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Sample records for health related behaviors

  1. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  2. Health literacy and women's health-related behaviors in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D; Tsai, Tzu-I; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Ken N

    2012-04-01

    Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food expiration dates, and monitoring physical changes) in women and to test whether the association is mediated by health knowledge. A national sample of 1,754 female adults in Taiwan was included in the study. Result showed that health literacy was positively and independently related to checking food expiration dates and monitoring physical changes, and that health literacy was not related to physical checkup and Pap smear screening. Interestingly, women with high health literacy were more likely to be a current smoker. Study findings suggest that efforts to improve health promotion behaviors in women should consider health literacy as an important factor and that the effect of health literacy on health prevention behaviors may vary by women's access to care. PMID:21742948

  3. Health Literacy and Women's Health-Related Behaviors in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Tsai, Tzu-I; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Ken N.

    2012-01-01

    Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food…

  4. Estimates of Preventability and Their Relation to Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Gary D.

    It was hypothesized that a person's estimates of the preventability of health problems would be related to health behaviors such that a person who engages in healthful behavior should make higher estimates of preventability. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between causal attribution of health problems and health-related…

  5. Neighborhood Comparisons of Dog-Related Health Hazards and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Melinda

    1984-01-01

    Undergraduate students increase their understanding of human geography and become aware of their community's health ecology by examining the degree and geographical pattern of dog-associated health hazards in Athens, Georgia, and by studying the behavioral patterns and attitudes of Athens's residents that might be causally related to these health…

  6. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001). The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001). The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors (smoking, regular

  7. The effects of gender and age on health related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Deeks, Amanda; Lombard, Catherine; Michelmore, Janet; Teede, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Background Lifestyle-related diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers represent the greatest global health threat. Greater insight into health needs and beliefs, using broad community samples, is vital to reduce the burden of chronic disease. This study aimed to investigate gender, age, screening practices, health beliefs, and perceived future health needs for healthy ageing. Methods Random probability sampling using self-completion surveys in 1456 adults residing in Australia. Results Screening behaviors were associated with gender and age. Men and women >51 years were more likely (27%) to have screening health checks than those <50 years (2%). Factors nominated to influence health were lifestyle (92%), relationships (82%), and environment (80%). Women were more likely to nominate preparedness to have an annual health check, willingness to seek advice from their medical practitioner and to attend education sessions. Numerous health fears were associated with ageing, however participants were more likely to have a financial (72%) rather than a health plan (42%). More women and participants >51 years wanted information regarding illness prevention than men or those aged <30 years. Conclusion Age and gender are associated with health related behaviors. Optimal health is perceived as a priority, yet often this perception is not translated into preventative action. These findings will inform future research and policy makers as we strive towards a healthier ageing society and the prevention of chronic disease. PMID:19563685

  8. Born Fat: The Relations Between Weight Changeability Beliefs and Health Behaviors and Physical Health.

    PubMed

    Parent, Mike C; Alquist, Jessica L

    2016-06-01

    Although some popular press and nonscholarly sources have claimed that weight is largely unchangeable, the relationship between this belief and objective measures of health remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that people who believe weight is unchangeable will have poorer objective and subjective health, and fewer exercise behaviors and poorer eating habits, than people who believe weight is changeable. Participants were 4,166 men and 4,655 women enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the 2007 to 2010 iterations. Believing that weight was uncontrollable was negatively related to exercise and healthful dietary practices and positively related to unhealthful eating. Lack of exercise and unhealthful eating were, in turn, associated with poor physical health. Age, but not gender, moderated the relationships between belief in weight changeability and exercise behaviors, healthful eating, and unhealthful eating. This study suggests that believing weight is unchangeable is associated with poor health behaviors and poorer physical health. PMID:26351266

  9. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health-Promoting Behaviors in Black Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Wilma J.; Isaac,, E. Paulette; Johnson, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the health-related quality of life and health-promoting behaviors in a convenience sample of low-income black men. Almost three-fourths reported their overall health as good or better. However, the mean number of recent (that is, past 30 days) mentally unhealthy days was 13.12, and more than half reported frequent (greater than…

  10. Clustering of health-related behaviors, health outcomes and demographics in Dutch adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these behavioral patterns to health-related outcomes. This paper presents an analysis of the clustering of a broad range of health-related behaviors with relevant demographic factors and several health-related outcomes in adolescents. Methods Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 2,690 Dutch high school adolescents. Behavioral patterns were deducted via Principal Components Analysis. Subsequently a Two-Step Cluster Analysis was used to identify groups of adolescents with similar behavioral patterns and health-related outcomes. Results Four distinct behavioral patterns describe the analyzed individual behaviors: 1- risk-prone behavior, 2- bully behavior, 3- problematic screen time use, and 4- sedentary behavior. Subsequent cluster analysis identified four clusters of adolescents. Multi-problem behavior was associated with problematic physical and psychosocial health outcomes, as opposed to those exerting relatively few unhealthy behaviors. These associations were relatively independent of demographics such as ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status. Conclusions The results show that health-related behaviors tend to cluster, indicating that specific behavioral patterns underlie individual health behaviors. In addition, specific patterns of health-related behaviors were associated with specific health outcomes and demographic factors. In general, unhealthy behavior on account of multiple health-related behaviors was associated with both poor psychosocial

  11. Family Relational Health, Psychological Resources, and Health Behaviors: A Dyadic Study of Military Couples.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A; Ferraro, Anthony J; Ross, D Bruce

    2016-02-01

    In addition to facing stressors that are typical of life course development (e.g., marital struggles, balancing work/family demands), military families face additional stress attributed to their military context (e.g., deployments, relocations). Using a systems framework and stress process perspective, this study examined military couples' relational health, as a gauge for how couples collectively cope and address challenges as a united front and how their relational health influences crucial health behaviors (sleeping and eating) through the promotion or erosion of psychological resources (N = 236 couples). This study evaluated a latent variable structural equation dyadic model whereby each partner's perspective of their family's relational health was hypothesized to influence their own eating and sleeping behaviors (actor effects), as well as the eating and sleeping behaviors of their spouse (partner effects). The role of psychological resources (high self-efficacy, few depressive symptoms, and minimal anxiety) as a mechanism linking family functioning to health behaviors was also examined. Overall, the findings supported the hypothesized model, particularly for actor (intraindividual) effects. Discussion is provided pertinent to service providers and researchers, including the importance of improving, or maintaining, family relational health, as a means for encouraging positive health behaviors among active duty military members and their spouses. PMID:26837084

  12. African American College Students' Health Behaviors and Perceptions of Related Health Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Denyce S.; Goode, Carolyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A study of African American college students compared students' health-related behaviors with their perceptions of corresponding health issues. Students had low smoking rates but higher alcohol consumption. Most students did not practice good nutrition or daily physical activity. Over half managed stress well, and three-quarters were sexually…

  13. Relations of Behavioral Autonomy to Health Outcomes Among Emerging Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation of behavioral autonomy to psychological, behavioral, and physical health among emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Methods High school seniors with (n = 118) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed online questionnaires for three consecutive years. Behavioral autonomy, psychological health, risk behaviors, and diabetes outcomes were assessed. Regression analyses were conducted to predict Time 2 and 3 outcomes, controlling for Time 1 outcomes. Results There were no group differences in behavioral autonomy. Behavioral autonomy predicted better psychological health but only for emerging adults without diabetes. Behavioral autonomy was related to increased risk behavior for both groups. Behavioral autonomy was unrelated to self-care but predicted better glycemic control for females. Conclusions Behavioral autonomy may be beneficial for psychological health, but is related to increased risk behavior. The implications of behavioral autonomy for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes require careful consideration. PMID:25157070

  14. Promote health or prevent disease? The effects of health-related advertising on eating behavior intention.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-04-01

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future. PMID:25826394

  15. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future. PMID:25826394

  16. Vegan lifestyle behaviors: an exploration of congruence with health-related beliefs and assessed health indices.

    PubMed

    Dyett, Patricia A; Sabaté, Joan; Haddad, Ella; Rajaram, Sujatha; Shavlik, David

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate health belief as a major motive for diet and lifestyle behaviors of 100 vegans in the United States; and to determine congruence with selected health and nutrition outcomes. Response data from an administered questionnaire was analyzed. Statistical analyses determined the most common factors influencing diet choice; the number of vegans practicing particular lifestyle behaviors; body mass index; and prevalence of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. Nutrient intakes were analyzed and assessed against Dietary Reference Intakes. Health was the most reported reason for diet choice (47%). In the health belief, animal welfare, and religious/other motive categories, low percentages of chronic disease diagnoses were reported: 27%, 11%, and 15%, respectively. There were no significant differences in health behaviors and indices among vegan motive categories, except for product fat content choices. Within the entire study population, health-related vegan motive coincided with regular exercise; 71% normal BMI (mean=22.6); minimal alcohol and smoking practices; frequently consumed vegetables, nuts, and grains; healthy choices in meal types, cooking methods, and low-fat product consumption; and adequate intakes for most protective nutrients when compared to reference values. But incongruence was found with 0% intake adequacy for vitamin D; and observation of excessive sodium use. PMID:23583444

  17. Telephone intervention promoting weight-related health behaviors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent national surveys have documented that the majority of adults in the United States do not meet the recommended levels of healthy lifestyle-related behaviors. The Nutrition and Physical Activity (NuPA) study was designed to promote fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and weight ...

  18. The health-related behaviors and attitudes of student nurses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vowell, Maribeth

    Nurses are an important component of primary medical care, and patient education is a common and important role of most nurses. Patient education and positive role modeling by nurses have the potential to influence patients' life style choices and the serious diseases that may be affected by those choices. A greater understanding of the ways nurses think about their own health could help facilitate healthier choices for them and in their patients. The purpose of this inquiry was to examine the experiences, attitudes and beliefs of student nurses related to their personal health, and to investigate those experiences, attitudes and beliefs as they relate to their education, relationships, values and career choice. The purpose was achieved through phenomenological interviews with eleven senior nursing students, nine females and two males, encouraging them to provide in as much detail as possible their attitudes and values about their personal health. The interviews were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim, and phenomenologically analyzed. A thematic structure emerged such that the nursing students experiences were represented by the four interrelated themes of caring for myself/caring for others ; I control my health/my world controls my health; I have energy/I'm tired; and feeling good/looking good. The contextual grounds for the themes that emerged during the analysis were the Body and Time. This structure was presented in terms of its relationship to health education, other research and to current theory.

  19. Assessing Health-Related Quality of Life in Northern Plains American Indians: Prominence of Physical Activity as a Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poltavski, Dmitri; Holm, Jeffrey; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; McDonald, Leander

    2010-01-01

    Associations of behavioral health risks and healthy behaviors with self-reported health-related quality of life measures were investigated in a Northern Plains American Indian sample. Participants were surveyed in person using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. The results showed that regular physical activity was significantly…

  20. Sources of Health Information Related to Preventive Health Behaviors in a National Study

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Nicole; Baer, Heather J.; Clark, Cheryl R.; Lipsitz, Stuart; Hicks, LeRoi S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Current literature suggests that certain sources of information are used in varying degrees among different socioeconomic and demographic groups; therefore, it is important to determine if specific classes of health information sources are more effective than others in promoting health behaviors. Purpose To determine if interpersonal versus mass media sources of health information are associated with meeting recommendations for health behaviors (nonsmoking, fruit/vegetable intake, and exercise) and cancer screening. Methods Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship of health information sources (mass media sources including print, TV, Internet; and interpersonal sources including friends and family, community organizations, and healthcare providers); with meeting recommendations for healthy behaviors and cancer screening in the 2005 and 2007 Health Information National Trends Surveys (HINTS). Analyses were conducted in 2009. Results In the 2005 HINTS, participants reporting use of print media and community organizations as sources of health information over the past year were mostly likely to meet recommendations for health behaviors. In the 2007 HINTS, utilization of healthcare providers for health information was associated with meeting recommendations for health behaviors, particularly cancer screening. Conclusions Use of print media and interpersonal sources of health information are most consistently associated with self-reported health behaviors. Additional research should explore the relationship of health information sources to clinical outcomes. Social network interventions to promote adoption of health behaviors should be further developed. PMID:20494238

  1. Enrollment in Physical Education Is Associated with Health-Related Behavior among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassitano, Rafael M.; Barros, Mauro V. G.; Tenorio, Maria C. M.; Bezerra, Jorge; Florindo, Alex A.; Reis, Rodrigo S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Physical education (PE) plays a critical role in the healthy development of youth; however, the influence of PE classes in helping to provide students with health-related behavior patterns is not clear. This study aims to analyze whether participation in PE classes is associated with health-related behavior among high school students.…

  2. Obesity, Diet, and Physical Activity Behaviors of Students in Health- Related Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Cynthia M.; Nobrega, Cheryl; Dulfan, Faina

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined incidence of obesity and healthy lifestyle behaviors in college students in health-related (HM) compared to other majors (NH). Since individuals are more likely to follow health promotion advice if the health care professional lives a healthy lifestyle, this information may be important in determining compliance of…

  3. African American college students' health behaviors and perceptions of related health issues.

    PubMed

    Ford, D S; Goode, C R

    1994-03-01

    The authors identify specific health-related behaviors of African American college students and compare them with the students' perceptions of corresponding health issues. Among students surveyed, the rate of cigarette smoking (4%) was very low compared with smoking rates found in a national survey (14%); but alcohol consumption was relatively high (63%), although lower than the national average of 91%. More men than women smoked, but more women than men reported they drank alcoholic beverages. Most students (90.2%) said they did not usually eat breakfast, 73.6% reported that their diets were not nutritionally balanced, and the majority (55.4%) were not involved in daily physical activity. More than half (63%) of the students reported satisfactorily handling stress, and 74.1% indicated that they were sexually active. Respondents perceived the most important health issues facing college students as HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), birth control, date rape, stress management, suicide, and alcohol and other drugs. PMID:8201133

  4. Oral Health-related Beliefs, Behaviors, and Outcomes through the Life Course.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, J M; Zeng, J; Foster Page, L A; Baker, S R; Ramrakha, S; Thomson, W M

    2016-07-01

    Complex associations exist among socioeconomic status (SES) in early life, beliefs about oral health care (held by individuals and their parents), and oral health-related behaviors. The pathways to poor adult oral health are difficult to model and describe, especially due to a lack of longitudinal data. The study aim was to explore possible pathways of oral health from birth to adulthood (age 38 y). We hypothesized that higher socioeconomic position in childhood would predict favorable oral health beliefs in adolescence and early adulthood, which in turn would predict favorable self-care and dental attendance behaviors; those would lead to lower dental caries experience and better self-reported oral health by age 38 y. A generalized structural equation modeling approach was used to investigate the relationship among oral health-related beliefs, behaviors in early adulthood, and dental health outcomes and quality of life in adulthood (age, 38 y), based on longitudinal data from a population-based birth cohort. The current investigation utilized prospectively collected data on early (up to 15 y) and adult (26 and 32 y) SES, oral health-related beliefs (15, 26, and 32 y), self-care behaviors (15, 28, and 32 y), oral health outcomes (e.g., number of carious and missing tooth surfaces), and oral health-related quality of life (38 y). Early SES and parental oral health-related beliefs were associated with the study members' oral health-related beliefs, which in turn predicted toothbrushing and dental service use. Toothbrushing and dental service use were associated with the number of untreated carious and missing tooth surfaces in adulthood. The number of untreated carious and missing tooth surfaces were associated with oral health-related quality of life. Oral health toward the end of the fourth decade of life is associated with intergenerational factors and various aspects of people's beliefs, SES, dental attendance, and self-care operating since the childhood years

  5. Impact of a School Health Coordinator Intervention on Health-Related School Policies and Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; MacDonald, Pamela B.; Ellis, Jacqueline; Berry, Susan; Martin, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health-related, school-based interventions may serve to prevent disease and improve academic performance. The Healthy Maine Partnerships (HMP) initiative funded local school health coordinators (SHCs) as a part of Maine's Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) beginning in January 2001. SHCs established school health leadership teams…

  6. Born Fat: The Relations between Weight Changeability Beliefs and Health Behaviors and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Mike C.; Alquist, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    Although some popular press and nonscholarly sources have claimed that weight is largely unchangeable, the relationship between this belief and objective measures of health remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that people who believe weight is unchangeable will have poorer objective and subjective health, and fewer exercise behaviors and…

  7. Health-Related Behaviors in Swimming Pool Users: Influence of Knowledge of Regulations and Awareness of Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Gallè, Francesca; Dallolio, Laura; Marotta, Manfredo; Raggi, Alessandra; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Liguori, Giorgio; Toni, Francesco; Leoni, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Background: Swimming pool attendance exposes users to infection and chemical risks that could be largely reduced with the adoption of healthy behaviors. This study aims to investigate if the knowledge of swimming pool regulations and awareness of health risks can be associated with users’ health-related behaviors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered questionnaires to collect data from two different target groups of swimming users: 184 adults and 184 children/adolescents. The association between specific variables and patterns of behaviors and knowledge was assessed through multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Although more than 80% of both groups declared they knew the regulations, compliance with healthy behaviors was often unsatisfactory, especially in adolescents and youth. In the children/adolescents group, healthy behaviors significantly increased with the frequency of attendance per week. In both groups, compliance increased with educational level (of parents for children/adolescents), while no positive association was observed between viewing the regulations and adopting appropriate behaviors. In the adult group, a higher knowledge/awareness of health risks was related to decreased odds of at least one unhealthy behavior. Conclusions: Guaranteeing the public display of regulations in swimming facilities is not sufficient to promote and change health-related behaviors. Much more attention should be given to educational interventions aimed to increase knowledge of health risks and the awareness that bathers are directly responsible for their own well-being. PMID:27213417

  8. The influence of mental health problems on AIDS-related risk behaviors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Stiffman, A R; Doré, P; Earls, F; Cunningham, R

    1992-05-01

    This paper explores how symptoms of mental health problems influence acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related risk behaviors, and how changes in those symptoms relate to risk behaviors engaged in by young adults. Repeated interviews with 602 youths since 1984 provide a history of change in behaviors. Mental health symptoms during adolescence (alcohol/drug [r = .28]; conduct disorder [r = .27]; depression [r = .16]; suicide [r = .14]; anxiety [r = .16]; and posttraumatic stress [r = .09]) are associated with higher numbers of risk behaviors (specifically, prostitution, use of intravenous drugs, and choice of a high-risk sex partner) during young adulthood. Changes in mental health symptoms between adolescence and young adulthood are related to the number of risk behaviors engaged in by young adulthood (total number of symptoms [B = .10], alcohol/drug abuse or dependence [B = .34], depression [B = .20], suicidality [B = .35], anxiety [B = .13], and posttraumatic stress [B = .14]). Changes in symptoms of mental health problems are associated specifically with those risk behaviors that are initiated primarily in young adulthood: intravenous drug use, prostitution, and choice of risky partners. The findings show that prevention and treatment of mental health problems are important components of preventive interventions for human immunodeficiency virus infection in high-risk teens and young adults. PMID:1583474

  9. Understanding of School Related Factors Associated with Emotional Health and Bullying Behavior among Jordanian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    SHAHEEN, Abeer; NASSAR, Omayyah; SALEH, Mohammad; ARABIA T, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Students emotional health and bullying behavior are receiving greater attention worldwide due to their long-term effects on students’ health. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived school climate, peer support, teacher support, school pressure and emotional health and bullying among adolescent school students in Jordan. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to recruit a sample of 1166 in-school adolescents in Amman between November 2013 and January 2014. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select respondents and Health Behavior in School Aged Children questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using Pearson Correlation to detect relationships among study variables. Results Significant correlations (P value was ≤.05) were found between school climate including teacher and peer support and emotional health and bullying behavior of school students. School pressure was not correlated significantly with emotional health and bullying. Conclusion Study findings emphasize the importance of school related factors in influencing students’ emotional health and bullying behavior. This indicates that the issue of bullying and emotional health of students in Jordanian schools requires further attention, both for future research and preventive intervention. PMID:26060720

  10. Playing for Real: Video Games and Stories for Health-Related Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Thompson, Debbe I.; Baranowski, Janice

    2008-01-01

    Background Video games provide extensive player involvement for large numbers of children and adults, and thereby provide a channel for delivering health behavior change experiences and messages in an engaging and entertaining format. Method Twenty-seven articles were identified on 25 video games that promoted health-related behavior change through December 2006. Results Most of the articles demonstrated positive health-related changes from playing the video games. Variability in what was reported about the games and measures employed precluded systematically relating characteristics of the games to outcomes. Many of these games merged the immersive, attention-maintaining properties of stories and fantasy, the engaging properties of interactivity, and behavior-change technology (e.g., tailored messages, goal setting). Stories in video games allow for modeling, vicarious identifying experiences, and learning a story’s “moral,” among other change possibilities. Conclusions Research is needed on the optimal use of game-based stories, fantasy, interactivity, and behavior change technology in promoting health-related behavior change. PMID:18083454

  11. Leave taking and overtime behavior as related to demographic, health, and job variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldi, L. B.; Townsend, J. C.

    1969-01-01

    An intra-installation model is formulated that correlates demographic, health and job related variables to the various types and amounts of leave and overtime taking behavior of employees. Statistical comparison of composite health ratings assigned to subjects based upon clinical criteria and bio-statistical data show that those employees who take the most annual leave as well as sick leave are the ones that have the poorest health ratings; employees who put in the most overtime have also the poorest health records. Stress effects of peak activity periods increase use of sick leave immediately after peak activity but not the use of annual leave.

