstration. This program combines Medicare Part A and B coverage, with various extended and chronic care benefits, into an integrated health plan. The provision of these services extends both the traditional roles of HMOs and that of long-term care community-service case management systems. During the initial 30 months of operation the four S/HMOs shared financial risk with the Health Care Financing Administration. This article reports on this developmental period. During this phase the S/HMOs had lower-than-expected enrollment levels due in part to market competition, underfunding of marketing efforts, the limited geographic area served, and an inability to differentiate the S/HMO product from that of other Medicare HMOs. The S/HMOs were allowed to conduct health screening of applicants prior to enrolling them. The number of nursing home-certifiable enrollees was controlled through this mechanism, but waiting lists were never very long. Persons joining S/HMOs and other Medicare HMOs during this period were generally aware of the alternatives available. S/HMO enrollees favored the more extensive benefits; HMO enrollees considerations of cost. The S/HMOs compare both newly formed HMOs and established HMOs. On the basis of administrator cost, it is more efficient to add chronic care benefits to an HMO than to add an HMO component to a community care provider. All plans had expenses greater than their revenues during the start-up period, but they were generally able to keep service expenditures within planned levels. PMID:2116384

  17. Five focus strategies to organize health care delivery.

    PubMed

    Peltokorpi, Antti; Linna, Miika; Malmström, Tomi; Torkki, Paulus; Lillrank, Paul Martin

    2016-03-14

    Purpose - The focused factory is one of the concepts that decision-makers have adopted for improving health care delivery. However, disorganized definitions of focus have led to findings that cannot be utilized systematically. The purpose of this paper is to discuss strategic options to focus health care operations. Design/methodology/approach - First the literature on focus in health care is reviewed revealing conceptual challenges. Second, a definition of focus in terms of demand and requisite variety is defined, and the mechanisms of focus are explicated. A classification of five focus strategies that follow the original idea to reduce variety in products and markets is presented. Finally, the paper examines managerial possibilities linked to the focus strategies. Findings - The paper proposes a framework of five customer-oriented focus strategies which aim at reducing variety in different characteristics of care pathways: population; urgency and severity; illnesses and symptoms; care practices and processes; and care outcomes. Research limitations/implications - Empirical research is needed to evaluate the costs and benefits of the five strategies and about system-level effects of focused units on competition and coordination. Practical implications - Focus is an enabling condition that needs to be exploited using specific demand and supply management practices. It is essential to understand how focus mechanisms differ between strategies, and to select focus that fits with organization's strategy and key performance indicators. Originality/value - Compared to previous more resource-oriented approaches, this study provides theoretically solid and practically relevant customer-oriented framework for focusing in health care. PMID:26959897

  18. The World Health Organization Library (Geneva) and Health Literature Services Programme.

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, B

    1988-01-01

    The origins and functions of the World Health Organization (WHO) Library and the global, regional, and national objectives of the WHO Health Literature Services Program (HLSP) are reviewed. WHO is an aggregate of nations and not a supra-national body. With limited resources and unlimited needs, HLSP is involved in surveys, training, regional medical libraries, national and regional networks, bibliographic services and document delivery, promotion, coordination, and communication. The basic concept of HLSP eschews internationally-conceived, self-contained technical projects in favor of broad programs based on national planning. Small rural centers receive more attention than large urban hospitals, and preventive medicine together with health education and community involvement are of more immediate concern than curative medicine. National self-reliance implies national initiative but not necessarily national self-sufficiency. Recent planning and implementation of HLSP activities are described. PMID:3370376

  19. Information, market government, and health policy: a study of health data organizations in the states.

    PubMed

    Overman, E S; Cahill, A G

    1994-01-01

    Information is essential to the success of market-oriented policies. Information on health care costs and quality is collected and distributed by state governments through health data organizations (HDOs) to enhance competition and lower costs in the medical industry and to improve consumer choice among medical alternatives. This article examines the information collected, produced, and distributed by state health data organizations in Colorado and Pennsylvania. Findings reveal that information was not the objective determinant of choice and competition as market-oriented policy designers had hoped. Nor did market-oriented bureaucracies produce and distribute data readily accessible for public choice. Instead, information produced and distributed by these HDOs was the result of political and bureaucratic exercises that conform much more to classic interest group policymaking and captured bureaucracies than to contemporary market-oriented government ideals. The findings underscore the extraordinary difficulties facing federal-level policy designers as they contemplate introducing market-oriented health care policies on the national level. PMID:10135356

  20. Development of Health Equity Indicators in Primary Health Care Organizations Using a Modified Delphi

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sabrina T.; Browne, Annette J.; Varcoe, Colleen; Lavoie, Josée; Fridkin, Alycia; Smye, Victoria; Godwin, Olive; Tu, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a core set of indicators that could be used for measuring and monitoring the performance of primary health care organizations' capacity and strategies for enhancing equity-oriented care. Methods Indicators were constructed based on a review of the literature and a thematic analysis of interview data with patients and staff (n = 114) using procedures for qualitatively derived data. We used a modified Delphi process where the indicators were circulated to staff at the Health Centers who served as participants (n = 63) over two rounds. Indicators were considered part of a priority set of health equity indicators if they received an overall importance rating of>8.0, on a scale of 1–9, where a higher score meant more importance. Results Seventeen indicators make up the priority set. Items were eliminated because they were rated as low importance (<8.0) in both rounds and were either redundant or more than one participant commented that taking action on the indicator was highly unlikely. In order to achieve health care equity, performance at the organizational level is as important as assessing the performance of staff. Two of the highest rated “treatment” or processes of care indicators reflects the need for culturally safe and trauma and violence-informed care. There are four indicators that can be used to measure outcomes which can be directly attributable to equity responsive primary health care. Discussion These indicators and subsequent development of items can be used to measure equity in the domains of treatment and outcomes. These areas represent targets for higher performance in relation to equity for organizations (e.g., funding allocations to ongoing training in equity-oriented care provision) and providers (e.g., reflexive practice, skill in working with the health effects of trauma). PMID:25478914

  1. Food protection activities of the Pan American Health Organization.

    PubMed

    1994-03-01

    One of the most widespread health problems in the Caribbean and Latin America is contaminated food and foodborne illness. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has been a major force in activities to strengthen food protection. The program within the regional Program of Technical Cooperation is administered by the Veterinary Public Health program and under the guidance of the Pan American Institute for Food protection and Zoonoses in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A food action plan for 1986-90 was established at the 1986 Pan American Sanitary Conference, and extended to cover 1991-95. Program activities during the 1990s covered cholera, epidemiologic surveillance, street food vendors, shellfish poisoning, meat, national programs, information systems, air catering, food irradiation, and tourism. The action plan for 1991-95 promoted greater political support and cooperation within and between related sectors and institutions, management, and education. The aims were to organize national integrated programs, to strengthen laboratory services, to strengthen inspection services, to establish epidemiologic surveillance systems, and to promote food protection through community participation. Program activities included the initiatives of the Veterinary Public Health Program in 1991 to distribute literature on the transmission of cholera by foods. Studies were conducted in Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru on food contamination. Microbiologists received training on standard methods for detecting Vibrio cholerae in foods. A working group of experts from 10 countries examined the issues and produced a guide for investigating the incidence of foodborne disease. PAHO has contributed to the formation of an Inter-American Network for Epidemiologic Surveillance of Foodborne Diseases. PAHO has worked to improve hygienic practices among street food vendors. Seminars on paralytic shellfish poisoning were conducted in 1990; the outcome was a network working to strengthen national

  2. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: What can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-01-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  3. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: what can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    PubMed

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-02-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  4. Patterns of Health Maintenance Organization Service Areas in Rural Counties

    PubMed Central

    Ricketts, Thomas C.; Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Johnson-Webb, Karen D.

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzes the 1993 National Directory of HMOs to determine the extent to which rural counties are included in health maintenance organization (HMO) service areas. Two specific questions are addressed: (1) How do the patterns of service areas differ across HMO model types? (2) What are the characteristics that distinguish rural counties served by HMOs from those that are not? Although a majority of rural counties are in HMO service areas, substantially fewer are served by non-individual practice association (non-IPA) models. Access to HMO services is found to decrease with county population density, and adjacency to metropolitan areas is an important predictor of inclusion in service areas. PMID:10153478

  5. Physician adaptation to health maintenance organizations and implications for management.

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, R; Scheckler, W E; Girard, C; Barker, K

    1990-01-01

    The growth of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and other forms of managed care presents a challenge to traditional patterns of private practice. In Dane County, Wisconsin (Madison Metropolitan Area), the proportion of the population enrolled in closed-panel HMOs increased dramatically, from 10 percent in 1983 to over 40 percent by 1986. This study surveyed 850 practicing physicians regarding their expectations before, and experiences after this rapid change to competitive HMOs. Although most physicians expected a loss of earnings and lower-quality care, the majority reported that neither declined. However, most physicians expected and reported a decline in their autonomy. Primary care physicians were most supportive of the change to HMOs. The implications of these findings for management practices are discussed. PMID:2329049

  6. Nursing Minimum Data Set Based on EHR Archetypes Approach.

    PubMed

    Spigolon, Dandara N; Moro, Cláudia M C

    2012-01-01

    The establishment of a Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS) can facilitate the use of health information systems. The adoption of these sets and represent them based on archetypes are a way of developing and support health systems. The objective of this paper is to describe the definition of a minimum data set for nursing in endometriosis represent with archetypes. The study was divided into two steps: Defining the Nursing Minimum Data Set to endometriosis, and Development archetypes related to the NMDS. The nursing data set to endometriosis was represented in the form of archetype, using the whole perception of the evaluation item, organs and senses. This form of representation is an important tool for semantic interoperability and knowledge representation for health information systems. PMID:24199126

  7. Reducing Health Disparities: Strategy Planning and Implementation in Israel's Largest Health Care Organization

    PubMed Central

    Balicer, Ran D; Shadmi, Efrat; Lieberman, Nicky; Greenberg-Dotan, Sari; Goldfracht, Margalit; Jana, Liora; Cohen, Arnon D; Regev-Rosenberg, Sigal; Jacobson, Orit

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe an organization-wide disparity reduction strategy and to assess its success in quality improvement and reduction of gaps in health and health care. Study Setting Clalit Health Services, Israel's largest non-for-profit insurer and provider serving 3.8 million persons. Study Design Before and after design: quality assessment before and 12-month postinitiation of the strategic plan. A composite weighted score of seven quality indicators, measuring attainment of diabetes, blood pressure, and lipid control, lack of anemia in infants, and performance of mammography, occult blood tests, and influenza vaccinations. Data Extraction Methods Quality indicator scores, derived from Clalit's central data warehouse, based on data from electronic medical records. Principal Findings Low-performing clinics, of low-socioeconomic and minority populations, were targeted for intervention. Twelve months after the initiation of the project continuous improvement was observed coupled with a reduction of 40 percent of the gap between disadvantaged clinics, serving ∼10 percent of enrollees, and all other medium-large clinics. Conclusion The comprehensive strategy, following a quality improvement framework, with a top-down top-management incentives and monitoring, and a bottom-up locally tailored interventions, approach, is showing promising results of overall quality improvement coupled with disparity reduction in key health and health care indicators. PMID:21352224

  8. Partnerships in Health Systems: Social Organization as limits and possibilities in the Family Health Strategy Management.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vanessa Costa E; Barbosa, Pedro Ribeiro; Hortale, Virgínia Alonso

    2016-05-01

    This is a case study in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro about management in the Family Health Strategy based on the Social Organizations model. The aims were to characterize and analyze aspects of the governance system adopted by the Rio de Janeiro Municipal Health Department and identify limits and possibilities of this model as a management option in Brazil's Unified Health System. A qualitative study was performed based on a literature review, document analysisand interviews with key informants. This management model facilitated the expansion of access to primary healthcare through the Family Health Strategy in Rio - where the population covered increased from 7.2% of the population in 2008 to 45.5% in 2015. The results showthat some practices in the contractual logic need to be improved, including negotiation and accountability with autonomywith the service suppliers. Evaluation and control has focus on processes, not results, and there has not been an increase in transparency and social control. The system of performance incentives has been reported as inducing improvements in the work process of the health teams. It is concluded that the regulatory capacity of the municipal management would need to be improved. On the other hand, there is an important and significant process of learning in progress. PMID:27166887

  9. Antidepressant pharmacotherapy: economic outcomes in a health maintenance organization.

    PubMed

    Sclar, D A; Robison, L M; Skaer, T L; Legg, R F; Nemec, N L; Galin, R S; Hughes, T E; Buesching, D P

    1994-01-01

    Recent pharmacotherapeutic advances in the treatment of depression have included the development of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The present study was designed to contrast direct health service expenditures for the treatment of depression among patients enrolled in a health maintenance organization (HMO) and prescribed either the SSRI fluoxetine or one of three tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) (amitriptyline, nortriptyline, or desipramine). Information regarding health service utilization was derived from the computer archive of a network-model HMO system serving 400,000 beneficiaries. A total of 701 HMO beneficiaries were found to satisfy the study selection criteria. Multivariate regression analysis was used to discern the incremental influence of selected demographic, clinical, financial, and provider characteristics on 1 year post-period expenditures (PPE) for health care. Analysis-of-variance procedures with Duncan's multiple-range test, or chi-square analyses, revealed no significant difference across antidepressant pharmacotherapy for age, sex, 6-month prior-period expenditures for physician visits, psychiatric visits, laboratory tests, hospitalizations, or psychiatric hospital services related to the treatment of depression, or number of prescribed therapeutic agents for disease state processes other than depression. Receipt of fluoxetine was associated with a significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher rate of initial prescribing by psychiatrists, an increase in the number of prescriptions for antidepressant pharmacotherapy obtained (30-day supplies), and a reduction in the number of monthly intervals during which time antidepressant pharmacotherapy was not procured. Receipt of fluoxetine as antidepressant pharmacotherapy was associated with a significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher mean medication possession ratio (MPR) relative to amitriptyline, nortriptyline, or desipramine. Multivariate findings for patient-level data reflecting a definitive

  10. New Summary Measures of Population Health and Well-Being for Implementation by Health Plans and Accountable Care Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Jason M.; Rauri, Sachin; Tillema, Juliana O.; Pronk, Nicolaas P.; Knudson, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Health plans and accountable care organizations measure many indicators of patient health, with standard metrics that track factors such as patient experience and cost. They lack, however, a summary measure of the third leg of the Triple Aim, population health. In response, HealthPartners has developed summary measures that align with the recommendations of the For the Public’s Health series of reports from the Institute of Medicine. (The series comprises the following 3 reports: For the Public’s Health: Investing in a Healthier Future, For the Public’s Health: Revitalizing Law and Policy to Meet New Challenges, and For the Public’s Health: The Role of Measurement in Action and Accountability.) The summary measures comprise 3 components: current health, sustainability of health, and well-being. The measure of current health is disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) calculated from health care claims and death records. The sustainability of health measure comprises member reporting of 6 behaviors associated with health plus a clinical preventive services index that indicates adherence to evidence-based preventive care guidelines. Life satisfaction represents the summary measure of subjective well-being. HealthPartners will use the summary measures to identify and address conditions and factors that have the greatest impact on the health and well-being of its patients, members, and community. The method could easily be implemented by other institutions and organizations in the United States, helping to address a persistent need in population health measurement for improvement. PMID:27390075

  11. New Summary Measures of Population Health and Well-Being for Implementation by Health Plans and Accountable Care Organizations.

    PubMed

    Kottke, Thomas E; Gallagher, Jason M; Rauri, Sachin; Tillema, Juliana O; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Knudson, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Health plans and accountable care organizations measure many indicators of patient health, with standard metrics that track factors such as patient experience and cost. They lack, however, a summary measure of the third leg of the Triple Aim, population health. In response, HealthPartners has developed summary measures that align with the recommendations of the For the Public's Health series of reports from the Institute of Medicine. (The series comprises the following 3 reports: For the Public's Health: Investing in a Healthier Future, For the Public's Health: Revitalizing Law and Policy to Meet New Challenges, and For the Public's Health: The Role of Measurement in Action and Accountability.) The summary measures comprise 3 components: current health, sustainability of health, and well-being. The measure of current health is disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) calculated from health care claims and death records. The sustainability of health measure comprises member reporting of 6 behaviors associated with health plus a clinical preventive services index that indicates adherence to evidence-based preventive care guidelines. Life satisfaction represents the summary measure of subjective well-being. HealthPartners will use the summary measures to identify and address conditions and factors that have the greatest impact on the health and well-being of its patients, members, and community. The method could easily be implemented by other institutions and organizations in the United States, helping to address a persistent need in population health measurement for improvement. PMID:27390075

  12. Managing facility risk: external threats and health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Reid, Daniel J; Reid, William H

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians and clinical administrators should have a basic understanding of physical and financial risk to mental health facilities related to external physical threat, including actions usually viewed as "terrorism" and much more common sources of violence. This article refers to threats from mentally ill persons and those acting out of bizarre or misguided "revenge," extortionists and other outright criminals, and perpetrators usually identified as domestic or international terrorists. The principles apply both to relatively small and contained acts (such as a patient or ex-patient attacking a staff member) and to much larger events (such as bombings and armed attack), and are relevant to facilities both within and outside the U.S. Patient care and accessibility to mental health services rest not only on clinical skills, but also on a place to practice them and an organized system supported by staff, physical facilities, and funding. Clinicians who have some familiarity with the non-clinical requirements for care are in a position to support non-clinical staff in preventing care from being interrupted by external threats or events such as terrorist activity, and/or to serve at the interface of facility operations and direct clinical care. Readers should note that this article is an introduction to the topic and cannot address all local, state and national standards for hospital safety, or insurance providers' individual facility requirements. PMID:24733720

  13. Organ Donation Among Tiers of Health Workers: Expanding Resources to Optimize Organ Availability in a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Oluyombo, Rotimi; Fawale, Bimbo Michael; Busari, Olusegun Adesola; Ogunmola, Jeffery Olarinde; Olanrewaju, Timothy Olusegun; Akinleye, Callistus Adewale; Ojewola, Rufus Wale; Yusuf, Musah; Obajolowo, Omotola; Soje, Michael; Gbadegesin, Babajide

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in end organ failure but disproportional shortage of organ donation calls for attention. Expanding the organ pool by assessing and improving health workers' attitude at all levels of care may be a worthwhile initiative. Methods A questionnaire-based cross sectional study involving tertiary, secondary, and primary health institutions in Southwestern Nigeria was conducted. Results Age range was 18 to 62 (36.7 ± 9.2) years. Only 13.5%, 11.7%, and 11.2% from primary, secondary, and tertiary health centers, respectively, would definitely donate despite high level of awareness (>90%) at each level of care. Participants from primary health care are of low income (P < 0.05), and this cohort is less likely to be aware of organ donation (P < 0.05). At each level of care, permission by religion to donate organs influenced positive attitudes (willingness to donate, readiness to counsel families of potential donors, and signing of organ donation cards) toward organ donation. Good knowledge of organ donation only significantly influenced readiness to counsel donors (P < 0.05) and not willingness to donate (P > 0.05). At each level of health care, young health care workers (P < 0.05) and women (P > 0.05) would be willing to donate, whereas men show positive attitude in signing of organ donor cards (P < 0.05) and counseling of families of potential donors (P > 0.05). Conclusions Knowledge and willingness to donate organs among health care levels were not different. Considering the potential advantage of community placement of other tiers of health care (primary and secondary) in Nigeria, integrating them would be strategically beneficial to organ donation. PMID:27500245

  14. [Health maintenance organizations: starting point of a market economical reform of health care].

    PubMed

    Hauser, H

    1981-05-01

    The present work was based on the observations that, as regards health care costs, the major problem in most present systems is that those who are responsible for the treatment decision (physician and patient) do not bear a direct financial responsibility for it, and that the overall system is very fragmented, which leads to numerous externalities. In accordance with this diagnosis, a reform strategy should particularly aim at creating units which are responsible for the provision and the financial coverage of comprehensive health services to a given population. Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) are a private economy oriented solution in this direction. They have proved to be a real possibility in the USA over years, at least for part of the population, and show interesting performances as regards costs. They were able to develop and evolve in the largely open US institutional framework. In Switzerland, we have more strongly structured systems, which appear to stand in relative contradiction to the HMO solution. A potential adaptation of the concept to our country would therefore require a preliminary in depth discussion about the meaning of the present collective (insurance) contract structure, the position of hospitals in a private economy health care system as well as about the conditions of the sought for competition in the HMO model. PMID:7303928

  15. Global Health Security Demands a Strong International Health Regulations Treaty and Leadership From a Highly Resourced World Health Organization.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2015-10-01

    If the Ebola tragedy of West Africa has taught us anything, it should be that the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) Treaty, which gave unprecedented authority to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide global public health security during public health emergencies of international concern, has fallen severely short of its original goal. After encouraging successes with the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic, the intent of the legally binding Treaty to improve the capacity of all countries to detect, assess, notify, and respond to public health threats has shamefully lapsed. Despite the granting of 2-year extensions in 2012 to countries to meet core surveillance and response requirements, less than 20% of countries have complied. Today it is not realistic to expect that these gaps will be solved or narrowed in the foreseeable future by the IHR or the WHO alone under current provisions. The unfortunate failures that culminated in an inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa are multifactorial, including funding, staffing, and poor leadership decisions, but all are reversible. A rush by the Global Health Security Agenda partners to fill critical gaps in administrative and operational areas has been crucial in the short term, but questions remain as to the real priorities of the G20 as time elapses and critical gaps in public health protections and infrastructure take precedence over the economic and security needs of the developed world. The response from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and foreign medical teams to Ebola proved indispensable to global health security, but both deserve stronger strategic capacity support and institutional status under the WHO leadership granted by the IHR Treaty. Treaties are the most successful means the world has in preventing, preparing for, and controlling epidemics in an increasingly globalized world. Other options are not sustainable. Given the gravity of ongoing

  16. 75 FR 53304 - Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health; Statement of Organization, Functions, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... health disparities related to sexual orientation. Dated: July 29, 2010. Kathleen Sebelius, Secretary... ``Office of Adolescent Health,'' established in section 1708 of the Public Health Service (PHS) Act (42 U.S.... Under Part A, Chapter AC, Section AC.10 Organization, insert ``M. Office of Adolescent Health...

  17. Advancing the right to health through global organizations: The potential role of a Framework Convention on Global Health.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Eric A; Gostin, Lawrence O; Buse, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Organizations, partnerships, and alliances form the building blocks of global governance. Global health organizations thus have the potential to play a formative role in determining the extent to which people are able to realize their right to health. This article examines how major global health organizations, such as WHO, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, UNAIDS, and GAVI approach human rights concerns, including equality, accountability, and inclusive participation. We argue that organizational support for the right to health must transition from ad hoc and partial to permanent and comprehensive. Drawing on the literature and our knowledge of global health organizations, we offer good practices that point to ways in which such agencies can advance the right to health, covering nine areas: 1) participation and representation in governance processes; 2) leadership and organizational ethos; 3) internal policies; 4) norm-setting and promotion; 5) organizational leadership through advocacy and communication; 6) monitoring and accountability; 7) capacity building; 8) funding policies; and 9) partnerships and engagement. In each of these areas, we offer elements of a proposed Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH), which would commit state parties to support these standards through their board membership and other interactions with these agencies. We also explain how the FCGH could incorporate these organizations into its overall financing framework, initiate a new forum where they collaborate with each other, as well as organizations in other regimes, to advance the right to health, and ensure sufficient funding for right to health capacity building. We urge major global health organizations to follow the leadership of the UN Secretary-General and UNAIDS to champion the FCGH. It is only through a rights-based approach, enshrined in a new Convention, that we can expect to achieve health for all in our lifetimes. PMID:25006092

  18. Grafting Perspective into Health Law: Organ Transplantation as a Tool for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovbjerg, Randall R.

    1988-01-01

    The topic of organ transplantation adds interest and perspective to the basic health law curriculum. It can be used well to integrate a variety of topics by focusing on the policy and law of organ rationing. (MSE)

  19. Organization of ambulatory care provision: a critical determinant of health system performance in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, P.

    2000-01-01

    Success in the provision of ambulatory personal health services, i.e. providing individuals with treatment for acute illness and preventive health care on an ambulatory basis, is the most significant contributor to the health care system's performance in most developing countries. Ambulatory personal health care has the potential to contribute the largest immediate gains in health status in populations, especially for the poor. At present, such health care accounts for the largest share of the total health expenditure in most lower income countries. It frequently comprises the largest share of the financial burden on households associated with health care consumption, which is typically regressively distributed. The "organization" of ambulatory personal health services is a critical determinant of the health system's performance which, at present, is poorly understood and insufficiently considered in policies and programmes for reforming health care systems. This article begins with a brief analysis of the importance of ambulatory care in the overall health system performance and this is followed by a summary of the inadequate global data on ambulatory care organization. It then defines the concept of "macro organization of health care" at a system level. Outlined also is a framework for analysing the organization of health care services and the major pathways through which the organization of ambulatory personal health care services can affect system performance. Examples of recent policy interventions to influence primary care organization--both government and nongovernmental providers and market structure--are reviewed. It is argued that the characteristics of health care markets in developing countries and of most primary care goods result in relatively diverse and competitive environments for ambulatory care services, compared with other types of health care. Therefore, governments will be required to use a variety of approaches beyond direct public provision

  20. Measles eradication: recommendations from a meeting cosponsored by the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, and CDC.

    PubMed

    1997-06-13

    Recent successes in interrupting indigenous transmission of measles virus in the Americas and in the United Kingdom prompted the World Health Organization (WHO), Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and CDC to convene a meeting in July, 1996 to consider the feasibility of global measles eradication. Presentations at the meeting included an overview of global measles control and elimination efforts; detailed reviews of successful measles elimination efforts in Latin America, the English-speaking Caribbean, Canada, and the United States; surveillance for clinical disease; laboratory tools for antibody detection and virus identification; and other factors that might influence the feasibility of disease eradication. With this background information, meeting organizers asked participants to address five questions: 1) Is global measles eradication feasible? 2) Is measles eradication feasible with current vaccines? 3) What are the appropriate vaccination strategies for measles eradication? 4) How should surveillance for measles be carried out? 5) What role should outbreak control play in the strategy to eliminate measles? Participants agreed that measles eradication is technically feasible with available vaccines and recommended adoption of the goal of global eradication with a target date during 2005-2010, with the proviso that measles eradication efforts should not interfere with poliomyelitis eradication but should build on the successes of the global Poliomyelitis Eradication Initiative. Although existing vaccines are adequate for eradication, vaccination strategies that rely on administration of a single dose of vaccine are not. In the Americas, sustained interruption of indigenous measles virus transmission has been achieved through a three-tiered vaccination strategy that includes a) "catch-up" vaccination of all persons aged 1-14 years, regardless of disease history or vaccination status; b) "keep-up" vaccination of > or = 90% of children in each successive

  1. Closing the health equity gap: evidence-based strategies for primary health care organizations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction International evidence shows that enhancement of primary health care (PHC) services for disadvantaged populations is essential to reducing health and health care inequities. However, little is known about how to enhance equity at the organizational level within the PHC sector. Drawing on research conducted at two PHC Centres in Canada whose explicit mandates are to provide services to marginalized populations, the purpose of this paper is to discuss (a) the key dimensions of equity-oriented services to guide PHC organizations, and (b) strategies for operationalizing equity-oriented PHC services, particularly for marginalized populations. Methods The PHC Centres are located in two cities within urban neighborhoods recognized as among the poorest in Canada. Using a mixed methods ethnographic design, data were collected through intensive immersion in the Centres, and included: (a) in-depth interviews with a total of 114 participants (73 patients; 41 staff), (b) over 900 hours of participant observation, and (c) an analysis of key organizational documents, which shed light on the policy and funding environments. Results Through our analysis, we identified four key dimensions of equity-oriented PHC services: inequity-responsive care; trauma- and violence-informed care; contextually-tailored care; and culturally-competent care. The operationalization of these key dimensions are identified as 10 strategies that intersect to optimize the effectiveness of PHC services, particularly through improvements in the quality of care, an improved 'fit' between people's needs and services, enhanced trust and engagement by patients, and a shift from crisis-oriented care to continuity of care. Using illustrative examples from the data, these strategies are discussed to illuminate their relevance at three inter-related levels: organizational, clinical programming, and patient-provider interactions. Conclusions These evidence- and theoretically-informed key dimensions and

  2. Organization of health care in small plants in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Seward E.

    1955-01-01

    In the USA, the concept of an occupational health programme has grown steadily, and now embraces the total health of the worker. Elements of basic in-plant health programmes have been identified and patterns developed for successful operation. Today, health services in small plants still fall far short of optimal requirements. No more than 5% of workers in small plants enjoy the benefit of occupational health services. The main reason for the arrested development of these programmes is the lack of organizational and administrative techniques for providing health services in small plants. Recently, however, several projects have demonstrated that these difficulties can be overcome, and the future development of such programmes in small plants thus looks hopeful. Other recent developments hold promise of strengthening the health services available to workers. Union health centres, now being established in increasing numbers, offer the workers varying services, ranging from diagnostic and preventive procedures to complete medical care. Further benefits to both the worker and his family are being provided under collective bargaining agreements by voluntary health-insurance schemes. In addition to making services available to large numbers of workers previously not covered, the development of both union health centres and the prepaid health-insurance schemes offer future possibilities for integration of these programmes into the preventive and diagnostic services offered in the plant. Finally, governmental occupational health agencies, in addition to their industrial hygiene activities, are taking an increasing interest in the establishment and development of in-plant health programmes. PMID:13276820

  3. Latina Workers in North Carolina: Work Organization, Domestic Responsibilities, Health, and Family Life.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Trejo, Grisel; Schiemann, Elizabeth; Quandt, Sara A; Daniel, Stephanie S; Sandberg, Joanne C; Arcury, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    This analysis describes the work organization and domestic work experienced by migrant Latinas, and explores the linkage between work and health. Twenty Latina workers in North Carolina with at least one child under age 12 completed in-depth interviews focused on their work organization, domestic responsibilities, work-family conflict, health, and family health. Using a systematic qualitative analysis, these women described a demanding work organization that is contingent and exploitative, with little control or support. They also described demanding domestic roles, with gendered and unequal division of household work. The resulting work-family conflict affects their mental and physical health, and has negative effects on the care and health of their families. The findings from this study highlight that work stressors from an unfavorable work organization create work-family conflict, and that work-family conflict in this population has a negative influence on workers' health and health behaviors. PMID:26590923

  4. Mobile Health Applications for the Most Prevalent Conditions by the World Health Organization: Review and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background New possibilities for mHealth have arisen by means of the latest advances in mobile communications and technologies. With more than 1 billion smartphones and 100 million tablets around the world, these devices can be a valuable tool in health care management. Every aid for health care is welcome and necessary as shown by the more than 50 million estimated deaths caused by illnesses or health conditions in 2008. Some of these conditions have additional importance depending on their prevalence. Objective To study the existing applications for mobile devices exclusively dedicated to the eight most prevalent health conditions by the latest update (2004) of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) of the World Health Organization (WHO): iron-deficiency anemia, hearing loss, migraine, low vision, asthma, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis (OA), and unipolar depressive disorders. Methods Two reviews have been carried out. The first one is a review of mobile applications in published articles retrieved from the following systems: IEEE Xplore, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Knowledge, and PubMed. The second review is carried out by searching the most important commercial app stores: Google play, iTunes, BlackBerry World, Windows Phone Apps+Games, and Nokia's Ovi store. Finally, two applications for each condition, one for each review, were selected for an in-depth analysis. Results Search queries up to April 2013 located 247 papers and more than 3673 apps related to the most prevalent conditions. The conditions in descending order by the number of applications found in literature are diabetes, asthma, depression, hearing loss, low vision, OA, anemia, and migraine. However when ordered by the number of commercial apps found, the list is diabetes, depression, migraine, asthma, low vision, hearing loss, OA, and anemia. Excluding OA from the former list, the four most prevalent conditions have fewer apps and research than the final four. Several results are extracted from

  5. Advanced Imaging Among Health Maintenance Organization Enrollees With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Loggers, Elizabeth T.; Fishman, Paul A.; Peterson, Do; O'Keeffe-Rosetti, Maureen; Greenberg, Caprice; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Lowry, Sarah; Ramaprasan, Arvind; Wagner, Edward H.; Weeks, Jane C.; Ritzwoller, Debra P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare expenditures for advanced imaging studies (defined as computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], positron emission tomography [PET] scans, and nuclear medicine studies [NM]) rapidly increased in the past two decades for patients with cancer. Imaging rates are unknown for patients with cancer, whether under or over age 65 years, in health maintenance organizations (HMOs), where incentives may differ. Materials and Methods: Incident cases of breast, colorectal, lung, prostate, leukemia, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cancers diagnosed in 2003 and 2006 from four HMOs in the Cancer Research Network were used to determine 2-year overall mean imaging counts and average total imaging costs per HMO enrollee by cancer type for those under and over age 65. Results: There were 44,446 incident cancer patient cases, with a median age of 75 (interquartile range, 71-81), and 454,029 imaging procedures were performed. The mean number of images per patient increased from 7.4 in 2003 to 12.9 in 2006. Rates of imaging were similar across age groups, with the exception of greater use of echocardiograms and NM studies in younger patients with breast cancer and greater use of PET among younger patients with lung cancer. Advanced imaging accounted for approximately 41% of all imaging, or approximately 85% of the $8.7 million in imaging expenditures. Costs were nearly $2,000 per HMO enrollee; costs for younger patients with NHL, leukemia, and lung cancer were nearly $1,000 more in 2003. Conclusion: Rates of advanced imaging appear comparable among FFS and HMO participants of any age with these six cancers. PMID:24844241

  6. Report a Complaint (about a Health Care Organization)

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Is Accreditation? Become Accredited Download the Gold Seal Find Accredited Organizations Newsletters Publicity Kits State Recognition ... What Is Certification? Become Certified Download the Gold Seal Find Certified Organizations Newsletters Publicity Kit State Recognition ...