  12. Clustering of Five Health-Related Behaviors for Chronic Disease Prevention Among Adults, United States, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Janet B.; Wheaton, Anne G.; Kanny, Dafna; Cunningham, Timothy J.; Lu, Hua; Onufrak, Stephen; Malarcher, Ann M.; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Five key health-related behaviors for chronic disease prevention are never smoking, getting regular physical activity, consuming no alcohol or only moderate amounts, maintaining a normal body weight, and obtaining daily sufficient sleep. The objective of this study was to estimate the clustering of these 5 health-related behaviors among adults aged 21 years or older in each state and the District of Columbia and to assess geographic variation in clustering. Methods We used data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess the clustering of the 5 behaviors among 395,343 BRFSS respondents aged 21 years or older. The 5 behaviors were defined as currently not smoking cigarettes, meeting the aerobic physical activity recommendation, consuming no alcohol or only moderate amounts, maintaining a normal body mass index (BMI), and sleeping at least 7 hours per 24-hour period. Prevalence of having 4 or 5 of these behaviors, by state, was also examined. Results Among US adults, 81.6% were current nonsmokers, 63.9% obtained 7 hours or more sleep per day, 63.1% reported moderate or no alcohol consumption, 50.4% met physical activity recommendations, and 32.5% had a normal BMI. Only 1.4% of respondents engaged in none of the 5 behaviors; 8.4%, 1 behavior; 24.3%, 2 behaviors; 35.4%, 3 behaviors; and 24.3%, 4 behaviors; only 6.3% reported engaging in all 5 behaviors. The highest prevalence of engaging in 4 or 5 behaviors was clustered in the Pacific and Rocky Mountain states. Lowest prevalence was in the southern states and along the Ohio River. Conclusion Additional efforts are needed to increase the proportion of the population that engages in all 5 health-related behaviors and to eliminate geographic variation. Collaborative efforts in health care systems, communities, work sites, and schools can promote all 5 behaviors and produce population-wide changes, especially among the socioeconomically disadvantaged. PMID:27236381

  13. Greek Environments: An Update on the Effects of Fraternities and Sororities on Health-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Christopher S.; Liu, Min

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate whether Greek affiliation and living in Greek housing significantly influence college students' health-related behaviors. In addition, based on the findings, this study provides some important implications about the current practice of Greek society in higher education. The authors empirically tested a path model using…

  14. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Health-Related Anxiety in Youth: A Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahana, Shoshana Y.; Feeny, Norah C.

    2005-01-01

    Although illness phobias are fairly common disorders, their treatment has been scarcely addressed in the literature. The current article discusses the treatment of a 9-year-old female diagnosed with health-related anxiety--specifically, a phobia of vomiting. A variety of cognitive-behavioral techniques, such as relaxation training (e.g., deep…

  15. Active Assistance Technology for Health-Related Behavior Change: An Interdisciplinary Review

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Powell, John; Payne, Thomas H; Ainsworth, John; Boyd, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background Information technology can help individuals to change their health behaviors. This is due to its potential for dynamic and unbiased information processing enabling users to monitor their own progress and be informed about risks and opportunities specific to evolving contexts and motivations. However, in many behavior change interventions, information technology is underused by treating it as a passive medium focused on efficient transmission of information and a positive user experience. Objective To conduct an interdisciplinary literature review to determine the extent to which the active technological capabilities of dynamic and adaptive information processing are being applied in behavior change interventions and to identify their role in these interventions. Methods We defined key categories of active technology such as semantic information processing, pattern recognition, and adaptation. We conducted the literature search using keywords derived from the categories and included studies that indicated a significant role for an active technology in health-related behavior change. In the data extraction, we looked specifically for the following technology roles: (1) dynamic adaptive tailoring of messages depending on context, (2) interactive education, (3) support for client self-monitoring of behavior change progress, and (4) novel ways in which interventions are grounded in behavior change theories using active technology. Results The search returned 228 potentially relevant articles, of which 41 satisfied the inclusion criteria. We found that significant research was focused on dialog systems, embodied conversational agents, and activity recognition. The most covered health topic was physical activity. The majority of the studies were early-stage research. Only 6 were randomized controlled trials, of which 4 were positive for behavior change and 5 were positive for acceptability. Empathy and relational behavior were significant research themes in

  16. Time discounting, present biases, and health-related behaviors: Evidence from Japan.

    PubMed

    Kang, Myong-Il; Ikeda, Shinsuke

    2016-05-01

    Human health is considered the outcome of intertemporal choices under tradeoffs between a small immediate reward and a larger delayed reward. Health-related behaviors are thus affected by personal time preferences. Based on an Internet-based survey conducted on Japanese adults, we contribute to the literature by incorporating the multifaceted nature of time discounting in an analysis of the associations between time preference and health-related behaviors. We find that, first, less patient respondents tend to exhibit worse health-related attributes. Second, present bias, which is measured by the degree of declining impatience, is positively associated with unhealthy behaviors for naïve respondents, who are unaware of their self-control problem. Third, such associations cannot be found in sophisticates, who are aware of that. As a policy implication, direct intervention policies, including "nudging," are more effective than a commitment device provision in correcting the unhealthy behaviors due to present bias. Fourth, the sign effect, wherein future losses are discounted at a lower rate than future gains, is negatively associated with unhealthy outcomes, although at weak statistical significance levels. PMID:26851396

  17. Women Empowerment and Its Relation with Health Seeking Behavior in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Mainuddin, AKM; Ara Begum, Housne; Rawal, Lal B.; Islam, Anwar; Shariful Islam, SM

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Over the last few decades, Bangladesh has made significant progress towards achieving targets for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and women empowerment. This study is aimed at identifying the levels and patterns of women empowerment in relation to health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 200 rural married women in Cox’s Bazar district in Bangladesh using multi stage sampling technique and face-to-face interview. Data was collected on socio-economic characteristics, proxy indicators for women empowerment in mobility and health seeking behavior related decision making. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify associations between women empowerment in relation to health seeking behavior on mobility and decision making, controlling the effect of other independent variables. Results: The results showed that only 12% women were empowered to decide on their own about seeking healthcare and 8.5% in healthcare seeking for their children. In multivariate analysis women empowerment in health seeking behavior was higher among age group 25-34 years (OR 1.76, [CI = 0.82-3.21]), women’s education, husband’s education, age at marriage > 18 years (OR 6.38, [CI = 0.98-4.21]) and women’s working status (OR 16.44, [CI = 0.79-2.71]). Conclusion: Women empowerment enhances their decision-making authority regarding health seeking behavior. Acknowledging and adopting the implications of these findings are essential for an integrated health and development strategy for Bangladesh and achieving the MDGs. PMID:26175761

  18. Health-risk behaviors in agriculture and related factors, southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Hasret; Simsek, Zeynep; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2014-01-01

    Human behavior plays a central role in the maintenance of health and the prevention of diseases. This study aimed to determine the risky behaviors of farm operators selected from a province of Turkey's southeastern Anatolian region, as well as the factors related to risky behaviors. In this cross-sectional analysis, 380 farm operators were enrolled through simple random selection method, and the response rate was 85%. Health-risk behavior was measured using the Control List of Occupational Risks in Agriculture. Of 323 farm operators, 85.4% were male. The prevalence of risky behaviors related to measures of environmental risks were higher in animal husbandry, transportation, transportation and maintenance of machinery, pesticide application, child protection, thermal stress, and psychosocial factors in the work place. Education, age, duration of work, and size of agricultural area were associated with risky behaviors in a multiple linear regression (P < .05). Findings showed that a certified training program and a behavior surveillance system for agriculture should be developed. PMID:25275402

  19. The influence of environmental hazard maps on risk beliefs, emotion, and health-related behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Severtson, Dolores J

    2013-08-01

    To test a theoretical explanation of how attributes of mapped environmental health hazards influence health-related behavioral intentions and how beliefs and emotion mediate the influences of attributes, 24 maps were developed that varied by four attributes of a residential drinking water hazard: level, proximity, prevalence, and density. In a factorial design, student participants (N = 446) answered questions about a subset of maps. Hazard level and proximity had the largest influences on intentions to test water and mitigate exposure. Belief in the problem's seriousness mediated attributes' influence on intention to test drinking water, and perceived susceptibility mediated the influence of attributes on intention to mitigate risk. Maps with carefully illustrated attributes of hazards may promote appropriate health-related risk beliefs, intentions, and behavior. PMID:23533022

  20. The Influence of Environmental Hazard Maps on Risk Beliefs, Emotion, and Health-related Behavioral Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Severtson, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    To test a theoretical explanation of how attributes of mapped environmental health hazards influence health-related behavioral intentions and how beliefs and emotion mediate the influences of attributes, 24 maps were developed that varied by four attributes of a residential drinking water hazard: level, proximity, prevalence, and density. In a factorial design, student participants (N=446) answered questions for a subset of maps. Hazard level and proximity had the largest influences on intentions to test water and mitigate exposure. Belief in the problem’s seriousness mediated attributes’ influence on intention to test drinking water, and perceived susceptibility mediated the influence of attributes on intention to mitigate risk. Maps with carefully illustrated attributes of hazards may promote appropriate health-related risk beliefs, intentions, and behavior. PMID:23533022

  1. Cross-sectional schooling-health associations misrepresented causal schooling effects on adult health and health-related behaviors: evidence from the Chinese Adults Twins Survey.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Jere R; Xiong, Yanyan; Zhang, Junsen

    2015-02-01

    Adult health outcomes and health behaviors are often associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health with the signs or magnitudes found in the cross-sectional associations. Schooling may be proxying for unobserved factors related to genetics and family background that directly affect both health and schooling. Recently several studies have used within-monozygotic (MZ) twins methods to control for unobserved factors shared by identical twins. Within-MZ estimates for developed countries are generally smaller than suggested by cross-sectional associations, consistent with positive correlations between unobserved factors that determine schooling and those that determine health. This study contributes new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using the Chinese Adults Twins Survey, the first study of its type for developing countries. The cross-sectional estimates suggest that schooling is significantly associated with adult health-related behaviors (smoking, drinking, exercising) but not with own or spouse health outcomes (general health, mental health, overweight, chronic diseases). However, within-MZ-twins estimators change the estimates for approximately half of these health indicators, in one case declining in absolute magnitudes and becoming insignificant and in the other cases increasing in absolute magnitudes. Within-MZ estimates indicate significant pro-health effects for at least one of the indicators for own health (better mental health), own health-related behaviors (less smoking) and spouse health (less overweight). PMID:25464872

  2. Association of current employment status with oral health-related behaviors: findings from the Finnish Health 2000 Survey.

    PubMed

    Al-Sudani, Fouad Y H; Vehkalahti, Miira M; Suominen, Anna L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the oral health-related behaviors of unemployed people with those of employed people and to assess whether they differ according to the length of unemployment. This study is part of the Health 2000 Survey in Finland. The cross-sectional data were based on interviews and questionnaires. The present study comprised dentate participants, 30-63 yr of age (n = 4,670). Current employment status (employed vs. unemployed) and length of current unemployment (≤1, >1-2, >2-5, and >5 yr) were used as exposures. Binary logistic regression models were fitted separately for the oral health-related behaviors, and latent class analysis (LCA) was used to form behavioral clusters. Current unemployment and being unemployed for longer than 5 yr were inversely associated with regular use of dental services. Current unemployment indicated non-regular dental attendance, infrequent use of xylitol, daily smoking, and risky use of alcohol. Findings from the LCA supported the assumption that unemployed people could be considered as a risk group for poor oral health-related behaviors. PMID:27090490

  3. Perceptions of health care services and HIV-related health-seeking behavior among Uganda adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hampanda, Karen; Ybarra, Michele; Bull, Sheana

    2014-01-01

    Youth represent almost half of all new HIV infections globally. Although condom use is an effective method of HIV prevention among sexually active youth in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), they face substantial barriers in obtaining condoms in environments where adults hold attitudes condemning premarital sex. More research is needed to better understand the multitude of factors that affect SSA youths' behaviors regarding safe sex practices, including factors that may influence their ability to obtain condoms, and decisions to be tested for HIV. In this study of Uganda youth (n = 1503) from five secondary schools, logistic regression models highlight factors that influence perceptions regarding respect and confidentiality at health centers, condom acquisition, and HIV testing. Family support appears to be an especially important factor that affects youth perceptions about how they will be treated when seeking condoms and HIV testing. Condom acquisition and HIV-testing behaviors are also associated with peer influence, self-esteem, and demographic characteristics, such as age. PMID:24625122

  4. Weight-Related Health Behaviors and Body Mass: Associations between Young Adults and Their Parents, Moderated by Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…

  5. A Competing Neurobehavioral Decision Systems Model of SES-Related Health and Behavioral Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, W. K.; Moody, L.; Quisenberry, A. J.; Ramey, C. T.; Sheffer, C. E.

    2014-01-01

    We propose that executive dysfunction is an important component relating the socioeconomic status gradient of select health behaviors. We review and find evidence supporting an SES gradient associated with (1) negative health behaviors (e.g., obesity, excessive use of alcohol, tobacco and other substances), and (2) executive dysfunction. Moreover, the evidence supports that stress and insufficient cognitive resources contribute to executive dysfunction and that executive dysfunction is evident among individuals who smoke cigarettes, are obese, abuse alcohol, and use illicit drugs. Collectively these data supports the dual system model of cognitive control, referred to here as the Competing Neurobehavioral Decision Systems hypothesis. The implications of these relationships for intervention and social justice considerations are discussed. PMID:25008219

  6. Validating a health consumer segmentation model: behavioral and attitudinal differences in disease prevention-related practices.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Lisa S; Massett, Holly A; Maibach, Edward W; Weber, Deanne; Hassmiller, Susan; Mockenhaupt, Robin E

    2010-03-01

    While researchers typically have segmented audiences by demographic or behavioral characteristics, psychobehavioral segmentation schemes may be more useful for developing targeted health information and programs. Previous research described a four segment psychobehavioral segmentation scheme-and a 10-item screening instrument used to identify the segments-based predominantly on people's orientation to their health (active vs. passive) and their degree of independence in health care decision making (independent vs. dependent). This study builds on this prior research by assessing the screening instrument's validity with an independent dataset and exploring whether people with distinct psychobehavioral orientations have different disease prevention attitudes and preferences for receiving information in the primary care setting. Data come from 1,650 respondents to a national mail panel survey. Using the screening instrument, respondents were segmented into four groups-independent actives, doctor-dependent actives, independent passives, and doctor-dependent passives. Consistent with the earlier research, there were clear differences in health-related attitudes and behaviors among the four segments. Members of three segments appear quite receptive to receiving disease prevention information and assistance from professionals in the primary care setting. Our findings provide further indication that the screening instrument and corresponding segmentation strategy may offer a simple, effective tool for targeting and tailoring information and other health programming to the unique characteristics of distinct audience segments. PMID:20390985

  7. Neighborhood and weight-related health behaviors in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that neighborhood factors are associated with obesity, but few studies have evaluated the association with weight control behaviors. This study aims to conduct a multi-level analysis to examine the relationship between neighborhood SES and weight-related health behaviors. Methods In this ancillary study to Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) a trial of long-term weight loss among individuals with type 2 diabetes, individual-level data on 1219 participants from 4 clinic sites at baseline were linked to neighborhood-level data at the tract level from the 2000 US Census and other databases. Neighborhood variables included SES (% living below the federal poverty level) and the availability of food stores, convenience stores, and restaurants. Dependent variables included BMI, eating patterns, weight control behaviors and resource use related to food and physical activity. Multi-level models were used to account for individual-level SES and potential confounders. Results The availability of restaurants was related to several eating and weight control behaviors. Compared to their counterparts in neighborhoods with fewer restaurants, participants in neighborhoods with more restaurants were more likely to eat breakfast (prevalence Ratio [PR] 1.29 95% CI: 1.01-1.62) and lunch (PR = 1.19, 1.04-1.36) at non-fast food restaurants. They were less likely to be attempting weight loss (OR = 0.93, 0.89-0.97) but more likely to engage in weight control behaviors for food and physical activity, respectively, than those who lived in neighborhoods with fewer restaurants. In contrast, neighborhood SES had little association with weight control behaviors. Conclusion In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, restaurant availability was associated with some weight control practices, but neighborhood SES was not. Future studies should give attention to other populations and to evaluating various aspects of the physical and social

  8. Impact of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on patient health-related behaviors and issues.

    PubMed

    Polen, Hyla H; Khanfar, Nile M; Clauson, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry spends billions of dollars annually on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). Patient perspectives on the impact of televised DTCA on health-related behaviors and issues were assessed by means of a 68-question survey. 58.6% of respondents believed that DTCA allowed consumers to have a more active role in managing their health. However, 27.6% felt DTCA caused confusion, and an alarming 17.8% of respondents stopped taking their medication because of concerns about serious side effects mentioned in DTCA. Overall, participants believed DTCA plays a useful role in health self-management; however, a considerable percentage thought that the cost outweighs the benefits. PMID:19197587

  9. The Effects of Adolescent Health-Related Behavior on Academic Performance: A Systematic Review of the Longitudinal Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Vincent; Loyen, Anne; Lodder, Mandy; Schrijvers, Augustinus J. P.; van Yperen, Tom A.; de Leeuw, Johannes R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Schools are increasingly involved in efforts to promote health and healthy behavior among their adolescent students, but are healthier students better learners? This synthesis of the empirical, longitudinal literature investigated the effects of the most predominant health-related behaviors--namely, alcohol and marijuana use, smoking, nutrition,…

  10. Co-Occurring Health-Related Behavior Pairs in College Students: Insights for Prioritized and Targeted Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Katelyn; Makela, Carole; Kennedy, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on strategies for addressing multiple health-related behaviors (HRBs) in one intervention are needed because resources are sparse and clarification is needed regarding the relationship between multiple HRBs. Purpose: Determine undergraduate students' health behavior co-occurring pairs of smoking cigarettes (SC), alcohol…

  11. Using Professional Organizations to Prepare the Behavioral Health Workforce to Respond to the Needs of Pediatric Populations Impacted by Health-Related Disasters: Guiding Principles and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Sprang, Ginny; Silman, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    Behavioral health professional organizations are in the unique role of aggregating and disseminating information to their membership before, during, and after health-related disasters to promote the integration of behavioral health services into the public health disaster response plan. This article provides a set of 5 principles to direct this undertaking that are based on the current literature and previous evaluation of the online guidance provided by 6 prominent behavioral health professional organizations. These principles use a strengths-based approach to prioritize resilience; underscore the importance of context, collaboration, and coordination; recognize the unique needs of pediatric populations; and guide ongoing training and content development in the area of biopsychosocial responses to health-related disasters. Recognizing important innovations and strides made by the behavioral health organizations noted in a previous study, this article recommends additional areas in which behavioral health professional organizations can contribute to overall pandemic disaster preparedness and response efforts. PMID:26145465

  12. Prevalence of Health-Related Behaviors among Physicians and Medical Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Sharon K.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; Dorsey, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the prevalence of health-promoting and health-risking behaviors among physicians and physicians-in-training. Given the significant potential for negative outcomes to physicians' own health as well as the health and safety of their patients, examination of the natural history of this acculturation process about…

  13. The Mediating Roles of Perceived Stress and Health Behaviors in the Relation between Objective, Subjective, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Perceived Health

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Carey, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Objective, subjective, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with perceived health, morbidity, and mortality. Purpose We investigated whether perceived stress and health behaviors mediated the relation between the three types of SES and perceived health. Methods Participants (N = 508) attending a public clinic completed a computerized survey assessing objective SES (income, education, employment); health behaviors; perceived stress; and perceived health. They also indicated their social standing relative to others (subjective SES) and provided their current address to determine neighborhood SES. Results In a structural equation model including all three SES types, lower objective and subjective SES were related to poorer perceived health. When mediators were included in the model, there were significant indirect effects of: (a) SES on health through stress; and (b) SES on health through stress and health compromising behaviors. Conclusions Interventions to reduce the impact of stressors could improve the health of socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals. PMID:24648016

  14. Health-Related Variables and Academic Performance among First-Year College Students: Implications for Sleep and Other Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trockel, Mickey T.; Barnes, Michael D.; Egget, Dennis L.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed the effect of several health behaviors and health-related variables on college freshmen's grade point averages (GPAs). Survey data indicated that sleep habits, particularly wake-up time, accounted for the most variance in GPAs. Higher GPAs related to strength training and study of spiritually oriented material. Lower GPAs related to…

  15. Autonomous and controlled motivational regulations for multiple health-related behaviors: between- and within-participants analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hagger, M.S.; Hardcastle, S.J.; Chater, A.; Mallett, C.; Pal, S.; Chatzisarantis, N.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-determination theory has been applied to the prediction of a number of health-related behaviors with self-determined or autonomous forms of motivation generally more effective in predicting health behavior than non-self-determined or controlled forms. Research has been confined to examining the motivational predictors in single health behaviors rather than comparing effects across multiple behaviors. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by testing the relative contribution of autonomous and controlling motivation to the prediction of a large number of health-related behaviors, and examining individual differences in self-determined motivation as a moderator of the effects of autonomous and controlling motivation on health behavior. Participants were undergraduate students (N = 140) who completed measures of autonomous and controlled motivational regulations and behavioral intention for 20 health-related behaviors at an initial occasion with follow-up behavioral measures taken four weeks later. Path analysis was used to test a process model for each behavior in which motivational regulations predicted behavior mediated by intentions. Some minor idiosyncratic findings aside, between-participants analyses revealed significant effects for autonomous motivational regulations on intentions and behavior across the 20 behaviors. Effects for controlled motivation on intentions and behavior were relatively modest by comparison. Intentions mediated the effect of autonomous motivation on behavior. Within-participants analyses were used to segregate the sample into individuals who based their intentions on autonomous motivation (autonomy-oriented) and controlled motivation (control-oriented). Replicating the between-participants path analyses for the process model in the autonomy- and control-oriented samples did not alter the relative effects of the motivational orientations on intention and behavior. Results provide evidence for consistent effects