  7. 78 FR 52924 - Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Statement of Organization, Functions, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority Part A, Office of the Secretary, Statement of Organization, Function, and Delegation of Authority...

  8. 78 FR 9397 - International Drug Scheduling; Convention on Psychotropic Substances; World Health Organization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... June 2012. In the Federal Register of September 05, 2008 (73 FR 51823), FDA announced the WHO ECDD... Substances; World Health Organization Scheduling Recommendations for Gamma-hydroxybutyric Acid AGENCY: Food... public meeting concerning recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO) to impose...

  9. 75 FR 48691 - Single Source Cooperative Agreement Award for the World Health Organization (WHO) To Continue...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Single Source Cooperative Agreement Award for the World Health Organization (WHO) To... Authority ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notification of Single Source Cooperative Agreement Award for the World... 2010, BARDA plans to provide a Single Source Continuation Award to the World Health Organization...

  10. Organ harvesting from anencephalic infants: health management over a sinkhole.

    PubMed

    Alatis, A J

    As technology increases in the field of organ transplantation for newborns, a problematic limitation persists: too few organ donors are available to match the number of needy organ donees. Anencephalic newborns have been suggested (and recently used) as organ sources. Anencephalic infants are born without the upper part of their brain and usually die within a week after birth. This article will address the ethical considerations of using these infants as organ sources, particularly from the view of a physician and an attorney. This piece will further analyze the medico-legal ramifications of the various legislative proposals addressing this subject. PMID:10292200

  11. The World Health Organization's mechanisms for increasing the health sector budget: The South African context.

    PubMed

    Venter, Fouche Hendrik Johannes; Wolfaardt, Jaqueline Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    South Africa (SA) has limited scope for raising income taxes, and the proposed National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme will necessitate growth in the health sector budget. The NHI White Paper suggests five funding scenarios to meet the expected shortfall. These scenarios are a mixture of a surcharge on taxable income, an increase in value-added tax and a payroll tax. Five alternative options, suggested by the World Health Organization, are interrogated as ways to decrease the general taxation proposed in the White Paper. The five mechanisms (corporate tax, financial transaction levy, and taxes on tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy foods) were chosen based on their fund-raising potential and their mandatory element. A literature review provides the information for a discussion of the potential costs of each mechanism. Within specific assumptions, potential budgetary contribution is compared with the requirement. First, raising corporate tax rates could raise enough funds, but the losses due to capital flight might be too much for the local economy to bear. Second, a levy on currency transactions is unlikely to raise the required resources, even without a probable decrease in the number of transactions. Third, the increase in the tax on tobacco and alcohol would need to be very large, even assuming that consumption patterns would remain unchanged. Lastly, a tax on unhealthy food products is a new idea and could be explored as an option - especially as the SA Treasury has announced its future implementation. Implementing only one of the mechanisms is unlikely to increase available funding sufficiently, but if they are implemented together the welfare-maximising tax rate for each mechanism may be high enough to fulfil the NHI scheme's budgetary requirement, moderating the increases in the tax burden of the SA population. PMID:27499398

  12. Health and research organization to meet complex needs of developing energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.

    1980-01-01

    At the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, a unique safety technology organization has been established that is especially geared to respond to interdisciplinary health and safety questions in response to rapidly growing energy technology problems. This concept can be adopted by smaller organizations at a more modest cost, and still maintains the efficiency, flexibility, and technical rigor that are needed more and more in support of any industry health and safety problem. The separation of the technology development role from the operation safety organization allows the operational safety specialists to spend more time upgrading the occupational health and safety program but yet provides the opportunity for interchange with health and safety technology development specialists. In fact, a personnel assignment flow between an operational health and safety organization and a special technology development organization provides a mechanism for upgrading the overall safety capability and program provided by a given industrial or major laboratory.

  13. Work organization research at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

    PubMed

    Rosenstock, L

    1997-01-01

    For 25 years, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has conducted and sponsored laboratory, field, and epidemiological studies that have helped define the role of work organization factors in occupational safety and health. Research has focused on the health effects of specific job conditions, occupational stressors in specific occupations, occupational difference in the incidence of stressors and stress-related disorders, and intervention strategies. NIOSH and the American Psychological Association have formalized the concept of occupational health psychology and developed a postdoctoral training program. The National Occupational Research Agenda recognizes organization of work as one of 21 national occupational safety and health research priority areas. Future research should focus on industries, occupations, and populations at special risk; the impact of work organization on overall health; the identification of healthy organization characteristics; and the development of intervention strategies. PMID:9552275

  14. The New Left and Public Health The Health Policy Advisory Center, Community Organizing, and the Big Business of Health, 1967–1975

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Soon after its founding in the politically tumultuous late 1960s, the Health Policy Advisory Center (Health/PAC) and its Health/PAC Bulletin became the strategic hub of an intense urban social movement around health care equality in New York City. I discuss its early formation, its intellectual influences, and the analytical framework that it devised to interpret power relations in municipal health care. I also describe Health/PAC's interpretation of health activism, focusing in particular on a protracted struggle regarding Lincoln Hospital in the South Bronx. Over the years, the organization's stance toward community-oriented health politics evolved considerably, from enthusiastically promoting its potential to later confronting its limits. I conclude with a discussion of Health/PAC's major theoretical contributions, often taken for granted today, and its book American Health Empire. PMID:21228287

  15. Biochemistry in Undergraduate Health Courses: Structure and Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Irani F.; Batista, Nildo A.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the following aspects of teaching biochemistry in undergraduate health courses: objectives, number of hours, time in which the subject is studied, selection of content, teaching strategies, and evaluation methodologies used. Fifty-three courses distributed in 13 areas within the health field and offered by 12 institutions…

  16. Services Shared by Health Care Organizations: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hospital Research and Educational Trust, Chicago, IL.

    This bibliography is designed to assist planners in the field of institutional health and health support services in gaining access to knowledge that will enhance their efforts to achieve new or expanded arrangements of service sharing. Entries are cross-referenced to as many categories as the material warrants. Case studies that are not annotated…

  17. Managing professional work: three models of control for health organizations.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, W R

    1982-01-01

    Three arrangements for structuring the work of professional participants in professional organizations are described, contrasted and evaluated. Arguments are illustrated by application to the organization of physicians within hospitals. The primary rationale, the support structures that have fostered its development, the key structural features and the advantages and disadvantages of each arrangement are described. The effect on these arrangements of structures and forces external to any particular professional organization is emphasized. PMID:6749761

  18. Design of high reliability organizations in health care

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, J S; Rudolph, J W

    2006-01-01

    To improve safety performance, many healthcare organizations have sought to emulate high reliability organizations from industries such as nuclear power, chemical processing, and military operations. We outline high reliability design principles for healthcare organizations including both the formal structures and the informal practices that complement those structures. A stage model of organizational structures and practices, moving from local autonomy to formal controls to open inquiry to deep self‐understanding, is used to illustrate typical challenges and design possibilities at each stage. We suggest how organizations can use the concepts and examples presented to increase their capacity to self‐design for safety and reliability. PMID:17142607

  19. Healthcare organization-education partnerships and career ladder programs for health care workers.

    PubMed

    Dill, Janette S; Chuang, Emmeline; Morgan, Jennifer C

    2014-12-01

    Increasing concerns about quality of care and workforce shortages have motivated health care organizations and educational institutions to partner to create career ladders for frontline health care workers. Career ladders reward workers for gains in skills and knowledge and may reduce the costs associated with turnover, improve patient care, and/or address projected shortages of certain nursing and allied health professions. This study examines partnerships between health care and educational organizations in the United States during the design and implementation of career ladder training programs for low-skill workers in health care settings, referred to as frontline health care workers. Mixed methods data from 291 frontline health care workers and 347 key informants (e.g., administrators, instructors, managers) collected between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed using both regression and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). Results suggest that different combinations of partner characteristics, including having an education leader, employer leader, frontline management support, partnership history, community need, and educational policies, were necessary for high worker career self-efficacy and program satisfaction. Whether a worker received a wage increase, however, was primarily dependent on leadership within the health care organization, including having an employer leader and employer implementation policies. Findings suggest that strong partnerships between health care and educational organizations can contribute to the successful implementation of career ladder programs, but workers' ability to earn monetary rewards for program participation depends on the strength of leadership support within the health care organization. PMID:25441318

  20. [Toward a new organization of public health services in Spain. 2008 SESPAS Report].

    PubMed

    Artundo Purroy, Carlos; Rivadeneyra Sicilia, Ana

    2008-04-01

    Public health in Spain shows significant weaknesses. Spanish public health services respond reasonably well in crisis situations but tend to be invisible and occupy a marginal position in political agendas and in relation to health services. The organization of the public health subsystem is clearly out of date in terms of its ability to promote and protect community health, to prevent diseases, and to cope effectively with the new public health threats and challenges related to the physical and social environment in today's globalized world. Consequently, there is broad consensus on the need to rethink functions, strategies and the organization of public health in Spain, in line with European and international trends. Thus, public health reform is currently a pending challenge and a strategic priority. Indeed, some Autonomous Communities have initiated a process of modernization and change. Empowerment of public health in the political agendas and in relation to the health services is strongly recommended by promoting intersectorial approaches, the Health in All Policies strategy and Health Impact Assessment. There is also a need for a specific law that would update public health functions, organization and structures, allocate competencies by facilitating alliances and partnership, and regulate coordination and intersectorial intervention. The following key elements related to this reform are described: 1) a participatory leadership in public health; 2) the generation of intelligence and evidence in public health; 3) improvement of professional education and development; 4) the importance of transparent, independent and competent performance and communication, and 5) new and flexible organization coherent with the new strategies and close to the local level and primary health care services. Coordination between the State and the Autonomous Communities should involved a functional and intelligent relationship by building up common spaces, alliances, networks and

  1. The evolution of human rights in World Health Organization policy and the future of human rights through global health governance.

    PubMed

    Meier, B M; Onzivu, W

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) was intended to serve at the forefront of efforts to realize human rights to advance global health, and yet this promise of a rights-based approach to health has long been threatened by political constraints in international relations, organizational resistance to legal discourses, and medical ambivalence toward human rights. Through legal research on international treaty obligations, historical research in the WHO organizational archives, and interview research with global health stakeholders, this research examines WHO's contributions to (and, in many cases, negligence of) the rights-based approach to health. Based upon such research, this article analyzes the evolving role of WHO in the development and implementation of human rights for global health, reviews the current state of human rights leadership in the WHO Secretariat, and looks to future institutions to reclaim the mantle of human rights as a normative framework for global health governance. PMID:24439475

  2. The Effect of Graphic Organizers on Subjective and Objective Comprehension of a Health Education Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kools, Marieke; van de Wiel, Margaretha W. J.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Cruts, Anica; Kok, Gerjo

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of graphic organizers on the comprehension of a health education brochure text and compared subjective with objective comprehension measures. Graphic organizers are graphical depictions of relations among concepts in a text. Participants read a brochure text about asthma with and without these organizers, and…

  3. The World Health Organization and the Transition From “International” to “Global” Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Theodore M.; Cueto, Marcos; Fee, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The term “global health” is rapidly replacing the older terminology of “international health.” We describe the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in both international and global health and in the transition from one to the other. We suggest that the term “global health” emerged as part of larger political and historical processes, in which WHO found its dominant role challenged and began to reposition itself within a shifting set of power alliances. Between 1948 and 1998, WHO moved from being the unquestioned leader of international health to being an organization in crisis, facing budget shortfalls and diminished status, especially given the growing influence of new and powerful players. We argue that WHO began to refashion itself as the coordinator, strategic planner, and leader of global health initiatives as a strategy of survival in response to this transformed international political context. PMID:16322464

  4. Trucking organization and mental health disorders of truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Shattell, Mona; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Collins, Chad; Sönmez, Sevil; Fehrenbacher, Caitlin

    2012-07-01

    There are over 3 million truck drivers employed in the commercial transportation and material moving occupations, one of the largest occupational groups in the United States. Workers in this large and growing occupational segment are at risk for a range of occupational health-induced conditions, including mental health and psychiatric disorders due to high occupational stress, low access and use of health care, and limited social support. The purpose of this study was to explore male truck drivers' mental health risks and associated comorbidities, using a cross-sectional and quantitative design. Data were collected from a random sample of 316 male truckers between the ages of 23 and 76 at a large truck stop located within a 100-mile radius of Greensboro, North Carolina, USA, using a self-administered 82-item questionnaire. Surveyed truckers were found to have significant issues affecting their mental health, such as loneliness (27.9%), depression (26.9%), chronic sleep disturbances (20.6%), anxiety (14.5%), and other emotional problems (13%). Findings have potential to help researchers develop interventions to improve the emotional and occupational health of truck drivers, a highly underserved population. Mental health promotion, assessment, and treatment must become a priority to improve the overall trucking environment for truckers, the transportation industry, and safety on US highways. PMID:22757596

  5. Organic farming: Impacts on soil, food, and human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of responsible stewardship in managing soil is a central tenet of organic farming. Organic farmers believe that practices which stimulate biology and overall quality of soil enhance production of healthy and nutritious crops. Few involved in agriculture would argue this point. Neverth...

  6. The paradox of physicians and administrators in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Peirce, J C

    2000-01-01

    Rapidly changing times in health care challenge both physicians and health care administrators to manage the paradox of providing orderly, high quality, and efficient care while bringing forth innovations to address present unmet problems and surprises that emerge. Health care has grown throughout the past several centuries through differentiation and integration, becoming a highly complex biological system with the hospital as the central attractive force--or "strange attractor"--during this century. The theoretical model of complex adaptive systems promises more effective strategic direction in addressing these chaotic times where the new strange attractor moves beyond the hospital. PMID:10710724

  7. Consumer-directed health care: implications for health care organizations and managers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kristina L

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a pyramid model to illustrate the key components of consumer-directed health care. Consumer-directed health care is considered the essential strategy needed to lower health care costs and is valuable for making significant strides in health care reform. Consumer-directed health care presents new challenges and opportunities for all health care stakeholders and their managers. The viability of the health system depends on the success of managers to respond rapidly and with precision to changes in the system; thus, new and modified roles of managers are necessary to successfully sustain consumerism efforts to control costs while maintaining access and quality. PMID:20436329

  8. e-business means survival for health care organizations in 2010.

    PubMed

    Lutz, S

    2000-01-01

    Within the next five years, most health care organizations will communicate with suppliers, other providers, payers, regulators, and patients through the Internet. The Internet will recalibrate expectations of speed and service for patients and providers, but it also will increase accountability in which digitalized information is tracked and analyzed. The rate at which health care organizations are developing Web-based solutions is neck-snapping in the United States. As individual product lines, departments, and subsidiaries grow their own e-health businesses, organizations must decide which initiatives they must fund, which are essential to survival, and which could be financial black holes. PMID:11184343

  9. Health in the news: an analysis of magazines coverage of health issues in veterans and military service organizations.

    PubMed

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Poston, Walker S C; Haddock, Christopher K; Jahnke, Sara

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of Veterans and Military Service Organizations (VMSOs) magazines to determine what health-related topics VMSOs target and how they inform their constituencies about health issues. Health-related topics in 288 VMSOs' magazines from 21 VMSOs published in 2011 and 2012 were coded by trained raters using a standardized manual. The top three most addressed health topics were Health Services (Health care, Insurance), Disability and Disability benefits, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Topics least frequently covered were Tobacco and Smoking cessation, Illegal drugs, Alcohol, Gulf War Syndrome, and Weight and Body composition. VMSOs are concerned about the health and well-being of their members given the considerable amount of content devoted to certain health topics such as health insurance concerns, disability, and post-traumatic stress disorder. However, other health concerns that affect a considerable number of both current military personnel and veterans and cost both the Department of Veterans Affairs and the Department of Defense millions annually, such as drug and alcohol problems, and tobacco use and smoking cessation, are infrequently covered. The results of this study improve our understanding of the health-related information that reaches the military and veteran populations through this important media outlet. PMID:25939108

  10. Advocating self-advocacy: board membership in a statewide mental health consumer organization.

    PubMed

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2014-08-01

    Until 2008 Ohio Advocates for Mental Health was a statewide mental health advocacy organization run by mental health consumers and supportive of consumer-run organizations around the state. The author's tenure on the board entailed repeated engagement with questions of identity - self-identity, peer support through personal identification, and negotiation of public identities with provider groups and the state agency. These are fundamental to defining and legitimating the claims of mentally ill people not just for health care resources but for full participation as citizens in the public sphere. PMID:24842977

  11. 42 CFR 84.124 - Facepiece tests; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepiece tests; minimum requirements. 84.124 Section 84.124 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.124 Facepiece tests; minimum...

  12. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.115 Section 84.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum...

  13. Studies in Ambulatory Care Quality Assessment in the Indian Health Service. Volume III: Comparison of Rural Private Practice, Health Maintenance Organizations, and the Indian Health Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutting, Paul A.; And Others

    Utilizing a quality assessment methodology for ambulatory patient care currently under development by the Indian Health Service's (IHS) Office of Research and Development, comparisons were made between results derived from a pilot test in IHS service units, 2 metropolitan Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO), and 3 rural private practices.…

  14. The Australian experiment: how primary health care organizations supported the evolution of a primary health care system.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Caroline; Jackson, Claire L; Marley, John E; Wells, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Primary health care in Australia has undergone 2 decades of change. Starting with a vision for a national health strategy with general practice at its core, Australia established local meso-level primary health care organizations--Divisions of General Practice--moving from focus on individual practitioners to a professional collective local voice. The article identifies how these meso-level organizations have helped the Australian primary health care system evolve by supporting the roll-out of initiatives including national practice accreditation, a focus on quality improvement, expansion of multidisciplinary teams into general practice, regional integration, information technology adoption, and improved access to care. Nevertheless, there are still challenges to ensuring equitable access and the supply and distribution of a primary care workforce, addressing the increasing rates of chronic disease and obesity, and overcoming the fragmentation of funding and accountability in the Australian system. PMID:22403246

  15. Managing the conflict between individual needs and group interests--ethical leadership in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Shale, Suzanne

    2008-03-01

    This paper derives from a grounded theory study of how Medical Directors working within the UK National Health Service manage the moral quandaries that they encounter as leaders of health care organizations. The reason health care organizations exist is to provide better care for individuals through providing shared resources for groups of people. This creates a paradox at the heart of health care organization, because serving the interests of groups sometimes runs counter to serving the needs of individuals. The paradox presents ethical dilemmas at every level of the organization, from the boardroom to the bedside. Medical Directors experience these organizational ethical dilemmas most acutely by virtue of their position in the organization. As doctors, their professional ethic obliges them to put the interests of individual patients first. As executive directors, their role is to help secure the delivery of services that meet the needs of the whole patient population. What should they do when the interests of groups of patients, and of individual patients, appear to conflict? The first task of an ethical healthcare organization is to secure the trust of patients, and two examples of medical ethical leadership are discussed against this background. These examples suggest that conflict between individual and population needs is integral to health care organization, so dilemmas addressed at one level of the organization inevitably re-emerge in altered form at other levels. Finally, analysis of the ethical activity that Medical Directors have described affords insight into the interpersonal components of ethical skill and knowledge. PMID:18382123

  16. Offering-level strategy formulation in health service organizations.

    PubMed

    Pointer, D D

    1990-01-01

    One of six different strategies must be selected for a health service offering to provide consumers with distinctive value and achieve sustainable competitive advantage in a market or market segment. Decisions must be made regarding objectives sought, market segmentation, market scope, and the customer-value proposition that will be pursued. PMID:2118882

  17. Armenia: Influences and Organization of Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, John; Harutyunyan, Hasmik; Smbatyan, Meri; Cressley, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little has been published on mental health care and counseling as they pertain to Armenia, a country of approximately three million residents that gained independence in 1991 from the former Soviet Union. Various influences, such as its history, economy, religious and family systems, and a major natural disaster in 1988, have affected…

  18. Minimum Principles in Motor Control.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Sascha E.

    2001-06-01

    Minimum (or minimal) principles are mathematical laws that were first used in physics: Hamilton's principle and Fermat's principle of least time are two famous example. In the past decade, a number of motor control theories have been proposed that are formally of the same kind as the minimum principles of physics, and some of these have been quite successful at predicting motor performance in a variety of tasks. The present paper provides a comprehensive review of this work. Particular attention is given to the relation between minimum theories in motor control and those used in other disciplines. Other issues around which the review is organized include: (1) the relation between minimum principles and structural models of motor planning and motor control, (2) the empirically-driven development of minimum principles and the danger of circular theorizing, and (3) the design of critical tests for minimum theories. Some perspectives for future research are discussed in the concluding section of the paper. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11401453

  19. Algae as promising organisms for environment and health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Algae, like other plants, produce a variety of remarkable compounds collectively referred to as secondary metabolites. They are synthesized by these organisms at the end of the growth phase and/or due to metabolic alterations induced by environmental stress conditions. Carotenoids, phenolic compounds, phycobiliprotein pigments, polysaccharides and unsaturated fatty acids are same of the algal natural products, which were reported to have variable biological activities, including antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, antimicroabial activity against bacteria-virus-algae-fungi, organic fertilizer and bioremediation potentials. PMID:21862867

  20. Algae as promising organisms for environment and health.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-09-01

    Algae, like other plants, produce a variety of remarkable compounds collectively referred to as secondary metabolites. They are synthesized by these organisms at the end of the growth phase and/or due to metabolic alterations induced by environmental stress conditions. Carotenoids, phenolic compounds, phycobiliprotein pigments, polysaccharides and unsaturated fatty acids are same of the algal natural products, which were reported to have variable biological activities, including antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, antimicroabial activity against bacteria-virus-algae-fungi, organic fertilizer and bioremediation potentials. PMID:21862867

  1. 78 FR 44574 - Third Annual Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Third Annual Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of conference. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a conference for representatives of...

  2. 76 FR 55928 - Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a conference for representatives of...

  3. 77 FR 47652 - Second Annual Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Second Annual Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of conference. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a conference for representatives of...

  4. Environment Health & Safety Research Program. Organization and 1979-1980 Publications

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    This document was prepared to assist readers in understanding the organization of Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and the organization and functions of the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program Office. Telephone numbers of the principal management staff are provided. Also included is a list of 1979 and 1980 publications reporting on work performed in the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program, as well as a list of papers submitted for publication.

  5. [International cooperation and affirmative action policies: the role of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)].

    PubMed

    Maio, Marcos Chor; Pires-Alves, Fernando A; Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção; Silva Magalhães, Rodrigo Cesar da

    2010-07-01

    The article analyzes the formulation, legitimation, and implementation of a policy with an ethnic/race approach by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The study includes the emergence of the theme within this international organization, the institutional dynamics related to it, and the proposals focused on the Black population in Latin America. These issues are discussed on the basis of interaction between PAHO and a range of intergovernmental agencies and private organizations working in the international health domain. Participation by PAHO in the ethnic/racial theme provides elements for understanding the dual role played by intergovernmental organizations in the new global scenario, as both social actors and arenas. As an important social actor in the international health field, PAHO has produced and disseminated values and guidelines related to the ethnic/racial theme. As an arena, the organization has proven open to various interests, seeking to work harmoniously with them through its internal administration. PMID:20694349

  6. Oregon's experiment in health care delivery and payment reform: coordinated care organizations replacing managed care.

    PubMed

    Howard, Steven W; Bernell, Stephanie L; Yoon, Jangho; Luck, Jeff; Ranit, Claire M

    2015-02-01

    To control Medicaid costs, improve quality, and drive community engagement, the Oregon Health Authority introduced a new system of coordinated care organizations (CCOs). While CCOs resemble traditional Medicaid managed care, they have differences that have been deliberately designed to improve care coordination, increase accountability, and incorporate greater community governance. Reforms include global budgets integrating medical, behavioral, and oral health care and public health functions; risk-adjusted payments rewarding outcomes and evidence-based practice; increased transparency; and greater community engagement. The CCO model faces several implementation challenges. If successful, it will provide improved health care delivery, better health outcomes, and overall savings. PMID:25480844

  7. Oceans and Human Health: Linking Ocean, Organism, and Human Health for Sustainable Management of Coastal Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandifer, P. A.; Trtanj, J.; Collier, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists and policy-makers are increasingly recognizing that sustainable coastal communities depend on healthy and resilient economies, ecosystems, and people, and that the condition or "health" of the coastal ocean and humans are intimately and inextricably connected. A wealth of ecosystem services provided by ocean and coastal environments are crucial for human survival and well being. Nonetheless, the health of coastal communities, their economies, connected ecosystems and ecosystem services, and people are under increasing threats from health risks associated with environmental degradation, climate change, and unwise land use practices, all of which contribute to growing burdens of naturally-occurring and introduced pathogens, noxious algae, and chemical contaminants. The occurrence, frequency, intensity, geographic range, and number and kinds of ocean health threats are increasing, with concomitant health and economic effects and eroding public confidence in the safety and wholesomeness of coastal environments and resources. Concerns in the research and public health communities, many summarized in the seminal 1999 NRC Report, From Monsoons to Microbes and the 2004 final report of the US Commission on Ocean Policy, resulted in establishment of a new "meta-discipline" known as Oceans and Human Health (OHH). OHH brings together practitioners in oceanography, marine biology, ecology, biomedical science, medicine, economics and other social sciences, epidemiology, environmental management, and public health to focus on water- and food-borne causes of human and animal illnesses associated with ocean and coastal systems and on health benefits of seafood and other marine products. It integrates information across multiple disciplines to increase knowledge of ocean health risks and benefits and communicate such information to enhance public safety. Recognizing the need for a comprehensive approach to ocean health threats and benefits, Congress passed the Oceans and

  8. Consumption of organic and functional food. A matter of well-being and health?

    PubMed

    Goetzke, Beate; Nitzko, Sina; Spiller, Achim

    2014-06-01

    Health is an important motivation for the consumption of both organic and functional foods. The aim of this study was to clarify to what extent the consumption of organic and functional foods are characterized by a healthier lifestyle and a higher level of well-being. Moreover, the influence of social desirability on the respondents' response behavior was of interest and was also analyzed. Well-being and health was measured in a sample of 555 German consumers at two levels: the cognitive-emotional and the behavioral level. The results show that although health is an important aspect for both functional food and organic food consumption, these two forms of consumption were influenced by different understandings of health: organic food consumption is influenced by an overall holistic healthy lifestyle including a healthy diet and sport, while functional food consumption is characterized by small "adjustments" to lifestyle to enhance health and to increase psychological well-being. An overlap between the consumption of organic and functional food was also observed. This study provides information which enables a better characterization of the consumption of functional food and organic food in terms of well-being and health. PMID:24630940

  9. Health Science Libraries of National, State, and Local Medical Organizations

    PubMed Central

    1967-01-01

    This second survey of medical society-sponsored libraries has been expanded to include national association libraries in allied medical fields, as well as special libraries which do not fall into categories established for the MLA survey of health science libraries. A total of fifty-eight libraries in this subset have been identified, and selected characteristics have been measured. Observations are made concerning methodology, user population, and services. PMID:6041830

  10. 75 FR 61502 - Cooperative Agreement With the Pan American Health Organization for the Development of an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement With the Pan American Health... application to award a cooperative agreement to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) for the... efforts, such as the Pan American Network for Drug Regulatory Harmonization (PANDRH), the ICH...

  11. Clocking in: The Organization of Work Time and Health in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiner, Sibyl; Pavalko, Eliza K.

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the health implications of emerging patterns in the organization of work time. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we examine general mental and physical health (SF-12 scores), psychological distress (CESD score), clinical levels of obesity, and the presence of medical conditions, at age 40.…

  12. Describing an Academic and Nonprofit Organization Partnership to Educate At-Risk Adolescents about Cardiovascular Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palazzo, Steven J.; Skager, Cherie; Kraiger, Anneliese

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence to suggest community-based interventions can change community-wide behaviors and attitudes toward cardiovascular health. This article describes a partnership between an academic institution and a community nonprofit organization to develop and implement a cardiovascular health promotion program targeting at risk high…

  13. 77 FR 11120 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From UAB Health System Patient Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... analyze confidential information regarding the quality and safety of health care delivery. The Patient... mission and primary activity is to conduct activities to improve patient safety and the quality of health... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations:...

  14. 76 FR 7853 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From HealthDataPSO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... collect, aggregate, and analyze confidential information regarding the quality and safety of health care... quality of health care delivery. HHS issued the Patient Safety Rule to implement the Patient Safety Act... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations:...

  15. 76 FR 71345 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Child Health Patient Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... confidential information regarding the quality and safety of health care delivery. The Patient Safety and... conduct activities to improve patient safety and the quality of health care delivery. HHS issued the... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations:...