  16. Socio-economic Aspects of Health-Related Behaviors and Their Dynamics: A Case Study for the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Rezayatmand, Reza; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have mostly focused on socio-demographic and health-related determinants of health-related behaviors. Although comprehensive health insurance coverage could discourage individual lifestyle improvement due to the ex-ante moral hazard problem, few studies have examined such effects. This study examines the association of a comprehensive set of factors including socio-demographic, health status, health insurance, and perceived change in health insurance coverage with health-related behaviors and their dynamics (ie, changes in behavior). Methods: Using Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) data (a European aging survey among 50+ years old) for the Netherlands in 2004 and 2007 (sample size: 1745), binary and multinomial logit models are employed to study health-related behaviors (daily smoking, excessive alcohol use, and physical inactivity in 2004) and their corresponding changes (stopping or starting unhealthy behavior between 2004 and 2007). Results: Our findings show that being older, being female, having higher education and living with a partner increase the likelihood not to be a daily smoker or to stop daily smoking. At the same time, being older (OR = 3.02 [1.31, 6.95]) and being female (OR = 1.77 [1.05, 2.96]) increases the likelihood to be or to become physically inactive. We also find that worse perceived health insurance coverage in 2007 is associated with a lower likelihood (OR = 0.19 [0.06, 0.57]) of stopping excessive alcohol use in that year. However, we do not find a strong association between the type of health insurance and health behavior. Conclusion: Our findings show that all above mentioned factors (ie, socio-demographic and health status factors) are associated with health-related behavior but not in a consistent way across all behaviors. Moreover, the dynamics of each behavior (positive or negative change) is not necessarily determined by the same factors that determine the state of that behavior

  17. Associations Between Cardiovascular Health and Health-Related Quality of Life, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jing; Zack, Matthew; Moore, Latetia; Loustalot, Fleetwood

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The American Heart Association established 7 cardiovascular health metrics as targets for promoting healthier lives. Cardiovascular health has been hypothesized to play a role in individuals’ perception of quality of life; however, previous studies have mostly assessed the effect of cardiovascular risk factors on quality of life. Methods Data were from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based telephone survey of adults 18 years or older (N = 347,073). All measures of cardiovascular health and health-related quality of life were self-reported. The 7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics were normal blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, not having diabetes, not smoking, being physically active, and having adequate fruit or vegetable intake. Cardiovascular health was categorized into meeting 0–2, 3–5, or 6–7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics. Logistic regression models examined the association between cardiovascular health, general health status, and 3 measures of unhealthy days per month, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and annual income. Results Meeting 3 to 5 or 6 to 7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics was associated with a 51% and 79% lower adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) of fair/poor health, respectively (aPR = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.47–0.50], aPR = 0.21, 95% CI [0.19–0.23]); a 47% and 72% lower prevalence of ≥14 physically unhealthy days (aPR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.51–0.55], aPR = 0.28, 95% CI [0.26–0.20]); a 43% and 66% lower prevalence of ≥14 mentally unhealthy days (aPR = 0.57, 95% CI [0.55–0.60], aPR = 0.34, 95% CI [0.31–0.37]); and a 50% and 74% lower prevalence of ≥14 activity limitation days (aPR = 0.50, 95% CI [0.48–0.53], aPR = 0.26, 95% CI [0.23–0.29]) in the past 30 days. Conclusion Achieving a greater number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics may be associated with less impairment in health-related quality of life. PMID:27468158

  18. Influence of obesogenic behaviors on health-related quality of life in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Flood, Victoria M; Burlutsky, George; Hardy, Louise L; Baur, Louise A; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to prospectively examine the association between the combined effects of obesogenic behaviors on quality of life (QOL) in adolescents. Of 2353 Sydney schoolchildren surveyed (median age 12.7 years), 1,213 were re-examined 5 years later at age 17-18. Children completed activity and food-frequency questionnaires. An unhealthy behavior score was calculated, allocating 1 point for the following: <60 minutes of total physical activity/ day; ≥2 hours of screen time/ day; consumed salty snack foods and/or confectionery ≥5 times per week; ≥1 serves of soft drinks and/or cordial/ day; and not consuming both ≥2 serves of fruit and ≥3 serves of vegetables/ day. Health-related QOL was assessed by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). The prevalence of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 lifestyle risk factors was 4.2%, 17.1%, 30.7%, 30.5%, 13.9% and 3.6%, respectively. After multivariable- adjustment, children engaging in 5 versus 0 unhealthy behaviors had 9.2-units lower PedsQL physical summary score (ptrend=0.001), five years later. Boys reporting 4 or 5 lifestyle risk factors compared to their peers reporting none or one at baseline, had lower total and physical summary scores at follow-up, ptrend=0.02 and 0.01, respectively. Girls engaging in 4 or 5 versus 0 or 1 unhealthy behaviors, had 4.6-units lower physical summary score (ptrend=0.04), five years later. The number of obesogenic lifestyle risk factors was independently associated with subsequent poorer QOL, particularly physical health, during adolescence. These findings underscore the importance of targeting lifestyle behaviors to promote general well-being and physical functioning in adolescents. PMID:24561980

  19. Behavioral Health & Performance

    NASA Video Gallery

    Summary of the Behavioral Health and Performance Operations Group’s work including an overview of astronaut selection, behavioral health services provided to astronauts, the psychological aspects o...

  20. Gender differences on osteoporosis health beliefs and related behaviors in non-academic community Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin-Ping; Xia, Ru-Yi; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Xin-Shuang; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Li, Hao

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis represents the major public health concern worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess osteoporosis beliefs and actual performance of osteoporosis preventive behaviors in non-academic community Chinese population and to explore whether the differences exist in community females and males. A cross sectional study including 137 females and 122 males was conducted in four non-academic communities of Xi'an city during November 2012, selected by multi-stage sampling method. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The respondents' mean age was 56.06 ± 5.81 years. 35.5% of the participants had a bone mineral density test. The participants exhibit relatively low osteoporosis health beliefs. The total health belief score was 63.30 ± 8.55 and 64.13 ± 6.47 in females and males respectively. There was significant gender differences in the subscales of Perceived seriousness (p = 0.03), Perceived barriers to exercise (p = 0.004) and Perceived motivation (p = 0.01). Participants had low frequencies of preventive practices. Gender differences were revealed in current smoking and alcohol intake, soybean food intake, smoking history (p < 0.001), alcohol intake history (p = 0.001), meat or egg intake (p = 0.019). The findings from the study suggest an increased awareness of this major public health problem in non-academic Chinese and the scope for enhancing osteoporosis intervention considering the gender difference. PMID:24399160

  1. Phone Consultation for Behavioral Health-Related Referrals in Integrated Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Valleley, Rachel J; Hine, Jeffrey F; Clare, Ann; Evans, Joseph H

    2015-10-01

    Behavioral health (BH) providers add value to primary care teams. This descriptive study illustrates one such role that the BH provider can serve. The on-site BH provider responded to patient phone inquiries regarding BH topics for pediatricians over the course of 15 months. The majority of these calls were for children 10 years and younger and related to externalizing problems. Phone calls were relatively brief (i.e., 11-15 minutes). More than half of these phone calls resulted in families scheduling an appointment with nearly 75% showing up for the initial session. Providing this type of adjunctive service may result in earlier access to care and efficiently assigning responsibilities to the appropriate team member. PMID:26242397

  2. Academic and behavioral limitations and health-related quality of life in school-age survivors of bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Koomen, Irene; Raat, Hein; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag; Grobbee, Diederick E; Roord, John J; van Furth, Marceline

    2005-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe health-related quality of life of postmeningitic children and to examine the association between academic and/or behavioral limitations and health-related quality of life. One hundred and eighty-two children (mean age 9.7 years; range 5.3-14.2) were selected randomly from a cohort of 674 school-age children who recovered from non-Haemophilus influenzae type B bacterial meningitis. These children had neither meningitis with 'complex onset', nor prior cognitive or behavioral problems, nor severe disease sequelae. On average 7.4 years after meningitis, they were evaluated using an 'Academic Achievement Test' and their parents filled in the Child Behavior Checklist, the Child Health Questionnaire, and the Health Utilities Index. The long-term incidence of academic and/or behavioral limitations was 32%. Overall health-related quality of life of the postmeningitic children was decreased in comparison with that of a reference population of schoolchildren. The group of postmeningitic children with academic and/or behavioral limitations showed the most marked decrease in quality of life, especially concerning psychosocial health, cognition and family life. The negative effects on quality of life were not significantly influenced by age, gender, causative pathogen, presence of minor neurological impairment, or presence of hearing impairment. In conclusion, health-related quality of life of postmeningitic children is decreased, particularly of those with academic and/or behavioral limitations. PMID:16110936

  3. The Significance of Privacy and Trust in Providing Health-Related Services to Behaviorally Bisexual Men in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Goncalves, Gabriel; Malebranche, David; Martinez, Omar; Reece, Michael; Rhodes, Scott D.; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that bisexual men face unique health concerns in comparison to their exclusively homosexual and heterosexual counterparts. However, little is known about behaviorally bisexual men’s experiences with health services, including ways of providing services that would be most appropriate to meet the health needs of this population. This study sought to understand preferences for health-related services among behaviorally bisexual men in the Midwestern United States. Using a community-based research approach, a diverse sample of 75 behaviorally bisexual men was recruited for in-depth interviews. Qualitative data were analyzed utilizing inductive coding through established team-based protocols to ensure reliability. Themes emerged involving the importance of privacy and trust when reaching, recruiting, and engaging behaviorally bisexual men in health services. Findings suggest that multifaceted approaches are needed, including those that provide relevant and confidential services while allowing for the development and ongoing maintenance of trust. PMID:22676463

  4. Playing for Real, Video Games and Stories for Health-Related Behavior Change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Video games provide extensive player involvement for large numbers of children and adults, and thereby provide a channel for delivering health behavior change experiences and messages in an engaging and entertaining format. Twenty-seven articles were identified on 25 video games that promoted health...

  5. Cognitive Ability and Health-Related Behaviors during Adolescence: A Prospective Study across Five Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Skinner, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal research on the links between intelligence and health behaviors among adolescents is rare. We report longitudinal data in which we assessed the relationships between intelligence as assessed in Grade 7 and consequential health outcomes in Grade 11. The mean age of respondents (N = 420; 188 males, 232 females) was 12.30 years (SD =…

  6. Russian speaking immigrants: drug use, infectious disease and related health behavior.

    PubMed

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    This article focuses on drug use, infectious disease and other factors comparing FSU males who became addicted before and after immigration to Israel. 810 drug users were surveyed in treatment centers from January 2002 to January 2012. The Addiction Severity Index and other data collection instruments were used. Those addicted before immigration have a higher level of infectious disease (i.e., HCV, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) and opiate use other than heroin. Those addicted after immigration reported higher rates of last 30 days sedative; cocaine and opiates other than heroin use. Injection drug use and ASI domain problem behavior were more prevalent among those addicted before immigration. Results evidence the impact of country of addiction origin on drug use patterns, infectious disease rates as well as other health related factors. Additional research of the relationship between acculturation and drug use is needed. PMID:23925519

  7. Helping You Choose Quality Behavioral Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    Helping You Choose Quality Behavioral Health Care Selecting quality behavioral health care services for yourself, a relative or friend requires special thought and attention. The Joint Commission on ...

  8. Analysis of the roles of "serious games" in helping teach health-related knowledge and skills and in changing behavior.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Matthew W

    2007-11-01

    Researchers are developing sophisticated games specifically targeted to teach health-related knowledge and skills and to change health-related behaviors. Although these interventions, generally called "serious games," show promise, there has been limited evaluation of their effectiveness. This article offers a broad "consumer guide" for evaluating such health education interventions. Improving the development and evaluation of health-related serious games and educating potential purchasers of such products to be knowledgeable, demanding consumers will help move the field of serious games from "looks promising" to determining where such interventions will be effective and where they will not. PMID:19885166

  9. Behavior Change and Health-Related Interventions for Heterosexual Risk Reduction Among Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    SEMAAN, SALAAM; JARLAIS, DON C. DES; MALOW, ROB

    2007-01-01

    Prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV between and from drug users is important for controlling the local and global HIV heterosexual epidemic. Sex risk reduction interventions and health-related interventions are important for reducing the sex risk behaviors of drug users. Sex risk reduction interventions address individual-level, peer-level, and structural-level determinants of risk reduction. Health-related interventions include HIV counseling and testing, prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, and delivery of highly active antiretroviral therapy. It is important to adapt effective interventions implemented in resource-rich countries to the realities of the resource-constrained settings and to address relevant contextual factors. RESUMEN Il est important de prévenir la transmission hétérosexuelle du VIH à partir des usagers de drogue pour contrôler l’épidémie hétérosexuelle locale et mondiale de VIH. Des interventions ciblant à la fois la réduction de risque sexuel et la santé des usagers de drogue sont nécessaires. Les interventions de réduction de risque sexuel prennent en compte le niveau individuel, le niveau des pairs et celui des déterminants structurels de la réduction des risques. Les interventions visant l’amélioration de la santé comprennent le conseil et le dépistage du VIH, la prévention et le traitement des infections sexuellement transmissibles et la prescription d’antirétroviraux. Il est important d’adapter les interventions efficaces mises en place dans les pays riches aux réalités des contextes de pays à ressources limitées et de tenir compte des facteurs contextuels pertinents. PMID:17002987

  10. Weight Status Misperception as Related to Selected Health Risk Behaviors among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Brian C.; Dalton, William T., III; Williams, Stacey L.; Slawson, Deborah L.; Dunn, Michael S.; Johns-Wommack, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight misperception has been documented among children although the impact on health risk behaviors is less understood, particularly among middle school students. The goals of this study were to describe sociodemographic differences in actual and perceived weight, correspondence between actual and perceived weight, and weight-related…

  11. Parents' Self-Reported Behaviors Related to Health and Safety of Very Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Charlotte M.; Reichert, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Reports a survey that documented the health and safety behaviors of parents of children in Head Start programs. Nearly all parents reported using car seats, teaching handwashing and pedestrian safety, and locking away medicine and alcohol. Sixty percent reported storing guns and bullets safely, possessing working fire extinguishers, and having…

  12. Is health literacy related to health behaviors and cell phone usage patterns among the text4baby target population?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Text4baby provides educational text messages to pregnant and postpartum women and targets underserved women. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the health behaviors and cell phone usage patterns of a text4baby target population and the associations with health literacy. Methods Pregnant and postpartum women were recruited from two Women, Infant and Children clinics in Atlanta. Women were asked about their demographics, selected pregnancy or postpartum health behaviors, and cell phone usage patterns. Health literacy skills were measured with the English version of the Newest Vital Sign. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine health behaviors and cell usage patterns by health literacy classification, controlling for commonly accepted confounders. Results Four hundred sixty-eight women were recruited, and 445 completed the Newest Vital Sign. Of these, 22% had inadequate health literacy, 50% had intermediate health literacy, and 28% had adequate health literacy skills. Compared to adequate health literacy, limited literacy was independently associated with not taking a daily vitamin during pregnancy (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.6, 8.5) and never breastfeeding their infant (OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.8). The majority (69.4%) of respondents received nine or more text messages a day prior to enrollment, one in four participants (24.6%) had changed their number within the last six months, and 7.0% of study participants shared a cell phone. Controlling for potentially confounding factors, those with limited health literacy were more likely to share a cell phone than those with adequate health literacy (OR 2.57, 95% CI: 1.79, 3.69). Conclusions Text4baby messages should be appropriate for low health literacy levels, especially as this population may have higher prevalence of targeted unhealthy behaviors. Text4baby and other mhealth programs targetting low health literacy populations should also be aware of the different ways that these populations

  13. Problematic digital gaming behavior and its relation to the psychological, social and physical health of Finnish adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Männikkö, Niko; Billieux, Joël; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The aim of this study was to identify problematic gaming behavior among Finnish adolescents and young adults, and evaluate its connection to a variety of psychological, social, and physical health symptoms. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 293 respondents aged from 13 to 24 years. Participants completed an online survey. Problematic gaming behavior was measured with the Game Addiction Scale (GAS). Self-reports covered health measures such as psychological health (psychopathological symptoms, satisfaction with life), social health (preferences for social interaction), and physical health (general health, Body Mass Index [BMI], body discomfort, physical activity). Results Problematic gaming behavior was found to relate to psychological and health problems, namely fatigue, sleep interference, depression and anxiety symptoms. Multiple linear regression indicated that the amount of weekly gaming, depression and a preference for online social interaction predicted increased problematic gaming symptoms. Conclusions This research emphasized that problematic gaming behavior had a strong negative correlation to a variety of subjective health outcomes. PMID:26690623

  14. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) State-of-the-Science Conference on Preventing Violence and Related Health-Risking Social Behaviors in Adolescents--A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Although youth in the United States remain substantially more violent than adolescents and young adults in most industrial countries, the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) State-of-the-Science Conference on Preventing Violence and Related Health-Risking Social Behaviors in Adolescents identified many reasons for optimism about our capacity to…

  15. Health status and related behavior of children in a private and a public school of a village in Kathmandu district.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, N; Shrestha, S R; Dhakal, N

    2014-12-01

    Children spend around 25% of their time of 260 days in a year in school. Hence early detection of abnormalities in health enables timely corrective measures to be taken. A descriptive study related to health of primary class students was carried out from June to September 2013 in a village which lies inside Kathmandu valley. Health status and related behavior was assessed in 69 students from a public school and 125 students from a private school who belonged to class 1 to 5. The results did not show significant difference between the variables in private and public school. PMID:26930729

  16. Health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioral difficulties after extreme preterm birth: developmental trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Eide, Geir Egil; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Markestad, Trond; Graue, Marit; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of long-term health related outcomes in contemporary populations born extremely preterm (EP) is scarce. We aimed to explore developmental trajectories of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and behavior from mid-childhood to early adulthood in extremely preterm and term-born individuals. Methods. Subjects born at gestational age ≤28 weeks or with birth weight ≤1,000 g within a region of Norway in 1991–92 and matched term-born control subjects were assessed at 10 and 18 years. HRQoL was measured with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), using parent assessment at both ages and self-assessment at 18 years. Results. All eligible EP (n = 35) and control children participated at 10 years, and 31 (89%) and 29 (83%) at 18 years. At 10 years, the EP born boys were given significantly poorer scores by their parents than term-born controls on most CHQ and CBCL scales, but the differences were minor at 18 years; i.e., significant improvements had occurred in several CHQ (self-esteem, general health and parental impact-time) and CBCL (total problem, internalizing and anxious/depressed) scales. For the girls, the differences were smaller at 10 years and remained unchanged by 18 years. Emotional/behavioral difficulties at 10 years similarly predicted poorer improvement on CHQ-scales for both EP and term-born subjects at 18 years. Self-assessment of HRQoL and behavior at 18 years was similar in the EP and term-born groups on most scales. Conclusions. HRQoL and behavior improved towards adulthood for EP born boys, while the girls remained relatively similar, and early emotional and behavioral difficulties predicted poorer development in HRQoL through adolescence. These data indicate that gender and a longitudinal perspective should be considered when addressing health and wellbeing after extremely preterm birth. PMID:25653912

  17. Health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioral difficulties after extreme preterm birth: developmental trajectories.