  16. Development of a College Student's Mistrust of Health Care Organizations Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; Kirchofer, Gregg M.; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kleinfelder, JoAnn; Bryant, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a College Student's Mistrust of Health Care Organizations (CSMHCO) scale and determine the relationship between medical mistrust with the use of a variety of health care services. Methods: A convenience sample of college students (n = 545) at 2 universities in the United States was recruited in…

  17. How do urban organized health care delivery systems link with rural providers?

    PubMed

    Christianson, J B; Wellever, A; Radcliff, T; Knutson, D J

    2000-01-01

    Organized delivery systems are becoming an increasingly important component of urban health care markets and are expanding their influence in rural areas as well. They also are developing new linkages with rural providers. This article, based on the experiences of 20 diverse organizations, identifies and describes the strategies being used by urban systems to redefine linkages with rural hospitals and, particularly, physicians. PMID:10937336

  18. Minimum Competency Testing. Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Jacob G.

    During the last decade many school systems began to define minimum levels of competency for their students and to construct tests to measure whether students had achieved these minimums. Many states have passed laws which require high school students to pass minimum competency tests in order to graduate. This digest overviews four areas of…

  19. Community-based organizations in the health sector: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael G; Lavis, John N; Guta, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Community-based organizations are important health system stakeholders as they provide numerous, often highly valued programs and services to the members of their community. However, community-based organizations are described using diverse terminology and concepts from across a range of disciplines. To better understand the literature related to community-based organizations in the health sector (i.e., those working in health systems or more broadly to address population or public health issues), we conducted a scoping review by using an iterative process to identify existing literature, conceptually map it, and identify gaps and areas for future inquiry.We searched 18 databases and conducted citation searches using 15 articles to identify relevant literature. All search results were reviewed in duplicate and were included if they addressed the key characteristics of community-based organizations or networks of community-based organizations. We then coded all included articles based on the country focus, type of literature, source of literature, academic discipline, disease sector, terminology used to describe organizations and topics discussed. We identified 186 articles addressing topics related to the key characteristics of community-based organizations and/or networks of community-based organizations. The literature is largely focused on high-income countries and on mental health and addictions, HIV/AIDS or general/unspecified populations. A large number of different terms have been used in the literature to describe community-based organizations and the literature addresses a range of topics about them (mandate, structure, revenue sources and type and skills or skill mix of staff), the involvement of community members in organizations, how organizations contribute to community organizing and development and how they function in networks with each other and with government (e.g., in policy networks).Given the range of terms used to describe community

  20. Community-based organizations in the health sector: A scoping review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Community-based organizations are important health system stakeholders as they provide numerous, often highly valued programs and services to the members of their community. However, community-based organizations are described using diverse terminology and concepts from across a range of disciplines. To better understand the literature related to community-based organizations in the health sector (i.e., those working in health systems or more broadly to address population or public health issues), we conducted a scoping review by using an iterative process to identify existing literature, conceptually map it, and identify gaps and areas for future inquiry. We searched 18 databases and conducted citation searches using 15 articles to identify relevant literature. All search results were reviewed in duplicate and were included if they addressed the key characteristics of community-based organizations or networks of community-based organizations. We then coded all included articles based on the country focus, type of literature, source of literature, academic discipline, disease sector, terminology used to describe organizations and topics discussed. We identified 186 articles addressing topics related to the key characteristics of community-based organizations and/or networks of community-based organizations. The literature is largely focused on high-income countries and on mental health and addictions, HIV/AIDS or general/unspecified populations. A large number of different terms have been used in the literature to describe community-based organizations and the literature addresses a range of topics about them (mandate, structure, revenue sources and type and skills or skill mix of staff), the involvement of community members in organizations, how organizations contribute to community organizing and development and how they function in networks with each other and with government (e.g., in policy networks). Given the range of terms used to describe community

  1. Knowledge Regarding Organ Donation and Willingness to Donate among Health Workers in South-West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oluyombo, R.; Fawale, M. B.; Ojewola, R. W.; Busari, O. A.; Ogunmola, O. J.; Olanrewaju, T. O.; Akinleye, C. A.; Oladosu, Y. O.; Olamoyegun, M. A.; Gbadegesin, B. A.; Obajolowo, O. O.; Soje, M. O.; Adelaja, A.; Ayodele, L. M.; Ayodele, O. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Organ transplantation program in developing countries is still significantly dwarfed. Health workers are undeniably important in the success of transplantation. Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude of health workers toward organ donation in South-West Nigeria with a view to explaining reasons for these shortcomings. Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted on 850 health care workers, self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain information from participants. Results: Of 850 participants, 766 (90.1%) returned their completed questionnaires. The mean±SD age of participants was 36.7±9.2 years. Majority (93.3%) of participants had heard of organ donation; 82.5% had desirable knowledge. Only 29.5% and 39.4% would be willing to donate and counsel potential organ donors, respectively; 36.5% would consider signing organ donation cards. Only 19.4% believed that organ transplantation is often effective and 63.4% believed they were permitted by their religion to donate. Permission by religion (OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.3 to 5.3), good knowledge (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.4 to 5.7), readiness to sign donation cards (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7 to 3.8), discuss organ donation (OR 2.7; 95%CI 8.0 to 63.8), and knowing somebody who had donated (OR 2.9) independently influenced willingness to donate organ. Conclusion: There is disparity in knowledge of organ donation and willingness to donate among health care workers. Efforts should be intensified to give comprehensive and appropriate education to health care workers about organ donation to bridge this gap. PMID:26889370

  2. Organizations disseminating health messages: the roles of organizational identification and HITs.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Keri K; Goins, Elizabeth S; Dailey, Stephanie L

    2014-01-01

    Research into the dissemination of health information now includes more focus on how various organizations (e.g., beauty shops, schools, workplaces, and churches) and health information technologies (HITs) reach and affect audiences. One relational feature of organizations is identification--the feeling of belongingness. Our study explores how it influences audiences, especially in combination with HITs such as e-mail, websites, and social media. We use social identity theory to predict how organizational identification and social media might function in health communication. Using a 3 × 2 experimental design, we find that people's identification with a message source mediates the effect of social media on outcomes. These findings improve our understanding of when organizations might be most helpful for disseminating health information. PMID:23829343

  3. The changing organization of work and the safety and health of working people: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Landsbergis, Paul A

    2003-01-01

    Recent trends in the organization of work may affect worker health through a variety of pathways--by increasing the risk of stress-related illnesses, such as cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, and psychological disorders, by increasing exposure to hazardous substances and violence on the job, or by affecting occupational health services and training programs. Much remains to be learned about the nature of changes in work organization, and how they affect worker health and safety. While available evidence is limited, such evidence suggests that recent trends in work organization may be increasing the risk of occupational illnesses. In a groundbreaking publication, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has provided a concise summary of available knowledge and a detailed agenda for research and development. PMID:12553180

  4. Work Organization and Health Among Immigrant Women: Latina Manual Workers in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Chen, Haiying; Mora, Dana C.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to describe work organization attributes for employed immigrant Latinas and determine associations of work organization with physical health, mental health, and health-related quality of life. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 319 employed Latinas in western North Carolina (2009–2011). Measures included job demands (heavy load, awkward posture, psychological demand), decision latitude (skill variety, job control), support (supervisor control, safety climate), musculoskeletal symptoms, mental health (depressive symptoms), and mental (MCS) and physical component score (PCS) health-related quality of life. Results. Three fifths reported musculoskeletal symptoms. Mean scores for depression, MCS, and PCS were 6.2 (SE = 0.2), 38.3 (SE = 0.5), and 42.8 (SE = 0.3), respectively. Greater job demands (heavy load, awkward posture, greater psychological demand) were associated with more musculoskeletal and depressive symptoms and worse MCS. Less decision latitude (lower skill variety, job control) was associated with more musculoskeletal and depressive symptoms. Greater support (supervisor’s power and safety climate) was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and better MCS. Conclusions. Work organization should be considered to improve occupational health of vulnerable women workers. Additional research should delineate the links between work organization and health among vulnerable workers. PMID:24432938

  5. Suicide and organ donors: spillover effects of mental health insurance mandates.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Jose; Lang, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    This paper considers the effect of mental health insurance mandates on the supply of cadaveric donors. We find that enacting a mental health mandate decreases the count of organ donors from suicides and results are driven by female donors. Using a number of empirical specifications, we calculate that the mental health parity laws are responsible for an approximately 0.52% decrease in cadaveric donors. Additional regression results show that the mandates are not related to other types of organ donations, ruling out the possibility that the mandates are related to an overall trend in the supply of organ donations. The findings suggest that future policies aimed at reducing suicide in a large and significant way can potentially increase the inefficiency that currently exists in the organ donor market. PMID:24523052

  6. Tackling the health divide in Europe: the role of the World Health Organization.

    PubMed

    Hunter, David J

    2012-10-01

    Europe faces major health challenges in addition to its well-reported economic and financial difficulties. Despite the overall improvement in population health, significant inequalities remain, with a growing gap between rich and poor. WHO Europe, covering fifty-three member states, is committed to helping European governments meet the complex challenge posed by the "silent epidemic" of noncommunicable diseases. In September 2012 WHO launched Health 2020, an ambitious new health policy framework and strategy. Its success requires a whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach to improving health and well-being, informed by the latest evidence on cost-effective interventions. This review considers the prospects for success. PMID:22700947

  7. 42 CFR 84.132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.132 Section 84.132 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... Respirators § 84.132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction...

  8. 42 CFR 84.195 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.195 Section 84.195 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... Cartridge Respirators § 84.195 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used...

  9. Implementing health information exchange for public health reporting: a comparison of decision and risk management of three regional health information organizations in New York state

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Andrew B; Wilson, Rosalind V; Kaushal, Rainu; Merrill, Jacqueline A

    2014-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE) is a significant component of healthcare transformation strategies at both the state and national levels. HIE is expected to improve care coordination, and advance public health, but implementation is massively complex and involves significant risk. In New York, three regional health information organizations (RHIOs) implemented an HIE use case for public health reporting by demonstrating capability to deliver accurate responses to electronic queries via a set of services called the Universal Public Health Node. We investigated process and outcomes of the implementation with a comparative case study. Qualitative analysis was structured around a decision and risk matrix. Although each RHIO had a unique operational model, two common factors influenced risk management and implementation success: leadership capable of agile decision-making and commitment to a strong organizational vision. While all three RHIOs achieved certification for the public health reporting, only one has elected to deploy a production version. PMID:23975626

  10. Apostolic faith church organization contexts for health and wellbeing in women and children

    PubMed Central

    Mpofu, Elias; Dune, Tinashe Moira; Hallfors, Denise Dion; Mapfumo, John; Mutepfa, Magen Mhaka; January, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study explored contexts for health and wellbeing for women and children influenced by the structural behavior of an Apostolic faith church organization in Zimbabwe. Methods Twenty-three purposively selected members of an African indigenous Apostolic church (males =12; females =11; age range 22 to 95 years) were informants to a focus group discussion session. They provided data on the institutional behaviors that were culturally-historically embedded in the organization’s activities. Data were analyzed thematically and using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) to foreground essential themes. Results The church organization provided social capital to support health and wellbeing in members. However, the culturally embedded practices to minimize decision making by women and child members potentially compromised their health and wellbeing. Conclusion The findings suggest that the structural activities of the church for health and wellbeing could also have the paradoxical effect of exposing women and children to health risks from obligatory roles. PMID:21671203

  11. [Organization and functioning of health services of the IMSS-Solidaridad program].

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Díaz, G

    1992-01-01

    In this report the organization and performance of the IMSS-Solidaridad Program of Mexico is described. This program is managed by the Mexican Institute for Social Security, which services 10.5 million inhabitants of the rural underserved areas, with federal government resources in 18 states. This study compares the structure and functioning of the IMSS-Solidaridad Program with Local Health Systems, as they have been proposed by the Panamerican Health Organization for country members and by the Ministry of Health of Mexico, particularly in relation to the decision-making process at local level. Some assets and limitations of the IMSS-Solidaridad Program are analyzed and, finally, concrete procedures to improve coordination between the IMSS-Solidaridad Program and other health services for similar populations (populations without social security protection) in Mexico are suggested, with the purpose of using resources more adequately and succeed in the national goal to achieve equity in health. PMID:1475700

  12. The logic of transaction cost economics in health care organization theory.

    PubMed

    Stiles, R A; Mick, S S; Wise, C G

    2001-01-01

    Health care is, at its core, comprised of complex sequences of transactions among patients, providers, and other stakeholders; these transactions occur in markets as well as within systems and organizations. Health care transactions serve one of two functions: the production of care (i.e., the laying on of hands) or the coordination of that care (i.e., scheduling, logistics). Because coordinating transactions is integral to care delivery, it is imperative that they are executed smoothly and efficiently. Transaction cost economics (TCE) is a conceptual framework for analyzing health care transactions and quantifying their impact on health care structures (organizational forms), processes, and outcomes. PMID:11293015

  13. Maternal health in the eastern Mediterranean region of the World Health Organization.

    PubMed

    Mahaini, R; Mahmoud, H

    2005-07-01

    Globally, progress in improving the survival and well-being of mothers has been slow, and this holds true for the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Thus at the current pace, it is unlikely that the Millennium Development Goal related improving maternal health will be achieved in the Region by the year 2015. This paper outlines the factors contributing to maternal mortality and poor health in the Region and the challenges faced. The action needed to redress the situation and improve maternal health, and hence achieve the fourth Millennium Development Goal, is presented. PMID:16700367

  14. Perspectives of Community- and Faith-Based Organizations about Partnering with Local Health Departments for Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Stajura, Michael; Glik, Deborah; Eisenman, David; Prelip, Michael; Martel, Andrea; Sammartinova, Jitka

    2012-01-01

    Public health emergency planners can better perform their mission if they develop and maintain effective relationships with community- and faith-based organizations in their jurisdictions. This qualitative study presents six themes that emerged from 20 key informant interviews representing a wide range of American community- and faith-based organizations across different types of jurisdictions, organizational types, and missions. This research seeks to provide local health department public health emergency planners with tools to assess and improve their inter-organizational community relationships. The themes identified address the importance of community engagement, leadership, intergroup dynamics and communication, and resources. Community- and faith-based organizations perceive that they are underutilized or untapped resources with respect to public health emergencies and disasters. One key reason for this is that many public health departments limit their engagement with community- and faith-based organizations to a one-way “push” model for information dissemination, rather than engaging them in other ways or improving their capacity. Beyond a reprioritization of staff time, few other resources would be required. From the perspective of community- and faith-based organizations, the quality of relationships seems to matter more than discrete resources provided by such ties. PMID:22851942

  15. Enhancing learning, innovation, adaptation, and sustainability in health care organizations: the ELIAS performance management framework.

    PubMed

    Persaud, D David

    2014-01-01

    The development of sustainable health care organizations that provide high-quality accessible care is a topic of intense interest. This article provides a practical performance management framework that can be utilized to develop sustainable health care organizations. It is a cyclical 5-step process that is premised on accountability, performance management, and learning practices that are the foundation for a continuous process of measurement, disconfirmation, contextualization, implementation, and routinization This results in the enhancement of learning, innovation, adaptation, and sustainability (ELIAS). Important considerations such as recognizing that health care organizations are complex adaptive systems and the presence of a dynamic learning culture are necessary contextual factors that maximize the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Importantly, the ELIAS framework utilizes data that are already being collected by health care organizations for accountability, improvement, evaluation, and strategic purposes. Therefore, the benefit of the framework, when used as outlined, would be to enhance the chances of health care organizations achieving the goals of ongoing adaptation and sustainability, by design, rather than by chance. PMID:25068873

  16. Using Professional Organizations to Prepare the Behavioral Health Workforce to Respond to the Needs of Pediatric Populations Impacted by Health-Related Disasters: Guiding Principles and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Sprang, Ginny; Silman, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    Behavioral health professional organizations are in the unique role of aggregating and disseminating information to their membership before, during, and after health-related disasters to promote the integration of behavioral health services into the public health disaster response plan. This article provides a set of 5 principles to direct this undertaking that are based on the current literature and previous evaluation of the online guidance provided by 6 prominent behavioral health professional organizations. These principles use a strengths-based approach to prioritize resilience; underscore the importance of context, collaboration, and coordination; recognize the unique needs of pediatric populations; and guide ongoing training and content development in the area of biopsychosocial responses to health-related disasters. Recognizing important innovations and strides made by the behavioral health organizations noted in a previous study, this article recommends additional areas in which behavioral health professional organizations can contribute to overall pandemic disaster preparedness and response efforts. PMID:26145465

  17. [Health service organization during the age of pestilence. 2].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio

    2003-12-01

    The author presents the history of the places where patients with epidemic pathologies were isolated. Since the study of medicine began, such places have been known as asclepiei, xenodochi, hospices, lazarettos, sanitary cordons, and quarantine stations and they contributed to controlling epidemics in Europe. Important not only in the context in which they were created, these structures expressed the medical culture and point of view of that age. Although very far from discovering the cause of the pathology due to their lack of scientific knowledge, the medical class sometimes knew how to effectively organize the isolation of patients. The history of such structures interweaves with the long history of Christianity and with the emerging nations of Europe and the city-states of the Italian Renaissance. Previously, in classical Greece and Imperial Rome there had also been "homes for the sick" to isolate patients. Today the world is periodically hit by epidemics. In such moments the medical profession uses its research ability and organizational capabilities but also historical memory to reduce epidemic contagion. PMID:14988671

  18. Achieving the World Health Organization's vision for clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jennifer H; Henry, David; Gray, Jean; Day, Richard; Bochner, Felix; Ferro, Albert; Pirmohamed, Munir; Mörike, Klaus; Schwab, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Clinical pharmacology is a medical specialty whose practitioners teach, undertake research, frame policy, give information and advice about the actions and proper uses of medicines in humans and implement that knowledge in clinical practice. It involves a combination of several activities: drug discovery and development, training safe prescribers, providing objective and evidence-based therapeutic information to ethics, regulatory and pricing bodies, supporting patient care in an increasingly subspecialized arena where co-morbidities, polypharmacy, altered pharmacokinetics and drug interactions are common and developing and contributing to medicines policies for Governments. Clinical pharmacologists must advocate drug quality and they must also advocate for sustainability of the Discipline. However for this they need appropriate clinical service and training support. This Commentary discusses strategies to ensure the Discipline is supported by teaching, training and policy organizations, to communicate the full benefits of clinical pharmacology services, put a monetary value on clinical pharmacology services and to grow the clinical pharmacology workforce to support a growing clinical, academic and regulatory need. PMID:26466826

  19. Peripheral Reproductive Organ Health and Melatonin: Ready for Prime Time

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Russel J.; Rosales-Corral, Sergio A.; Manchester, Lucien C.; Tan, Dun-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin has a wide variety of beneficial actions at the level of the gonads and their adnexa. Some actions are mediated via its classic membrane melatonin receptors while others seem to be receptor-independent. This review summarizes many of the published reports which confirm that melatonin, which is produced in the ovary, aids in advancing follicular maturation and preserving the integrity of the ovum prior to and at the time of ovulation. Likewise, when ova are collected for in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer, treating them with melatonin improves implantation and pregnancy rates. Melatonin synthesis as well as its receptors have also been identified in the placenta. In this organ, melatonin seems to be of particular importance for the maintenance of the optimal turnover of cells in the villous trophoblast via its ability to regulate apoptosis. For male gametes, melatonin has also proven useful in protecting them from oxidative damage and preserving their viability. Incubation of ejaculated animal sperm improves their motility and prolongs their viability. For human sperm as well, melatonin is also a valuable agent for protecting them from free radical damage. In general, the direct actions of melatonin on the gonads and adnexa of mammals indicate it is an important agent for maintaining optimal reproductive physiology. PMID:23549263

  20. Animal health organizations: roles to mitigate the impact of ecologic change on animal health in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Acord, Bobby R; Walton, Thomas E

    2004-10-01

    Production of livestock across North and South America is extensive. The opportunities for production, commerce, and thriving economies related to animal agriculture are balanced against the devastating threats of disease. Commitment by livestock and poultry producers in exporting countries to production methods, herd health management, and biosecurity in their operations must be coupled with an animal health and marketing infrastructure that allows the industries to thrive and offers assurances to trading partners that their livestock industries will not be jeopardized. National and international animal health organizations play a key role in providing this infrastructure to the industries that they serve. The incentive for the successful World agricultural production economies to provide direction and support for improving animal health and conveying principles for competitive and safe production to lesser developed nations is the assurance that the expanding economies of these nations offer an eager and hungry market for the products of the other industries of an export-dependent economy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established after the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO provides the permanent international multilateral institutional framework for implementing dispute resolution agreements and the agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. The SPS agreements allow for the protection of animal and plant health. PMID:15604467

  1. [A study on organ transplantation waiting lines in Brazil's Unified National Health System].

    PubMed

    Marinho, Alexandre

    2006-10-01

    This study analyzes the waiting lines for solid organ transplants in Brazil's Unified National Health System. By using a queuing theory model, we estimate the waiting times for different organs under alternative scenarios. The model reveals the elasticity of various waiting times with respect to arrival and service rates for organ transplantation within the system. Average waiting time for a solid organ transplant is very long and highly elastic in Brazil. The article discusses some important possibilities for reducing such waiting times. PMID:16951895

  2. Accountable Care Organizations and Clinical Commissioning Groups Face an Uncertain Challenge for Improving Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) in the United States of America (USA) and Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) in the United Kingdom (UK) are newly proposed cross-organisational structures in health services both tasked with a role which includes improving public health. Although there are very significant differences between the UK and USA health systems, there appears to be some similar confusion as to how ACOs and CCGs will regard and address public or population health. This short perspective article gives an overview of ACOs in the USA and CCGs in the UK, with the underlying context of possible public health functions. It concludes by considering the challenges facing both countries and highlighting the opportunity for shared learning. Acknowledgments this article was based on a research proposal prepared for the Commonwealth Fund’s Harkness Fellowship in Health Care Policy and Practice 2012/2013. PMID:25170452

  3. Data Resource Profile: The World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties; Yawson, A.; Mensah, G.; Yong, J.; Guo, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Parasuraman, P.; Lhungdim, H.; Sekher, TV.; Rosa, R.; Belov, VB.; Lushkina, NP; Peltzer, K.; Makiwane, M.; Zuma, K.; Ramlagan, S.; Davids, A.; Mbelle, N.; Matseke, G.; Schneider, M.; Tabane, C.; Tollman, S.; Kahn, K.; Ng, N.; Juvekar, S.; Sankoh, O.; Debpuur, CY.; Nguyen, TK Chuc; Gomez-Olive, FX.; Hakimi, M.; Hirve, S.; Abdullah, S.; Hodgson, A.; Kyobutungi, C.; Egondi, T.; Mayombana, C.; Minh, HV.; Mwanyangala, MA.; Razzaque, A.; Wilopo, S.; Streatfield, PK.; Byass, P.; Wall, S.; Scholten, F.; Mugisha, J.; Seeley, J.; Kinyanda, E.; Nyirenda, M.; Mutevedzi, P.; Newell, M-L.

    2012-01-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization’s Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18–49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007–2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18–49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO’s SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO’s archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata). PMID:23283715

  4. [Governance of primary health-care-based health-care organization].

    PubMed

    Báscolo, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    An analytical framework was developed for explaining the conditions for the effectiveness of different strategies promoting integrated primary health-care (PHC) service-based systems in Latin-America. Different modes of governance (clan, incentives and hierarchy) were characterised from a political economics viewpoint for representing alternative forms of regulation promoting innovation in health-service-providing organisations. The necessary conditions for guaranteeing the modes of governance's effectiveness are presented, as are their implications in terms of posts in play. The institutional construction of an integrated health system is interpreted as being a product of a social process in which different modes of governance are combined, operating with different ways of resolving normative aspects for regulating service provision (with the hierarchical mode), resource distribution (with the incentives mode) and on the social values legitimising such process (with the clan mode). PMID:20963299

  5. Do health service organizations and community health centres have higher disease prevention and health promotion levels than fee-for-service practices?

    PubMed Central

    Abelson, J; Lomas, J

    1990-01-01

    We interviewed health care providers representing 23 fee-for-service (FFS) practices, 19 health service organizations (HSOs) and 11 community health centres (CHCs) in Ontario to compare self-reported approaches to disease prevention and health promotion. Few significant differences were found across practice types in the presence of recall systems for screening or in knowledge of, compliance with or estimated coverage for selected preventive maneuvers recommended by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. CHCs reported a significantly greater variety of formal health promotion programs and a greater tendency to use nonphysician health care personnel to carry out both prevention and health promotion activities. The results must be interpreted with caution because of the use of self-reported data, the low response rate for FFS practices and the use of a restrictive definition of disease prevention tied to evidence from the reports of the task force. Thus, the results cast some doubt on the common assumption that increasing the population served by alternative modes of delivery such as HSOs and CHCs necessarily increases the level of disease prevention and health promotion activity. PMID:2311035

  6. Recommendations from a meeting on health implications of genetically modified organism (GMO).

    PubMed

    Amofah, George

    2014-06-01

    The Ghana Public Health Association organized a scientific seminar to examine the introduction of genetically modified organisms into public use and the health consequences. The seminar was driven by current public debate on the subject. The seminar identified some of the advantages of GMOs and also the health concerns. It is clear that there is the need to enhance local capacity to research the introduction and use of GMOs; to put in place appropriate regulatory mechanisms including particularly the labeling of GMO products and post-marketing surveillance for possible negative health consequences in the long term. Furthermore the appropriate state agency should put in place advocacy strategies to keep the public informed about GMOs. PMID:25667561

  7. Estimating the Development Assistance for Health Provided to Faith-Based Organizations, 1990–2013

    PubMed Central

    Haakenstad, Annie; Johnson, Elizabeth; Graves, Casey; Olivier, Jill; Duff, Jean; Dieleman, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have been active in the health sector for decades. Recently, the role of FBOs in global health has been of increased interest. However, little is known about the magnitude and trends in development assistance for health (DAH) channeled through these organizations. Material and Methods Data were collected from the 21 most recent editions of the Report of Voluntary Agencies. These reports provide information on the revenue and expenditure of organizations. Project-level data were also collected and reviewed from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. More than 1,900 non-governmental organizations received funds from at least one of these three organizations. Background information on these organizations was examined by two independent reviewers to identify the amount of funding channeled through FBOs. Results In 2013, total spending by the FBOs identified in the VolAg amounted to US$1.53 billion. In 1990, FB0s spent 34.1% of total DAH provided by private voluntary organizations reported in the VolAg. In 2013, FBOs expended 31.0%. Funds provided by the Global Fund to FBOs have grown since 2002, amounting to $80.9 million in 2011, or 16.7% of the Global Fund’s contributions to NGOs. In 2011, the Gates Foundation’s contributions to FBOs amounted to $7.1 million, or 1.1% of the total provided to NGOs. Conclusion Development assistance partners exhibit a range of preferences with respect to the amount of funds provided to FBOs. Overall, estimates show that FBOS have maintained a substantial and consistent share over time, in line with overall spending in global health on NGOs. These estimates provide the foundation for further research on the spending trends and effectiveness of FBOs in global health. PMID:26042731

  8. Using high-performance work practices in health care organizations: a perspective for nursing.

    PubMed

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Robbins, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest that the use of high-performance work practices (HPWPs) may help improve quality in health care. We interviewed 67 administrators and clinicians across 5 health care organizations and found that the use of HPWPs was valued and salient for nurses. Communication appeared particularly important to facilitate HPWP use. Enhancing our understanding of HPWP use may help improve the work environment for nurses while also increasing care quality. PMID:24052139

  9. Outsourcing. Health care organizations are considering strategic goals in making outsourcing decisions.

    PubMed

    Chin, T L

    1997-08-01

    More health care organizations are outsourcing the management of some or all of their information systems. Executives at many organizations that have tried outsourcing say it enables them to focus on core competencies, better allocate resources, get more information technology at less cost, share risks of implementing information technology with outsourcers and guarantee access to skilled labor. But the information technology outsourcing market remains relatively small in health care because many CIOs still are wary of turning over control of important functions to outsiders. PMID:10170261

  10. Brundtland's World Health Organization: A Test Case for United Nations Reform

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    Gro Harlem Brundtland, who became Director General of the World Health Organization in July 1998, has created a small revolution at the WHO headquarters in Geneva. She is in the process of changing how WHO works, how it interacts with other parts of the United Nations system, and how it enlists ministries, whole governments, universities, and other private organizations to improve health in the world. Here, the Editor describes the reorganization, the new people and resources, and prospects for setting a precedent in United Nations reform. Imagesp30-ap31-ap39-a PMID:9925169

  11. An interactive integrative approach to translating knowledge and building a "learning organization" in health services management.

    PubMed Central

    Chunharas, Somsak

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a basic approach to ensuring that knowledge from research studies is translated for use in health services management with a view towards building a "learning organization". (A learning organization is one in which the environment is structured in such a way as to facilitate learning as well as the sharing of knowledge among members or employees.) This paper highlights various dimensions that determine the complexity of knowledge translation, using the problem-solving cycle as the backbone for gaining a better understanding of how different types of knowledge interact in health services management. It is essential to use an integrated and interactive approach to ensure that knowledge from research is translated in a way that allows a learning organization to be built and that knowledge is not used merely to influence a single decision in isolation from the overall services and management of an organization. PMID:16917653

  12. Health-care organizations as "patients": transforming the fundamental od paradigm.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Irwin M

    2011-01-01

    Hidden behind such frequently used phrases as "The system/policy requires...," "The organization has decided..." is one simple fact. Systems/policies don't drop from the sky etched in stone tablets and organizations don't decide anything. People make decisions and design systems and write policies. Embracing this fact increases the likelihood that the provision of health-care emanates from a "care dealership" in contrast to a "car dealership." Ignoring this fact leads to less humane, less effective, and more costly health-care. This chapter will challenge all of us concerned with caring for all of us--from Organizational Development (OD). Practitioners to CEOs to ... to ... all of us at some point in our lives--to step up to the need to transform our most basic paradigms. To remind ourselves that human beings give birth to, nurture, sustain, and care for that which we call an organization. In so doing, we will be able to begin to act from the premise that a health-care organization is itself a living breathing human organism, a "Patient" in need of care. The quality of care we afford this "Patient" directly and inevitably impacts the quality of care we are afforded as patients. Acting from this premise will transform all of health-care, all "care dealerships" ... and potentially "car dealerships" as well. OD professionals, therefore, can propel us all to a fourth dimension of caring for all of us. PMID:21887954

  13. Time banking and health: the role of a community currency organization in enhancing well-being.

    PubMed

    Lasker, Judith; Collom, Ed; Bealer, Tara; Niclaus, Erin; Young Keefe, Jessica; Kratzer, Zane; Baldasari, Lauren; Kramer, Ethan; Mandeville, Rachel; Schulman, Julia; Suchow, Danielle; Letcher, Abby; Rogers, Anne; Perlow, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Time banking is an international movement that seeks to transform traditional asymmetric social service models into social networks in which members both provide and receive services that are assigned equal value. Time banks have been shown to enhance social capital, and there is some evidence for improved health. This article, based on a survey of 160 members of a hospital-affiliated time bank, examines the likelihood and predictors of improvement in physical and mental health as a result of membership. Men, people with lower income, and those who were not working full-time reported highest levels of participation in exchanging services; attachment to the organization was greatest among women, older members, people with less education, and those with the highest participation levels. Multivariate analyses revealed that physical health improvement attributed to membership was significantly predicted by attachment to the organization and living alone; mental health gains were predicted by general health changes, average number of exchanges, and attachment to the organization. We conclude that a sense of belonging, a dimension of social capital, is key to improved well-being and that time banking may be particularly valuable in promoting health and belonging among older and lower-income individuals and those who live alone. PMID:20685912

  14. Who is Using Telehealth in Primary Care? Safety Net Clinics and Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs).

    PubMed

    Coffman, Megan; Moore, Miranda; Jetty, Anuradha; Klink, Kathleen; Bazemore, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Despite rapid advancements in telehealth services, only 15% of family physicians in a 2014 survey reported using telehealth; use varied widely according to the physician's practice setting or designation. Users were significantly more likely than nonusers to work in federally designated "safety net" clinics and health maintenance organizations (HMOs) but not more likely than nonusers to report working in a patient-centered medical home (PCMH) or accountable care organization. PMID:27390373

  15. Antidepressant pharmacotherapy: economic evaluation of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline in a health maintenance organization.