    PubMed

    Vederhus, Bente Johanne; Eide, Geir Egil; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Markestad, Trond; Graue, Marit; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of long-term health related outcomes in contemporary populations born extremely preterm (EP) is scarce. We aimed to explore developmental trajectories of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and behavior from mid-childhood to early adulthood in extremely preterm and term-born individuals. Methods. Subjects born at gestational age ≤28 weeks or with birth weight ≤1,000 g within a region of Norway in 1991-92 and matched term-born control subjects were assessed at 10 and 18 years. HRQoL was measured with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), using parent assessment at both ages and self-assessment at 18 years. Results. All eligible EP (n = 35) and control children participated at 10 years, and 31 (89%) and 29 (83%) at 18 years. At 10 years, the EP born boys were given significantly poorer scores by their parents than term-born controls on most CHQ and CBCL scales, but the differences were minor at 18 years; i.e., significant improvements had occurred in several CHQ (self-esteem, general health and parental impact-time) and CBCL (total problem, internalizing and anxious/depressed) scales. For the girls, the differences were smaller at 10 years and remained unchanged by 18 years. Emotional/behavioral difficulties at 10 years similarly predicted poorer improvement on CHQ-scales for both EP and term-born subjects at 18 years. Self-assessment of HRQoL and behavior at 18 years was similar in the EP and term-born groups on most scales. Conclusions. HRQoL and behavior improved towards adulthood for EP born boys, while the girls remained relatively similar, and early emotional and behavioral difficulties predicted poorer development in HRQoL through adolescence. These data indicate that gender and a longitudinal perspective should be considered when addressing health and wellbeing after extremely preterm birth. PMID:25653912

  18. Parenting Styles and Health-Related Behavior in Childhood and Early Adolescence: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohaus, Arnold; Vierhaus, Marc; Ball, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the development of health-related behavior during childhood and adolescence and the protective influence of an authoritative parenting style. The study is based on two samples followed from Grades 2 through 5 and from Grades 4 through 7. The first sample consisted of 432 second graders with a mean age of 7.9 years at the…

  19. The Covariation and Factor Structure of Substance Use and Other Health-Related Behaviors in Two Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Ron; And Others

    Research has revealed relationships among a wide range of substance use behaviors, including smoking, alcohol use, and drug use. To investigate whether a substance use factor emerges when different indicators of substance use, different samples, and three health related issues, (i.e., meal regularity, exercise and hours of sleep) are examined, the…

  20. Relationships between Health-Related Fitness Knowledge, Perceived Competence, Self- Determination, and Physical Activity Behaviors of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslem, Liz; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Christensen, William F.; Pennington, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to test a hypothesized model of motivation within the context of conceptual physical education (CPE), and (b) to explore the strength and directionality of perceived competence for physical activity as a possible mediator for health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity behaviors. High school…

  1. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Health-Related Attitudes and Behaviors among Deaf and Hearing Adolescents in Southern Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisol, Claudia Alquati; Sperb, Tania Mara; Brewer, Toye H.; Kato, Sergio Kakuta; Shor-Posner, Gail

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS knowledge and health-related attitudes and behaviors among deaf and hearing adolescents in southern Brazil are described. Forty-two deaf students attending a special nonresidential public school for the deaf and 50 hearing students attending a regular public school, ages 15-21 years, answered a computer-assisted questionnaire. (There was…

  2. Methodological Issues Related to the Use of P Less than 0.05 in Health Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duryea, Elias; Graner, Stephen P.; Becker, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews methodological issues related to the use of P less than 0.05 in health behavior research and suggests how application and presentation of statistical significance may be improved. Assessment of sample size and P less than 0.05, the file drawer problem, the Law of Large Numbers and the statistical significance arguments in…

  3. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Health-Related Behaviors among Male and Female First Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Sarah E.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Befort, Christie; Blanks, Elva Hull; Sollenberger, Sonja; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-esteem, body image, and health-related behaviors of 267 female and 156 male first-year college students. Data were collected in 23 classrooms. Instruments included a demographic sheet, the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, the Weight and Appearance Visual Analogue Scales, the Contour Drawing…

  4. Active Commuting Behaviors in a Nordic Metropolitan Setting in Relation to Modality, Gender, and Health Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Stigell, Erik; Schantz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting between home and place of work or study is often cited as an interesting source of physical activity in a public health perspective. However, knowledge about these behaviors is meager. This was therefore studied in adult active commuters (n = 1872) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden, a Nordic metropolitan setting. They received questionnaires and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal commuting route. Three different modality groups were identified in men and women: single-mode cyclists and pedestrians (those who only cycle or walk, respectively) and dual-mode commuters (those who alternately walk or cycle). Some gender differences were observed in trip distances, frequencies, and velocities. A large majority of the commuting trip durations met the minimum health recommendation of at least 10-minute-long activity bouts. The median single-mode pedestrians and dual-mode commuters met or were close to the recommended weekly physical activity levels of at least 150 minutes most of the year, whereas the single-mode cyclists did so only during spring–mid-fall. A high total number of trips per year (range of medians: 231–389) adds to the value in a health perspective. To fully grasp active commuting behaviors in future studies, both walking and cycling should be assessed over different seasons and ideally over the whole year. PMID:26690193

  5. Youth victimization in Sweden: prevalence, characteristics and relation to mental health and behavioral problems in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Cater, Asa K; Andershed, Anna-Karin; Andershed, Henrik

    2014-08-01

    The present study examines multiple types of victimization simultaneously, their prevalence and characteristics in childhood and adolescence, and it examines the associations between victimization and poly-victimization on the one hand and single and multiple mental health and behavioral problems on the other. The sample consisted of 2,500 Swedish young adults (20-24 years) who provided detailed report of multiple types of lifetime victimization and current health and behaviors via an interview and a questionnaire. Results showed that it was more common to be victimized in adolescence than in childhood and more common to be victimized repeatedly rather than a single time, among both males and females. Males and females were victimized in noticeably different ways and partially at different places and by different perpetrators. With regard to mental health and behavioral problems, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, self-harm, and criminality were clearly overrepresented among both males and females who had experienced any type of victimization. Poly-victimization was related to single and multiple mental health and behavioral problems among both males and females. We conclude that professionals need to conduct thorough evaluations of victimization when completing mental health assessments among troubled youths, and that youth might benefit from the development of interventions for poly-victimized youth. PMID:24685360

  6. HBV-Related Health Behaviors in a Socio-Cultural Context: Perspectives from Khmers and Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haeok; Kiang, Peter; Chea, Phala; Peou, Sonith; Tang, Shirley S.; Yang, JinHwang; Fawcett, Jacqueline; Hann, Hie-Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore factors influencing health and health care within the sociocultural context of Cambodian Americans (CAs or Khmers) and Korean Americans (KA) and to examine intergroup similarities and differences between CAs and KAs, focusing on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and liver cancer prevention behaviors. Methods The study used a qualitative design guided by the revised Network Episode Model (NEM) and informed by ethnographic analysis. Focus group interviews with key informants among CA community health leaders (CHLs, n=14) and individual interviews with key informants of KA CHLs (n=9) were audiotaped and transcribed. Results Three categories that influenced HBV and liver cancer prevention emerged from both CAs and KAs: the socio-cultural, individual, and behavioral. Four additional sub-categories (sub-themes) of sociocultural were identified as socio-history, socio-medicine, socio-linguistic, and socio-health resources. Both CAs and KAs, however, have low levels of knowledge and significant misunderstandings about HBV infection. Conclusions The study identifies and compares the social-cultural determinant for HBV and liver cancer and highlights the factors of education, intercultural communication, and interactions within socio-cultural contexts of CA and KA subgroups. In general, conceptual overlaps are apparent between Khmers (from now on, the terms, CA and Khmer, will be used interchangeably) and Koreans except for the sub-theme of socio-history. However, differences in concept-specific attributes point to the need to account for differing conceptualizations and implications of specific ethnic groups’ sociocultural contexts, and to design contextually-relevant outreach and educational interventions for targeted AAPI subgroups. PMID:24355416

  7. Health-related quality of life among veterans in addictions treatment: identifying behavioral targets for future intervention

    PubMed Central

    Oppezzo, Marily A.; Michalek, Anne K.; Delucchi, Kevin; Baiocchi, Michael T. M.; Barnett, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background US veterans report lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) relative to the general population. Identifying behavioral factors related to HRQoL that are malleable to change may inform interventions to improve well-being in this vulnerable group. Purpose The current study sought to characterize HRQoL in a largely male sample of veterans in addictions treatment, both in relation to US norms and in association with five recommended health behavior practices: regularly exercising, managing stress, having good sleep hygiene, consuming fruits and vegetables, and being tobacco free. Methods We assessed HRQoL with 250 veterans in addictions treatment (96 % male, mean age 53, range 24–77) using scales from four validated measures. Data reduction methods identified two principal components reflecting physical and mental HRQoL. Model testing of HRQoL associations with health behaviors adjusted for relevant demographic and treatment-related covariates. Results Compared to US norms, the sample had lower HRQoL scores. Better psychological HRQoL was associated with higher subjective social standing, absence of pain or trauma, lower alcohol severity, and monotonically with the sum of health behaviors (all p < 0.05). Specifically, psychological HRQoL was associated with regular exercise, stress management, and sleep hygiene. Regular exercise also related to better physical HRQoL. The models explained >40 % of the variance in HRQoL. Conclusions Exercise, sleep hygiene, and stress management are strongly associated with HRQoL among veterans in addictions treatment. Future research is needed to test the effect of interventions for improving well-being in this high-risk group. PMID:26886926

  8. The Relations among Maternal Health Status, Parenting Stress, and Child Behavior Problems in Low-Income, Ethnic-Minority Families

    PubMed Central

    BeLue, Rhonda; Halgunseth, Linda C.; Abiero, Beatrice; Bediako, Phylicia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Minimal attention has been given to understanding parenting stress among low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with conduct problems. Maternal health and parenting hassles may serve as important risk factors for parenting stress. This study examined whether parenting hassles moderated the relations between maternal physical and mental health and parenting stress in a sample of low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with behavioral problems. Methods The sample included 177 low-income Black, Latina, and White mothers of kindergartners with behavior problems. PATH analysis was employed to assess the associations between maternal mental and physical health and parenting stress, as well as the moderating role of parenting hassles in this cross-sectional study. Results After adjusting for covariates, we found that parenting hassles mediates the relationship between social support and parenting stress as well as maternal health and parenting stress. Conclusion Findings suggest that promoting coping resources for daily parenting hassles and supporting the physical and mental health of minority mothers may have important implications for parenting children with high behavior problems. PMID:26863556

  9. Factors related to adopting healthy behaviors by patients with tuberculosis in Isfahan: Application of health belief model

    PubMed Central

    Johari, Maryam; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Alahverdipoor, Hamid; Hasanzade, Akbar; Farid, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis complex. It is one of the most common infectious diseases largely resulting from the patient's lifestyle. The purpose of the present study is to investigate factors related with adopting health behaviors by patients with tuberculosis based on the health belief model. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was performed on 196 patients with tuberculosis. Data was collected using a 47-item, self-designed, questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was calculated as 73.9. The Pearson test was used to study the correlation between independent variables and adopting a healthy behavior. Results: The mean score for adopting healthy behaviors by patients was 87.52 ± 13.8. The Pearson correlation test indicated a statistically significant relation between adopting healthy behaviors and scores of knowledge (P < 0.001, r = 0.536), perceived susceptibility (P < 0.001, r = 0.36), perceived benefits (P < 0.001, r = 0.347), and perceived barriers (P = 0.046, r = 0.143). Conclusion: Direct relationship was found between adoptinga healthy behavior and scores of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, and perceived benefit. Although the results of this study can be the basis of educational interventions, any generalizations should be performed cautiously. PMID:25250352

  10. Personal financial incentives for changing habitual health-related behaviors: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mantzari, Eleni; Vogt, Florian; Shemilt, Ian; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian P.T.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Uncertainty remains about whether personal financial incentives could achieve sustained changes in health-related behaviors that would reduce the fast-growing global non-communicable disease burden. This review aims to estimate whether: i. financial incentives achieve sustained changes in smoking, eating, alcohol consumption and physical activity; ii. effectiveness is modified by (a) the target behavior, (b) incentive value and attainment certainty, (c) recipients' deprivation level. Methods Multiple sources were searched for trials offering adults financial incentives and assessing outcomes relating to pre-specified behaviors at a minimum of six months from baseline. Analyses included random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions grouped by timed endpoints. Results Of 24,265 unique identified articles, 34 were included in the analysis. Financial incentives increased behavior-change, with effects sustained until 18 months from baseline (OR: 1.53, 95% CI 1.05–2.23) and three months post-incentive removal (OR: 2.11, 95% CI 1.21–3.67). High deprivation increased incentive effects (OR: 2.17; 95% CI 1.22–3.85), but only at > 6–12 months from baseline. Other assessed variables did not independently modify effects at any time-point. Conclusions Personal financial incentives can change habitual health-related behaviors and help reduce health inequalities. However, their role in reducing disease burden is potentially limited given current evidence that effects dissipate beyond three months post-incentive removal. PMID:25843244

  11. Associations between Mental Health and Ebola-Related Health Behaviors: A Regionally Representative Cross-sectional Survey in Post-conflict Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Vinck, Patrick; VanderWeele, Tyler J.; Spencer-Walters, Dayo; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M.; Pham, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Background Little attention has been paid to potential relationships between mental health, trauma, and personal exposures to Ebola virus disease (EVD) and health behaviors in post-conflict West Africa. We tested a conceptual model linking mental health and trauma to EVD risk behaviors and EVD prevention behaviors. Methods and Findings Using survey data from a representative sample in the Western Urban and Western Rural districts of Sierra Leone, this study examines associations between war exposures, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, anxiety, and personal EVD exposure (e.g., having family members or friends diagnosed with EVD) and EVD-related health behaviors among 1,008 adults (98% response rate) from 63 census enumeration areas of the Western Rural and Western Urban districts randomly sampled at the height of the EVD epidemic (January–April 2015). Primary outcomes were EVD risk behaviors (14 items, Cronbach’s α = 0.84) and EVD prevention behaviors (16 items, Cronbach’s α = 0.88). Main predictors comprised war exposures (8 items, Cronbach’s α = 0.85), anxiety (10 items, Cronbach’s α = 0.93), depression (15 items, Cronbach’s α = 0.91), and PTSD symptoms (16 items, Cronbach’s α = 0.93). Data were analyzed using two-level, population-weighted hierarchical linear models with 20 multiply imputed datasets. EVD risk behaviors were associated with intensity of depression symptoms (b = 0.05; 95% CI 0.00, 0.10; p = 0.037), PTSD symptoms (b = 0.10; 95% CI 0.03, 0.17; p = 0.008), having a friend diagnosed with EVD (b = −0.04; 95% CI −0.08, −0.00; p = 0.036), and war exposures (b = −0.09; 95% CI −0.17, −0.02; p = 0.013). EVD prevention behaviors were associated with higher anxiety (b = 0.23; 95% CI 0.06, 0.40; p = 0.008), having a friend diagnosed with EVD (b = 0.15; 95% CI 0.04, 0.27; p = 0.011), and higher levels of war exposure (b = 0.45; 95% CI 0.16, 0.74; p = 0.003), independent of mental health. PTSD symptoms

  12. The relation between overweight and subjective health according to age, social class, slimming behavior and smoking habits in Dutch adults.

    PubMed Central

    Seidell, J C; Bakx, K C; Deurenberg, P; Burema, J; Hautvast, J G; Huygen, F J

    1986-01-01

    Subjective health status was assessed in relation to overweight by administering a list of 51 health complaints to adult men and women who were either chronically overweight as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) or not overweight, in a continuous morbidity registration in four general practices during the period 1967-83. Responses were received from 455 men (182 overweight) and 790 women (386 overweight), ages 26-66 years. Response rate (71 per cent) and age distribution (mean age 48) were similar in overweight and non-overweight groups of both sexes. BMI was correlated with the total number of complaints in women (r = 0.15) but not in men (r = 0.07). Multiple regression analysis revealed, however, that age was an effect modifier in this relation, there being a negative association between BMI and subjective health in younger men and a positive association in older men, whereas in women the association between BMI and subjective health was much more pronounced at younger ages than at older ages. In addition, current smoking habits and social class (in men and women) and reported slimming behavior (in women) had an independent relation to the total number of health complaints. BMI was also related to specific complaints and groups of complaints, particularly in women. PMID:3777287

  13. Joint associations of objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    No studies, to my knowledge, have examined the joint effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5,536). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior were assessed using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with HRQOL assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 4-item HRQOL index. MVPA (βadjusted = − 0.01; 95% CI: − 0.01 to − 0.004; P < 0.001), but not sedentary behavior (βadjusted = − 0.0003; 95% CI: − 0.001–0.0001; P = 0.37), was associated with HRQOL. MVPA was associated with HRQOL among those above the median (≥ 487.5 min/day) level of sedentary behavior (βadjusted = − 0.02; 95% CI: − 0.03 to − 0.01; P = 0.006; N = 2769). The results of this brief report do not demonstrate that sedentary behavior, independent of MVPA, is associated with HRQOL. The independent association of MVPA on HRQOL confirms previous work that used self-report measures of MVPA. PMID:26844174

  14. Differences in Health-related Behaviors and Attitudes between Urban, Rural, and Isolated Households in Western West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Michael A; Hazelett, Tim; Sawhney, Monika

    2015-01-01

    This study uses data from a 2013 survey of 275 randomly sampled households across nine counties in western West Virginia to examine the significant differences between the health behaviors and attitudes of rural and isolated populations. The results show that age, education, and income are significant factors in explaining differences in health-related behaviors and attitudes for all urban, rural and isolated respondents. However, after controlling for socio-demographic differences, isolation is found to have only a few significant effects, and some of the effects run counter to stereotypes of isolated populations. Rural respondents are significantly more likely than isolated respondents to be obese and to have ever been diagnosed with hypertension. Rural Respondents are significantly less likely than isolated respondents to have annual dental or medical checkups, to engage in physical activity during the spring months, and to raise their own chickens and cattle for food. PMID:26242030

  15. The influence of weather on health-related help-seeking behavior of senior citizens in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ho Ting; Chiu, Marcus Yu Lung; Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Lee, Tsz Cheung

    2015-03-01

    It is believed that extreme hot and cold weather has a negative impact on general health conditions. Much research focuses on mortality, but there is relatively little community health research. This study is aimed at identifying high-risk groups who are sensitive to extreme weather conditions, in particular, very hot and cold days, through an analysis of the health-related help-seeking patterns of over 60,000 Personal Emergency Link (PE-link) users in Hong Kong relative to weather conditions. In the study, 1,659,716 PE-link calls to the help center were analyzed. Results showed that females, older elderly, people who did not live alone, non-subsidized (relatively high-income) users, and those without medical histories of heart disease, hypertension, stroke, and diabetes were more sensitive to extreme weather condition. The results suggest that using official government weather forecast reports to predict health-related help-seeking behavior is feasible. An evidence-based strategic plan could be formulated by using a method similar to that used in this study to identify high-risk groups. Preventive measures could be established for protecting the target groups when extreme weather conditions are forecasted.

  16. The influence of weather on health-related help-seeking behavior of senior citizens in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ho Ting; Chiu, Marcus Yu Lung; Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Lee, Tsz Cheung

    2015-03-01

    It is believed that extreme hot and cold weather has a negative impact on general health conditions. Much research focuses on mortality, but there is relatively little community health research. This study is aimed at identifying high-risk groups who are sensitive to extreme weather conditions, in particular, very hot and cold days, through an analysis of the health-related help-seeking patterns of over 60,000 Personal Emergency Link (PE-link) users in Hong Kong relative to weather conditions. In the study, 1,659,716 PE-link calls to the help center were analyzed. Results showed that females, older elderly, people who did not live alone, non-subsidized (relatively high-income) users, and those without medical histories of heart disease, hypertension, stroke, and diabetes were more sensitive to extreme weather condition. The results suggest that using official government weather forecast reports to predict health-related help-seeking behavior is feasible. An evidence-based strategic plan could be formulated by using a method similar to that used in this study to identify high-risk groups. Preventive measures could be established for protecting the target groups when extreme weather conditions are forecasted. PMID:24760371

  17. The influence of parenting style on health related behavior of children: findings from the ChiBS study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Exploring associations between parenting behavior and children’s health related behavior including physical activity, sedentary behavior, diet and sleep. Methods We recruited 288 parents and their children (6-12y old). Children’s weight and height were measured. Fat percentage was determined by air displacement plethysmography. Parents reported socio-demographic data, sleep information, physical activity and sedentary behavior of their child and completed the Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire (CGPQ) and a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Children completed the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Associations between parenting behavior (CGPQ) and children’s health related behavior were assessed with univariate and multiple regression analyses. Results A small positive correlation was found between sweet food consumption frequency and “coercive control” (r = 0.139) and a small negative correlation between fruit and vegetables consumption frequency and “overprotection” (r = −0.151). Children consumed more frequently soft drinks when their parents scored lower on “structure” (r = −0.124) and higher on “overprotection” (r = 0.123); for the light soft drinks separately, a small positive correlation with “behavioral control” was found (r = 0.172). A small negative correlation was found between “emotional eating” and “structure” (r = −0.172) as well as “behavioral control” (r = −0.166). “Coercive control” was negatively correlated with the child’s sleep duration (r = −0.171). After correction for confounding factors, the following significant associations were found: (1) a small negative association between “structure” and soft drinks consumption (β = −0.17 for all soft drinks and −0.22 for light soft drinks), (2) a small positive association between “behavioral control” and light soft drinks (β = 0.34), (3) a small positive association of

  18. Socioeconomic Disparities in Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.; Krueger, Patrick M.; Denney, Justin T.