    PubMed

    Sclar, D A; Robison, L M; Skaer, T L; Galin, R S; Legg, R F; Nemec, N L; Hughes, T E; Buesching, D P; Morgan, M

    1995-01-01

    The present study was designed to compare direct health service expenditures, for the treatment of depression, among patients enrolled in a health maintenance organization, and prescribed one of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, fluoxetine, paroxetine or sertraline. Information regarding depression-related health service use was derived from the computer archive of a network-model health maintenance organization system serving 700,000 beneficiaries. A total of 744 health maintenance organization beneficiaries were found to satisfy the study selection criteria. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the incremental influence of selected demographic, clinical, financial and provider characteristics on health service expenditures related to the treatment of depression (ICD-9-CM, or DSM-IV code 296.2) 1 year after the start of antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Multivariate findings indicate that treatment with paroxetine increases average expenditures for physician visits ($31.93; P < or = 0.05), psychiatric visits ($19.33; NS), laboratory tests ($2.35; P < or = 0.05), hospitalizations ($85.33; P < or = 0.05), psychiatric hospitalizations ($82.01; P < or = 0.05), and antidepressant pharmacotherapy ($63.72; P < or = 0.05), for a total per capita increase in health service use of $284.68 (P < or = 0.05), compared with treatment with fluoxetine. Sertraline treatment increases average expenditures for physician visits ($21.74; P < or = 0.05), psychiatric visits ($56.79; P < or = 0.05), laboratory tests ($1.21; P < or = 0.05), hospitalizations ($70.59; P < or = 0.05), psychiatric hospitalizations ($95.75; P < or = 0.05), and antidepressant pharmacotherapy ($69.85; P < or = 0.05), for a total per capita increase in health service use of $315.96 (P < or = 0.05), compared with treatment with fluoxetine. Economic comparisons between paroxetine and sertraline did not demonstrate any significant differences in expenditures for the health services

  16. Promoting child passenger safety in children served by a health maintenance organization.

    PubMed

    Chang, A; Hearey, C D; Gallagher, K D; English, P; Chang, P C

    1989-06-01

    A patient education program, based on the health belief model, promoting child passenger safety was developed and implemented at a health maintenance organization. The program included individual counseling by pediatricians, use of audiovisual materials and pamphlets, and (for newborn infants) a home visit by a child safety specialist. Based on parking lot observations, child safety device use increased to greater than 60% in both intervention and comparison-group children 1-4 years of age. During the child health supervision visit, pediatricians can play a leadership role in promoting child passenger safety. PMID:10293483

  17. Health maintenance organizations: critical issues raised by restructuring delivery for health systems reform.

    PubMed

    Gold, M

    1993-10-01

    In sum, the potential that managed care will grow under health systems reform creates an opportunity for the HMO industry but also serves as a challenge and a threat. Faced with greater scrutiny and growing demands, HMOs increasingly are being forced to demonstrate their potential and live up to their expectation. At the same time, the changing nature of the health care system creates a challenge for HMOs. Cost pressures create needs to review the entire delivery system, including the ambulatory component, with a focus on enhancing cost-effectiveness. Greater visibility also creates demands; growing market penetration argues for the creation of a new paradigm to define an appropriate structure for public accountability and management. Finally, the transformation of an HMO industry into a managed care industry is not without its risks as HMO performance becomes evaluated not only against itself but as part of the performance of the broader managed care industry in which HMOs have become embedded. PMID:10128419

  18. Health maintenance organizations: structure, performance, and current issues for employee health benefits design.

    PubMed

    Gold, M

    1991-03-01

    After summarizing the origins and key principles of HMOs, including the current characteristics of the HMO industry, this article reviews the evidence of HMO performance in the areas of benefits design, utilization and cost effectiveness, quality of care and consumer satisfaction, and selection and overall employer satisfaction. Outstanding issues and concerns, from the perspective of employee health benefits design, include issues such as assuring a fair price for HMO benefits, employer contribution methods, HMO diversification, and cost escalation and the search for value. Results of research studies have been generally positive about HMO performance on benefits, cost effectiveness, quality, and consumer satisfaction, and more mixed on employer satisfaction. As employers address concerns, some changes are likely in the methods used to integrate HMOs into a health benefits strategy. Because the issues involved in these changes are numerous and complex, careful consideration and design are desirable to assure that the net impact of any change is positive and consistent with overall goals. PMID:1903152

  19. The role of non-governmental organizations in the social and the health system.

    PubMed

    Piotrowicz, Maria; Cianciara, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the definitions, objectives, fields and tasks of non-governmental organizations in social life, health system and health policy. In addition, the article addresses the issue of effectiveness and quality of NGOs' activity. The term "NGOs" (Non-governmental Organizations) includes different categories of entities that operate not to obtain financial gain, and also do not belong to the government sector. Non-governmental Organizations' fields of activity were described in the International Classification of Non-Profit Organizations (ICNPO). NGOs are an integral part of a democratic society. Sociological sciences emphasize their importance in enhancing social integration, implementation of the principle of subsidiarity, building civil society, social dialogue and participatory democracy. The main tasks of NGOs in the health system are providing services and health advocacy. Provision of services includes medical, social and psychological services as well as, integration activities, care and nursing, material and financial support, educational and information services and training. Health advocacy is a combination of individual and social actions designed to gain political commitment, policy support, social acceptance and systems support for a particular health goal or program. An important task carried out by NGOs is participation in the formation of health policy. The increasing role of NGOs in providing social services and the participation in political processes, result in the need to confirm the validity and credibility of their operation. One of the ways could be to introduce the mechanisms to assess quality and efficiency, such as registration as a part of a legal system, self-regulatory activities (card rules, codes of ethics), certification, participation in networks, monitoring and audit. PMID:23745379

  20. A quiet revolution in global public health: The World Health Organization's Prequalification of Medicines Programme.

    PubMed

    't Hoen, Ellen F M; Hogerzeil, Hans V; Quick, Jonathan D; Sillo, Hiiti B

    2014-05-01

    Problems with the quality of medicines abound in countries where regulatory and legal oversight are weak, where medicines are unaffordable to most, and where the official supply often fails to reach patients. Quality is important to ensure effective treatment, to maintain patient and health-care worker confidence in treatment, and to prevent the development of resistance. In 2001, the WHO established the Prequalification of Medicines Programme in response to the need to select good-quality medicines for UN procurement. Member States of the WHO had requested its assistance in assessing the quality of low-cost generic medicines that were becoming increasingly available especially in treatments for HIV/AIDS. From a public health perspective, WHO PQP's greatest achievement is improved quality of life-saving medicines used today by millions of people in developing countries. Prequalification has made it possible to believe that everyone in the world will have access to safe, effective, and affordable medicines. Yet despite its track record and recognized importance to health, funding for the programme remains uncertain. PMID:24430804

  1. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... percent of the minimum net worth amount is not met by cash or cash equivalents. (3) Health care delivery... depreciated value of health care delivery assets (HCDAs) to satisfy the minimum net worth amount. (4) Other assets. A PSO may apply other assets not used in the delivery of health care provided that those...

  2. Alternative dispute resolution: methods to address workplace conflict in health services organizations.

    PubMed

    DeSouza, J R

    1998-01-01

    As healthcare organizations become increasingly complex, healthcare administrators and human resource managers face the cost and challenges of employment-related disputes. Litigation and legal costs associated with employment disputes are escalating at a significant rate. Additionally, litigation procedures are drawn out and damage the employer-employee relationship. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) programs such as mediation and arbitration alleviate the burden of litigation and preserve positive employment relationships between the organization and its employees. A proposed ADR program is presented is a guideline for health services organizations considering the adoption of such programs. PMID:10182933

  3. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations' expectations for transfusion medicine in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Belanger, A C

    1999-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations' standards related to transfusion medicine found in its hospital, laboratory, and home care accreditation manuals. Hospital standards focus on the review and evaluation of the entire transfusion process from the order through the outcome to the patient, with special attention to the blood use review process. Laboratory standards provide the structure for the detailed review of the technical procedures and practices for collecting, processing, storing, testing, and transporting blood products. Home care standards relate to policies and procedures, infection control practices, education of the patient and family, and monitoring of adverse events and complications for transfusions of blood products performed in the home. PMID:10383795

  4. Research-based-decision-making in Canadian health organizations: a behavioural approach.

    PubMed

    Jbilou, Jalila; Amara, Nabil; Landry, Réjean

    2007-06-01

    Decision making in Health sector is affected by a several elements such as economic constraints, political agendas, epidemiologic events, managers' values and environment... These competing elements create a complex environment for decision making. Research-Based-Decision-Making (RBDM) offers an opportunity to reduce the generated uncertainty and to ensure efficacy and efficiency in health administrations. We assume that RBDM is dependant on decision makers' behaviour and the identification of the determinants of this behaviour can help to enhance research results utilization in health sector decision making. This paper explores the determinants of RBDM as a personal behaviour among managers and professionals in health administrations in Canada. From the behavioural theories and the existing literature, we build a model measuring "RBDM" as an index based on five items. These items refer to the steps accomplished by a decision maker while developing a decision which is based on evidence. The determinants of RBDM behaviour are identified using data collected from 942 health care decision makers in Canadian health organizations. Linear regression is used to model the behaviour RBDM. Determinants of this behaviour are derived from Triandis Theory and Bandura's construct "self-efficacy." The results suggest that to improve research use among managers in Canadian governmental health organizations, strategies should focus on enhancing exposition to evidence through facilitating communication networks, partnerships and links between researchers and decision makers, with the key long-term objective of developing a culture that supports and values the contribution that research can make to decision making in governmental health organizations. Nevertheless, depending on the organizational level, determinants of RBDM are different. This difference has to be taken into account if RBDM adoption is desired. Decision makers in Canadian health organizations (CHO) can help to build

  5. Health-related quality of life in pediatric patients with functional and organic gastrointestinal diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our study was to compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and organic gastrointestinal (GI) diseases with an age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-matched healthy sample across GI diagnostic groups and with one ...

  6. Association between organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming among Canadian public health organizations

    PubMed Central

    Hanusaik, Nancy; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Kishchuk, Natalie; Maximova, Katerina; O’Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the emerging field of public health services and systems research, this study (i) tested a model of the relationships between public health organizational capacity (OC) for chronic disease prevention, its determinants (organizational supports for evaluation, partnership effectiveness) and one possible outcome of OC (involvement in core chronic disease prevention practices) and (ii) examined differences in the nature of these relationships among organizations operating in more and less facilitating external environments. OC was conceptualized as skills and resources/supports for chronic disease prevention programming. Data were from a census of 210 Canadian public health organizations with mandates for chronic disease prevention. The hypothesized relationships were tested using structural equation modeling. Overall, the results supported the model. Organizational supports for evaluation accounted for 33% of the variance in skills. Skills and resources/supports were directly and strongly related to involvement. Organizations operating within facilitating external contexts for chronic disease prevention had more effective partnerships, more resources/supports, stronger skills and greater involvement in core chronic disease prevention practices. Results also suggested that organizations functioning in less facilitating environments may not benefit as expected from partnerships. Empirical testing of this conceptual model helps develop a better understanding of public health OC. PMID:25361958

  7. Between the Local and the Global: Organized Research Units and International Collaborations in the Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, Creso M.; Oleksiyenko, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    Organized research units--also known as centers, institutes, and laboratories--are increasingly prominent in the university. This paper examines how ORUs emerge to promote global agendas and international collaborations in an academic health center in North America. The roles these units play in helping researchers work across institutional and…

  8. Experiences in Rural Mental Health II: Organizing a Low Budget Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, William G.; And Others

    Based on a North Carolina feasibility study (1967-73) which focused on development of a pattern for providing comprehensive mental health services to rural people, this second program guide deals with organization of a low-income program budget. Presenting the basic assumptions utilized in the development of a low-budget program in Franklin and…

  9. The Camp Health Manual. An Excellent Reference Written Especially for Organized Camps. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldring, David; Middelkamp, J. Neal

    This book is a guide to the diagnosis and care of sick children in organized camping situations. This book presents health care information for the management of medical and surgical problems by the camp counselor, camp director, camp nurse, and camp physician. The chapters are: (1) Camp Standards; (2) The Infirmary; (3) Infirmary Supplies; (4)…

  10. The Management of Low Vision in Children: Report of the 1992 World Health Organization Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, A. B.; Corn, A. L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of presentations and discussion from a World Health Organization meeting of experienced low vision practitioners. It outlines the magnitude of the problem; current status of low vision care; enhancement of the use of vision; and recommendations in definitions, identification, assessment, low vision centers, education,…

  11. Health Care, Heal Thyself! An Exploration of What Drives (and Sustains) High Performance in Organizations Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Jason A.

    2008-01-01

    What happens when researching the radical unveils the simplest of solutions? This article tells the story of the 2007 ISPI Annual Conference Encore Presentation, Healthcare, Heal Thyself, sharing the findings of an exploration into high-performance health care facilities and their relevance to all organizations today. It shows how to overcome…

  12. Assessing the World Health Organization's Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test among Incarcerated Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Schilling, Robert; Ivanoff, Andre; Chen, Duan-Rung; Hanson, Meredith

    1998-01-01

    Describes the results of administering the World Health Organization's Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to 400 incarcerated drug-using women. Reports on AUDIT's utility, validity, and reliability. Results demonstrate that AUDIT can be used to identify problem drinkers among incarcerated, drug-using women. (MKA)

  13. 76 FR 37817 - Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... levels, across the full length of the food-production chain, in order to reduce significantly the... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses in Support of Strategies That Address Food Safety Problems That...

  14. 76 FR 7216 - National Institutes of Health Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ...) provide, in coordination with other NIH organizations, training on portfolio analysis tools, procedures... Delegations of Authority for the Department of Health and Human Services (40 FR 22859, May 27, 1975, as amended most recently at 66 FR 6617, January 22, 2001, and redesignated from Part HN as Part N at 60...

  15. Reproducibility of the World Health Organization 2008 criteria for myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Senent, Leonor; Arenillas, Leonor; Luño, Elisa; Ruiz, Juan C.; Sanz, Guillermo; Florensa, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    The reproducibility of the World Health Organization 2008 classification for myelodysplastic syndromes is uncertain and its assessment was the major aim of this study. The different peripheral blood and bone marrow variables required for an adequate morphological classification were blindly evaluated by four cytomorphologists in samples from 50 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. The degree of agreement among observers was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient and the generalized kappa statistic for multiple raters. The degree of agreement for the percentages of blasts in bone marrow and peripheral blood, ring sideroblasts in bone marrow, and erythroid, granulocytic and megakaryocytic dysplastic cells was strong (P<0.001 in all instances). After stratifying the percentages according to the categories required for the assignment of World Health Organization subtypes, the degree of agreement was not statistically significant for cases with 5-9% blasts in bone marrow (P=0.07), 0.1-1% blasts in peripheral blood (P=0.47), or percentage of erythroid dysplastic cells (P=0.49). Finally, the interobserver concordance for World Health Organization-defined subtypes showed a moderate overall agreement (P<0.001), the reproducibility being lower for cases with refractory anemia with excess of blasts type 1 (P=0.05) and refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (P=0.09). In conclusion, the reproducibility of the World Health Organization 2008 classification for myelodysplastic syndromes is acceptable but the defining criteria for blast cells and features of erythroid dysplasia need to be refined. PMID:23065505

  16. How Community Organizations Promote Continuity of Care for Young People with Mental Health Problems.

    PubMed

    Polgar, Michael F; Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Morrissey, Joseph P

    2016-04-01

    Young people between the ages of 16 and 25 who experience mental health problems experience transitions and need help from a variety of organizations. Organizations promote continuity of care by assisting young adults with developmental, service, and systemic transitions. Providers offer specific services to help transitions and also form cooperative relationships with other community organizations. Results from a survey of 100 service providers in one community describe organizational attributes and practices which are associated with continuity of care in a regional system for young adults. Data analyses show that full-service organizations which practice cultural competence offer more specific services that foster continuity of care. Larger, full-service organizations are also more likely to have more extensive and collaborative inter-organizational networks that help young adults continue care over time within the regional system of care. PMID:24833485

  17. Safety subcultures in health-care organizations and managing medical error.

    PubMed

    Sirriyeh, Reema; Lawton, Rebecca; Armitage, Gerry; Gardner, Peter; Ferguson, Sally

    2012-02-01

    Leadership has been proposed as a key latent factor influencing the safety culture of an organization, the likelihood of errors occurring and the way in which these are managed. Therefore, when an error occurs, managers have an integral role to ensure that the most desirable outcomes are achieved for patients, health-care staff and their organization. Semistructured interviews were conducted in a large UK teaching hospital to explore the perspectives of staff who are tasked in some way with managing patient safety. Data from 26 transcripts were analysed using an adapted version of Spencer's (2003) qualitative framework, which revealed five primary themes. This paper reports findings from two overarching primary themes, described as being management and safety subcultures. These themes describe experiences of managing medical errors and the subgroup variations between professions, ranks and specialties in attitudes and behaviours towards error, and its management in a large National Health Service Trust. We discuss implications for health-care managers and health professionals in developing a stronger and more unified safety culture in their organizations, along with considerations for academic researchers when undertaking health services research. PMID:22323667

  18. Organization and Finance of China's Health Sector: Historical Antecedents for Macroeconomic Structural Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Hilsenrath, Peter

    2016-01-01

    China has exploded onto the world economy over the past few decades and is undergoing rapid transformation toward relatively more services. The health sector is an important part of this transition. This article provides a historical account of the development of health care in China since 1949. It also focuses on health insurance and macroeconomic structural adjustment to less saving and more consumption. In particular, the question of how health insurance impacts precautionary savings is considered. Multivariate analysis using data from 1990 to 2012 is employed. The household savings rate is the dependent variable in 3 models segmented for rural and urban populations. Independent variables include out-of-pocket health expenditures, health insurance payouts, housing expenditure, education expenditure, and consumption as a share of gross domestic product (GDP). Out-of-pocket health expenditures were positively correlated with household savings rates. But health insurance remains weak, and increased payouts by health insurers have not been associated with lower levels of household savings so far. Housing was positively correlated, whereas education had a negative association with savings rates. This latter finding was unexpected. Perhaps education is perceived as investment and a substitute for savings. China's shift toward a more service-oriented economy includes growing dependence on the health sector. Better health insurance is an important part of this evolution. The organization and finance of health care is integrally linked with macroeconomic policy in an environment constrained by prevailing institutional convention. Problems of agency relationships, professional hegemony, and special interest politics feature prominently, as they do elsewhere. China also has a dual approach to medicine relying heavily on providers of traditional Chinese medicine. Both of these segments will take part in China's evolution, adding another layer of complexity to policy. PMID

  19. A comparative study of production performance and animal health practices in organic and conventional dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fagundes, Gisele M; Soares, João P G; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Muir, James P

    2014-10-01

    Health and production management strategies influence environmental impacts of dairies. The objective of this paper was to measure risk factors on health and production parameters on six organic and conventional bovine, caprine, and ovine dairy herds in southeastern Brazil over six consecutive years (2006-2011). The organic operations had lower milk production per animal (P ≤ 0.05), lower calf mortality (P ≤ 0.05), less incidence of mastitis (P ≤ 0.05), fewer rates of spontaneous abortions (P ≤ 0.05), and reduced ectoparasite loads (P ≤ 0.05) compared to conventional herds and flocks. Organic herds, however, had greater prevalence of internal parasitism (P ≤ 0.05) than conventional herds. In all management systems, calves, kids, and lambs had greater oocyte counts than adults. However, calves in the organic group showed lower prevalence of coccidiosis. In addition, animals in the organic system exhibited lower parasitic resistance to anthelmintics. Herd genetic potential, nutritive value of forage, feed intake, and pasture parasite loads, however, may have influenced productive and health parameters. Thus, although conventional herds showed greater milk production and less disease prevalence, future research might quantify the potential implications of these unreported factors. PMID:25015183

  20. Reducing health risk assigned to organic emissions from a chemical weapons incinerator.

    PubMed

    Laman, David M; Weiler, B Douglas; Skeen, Rodney S

    2013-03-01

    Organic emissions from a chemical weapons incinerator have been characterized with an improved set of analytical methods to reduce the human health risk assigned to operations of the facility. A gas chromatography/mass selective detection method with substantially reduced detection limits has been used in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared microscopy to improve the speciation of semi-volatile and non-volatile organics emitted from the incinerator. The reduced detection limits have allowed a significant reduction in the assumed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and aminobiphenyl (ABP) emission rates used as inputs to the human health risk assessment for the incinerator. A mean factor of 17 decrease in assigned human health risk is realized for six common local exposure scenarios as a result of the reduced PAH and ABP detection limits. PMID:22773143

  1. Commentary: Change we must: putting patients first with the institute model of academic health center organization.

    PubMed

    Young, James B; Cosgrove, Delos M

    2012-05-01

    In the traditional department-based organizational structure of an academic health center, patients can be neglected as a result of fragmented systems of care. Specialty-driven, provider-oriented, economically influenced organizations dominated by research and education missions might, paradoxically, promote too little concern for the patient. All three components (education, research, and patient care) of academic health centers' tripartite mission are sacred, but times have changed. Academic health centers must rethink their traditional approach to achieving their mission. The authors describe the evolution at the Cleveland Clinic of a unique, institute-based reorganization that is focused on integrated disease- and organ-system-based patient care, research, and education. The authors argue that this model better focuses on the patient as well as on the institution's academic charge. It is a concept that should be more widely adopted with deference to individual institutional culture and history. PMID:22531586

  2. Evaluation of a randomized intervention to increase adoption of comparative effectiveness research by community health organizations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jessica Roberts; Williams, Weston O; Dusablon, Tracy; Blais, Marissa Puckett; Tregear, Stephen J; Banks, Duren; PhD, Kevin D Hennessy

    2014-07-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined the influence of two strategies (informational packets alone and in conjunction with Webinars) aimed at increasing the adoption of motivational interviewing (MI), a patient-centered behavioral health practice supported by evidence from comparative effectiveness studies, among community health organizations responsible for delivering mental and behavioral health services. Data were obtained from 311 directors and staff across 92 community organizations. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine changes in decision to adopt MI. The mediating effects of multiple contextual variables were also examined. Results showed that both strategies positively influenced the decision to adopt. The positive impact on decision to adopt was significantly greater among individuals that received informational packets in conjunction with Webinars. Baseline attitudes toward evidence-based practices and pressures for change appeared to mediate this effect. PMID:24091611

  3. Applying Community Organizing Principles to Assess Health Needs in New Haven, Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Santilli, Alycia; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-05-01

    The Affordable Care Act added requirements for nonprofit hospitals to conduct community health needs assessments. Guidelines are minimal; however, they require input and representation from the broader community. This call echoes 2 decades of literature on the importance of including community members in all aspects of research design, a tenet of community organizing. We describe a community-engaged research approach to a community health needs assessment in New Haven, Connecticut. We demonstrate that a robust community organizing approach provided unique research benefits: access to residents for data collection, reliable data, leverage for community-driven interventions, and modest improvements in behavioral risk. We make recommendations for future community-engaged efforts and workforce development, which are important for responding to increasing calls for community health needs assessments. PMID:26985599

  4. A resource-based view of partnership strategies in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Yarbrough, Amy K; Powers, Thomas L

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of management structures in health care has been shifting from independent ownership to interorganizational relationships with other firms. A shortage of resources has been cited as one cause for such collaboration among health care entities. The resource- based view of the firm suggests that organizations differentiate between strategic alliances and acquisition strategies based on a firm's internal resources and the types of resources a potential partner organization possesses. This paper provides a review of the literature using the resource-based theory of the firm to understand what conditions foster different types of health care partnerships. A model of partnership alliances using the resource-based view is presented, strategic linkages are presented, managerial implications are outlined, and directions for future research are given. PMID:17062534

  5. Improving Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Health: National Organizations Leading Community Research Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Weir, Rosy Chang; Ro, Margeurite; Ko, Kathy Lim; Panapasa, Sela; Bautista, Roxanna; Asato, Lloyd; Chung, Corina; Cabllero, Jeffery; Islam, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Background Functionally, many CBPR projects operate through a model of academic partners providing research expertise and community partners playing a supporting role. Objectives To demonstrate how national umbrella organizations deeply rooted in communities, cognizant of community needs, and drawing on the insights and assets of community partners, can lead efforts to address health disparities affecting their constituents through research. Methods Case studies of two Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander national organizations Results Strategically engaging a diverse range of partners and securing flexible funding mechanisms that support research were important facilitators. Main challenges included limited interest of local community organizations whose primary missions as service or health care providers may deprioritize research. Conclusions Efforts to make research relevant to the work of community partners and to instill the value of research in community partners, as well as flexible funding mechanisms, may help to promote community-driven research. PMID:22643786

  6. A new approach to optimal selection of services in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Adolphson, D L; Baird, M L; Lawrence, K D

    1991-01-01

    A new reimbursement policy adopted by Medicare in 1983 caused financial difficulties for many hospitals and health care organizations. Several organizations responded to these difficulties by developing systems to carefully measure their costs of providing services. The purpose of such systems was to provide relevant information about the profitability of hospital services. This paper presents a new method of making hospital service selection decisions: it is based on an optimization model that avoids arbitrary cost allocations as a basis for computing the costs of offering a given service. The new method provides more reliable information about which services are profitable or unprofitable, and it provides an accurate measure of the degree to which a service is profitable or unprofitable. The new method also provides useful information about the sensitivity of the optimal decision to changes in costs and revenues. Specialized algorithms for the optimization model lead to very efficient implementation of the method, even for the largest health care organizations. PMID:10111676

  7. A retrospective evaluation of the Perfecting Patient Care University training program for health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Morganti, Kristy Gonzalez; Lovejoy, Susan; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Haviland, Amelia M; Haas, Ann C; Farley, Donna O

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated how the Perfecting Patient Care (PPC) University, a quality improvement (QI) training program for health care leaders and clinicians, affected the ability of organizations to improve the health care they provide. This training program teaches improvement methods based on Lean concepts and principles of the Toyota Production System and is offered in several formats. A retrospective evaluation was performed that gathered data on training, other process factors, and outcomes after staff completed the PPC training. A majority of respondents reported gaining QI competencies and cultural achievements from the training. Organizations had high average scores for the success measures of "outcomes improved" and "sustainable monitoring" but lower scores for diffusion of QI efforts. Total training dosage was significantly associated with the measures of QI success. This evaluation provides evidence that organizations gained the PPC competencies and cultural achievements and that training dosage is a driver of QI success. PMID:23572230

  8. 42 CFR 86.31 - Eligibility; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....31 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.31 Eligibility; minimum requirements....

  9. Marketing the health care experience: eight steps to infuse brand essence into your organization.

    PubMed

    Lofgren, Diane Gage; Rhodes, Sonia; Miller, Todd; Solomon, Jared

    2006-01-01

    One of the most elusive challenges in health care marketing is hitting on a strategy to substantially differentiate your organization in the community and drive profitable business. This article describes how Sharp HealthCare, the largest integrated health care delivery system in San Diego, has proven that focusing first on improving the health care experience for patients, physicians, and employees can provide the impetus for a vital marketing strategy that can lead to increased market share and net revenue. Over the last five years, this nonprofit health system has transformed the health care experience into tangible actions that are making a difference in the lives of all those the system serves. That difference has become Sharp's "brand essence"--a promise to the community that has been made through marketing, public relations, and advertising and then delivered through the dedicated work of Sharp's 14,000 team members. They call this performance improvement strategy The Sharp Experience. This article outlines the eight-step journey that led the organization to this brand essence marketing campaign, a campaign whose centerpiece is an award-winning 30-minute television documentary that use real-time patient stories to demonstrate Sharp's focus on service and patient-centered care against a backdrop of clinical quality and state-of-the-art technology, and documentary-style radio and television commercials. PMID:18681201

  10. Using organization theory to understand the determinants of effective implementation of worksite health promotion programs.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Bryan J; Lewis, Megan A; Linnan, Laura A

    2009-04-01

    The field of worksite health promotion has moved toward the development and testing of comprehensive programs that target health behaviors with interventions operating at multiple levels of influence. Yet, observational and process evaluation studies indicate that such programs are challenging for worksites to implement effectively. Research has identified several organizational factors that promote or inhibit effective implementation of comprehensive worksite health promotion programs. However, no integrated theory of implementation has emerged from this research. This article describes a theory of the organizational determinants of effective implementation of comprehensive worksite health promotion programs. The model is adapted from theory and research on the implementation of complex innovations in manufacturing, education and health care settings. The article uses the Working Well Trial to illustrate the model's theoretical constructs. Although the article focuses on comprehensive worksite health promotion programs, the conceptual model may also apply to other types of complex health promotion programs. An organization-level theory of the determinants of effective implementation of worksite health promotion programs. PMID:18469319

  11. The power of servant leadership to transform health care organizations for the 21st-century economy.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Richard W; Tumblin, Thomas F

    2002-12-01

    Physician leadership is emerging as a vital component in transforming the nation's health care industry. Because few physicians have been introduced to the large body of literature on leadership and organizations, we herein provide a concise review, as this literature relates to competitive health care organizations and the leaders who serve them. Although the US health care industry has transitioned to a dynamic market economy governed by a wide range of internal and external forces, health care organizations continue to be dominated by leaders who practice an outmoded transactional style of leadership and by organizational hierarchies that are inherently stagnant. In contrast, outside the health care sector, service industries have repeatedly demonstrated that transformational, situational, and servant leadership styles are most successful in energizing human resources within organizations. This optimization of intellectual capital is further enhanced by transforming organizations into adaptable learning organizations where traditional institutional hierarchies are flattened and efforts to evoke change are typically team driven and mission oriented. PMID:12470112

  12. Faith-based organizations and the Affordable Care Act: Reducing Latino mental health care disparities.

    PubMed

    Villatoro, Alice P; Dixon, Elizabeth; Mays, Vickie M

    2016-02-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; 2010) is expected to increase access to mental health care through provisions aimed at increasing health coverage among the nation's uninsured, including 10.2 million eligible Latino adults. The ACA will increase health coverage by expanding Medicaid eligibility to individuals living below 138% of the federal poverty level, subsidizing the purchase of private insurance among individuals not eligible for Medicaid, and requiring employers with 50 or more employees to offer health insurance. An anticipated result of this landmark legislation is improvement in the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders in racial/ethnic minorities, particularly for Latinos, who traditionally have had less access to these services. However, these efforts alone may not sufficiently ameliorate mental health care disparities for Latinos. Faith-based organizations (FBOs) could play an integral role in the mental health care of Latinos by increasing help seeking, providing religion-based mental health services, and delivering supportive services that address common access barriers among Latinos. Thus, in determining ways to eliminate Latino mental health care disparities under the ACA, examining pathways into care through the faith-based sector offers unique opportunities to address some of the cultural barriers confronted by this population. We examine how partnerships between FBOs and primary care patient-centered health homes may help reduce the gap of unmet mental health needs among Latinos in this era of health reform. We also describe the challenges FBOs and primary care providers need to overcome to be partners in integrated care efforts. PMID:26845492

  13. 2011 Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows Arctic sea ice from March 7, 2011, to Sept. 9, 2011, ending with a comparison of the 30-year average minimum extent, shown in yellow, and the Northwest Passage, in red. (no audio) ...

  14. Infant Oral Health Knowledge and Awareness: Disparity among Pregnant Women and Mothers visiting a Government Health Care Organization

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anup

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The present study is designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of pregnant women and mothers about feeding habits and infant oral health. Materials and methods: A total of 230 study subjects were divided into two groups: Group A included pregnant women and group B were mothers of child up to 1 year of age. Each group comprised of 170 subjects. A self-administered questionnaire comprising of total 23 questions on infant feeding practices, nocturnal bottle feeding, correct age of eruption of first teeth and first dental visit. Two separate questionnaires were framed for both the groups. Results: There was a lack of knowledge among both the groups about infant feeding and weaning. Nocturnal bottle feeding was more prevalent. Conclusion: The present study reflects a need for maternal counseling on infant oral health. How to cite this article: Nagaraj A, Pareek S. Infant Oral Health Knowledge and Awareness: Disparity among Pregnant Women and Mothers visiting a Government Health Care Organization. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):167-172. PMID:25206162

  15. School Desegregation With Minimum Busing: A Report to the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, George E.; Krasnakevich, John

    This analysis is designed to provide Health, Education and Welfare and local school officials with a more objective and uniform assessment of desegregation problems in specific districts in the United States. To carry out the study, Lambda Corporation designed and implemented an analysis procedure for systematically assigning students to schools.…

  16. 45 CFR 156.145 - Determination of minimum value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of minimum value. 156.145 Section... EXCHANGES Essential Health Benefits Package § 156.145 Determination of minimum value. (a) Acceptable methods for determining MV. An employer-sponsored plan provides minimum value (MV) if the percentage of...

  17. Increasing access to care for cultural and linguistic minorities: ethnicity-specific health care organizations and infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joshua S; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie

    2007-08-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in health care have been attributed in part to cultural and linguistic dissonance between certain patient populations and the health care system. Yet in the long term, structural solutions for ameliorating health care disparities have not been forthcoming. One strategy for increasing access to care for cultural and linguistic minorities is ethnicity-specific subsystems of care. The historical experiences of the Chinese community in San Francisco are used to reconstruct the evolution of its ethnicity-specific health care infrastructure and to create an organizational development model for ethnicity-specific health care organizations and infrastructures. The four stages of the model include developing and recruiting a bicultural and bilingual health care workforce, structuring health care resources for maximum accessibility, expanding health care organizations, and integrating ethnicity-specific health care resources into the mainstream health care system. Policy recommendations to develop ethnicity-specific subsystems of care are presented. PMID:17675712

  18. The management of health and safety hazards in tourist resorts. World Tourism Organization.

    PubMed

    Phillip, R; Hodgkinson, G

    1994-01-01

    The enjoyment of a holiday has to do with landscape, buildings, people, and their activities. For truly sustainable development, these components need to become better integrated. Ways of achieving this were discussed at the IVth World Health Organization International Conference on Tourist Health, Rimini, Italy, in May 1994. It was agreed that attention to the health enhancing aspects of each component in the built environment is essential. Risks to health from man-made hazards in tourist resorts therefore need to be eliminated where possible, or otherwise minimised, contained or controlled. A systematic approach is outlined here in which owners, managers, operators, workers and users all have responsibilities and in which occupational physicians can contribute. PMID:7842235

  19. Community-based prevention marketing: organizing a community for health behavior intervention.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Carol A; Brown, Kelli R McCormack; McDermott, Robert J; Forthofer, Melinda S; Bumpus, Elizabeth C; Calkins, Susan A; Zapata, Lauren B

    2007-04-01

    This article describes the application and refinement of community-based prevention marketing (CBPM), an example of community-based participatory research that blends social marketing theories and techniques and community organization principles to guide voluntary health behavior change. The Florida Prevention Research Center has worked with a community coalition in Sarasota County, Florida to define locally important health problems and issues and to develop responsive health-promotion interventions. The CBPM framework has evolved as academic and community-based researchers have gained experience applying it. Community boards can use marketing principles to design evidence-based strategies for addressing local public health concerns. Based on 6 years of experience with the "Believe in All Your Possibilities" program, lessons learned that have led to revision and improvement of the CBPM framework are described. PMID:16923844

  20. Strengthening health systems in poor countries: a code of conduct for nongovernmental organizations.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, James; Johnson, Wendy; Fort, Meredith; Shakow, Aaron; Hagopian, Amy; Gloyd, Steve; Gimbel-Sherr, Kenneth

    2008-12-01

    The challenges facing efforts in Africa to increase access to antiretroviral HIV treatment underscore the urgent need to strengthen national health systems across the continent. However, donor aid to developing countries continues to be disproportionately channeled to international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) rather than to ministries of health. The rapid proliferation of NGOs has provoked "brain drain" from the public sector by luring workers away with higher salaries, fragmentation of services, and increased management burdens for local authorities in many countries. Projects by NGOs sometimes can undermine the strengthening of public primary health care systems. We argue for a return to a public focus for donor aid, and for NGOs to adopt a code of conduct that establishes standards and best practices for NGO relationships with public sector health systems. PMID:18923125

  1. Non-governmental organizations in international health: past successes, future challenges.

    PubMed

    Gellert, G A

    1996-01-01

    Non-governmental organizations, or NGOs, are increasingly instrumental to the implementation of international health programs. Following an overview of current conditions in global health and the problems that could be targeted by NGOs, this article describes the activities and philosophies of several representative approaches in this sector. The attributes of NGOs that increase their potential effectiveness are discussed, including ability to reach areas of severe need, promotion of local involvement, low cost of operations, adaptiveness and innovation, independence, and sustainability. A summary is provided of major future challenges in international health that may be addressed by NGOs, with particular emphasis on tobacco-related disease, communicable diseases and the AIDS epidemic, maternal mortality and women's health, injury prevention and control, and the need to secure durable financial support. PMID:10157062

  2. The organization and delivery of craniofacial health services: the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Strauss, R P

    1999-05-01

    The dominant organizational structure providing care for cleft palate and other craniofacial conditions is the health care team. Various types of health care team organization are profiled, including intradisciplinary, multidisciplinary, and interdisciplinary teams. Effective team-based care delivery has the ability to address the fragmentation and dehumanization that can result when a variety of specialists and disciplines are required to provide assessment and technical care. A team's leadership and its hierarchy of professional authority can be expected to affect its ability to function effectively. Health reform and managed care are considered for their impact on the team and on the doctor-patient relationship. Trends in team regionalization, quality assurance, outcomes research, and consumer advocacy are reviewed. The cleft palate and craniofacial team is profiled as an organizational model that is being affected by the forces of health system change. PMID:10342606

  3. Strengthening Health Systems in Poor Countries: A Code of Conduct for Nongovernmental Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Wendy; Fort, Meredith; Shakow, Aaron; Hagopian, Amy; Gloyd, Steve; Gimbel-Sherr, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    The challenges facing efforts in Africa to increase access to antiretroviral HIV treatment underscore the urgent need to strengthen national health systems across the continent. However, donor aid to developing countries continues to be disproportionately channeled to international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) rather than to ministries of health. The rapid proliferation of NGOs has provoked “brain drain” from the public sector by luring workers away with higher salaries, fragmentation of services, and increased management burdens for local authorities in many countries. Projects by NGOs sometimes can undermine the strengthening of public primary health care systems. We argue for a return to a public focus for donor aid, and for NGOs to adopt a code of conduct that establishes standards and best practices for NGO relationships with public sector health systems. PMID:18923125

  4. Health-related quality of life after solid organ transplantation: the role of sport activity.

    PubMed

    Cicognani, Elvira; Mazzoni, Davide; Totti, Valentina; Roi, Giulio Sergio; Mosconi, Giovanni; Nanni Costa, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of sport activity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of solid organ transplant recipients participating in sports competitions. A group of 168 sportive transplanted patients (STP), a group of 97 nonsportive transplanted patients (NSTP), and a group of 152 sportive healthy controls (SHC) were compared on the eight scales of the SF-36 questionnaire. STP and NSTP reported significantly lower scores than SHC on the physical functioning scale. STP did not differ from SHC in the Role-Physical, General Health, and Vitality scales, while NSTP reported significantly lower scores. STP obtained higher scores than NSTP and SHC on Mental Health. Among STP, the effect of quantity of sport activity was significant on General Health and Role Emotional, with more sport activity associated with higher HRQoL. Organ failure and post-transplant therapies may have negative consequences on HRQoL. Sports activities and participation in sports competitions can reduce this impact, improving general and psychological functioning of solid organ transplant recipients. PMID:25531821

  5. Lobbying and advocacy for the public's health: what are the limits for nonprofit organizations?

    PubMed Central

    Vernick, J S

    1999-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations play an important role in advocating for the public's health in the United States. This article describes the rules under US law for lobbying by nonprofit organizations. The 2 most common kinds of non-profits working to improve the public's health are "public charities" and "social welfare organizations." Although social welfare organizations may engage in relatively unlimited lobbying, public charities may not engage in "substantial" lobbying. Lobbying is divided into 2 main categories. Direct lobbying refers to communications with law-makers that take a position on specific legislation, and grassroots lobbying includes attempts to persuade members of the general public to take action regarding legislation. Even public charities may engage in some direct lobbying and a smaller amount of grassroots lobbying. Much public health advocacy, however, is not lobbying, since there are several important exceptions to the lobbying rules. These exceptions include "non-partisan analysis, study, or research" and discussions of broad social problems. Lobbying with federal or earmarked foundation funds is generally prohibited. PMID:10474565

  6. Through Mintzberg's glasses: a fresh look at the organization of ministries of health.

    PubMed Central

    Unger, J. P.; Macq, J.; Bredo, F.; Boelaert, M.

    2000-01-01

    In 1987, district health care policies were officially adopted by a majority of developing countries. Many operational problems constraining implementation of such policies have subsequently been identified, most of which are attributable to well-known characteristics of less developed countries. However, the policy of operational and administrative decentralization has often been critically obstructed by inappropriate organizational structures in ministries of health. By applying Mintzberg's analytical framework to several ministries of health, we identify structural deficiencies that make systems unfit to match their policy environment and yield the expected outcomes of functional and decentralized services. We propose a typology likely to elicit strategies for decentralizing health care administration. Our analysis is based on the following steps: a description of Mintzberg's concepts of organizational structure, generic components (strategic apex, technostructure, supporting structure, middle line, operational core) and functions (horizontal and vertical integration, liaison devices, vertical and horizontal decentralization) applied to health systems; a discussion of divisionalized adhocracy as a suitable configuration for health organizations with a need for a high degree of regional autonomy, community participation, medical staff initiative, action research and operational research, and continuous evaluation; a discussion of the organizational features of a number of health ministry systems and a consideration of strategies for transforming configurations towards divisionalized adhocracy. PMID:10994284

  7. 42 CFR 422.514 - Minimum enrollment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Application Procedures and Contracts for Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.514 Minimum enrollment requirements. (a) Basic rule. Except...

  8. Utilization of internal evaluation results by community mental health organizations: Credibility in different forms.

    PubMed

    Yusa, Anna; Hynie, Michaela; Mitchell, Scott

    2016-02-01

    Internal evaluations are numerous but the literature is largely focused on external evaluations. There have been few explorations of the factors affecting the use of findings from internal evaluations that are carried out by program staff in community organizations. This study examined the instrumental use of internal evaluation findings within 19 community mental health organizations in Ontario, Canada. All but one respondent reported instrumental use in their organization, using the evaluation findings to make program-related decisions. For these non-controversial programs, qualities such as the ability of internal evaluators to identify relevant information, their role/expertise within the organization and the consistency of evaluation findings with current understanding appeared to influence use more strongly than evaluator objectivity. PMID:26476859

  9. Considerations for Public Health Organizations Attempting to Implement a Social Media Presence: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In the past decade, social media has become an integral part of our everyday lives, but research on how this tool is used by public health workers and organizations is still developing. Budget cuts and staff reduction in county departments have required employees to take on more responsibilities. These reductions have caused a reduction in the time for training or collaborating with others in the field. To make up for the loss, many employees are seeking collaboration through social media sites but are unable to do so because state departments block these Internet sites. Objective This study sought to highlight the key considerations and decision-making process for a public health organization deciding whether to implement a social media presence for their organization. Methods Using 3 structured interviews, 15 stakeholders were questioned on their personal experience with social media, experience within the context of public health, and their thoughts on implementation for their center. Interviews were coded using constant comparative qualitative methods. Results The following themes emerged from the interviews: (1) personal experience with technology and social networking sites, (2) use of social networking sites in public health, (3) use of social networking sites in work environments, (4) social networking sites access, (5) ways the Rural South Public Health Training Center could use social networking sites, and (6) perceived outcomes of social networking site usage for the Rural South Public Health Training Center (positive and negative). Conclusions The collective voice of the center showed a positive perceived perception of social media implementation, with the benefits outweighing the risks. Despite the benefits, there is a cautious skepticism of the importance of social networking site use. PMID:27227160

  10. Hospitals and Health Maintenance Organizations: An Analysis of the Minneapolis-St. Paul Experience

    PubMed Central

    Morrisey, Michael A.; Gibson, Geoffrey; Ashby, Cynthia S.

    1983-01-01

    Minneapolis-St. Paul is recognized as a prime example of health care competition. Policymakers and others have been asked to look to the Twin Cities as a model upon which to base new competitive initiatives in the health care sector. Yet little is known about the impact of Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) on other health care providers. This study examines the effects of the area's seven health maintenance organizations on the local hospital community. Three questions are addressed. First, is the situation in the Twin Cities unique? A comparison of case study findings and the available literature together with hospital data from similarly HMO-penetrated markets suggests that the Twin Cities' hospital market is indeed different. Second, what is the nature of hospital-HMO interaction? The flexibility of contracting apparently allows hospitals to affiliate successfully with an HMO under a variety of service and reimbursement agreements. Third, what effect has HMO activity had on community-wide utilization? While HMO enrollees clearly use fewer hospital days and the trend in the community is toward fewer days, attributing the change to HMOs is difficult. A large portion of the differences between HMO and community-wide utilization levels is attributable to differences in population. PMID:10309856

  11. Who's in charge here anyway? Managing the management split in mental health organizations.

    PubMed

    Eilenberg, J; Townsend, E J; Oudens, E

    2000-05-01

    Most mental health organizations are run by chief executive officers (CEOs) who are not physicians, with medical directors reporting to the CEOs. In this article the historical and organizational origins of this arrangement are reviewed. The well known disadvantages of shared management are discussed, as are the less obvious advantages. Through case vignettes the authors illustrate how bifurcated leadership can promote productive and creative administrative decisions. Guidelines are offered for strengthening collaborations between non-medical and medical mental health program directors. PMID:10943015

  12. On the Nature and Strategies of Organized Interests in Health Care Policy Making

    PubMed Central

    Contandriopoulos, Damien

    2012-01-01

    Relying on a sweeping review of the literature on interest group influence in health care policy making, we propose a basic definition and a typology of interest groups in provincial health care policy making. Then, using Milbrath’s communication framework, we analyze organized interests’ strategies for influencing policy making. This article is a modest attempt to cross-fertilize the group theory and resource dependency literature. This theoretical framework allows us to explore many of the recurring questions about groups’ origins and strategies from an original standpoint. PMID:23087490

  13. Social health maintenance organizations' service use and costs, 1985-89

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Charlene; Newcomer, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Presented in this article are aggregate utilization and financial data from the four social health maintenance organization (SIHMO) demonstrations that were collected and analyzed as a part of the national evaluation of the SIHMO demonstration project conducted for the Health Care Financing Administration. The S/HMOs, in offering a $6,500 to $12,000 chronic care benefit in addition to the basic HMO benefit package, had higher startup costs and financial losses over the first 5 years than expected, and controlling costs continues to be a challenge to the sites and their sponsors. PMID:10113612

  14. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. II: live weight, health measures and perching.

    PubMed

    Steenfeldt, S; Nielsen, B L

    2015-09-01

    Multi-tier aviary systems, where conveyor belts below the tiers remove the manure at regular intervals, are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results on live weight, health measures and perching are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area, with concomitant increases in the number of hens per trough, drinker, perch and nest space. In a fourth treatment, access to the top tier was blocked reducing vertical, trough, and perch access at the lowest stocking density (D6x). In all other aspects than stocking density, the experiment followed the EU regulations on the keeping of organic laying hens. Hen live weight, mortality and foot health were not affected by the stocking densities used in the present study. Other variables (plumage condition, presence of breast redness and blisters, pecked tail feathers, and perch use) were indirectly affected by the increase in stocking density through the simultaneous reduction in access to other resources, mainly perches and troughs. The welfare of the hens was mostly affected by these associated constraints, despite all of them being within the allowed minimum requirements for organic production in the EU. Although the welfare consequences reported here were assessed to be moderate to minor, it is important to take into account concurrent constraints on access to other resources when higher stocking densities are used in organic production. PMID:25990629

  15. Decision maker perceptions of resource allocation processes in Canadian health care organizations: a national survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Resource allocation is a key challenge for healthcare decision makers. While several case studies of organizational practice exist, there have been few large-scale cross-organization comparisons. Methods Between January and April 2011, we conducted an on-line survey of senior decision makers within regional health authorities (and closely equivalent organizations) across all Canadian provinces and territories. We received returns from 92 individual managers, from 60 out of 89 organizations in total. The survey inquired about structures, process features, and behaviours related to organization-wide resource allocation decisions. We focus here on three main aspects: type of process, perceived fairness, and overall rating. Results About one-half of respondents indicated that their organization used a formal process for resource allocation, while the others reported that political or historical factors were predominant. Seventy percent (70%) of respondents self-reported that their resource allocation process was fair and just over one-half assessed their process as ‘good’ or ‘very good’. This paper explores these findings in greater detail and assesses them in context of the larger literature. Conclusion Data from this large-scale cross-jurisdictional survey helps to illustrate common challenges and areas of positive performance among Canada’s health system leadership teams. PMID:23819598

  16. An empirical determination of the minimum number of measurements needed to estimate the mean random vitrinite reflectance of disseminated organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, C.E.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    In coal samples, published recommendations based on statistical methods suggest 100 measurements are needed to estimate the mean random vitrinite reflectance (Rv-r) to within ??2%. Our survey of published thermal maturation studies indicates that those using dispersed organic matter (DOM) mostly have an objective of acquiring 50 reflectance measurements. This smaller objective size in DOM versus that for coal samples poses a statistical contradiction because the standard deviations of DOM reflectance distributions are typically larger indicating a greater sample size is needed to accurately estimate Rv-r in DOM. However, in studies of thermal maturation using DOM, even 50 measurements can be an unrealistic requirement given the small amount of vitrinite often found in such samples. Furthermore, there is generally a reduced need for assuring precision like that needed for coal applications. Therefore, a key question in thermal maturation studies using DOM is how many measurements of Rv-r are needed to adequately estimate the mean. Our empirical approach to this problem is to compute the reflectance distribution statistics: mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis in increments of 10 measurements. This study compares these intermediate computations of Rv-r statistics with a final one computed using all measurements for that sample. Vitrinite reflectance was measured on mudstone and sandstone samples taken from borehole M-25 in the Cerro Prieto, Mexico geothermal system which was selected because the rocks have a wide range of thermal maturation and a comparable humic DOM with depth. The results of this study suggest that after only 20-30 measurements the mean Rv-r is generally known to within 5% and always to within 12% of the mean Rv-r calculated using all of the measured particles. Thus, even in the worst case, the precision after measuring only 20-30 particles is in good agreement with the general precision of one decimal place recommended for mean Rv

  17. Health Advocacy Organizations and the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Analysis of Disclosure Practices

    PubMed Central

    Raveis, Victoria H.; Friedman, Anne; Rothman, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Health advocacy organizations (HAOs) are influential stakeholders in health policy. Although their advocacy tends to closely correspond with the pharmaceutical industry's marketing aims, the financial relationships between HAOs and the pharmaceutical industry have rarely been analyzed. We used Eli Lilly and Company's grant registry to examine its grant-giving policies. We also examined HAO Web sites to determine their grant-disclosure patterns. Only 25% of HAOs that received Lilly grants acknowledged Lilly's contributions on their Web sites, and only 10% acknowledged Lilly as a grant event sponsor. No HAO disclosed the exact amount of a Lilly grant. As highly trusted organizations, HAOs should disclose all corporate grants, including the purpose and the amount. Absent this disclosure, legislators, regulators, and the public cannot evaluate possible conflicts of interest or biases in HAO advocacy. PMID:21233424

  18. Ergonomic considerations loom large as hospitals and other health care organizations rapidly adopt IT tools.

    PubMed

    2013-03-01

    Unless hospitals and other health care organizations change course, they can expect to see a steep rise in repetitive strain injuries among providers related to the adoption of electronic medical record (EMR) systems and other IT tools, according to ergonomic experts.They urge hospital and ED administrators to consider how and where technology will be used when planning IT installations, and to take steps to ensure that workstations, mobile devices, and other IT tools are used properly, with minimal provider discomfort. Researchers queried 179 physicians about their computer use, finding that a majority of female physicians and more than 40% of male physicians were suffering from upper-body repetitive strain ailments on at least a weekly basis. Ergonomic experts say that hospitals and other health care organizations need to heed the missteps of other industries that computerized in the 1980s and 1990s, resulting in a flood of repetitive strain injuries. PMID:23479815

  19. Organizing, Educating, and Advocating for Health and Human Rights in Vieques, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Maria Idalí

    2005-01-01

    I briefly review the process of community organization, education, and advocacy activities that ended the harmful military practices in the island-municipality of Vieques, Puerto Rico, while drawing attention to the intersection of human rights and social justice in the context of local and global implications. The Viequense experience was one of building an organization based on people’s experiences and strengths, educating people to increase individual and collective efficacy and power, and advocating for policy change with an assertive cohesive action. Public health practitioners must continue supporting community-led interventions in the restoration of the island’s environment and other resources vital for people’s health and well-being. PMID:15623851

  20. Project TEACH: A Capacity-Building Training Program for Community-Based Organizations and Public Health Agencies.

    PubMed

    Sauaia, Angela; Tuitt, Nicole R; Kaufman, Carol E; Hunt, Cerise; Ledezma-Amorosi, Mariana; Byers, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Project TEACH (Teaching Equity to Advance Community Health) is a capacity-building training program to empower community-based organizations and regional public health agencies to develop data-driven, evidence-based, outcomes-focused public health interventions. TEACH delivers training modules on topics such as logic models, health data, social determinants of health, evidence-based interventions, and program evaluation. Cohorts of 7 to 12 community-based organizations and regional public health agencies in each of the 6 Colorado Area Health Education Centers service areas participate in a 2-day training program tailored to their specific needs. From July 2008 to December 2011, TEACH trained 94 organizations and agencies across Colorado. Training modules were well received and resulted in significant improvement in knowledge in core content areas, as well as accomplishment of self-proposed organizational goals, grant applications/awards, and several community-academic partnerships. PMID:23480898

  1. An organizational analysis of the World Health Organization: narrowing the gap between promise and performance.

    PubMed

    Peabody, J W

    1995-03-01

    The World Health Organization's (WHO's) nearly half century amelioration of suffering stands as a singular achievement in international cooperation. But after 45 years, the Organization has grown into a complex bureaucracy with an outdated organizational structure. A multidisciplinary framework, which emphasizes organizational theory, yields some insights into these problems. Using this approach, this paper examines the structure, culture, mission, and rules of WHO, and adds a perspective, not otherwise found in the literature, to the growing debate on the future of the Organization. Previous studies of international organizations have explained their behavior as the consequence of the dominant external interests of powerful members. This perspective suggests that organizations like WHO have fewer options and less control of their policies and output. By contrast, there has been very little analysis explaining how international organizations function internally. This paper refutes an exclusively external perspective and shows that the internal organization is also important to understanding WHO. Several conclusions are drawn from this perspective. WHO's organizational myths, as a politically neutral technical agency staffed with uniquely qualified staff, need to be validated and enhanced to attract funding. A new organizational structure, based on an 'open systems' model, is proposed. This strategy would strengthen the WHO Representative Country Offices, redefine staff objectives, close the Regional Offices, and establish open, public elections of the Director General. Traditional WHO culture should only be used for health problems that are well matched to WHO's critical tasks. For more complex social and economic issues, newer, often non-medical, approaches are needed. The internal and external rules, which shape the incentives of WHO staff and leaders, need to be realigned to close the gap between WHO's myths and its day to day work. In the short run it is

  2. New approaches to vaccine development. Proceedings of a meeting organized by the World Health Organization. Book review.

    PubMed

    Jordan Ws

    1985-09-01

    The Proceedings here reviewed are those of the meeting held in Geneva in October, 1983, which led to the establishment of the World Health Organization's Program for the Accelerated Development of New Vaccines. These papers reflect the state of the art in the development of vaccines for cholera, leprosy, pertussis, salmonella, shigella, dengue, foot-and-mouth disease, hepatitis B, herpes simplex, influenza, poliomyelitis, Chagas' disease, malaria, and schistosomiasis. The identification and isolation of epitopes and other antigenic fragments is presented, as well as considerations of mucosal immunity, antigenic determinants and antigenic variations, antigen presentation and T-cell activation, the use of anti-idiotypes as antigens, the development of recombinant viruses for use in vaccines, and the use of circumsporozoite antigens in the preparation of a malaria vaccine. PMID:12227327

  3. Qui tam claims: threat to voluntary compliance programs in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Ruhnka, J C; Gac, E J; Boerstler, H

    2000-04-01

    The Department of Justice (DOJ) reports that after violent crime, health care fraud is the department's top priority. The number of health care fraud investigations pending at the DOJ increased from 270 cases in 1992 to more than 4,000 in 1997. The DOJ's primary weapon in prosecuting health care fraud is the federal False Claims Act (FCA) of 1863 (31 U.S.C. secs. 3729-3733). Almost unique among federal antifraud provisions, the FCA may also be used by "private prosecutors" to file lawsuits on behalf of the federal government charging organizations with submitting false claims to the government. The FCA rewards such whistle-blowers with a share of any resulting recoveries as a bounty and protects them from discharge for filing false claims lawsuits against their employers. It also requires defendants to pay the costs and attorneys fees of successful claimants. Although the private "bounty hunter" features of the FCA data back to the Civil War, these so-called qui tam claims were nearly dormant until 1986, when Congress amended the FCA to revive their use. Following the 1986 amendments, and paralleling the rapid increase in federal reimbursements for health care costs, private qui tam claims have far expanded beyond their traditional purview of defense contracts into the field of health care. By 1997, health care providers were the targets of 54 percent of the 530 private qui tam lawsuits field that year. PMID:10946381

  4. Attitudes and perceptions of health care workers in Northeastern Germany about multidrug-resistant organisms.

    PubMed

    Marschall, P; Hübner, N-O; Maletzki, S; Wilke, F; Dittmann, K; Kramer, A

    2016-06-01

    There were 256 health care workers in 39 facilities who were interviewed about their perceptions of the quality of care of patients with and without multidrug-resistant organisms based on a standardized questionnaire. There are remarkable differences in the responses between facility types (acute care hospitals, long-term care hospitals, rehabilitation hospitals, and home care services). Hygiene management must be specifically tailored to the requirements of each facility. PMID:26897700

  5. Medicare health maintenance organizations. An industry analysis for the elderly in the USA.

    PubMed

    Asubonteng, P; Tucker, J; Munchus, G

    1996-01-01

    Provides a review and analysis of Medicare health maintenance organizations in the USA. The Porter model of industry structure is used. Discusses the issues of suppliers, buyers, market entry and substitutes. Indicates there is currently no intense rivalry among Medicare risk-based HMOs. However, the Porter model reveals crucial information regarding the forces which drive industry competition. Trends in the field of managed care and Medicare financing continue to be a real challenge regarding future research. PMID:10162927

  6. 76 FR 74788 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From HealthWatch, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ...AHRQ has accepted a notification of voluntary relinquishment from HealthWatch, Inc. of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (Patient Safety Act), Public Law 109-41, 42 U.S.C. 299b-21--b-26, provides for the formation of PSOs, which collect, aggregate, and analyze confidential information regarding the quality and safety of......

  7. Record Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

  8. 42 CFR 84.1132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.1132 Section 84.1132 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray;...

  9. 42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117 Section 84.117 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.117 Gas mask containers;...

  10. 42 CFR 84.82 - Gas pressure gages; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas pressure gages; minimum requirements. 84.82 Section 84.82 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  11. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators §...

  12. The Vaccine Safety Datalink: immunization research in health maintenance organizations in the USA.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, R. T.; DeStefano, F.; Davis, R. L.; Jackson, L. A.; Thompson, R. S.; Mullooly, J. P.; Black, S. B.; Shinefield, H. R.; Vadheim, C. M.; Ward, J. I.; Marcy, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is a collaborative project involving the National Immunization Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and several large health maintenance organizations in the USA. The project began in 1990 with the primary purpose of rigorously evaluating concerns about the safety of vaccines. Computerized data on vaccination, medical outcome (e.g. outpatient visits, emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and deaths) and covariates (e.g. birth certificates, census data) are prospectively collected and linked under joint protocol at multiple health maintenance organizations for analysis. Approximately 6 million persons (2% of the population of the USA) are now members of health maintenance organizations participating in the Vaccine Safety Datalink, which has proved to be a valuable resource providing important information on a number of vaccine safety issues. The databases and infrastructure created for the Vaccine Safety Datalink have also provided opportunities to address vaccination coverage, cost-effectiveness and other matters connected with immunization as well as matters outside this field. PMID:10743283

  13. The effects of work organization on the health of immigrant manual workers: A longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Chen, Haiying; Mora, Dana C; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S; Quandt, Sara A

    2016-01-01

    This analysis uses a longitudinal design to examine the associations of work organization and health outcomes among Latino manual workers. Participants included 247 Latino workers who completed baseline and 1-year follow-up interviews and clinical examinations. Health outcome measures were epicondylitis, rotator cuff syndrome, back pain, and depressive symptoms. Independent measures were measures of job demand, job control, and job support. Workers commonly experienced rotator cuff syndrome (6.5%), back pain (8.9%), and depressive symptoms (11.2%); fewer experienced epicondylitis (2.4%). Psychological demand was associated with rotator cuff syndrome; awkward position and decision latitude were associated with back pain. Decreased skill variety but increased decision latitude was associated with elevated depressive symptoms. Work context factors are important for health outcomes among vulnerable workers. Further research is needed to expand upon this work, particularly cultural perspectives on job support. PMID:25158121

  14. The potential of health sector non-governmental organizations: policy options.

    PubMed

    Gilson, L; Sen, P D; Mohammed, S; Mujinja, P

    1994-03-01

    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have increasingly been promoted as alternative health care providers to the state, furthering the same goals but less hampered by government inefficiencies and resource constraints. However, the reality of NGO health care provision is more complex. Not only is the distinction between government and NGO providers sometimes difficult to determine because of their operational integration, but NGOs may also suffer from resource constraionts and management inefficiencies similar to those of government providers. Some registered NGOs operate as for-profit providers in practice. Policy development must reflect the strengths and weaknesses of NGOs in particular settings and should be built on NGO advantages over government in terms of resource mobilization, efficiency and/or quality. Policy development will always require a strong government presence in co-ordinating and regulating health care provision, and an NGO sector responsive to the policy goals of government. PMID:10133097

  15. Role of non-governmental organizations in mental health in India

    PubMed Central

    Thara, R.; Patel, Vikram

    2010-01-01

    The paucity of treatment facilities and psychiatrists in the Government sector has widened the treatment gap in mental health. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played a significant role in the last few decades in not only helping bridge this gap, but also by creating low cost replicable models of care. NGOs are active in a wide array of areas such as child mental health, schizophrenia and psychotic conditions, drug and alcohol abuse, dementia etc. Their activities have included treatment, rehabilitation, community care, research, training and capacity building, awareness and lobbying. This chapter outlines the activities of NGOs in India. This is a revised version of the chapter in the book on mental health to be brought out by Government of India. PMID:21836712

  16. An analysis of high-cost users at an Australian public health service organization.

    PubMed

    Heslop, Liza; Athan, Dean; Gardner, Brendon; Diers, Donna; Poh, Boon Choo

    2005-11-01

    High-cost users generate extremely high costs when compared with average users in the same diagnostic-related group (DRG). They represent a major financial loss for a health service organization. The research was conducted using an area health service patient database for online analytical processing to produce descriptive statistics and graphs of 'high-cost' and 'non-high-cost users'. Trends and patterns were identified across key variables derived from clinical, financial and operational categories. The main results are: 20% of costs are spent by 3% of the population; elective admission is higher in the high-cost group; tracheostomy has the most number of cases and is the most expensive DRG; LOS is mostly longer for complex cases however, high costs can be attributed to other factors. In conclusion, these findings are potentially useful to patients, medical staff, management and health service decision-makers. The limitation of this study is the exclusion of profitability. PMID:16259671

  17. A Requirement Engineering Framework for Electronic Data Sharing of Health Care Data Between Organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xia; Peyton, Liam; Kuziemsky, Craig

    Health care is increasingly provided to citizens by a network of collaboration that includes multiple providers and locations. Typically, that collaboration is on an ad-hoc basis via phone calls, faxes, and paper based documentation. Internet and wireless technologies provide an opportunity to improve this situation via electronic data sharing. These new technologies make possible new ways of working and collaboration but it can be difficult for health care organizations to understand how to use the new technologies while still ensuring that their policies and objectives are being met. It is also important to have a systematic approach to validate that e-health processes deliver the performance improvements that are expected. Using a case study of a palliative care patient receiving home care from a team of collaborating health organizations, we introduce a framework based on requirements engineering. Key concerns and objectives are identified and modeled (privacy, security, quality of care, and timeliness of service). And, then, proposed business processes which use new technologies are modeled in terms of these concerns and objectives to assess their impact and ensure that electronic data sharing is well regulated.