    2011-01-01

    The inverse relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and unhealthy behaviors such as tobacco use, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition have been well demonstrated empirically but encompass diverse underlying causal mechanisms. These mechanisms have special theoretical importance because disparities in health behaviors, unlike disparities in many other components of health, involve something more than the ability to use income to purchase good health. Based on a review of broad literatures in sociology, economics, and public health, we classify explanations of higher smoking, lower exercise, poorer diet, and excess weight among low-SES persons into nine broad groups that specify related but conceptually distinct mechanisms. The lack of clear support for any one explanation suggests that the literature on SES disparities in health and health behaviors can do more to design studies that better test for the importance of the varied mechanisms. PMID:21909182

  19. Health-related quality of life and health behaviors in a population-based sample of older, foreign-born, Chinese American adults living in New York City.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Laura C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia S; Kwon, Simona C

    2014-10-01

    Although the New York City Chinese population aged ≥ 65 years increased by 50% between 2000 and 2010, the health needs of this population are poorly understood. Approximately 3,001 Chinese individuals from high-density Asian American New York City areas were included in the REACH U.S. Risk Factor Survey; 805 (26.8%) were aged ≥ 65 years and foreign-born. Four health-related quality of life and three behavioral risk factor outcome variables were examined. Descriptive statistics were conducted by gender, and logistic regression models assessed sociodemographic and health factors associated with each outcome. Few women were current smokers (1.3% vs. 14.8% of men), 19% of respondents ate fruits and vegetables more than or equal to five times daily, and one-third of individuals received sufficient weekly physical activity. Days of poor health were similar to the national population aged ≥ 65 years, while self-reported fair or poor health was much greater among our Chinese sample; over 60% of respondents rated their health as fair or poor. Lower education and lower obesity were significantly associated with cigarette smoking among men, and older age was significantly associated with insufficient physical activity overall. Female gender was significantly associated with all poor health days; older age was significantly associated with poor days of physical health, and lower income was significantly associated with poor days of physical health and fair or poor self-reported health. This study provides important health-related information on a rapidly growing older population and highlights future research areas to inform culturally appropriate health promotion and disease prevention strategies and policies within community-based settings. PMID:25274716

  20. Health Behaviors of Operating Engineers

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Sonia A.; Missel, Amanda L.; Waltje, Andrea H.; Ronis, David L.; Fowler, Karen E.; Hong, OiSaeng

    2013-01-01

    RESEARCH ABSTRACT Operating Engineers (heavy equipment operators in construction) may be at particular risk for heart disease and cancer related to their exposure to environmental dust and smoking, the sedentary nature of their job, and long hours of exposure to the sun. The aim of this study was to characterize the health behaviors of Operating Engineers. This cross-sectional survey from a convenience sample of Operating Engineers (N = 498) used validated instruments to measure smoking, drinking, diet, exercise, sleep, and sun exposure. Univariate and bivariate analyses to detect differences by age were conducted. The sample scored significantly worse on all five health behaviors compared to population norms. Those who were older were less likely to smoke and chew tobacco and more likely to eat fruits and vegetables. Many were interested in services to improve their health behaviors. Health behavior interventions are needed and wanted by Operating Engineers. PMID:21688764

  1. Educational attainment, time preference, and health-related behaviors: A mediation analysis from the J-SHINE survey.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Daisuke; Kondo, Naoki; Takada, Misato; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2016-03-01

    Evidence consistently shows that low education is associated with unhealthy behaviors. A recent study in behavioral economics argued that high time preferences - the tendency to prefer immediate gain to later reward - explain the limited self-control of individuals in making preventive health-related choices. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of time preference on the associations between education and smoking, binge drinking and overweight in young and middle-aged adults living in a Japanese metropolitan area, using a quantitatively measured time discount rate. A population-based probabilistic sample of residents of 25-50 years of age living in four municipalities within Japanese metropolitan areas where economic disparity is relatively large was obtained from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE). Respondents answered the questionnaire items using a computer-aided personal instrument (CAPI). Data from 3457 respondents were used in this study. Time preferences measured as categorical responses were converted into a continuous number of time discount rates by using the maximum likelihood method. Smoking habit, binge drinking, and body mass index were regressed on educational attainment with demographics and other confounders. The mediating effects of the time discount rate were examined with the bootstrapping method. Results showed that the time discount rate did not mediate the association between education and binge drinking and BMI. Even for smoking, the mediating effect of time discount rate was quite limited, indicating that the proportion of total effect of education mediated was only 4.3% for men and 3.0% for women. The results suggest that modifying time preferences through educational intervention has only limited efficacy in closing disparities in health-related behaviors, and that other mediators fostered by schooling, such as knowledge/skills, group norms and supportive peers

  2. Intake and blood concentrations of folate and their association with health-related behaviors in Korean college students.

    PubMed

    Jang, Han-Byul; Han, Young-Hee; Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Kim, Heon; Hyun, Taisun

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess folate intake, and serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations, and investigate the association between folate status and health-related behaviors among Korean college students. A total of 169 students, aged between 18 and 27 years, participated in this study. Dietary intake data were collected by trained interviewers using a 24-hour recall method for three non-consecutive days in 2009. Information on health-related behaviors was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. Serum and RBC folate concentrations were measured by microbiological assay. The average intakes of folate were 456 µgDFE and 347 µgDFE in male and female students, respectively. While the average serum folate concentration was significantly lower in male students (8.9 ng/mL) compared to female students (12.5 ng/mL), RBC concentrations were not significantly different between male (398.6 ng/mL) and female students (405.3 ng/mL). In male students, low serum folate concentrations were associated with total folate intake less than the Estimated Average Requirement, non-use of folic acid supplements, smoking, alcohol drinking at least once a week and low physical activity. In female students, low serum folate concentrations were associated with smoking and alcohol drinking at least two drinks at a time and BMI ≥ 25. Alcohol drinking and low physical activity were also associated with low RBC folate concentrations in both male and female students. In order to improve folate nutritional status of college students, the practice of desirable health-related behaviors, such as non-smoking, moderate alcohol drinking, regular physical activity, and maintenance of healthy BMI should be encouraged along with consumption of folate-rich foods and supplements. PMID:23766883

  3. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-10-15

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in the context of

  4. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Related Behaviors in Brazil: Evidence from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS 2013)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study uses data from a nationally representative household survey (the 2013 National Health Survey, n = 62,986) to describe patterns of alcohol consumption and related behaviors among Brazilian adults. Analyses include descriptive and multivariable Poisson regression for self-reports in the past 30 days of: drinking any alcohol, binge drinking, binge drinking 4 or more times, and driving after drinking (DD); as well as age of alcohol consumption initiation. Results show that current drinking prevalence was 26%, with an average age of initiation of 18.7 years. Binge drinking was reported by 51% of drinkers, 43% of whom reported binge drinking 4 or more times. Drinking and driving was reported by nearly one quarter of those who drive a car/motorcycle. Current drinking was more likely among males, ages 25–34, single, urban, and those with more education. Binge drinking was more likely among males, older age groups, and people who started drinking before 18. Drinking and driving was higher among males, those with more education, and rural residents. Those who binge-drink were nearly 70% more likely to report DD. All behaviors varied significantly among Brazilian states. Given their potential health consequences, the levels of injurious alcohol behaviors observed here warrant increased attention from Brazilian policymakers and civil society. PMID:26230389

  5. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Related Behaviors in Brazil: Evidence from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS 2013).

    PubMed

    Macinko, James; Mullachery, Pricila; Silver, Diana; Jimenez, Geronimo; Libanio Morais Neto, Otaliba

    2015-01-01

    This study uses data from a nationally representative household survey (the 2013 National Health Survey, n = 62,986) to describe patterns of alcohol consumption and related behaviors among Brazilian adults. Analyses include descriptive and multivariable Poisson regression for self-reports in the past 30 days of: drinking any alcohol, binge drinking, binge drinking 4 or more times, and driving after drinking (DD); as well as age of alcohol consumption initiation. Results show that current drinking prevalence was 26%, with an average age of initiation of 18.7 years. Binge drinking was reported by 51% of drinkers, 43% of whom reported binge drinking 4 or more times. Drinking and driving was reported by nearly one quarter of those who drive a car/motorcycle. Current drinking was more likely among males, ages 25-34, single, urban, and those with more education. Binge drinking was more likely among males, older age groups, and people who started drinking before 18. Drinking and driving was higher among males, those with more education, and rural residents. Those who binge-drink were nearly 70% more likely to report DD. All behaviors varied significantly among Brazilian states. Given their potential health consequences, the levels of injurious alcohol behaviors observed here warrant increased attention from Brazilian policymakers and civil society. PMID:26230389

  6. Health-related variables and academic performance among first-year college students: implications for sleep and other behaviors.

    PubMed

    Trockel, M T; Barnes, M D; Egget, D L

    2000-11-01

    The authors analyzed the effect of several health behaviors and health-related variables on grade point averages of a random sample of 200 students living in on-campus residence halls at a large private university. The set of variables included exercise, eating, and sleep habits; mood states; perceived stress; time management; social support; spiritual or religious habits; number of hours worked per week; gender; and age. Of all the variables considered, sleep habits, particularly wake-up times, accounted for the largest amount of variance in grade point averages. Later wake-up times were associated with lower average grades. Variables associated with the 1st-year students' higher grade point averages were strength training and study of spiritually oriented material. The number of paid or volunteer hours worked per week was associated with lower average grades. PMID:11125640

  7. The Pre-Adult Health Decision-Making Model: Linking Decision-Making Directedness/Orientation to Adolescent Health-Related Attitudes and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Lilly M.; Warheit, George J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents model for adolescent health behavior, Pre-Adult Health Decision-Making Model, which takes into account differential information processing from peers, parents, or through critical or reflexive self-analysis. Reviews psychological and sociological literature on adolescent development, adolescent health behaviors, and Acquired Immune…

  8. The Significance of Privacy and Trust in Providing Health-Related Services to Behaviorally Bisexual Men in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Goncalves, Gabriel; Malebranche, David; Martinez, Omar; Reece, Michael; Rhodes, Scott D.; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that bisexual men face unique health concerns in comparison to their exclusively homosexual and heterosexual counterparts. However, little is known about behaviorally bisexual men's experiences with health services, including ways of providing services that would be most appropriate to meet the health needs of this…

  9. Effect of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Health-Related Quality of Life in Females With Premenstrual Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Izadi-Mazidi, Maryam; Davoudi, Iran; Mehrabizadeh, Mahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background The premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is characterized by intense physical and psychological changes. The most common symptoms include anxiety, depression, fatigue, anger, irritability, sense of being out of control, confusion, change in appetite and sleep, bloating and breast tenderness. The symptoms affect the quality of life of women, and cause impairment in many aspects of life. Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on improvement of health-related quality of life in female students with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Materials and Methods In this study, 40 students with PMS were selected from Shahid Chamran university in Tehran, Iran, and were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups. Participants in the intervention group received 10 sessions of CBT. Women in the control group did not receive any treatment. Results The results of ANCOVA were statistically significant (P < 0.001), and showed that group CBT improved the quality of life in the experimental group compared to the control group. In addition, the effects of the intervention on quality of life lasted for 2 months. Conclusions Cognitive-behavioral therapy can be effective in improvement of health-related quality of life of female students with PMS. PMID:27284283

  10. Health-Related Lifestyle Behaviors among Male and Female Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; He, Fang; Wang, Tianhao; Liu, Yao; Shen, Yao; Gong, Jian; Dai, Wei; Zhou, Jing; Gu, Jie; Tu, Yimin; Wang, Tianying; Shen, Lei; Wu, Yumiao; Xia, Xiuping; Xu, Donghao; Pan, Zhigang; Zhu, Shanzhu

    2015-01-01

    Background Lifestyle behaviors significantly impact health, yet remain poorly defined in Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. Methods In a cross-sectional study of health-related behaviors of 5484 rural-to-urban migrants who had worked in Shanghai for at least six months, we assessed the contribution of demographics and physical and mental health to lifestyle behaviors in male and female participants by multiple stepwise cumulative odds logistic regression. Results Respondents were 51.3% male. 9.9% exhibited abnormal blood pressure; 27.0% were overweight or obese; 11.2% reported abnormal mental health; 36.9% reported healthy lifestyle. Multiple stepwise cumulative odds logistic regression indicated that men working in manufacturing reported less unhealthy lifestyle than those in hospitality (cumulative odds ratio (COR) = 1.806, 95%CI 1.275–2.559) or recreation/leisure (COR = 3.248, 95%CI 2.379–4.435); and women working in manufacturing and construction reported less unhealthy lifestyle than those in all other sectors. Unhealthy lifestyle was associated with small workplaces for men (COR = 1.422, 95%CI 1.154–1.752), working more than 8 or 11 hours per day for women and men, respectively, and earning over 3500 RMB in women (COR = 1.618, 95%CI 1.137–2.303). Single women and women who had previously resided in three or more cities were more likely to report unhealthy lifestyle (COR = 2.023, 95%CI 1.664–2.461, and COR = 1.311, 95%CI 1.072–1.602, respectively). Abnormal mental status was also correlated with unhealthy lifestyle in men (COR = 3.105, 95%CI 2.454–3.930) and women (COR = 2.566, 95%CI 2.024–3.252). Conclusions There were different risk factors of unhealthy lifestyle score in male and female rural-to-urban migrants, especially in number of cities experienced, salary, marital status, work place scale. Several demographic groups: employment sectors (e.g. hospitality and recreation/leisure), working conditions (e.g. long hours) and abnormal mental

  11. Life course epidemiology: Oral health-related beliefs, behaviors, and outcomes through the life course.

    PubMed

    2016-08-26

    '..self-reported oral health by the age of 38 y... is influenced by intergenerational factors and various aspects of our beliefs, socioeconomic position, dental attendance, and self-care, which operate over the years since childhood.' PMID:27561575

  12. Case-control study of disturbed eating behaviors and related psychographic characteristics in young adults with and without diet-related chronic health conditions.

    PubMed

    Quick, Virginia M; McWilliams, Rita; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2012-08-01

    Young adults with diet-related chronic health conditions (DRCHCs; i.e., type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome) face challenges complying with dietary restrictions required to effectively manage their health condition. These restrictions could put them at risk for disturbed eating. The purpose of this study was to determine if young adults with and without DRCHCs differed with regard to disturbed eating behaviors and related psychographics characteristics (i.e., body image attributes, mental disorders, intrapersonal characteristics and sociocultural environment [i.e., media and family]). Each DRCHC participant (cases=166) was matched to 4 healthy participants (controls=664) based on gender and BMI (±0.50 BMI units). Conditional logistic regression analyses indicate cases were twice as likely to have been diagnosed by a healthcare provider with an eating disorder (p=0.08, OR=1.99, CI(90) [1.03-3.83]). Cases were significantly more likely to use Inappropriate Compensatory Behaviors to manage their weight, i.e., excessive exercise (p=0.04, OR=1.41, CI(95) [1.02-1.94]) and misuse medication (p=0.04, OR=1.14, CI(95) [1.00-1.29]) than controls. Depression and anxiety were significantly higher, and health status was significantly poorer in cases compared with controls. DRCHC participants were less likely to report feeling body image pressures from the media, placed a greater value on their health, used social diversion, and recalled a greater emphasis being placed on their mothers' weights and mealtimes being less structured than control participants. Findings indicate that nutrition and other healthcare professionals should incorporate screening DRCHC patients for disturbed eating behaviors and eating disorders in their standards of care. PMID:22664398

  13. GABAA Receptor-Modulating Steroids in Relation to Women's Behavioral Health.

    PubMed

    Bäckström, Torbjörn; Bixo, Marie; Strömberg, Jessica

    2015-11-01

    In certain women, increased negative mood relates to the progesterone metabolite, allopregnanolone (allo), during the luteal phase of ovulatory menstrual cycles, the premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). In anovulatory cycles, no symptom or sex steroid increase occurs but symptoms return during progesterone/allo treatment. Allo is a potent GABAA receptor-modulating steroid and as such is expected to be calming and anxiolytic. A relation to negative mood is unexpected. However, this paradoxical effect can be induced by all GABAA receptor modulators in low concentrations whereas higher concentrations are calming. The severity of the mood symptoms relate to allo in an inverted U-shaped curve at endogenous luteal-phase serum concentrations. Allo's effects on the GABAA receptor can be antagonized by isoallopregnanolone (ISO), an antagonist to allo. ISO has also been used in a preliminary clinical trial on PMDD ameliorating symptoms with good effect in PMDD patients. PMID:26396092

  14. Demographics, Affect, and Adolescents' Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terre, Lisa; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between affect, demographics, and health-related lifestyle among 139 public high school students. Data analyses revealed distinctive demographic and affective correlates of different health behaviors. No one variable uniformly predicted adolescents' health behaviors. Demographics and affect showed differential relationships…

  15. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors. PMID:27472357

  16. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors. PMID:27472357

  17. Health professionals' alcohol-related professional practices and the relationship between their personal alcohol attitudes and behavior and professional practices: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Savita; While, Alison E

    2014-01-01

    Health professionals' personal health behaviors have been found to be associated with their practices with patients in areas such as smoking, physical activity and weight management, but little is known in relation to alcohol use. This review has two related strands and aims to: (1) examine health professionals' alcohol-related health promotion practices; and (2) explore the relationship between health professionals' personal alcohol attitudes and behaviors, and their professional alcohol-related health promotion practices. A comprehensive literature search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Scopus and Science Direct (2007-2013) identified 26 studies that met the inclusion criteria for Strand 1, out of which six were analyzed for Strand 2. The findings indicate that health professionals use a range of methods to aid patients who are high-risk alcohol users. Positive associations were reported between health professionals' alcohol-related health promotion activities and their personal attitudes towards alcohol (n = 2), and their personal alcohol use (n = 2). The findings have some important implications for professional education. Future research should focus on conducting well-designed studies with larger samples to enable us to draw firm conclusions and develop the evidence base. PMID:24366045

  18. Health Professionals’ Alcohol-Related Professional Practices and the Relationship between Their Personal Alcohol Attitudes and Behavior and Professional Practices: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Savita; While, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals’ personal health behaviors have been found to be associated with their practices with patients in areas such as smoking, physical activity and weight management, but little is known in relation to alcohol use. This review has two related strands and aims to: (1) examine health professionals’ alcohol-related health promotion practices; and (2) explore the relationship between health professionals’ personal alcohol attitudes and behaviors, and their professional alcohol-related health promotion practices. A comprehensive literature search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Scopus and Science Direct (2007–2013) identified 26 studies that met the inclusion criteria for Strand 1, out of which six were analyzed for Strand 2. The findings indicate that health professionals use a range of methods to aid patients who are high-risk alcohol users. Positive associations were reported between health professionals’ alcohol-related health promotion activities and their personal attitudes towards alcohol (n = 2), and their personal alcohol use (n = 2). The findings have some important implications for professional education. Future research should focus on conducting well-designed studies with larger samples to enable us to draw firm conclusions and develop the evidence base. PMID:24366045

  19. Focus On Behavioral Health.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Long stigmatized, behavioral health conditions are finally becoming a focal point not just for policy makers but also in public discussions about the well-being of the United States. This is in part because of a rising opioid epidemic; the concentration of people with mental illnesses in prisons and jails; and a greater appreciation of the toll taken by depression and other mental disorders on individuals, families, and the economy. The United States spends more on mental health and addiction than on any other medical condition, including heart disease, trauma, and cancer. Within this spending, there's been a shift toward outpatient and other types of community treatment and away from inpatient care. Meanwhile, the Affordable Care Act has made it possible for more people with serious mental illnesses to obtain care, but treatment rates for racial and ethnic minorities still trail those of whites. PMID:27269009

  20. Estimates of self-reported dietary behavior related to oral health among adolescents according to the type of food

    PubMed Central

    do AMARAL, Regiane Cristina; SCABAR, Luiz Felipe; SLATER, Betzabeth; FRAZÃO, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare estimates of food behavior related to oral health obtained through a self-report measure and 24 hour dietary recalls (R24h). Method We applied three R24h and one self-report measure in 87 adolescents. The estimates for eleven food items were compared at individual and group levels. Results No significant differences in mean values were found for ice cream, vegetables and biscuits without filling. For the remaining items, the values reported by the adolescents were higher than the values estimated by R24h. The percentage of adolescents who reported intake frequency of 1 or more times/ day was higher than the value obtained through R24h for all food items except soft drinks. The highest values of crude agreement between the instruments, individually, were found in the biscuits without filling (75.9%) and ice cream (72.4%). Conclusion The results suggest that adolescents tend to report a degree of exposure to the food items larger than what they actually experience in their daily lives. PMID:25466475

  1. Promoting Health Behavior Change. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Karen T.

    Health-related habits develop early in life. The period during junior high school is especially important for developing these habits. Because adolescent behaviors may be better predictors of adult disease than adult health behaviors, interventions with children and adolescents are important. Several theories and models for explaining how people…

  2. Analysis of the Roles of “Serious Games” in Helping Teach Health-Related Knowledge and Skills and in Changing Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Matthew W.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers are developing sophisticated games specifically targeted to teach health-related knowledge and skills and to change health-related behaviors. Although these interventions, generally called “serious games,” show promise, there has been limited evaluation of their effectiveness. This article offers a broad “consumer guide” for evaluating such health education interventions. Improving the development and evaluation of healthrelated serious games and educating potential purchasers of such products to be knowledgeable, demanding consumers will help move the field of serious games from “looks promising” to determining where such interventions will be effective and where they will not. PMID:19885166

  3. Health Risk Behaviors and Academic Achievement

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2009 † Health-Risk Behaviors Percentage of U.S. high school students who engaged in each risk behavior, by type of grades mostly earned A’s B’s C’s D’s/F’s Unintentional Injury and Violence-Related Behaviors Rarely or never wore a seat ...

  4. Well-Being in Adolescence--An Association with Health-Related Behaviors: Findings from "Understanding Society," the UK Household Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Cara L.; Skew, Alexandra J.; Sacker, Amanda; Kelly, Yvonne J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the demographic distribution of selected health-related behaviors and their relationship with different indicators of well-being. The data come from Wave 1 of the youth panel of "Understanding Society" household panel study. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) measured…

  5. Pilot Testing a Cognitive-Behavioral Protocol on Psychosocial Predictors of Exercise, Nutrition, Weight, and Body Satisfaction Changes in a College-Level Health-Related Fitness Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Howton, Amy; Johnson, Ping H.; Porter, Kandice J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Small-scale pilot testing of supplementing a required college health-related fitness course with a cognitive-behavioral exercise-support protocol (The Coach Approach). Participants: Three classes were randomly assigned to Usual processes (n = 32), Coach Approach-supplemented: Mid-size Groups (n = 32), and Coach Approach-supplemented:…

  6. Pregnancy-Related Health Information-Seeking Behaviors Among Rural Pregnant Women in India: Validating the Wilson Model in the Indian Context

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ashavaree; Sarkar, Madhurima

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Understanding health information-seeking behaviors and barriers to care and access among pregnant women can potentially moderate the consistent negative associations between poverty, low levels of literacy, and negative maternal and child health outcomes in India. Our seminal study explores health information needs, health information-seeking behaviors, and perceived information support of low-income pregnant women in rural India. Methods: Using the Wilson Model of health information-seeking framework, we designed a culturally tailored guided interview to assess information-seeking behaviors and barriers to information seeking among pregnant women. We used a local informant and health care worker to recruit 14 expectant women for two focus group interviews lasting 45 minutes to an hour each. Thirteen other related individuals including husbands, mothers, mothers-in-law, and health care providers were also recruited by hospital counselors for in-depth interviews regarding their pregnant wives/daughters and daughters-in-law. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by coding the data into thematic categories. Results: The data were coded manually and emerging themes included pregnancy-related knowledge and misconceptions and personal, societal, and structural barriers, as well as risk perceptions and self-efficacy. Lack of access to health care and pregnancy-related health information led participants to rely heavily on information and misconceptions about pregnancy gleaned from elder women, friends, and mothers-in-law and husbands. Doctors and para-medical staff were only consulted during complications. All women faced personal, societal, and structural level barriers, including feelings of shame and embarrassment, fear of repercussion for discussing their pregnancies with their doctors, and inadequate time with their doctors. Conclusion: Lack of access and adequate health care information were of primary concern to pregnant women and their families

  7. Relative value health insurance.

    PubMed

    Korobkin, Russell

    2014-04-01

    Increases in health costs continue to outpace general inflation, and implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will exacerbate the problem by adding more Americans to the ranks of the insured. The most commonly proposed solutions--bureaucratic controls, greater patient cost sharing, and changes to physician incentives--all have substantial weaknesses. This article proposes a new paradigm for rationalizing health care expenditures called "relative value health insurance," a product that would enable consumers to purchase health insurance that covers cost-effective treatments but excludes cost-ineffective treatments. A combination of legal and informational impediments prevents private insurers from marketing this type of product today, but creative use of comparative effectiveness research, funded as a part of health care reform, could make relative value health insurance possible. Data deficits, adverse selection risks, and heterogeneous values among consumers create obstacles to shifting the health insurance system to this paradigm, but they could be overcome. PMID:24523448

  8. The Role of Sexual Health Professionals in Developing a Shared Concept of Risky Sexual Behavior as it Relates to HIV Transmission.

    PubMed

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Alexander, Kamila A; Fannin, Ehriel F; Baker, Jillian L; Davis, Zupenda M

    2016-01-01

    "Risky sexual behavior" accounts for the majority of new HIV infections regardless of gender, age, geographic location, or ethnicity. The phrase, however, refers to a relatively nebulous concept that hampers development of effective sexual health communication strategies. The purpose of this paper was to propose development of a shared conceptual understanding of "risky sexual behavior." We reviewed multidisciplinary HIV/AIDS literature to identify definitions of risky sexual behavior. Both the linguistic components and the social mechanisms that contribute to the concept of risky sexual behaviors were noted. Risky sexual behavior was often defined in a subjective manner in the literature, even in the scientific research. We urge a paradigm shift to focus on explicit behaviors and the social context of those behaviors in determining HIV risk. We also propose a new definition that reduces individual biases and promotes a broader discussion of the degree of sexual risk across a diversity of behavioral contexts. Sexual health professionals can strengthen practice and research initiatives by operating from a concise working definition of risky sexual behavior that is broadly transferable and expands beyond a traditional focus on identity-based groups. PMID:26184496

  9. Immigrant-native differences in caries-related knowledge, attitude, and oral health behaviors: a cross-sectional study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background With the growing number of transnational marriages in Taiwan, oral health disparities have become a public health issue. This study assessed immigrant-native differences in oral health behaviors of urban mothers and their children. Methods We used the baseline data of an oral health promotion program to examine the immigrant-native differences in caries-related knowledge, attitude, and oral health behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data from mothers in urban area, Taiwan. A total of 150 immigrant and 440 native mothers completed the self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression models analyzed the racial differences in oral health behaviors. Results Approximately 37% of immigrant mothers used dental floss, 25% used fluoride toothpaste, and only 13.5% of them regularly visited a dentist. Less that 40% of immigrant mothers brush their children’s teeth before aged one year, 45% replaced child’s toothbrush within 3 months, and only half of the mothers regularly took their child to the dentist. Immigrant mothers had lower level of caries-related knowledge and attitudes than native mothers (p < .001). Compared to native group, the immigrant mothers were less likely to use of dental floss ([Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) =0.35], fluoride toothpaste (aOR = 0.29), visit a dentist in the past 2 years (aOR = 0.26), and take their children to regular dental check-up (aOR = 0.38); whereas, they were more likely to not consume sweeten beverages (aOR = 3.13). Conclusions The level of caries-related knowledge, attitudes and oral health behaviors were found lower in immigrant mothers than native ones. The findings suggested cross-cultural caries prevention programs aimed at reducing immigrant-native disparities in child oral health care must be developed for these immigrant minorities. PMID:24423385

  10. Health Behavior in Ecological Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Health is best understood within an ecological context. Accordingly, health promotion involves processes that foster supportive environments and healthful behavior. Thus, effective health promotion programs are typically multilevel, focusing not only on the population at risk but also on the environmental conditions that contribute so importantly…

  11. Effect of Financial Stress and Positive Financial Behaviors on Cost-Related Nonadherence to Health Regimens Among Adults in a Community-Based Setting

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Daniel J.; Cupal, Suzanne; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the role of positive financial behaviors (behaviors that allow maintenance of financial stability with financial resources) in mitigating cost-related nonadherence (CRN) to health regimens. This study examined the relationships between positive financial behaviors, financial stress, and CRN. Methods Data came from the 2011 Speak to Your Health! Community Survey (n = 1,234). Descriptive statistics were computed to examine financial stress and CRN, by chronic condition and health insurance status. We used multivariate logistic regression models to examine the relationship between positive financial behaviors and financial stress and their interaction on a composite score of CRN, controlling for health insurance status, educational level, age, marital status, number of chronic conditions, and employment status. Results Thirty percent of the sample engaged in CRN. Participants reported moderate financial stress (mean, 13.85; standard deviation [SD] = 6.97), and moderate positive financial behavior (mean, 8.84; SD = 3.24). Participants with employer-sponsored insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, the Genesee Health Plan, high blood pressure, asthma, and diabetes had the highest proportion of CRN. The relationship between financial stress and CRN was not significantly different between those who reported lower versus higher levels of positive financial behavior (P = .32). Greater financial stress was associated with a greater likelihood of CRN (odds ratio [OR] = 2.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08–2.99). Higher level of positive financial behavior was associated with a lower likelihood of CRN (OR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67–0.94). Conclusion Financial literacy as a means of promoting positive financial behavior may help reduce CRN. An intervention strategy focused on improving financial literacy may be relevant for high-risk groups who report high levels of financial stress. PMID:27055263

  12. The Relationship of Built Environment to Health-Related Behaviors and Health Outcomes in Elderly Community Residents in a Middle Income Country

    PubMed Central

    Blay, Sergio L.; Schulz, Amy J.; Mentz, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the impact of the built environment (BE) on health behaviours and health outcomes in middle income countries. This study examines associations between self-assessed characteristics of the home and neighbourhood environment and health-related behaviours and health outcomes in an elderly population in Brazil Design and methods In a community sample of 6963 community dwellers 60 years old and older living in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, associations between self-reported BE conditions and health behaviours and health outcomes were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Multivariate analysis was conducted to investigate these associations while accounting for other relevant characteristics. Results We found significant positive associations between adverse BE conditions and pulmonary, urinary conditions, gastrointestinal, problems, headache and depression. There were mixed associations between adverse BE conditions and musculoskeletal and sensory conditions, inverse associations with metabolic disorders. and no associations with dermatologic problems and cancer. After accounting for health related behaviours, results suggest a modest association between adverse BE conditions and hypertension, with no significant associations with other indicators of cardiovascular conditions (heart problems, stroke, varicose veins). Conclusions The findings in this study suggest links between adverse conditions in the BE and health related behaviours in the hypothesized direction. Associations with the health conditions examined here are mixed. We find the strongest evidence for effects of adverse BE conditions for pulmonary and infectious conditions. Significant associations between the adverse BE indicators and health outcomes persist after accounting for health related behaviours, suggesting that BE conditions are linked to health pathways above and beyond the health related behaviours assessed in this study. Significance for

  13. Health-Related Behaviors and Effectiveness of Trivalent Inactivated versus Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Preventing Influenza-Like Illness among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sevick, Carter; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.; Blair, Patrick J.; Faix, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaccination is the preferred preventive strategy against influenza. Though health behaviors are known to affect immunity and vaccine delivery modes utilize different immune processes, data regarding the preferred influenza vaccine type among adults endorsing specific health-related behaviors (alcohol use, tobacco use, and exercise level) are limited. Methods The relative effectiveness of two currently available influenza vaccines were compared for prevention of influenza-like illness during 2 well-matched influenza seasons (2006/2007, 2008/2009) among US military personnel aged 18–49 years. Relative vaccine effectiveness was compared between those self-reporting and not reporting recent smoking history and potential alcohol problem, and by exercise level using Cox proportional hazard modeling adjusted for sociodemographic and military factors, geographic area, and other health behaviors. Results 28,929 vaccination events and 3936 influenza-like illness events over both influenza seasons were studied. Of subjects, 27.5% were smokers, 7.7% had a potential alcohol-related problem, 10.5% reported minimal exercise, and 4.4% reported high exercise levels. Overall, the risk of influenza-like illness did not significantly differ between live attenuated and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine recipients (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.90–1.06). In the final adjusted model, the relative effectiveness of the 2 vaccine types did not differ by smoking status (p = 0.10), alcohol status (p = 0.21), or activity level (p = 0.11). Conclusions Live attenuated and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines were similarly effective in preventing influenza-like illness among young adults and did not differ by health-related behavior status. Influenza vaccine efforts should continue to focus simply on delivering vaccine. PMID:25013931

  14. The Person-Based Approach to Intervention Development: Application to Digital Health-Related Behavior Change Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Leanne; Bradbury, Katherine; Muller, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach that we have evolved for developing successful digital interventions to help people manage their health or illness. We refer to this as the “person-based” approach to highlight the focus on understanding and accommodating the perspectives of the people who will use the intervention. While all intervention designers seek to elicit and incorporate the views of target users in a variety of ways, the person-based approach offers a distinctive and systematic means of addressing the user experience of intended behavior change techniques in particular and can enhance the use of theory-based and evidence-based approaches to intervention development. There are two key elements to the person-based approach. The first is a developmental process involving qualitative research with a wide range of people from the target user populations, carried out at every stage of intervention development, from planning to feasibility testing and implementation. This process goes beyond assessing acceptability, usability, and satisfaction, allowing the intervention designers to build a deep understanding of the psychosocial context of users and their views of the behavioral elements of the intervention. Insights from this process can be used to anticipate and interpret intervention usage and outcomes, and most importantly to modify the intervention to make it more persuasive, feasible, and relevant to users. The second element of the person-based approach is to identify “guiding principles” that can inspire and inform the intervention development by highlighting the distinctive ways that the intervention will address key context-specific behavioral issues. This paper describes how to implement the person-based approach, illustrating the process with examples of the insights gained from our experience of carrying out over a thousand interviews with users, while developing public health and illness management interventions that have proven effective in

  15. The person-based approach to intervention development: application to digital health-related behavior change interventions.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Lucy; Morrison, Leanne; Bradbury, Katherine; Muller, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach that we have evolved for developing successful digital interventions to help people manage their health or illness. We refer to this as the "person-based" approach to highlight the focus on understanding and accommodating the perspectives of the people who will use the intervention. While all intervention designers seek to elicit and incorporate the views of target users in a variety of ways, the person-based approach offers a distinctive and systematic means of addressing the user experience of intended behavior change techniques in particular and can enhance the use of theory-based and evidence-based approaches to intervention development. There are two key elements to the person-based approach. The first is a developmental process involving qualitative research with a wide range of people from the target user populations, carried out at every stage of intervention development, from planning to feasibility testing and implementation. This process goes beyond assessing acceptability, usability, and satisfaction, allowing the intervention designers to build a deep understanding of the psychosocial context of users and their views of the behavioral elements of the intervention. Insights from this process can be used to anticipate and interpret intervention usage and outcomes, and most importantly to modify the intervention to make it more persuasive, feasible, and relevant to users. The second element of the person-based approach is to identify "guiding principles" that can inspire and inform the intervention development by highlighting the distinctive ways that the intervention will address key context-specific behavioral issues. This paper describes how to implement the person-based approach, illustrating the process with examples of the insights gained from our experience of carrying out over a thousand interviews with users, while developing public health and illness management interventions that have proven effective in trials

  16. Factors Associated with Physician Discussion of Health Behaviors with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2006-01-01

    Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues…

  17. Health Risk Behaviors in Parentally Bereaved Youth

    PubMed Central

    Muñiz-Cohen, Melissa; Melhem, Nadine M.; Brent, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether parentally bereaved offspring are more likely to engage in health risk behaviors than nonbereaved control offspring. Design Controlled population-based study. Setting Bereaved families were recruited from coroner records and by advertisement. Control families were recruited using random-digit dialing and by advertisement. Participants At 9.0 months after the death, 186 offspring aged 7 to 25 years of parents who died of suicide, accident, or sudden natural death were compared with 167 nonbereaved control offspring. Main Outcome Measures The association of bereavement with health risk behaviors was examined. The prevalences of health risk behaviors on the Youth Risk Behavior Questionnaire were compared between bereaved and nonbereaved offspring. Risk behaviors surveyed were related to unintentional injury, violence, sexual behavior, cigarette smoking, and alcohol or other drug use. Results No statistically significant difference was noted in the examined health risk behaviors between bereaved and nonbereaved offspring. Conclusions Bereaved offspring did not engage in more health risk behaviors compared with nonbereaved offspring. Primary care physicians counseling youth should inquire about health risk behaviors in general. PMID:20603461

  18. Behavioral Periodicity Detection from 24 h Wrist Accelerometry and Associations with Cardiometabolic Risk and Health-Related Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Buman, Matthew P; Hu, Feiyan; Newman, Eamonn; Smeaton, Alan F; Epstein, Dana R

    2016-01-01

    Periodicities (repeating patterns) are observed in many human behaviors. Their strength may capture untapped patterns that incorporate sleep, sedentary, and active behaviors into a single metric indicative of better health. We present a framework to detect periodicities from longitudinal wrist-worn accelerometry data. GENEActiv accelerometer data were collected from 20 participants (17 men, 3 women, aged 35-65) continuously for 64.4 ± 26.2 (range: 13.9 to 102.0) consecutive days. Cardiometabolic risk biomarkers and health-related quality of life metrics were assessed at baseline. Periodograms were constructed to determine patterns emergent from the accelerometer data. Periodicity strength was calculated using circular autocorrelations for time-lagged windows. The most notable periodicity was at 24 h, indicating a circadian rest-activity cycle; however, its strength varied significantly across participants. Periodicity strength was most consistently associated with LDL-cholesterol (r's = 0.40-0.79, P's < 0.05) and triglycerides (r's = 0.68-0.86, P's < 0.05) but also associated with hs-CRP and health-related quality of life, even after adjusting for demographics and self-rated physical activity and insomnia symptoms. Our framework demonstrates a new method for characterizing behavior patterns longitudinally which captures relationships between 24 h accelerometry data and health outcomes. PMID:26942195

  19. Behavioral Periodicity Detection from 24 h Wrist Accelerometry and Associations with Cardiometabolic Risk and Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Buman, Matthew P.; Hu, Feiyan; Newman, Eamonn; Smeaton, Alan F.; Epstein, Dana R.

    2016-01-01

    Periodicities (repeating patterns) are observed in many human behaviors. Their strength may capture untapped patterns that incorporate sleep, sedentary, and active behaviors into a single metric indicative of better health. We present a framework to detect periodicities from longitudinal wrist-worn accelerometry data. GENEActiv accelerometer data were collected from 20 participants (17 men, 3 women, aged 35–65) continuously for 64.4 ± 26.2 (range: 13.9 to 102.0) consecutive days. Cardiometabolic risk biomarkers and health-related quality of life metrics were assessed at baseline. Periodograms were constructed to determine patterns emergent from the accelerometer data. Periodicity strength was calculated using circular autocorrelations for time-lagged windows. The most notable periodicity was at 24 h, indicating a circadian rest-activity cycle; however, its strength varied significantly across participants. Periodicity strength was most consistently associated with LDL-cholesterol (r's = 0.40–0.79, P's < 0.05) and triglycerides (r's = 0.68–0.86, P's < 0.05) but also associated with hs-CRP and health-related quality of life, even after adjusting for demographics and self-rated physical activity and insomnia symptoms. Our framework demonstrates a new method for characterizing behavior patterns longitudinally which captures relationships between 24 h accelerometry data and health outcomes. PMID:26942195

  20. Association between health beliefs and health behavior in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bödecs, Tamás; Horváth, Boldizsár; Szilágyi, Eniko; Diffellné Németh, Marietta; Sándor, János

    2011-11-01

    Folate-supplementation significantly reduces the risk of neural tube defects. The aim of this research was to reveal associations between health beliefs and folate -supplementation as well as other elements of health behavior among Hungarian women early in their pregnancy. Three-hundred and seven women in early pregnancy completed the second part of Health and Illness Scale. Factor structure of health beliefs was established and associations of factors with pregnancy planning, folate-intake, vitamin-intake, smoking-habits and alcohol-consumption were tested. A six factor health model was formulated; the factor named 'mental capacities and abilities' was associated with greater chance on folate-intake, vitamin-intake and prepared pregnancy, as well as a reduced chance of smoking. The factors 'destiny', 'measures aiming at prevention', and 'relatives and acquaintances' related to lower chance on folate-intake. The health belief factor representing Internal Health Locus of Control was associated with more than one component of healthy behavior, while factors of external dimensions (Powerful Others Health Locus of Control and Chance Health Locus of Control) were predictive on unhealthy behavioral tendencies. New approaches aiming to shift one's health beliefs and health locus of control from external causes to internal dimensions are needed in order to reach greater openness towards health-improving interventions. PMID:20957513

  1. In Pursuit of Theoretical Ground in Behavior Change Support Systems: Analysis of Peer-to-Peer Communication in a Health-Related Online Community

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Nathan; Cohen, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background Research studies involving health-related online communities have focused on examining network structure to understand mechanisms underlying behavior change. Content analysis of the messages exchanged in these communities has been limited to the “social support” perspective. However, existing behavior change theories suggest that message content plays a prominent role reflecting several sociocognitive factors that affect an individual’s efforts to make a lifestyle change. An understanding of these factors is imperative to identify and harness the mechanisms of behavior change in the Health 2.0 era. Objective The objective of this work is two-fold: (1) to harness digital communication data to capture essential meaning of communication and factors affecting a desired behavior change, and (2) to understand the applicability of existing behavior change theories to characterize peer-to-peer communication in online platforms. Methods In this paper, we describe grounded theory–based qualitative analysis of digital communication in QuitNet, an online community promoting smoking cessation. A database of 16,492 de-identified public messages from 1456 users from March 1-April 30, 2007, was used in our study. We analyzed 795 messages using grounded theory techniques to ensure thematic saturation. This analysis enabled identification of key concepts contained in the messages exchanged by QuitNet members, allowing us to understand the sociobehavioral intricacies underlying an individual’s efforts to cease smoking in a group setting. We further ascertained the relevance of the identified themes to theoretical constructs in existing behavior change theories (eg, Health Belief Model) and theoretically linked techniques of behavior change taxonomy. Results We identified 43 different concepts, which were then grouped under 12 themes based on analysis of 795 messages. Examples of concepts include “sleepiness,” “pledge,” “patch,” “spouse,” and

  2. Group Counseling: Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Johnnie

    1979-01-01

    Diabetes and sickle cell anemia (SCA) are two health-related characteristics that distinguish young people from their peers. This article outlines the problems of children with diabetes and SCA and presents the goals and format for group counseling of these populations and their parents. (Author/BEF)

  3. Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollicone, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral health risks during long-duration space exploration missions are among the most difficult to predict, detect, and mitigate. Given the anticipated extended duration of future missions and their isolated, extreme, and confined environments, there is the possibility that behavior conditions and mental disorders will develop among astronaut crew. Pulsar Informatics, Inc., has developed a health monitoring tool that provides a means to detect and address behavioral disorders and mental conditions at an early stage. The tool integrates all available behavioral measures collected during a mission to identify possible health indicator warning signs within the context of quantitatively tracked mission stressors. It is unobtrusive and requires minimal crew time and effort to train and utilize. The monitoring tool can be deployed in space analog environments for validation testing and ultimate deployment in long-duration space exploration missions.

  4. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy on health-related quality of life: An evaluation of therapies provided by trainee therapists.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Sophie; Anclair, Malin; Hiltunen, Arto J

    2016-06-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the treatment effect of cognitive behavioral therapy provided by trainee therapists at a university clinic, focusing on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) optimism and symptoms. The study was conducted through a repeated measures design and included a treatment group (n = 21), which received cognitive behavioral therapy for an average of 10.7 therapy sessions and a control group (n = 14), that was put on a wait list for 8.6 weeks on average. After treatment, the treatment group improved significantly concerning general health (p = 0.028) and optimism (p = 0.027). In addition, clients improved in several areas within mental health and displayed some reduction in anxiety symptoms. Concurrently, the results also indicated some improvement within the control group, which may have been caused by the initial therapeutic contact, expectancy effects or spontaneous remission. The study concluded that cognitive behavioral therapy provided by trainee therapists may have a positive effect on areas within HRQOL and optimism. PMID:27119256

  5. A computer-based interview to identify HIV risk behaviors and to assess patient preferences for HIV-related health states.