  18. Health risk assessment of exposure to organic matter from the use of reclaimed water in toilets.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhi-Guang; Zang, Xue; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2014-05-01

    To estimate the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of six volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in reclaimed water used for flushing toilets, a probabilistic health risk assessment based on Monte Carlo simulations was used. Before Monte Carlo simulations, the contaminant volatilization model was applied to estimate the concentration of the pollutants in air. Moreover, a questionnaire was used to acquire daily exposure time and the Batch Fit tool of Crystal Ball software was applied to find the best-fitting distribution of a part of the input parameters. The risk analysis indicated that the health risks from six VOCs were lower than the negligible risk level (1 × 10(-8)) in all cases, and the health risk for females was slightly higher than that for males. Overall, exposure to organic pollutants in reclaimed water during toilet flushing does not currently pose a significant carcinogenic risk to humans. In this study, we want to provide some information on the health risk from reclaimed water used for toilet flushing in China and hope that it will be useful to promote the application of reclaimed water in water-deficient areas. PMID:24510531

  19. Foreign nations, international organizations, and their impact on health conditions in Nicaragua since 1979.

    PubMed

    Linsenmeyer, W S

    1989-01-01

    In July 1979, a coalition of social forces in Nicaragua, under the leadership of the Sandinistas, toppled the discredited 43-year Somoza dictatorship. In addition to revolutionary Nicaragua's own substantial efforts, since 1979 international forces and developments have had profound impacts on the nation's ambitious social programs. This article investigates the impact of foreign nations and international organizations on Nicaragua's health conditions since 1979. Given or pledged assistance, for health and other social needs, has been forthcoming, for example, from Latin America, Western Europe, socialist countries, the United Nations, the Organization of American States, and the European Economic Community. International forces, however, have also had a negative impact on Nicaragua's health conditions. Since 1981, counter-revolutionary guerilla forces, known as contras, have fought the Nicaraguan government troops in a disastrous conflict, involving substantial international assistance for each side. The United States and several other nations have provided some form of aid to the contras. The war in Nicaragua has resulted in enormous human and material losses, and, of course, has adversely affected health conditions. PMID:2666319

  20. Characteristics of health care organizations associated with learning and development: lessons from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of health care organizations associated with an ability to learn from experiences and to develop and manage change were explored in this study. Understanding of these characteristics is necessary to identify factors influencing success in learning from the past and achieving future health care quality objectives. A literature review of the quality improvement, strategic organizational development and change management, organizational learning, and microsystems fields identified 20 organizational characteristics, grouped under (a) organizational systems, (b) key actors, and (c) change management processes. Qualitative methods, using interviews, focus group reports, and archival records, were applied to find associations between identified characteristics and 6 Swedish health care units externally evaluated as delivering high-quality care. Strong support for a characteristic was defined as units having more than 4 sources describing the characteristic as an important success factor. Eighteen characteristics had strong support from at least 2 units. The strongest evidence was found for the following: (i) key actors have long-term commitment, provide support, and make sense of ambiguous situations; (ii) organizational systems encourage employee commitment, participation, and involvement; and (iii) change management processes are employed systematically. Based on the results, a new model of "characteristics associated with learning and development in health care organizations" is proposed. PMID:19851236

  1. Electronic Public Health Registry of Extensively Drug-Resistant Organisms, Illinois, USA

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Michael Y.; Cheng-Leidig, Robynn; Driscoll, Mary; Tang, Angela S.; Gao, Wei; Runningdeer, Erica; Arwady, M. Allison; Weinstein, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    In response to clusters of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in Illinois, USA, the Illinois Department of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Chicago Prevention Epicenter launched a statewide Web-based registry designed for bidirectional data exchange among health care facilities. CRE occurrences are entered and searchable in the system, enabling interfacility communication of patient information. For rapid notification of facilities, admission feeds are automated. During the first 12 months of implementation (November 1, 2013–October 31, 2014), 1,557 CRE reports (≈4.3/day) were submitted from 115 acute care hospitals, 5 long-term acute care hospitals, 46 long-term care facilities, and 7 reference laboratories. Guided by a state and local public health task force of infection prevention specialists and microbiologists and a nonprofit informatics entity, Illinois Department of Public Health deployed a statewide registry of extensively drug-resistant organisms. The legal, technical, and collaborative underpinnings of the system enable rapid incorporation of other emerging organisms. PMID:26402744

  2. IMPACT OF ORGANIC MATTER MANAGEMENT ON PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES, THEIR DAMAGE TO HOST CROPS AND SOIL HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic matter and its replenishment has become a major componenet of soil health management programs. Many of the soil¿s physical, chemical, and biological properties are a function of organic matter content and quality. Adding organic matter to soil influences diverse and important biological act...

  3. Exploratory study of the impacts of Mutual Health Organizations on social dynamics in Benin.

    PubMed

    Ridde, Valery; Haddad, Slim; Yacoubou, Moussa; Yacoubou, Ismaelou

    2010-08-01

    The primary aim of Mutual Health Organizations (MHOs) is the financial protection of their members. However, given their community-based, participative and voluntary nature, it is conceivable that MHOs, as social organizations, would affect social dynamics. In an exploratory study in Benin, we studied social dynamics related to mutual aid, relationships of trust, and empowerment. Four MHOs, as contrasted cases, were selected from among the 11 in the region. Focus groups (n = 20) and individual interviews (n = 29) were conducted with members, non-members, and elected leaders of the four MHOs, and with professionals from the health facilities concerned. We carried out a qualitative thematic analysis of the content. Mutual aid practices, which pre-date MHOs, can be mobilized to promote MHO membership. Mutual aid practices are based on relationships of trust. The primary reason for joining an MHO is to improve financial accessibility to health services. Non-members see that members have a strong sense of empowerment in this regard, based on a high level of trust in MHOs and their elected leaders, even if their trust in health professionals is not as strong. Non-members share these feelings of confidence in MHOs and their leadership, although they trust health professionals somewhat less than do the members. The MHOs' low penetration rate therefore cannot be explained by lack of trust, as this study shows that, even with some distrust of the professionals, the overall level of trust in MHOs is high and MHOs and their leaders function as intermediaries with health professionals. Other explanatory factors are the lack of information available to villagers and, most especially, the problems they face in being able to pay the MHO premiums. PMID:20580857

  4. 30 CFR 56.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 56.19021 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength...

  5. 30 CFR 56.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 56.19021 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength...

  6. 30 CFR 56.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 56.19021 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum rope strength. 56.19021 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19021 Minimum rope strength. At installation, the nominal strength...

  8. 45 CFR 158.210 - Minimum medical loss ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minimum medical loss ratio. 158.210 Section 158.210 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS... § 158.210 Minimum medical loss ratio. Subject to the provisions of § 158.211 of this subpart: (a)...

  9. 45 CFR 158.210 - Minimum medical loss ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum medical loss ratio. 158.210 Section 158.210 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS... § 158.210 Minimum medical loss ratio. Subject to the provisions of § 158.211 of this subpart: (a)...

  10. 45 CFR 158.210 - Minimum medical loss ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum medical loss ratio. 158.210 Section 158.210 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS... § 158.210 Minimum medical loss ratio. Subject to the provisions of § 158.211 of this subpart: (a)...

  11. Social media use by community-based organizations conducting health promotion: a content analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Community-based organizations (CBOs) are critical channels for the delivery of health promotion programs. Much of their influence comes from the relationships they have with community members and other key stakeholders and they may be able to harness the power of social media tools to develop and maintain these relationships. There are limited data describing if and how CBOs are using social media. This study assesses the extent to which CBOs engaged in health promotion use popular social media channels, the types of content typically shared, and the extent to which the interactive aspects of social media tools are utilized. Methods We assessed the social media presence and patterns of usage of CBOs engaged in health promotion in Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester, Massachusetts. We coded content on three popular channels: Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. We used content analysis techniques to quantitatively summarize posts, tweets, and videos on these channels, respectively. For each organization, we coded all content put forth by the CBO on the three channels in a 30-day window. Two coders were trained and conducted the coding. Data were collected between November 2011 and January 2012. Results A total of 166 organizations were included in our census. We found that 42% of organizations used at least one of the channels of interest. Across the three channels, organization promotion was the most common theme for content (66% of posts, 63% of tweets, and 93% of videos included this content). Most organizations updated Facebook and Twitter content at rates close to recommended frequencies. We found limited interaction/engagement with audience members. Conclusions Much of the use of social media tools appeared to be uni-directional, a flow of information from the organization to the audience. By better leveraging opportunities for interaction and user engagement, these organizations can reap greater benefits from the non-trivial investment required to use

  12. RACISM IN ORGANIZATIONS: THE CASE OF A COUNTY PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Derek M.; Childs, Erica L.; Eng, Eugenia; Jeffries, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Racism is part of the foundation of U.S. society and institutions, yet few studies in community psychology or organizational studies have examined how racism affects organizations. This paper proposes a conceptual framework of institutional racism, which describes how, in spite of professional standards and ethics, racism functions within organizations to adversely affect the quality of services, the organizational climate, and staff job satisfaction and morale. Grounded in systems theory and organizational empowerment, the framework is based on data that describe how racism was made manifest in a county public health department. The findings highlight the importance of understanding how organizations are influenced by external forces and can negatively affect clients, communities, and their own staff members. PMID:18852826

  13. Minimum variance geographic sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, G. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Resource inventories require samples with geographical scatter, sometimes not as widely spaced as would be hoped. A simple model of correlation over distances is used to create a minimum variance unbiased estimate population means. The fitting procedure is illustrated from data used to estimate Missouri corn acreage.

  14. Minimum Critical Values Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.B.

    2005-07-11

    This report provides minimum critical values for various 30-cm water-reflected uranium and plutonium oxide and nitrate aqueous mixtures as calculated by the SCALE CSAS1X sequence using the 238-group ENDF/B-V neutron cross-section library. The minimum values were determined through parametric searches in one-dimensional geometry. The calculations have been performed to obtain the minimum values: critical volume and mass for spheres, critical radius for cylinders, critical thickness for slabs, and minimum critical concentration (infinite geometry) for the following homogeneous mixtures: (1) UO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (2) UNH for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (3) PuO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu); and (4) PuNH for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu). All bounding surfaces were fully reflected by 30 cm of H{sub 2}O.

  15. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: Creating a global corporate network to undermine public health

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Intinarelli, Gina; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    Background The global tobacco epidemic claims 5 million lives each year, facilitated by the ability of transnational tobacco companies to delay or thwart meaningful tobacco control worldwide. A series of cross-company tobacco industry "issues management organizations" has played an important role in coordinating and implementing common strategies to defeat tobacco control efforts at international, national, and regional levels. This study examines the development and enumerates the activities of these organizations and explores the implications of continuing industry cooperation for global public health. Methods Using a snowball sampling strategy, we collected documentary data from tobacco industry documents archives and assembled them into a chronologically organized case study. Results The International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI) was formed in 1977 by seven tobacco company chief executives to create common anti-tobacco control strategies and build a global network of regional and national manufacturing associations. The organization's name subsequently changed to INFOTAB. The multinational companies built the organization rapidly: by 1984, it had 69 members operating in 57 countries. INFOTAB material, including position papers and "action kits" helped members challenge local tobacco control measures and maintain tobacco-friendly environments. In 1992 INFOTAB was replaced by two smaller organizations. The Tobacco Documentation Centre, which continues to operate, distributes smoking-related information and industry argumentation to members, some produced by cross-company committees. Agro-Tobacco Services, and now Hallmark Marketing Services, assists the INFOTAB-backed and industry supported International Tobacco Growers Association in advancing claims regarding the economic importance of tobacco in developing nations. Conclusion The massive scale and scope of this industry effort illustrate how corporate interests, when threatened by the globalization of

  16. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 94-0109-2494, Pan American Health Organization National Smelting Company, Oruro, Bolivia

    SciTech Connect

    Sussell, A.; Singal, M.

    1995-03-01

    In response to a request from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), an investigation was begun into possible exposures to heavy metals and sulfur-dioxide at Empresa Metalurigica Vinto, a large tin smelter near Oruro, Bolivia. Fifteen workers were selected for exposure monitoring. Of the 15, 14 had exposures greater than the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit or the OSHA Permissible Exposure Level to arsentic; 11 had hazardous exposures to cadmium, and eight had hazardous exposures to sulfur-dioxide. Surfaces throughout the facility were highly contaminated with heavy metals. Fifteen workers participated in biological monitoring studies. The median value for urinary arsenic (UA) was 78 micrograms per gram creatinine. Nine of the 15 workers had UA levels exceeding the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Biological Exposure Index. The median blood lead level was 19 micrograms per deciliter.

  17. Victimless vapour? Health care organizations should restrict the use of e-cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Bean, Sally T; Smith, Maxwell J

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that heat a liquid containing either vegetable glycerin or propylene glycol in combination with nicotine and/or flavours; an aerosol is produced that is inhaled by the user. Health Canada currently prohibits the importation, marketing or selling of e-cigarettes containing nicotine, although they can be easily purchased. Because of the availability of e-cigarettes, patients and visitors to health care organizations (HCOs) are inquiring about their use within and on the grounds of those facilities. We contend that in provinces or municipalities where e-cigarette use has not been restricted, HCOs should develop institutional policies to do so. We argue that the following reasons collectively justify measures to restrict the use of e-cigarettes within HCOs: unknown long-term safety, uncertain effectiveness in harm reduction, the conflict with the mission of HCOs to promote health, the potential negative health impacts on vulnerable patients with a compromised health status, and the risk of re-normalization of smoking. However, because of the rapidly developing evidence base in this area, HCOs should remain responsive to emerging evidence regarding the status of e-cigarettes as an effective harm reduction tool. PMID:26986904

  18. Evaluating the impact of the Management Academy for Public Health: developing entrepreneurial managers and organizations.

    PubMed

    Umble, Karl E; Orton, Stephen; Rosen, Benson; Ottoson, Judith

    2006-01-01

    The Management Academy for Public Health is a management development program with the goals of helping public health managers learn to manage people, data, and finance, to think and plan like entrepreneurs, and to strengthen public health organizations. Managers enroll as teams and develop business plans in the Academy's extensive project-based learning component. Extensive internal and external evaluation shows that the program improves managers' knowledge, skills, and confidence in key curriculum areas; that participants apply many of the skills in their jobs; that many of the business plans receive funding, resulting in new public health programs; that the training experience helped agencies respond and plan after September 11, 2001; and that many participants report beginning to think more like entrepreneurs through activities like teaming, partnering, innovating, negotiating, finding funds, and generating revenue. The program demonstrates that robust training including extensive work-based project work with coaching can help public health managers gain many skills needed for the drive to "reinvent" government. PMID:16912605

  19. Book review of Introduction to U.S. Health Policy: The Organization, Financing and Delivery of Health Care in America by Donald A. Barr

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2008-01-01

    Donald A. Barr's Introduction to U.S. Health Policy: The Organization, Financing, and Delivery of Health Care in America (second edition, 2007) offers a lucid and informative overview of the U.S. health system and the dilemmas policy makers currently face. Barr has provided a balanced introduction to the way health care is organized, financed, and delivered in the United States. The thirteen chapters of the book are quite comprehensive in the topics they cover. Even those knowledgeable about the U.S. health care system are likely to find much to stimulate their thinking in the text. The book can also appropriately serve as a basic text for a health policy course or in the medical or nursing school curriculum.

  20. Health Effects of a Mixture of Indoor Air Volatile Organics, Their Ozone Oxidation Products, and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Nancy; Laumbach, Robert; Kelly-McNeil, Kathie; Lioy, Paul; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Zhang, Junfeng; Ottenweller, John; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Kipen, Howard

    2005-01-01

    In our present study we tested the health effects among women of controlled exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with and without ozone (O3), and psychological stress. Each subject was exposed to the following three conditions at 1-week intervals (within-subject factor): VOCs (26 mg/m3), VOCs + O3 (26 mg/m3 + 40 ppb), and ambient air with a 1-min spike of VOCs (2.5 mg/m3). As a between-subjects factor, half the subjects were randomly assigned to perform a stressor. Subjects were 130 healthy women (mean age, 27.2 years; mean education, 15.2 years). Health effects measured before, during, and after each 140-min exposure included symptoms, neurobehavioral performance, salivary cortisol, and lung function. Mixing VOCs with O3 was shown to produce irritating compounds including aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids, secondary organic aerosols, and ultrafine particles (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 μm). Exposure to VOCs with and without O3 did not result in significant subjective or objective health effects. Psychological stress significantly increased salivary cortisol and symptoms of anxiety regardless of exposure condition. Neither lung function nor neurobehavioral performance was compromised by exposure to VOCs or VOCs + O3. Although numerous epidemiologic studies suggest that symptoms are significantly increased among workers in buildings with poor ventilation and mixtures of VOCs, our acute exposure study was not consistent with these epidemiologic findings. Stress appears to be a more significant factor than chemical exposures in affecting some of the health end points measured in our present study. PMID:16263509

  1. Measuring functional health among the elderly: development of the Japanese version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II.

    PubMed

    Tazaki, Miyako; Yamaguchi, Tesuo; Yatsunami, Mitsutoshi; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    2014-03-01

    The Japanese version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II-J) was developed and its psychometric properties were evaluated, and then used to determine the influence of disability on quality of life among the elderly in Japan. The study included three phases: qualitative, preliminary and field. For the qualitative portion of the study, six key informants were interviewed before the translation/back-translation procedure. For the preliminary study, 17 healthy elderly individuals were interviewed using the 12-item interview version of the WHODAS II-J. For the field study, different versions of the WHODAS II-J and the Japanese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) were tested with different participants (the 36-item interview version with 30 participants living in a nursing home, the 36-item proxy version with 30 caregivers working in the nursing home, and the 12-item and 36-item self-report versions with 132 and 129 healthy elderly living in Kanto and Kinki regions, respectively). In total, 321 elderly individuals participated in the field study. Of these participants, physical or mental disabilities were present in 47. Cronbach's α scores calculated for each of six domains of the WHODAS II ranged from 0.67 to 0.98. A significant correlation was observed between the results of the WHODAS II-J and the degree of disability (P<0.01), and a negative correlation was observed between WHOQOL-BREF and WHODAS II-J scores (P<0.01). A significant difference was found between healthy elderly individuals and those with disabilities in three domains: getting around, self-care, and life activities (P<0.01). In conclusion, the WHODAS II-J is a reliable and valid instrument for assessment of function in the elderly population in Japan. PMID:24051962

  2. Asbestos and Asbestos-related Diseases in Vietnam: In reference to the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Van Hai; Lan Tran, Thi Ngoc; Le, Giang Vinh; Movahed, Mehrnoosh; Jiang, Ying; Pham, Nguyen Ha; Ogawa, Hisashi; Takahashi, Ken

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes progress on formulating a national asbestos profile for the country of Vietnam. The Center of Asbestos Resource, Vietnam, formulated a National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health, with due reference to the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile. The Center of Asbestos Resource was established by the Vietnamese Health Environment Management Agency and the National Institute of Labor Protection, with the support of the Australian Agency for International Development, as a coordinating point for asbestos-related issues in Vietnam. Under the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health framework, the Center of Asbestos Resource succeeded in compiling relevant information for 15 of the 18 designated items outlined in the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile, some overlaps of the information items notwithstanding. Today, Vietnam continues to import and use an average of more than 60,000 metric tons of raw asbestos per year. Information on asbestos-related diseases is limited, but the country has begun to diagnose mesothelioma cases, with the technical cooperation of Japan. As it stands, the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health needs further work and updating. However, we envisage that the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health will ultimately facilitate the smooth transition to an asbestos-free Vietnam. PMID:23961336

  3. Influence of health rights discourses and community organizing on equitable access to health: the case of HIV, tuberculosis and cancer in Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The right to health is recognized as a fundamental human right. Social participation is implied in the fulfillment of health rights since Alma Ata posited its relevance for successful health programs, although a wide range of interpretations has been observed for this term. While Peruvian law recognizes community and social participation in health, it was the GFATM requirement of mixed public-civil society participation in Country Coordination Mechanisms (CCM) for proposal submission what effectively led to formal community involvement in the national response to HIV and, to a lesser extent, tuberculosis. This has not been the case, however, for other chronic diseases in Peru. This study aims to describe and compare the role of health rights discourse and community involvement in the national response to HIV, tuberculosis and cancer. Methods Key health policy documents were identified and analyzed. In-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders, representatives of civil society organizations (CSO), and leaders of organizations of people affected by HIV, cancer and tuberculosis. Results and discussion A health rights discourse, well established in the HIV field, is expanding to general health discussions and to the tuberculosis (TB) field in particular. Both HIV and TB programs have National Multisectoral Strategic Plans and recognize participation of affected communities’ organizations. Similar mechanisms are non-existent for cancer or other disease-focused programs, although other affected patients are starting some organization efforts. Interviewees agreed that reaching the achievements of HIV mobilization is difficult for other diseases, since the HIV response was modeled based on a global movement with strong networks and advocacy mechanisms, eventually succeeding in the establishment of financial sources like the GFATM. Nevertheless, organizations linked to cancer and other diseases are building a National Patient Network to defend health

  4. Mergers and acquisitions in Western European health care: exploring the role of financial services organizations.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Federica; Maarse, Hans

    2012-05-01

    Recent policy developments in Western European health care - for example in the Netherlands - aim to enhance efficiency and curb public expenditures by strengthening the role of private sector. Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) play an important role in this respect. This article presents an analysis of 1606 acquisition deals targeting health care provider organizations in Western Europe between 1990 and 2009. We particularly investigate the role of financial services organisations as acquirers. Our analysis highlights (a) a rise of M&As in Western Europe since 2000, (b) an increase of M&As with financial service organisations acting as acquirer in absolute terms, and (c) a dominant role of the latter type of M&As in cross-border deals. To explain these developments, we make a distinction between an integration and a diversification rationale for M&As and we argue that the deals with financial services organisations in the role of acquirer are driven by a diversification rationale. We then provide arguments why health care, from the acquirer's perspective, can be considered as an interesting target in a diversification strategy and we advance reasons why health care providers may welcome this development. Although caution in drawing conclusions is needed, our findings suggest a penetration of private capital into health care provision that may be interpreted as a specific form of privatisation. Furthermore, they point to a rising internationalisation of health care. Both findings may entail far-reaching implications for health care, as they may induce both cultural privatisation and cultural internationalisation. PMID:22440195

  5. How Health Care Organizations Are Using Data on Patients' Race and Ethnicity to Improve Quality of Care

    PubMed Central

    Thorlby, Ruth; Jorgensen, Selena; Siegel, Bruce; Ayanian, John Z

    2011-01-01

    Context: Racial and ethnic disparities in the quality of health care are well documented in the U.S. health care system. Reducing these disparities requires action by health care organizations. Collecting accurate data from patients about their race and ethnicity is an essential first step for health care organizations to take such action, but these data are not systematically collected and used for quality improvement purposes in the United States. This study explores the challenges encountered by health care organizations that attempted to collect and use these data to reduce disparities. Methods: Purposive sampling was used to identify eight health care organizations that collected race and ethnicity data to measure and reduce disparities in the quality and outcomes of health care. Staff, including senior managers and data analysts, were interviewed at each site, using a semi-structured interview format about the following themes: the challenges of collecting and collating accurate data from patients, how organizations defined a disparity and analyzed data, and the impact and uses of their findings. Findings: To collect accurate self-reported data on race and ethnicity from patients, most organizations had upgraded or modified their IT systems to capture data and trained staff to collect and input these data from patients. By stratifying nationally validated indicators of quality for hospitals and ambulatory care by race and ethnicity, most organizations had then used these data to identify disparities in the quality of care. In this process, organizations were taking different approaches to defining and measuring disparities. Through these various methods, all organizations had found some disparities, and some had invested in interventions designed to address them, such as extra staff, extended hours, or services in new locations. Conclusion: If policymakers wish to hold health care organizations accountable for disparities in the quality of the care they

  6. Medicinal Plants Recommended by the World Health Organization: DNA Barcode Identification Associated with Chemical Analyses Guarantees Their Quality

    PubMed Central

    Palhares, Rafael Melo; Gonçalves Drummond, Marcela; dos Santos Alves Figueiredo Brasil, Bruno; Pereira Cosenza, Gustavo; das Graças Lins Brandão, Maria; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used throughout the world, and the regulations defining their proper use, such as identification of the correct species and verification of the presence, purity and concentration of the required chemical compounds, are widely recognized. Herbal medicines are made from vegetal drugs, the processed products of medicinal species. These processed materials present a number of challenges in terms of botanical identification, and according to the World Health Organization (WHO), the use of incorrect species is a threat to consumer safety. The samples used in this study consisted of the dried leaves, flowers and roots of 257 samples from 8 distinct species approved by the WHO for the production of medicinal herbs and sold in Brazilian markets. Identification of the samples in this study using DNA barcoding (matK, rbcL and ITS2 regions) revealed that the level of substitutions may be as high as 71%. Using qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses, this study identified situations in which the correct species was being sold, but the chemical compounds were not present. Even more troubling, some samples identified as substitutions using DNA barcoding contained the chemical compounds from the correct species at the minimum required concentration. This last situation may lead to the use of unknown species or species whose safety for human consumption remains unknown. This study concludes that DNA barcoding should be used in a complementary manner for species identification with chemical analyses to detect and quantify the required chemical compounds, thus improving the quality of this class of medicines. PMID:25978064

  7. Medicinal plants recommended by the world health organization: DNA barcode identification associated with chemical analyses guarantees their quality.

    PubMed

    Palhares, Rafael Melo; Gonçalves Drummond, Marcela; Dos Santos Alves Figueiredo Brasil, Bruno; Pereira Cosenza, Gustavo; das Graças Lins Brandão, Maria; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used throughout the world, and the regulations defining their proper use, such as identification of the correct species and verification of the presence, purity and concentration of the required chemical compounds, are widely recognized. Herbal medicines are made from vegetal drugs, the processed products of medicinal species. These processed materials present a number of challenges in terms of botanical identification, and according to the World Health Organization (WHO), the use of incorrect species is a threat to consumer safety. The samples used in this study consisted of the dried leaves, flowers and roots of 257 samples from 8 distinct species approved by the WHO for the production of medicinal herbs and sold in Brazilian markets. Identification of the samples in this study using DNA barcoding (matK, rbcL and ITS2 regions) revealed that the level of substitutions may be as high as 71%. Using qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses, this study identified situations in which the correct species was being sold, but the chemical compounds were not present. Even more troubling, some samples identified as substitutions using DNA barcoding contained the chemical compounds from the correct species at the minimum required concentration. This last situation may lead to the use of unknown species or species whose safety for human consumption remains unknown. This study concludes that DNA barcoding should be used in a complementary manner for species identification with chemical analyses to detect and quantify the required chemical compounds, thus improving the quality of this class of medicines. PMID:25978064

  8. The Impact of Integrating Community Advocacy Into Community Health Worker Roles on Health-Focused Organizations and Community Health Workers in Southern Arizona.

    PubMed

    Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Ingram, Maia; Schachter, Kenneth; Sabo, Samantha; Verdugo, Lorena; Carvajal, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Organizational environments may encourage community health workers (CHWs) to engage community members in improving their communities. We conducted open-ended interviews and focus groups to explore how participation in the Acción intervention, which trained CHWs in community advocacy, affected organizational capacity to support their CHWs. Supervisors described improved organizational recognition and trust of CHWs. Organizational leaders reported organizational benefits and increased appreciation of CHW leadership. Both expressed increased interest in future advocacy trainings. Limiting factors included organizational mission, CHW position descriptions, and funding. Findings indicate that, with training and funding, CHW community advocacy can be integrated into organizations with congruent missions. PMID:26049654

  9. [Critique of conventional wisdom. The World Health Organization's report «WHO Health Systems: improving performance» and its relevance in Spain].