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, G. D.; Owens, D. K.; Padian, N.; Cardinalli, A. B.; Sullivan, A. N.; Nease, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    We developed a computer-based utility assessment tool to assess the preferences of patients towards HIV-related health states and identify risk behaviors (both sexual and drug related) of the patient being interviewed. The reliability of the computer-based interview was assessed through comparison with person-to-person interviews. Our pilot study included 22 patients. Twelve of these patients were also interviewed by the research assistants in person-to-person interviews. The agreement between the person-to-person and computer-based interviews was excellent (3 discrepancies of 180 compared answers), and the majority of the patients preferred to use the computer to disclose sensitive information regarding risk behaviors. Our study suggests that assessment of patient preferences and risk factors can be performed reliably through a computer-based interview. PMID:7949919

  6. Modifying and developing health behavior.

    PubMed

    Green, L W

    1984-01-01

    The literatures on both behavior modification and behavioral development have engendered innovations in public health programs, addressing problems of patient adherance to preventive and therapeutic regimens, delay in seeking diagnosis of illness symptoms, risk-taking behavior, and other aspects of lifestyle associated with health. Because most of this literature derives from psychology, there has been a distinct bias in the construction of interventions, pointing them directly at individuals, usually in a counseling or small group mode of delivery. These developments served public health well enough during a decade or so when the preoccupation was with utilization of health services and medical management of chronic diseases. With the publication of the Lalonde Report in Canada in 1974, the passage of Public Law 94-317 in 1976 in the United States, and similar initiatives in other English-speaking and European countries, the recognition of the greater complexities of lifestyle development and modification in the absence of symptoms has taken hold. Policy makers and public health workers seek a more efficient and equitable set of strategies to meet the behavioral health challenges of modern society without placing the entire weight of responsibility for behavior on the individual or on therapeutic practitioners. Concurrently, on a more global scale and in the developing countries, a concern has emerged for strategies that give individuals, families, and communities a greater role in deciding their own health priorities. The convergence of these two trends--one seeking to distribute responsibility for lifestyle more equitably and the other seeking to distribute responsibility for planning health programs more equitably --calls for policies, strategies, and interventions that will place similar emphasis on health education and organizational, economic, and environmental supports for health behavior. The combination of these elements of support for behavior calls, in

  7. Profiles of resistance training behavior and sedentary time among older adults: Associations with health-related quality of life and psychosocial health☆

    PubMed Central

    Bampton, Erin A.; Johnson, Steven T.; Vallance, Jeff K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The primary objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of the associations of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychosocial factors (e.g., satisfaction with life, level of self-esteem, anxiety, depression) with resistance training and sedentary behavior profiles. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 358 older adults (≥ 55 years of age) across Alberta, Canada, completed self-reported measures of resistance training behavior, sedentary time, HRQoL, and psychosocial health (e.g., depression, anxiety, self-esteem, satisfaction with life). Participants were placed into one of four profiles with respect to their sedentary and resistance training behaviors. Data were collected in Alberta, Canada between August 2013 and January 2014. Results Pairwise comparisons indicated that those in the low SED/low RT group had a higher mental health composite (MHC) score compared to those in the high SED/low RT group (Mdiff = 3.9, p = 0.008). Compared to those in the high SED/low RT group, those in the low SED/high RT groups had significantly higher MHC scores (Mdiff = 4.8, p < 0.001). Those in the low SED/high RT group reported significantly higher physical health composite scores (PHC) (Mdiff = 3.7, p = 0.019), compared to the high SED/low RT group. Lower depression symptom scores were observed in the low SED/high RT groups compared to the high SED/low RT group, (Mdiff = − 0.60, p < 0.001). Conclusion Resistance training, regardless of sedentary time, was significantly associated with HRQoL and psychosocial health. PMID:26844148

  8. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes and Past-Year Physical Health Among Adults in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Chou, S. Patricia; Ruan, W. June; Saha, Tulshi D.; Pickering, Roger P.; Stinson, Frederick S.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe associations of DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), conduct disorder without progression to ASPD (“CD only”), and syndromal antisocial behavior in adulthood without CD before age 15 (AABS, not a DSM-IV diagnosis) with past-year physical health status and hospital care utilization in the general U.S. adult population. Methods This report is based on the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=43,093, response rate=81%). Respondents were classified according to whether they met criteria for ASPD, AABS, “CD only,” or no antisocial syndrome. Associations of antisocial syndromes with physical health status and care utilization were examined using normal-theory and logistic regression. Results ASPD and AABS were significantly but modestly associated with total past-year medical conditions, coronary heart and gastrointestinal diseases, and numbers of inpatient hospitalizations, inpatient days, emergency department visits, and clinically significant injuries. ASPD was also associated with liver disease, arthritis, and lower scores on the Short Form-12 version 2 (SF-12v2) Physical Component, Role Physical, and Bodily Pain Scales. AABS was associated with noncoronary heart disease, lower scores on the SF-12v2 General Health and Vitality Scales, and, among men, arthritis. “CD only” was associated with single but not multiple inpatient hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and clinically significant injuries. Conclusions Estimates of burden related to antisocial behavioral syndromes need to consider associated physical health problems. Prevention and treatment guidelines for injuries and common chronic diseases may need to address comorbid antisociality, and interventions targeting antisociality may need to consider general health status, including prevention and management of injuries and chronic diseases. PMID:18348594

  9. The meaning of behavioral medicine in the public health field-a review of documents related to medical education in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    International standardization of medical education requires Japanese medical schools to restructure their curricula to include "behavioral science." Two influential documents for Japanese medical education, the "Model Core Curriculum for Medical Education in Japan" and the "Scope of the Japanese National Examination for Medical Doctors" include some key terms regarding behavioral science. However, they are not systematic and the phrase "behavioral science" itself could not be found in these documents. The new global standards for medical education, the "Basic Medical Education WFME Global Standards," require medical schools to include behavioral science in their curricula. The definition of "behavioral science" in the global standards emphasizes social aspects and determinants of health, which is also a key concept of public health. From the view point of public health, it is hoped that the systematic introduction of behavioral science into Japanese medical education will strengthen the public health mindset of medical doctors, which in turn will support the healthcare system in communities. PMID:26937252

  10. Symposium on Dental Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lawrence W., Ed.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This document presents papers, critiques, and comments from a symposium which assessed the current status of preventive dental behavior. The field was divided into the following three major areas: (a) mass media programs, (b) school health programs, and (c) effect of the private practitioner. Each author was asked to review the literature, provide…

  11. Mothers' Perceived Physical Health during Early and Middle Childhood: Relations with Child Developmental Delay and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N = 116) or typical development (TD; N = 129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent…

  12. Conditional health threats: health beliefs, decisions, and behaviors among adults.

    PubMed

    Ronis, D L

    1992-01-01

    We combined the health belief model with the theory of subjective expected utility to derive hypotheses about the relations among health beliefs and preventive decisions. The central implication of this combination of theories is the importance of conceptualizing, measuring, and communicating about health threats in ways that are clearly conditional on action. It is important to distinguish, for example, between how susceptible to a disease a person thinks he or she would be if that person were and were not to take a preventive action. An experimental study of judgments about a hypothetical preventive action was conducted to test many of the theoretically derived hypotheses. A correlation study of dental flossing behavior was conducted to test the hypotheses as they apply to overt behavior rather than to judgment. Results of both studies supported most of the tested hypotheses, especially those related to the conditional conceptualization of health threats. Implications for theory, research methods, and practical applications are discussed. PMID:1582381

  13. BEHAVIORAL HAZARD IN HEALTH INSURANCE*

    PubMed Central

    Baicker, Katherine; Mullainathan, Sendhil; Schwartzstein, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental implication of standard moral hazard models is overuse of low-value medical care because copays are lower than costs. In these models, the demand curve alone can be used to make welfare statements, a fact relied on by much empirical work. There is ample evidence, though, that people misuse care for a different reason: mistakes, or “behavioral hazard.” Much high-value care is underused even when patient costs are low, and some useless care is bought even when patients face the full cost. In the presence of behavioral hazard, welfare calculations using only the demand curve can be off by orders of magnitude or even be the wrong sign. We derive optimal copay formulas that incorporate both moral and behavioral hazard, providing a theoretical foundation for value-based insurance design and a way to interpret behavioral “nudges.” Once behavioral hazard is taken into account, health insurance can do more than just provide financial protection—it can also improve health care efficiency. PMID:23930294

  14. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Health-Related Quality of Life in the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Bradford E.; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Coultas, David; Singh, Karan P.; Bae, Sejong

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience irreversible airflow obstruction, dyspnea, coughing, and fatigue. One of the goals of treating individuals with COPD is to improve their quality of life. The aim of this research was to evaluate the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)…

  15. Development of Alive! (A Lifestyle Intervention Via Email), and Its Effect on Health-related Quality of Life, Presenteeism, and Other Behavioral Outcomes: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sternfeld, Barbara; Block, Clifford H; Block, Torin J; Norris, Jean; Hopkins, Donald; Quesenberry, Charles P; Husson, Gail; Clancy, Heather Anne

    2008-01-01

    Background Cost-effective interventions to improve diet and physical activity are a public health priority. Alive! is an email-based intervention to increase physical activity, reduce saturated and trans fats and added sugars, and increase fruit and vegetable consumption. It was shown to improve these behaviors in a large randomized controlled trial. Objective (1) To describe the components and behavioral principles underlying Alive!, and (2) to report effects of the intervention on the secondary outcomes: health-related quality of life, presenteeism, self-efficacy, and stage of change. Methods The Alive! behavior change model is designed to elicit healthy behaviors and promote their maintenance. Behavioral strategies include assessments followed by individualized feedback, weekly goal-setting, individually tailored goals and tips, reminders, and promotion of social support. Alive! was tested among non-medical employees of Kaiser Permanente of Northern California, who were randomized to either the intervention group or the wait-list control group. After randomization, intervention group participants chose one topic to undertake for the intervention period: increasing physical activity, increasing fruits and vegetables, or decreasing saturated and trans fats and added sugars. Pre-post questionnaires assessed changes in SF-8 health-related quality of life, presenteeism, self-efficacy, and stage of change. Mixed effects multiple linear regression and ordinal logistic regression models were used, with department as a random effect factor. Analyses were by intention to treat: the 30% (238/787) who did not respond to the follow-up questionnaires were assigned change scores of zero. Results Participants were 19 to 65 years (mean 44.0 +/- 10.6), and 74.3% (585/787) were female. Mean SF-8 Physical quality of life score increased significantly more in the intervention group than in the control group, 1.84 (95% CI 0.96-2.72) vs 0.72 (95% CI -0.15-1.58) respectively, P = .02

  16. Changing Behavioral Lifestyle Risk Factors Related to Cognitive Decline in Later Life Using a Self-Motivated eHealth Intervention in Dutch Adults

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Li; Baars, Maria AE; de Lange, Annet; Kessels, Roy PC; Olde Rikkert, Marcel GM

    2016-01-01

    Background Our labor force is aging, but aged workers are not yet coached on how to stay cognitively fit for the job. Objective In this study, we tested whether a self-motivated, complex eHealth intervention could improve multiple health-related behaviors that are associated with cognitive aging among working Dutch adults. Methods This quasi-experimental prospective study with a pre-post design was conducted with employees of Dutch medium to large companies. All employees with Internet access, a good understanding of the Dutch language, and who provided digital informed consent were eligible to participate. In total, 2972 participants (2110/2972, 71.11% females) with a mean (standard deviation, SD) age of 51.8 (SD 12.9) years were recruited; 2305 became active users of the intervention, and 173 completed the 1-year follow-up. This self-motivated eHealth lifestyle intervention stimulates participants to set personally relevant, monthly health behavior change goals using Goal Attainment Scaling and to realize these goals by implementing behavior change techniques grounded in behavior change theory. The primary outcomes were the goal-setting success rate and the change in overall lifestyle score from baseline to the 1-year follow-up; the score was based on physical activity, diet, smoking, alcohol, sleep, and stress scores. The secondary outcomes were the changes in body weight, body mass index, specific lifestyle characteristics, and website usage. Results A total of 1212 participants set 2620 behavior change goals; 392 participants assessed 1089 (1089/2288, 47.59%) goals and successfully achieved 422 (422/1089, 38.75%) of these goals. Among the goal-setting participants in follow-up, this led to a +0.81-point improvement (95% CI 0.49-1.13, P<.001) in overall lifestyle (d=0.32) and weight loss of 0.62 kg (95% CI −1.16 to −0.07, P=.03). These participants also showed significant improvement in 8 out of 11 specific lifestyle components. Conclusions Among an adult

  17. Determinants of Preventive Health Behavior in Relation to Cervical Cancer Screening among the Female Population of Belgrade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matejic, Bojana; Vukovic, Dejana; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Kesic, Vesna; Markovic, Milica

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the factors that deter or stimulate the women to participate in screening activities is very important in order to design effective education and motivation strategies, particularly in the countries without an organized system. The study employed a case-control design. The participants were recruited in four primary health care…

  18. The Relative Importance of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to extend Michalos' [Social indicators research and health-related quality of life (QoL) research. "Social Indicators Research," 65, 27-72, 2004] discussion on bridging social indicators research and health-related QoL (HRQoL) research through an examination of (1) the relative importance of satisfaction with one's own health to…

  19. Health Promotion and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…

  20. Determinants of Behavior of Students as Pedestrian and Car Occupants in Relation to Traffic Laws in 2013, Gorgan, Iran; An Application of Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Heshmati, Hashem; Behnampour, Nasser; Binaei, Golnaz; Khajavai, Samane

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the behavioral pattern of Golestan University of Medical Science (GUMS) students as pedestrian and car occupants in relation to traffic law based on Health Belief Model. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed during 2012 in GUMS. A total of 370 students of GUMS were selected using multi-stage sampling method  including stratified and  random  sampling. Data were collected by using a reliable and valid questionnaire. All the participants filled the questionnaire and the data was extracted according to previously described method. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 18 Software. Descriptive statistic and Spearman correlation was used for analyzing the data. Results: Mean age of the participants was 20.92±1.98 (range 17-32) years. Mean score of perceived susceptibility was 81.87±17.18, being in desirable level. Mean score of perceived severity was 73.39±18.4, being also in desirable level. Mean score of perceived benefits was 77.22 ±16.13, which was also assumed to be in desirable level. Mean score of perceived barriers was 53.46±16.27, assumed as moderate level. In the same way the mean score of practice was 66.17±17.51, so practice in students was in moderate level. Television was the most important cues to action. Conclusion: Perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits regarding safety behaviors was in good level but perceived barriers and behavior was in moderate level and according to the importance of Television, we recommended appropriate intervention such as health education and advocacy, especially through national Television. PMID:27162879

  1. The Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies Is Related to Reduced Risk in Heavy Drinking College Students with Poorer Mental and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample…

  2. Health behavior models and oral health: a review.

    PubMed

    Hollister, M Catherine; Anema, Marion G

    2004-01-01

    Dental hygienists help their clients develop health promoting behaviors, by providing essential information about general health, and oral health in particular. Individual health practices such as oral self-care are based on personal choices. The guiding principles found in health behavior models provide useful methods to the oral health care providers in promoting effective individual client behaviors. Theories provide explanations about observable facts in a systematic manner. Research regarding health behavior has explored the effectiveness and applicability of various health models in oral health behavior modification. The Health Belief Model, Transtheoretical Model and Stages of Change, Theory of Reasoned Action, Self-Efficacy, Locus of Control, and Sense of Coherence are examples of models that focus on individuals assuming responsibility for their own health. Understanding the strengths of each and their applicability to health behaviors is critical for oral health care providers who work with patients to adopt methods and modify behaviors that contribute to good oral health. This paper describes health behavior models that have been applied to oral health education, presents a critical analysis of the effectiveness of each model in oral health education, and provides examples of application to oral health education. PMID:16201062

  3. [Ways of spending free time by students of the Medical University of Gdansk in relation to their health behavior].

    PubMed

    Wojdak-Haasa, Ewa; Zarzeczna-Baran, Marzena; Pegiel-Kamrat, Jolanta

    2002-01-01

    Problems connected with the issue of free time are the field of interest for social, and medical scientists and economists. Medical students are perceived by others as well as by themselves as the group with free time deficiency. An inquiry was conducted on subject of some aspects of free time and healthy lifestyle in practice of VIth year students of Faculty of Medicine and 1st year students of Medical Analysis at the Medical University of Gdansk. One of the questions in the inquiry was direct question about the ways of spending free time. There were differences in forms of spending free time between students of Faculty of Medicine and students of Medical Analysis. Among the first group examined the most, about 46%, points to recreational sport as the form of spending free time; quite a lot people read books, and about 40% of them sleep. Medical Analysis students asked the same question answer that they study during their free time--almost 41%, they also go for walks and listen to the radio. On the grounds of the answer about practicing recreational sport we can assume that for the greatest part of the students such activities have become an obligatory part of their lifestyle and not everybody classifies them among free time activities. Students of both inquired groups fill their free time with number of activities, among which we can find those involving rest, health or entertainment. PMID:15002303

  4. Social control of health behavior: associations with conscientiousness and neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Elliott, Marc N; Klein, David J

    2006-09-01

    Despite considerable research demonstrating associations of conscientiousness and neuroticism with health-related behavior, our understanding of how and why these traits are related to lifestyle is limited. This study examined the social regulation of health behavior in a probability sample of 509 household residents who completed a Random Digit Dial (RDD) telephone survey. Results suggest that the social regulation of health behavior experienced by highly conscientious individuals has more to do with their own internalized notions of responsibility and obligation to others than to specific actions by others aimed at influencing their health habits. In contrast, individuals with higher neuroticism experience more overt attempts by others to influence their health habits but have more negative affective and behavioral responses to these social influence attempts. Findings suggest that elucidating the distinct social influence processes that operate for conscientiousness and neuroticism may further understanding of how these traits are related to health behaviors and status. PMID:16902235

  5. Behavioral Research in Industrial Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, David; Feuille, Peter

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines and assesses the behavioral content of industrial relations research in a variety of social science disciplines. The authors compare economic research on the wage and productivity consequences of unionism with psychological research on worker attitudes toward unions, sociological research on the negotiation process and conflict…

  6. Health Behaviors of Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jennifer S.; Barnett, Marie; Werk, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the number of childhood cancer survivors living to an old age due to improved cancer treatments. However, these survivors are at risk of numerous late effects as a result of their cancer therapy. Engaging in protective health behaviors and limiting health damaging behaviors are vitally important for these survivors given their increased risks. We reviewed the literature on childhood cancer survivors’ health behaviors by searching for published data and conference proceedings. We examine the prevalence of a variety of health behaviors among childhood cancer survivors, identify significant risk factors, and describe health behavior interventions for survivors.

  7. National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Conference Statement: Preventing Violence and Related Health-Risking, Social Behaviors in Adolescents, October 13-15, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochman, John E.

    2006-01-01

    NIH consensus and state-of-the-science statements are prepared by independent panels of health professionals and public representatives on the basis of (1) the results of a systematic literature review prepared under contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), (2) presentations by investigators working in areas relevant to…

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Behaviors in a Population-Based Sample of Older, Foreign-Born, Chinese American Adults Living in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia S.; Kwon, Simona C.

    2014-01-01

    Although the New York City Chinese population aged =65 years increased by 50% between 2000 and 2010, the health needs of this population are poorly understood. Approximately 3,001 Chinese individuals from high-density Asian American New York City areas were included in the REACH U.S. Risk Factor Survey; 805 (26.8%) were aged =65 years and…

  9. Health-Related Quality of Life Domains and Household Preparedness for Public Health Emergencies: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2006-2010

    PubMed Central

    Strine, Tara W.; Neff, Linda J.; Crawford, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined the association between self-reported levels of household disaster preparedness and a range of physical and mental health quality of life outcomes. Methods Data collected from 14 states participating in a large state-based telephone survey were analyzed (n 5 104 654). Household disaster-preparedness items included having a 3-day supply of food, water, and prescription medications; a working battery-powered radio and flashlight; an evacuation plan; and a willingness to evacuate when instructed to do so. Quality-of-life items were categorized into 2 domains: physical health (general health, unhealthy physical days, and activity-limited days) and mental health (unhealthy mental days, social and emotional support, and life satisfaction). Results Persons with self-reported impaired mental health were generally less likely to report being prepared for a disaster than those who did not report impairment in each domain. Persons with low life satisfaction were among the least likely to be prepared, followed by those with inadequate social and emotional support, and then by those with frequent mental distress. Persons reporting physical impairments also reported deficits in many of the preparedness items. However, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, some of the associations were attenuated and no longer significant Conclusion Persons reporting impaired quality of life are vulnerable to increased mental and physical distress during a disaster, and their vulnerability is compounded if they are ill-prepared. Therefore, persons reporting impaired quality of life should be included in the list of vulnerable populations that need disaster preparedness and response outreach. PMID:24618171

  10. Determinants of Consumer eHealth Information Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sandefer, Ryan H.; Westra, Bonnie L.; Khairat, Saif S.; Pieczkiewicz, David S.; Speedie, Stuart M

    2015-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using the Internet and other technologies to engage in their own healthcare, but little research has focused on the determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors related to Internet use. This study uses data from 115,089 respondents to four years of the National Health Interview Series to identify the associations between one consumer eHealth behavior (information seeking) and demographics, health measures, and Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) (messaging, scheduling, refills, and chat). Individuals who use PHIM are 7.5 times more likely to search the internet for health related information. Just as health has social determinants, the results of this study indicate there are potential social determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors including personal demographics, health status, and healthcare access. PMID:26958251

  11. Behavioral science perspectives on health hazard/health risk appraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, M H; Janz, N K

    1987-01-01

    Health-promotion efforts often employ HRA as a device for providing an individual with quantitative information about the consequences of personal health-related behaviors and as an attempt to motivate the client to adopt recommendations directed at establishing a healthier lifestyle. From a behavioral science perspective, the HRA approach and process contain elements that (at least in retrospective analysis) appear to be founded in relevant bodies of theory. First, HRA seems to be a reasonably efficient mechanism for transmitting information relative to associations between personal health behaviors and mortality risks. Moreover, while general knowledge and advice about the untoward consequences of risk factors (such as smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, etc.) are currently widespread, HRA provides new and specific information: the client's own relative risks. Some individuals who voluntarily participate in HRA bring to the experience an already high level of readiness to take action; for them, the technique may constitute the final necessary stimulus or "cue to action" [12]. Referring to a "borrowing from the future" phenomenon, Green points out that "some educational efforts are really only triggers to behavior that would have changed eventually anyway" [44, p. 159]. Thus, where motivation is sufficiently high, receipt of HRA feedback information may by itself be capable of inducing behavior change. Second, the focus on awareness and personalization of mortality risk fits well with most theoretical formulations concerning attitudes and beliefs involved in health-related decision making. Although the emphasis on mortality and often distant negative outcomes is problematic, increasing the client's perception of personal vulnerability is a psychologically defensible approach, and fear arousal can generate attitude change (although questions of appropriate level, duration of effects obtained, acceptability, etc. still need to be resolved). Third, HRA might be

  12. Implementing Social Norm Pedagogy to Impact Students' Personal Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Mary M.; Stover, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative exploratory research study describes the incorporation of Social Norms as a unique pedagogical method in an undergraduate Health Behaviors course (N = 32). With the use of an audience response system (clickers), students anonymously answered health-behavior related questions. Aggregate data from the class was compared to state…

  13. Adolescent Health Problems: Behavioral Perspectives. Advances in Pediatric Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…

  14. Health Behaviors among Baby Boomer Informal Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J.; Lee, Jihey; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study examines health-risk behaviors among "Baby Boomer" caregivers and non-caregivers. Design and Methods: Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey of the state's non-institutionalized population provided individual-level, caregiving, and health behavior characteristics for 5,688 informal caregivers and…

  15. Health Behavior and Academic Achievement among Adolescents: The Relative Contribution of Dietary Habits, Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a structural equation model to estimate the relationship between health behaviors, body mass index (BMI), and self-esteem and the academic achievement of adolescents. The authors analyzed survey data from the 2000 study of "Youth in Iceland", a population-based, cross-sectional sample of 6,346 adolescents in Iceland. The model…

  16. Covariations of Adolescent Weight-Control, Health-Risk and Health-Promoting Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafiroiu, Anca Codruta; Sargent, Roger G.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Drane, Wanzer J.; Valois, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the prevalence of dieting, investigating clusters of risk behaviors among adolescents. Data from the 1999 South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that weight control behaviors related to several other important health behaviors. Differences existed between adolescents who used extreme weight loss measures and moderate dieters…

  17. Do young adults participate in surveys that 'go green'? Response rates to a web and mailed survey of weight-related health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Harwood, Eileen M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Wall, Melanie M; Hannan, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of research regarding the contextual factors that influence health behaviors to inform the development of programs and services for youth during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. Researchers are thus in need of efficient strategies for surveying diverse populations of young adults. This study among a population-based sample of young adults aimed to 1) examine response to a mixed-mode survey design (web and mailed surveys) and 2) identify demographic correlates of response mode. Young adults who participated in previous study waves were invited to participate in the third wave of a 10-year longitudinal study (Project EAT-III: 2008-2009) examining factors associated with weight-related behaviors. Participants were mailed invitation letters providing the web address and a unique password for completing the survey. Nonresponders were mailed three reminder invitations; the third mailing included the paper form, and all other mailings included a postage-paid card for requesting the paper form. Most completed surveys (82.1% of n=2,287) were returned by respondents within the first four months of fielding prior to the mailing which included the paper form. Nearly all of these early responders (92.6% of n=1,878) and 86.5% of the full respondent sample (n=1,979 of 2,287) completed the web form. Response to the web versus mailed paper form of the survey was associated with age >25 years, higher socioeconomic status, current employment, student status, and having no children. The combination of web and mailed survey modes is an effective strategy for conducting data collection in demographically diverse, young adult populations. PMID:23173062

  18. Guilt and help from friends: variables related to healthy behavior.

    PubMed

    Birkimer, J C; Johnston, P L; Berry, M M

    1993-10-01

    American college students' self-reported status regarding 13 health-related behaviors, and several potential predictors of healthy behavior were assessed. Healthy behaviors were, at best, weakly related to being informed about or agreeing with a rule that the unhealthy alternatives were dangerous. Healthy behaviors were more strongly related to reports that guilty feelings would result from choosing the unhealthy alternatives and that friends would help with the healthy behaviors. Higher levels of reported self-control also predicted healthier behavior. PMID:8283862

  19. In Pursuit of General Behavioral Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, F. Charles

    1996-01-01

    Discusses behavioral momentum and the general behavioral relation between the persistence of behavior and the rate of reinforcement obtained in a given situation. Strategies for establishing the generality of behavioral relations are reviewed, followed by a brief summary of evidence for the generality of behavioral momentum. (Author/CR)

  20. Behavioral Indicators and Behaviors Related to Sexting among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Heather K.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Ogletree, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Empirical studies on sexting are limited, and many sexting studies only assessed sexting behaviors. Few studies have assessed attitudes, subjective norms, or behavioral intentions related to sexting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral intentions, and behaviors related to sexting…

  1. Classification of Health Related Applications.

    PubMed

    Höhn, Matthias; von Jan, Ute; Framke, Theodor; Albrecht, Urs-Vito

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a large number of health related apps available in the stores of the major mobile platforms, the stores do not really offer clear definitions of what health related apps are and how they can be categorized. A similar picture is found in literature. Here, many proposals covering different app related aspects have been published, but often, these only cover a narrow field. There is no common terminology describing what health apps are and neither is there a common classification. In order to alleviate the situation, we developed a proposal for categorization that can be used as a basis for discussing aspects related to health applications and for describing the unclear situation on the market. In this paper, the function related aspects are covered, although the scheme itself covers many other aspects related to users of health apps, technical aspects and so on. This initial classification was applied to a sample of health apps available for iOS and Android. PMID:27350487

  2. Complexities of measuring perfectionism: three popular perfectionism measures and their relations with eating disturbances and health behaviors in a female college student sample.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward C; Ivezaj, Valentina; Downey, Christina A; Kashima, Yuri; Morady, Aviva R

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between three popular measures of perfectionism [the Eating Disorders Inventory - Perfectionism scale (EDI-P), the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS)] and measures of eating disturbances and health behaviors, in a sample of 248 female college students. Results indicated that the adaptiveness or maladaptiveness of certain perfectionism dimensions should still be questioned. Also, self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (from the MPS) were consistently found to be the most important predictors of both eating disturbances and health behaviors. Surprisingly, scores on the EDI-P were not found to be significant predictors of eating disturbances when FMPS and MPS scores were included in regression analyses. Implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:18167328

  3. HIT: time to end behavioral health discrimination.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Linda

    2012-10-01

    While the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, enacted as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, provided $20.6 billion for incentive payments to support the adoption and meaningful use of health information technology (HIT), behavioral health organizations were not eligible to receive facility payments. The consequences of excluding behavioral health from HIT incentive payments are found in the results of the "HIT Adoption and Meaningful Use Readiness in Community Behavioral Health" survey. The survey found that only 2% of community behavioral health organizations are able to meet federal meaningful use (MU) requirements-compare this to the 27% of Federally Qualified Health Centers and 20% of hospitals that already meet some level of MU requirements. Behavioral health organizations, serving more than eight million adults, children, and families with mental illnesses and addiction disorders, are ready and eager to adopt HIT to meet the goals of better healthcare, better health, and lower costs. But reaching these goals may prove impossible unless behavioral health achieves "parity" within healthcare and receives resources for the adoption of HIT. PMID:22956203

  4. Health consciousness and health behavior: the application of a new health consciousness scale.

    PubMed

    Gould, S J

    1990-01-01

    Self-consciousness has been an important trait in personality research. It seems logical to investigate whether health consciousness, involving a similar self-focusing, might operate in a parallel manner. To this end, I developed the Health Consciousness Scale (HCS), primarily by modifying items of the Self-Consciousness Scale, and also tested it for reliability and validity. My study found the HCS to contain four first-order factors: (1) Health Self-Consciousness, (2) Health Alertness, (3) Health Self-Monitoring, and (4) Health Involvement. I found these four first-order factors, along with the overall HCS second-order factor, to relate to a number of self-reported, health-associated behavioral variables. The study also included comparisons with the Health Locus-of-Control Scale and other measures. PMID:2223170

  5. Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Dept. of Social and Health Services, Olympia.

    The 1992 Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors (WSSAHB) was created to collect information regarding a variety of adolescent health behaviors among students in the state of Washington. It expands on two previous administrations of a student tobacco, alcohol, and other drug survey and includes questions about medical care, safety,…

  6. Towards a relational health promotion.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry; Burnett, Patrick John

    2016-03-01

    The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion exhibits a substantialist approach to the agency-structure dichotomy. From a substantialist point of view, both individual agency and social structure come preformed and subsequently relate to and influence one another, starkly positioning the choices made by individuals against the structured sets of opportunities and constraints in reference to which choices are made. From a relational perspective, however, relations between elements, not the elements themselves, are the primary ontological focus. We advocate for a relational approach to the structure-agency dichotomy, one that locates both agency and structure in social relations and thereby dissolves the stark distinction between them, suggesting that relational theories can provide useful insights into how and why people 'choose' to engage in health-related behaviours. Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice, predicated upon the notions of field, capital and habitus, is exemplary in this regard. PMID:25080467

  7. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  8. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Behavioral Health Disaster Response App.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Jamie; Felder, Stephanie S; Robinson, Maryann E

    2015-10-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the Department of Health and Human Services offers extensive disaster behavior health resources to assist disaster survivors in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from natural and manmade disasters. One of SAMHSA's most innovative resources is the SAMHSA Behavioral Health Disaster Response App (SAMHSA Disaster App). The SAMHSA Disaster App prepares behavioral health responders for any type of traumatic event by allowing them to access disaster-related materials and other key resources right on their phone, at the touch of a button. The SAMHSA Disaster App is available on iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry devices. PMID:26165522

  9. Health Behavior, Health Education, Health Service Utilization and Compliance with Health Regimes: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, J. R.; Hughes, Howard

    This bibliography includes references from major articles, Index Medicus (1972- 1977), and Psychological Abstracts (1967-1977). The material is arranged under four major headings--health behavior, health education, health services utilization, and compliance with health regimes. It will be of interest to persons working in medical settings and…

  10. Young Women's Antisocial Behavior and the Later Emotional and Behavioral Health of Their Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sandra L.; Burchinal, Margaret R.

    1992-01-01

    Studies the association between the severity of early female antisocial behavior (drug-related and non-drug-related offenses) and the later behavioral and emotional health of the children of these women, using a secondary analysis of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data for 688 whites, 481 Hispanic Americans, and 256 African Americans. (RLC)

  11. Public Housing, Health, and Health Behaviors: Is There a Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertig, Angela R.; Reingold, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between public housing, health outcomes, and health behaviors among low-income housing residents. While public housing can be a dangerous and unhealthy environment in which to live, the subsidized rent may free up resources for nutritious food and health care. In addition, public housing may be of higher…

  12. Instructional design strategies for health behavior change.

    PubMed

    Kinzie, Mable B

    2005-01-01

    To help health educators build upon the best of different health behavior change theories, this paper offers a unified set of instructional design strategies for health education interventions. This set draws upon the recommendations of Rosenstock (Health Belief Model), Bandura (Social Cognitive Theory), and Dearing (Diffusion Theory), and uses a modified Events of Instruction framework (adapted from Robert Gagne): gain attention (convey health threats and benefits), present stimulus material (tailor message to audience knowledge and values, demonstrate observable effectiveness, make behaviors easy-to-understand and do), provide guidance (use trustworthy models to demonstrate), elicit performance and provide feedback (to enhance trialability, develop proficiency and self-efficacy), enhance retention and transfer (provide social supports and deliver behavioral cues). Sample applications of these strategies are provided. A brief review of research on adolescent smoking prevention enables consideration of the frequency with which these strategies are used, and possible patterns between strategy use and behavioral outcomes. PMID:15590217

  13. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates. PMID:27043606

  14. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates. PMID:27043606

  15. Body Mass Index, Disordered Eating Behavior, and Acquisition of Health Information: Examining Ethnicity and Weight-Related Issues in a College Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Shannon S.; Thomas, Christina R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: To investigate ethnic differences related to weight, the authors assessed body mass index, dysfunctional eating, receipt of health information, and perceived obstacles to healthy lifestyles of 210 ethnically diverse college women. Methods: The authors used the Eating Attitudes Test to assess dieting, food preoccupation,…

  16. Promoting Health and Behavioral Health Equity in California.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Meenoo; Lupi, Monica Valdes; Miller, Wm Jahmal; Nolfo, Tamu

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral health disparities are not usually considered part of the same system of health disparities. However, the California Department of Public Health focused its health equity strategies on reducing behavioral health disparities through its California Statewide Plan to Promote Health and Mental Health Equity. This statewide plan was developed through a community-wide stakeholder engagement and outreach process. In addition, the California Reducing Disparities Project is a prevention and early intervention effort to reduce mental health disparities in underserved populations. This strategic plan represents the voice of several racial/ethnic communities, such as African American, Asian and Pacific Islander, Latino, Native American, as well as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer and questioning communities in California, through 5 strategic planning workgroups. The workgroups were composed of a broad range of stakeholders, including community leaders, mental health care providers, consumer and family members, individuals with lived experience, and academia. This case example highlights the various efforts of California's Office of Health Equity in eliminating behavioral health disparities and promoting mental health equity, as well as discusses the unique statutory and regulatory role of the Office of Health Equity's deputy director. PMID:26599022

  17. The evolution of a school behavioral health model in the US Army.

    PubMed

    Faran, Michael E; Johnson, Patti L; Ban, Paul; Shue, Tracy; Weist, Mark D

    2015-04-01

    The US Army has developed an innovative School Behavioral Health (SBH) program, part of the Child and Family Behavioral Health System, a collaborative, consultative behavioral health care model that includes SBH, standardized training of primary care providers in treatment of common behavioral health problems, use of tele-consultation/tele-behavioral health, optimizing community outreach services, and integration with other related behavioral health services. In this article, the needs of military children, adolescents, and families are reviewed, a history of this initiative is presented, key themes are discussed, and next steps in advancing this evolving, innovative system of health care featuring SBH are described. PMID:25773333

  18. INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS IN BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE HEALTH: UNPRECEDENTED OPORTUNITIES FOR BEHAVIOR ANALYSTS

    PubMed Central

    KURTI, ALLISON N.; DALLERY, JESSE

    2015-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is growing worldwide in both industrialized and developing nations. Alongside the worldwide penetration of web-enabled devices, the leading causes of morbidity and mortality are increasingly modifiable lifestyle factors (e.g., improving one’s diet and exercising more). Behavior analysts have the opportunity to promote health by combining effective behavioral methods with technological advancements. The objectives of this paper are (1) to highlight the public health gains that may be achieved by integrating technology with a behavior analytic approach to developing interventions, and (2) to review some of the currently, under-examined issues related to merging technology and behavior analysis (enhancing sustainability, obtaining frequent measures of behavior, conducting component analyses, evaluating cost-effectiveness, incorporating behavior analysis in the creation of consumer-based applications, and reducing health disparities). Thorough consideration of these issues may inspire the development, implementation, and dissemination of innovative, efficacious interventions that substantially improve global public health. PMID:25774070

  19. Preventive, Lifestyle, and Personal Health Behaviors among Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Makar, Marian; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Ani, Chizobam; Wolf, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examines personal health behaviors and wellness, health-related lifestyles, and prevention screening practices among licensed physicians. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1,875 physicians practicing in California. Data from 763 returned questionnaires (41%) were analyzed. Results: Our data…

  20. Behavior of Man in Health and Illness, Nursing 103A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakke, Sandra I.

    A description is provided of a course, "Behavior of Man in Health and Illness," designed to introduce first-year undergraduate nursing students to the theories and concepts related to the health-illness continuum, the stress of illness, and coping theory. The description begins with an overview of course content, followed by information on the…

  1. Behavioral Groups as Preventive Care in a Health Maintenance Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Joan; And Others

    This paper describes the use of a particular therapeutic modality--behavioral groups--in a relatively new delivery system called a Health Maintenance Organization. The program described, run under the George Washington University Health Plan, offers short-term structured groups designed to aid people at particularly difficult or vulnerable…

  2. The Health of University Athletes: Attitudes, Behaviors, and Stressors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby, Rosemary; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study surveyed 267 university athletes to identify sources of stress for student athletes and sex differences among athletes with respect to health-related behaviors and attitudes. Specific recommendations based on the findings are made for health professionals who work with college athletes. (IAH)

  3. Health-related intrusive thoughts.

    PubMed

    Freeston, M H; Gagnon, F; Ladouceur, R; Thibodeau, N; Letarte, H; Rhéaume, J

    1994-04-01

    Two studies address the prevalence, concomitants, and appraisal of health-related intrusive thoughts. Eighty-three percent of adults (N = 658) in waiting rooms of two general hospitals reported at least one intrusive thought during the preceding month and 75.0% of patients and 55.5% of people accompanying them reported a health-related intrusive thought in the same period. The intrusions were associated with anxious and depressive symptoms. Health related intrusive thoughts were reported by 61% of a sample of university students (N = 608) and were the most frequent intrusive thought among 19.9% of the students. First, triggering stimuli reported by the subjects were significant predictors of thought frequency, worry, removal difficulty, and effort used in removing the thought. Second, appraisals of high probability were significant predictors of high frequency, worry, and especially difficulty in removing the thought. Finally, perceived responsibility and disapproval of the thought were also significant predictors of thought frequency, worry, removal difficulty, effort used in removing the thought, and guilt. These data support the position that cognitive appraisal of intrusive thoughts is closely linked to the subjective experience of the thought: more extreme appraisals were associated with more troublesome thoughts. The clinical implications of these studies are discussed in terms of current models of hypochondriasis and health anxiety. PMID:8027960

  4. Innovation in behavioral health workforce education.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Maria J; Morris, John A; Hoge, Michael A

    2004-11-01

    This article describes an effort to promote improvement in the quality and relevance of behavioral health workforce education by identifying and disseminating information on innovative training efforts. A national call for nominations was issued, seeking innovations in the education of behavioral health providers, consumers, and family members. A review committee evaluated each nomination on four dimensions: novelty, significance, transferability, and effectiveness. Nineteen innovations were selected for recognition, all of which are briefly described. PMID:15586848

  5. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    RYAN, POLLY

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In this article, the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change is described, and an example of its use as foundation to intervention development is presented. The Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change suggests that health behavior change can be enhanced by fostering knowledge and beliefs, increasing self-regulation skills and abilities, and enhancing social facilitation. Engagement in self-management behaviors is seen as the proximal outcome influencing the long-term distal outcome of improved health status. Person-centered interventions are directed to increasing knowledge and beliefs, self-regulation skills and abilities, and social facilitation. Using a theoretical framework improves clinical nurse specialist practice by focusing assessments, directing the use of best-practice interventions, and improving patient outcomes. Using theory fosters improved communication with other disciplines and enhances the management of complex clinical conditions by providing holistic, comprehensive care. PMID:19395894

  6. Health Knowledge and Behavior Four Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lottes, Christine R.

    This document reports on a study to analyze the success of a revised health/wellness course at Gettysburg College (Pennsylvania). The research focused on two questions: (1) what increased knowledge and behavioral change students report once they have completed their health course; and (2) after a period of time, what students will say about the…

  7. Health Educators: Role Modeling and Smoking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Andrew J. J.; Galli, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Examined cigarette smoking among health educators, their views about the effects of this behavior upon their audiences and beliefs about smoking in light of their professional role. Smokers and nonsmokers were significantly less included than former smokers to feel the role of health education is to convince people not to smoke. (Author/ABL)

  8. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  9. Rethinking behavioral health processes by using design for six sigma.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Anthony G; Primus, Kelly; Kovach, Jamison V; Fredendall, Lawrence D

    2015-02-01

    Clinical evidence-based practices are strongly encouraged and commonly utilized in the behavioral health community. However, evidence-based practices that are related to quality improvement processes, such as Design for Six Sigma, are often not used in behavioral health care. This column describes the unique partnership formed between a behavioral health care provider in the greater Pittsburgh area, a nonprofit oversight and monitoring agency for behavioral health services, and academic researchers. The authors detail how the partnership used the multistep process outlined in Design for Six Sigma to completely redesign the provider's intake process. Implementation of the redesigned process increased access to care, decreased bad debt and uncollected funds, and improved cash flow--while consumer satisfaction remained high. PMID:25642607

  10. Masculinity and perceived normative health behaviors as predictors of men's health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mahalik, James R; Burns, Shaun M; Syzdek, Matthew

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the unique contributions of masculinity and men's perceptions of the normativeness of men's and women's health behaviors in predicting men's self-reported health behaviors. One hundred and forty men aged 18-78 were recruited from 27 unmoderated and moderated Internet listservs of potential interest to men. They completed measures on-line assessing masculinity, their perceptions of normative health behaviors for men and women, and 8 health behaviors (i.e., alcohol abuse, seatbelt use, tobacco use, physical fighting, use of social support, exercise, dietary habits, and receipt of annual medical check-ups). Findings suggest that masculinity and the perceived normativeness of other men's health behaviors significantly predicted participants' own health behaviors beyond that accounted for by socio-demographic variables (e.g., education, income). Perceptions of the normativeness of women's health behaviors