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    2001-01-01

    This article provides a critical review of the World Health Organization's (WHO) report, WHO Health Systems: improving performance. The political context in which the report was presented, the ideological suppositions underlying the report's evaluation of the efficiency and efficacy of the health systems, their degree of responsiveness to users and the progressiveness of their funding are analyzed. Finally, the possible relevance of the report in Spain is discussed. PMID:11734160

  10. Co-Exposure with Fullerene May Strengthen Health Effects of Organic Industrial Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Róg, Tomasz; Cramariuc, Oana; Vanhala, Esa; Tornaeus, Jarkko; Taberman, Helena; Jänis, Janne; Alenius, Harri; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Laine, Olli

    2014-01-01

    In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene which can be used with fullerene as reagents or solvents in industrial processes. Potential co-exposure scenarios include a fullerene dust and organic chemical vapor, or a fullerene solution aerosolized in workplace air. Unfiltered and filtered mixtures of C60 and organic chemicals represent different co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C60 that is more cytotoxic than benzaldehyde alone, and for a filtered mixture of m-cresol and C60 that is slightly less cytotoxic than m-cresol. Hydrophobicity of chemicals correlates with co-effects when secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α is considered. Complementary atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal that C60 co-aggregates with all chemicals in aqueous environment. Stable aggregates have a fullerene-rich core and a chemical-rich surface layer, and while essentially all C60 molecules aggregate together, a portion of organic molecules remains in water. PMID:25473947

  11. Socio-economic drivers for UK organic pullet rearers and the implications for poultry health.

    PubMed

    Sparks, N H C; Conroy, M A; Sandilands, V

    2008-09-01

    1. Certified organic pullet producers were surveyed to gain a better understanding of the production environment, to identify the key constraints to organic pullet rearing and to identify factors that affected bird health. 2. Pullet rearers had been involved in organic production for between 1 and 12 years. 3. The number of pullets reared per annum ranged from 6 to 12 000 and the number of birds housed per unit from <50 to >1000. 4. The primary reason for being involved in organic production was given as 'commercial' with 'environmental' and 'welfare' being the next most popular categories. 5. Fewer than 50% of the respondents vaccinated their flocks and, for those that were protected, the diseases vaccinated against frequently were Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis and Marek's disease. Annual mortality ranged from <2 to >7% with smothering accounting for 25% of all mortality. 6. Approximately 40% of respondents saw no constraints to rearing organic pullets while others identified a range of factors including capital, availability of land and inadequate margins as being the primary constraint. PMID:18836898

  12. Residential treatment centers and other organized mental health care for children and youth: United States, 1988.

    PubMed

    Sunshine, J H; Witkin, M J; Atay, J E; Manderscheid, R W

    1991-07-01

    Residential treatment centers (RTCs) for emotionally disturbed children are an important component of the mental health services delivery system in the United States. The 440 RTCs operating in 1988 represented 9 percent of all mental health organizations in the U.S. in that year. They served approximately 10 percent of the patients who received inpatient and residential treatment care and approximately 2 percent of outpatient psychiatric visits in organized settings. Their 39,000 full-time equivalent (FTE) staff and $1.3 billion expenditures were, respectively, 7 percent and 6 percent of the total for all mental health organizations. Between 1986 and 1988, the number of RTCs increased slightly, while the volume of residential treatment care changed little. However, partial care and outpatient care expanded in RTCs, with the number of visits in these categories increasing by 75 percent and 42 percent, respectively. FTE staff grew by 13 percent, and expenditures increased by 33 percent between 1986 and 1988. In 1988, RTCs were located in all States except North Dakota. The largest number were found in California (48), Massachusetts (38), and New York (28). By definition, all RTCs provided residential treatment care. About one-third of them also provided partial care and one-third provided outpatient care. The highest rates of additions to residential treatment care in RTCs per 100,000 civilian population were found in Minnesota and Colorado. Reflecting the role of RTCs as providers of care to children and youth, 94 percent of residential treatment patients in RTCs were under age 18. Seventy percent of residential treatment patients were male; 28 percent, black; and 10 percent, Hispanic. Approximately 94 percent had mental illness as their principal disability. In December 1988, 43,000 staff worked in RTCs; 14 percent were employed part-time, and 3 percent were trainees. Among others, the staff included approximately 900 psychiatrists, 300 other physicians, 1

  13. Forging stronger partnerships between academic health centers and patient-driven organizations.

    PubMed

    Gallin, Elaine K; Bond, Enriqueta; Califf, Robert M; Crowley, William F; Davis, Pamela; Galbraith, Richard; Reece, E Albert

    2013-09-01

    In this article, the authors review the unique role that patient-driven organizations, such as patient advocacy groups and voluntary health organizations (PAG/VHOs), play in translational and clinical research. The importance of fostering collaborations between these organizations and U.S. academic health centers (AHCs) is also discussed. Although both the PAG/VHO community and AHCs are heterogeneous, and although not all organizations are well governed or provide independent, well-researched views, there are many outstanding, well-managed, independent PAG/VHOs in the United States whose missions overlap with those of AHCs. The characteristics of effective PAG/VHOs that would serve as excellent partners for AHCs are discussed, and examples are provided regarding their many contributions, which have included advancing research on rare diseases, recruiting patients for clinical trials, and establishing patient registries and biospecimen banks. The authors present feedback obtained from informal discussions with PAG/VHO staff, as well as a survey of a small sample of organizations, that has identified bureaucratic processes, negotiating intellectual property rights, and institutional review board (IRB) delays as the most problematic areas of interactions with AHCs. Actions are suggested for building effective partnerships between the two sectors and the activities that AHCs should undertake to facilitate their interactions with PAG/VHOs including streamlining contract review and IRB processes and finding ways to better align the incentives motivating academic clinical and translational investigators with the goals of PAG/VHOs. This article is one product of the Clinical Research Forum's Partnering with Patient Advocacy Groups Initiative. PMID:23887007

  14. Health risk assessment of organic micropollutants in greywater for potable reuse.

    PubMed

    Etchepare, Ramiro; van der Hoek, Jan Peter

    2015-04-01

    In light of the increasing interest in development of sustainable potable reuse systems, additional research is needed to elucidate the risks of producing drinking water from new raw water sources. This article investigates the presence and potential health risks of organic micropollutants in greywater, a potential new source for potable water production introduced in this work. An extensive literature survey reveals that almost 280 organic micropollutants have been detected in greywater. A three-tiered approach is applied for the preliminary health risk assessment of these chemicals. Benchmark values are derived from established drinking water standards for compounds grouped in Tier 1, from literature toxicological data for compounds in Tier 2, and from a Threshold of Toxicological Concern approach for compounds in Tier 3. A risk quotient is estimated by comparing the maximum concentration levels reported in greywater to the benchmark values. The results show that for the majority of compounds, risk quotient values were below 0.2, which suggests they would not pose appreciable concern to human health over a lifetime exposure to potable water. Fourteen compounds were identified with risk quotients above 0.2 which may warrant further investigation if greywater is used as a source for potable reuse. The present findings are helpful in prioritizing upcoming greywater quality monitoring and defining the goals of multiple barriers treatment in future water reclamation plants for potable water production. PMID:25472689

  15. Exploring the state of health and safety management system performance measurement in mining organizations

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Emily Joy; Yorio, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Complex arguments continue to be articulated regarding the theoretical foundation of health and safety management system (HSMS) performance measurement. The culmination of these efforts has begun to enhance a collective understanding. Despite this enhanced theoretical understanding, however, there are still continuing debates and little consensus. The goal of the current research effort was to empirically explore common methods to HSMS performance measurement in mining organizations. The purpose was to determine if value and insight could be added into the ongoing approaches of the best ways to engage in health and safety performance measurement. Nine site-level health and safety management professionals were provided with 133 practices corresponding to 20 HSMS elements, each fitting into the plan, do, check, act phases common to most HSMS. Participants were asked to supply detailed information as to how they (1) assess the performance of each practice in their organization, or (2) would assess each practice if it were an identified strategic imperative. Qualitative content analysis indicated that the approximately 1200 responses provided could be described and categorized into interventions, organizational performance, and worker performance. A discussion of how these categories relate to existing indicator frameworks is provided. The analysis also revealed divergence in two important measurement issues; (1) quantitative vs qualitative measurement and reporting; and (2) the primary use of objective or subjective metrics. In lieu of these findings we ultimately recommend a balanced measurement and reporting approach within the three metric categories and conclude with suggestions for future research. PMID:26823642

  16. Organized labor and the origins of the Occupational Safety and Health Act.

    PubMed

    Asher, Robert

    2014-11-01

    New Solutions is republishing this 1991 article by Robert Asher, which reviews the history of organized labor's efforts in the United States to secure health and safety protections for workers. The 1877 passage of the Massachusetts factory inspection law and the implementation of primitive industrial safety inspection systems in many states paralleled labor action for improved measures to protect workers' health and safety. In the early 1900s labor was focusing on workers' compensation laws. The New Deal expanded the federal government's role in worker protection, supported at least by the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), but challenged by industry and many members of the U.S. Congress. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the CIO backed opposing legal and inspection strategies in the late 1940s and through the 1950s. Still, by the late 1960s, several unions were able to help craft the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and secure new federal protections for U.S. workers. PMID:25261023

  17. Scaling up the global nursing health workforce: contributions of an international organization.

    PubMed

    Rukholm, Ellen E; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg; Talbot, Lise R; Bednash, Geraldine; Raines, Fay; Potempa, Kathleen; Nugent, Pauline; Clark, Dame Jill Macleod; Bernhauser, Sue; Parfitt, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    In this paper key highlights of the scholarly work presented at the Toronto 2008 Global Alliance for Nursing Education & Scholarship (GANES) conference are summarized, challenges opportunities and issues facing nursing education globally arising from the conference discourse are outlined and initial steps are suggested as a way forward to a shared global view of baccalaureate and graduate nursing education and scholarship. This shared view arises from beginning understandings of the issues and opportunities we face globally starting with and building upon the lessons learned from the literature and from the experiences of nursing educators and nursing education organization locally, regionally, nationally and internationally. The theme of the groundbreaking GANES Toronto conference was "Educating the future nursing and health workforce: A global challenge". One hundred seventy delegates from 17 countries attended the event, with over 80 papers presented. A primary focus of GANES is the contribution of a strategic alliance of national nursing education organizations to contribute to nursing education leading practices and policy that address the scaling up of global nursing and health workforce. The founding members of GANES see a clear link between a strong educational infrastructure and strong scholarship activities in nursing and the ability of a society to be healthy and prosperous. Evidence presented at the recent GANES conference supports that belief. Through the strength of partnerships and other capacity-building efforts, member countries can support each other to address the global nursing education and health challenges while respecting the local issues. PMID:19388426

  18. Rising above the Minimum Wage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, William; Macpherson, David

    An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…

  19. Enabling student placement through strategic partnerships between a health-care organization and tertiary institutions.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Amanda; Heel, Alison; Twentyman, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Nursing management needs to demonstrate its commitment to clinical education for undergraduate nursing students. The vision for the nursing leadership and management team at Princess Alexandra Hospital is to guide and support the development of hospital clinicians, at all levels in the organization, to effectively facilitate undergraduate students' learning during their clinical practical experiences. This paper examines the evolution of the meaning, commitment and practices that have been intrinsic to the development of strategic partnerships between the health-care organization and tertiary institutions to ensure that hospital staff who consistently facilitate student learning in the clinical context are well supported. The partnerships are based on open channels of communication between the health-care organization and the tertiary institutions whereby each party identifies its needs and priorities. This has resulted in increased hospital staff satisfaction through greater involvement by them in the placements of students, and enhanced understanding of clinicians of the student placement process that has contributed to improved satisfaction and outcomes for the students. PMID:17207012

  20. The Use of Research Evidence in Two International Organizations' Recommendations about Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Steven J.; Lavis, John N.; Bennett, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the extent to which research evidence informs the development of recommendations by international organizations. Methods: We identified specific World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank recommendations on five topics (contracting, healthcare financing, health human resources, tuberculosis control and tobacco control), catalogued the related systematic reviews and assessed the recommendations to determine their consistency with the systematic reviews that were available at the time of their formulation. Findings: Only two of the eight publications examined were found to cite systematic reviews, and only five of 14 WHO and two of seven World Bank recommendations were consistent with both the direction and nature of effect claims from systematic reviews. Ten of 14 WHO and five of seven World Bank recommendations were consistent with the direction of effect claims only. Conclusion: WHO and the World Bank – working with donor agencies and national governments – can improve their use of (or at least, their reporting about their use of) research evidence. Decision-makers and clinicians should critically evaluate the quality and local applicability of recommendations from any source, including international organizations, prior to their implementation. PMID:20676252

  1. Diversity and cultural competence training in health care organizations: hallmarks of success.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Ellen Foster; Dreachslin, Janice L; Sinioris, Marie

    2007-01-01

    The authors reviewed recent literature on diversity training interventions and identified effective practices for health care organizations. Self-reported satisfaction was especially likely to be found as a result of training, whereas attitude change measured by standardized instruments was mixed. Although those responsible for diversity training in the workplace agree that behavioral change is key, awareness building and associated attitude change remain the focus of most diversity training in the workplace. Consequently, the authors recommend a systems approach to diversity training interventions wherein training is a key component of a health care organization's strategic approach to organizational performance, and diversity training is linked to the organizations' strategic goals for improved quality of care. The systems approach requires these steps: determine diversity and cultural competence goals in the context of strategy, measure current performance against needs, design training to address the gap, implement the training, assess training effectiveness, and strive for continuous improvement. Higher level evaluations measuring whether employees have transferred learning from training to their jobs are paramount to the systems approach to diversity training interventions. Measuring other positive changes in a "return on investment" format can be used to convince stakeholders of training's value. PMID:17938595

  2. Resource Mobilization for Health Advocacy: Afro-Brazilian Religious Organizations and HIV Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G

    2010-01-01

    Brazil’s national response to AIDS has been tied to the ability to mobilize resources from the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and a variety of donor agencies. The combination of favorable political economic opportunities and the bottom-up demands from civil society make Brazil a particularly interesting case. Despite the stabilization of the AIDS epidemic within the general Brazilian population, it continues to grow in pockets of poverty, especially among women and blacks. We use resource mobilization theories to examine the role of Afro-Brazilian religious organizations in reaching these marginalized populations. From December 2006 through November 2008, we conducted ethnographic research, including participant observation and oral histories with religious leaders (N=18), officials from the National AIDS Program (N=12), public health workers from Rio de Janeiro (N=5), and non-governmental organization (NGO) activists who have worked with Afro-Brazilian religions (N=5). The mobilization of resources from international donors, political opportunities (i.e., decentralization of the National AIDS Program), and cultural framings enabled local Afro-Brazilian religious groups to forge a national network. On the micro-level, in Rio de Janeiro, we observed how macro-level structures led to the proliferation of capacity-building and peer educator projects among these religious groups. We found that beyond funding assistance, the interrelation of religious ideologies, leadership, and networks linked to HIV can affect mobilization. PMID:20542364

  3. Resource mobilization for health advocacy: Afro-Brazilian religious organizations and HIV prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G

    2011-06-01

    Brazil's national response to AIDS has been tied to the ability to mobilize resources from the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and a variety of donor agencies. The combination of favorable political economic opportunities and the bottom-up demands from civil society make Brazil a particularly interesting case. Despite the stabilization of the AIDS epidemic within the general Brazilian population, it continues to grow in pockets of poverty, especially among women and blacks. We use resource mobilization theories to examine the role of Afro-Brazilian religious organizations in reaching these marginalized populations. From December 2006 through November 2008, we conducted ethnographic research, including participant observation and oral histories with religious leaders (N = 18), officials from the National AIDS Program (N = 12), public health workers from Rio de Janeiro (N = 5), and non-governmental organization (NGO) activists who have worked with Afro-Brazilian religions (N = 5). The mobilization of resources from international donors, political opportunities (i.e., decentralization of the National AIDS Program), and cultural framings enabled local Afro-Brazilian religious groups to forge a national network. On the micro-level, in Rio de Janeiro, we observed how macro-level structures led to the proliferation of capacity-building and peer educator projects among these religious groups. We found that beyond funding assistance, the interrelation of religious ideologies, leadership, and networks linked to HIV can affect mobilization. PMID:20542364

  4. Promoting Health and Longevity through Diet: from Model Organisms to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Luigi; Partridge, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Reduced food intake, avoiding malnutrition, can ameliorate aging and aging-associated diseases in invertebrate model organisms, rodents, primates and humans. Recent findings indicate that meal timing is crucial, with both intermittent fasting and adjusted diurnal rhythm of feeding improving health and function, in the absence of changes in overall intake. Lowered intake of particular nutrients, rather than of overall calories, is also key, with protein and specific amino acids playing prominent roles. Nutritional modulation of the microbiome can also be important, and there are long-term, including inter-generational, effects of diet. The metabolic, molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate the responses of health during aging to diet, and genetic variation in response to diet, are being identified. These new findings are opening the way to specific dietary and pharmacological interventions to recapture the full potential benefits of dietary restriction, which humans can find hard to maintain voluntarily. PMID:25815989

  5. Promoting health and longevity through diet: from model organisms to humans.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Luigi; Partridge, Linda

    2015-03-26

    Reduced food intake, avoiding malnutrition, can ameliorate aging and aging-associated diseases in invertebrate model organisms, rodents, primates, and humans. Recent findings indicate that meal timing is crucial, with both intermittent fasting and adjusted diurnal rhythm of feeding improving health and function, in the absence of changes in overall intake. Lowered intake of particular nutrients rather than of overall calories is also key, with protein and specific amino acids playing prominent roles. Nutritional modulation of the microbiome can also be important, and there are long-term, including inter-generational, effects of diet. The metabolic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms that mediate both improvement in health during aging to diet and genetic variation in the response to diet are being identified. These new findings are opening the way to specific dietary and pharmacological interventions to recapture the full potential benefits of dietary restriction, which humans can find difficult to maintain voluntarily. PMID:25815989

  6. Ethics orientation as a mediator of organizational integrity in health services organizations.

    PubMed

    Proenca, E Jose

    2004-01-01

    Increasing scrutiny of ethical misconduct by federal and state agencies has prompted health services organizations to adopt codes of ethics and institute legal compliance programs. However, there is little understanding of the impact of ethics programs or the manner in which program elements act to enhance organizational integrity. This study examined the effect of five ethics program elements on organizational integrity and the mediating role played by ethics orientation in this relationship. It found that program elements influence organizational integrity by engendering among employees a values orientation, a compliance orientation, or both. Furthermore, program elements that induced both orientations have a larger impact on integrity. These findings have important implications for health services managers involved in designing and implementing an ethics program. PMID:14992483

  7. Medical costs and lost productivity from health conditions at volatile organic compound-contaminated Superfund sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lybarger, J.A.; Spengler, R.F.; Brown, D.R.; Lee, R.; Vogt, D.P. |; Perhac, R.M. Jr. |

    1998-10-01

    This paper estimates the health costs at Superfund sites for conditions associated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water. Health conditions were identified from published literature and registry information as occurring at excess rates in VOC-exposed populations. These health conditions were: (1) some categories of birth defects, (2) urinary tract disorders, (3) diabetes, (4) eczema and skin conditions, (5) anemia, (6) speech and hearing impairments in children under 10 years of age, and (7) stroke. Excess rates were used to estimate the excess number of cases occurring among the total population living within one-half mile of 258 Superfund sites. These sites had evidence of completed human exposure pathways for VOCs in drinking water. For each type of medical condition, an individual`s expected medical costs, long-term care costs, and lost work time due to illness or premature mortality were estimated. Costs were calculated to be approximately $330 million per year, in the absence of any remediation or public health intervention programs. The results indicate the general magnitude of the economic burden associated with a limited number of contaminants at a portion of all Superfund sites, thus suggesting that the burden would be greater than that estimated in this study if all contaminants at all Superfund sites could be taken into account.

  8. [Recommendations of the World Health Organization Tobacco Control Research Team regarding electronic nicotine delivery devices].

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota

    2010-01-01

    Negative health, social and economic consequences of smoking tobacco are widely known. Recent years have seen the emergence of many commercially sold appliances for inducing nicotine into the airways, including products such as "e-cigarette", "E-cigar" and "green cigarette". These products are often promoted as potential alternatives to nicotine replacement therapy. It transpires, however, that there is a lack of conclusive evidence concerning the health effects of long-term use of chemical substances applied via those electronic nicotine inhalers. Reliable data on the exact chemical composition of the cartridges used in the inhalers is also missing. The objective was to present the main conclusions and recommendations of the World Health Organization Tobacco Control Research Team regarding electronic nicotine delivery devices, which were formulated against the principles of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Based on several analyses, WHO recommends a ban on disseminating information that suggest that electronic nicotine vaporisers are safer than cigarettes, or that they are an effective way of combating nicotine addition, until appropriate evidence can be provided. According to the WHO recommendations, references to efficacy of electronic vaporisers for quitting smoking or to their health effects must be backed by reliable pharmacokinetics studies, safety and efficacy tests and appropriate certification from regulatory bodies. PMID:21360967

  9. Mapping of initiatives to increase membership in mutual health organizations in Benin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Mutual health organizations (MHO) have been implemented across Africa to increase access to healthcare and improve financial protection. Despite efforts to develop MHOs, low levels of both initial enrolment and membership renewals continue to threaten their financial viability. The purpose of this study was to map initiatives implemented to increase the pool of MHO members in Benin. Methods A multiple case study was conducted to assess MHOs supported by five major promoters in Benin. Three months of fieldwork resulted in 23 semi-structured interviews and two focus groups with MHO promoters, technicians, elected members, and health professionals affiliated with the MHOs. Fifteen non-structured interviews provided additional information and a valuable source of triangulation. Results MHOs have adopted a wide range of initiatives targeting different entry points and involving a variety of stakeholders. Initiatives have included new types of collective health insurance packages and efforts to raise awareness by going door-to-door and organizing health education workshops. Different types of partnerships have been established to strengthen relationships with healthcare professionals and political leaders. However, the selection and implementation of these initiatives have been limited by insufficient financial and human resources. Conclusions The study highlights the importance of prioritizing sustainable strategies to increase MHO membership. No single MHO initiative has been able to resolve the issue of low membership on its own. If combined, existing initiatives could provide a comprehensive and inclusive approach that would target all entry points and include key stakeholders such as household decision-makers, MHO elected members, healthcare professionals, community leaders, governmental authorities, medical advisors, and promoters. There is a need to evaluate empirically the implementation of these interventions. Mechanisms to promote dialogue between

  10. Breastfeeding During Early Infancy is Associated with Higher Weight-Based World Health Organization Anthropometry

    PubMed Central

    Libraty, Daniel H.; Capeding, Rosario Z.; Obcena, AnaMae; Brion, Job D.; Tallo, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Physical Status: The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry established reference anthropometric standards for the growth of healthy infants and children. As part of a prospective clinical study of dengue virus infections in infants, we measured the length and weight of healthy infants in San Pablo, Laguna, Philippines at two scheduled study visits. We examined the correlation between breastfeeding and WHO anthropometric z scores during early infancy in San Pablo, Laguna, Philippines. We found that breastfeeding status and the frequency of breastfeeding during early infancy positively correlated with weight-based WHO anthropometric z scores. PMID:24416089

  11. Barriers to the health maintenance organization for the over 65's.

    PubMed

    Titus, S L

    1982-01-01

    What are the barriers that impede and prevent those over age 65 from considering a health maintenance organization (HMO) as an alternative to traditional Medicare-supplementary insurance? In an attempt to answer this question, structured interviews were conducted with 260 elderly people. The barriers examined include knowledge deficits lack of exposure to information, general resistance to change, the difficulties of integrating the 'new' with old insurance patterns, and value stances that may limit the adoption of HMOs by some elderly. Also discussed are educational strategies that may enhance the possibility of the elderly's consideration of the HMO as a viable option. PMID:6758126

  12. The nursing organization and the transformation of health care delivery for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, M J

    1998-01-01

    Market transformations occurring within the health care industry require new patterns of organization and management to meet the increasing complexity of service delivery. A greater understanding of the innovation and entrepreneurial dynamic allows administrators, managers, and leaders to create a new vision of service delivery. Central management and leadership objectives include the development of service technologies that capitalize upon the inherent knowledge of workers to meet consumer needs. A strong sense of innovation and entrepreneurship leading to the introduction of new or improved nursing technologies is a primary component in the evolution of professional nursing practice for the 21st century. PMID:9505707

  13. The process and results of departmental specific safety surveys for health care organizations. Successful program.

    PubMed

    Meittunen, E; Snyder, B; Meyer, M

    2001-04-01

    1. Meeting compliance and accreditation standards can be challenging for any organization, especially in the health care setting. Safety surveys can play a strategic role in proactively preparing for such events. 2. Implementing department specific safety surveys offers a tailored approach to monitoring and addressing the occupational safety issues that occur within each department. 3. Safety surveys are a method for assessing and monitoring the environment and employee training needs, and for driving safety decisions. 4. Safety in the workplace must be a shared and continuous responsibility among employees. A formal safety survey process instilling a culture of responsibility and "buy in" by all employees is necessary. PMID:11760523

  14. Integrating Epidemiology, Education, and Organizing for Environmental Justice: Community Health Effects of Industrial Hog Operations

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Steve; Horton, Rachel Avery; Muhammad, Naeema; Grant, Gary R.; Tajik, Mansoureh; Thu, Kendall

    2008-01-01

    The environmental justice movement has stimulated community-driven research about the living and working conditions of people of color and low-income communities. We describe an epidemiological study designed to link research with community education and organizing for social justice. In eastern North Carolina, high-density industrial swine production occurs in communities of low-income people and people of color. We investigated relationships between the resulting pollution and the health and quality of life of the hog operations’ neighbors. A repeat-measures longitudinal design, community involvement in data collection, and integration of qualitative and quantitative research methods helped promote data quality while providing opportunities for community education and organizing. Research could affect policy through its findings and its mobilization of communities. PMID:18556620

  15. Using a social entrepreneurial approach to enhance the financial and social value of health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sandra S; Lu, Jui-Fen Rachel; Guo, Kristina L

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a conceptual framework was developed to show that social entrepreneurial practices can be effectively translated to meet the social needs in health care. We used a theory-in-use case study approach that encompasses postulation of a working taxonomy from literature scanning and a deliberation of the taxonomy through triangulation of multilevel data of a case study conducted in a Taiwan-based hospital system. Specifically, we demonstrated that a nonprofit organization can adopt business principles that emphasize both financial and social value. We tested our model and found comprehensive accountability across departments throughout the case hospital system, and this led to sustainable and continual growth of the organization. Through social entrepreneurial practices, we established that both financial value creation and fulfilling the social mission for the case hospital system can be achieved. PMID:25223158

  16. The organization and delivery of women's health care in Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Yano, Elizabeth M; Washington, Donna L; Goldzweig, Caroline; Caffrey, Cynthia; Turner, Carole

    2003-01-01

    Congressional eligibility reforms have profoundly changed the array of services to be made available to women veterans in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care facilities. These include access not only to primary and specialty care services already afforded VA users, but also to a full spectrum of gender-specific services, including prenatal, obstetric, and infertility services never before provided in VA settings. The implications of this legislative mandate for delivering care to women veterans are poorly understood, as little or no information has been available about how care for women veterans is organized. This article reports on the first national assessment of variations in the organization of care for women veterans. PMID:12732441

  17. [The role of the geriatrician in the organization of the health care system].

    PubMed

    Petermans, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the role of the geriatrician in the organization of the health care for the elderly. In Belgium, the healthcare program for the geriatric patient defines the various functions; at present, the classical geriatric hospitalization, the hospital day care, and the internal links within the hospital are well developed around the geriatrician. The standardized, comprehensive geriatric assessment of hospitalized patients has demonstrated its value for the prevention of functional decline. The efficiency of the day care services and of the link teams remains to be further appraised. Outside the hospital, the general practionner plays the major role in the treatment of the elderly living at home, or in nursing homes. The demographic evolution and the frailty of the elderly require a good coordination of all those involved in the care of the aged. A model of healthcare organization is proposed to better coordinate the in- and out of hospital activities. PMID:25065225

  18. 42 CFR 84.119 - Facepieces; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces; eyepieces; minimum requirements. 84.119 Section 84.119 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... constructed to provide adequate vision which is not distorted by the eye. (b) All eyepieces shall be...

  19. Employee turnover in community mental health organization: a developmental stages study.

    PubMed

    Ben-Dror, R

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reasons for employee turnover in community mental-health residential services, and to determine the relationship of workers' developmental stage to those reasons. Three types of variables were collected in the study: 1) Demographics, including tenure and income; 2) Workers' ratings of their effectiveness, satisfaction, desired responsibility, expectancy of leaving the organization, morale, and competence; 3) Workers' ranking of the most important turnover factors for them, at the time of the study. Other personnel data was compiled by the organization for the use of this study. Significant findings were found in all interest areas of this study. The studied organization reached 50% yearly voluntary turnover, and 72% separation rate for the same year. Workers' stages of development found to have significant relationships with the choices workers would make in their selection of turnover factors. Workers in higher stages of development tended to choose "higher order" turnover factors like rewards and organizational factors. Nevertheless, the most significant factor in a decision to leave a CMH organization was low pay. PMID:8045091

  20. What's Happening in Minimum Competency Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frahm, Robert; Covington, Jimmie

    An examination of the current status of minimum competency testing is presented in a series of short essays, which discuss case studies of individual school systems and state approaches. Sections are also included on the viewpoints of critics and supporters, teachers and teacher organizations, principals and students, and the federal government.…

  1. World citizenship and the emergence of the social psychiatry project of the World Health Organization, 1948-c.1965.

    PubMed

    Wu, Harry Yi-Jui

    2015-06-01

    This paper examines the relationship between 'world citizenship' and the new psychiatric research paradigm established by the World Health Organization in the early post-World War II period. Endorsing the humanitarian ideological concept of 'world citizenship', health professionals called for global rehabilitation initiatives to address the devastation after the war. The charm of world citizenship had not only provided theoretical grounds of international collaborative research into the psychopathology of psychiatric diseases, but also gave birth to the international psychiatric epidemiologic studies conducted by the World Health Organization. Themes explored in this paper include the global awareness of mental rehabilitation, the application of public health methods in psychiatry to improve mental health globally, the attempt by the WHO to conduct large-scale, cross-cultural studies relevant to mental health and the initial problems it faced. PMID:26022467

  2. World Health Organization Discontinues Its Drinking-Water Guideline for Manganese

    PubMed Central

    Frisbie, Seth H.; Mitchell, Erika J.; Dustin, Hannah; Maynard, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) released the fourth edition of Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality in July 2011. In this edition, the 400-µg/L drinking-water guideline for manganese (Mn) was discontinued with the assertion that because “this health-based value is well above concentrations of manganese normally found in drinking water, it is not considered necessary to derive a formal guideline value.” Objective: In this commentary, we review the WHO guideline for Mn in drinking water—from its introduction in 1958 through its discontinuation in 2011. Methods: For the primary references, we used the WHO publications that documented the Mn guidelines. We used peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, published conference proceedings, and theses to identify countries with drinking water or potential drinking-water supplies exceeding 400 µg/L Mn and peer-reviewed journal articles to summarize the health effects of Mn. Discussion: Drinking water or potential drinking-water supplies with Mn concentrations > 400 µg/L are found in a substantial number of countries worldwide. The drinking water of many tens of millions of people has Mn concentrations > 400 µg/L. Recent research on the health effects of Mn suggests that the earlier WHO guideline of 400 µg/L may have been too high to adequately protect public health. Conclusions: The toxic effects and geographic distribution of Mn in drinking-water supplies justify a reevaluation by the WHO of its decision to discontinue its drinking-water guideline for Mn. PMID:22334150

  3. Using Organization Development Concept to Conduct Administrative Assessment of Health Promoting Schools in Taiwan--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jen-Jen; Yeh, Gwo-Liang; Tseng, Chie-Chien; Chen, Wei William; Hwu, Yin-Jinn; Jiang, Donald Dah-Shyong

    2009-01-01

    The Health Promoting School (HPS) programs in Taiwan were initiated and implemented with funding from Department of Health and Ministry of Education during the initial phase. The purpose of this article was to describe the application of organization development (OD) concept in the administrative assessment of HPS programs and to present results…

  4. 42 CFR 476.72 - Review of the quality of care of risk-basis health maintenance organizations and competitive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disclosure of peer review information; and (2) Part 1004 of Chapter V regarding a QIO's responsibilities, and... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of the quality of care of risk-basis health... ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Utilization and Quality...

  5. 42 CFR 476.72 - Review of the quality of care of risk-basis health maintenance organizations and competitive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... disclosure of peer review information; and (2) Part 1004 of Chapter V regarding a QIO's responsibilities, and... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Review of the quality of care of risk-basis health... ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Utilization and Quality...

  6. 42 CFR 476.72 - Review of the quality of care of risk-basis health maintenance organizations and competitive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT... Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs) General Provisions § 476.72 Review of the quality of care of risk... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Review of the quality of care of risk-basis...

  7. An Educational Program for Sub-Professional Personnel to be Employed in Health Maintenance Organizations. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HMO Management, Inc., Los Angeles, CA.

    Through Medicaid, the Health Maintenance Organization Act (HMO), and Prepaid Health Programs (PHP) approaches were established whereby the government can help alleviate the medical problems of the needy. A program to educate and train students in California in the philosophy, administration, and development of PHP was developed in response to…

  8. The Impact of a Health Education Program Targeting Patients with High Visit Rates in a Managed Care Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dally, Diana L.; Dahar, Wendy; Scott, Ann; Roblin, Douglas; Khoury, Allan T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether a mailed health promotion program would reduce outpatient visits while improving health status among people with chronic conditions and high visit rates in a managed care organization. Surveys of treatment and control groups before and 1 year after randomization indicated that the program reduced visit rates while improving…

  9. World Health Organization International Standard To Harmonize Assays for Detection of Mycoplasma DNA

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, Sally A.; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Montag-Lessing, Thomas; Chudy, Michael; Kreß, Julia; Ulrych, Ursula; Czurda, Stefan; Rosengarten, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays (referred to here as NAT assays) are increasingly used as an alternative to culture-based approaches for the detection of mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures. Assay features, like the limit of detection or quantification, vary widely between different mycoplasma NAT assays. Biological reference materials may be useful for harmonization of mycoplasma NAT assays. An international feasibility study included lyophilized preparations of four distantly related mycoplasma species (Acholeplasma laidlawii, Mycoplasma fermentans, M. orale, M. pneumoniae) at different concentrations which were analyzed by 21 laboratories using 26 NAT assays with a qualitative, semiquantitative, or quantitative design. An M. fermentans preparation was shown to decrease the interassay variation when used as a common reference material. The preparation was remanufactured and characterized in a comparability study, and its potency (in NAT-detectable units) across different NATs was determined. The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) established this preparation to be the “1st World Health Organization international standard for mycoplasma DNA for nucleic acid amplification technique-based assays designed for generic mycoplasma detection” (WHO Tech Rep Ser 987:42, 2014) with a potency of 200,000 IU/ml. This WHO international standard is now available as a reference preparation for characterization of NAT assays, e.g., for determination of analytic sensitivity, for calibration of quantitative assays in a common unitage, and for defining regulatory requirements in the field of mycoplasma testing. PMID:26070671

  10. Preparing for effective communications during disasters: lessons from a World Health Organization quality improvement project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One hundred ninety-four member nations turn to the World Health Organization (WHO) for guidance and assistance during disasters. Purposes of disaster communication include preventing panic, promoting appropriate health behaviors, coordinating response among stakeholders, advocating for affected populations, and mobilizing resources. Methods A quality improvement project was undertaken to gather expert consensus on best practices that could be used to improve WHO protocols for disaster communication. Open-ended surveys of 26 WHO Communications Officers with disaster response experience were conducted. Responses were categorized to determine the common themes of disaster response communication and areas for practice improvement. Results Disasters where the participants had experience included 29 outbreaks of 13 different diseases in 16 countries, 18 natural disasters of 6 different types in 15 countries, 2 technical disasters in 2 countries, and ten conflicts in 10 countries. Conclusion Recommendations to build communications capacity prior to a disaster include pre-writing public service announcements in multiple languages on questions that frequently arise during disasters; maintaining a database of statistics for different regions and types of disaster; maintaining lists of the locally trusted sources of information for frequently affected countries and regions; maintaining email listservs of employees, international media outlet contacts, and government and non-governmental organization contacts that can be used to rapidly disseminate information; developing a global network with 24-h cross-coverage by participants from each time zone; and creating a central electronic sharepoint where all of these materials can be accessed by communications officers around the globe. PMID:24646607

  11. Blood organic mercury and dietary mercury intake: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 and 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, Kathryn R; Clickner, Robert P; Bodurow, Catherine C

    2004-01-01

    Blood organic mercury (i.e., methyl mercury) concentrations among 1,709 women who were participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999 and 2000 (1999-2000 NHANES) were 0.6 microg/L at the 50th percentile and ranged from concentrations that were nondetectable (5th percentile) to 6.7 microg/L (95th percentile). Blood organic/methyl mercury reflects methyl mercury intake from fish and shellfish as determined from a methyl mercury exposure parameter based on 24-hr dietary recall, 30-day food frequency, and mean concentrations of mercury in the fish/shellfish species reported as consumed (multiple correlation coefficient > 0.5). Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations were lowest among Mexican Americans and highest among participants who designated themselves in the Other racial/ethnic category, which includes Asians, Native Americans, and Pacific Islanders. Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations were ~1.5 times higher among women 30-49 years of age than among women 16-29 years of age. Blood mercury (BHg) concentrations were seven times higher among women who reported eating nine or more fish and/or shellfish meals within the past 30 days than among women who reported no fish and/or shellfish consumption in the past 30 days. Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations greater than or equal to 5.8 microg/L were lowest among Mexican Americans (2.0%) and highest among examinees in the Other racial/ethnic category (21.7%). Based on the distribution of BHg concentrations among the adult female participants in 1999-2000 NHANES and the number of U.S. births in 2000, > 300,000 newborns each year in the United States may have been exposed in utero to methyl mercury concentrations higher than those considered to be without increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental effects associated with methyl mercury exposure. PMID:15064162

  12. Utilization of health services in Western Canada: basic Canadian data from the World Health Organization/International Collaborative Study of Medical Care Utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, V. L.; Feather, J.

    1976-01-01

    In a household health survey more than 15 000 individuals in four areas of Canada were interviewed as part of the World Health Organization/International Collaborative Study of Medical Care Utilization. Data were collected to describe the health services system in each area and to measure the population's utilization of health professionals, hospitals, medicines and selected preventive services, perceived acute and chronic morbidity, attitudes and beliefs about health and health care, and sociodemographic characteristics. The proportion of persons with perceived morbidity was twice that of persons reporting visits with a physician in the same 2-week period. Prescribed and nonprescribed medications had been used by more than 50% of respondents in each area in the 2 days before the interview, nonprescribed medicines accounting for more than half of this use. Respondents were found to be more sceptical of medical doctors than of medical science. PMID:1253067

  13. [The medicine of nurturing life energy--health creation and self-organization].

    PubMed

    Shimura, Norio; Nagata, Katsutaro; Hatakeyama, Takanobu; Nishiyama, Yoshihide; Sugiura, Tsuyoshi

    2003-01-01

    It is reality that human's body and mind are being created by life energy through every moment of life. As modern medicine does not consider this life energy itself, the most modern people hardly does not think it's intuitive meaning and use it to actualize their health and happiness in life. They can consider the outcome of life phenomena in the fields of physical, psychological, sociological and ethical sides, but they can not ask what life energy is, and subsequently can not use it in their life. Therefore, they live to make effort to actualize how to change life style considering of medical scientific facts (Evidence-Based-Medical Health Care). The intuitive life's action which can contact with the outer worlds, has the dynamic relationship with them and it creates new body and mind continuously. Modern medicine has not researched this dynamic life energy itself. What has life energy, single gene, single cell, single organ such as the brain and heart and single human beings, have been maintained their life by using their common and universal two life energies which are called self-organization, self-creativity and communicative ability. These two life energies of them were communicating with themselves or each others and their environments, and recreating their form and function continuously every moment of lives. It was conceptualized "Body-Mind-Spirit (Life-energy)-Life Dynamics". All of life phenomena which are not only diseases but also health, come from the results of "Body-Mind-Spirit-Life Dynamics". When we communicate with the outer worlds in "Real Self", human beings will keep the highest state of "Body-Mind-Spirit-Life Dynamics". We clarified that human beings can actualize the healthy and happy lives by themselves from understanding this idea, it also means for them to be able to create healthy personality through their lives and we clarified new assessment way of life energy simultaneously. PMID:12806907

  14. Public health issues related with the consumption of food obtained from genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Paparini, Andrea; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are a fact of modern agriculture and a major field of discussion in biotechnology. As science incessantly achieves innovative and unexpected breakthroughs, new medical, political, ethical and religious debates arise over the production and consumption of transgenic organisms. Despite no described medical condition being directly associated with a diet including approved GM crops in large exposed populations such as 300,000,000 Americans and a billion Chinese, public opinion seems to look at this new technology with either growing concern or even disapproval. It is generally recognized that a high level of vigilance is necessary and highly desirable, but it should also be considered that GMOs are a promising new challenge for the III Millennium societies, with remarkable impact on many disciplines and fields related to biotechnology. To acquire a basic knowledge on GMO production, GM-food consumption, GMO interaction with humans and environment is of primary importance for risk assessment. It requires availability of clear data and results from rigorous experiments. This review will focus on public health risks related with a GMO-containing diet. The objective is to summarize state of the art research, provide fundamental technical information, point out problems and perspectives, and make available essential tools for further research. Are GMO based industries and GMO-derived foods safe to human health? Can we consider both social, ethical and public health issues by means of a constant and effective monitoring of the food chain and by a clear, informative labeling of the products? Which are the so far characterized or alleged hazards of GMOs? And, most importantly, are these hazards actual, potential or merely contrived? Several questions remain open; answers and solutions belong to science, to politics and to the personal opinion of each social subject. PMID:15504704

  15. The SAFER guides: empowering organizations to improve the safety and effectiveness of electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Sittig, Dean F; Ash, Joan S; Singh, Hardeep

    2014-05-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) have potential to improve quality and safety of healthcare. However, EHR users have experienced safety concerns from EHR design and usability features that are not optimally adapted for the complex work flow of real-world practice. Few strategies exist to address unintended consequences from implementation of EHRs and other health information technologies. We propose that organizations equipped with EHRs should consider the strategy of "proactive risk assessment" of their EHR-enabled healthcare system to identify and address EHR-related safety concerns. In this paper, we describe the conceptual underpinning of an EHR-related self-assessment strategy to provide institutions a foundation upon which they could build their safety efforts. With support from the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC), we used a rigorous, iterative process to develop a set of 9 self-assessment tools to optimize the safety and safe use of EHRs. These tools, referred to as the Safety Assurance Factors for EHR Resilience (SAFER) guides, could be used to self-assess safety and effectiveness of EHR implementations, identify specific areas of vulnerability, and create solutions and culture change to mitigate risks. A variety of audiences could conduct these assessments, including frontline clinicians or care teams in different practices, or clinical, quality, or administrative leaders within larger institutions. The guides use a multifaceted systems-based approach to assess risk and empower organizations to work with internal or external stakeholders (eg, EHR developers) on optimizing EHR functionality and using EHRs to drive improvements in the quality and safety of healthcare. PMID:25181570

  16. World Health Organization 5-item well-being index: validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Camila Morelatto; Hidalgo, Maria Paz Loayza

    2012-04-01

    The psychological well-being dimension and depressive symptoms are both important variables in an individual's health. In this study, we evaluated the World Health Organization 5-item well-being index (WHO-Five) internal and external validities, and accuracy in detecting depression. A total of 1,128 individuals between 18 and 65 years old from a rural Brazilian population were included. Cronbach's alpha and factor analysis were performed for internal validation. Demographic variables means were compared, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed, and sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values for different cutoff points were calculated for external validation and accuracy in detecting depression. Cronbach's alpha was 0.83, and only one factor was responsible for 59% of common variances, with an eigenvalue of 2.96. Higher WHO-Five scores were associated with being man, from oldest age category and retired. It was also related to better general health self-perception and negative screening in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Based on BDI, the area under the curve was 67.37. A sensitivity of 66/75% and a negative predictive value of 91/92% for cutoffs <19/20 were detected. WHO-Five showed internal and external validities when used to measure the well-being dimension and to be a useful tool for depression screening. PMID:21912931

  17. Public health concern behind the exposure to persistent organic pollutants and the risk of metabolic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are hazardous chemicals omnipresent in our food chain, which have been internationally regulated to ensure public health. Initially described for their potency to affect reproduction and promote cancer, recent studies have highlighted an unexpected implication of POPs in the development of metabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes and obesity. Based on this novel knowledge, this article aims at stimulating discussion and evaluating the effectiveness of current POP legislation to protect humans against the risk of metabolic diseases. Furthermore, the regulation of POPs in animal food products in the European Union (EU) is addressed, with a special focus on marine food since it may represent a major source of POP exposure to humans. Discussion There is mounting scientific evidence showing that current POP risk assessment and regulation cannot effectively protect humans against metabolic disorders. Better regulatory control of POPs in dietary products should be of high public health priority. Summary The general population is exposed to sufficient POPs, both in term of concentration and diversity, to induce metabolic disorders. This situation should attract the greatest attention from the public health and governmental authorities. PMID:22520265

  18. An uncertain risk: the World Health Organization's account of H1N1.

    PubMed

    Abeysinghe, Sudeepa

    2014-09-01

    Scientific uncertainty is fundamental to the management of contemporary global risks. In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the start of the H1N1 Influenza Pandemic. This declaration signified the risk posed by the spread of the H1N1 virus, and in turn precipitated a range of actions by global public health actors. This article analyzes the WHO's public representation of risk and examines the centrality of scientific uncertainty in the case of H1N1. It argues that the WHO's risk narrative reflected the context of scientific uncertainty in which it was working. The WHO argued that it was attempting to remain faithful to the scientific evidence, and the uncertain nature of the threat. However, as a result, the WHO's public risk narrative was neither consistent nor socially robust, leading to the eventual contestation of the WHO's position by other global public health actors, most notably the Council of Europe. This illustrates both the significance of scientific uncertainty in the investigation of risk, and the difficulty for risk managing institutions in effectively acting in the face of this uncertainty. PMID:25233744

  19. Emerging opportunities for educational partnerships between managed care organizations and academic health centers.

    PubMed Central

    Nash, D B; Veloski, J J

    1998-01-01

    Medical schools, teaching hospitals, and managed care organizations have a vested interest in shaping the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the next generation of physicians who must adapt to significant changes in the financing and delivery of health care. This article summarizes the rationale for educational partnerships between managed care and academic medicine based on a review of three decades of well-documented experimentation in the literature. Discussed are some of the most important characteristics of the successful partnerships being forged in the current healthcare environment based on new kinds of relationships between faculty and non-university clinician educators. What had been referred to in previous decades as the "teaching-HMO" is now being complemented by community-based links between academic health centers and managed care plans. Several public and private sources have been generous in providing venture capital to support many of these innovations. However, their continued operation will depend on models for health care networks that can identify and manage the revenue and costs associated with the missions of education, clinical services, and research. PMID:9614788

  20. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 5. Persistent organic pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Gibson, Brian L.; Sanborn, Margaret D.; Weir, Erica

    2002-01-01

    CONCERN AND AWARENESS IS GROWING about the health effects of exposures to environmental contaminants, including those found in food. Most primary care physicians lack knowledge and training in the clinical recognition and management of the health effects of environmental exposures. We have found that the use of a simple history-taking tool — the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, Hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, Diet and Drugs) — can help physicians identify patients at risk of such health effects. We present an illustrative case of a mother who is concerned about eating fish and wild game because her 7-year-old son has been found to have learning difficulties and she is planning another pregnancy. Potential exposures to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury are considered. The neurodevelopmental effects of POPs on the fetus are reviewed. We provide advice to limit a patient's exposure to these contaminants and discuss the relevance of these exposures to the learning difficulties of the 7-year-old child and to the planning of future pregnancies. PMID:12074124

  1. HRM and its effect on employee, organizational and financial outcomes in health care organizations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the main goals of Human Resource Management (HRM) is to increase the performance of organizations. However, few studies have explicitly addressed the multidimensional character of performance and linked HR practices to various outcome dimensions. This study therefore adds to the literature by relating HR practices to three outcome dimensions: financial, organizational and employee (HR) outcomes. Furthermore, we will analyze how HR practices influence these outcome dimensions, focusing on the mediating role of job satisfaction. Methods This study uses a unique dataset, based on the ‘ActiZ Benchmark in Healthcare’, a benchmark study conducted in Dutch home care, nursing care and care homes. Data from autumn 2010 to autumn 2011 were analyzed. In total, 162 organizations participated during this period (approximately 35% of all Dutch care organizations). Employee data were collected using a questionnaire (61,061 individuals, response rate 42%). Clients were surveyed using the Client Quality Index for long-term care, via stratified sampling. Financial outcomes were collected using annual reports. SEM analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses. Results It was found that HR practices are - directly or indirectly - linked to all three outcomes. The use of HR practices is related to improved financial outcomes (measure: net margin), organizational outcomes (measure: client satisfaction) and HR outcomes (measure: sickness absence). The impact of HR practices on HR outcomes and organizational outcomes proved substantially larger than their impact on financial outcomes. Furthermore, with respect to HR and organizational outcomes, the hypotheses concerning the full mediating effect of job satisfaction are confirmed. This is in line with the view that employee attitudes are an important element in the ‘black box’ between HRM and performance. Conclusion The results underscore the importance of HRM in the health care sector, especially for HR and

  2. Information reporting of minimum essential coverage. Final regulations.

    PubMed

    2014-03-10

    This document contains final regulations providing guidance to providers of minimum essential health coverage that are subject to the information reporting requirements of section 6055 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code), enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Health insurance issuers, certain employers, and others that provide minimum essential coverage to individuals must report to the IRS information about the type and period of coverage and furnish the information in statements to covered individuals. These final regulations affect health insurance issuers and carriers, employers, governments, and other persons that provide minimum essential coverage to individuals. PMID:24693560

  3. Sales force development in health services organizations; a boundary spanning perspective.

    PubMed

    Kornuszko, M A; Gamm, L D

    1990-01-01

    Sales force development is of growing importance to HSOs in their increasingly competitive and heterogenous health care markets. There is always some danger that, under such circumstances, strategies new to HSOs will be adopted without sufficient attention to how they function and how they might best be integrated into the organization's overall mission. The sales force is becoming an important part of administration in the modern HSO. Ensuring that sales personnel effectively meet the needs of clients and of all relevant units of their HSO calls for attention to a number of concerns raised in organization-environment theory. Concepts from the literature on organizational boundaries and boundary spanning used here organize and illuminate major issues in sales force development. The approach taken is one which underscores the importance of these issues, illustrates some possible responses, and encourages HSO administrators to reflect on organizational implications of sales force development. The perspective offered provides a base for more detailed design considerations in planning and implementing a sales force. PMID:10106600

  4. Organic chemicals jeopardize the health of freshwater ecosystems on the continental scale

    PubMed Central

    Malaj, Egina; von der Ohe, Peter C.; Grote, Matthias; Kühne, Ralph; Mondy, Cédric P.; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Brack, Werner; Schäfer, Ralf B.

    2014-01-01

    Organic chemicals can contribute to local and regional losses of freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, their overall relevance regarding larger spatial scales remains unknown. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first risk assessment of organic chemicals on the continental scale comprising 4,000 European monitoring sites. Organic chemicals were likely to exert acute lethal and chronic long-term effects on sensitive fish, invertebrate, or algae species in 14% and 42% of the sites, respectively. Of the 223 chemicals monitored, pesticides, tributyltin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and brominated flame retardants were the major contributors to the chemical risk. Their presence was related to agricultural and urban areas in the upstream catchment. The risk of potential acute lethal and chronic long-term effects increased with the number of ecotoxicologically relevant chemicals analyzed at each site. As most monitoring programs considered in this study only included a subset of these chemicals, our assessment likely underestimates the actual risk. Increasing chemical risk was associated with deterioration in the quality status of fish and invertebrate communities. Our results clearly indicate that chemical pollution is a large-scale environmental problem and requires far-reaching, holistic mitigation measures to preserve and restore ecosystem health. PMID:24979762

  5. Farm Animal Models of Organic Dust Exposure and Toxicity: Insights and Implications for Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, Chakia J.; Gerald, Carresse L.; Waterman, Jenora T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Modern food animal production is a major contributor to the global economy, owing to advanced intensive indoor production facilities aimed at increasing market readiness and profit. Consequences of these advances are accumulation of dusts, gases and microbial products that diminish air quality within production facilities. Chronic inhalation exposure contributes to onset and exacerbation of respiratory symptoms and diseases in animals and workers. This article reviews literature regarding constituents of farm animal production facility dusts; animal responses to production building and organic dust exposure, and the effect of chronic inhalation exposure on pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation. Recent findings –Porcine models of production facility and organic dust exposures reveal striking similarities to observations of human cells, tissues and clinical data. Oxidative stress plays a key role in mediating respiratory diseases in animals and humans, and enhancement of antioxidant levels through nutritional supplements can improve respiratory health. Summary – Pigs are well adapted to the exposures common to swine production buildings and thus serve as excellent models for facility workers. Insight for understanding mechanisms governing organic dust associated respiratory diseases may come from parallel comparisons between farmers and the animals they raise. PMID:25636160

  6. Microbiological quality & incidence of organisms of public health importance in food & water in Ludhiana.

    PubMed

    Ram, S; Khurana, S; Khurana, S B; Vadehra, D V; Sharma, S; Chhina, R S

    1996-05-01

    Bacteriological analysis of 713 samples of various types of foods and related articles and potable water samples from different places in Ludhiana, Punjab was carried out. The highest counts ranging from 2.5 x 10(6)-7.5 x 10(8) organisms/g were observed in raw vegetables and fruits, followed by 3 x 10(6)-9.8 x 10(7)/ml, 8.3 x 10(4)-8.9 x 10(7)/g and 1 x 10(3)-6.7 x 10(7)/g in fruit juice, milk and its products, and salty/non milk snacks respectively. Fresh chapati, dal, rice, cooked vegetables and karhi etc., showed no microbial contamination. However, samples of these articles from road side cafes gave counts up to 1 x 10(7) organism/g. The most probable number of coliforms and Escherichia coli/100 ml of water ranged from < 1 to > 1100. Although 1332 isolates of 16 types of organisms of public health significance were obtained those of proven enteropathogenicity were enterotoxigenic Esch. coli (55), Esch. coli O157 (3), enteropathogenic Esch. coli (1), enterotoxigenic Klebsiella (23), Streptococcus faecalis (152), Bacillus cereus (133), Staphylococcus aureus (125), Aeromonas spp (47), Salmonella spp (10), Shigella spp (4) and Yersinia enterocolitica (2). Poor quality of potable water and widespread occurrence of enteropathogens in food consumed by the common man in Ludhiana was evident. PMID:8707360

  7. 3D genome organization in health and disease: emerging opportunities in cancer translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Deepak; Fullwood, Melissa J

    2015-01-01

    Organizing the DNA to fit inside a spatially constrained nucleus is a challenging problem that has attracted the attention of scientists across all disciplines of science. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the importance of genome geometry in several cellular contexts that affect human health. Among several approaches, the application of sequencing technologies has substantially increased our understanding of this intricate organization, also known as chromatin interactions. These structures are involved in transcriptional control of gene expression by connecting distal regulatory elements with their target genes and regulating co-transcriptional splicing. In addition, chromatin interactions play pivotal roles in the organization of the genome, the formation of structural variants, recombination, DNA replication and cell division. Mutations in factors that regulate chromatin interactions lead to the development of pathological conditions, for example, cancer. In this review, we discuss key findings that have shed light on the importance of these structures in the context of cancers, and highlight the applicability of chromatin interactions as potential biomarkers in molecular medicine as well as therapeutic implications of chromatin interactions. PMID:26553406

  8. Corporate compliance plans in health care organizations: a top-down perspective.

    PubMed

    Forgione, D A

    1998-01-01

    Recently, at an all-day professional meeting that was targeted at about 100 junior-level health care financial professionals, we covered a whole spectrum of subjects. We covered topics ranging from the Hill-Burton Act to Medicare managed care organizations (MCOs) and capitation; the Stark rules on physician self-referral; the financial incentives within various payment systems for physicians, hospitals, and other providers; Medicare fraud and abuse rules; and the need for well-designed corporate compliance plans. After responding to a number of the participants' questions, I could not help but be reminded of the students every semester who ask me, "Will this be on the test?" In other words, if there are no real teeth in the subject, then they have too many other urgent priorities demanding their attention to give the issue serious consideration. Perhaps this highlights the need for taking corporate compliance planning seriously--starting at the top levels of the organization. It is well documented that leadership attitudes filter downward in any organization. If change for the better is going to take place in the area of corporate compliance, it needs to begin with each of us as individuals, from the top down. PMID:9612741

  9. Biometric health screening for employers: consensus statement of the health enhancement research organization, American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, and care continuum alliance.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    Employer wellness programs have grown rapidly in recent years with the interest in making an impact on employees' health. Successful programs are delivered through comprehensive solutions that are linked to an organization's business strategy and championed by senior leadership. Successful employee health management programs vary in the services, yet typically include the core components of health risk identification tools, behavior modification programs, educational programs, as well as changes to the workplace environment and culture. This article focuses on biometric screenings and was intended to provide employers and other stakeholders with information and guidance to help implement a successful screening program as part of an overall employee health management approach. The article is organized into four sections: goals and key success factors; methods and oversight; operations and delivery; and engagement and evaluation. PMID:24029923

  10. Using health information technology to manage a patient population in accountable care organizations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Frances M; Rundall, Thomas G; Shortell, Stephen M; Bloom, Joan R

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to describe the current landscape of health information technology (HIT) in early accountable care organizations (ACOs), the different strategies ACOs are using to develop HIT-based capabilities, and how ACOs are using these capabilities within their care management processes to advance health outcomes for their patient population. Design/methodology/approach - Mixed methods study pairing data from a cross-sectional National Survey of ACOs with in-depth, semi-structured interviews with leaders from 11 ACOs (both completed in 2013). Findings - Early ACOs vary widely in their electronic health record, data integration, and analytic capabilities. The most common HIT capability was drug-drug and drug-allergy interaction checks, with 53.2 percent of respondents reporting that the ACO possessed the capability to a high degree. Outpatient and inpatient data integration was the least common HIT capability (8.1 percent). In the interviews, ACO leaders commented on different HIT development strategies to gain a more comprehensive picture of patient needs and service utilization. ACOs realize the necessity for robust data analytics, and are exploring a variety of approaches to achieve it. Research limitations/implications - Data are self-reported. The qualitative portion was based on interviews with 11 ACOs, limiting generalizability to the universe of ACOs but allowing for a range of responses. Practical implications - ACOs are challenged with the development of sophisticated HIT infrastructure. They may benefit from targeted assistance and incentives to implement health information exchanges with other providers to promote more coordinated care management for their patient population. Originality/value - Using new empirical data, this study increases understanding of the extent of ACOs' current and developing HIT capabilities to support ongoing care management. PMID:27296880

  11. Innovation in patient-centered care: lessons from a qualitative study of innovative health care organizations in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Growing interest in the promise of patient-centered care has led to numerous health care innovations, including the patient-centered medical home, shared decision-making, and payment reforms. How best to vet and adopt innovations is an open question. Washington State has been a leader in health care reform and is a rich laboratory for patient-centered innovations. We sought to understand the process of patient-centered care innovation undertaken by innovative health care organizations – from strategic planning to goal selection to implementation to maintenance. Methods We conducted key-informant interviews with executives at five health plans, five provider organizations, and ten primary care clinics in Washington State. At least two readers of each interview transcript identified themes inductively; final themes were determined by consensus. Results Innovation in patient-centered care was a strategic objective chosen by nearly every organization in this study. However, other goals were paramount: cost containment, quality improvement, and organization survival. Organizations commonly perceived effective chronic disease management and integrated health information technology as key elements for successful patient-centered care innovation. Inertia, resource deficits, fee-for-service payment, and regulatory limits on scope of practice were cited as barriers to innovation, while organization leadership, human capital, and adaptive culture facilitated innovation. Conclusions Patient-centered care innovations reflected organizational perspectives: health plans emphasized cost-effectiveness while providers emphasized health care delivery processes. Health plans and providers shared many objectives, yet the two rarely collaborated to achieve them. The process of innovation is heavily dependent on organizational culture and leadership. Policymakers can improve the pace and quality of patient-centered innovation by setting targets and addressing conditions for

  12. Minimum Competency in Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Landsheere, Viviane

    1987-01-01

    Discusses issues related to the movement toward minimum competency in secondary education. Addresses the problem of defining minimum competency and the dangers of imposed standardization. Identifies three conceptualizations of minimum competency as: (1) the narrowly educational standpoint, (2) the concern with functional literacy, and (3) a more…

  13. Improving Our Nation's Health Care System: Inclusion of Chiropractic in Patient-Centered Medical Homes and Accountable Care Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, William C.; Watkins, R.W.; Kranz, Karl C.; Munsterman, Scott D.; Johnson, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Objective This report summarizes the closing plenary session of the Association of Chiropractic Colleges Educational Conference—Research Agenda Conference 2014. The purpose of this session was to examine patient-centered medical homes and accountable care organizations from various speakers’ viewpoints and to discuss how chiropractic could possibly work within, and successfully contribute to, the changing health care environment. Discussion The speakers addressed the complex topic of patient-centered medical homes and accountable care organizations and provided suggestions for what leadership strategies the chiropractic profession may need to enhance chiropractic participation and contribution to improving our nation’s health. Conclusion There are many factors involved in the complex topic of chiropractic inclusion in health care models. Major themes resulting from this panel included the importance of building relationships with other professionals, demonstrating data and evidence for what is done in chiropractic practice, improving quality of care, improving health of populations, and reducing costs of health care. PMID:25431542

  14. Design for Minimum Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Design for Minimum Risk (DFMR) is a term used by NASA programs as an expansion of the general hazard reduction process where if an identified hazard cannot be eliminated, the design is modified to reduce the associated mishap risk to an acceptable level. DFMR is a set of specific requirements to minimize risk. DFMR is not well understood and there are many misconceptions concerning the meaning and use. This paper will provide insight into the use of DFMR for space applications; it s comparison to other hazard mitigation strategies and examples of how the approach has been used in the past. It will also highlight documents used by NASA on various programs to determine DFMR.

  15. 30 CFR 77.1903 - Hoists and hoisting; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hoists and hoisting; minimum requirements. 77... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1903 Hoists and hoisting; minimum requirements. (a)...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1903 - Hoists and hoisting; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hoists and hoisting; minimum requirements. 77... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1903 Hoists and hoisting; minimum requirements. (a)...

  17. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves...

  18. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves...

  19. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1903 - Hoists and hoisting; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoists and hoisting; minimum requirements. 77... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1903 Hoists and hoisting; minimum requirements. (a)...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1903 - Hoists and hoisting; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hoists and hoisting; minimum requirements. 77... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1903 Hoists and hoisting; minimum requirements. (a)...

  2. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves...

  3. 42 CFR 84.82 - Gas pressure gages; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas pressure gages; minimum requirements. 84.82...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.82 Gas pressure gages; minimum requirements. (a) Gas pressure gages.... (c) Gas pressure gages other than those specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section shall...

  4. 42 CFR 84.197 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.197... Cartridge Respirators § 84.197 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type...

  5. 42 CFR 84.134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.134... Respirators § 84.134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Supplied-air respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type...

  6. 42 CFR 84.1134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section each respirator shall be equipped with a substantial, durable...

  7. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152... Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air... employed in lieu of the breathing tubes required. (c)(1) A flexible, nonkinking type breathing tube...

  8. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152... Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air... employed in lieu of the breathing tubes required. (c)(1) A flexible, nonkinking type breathing tube...

  9. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152... Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air... employed in lieu of the breathing tubes required. (c)(1) A flexible, nonkinking type breathing tube...

  10. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152... Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air... employed in lieu of the breathing tubes required. (c)(1) A flexible, nonkinking type breathing tube...

  11. 42 CFR 84.87 - Compressed gas filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compressed gas filters; minimum requirements. 84.87...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.87 Compressed gas filters; minimum requirements. All self-contained breathing apparatus using compressed gas shall have a filter downstream of the gas source to...

  12. 42 CFR 84.87 - Compressed gas filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed gas filters; minimum requirements. 84.87...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.87 Compressed gas filters; minimum requirements. All self-contained breathing apparatus using compressed gas shall have a filter downstream of the gas source to...

  13. 42 CFR 84.87 - Compressed gas filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed gas filters; minimum requirements. 84.87...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.87 Compressed gas filters; minimum requirements. All self-contained breathing apparatus using compressed gas shall have a filter downstream of the gas source to...

  14. 42 CFR 84.87 - Compressed gas filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed gas filters; minimum requirements. 84.87...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.87 Compressed gas filters; minimum requirements. All self-contained breathing apparatus using compressed gas shall have a filter downstream of the gas source to...

  15. 42 CFR 84.87 - Compressed gas filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed gas filters; minimum requirements. 84.87...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.87 Compressed gas filters; minimum requirements. All self-contained breathing apparatus using compressed gas shall have a filter downstream of the gas source to...

  16. 42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117... § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a) Gas masks shall be equipped with a substantial... mask it contains and all appropriate approval labels. (b) Containers for gas masks shall be...

  17. 42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117... § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a) Gas masks shall be equipped with a substantial... mask it contains and all appropriate approval labels. (b) Containers for gas masks shall be...

  18. 42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117... § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a) Gas masks shall be equipped with a substantial... mask it contains and all appropriate approval labels. (b) Containers for gas masks shall be...

  19. 42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117... § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a) Gas masks shall be equipped with a substantial... mask it contains and all appropriate approval labels. (b) Containers for gas masks shall be...

  20. 42 CFR 84.178 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.178... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.178 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension...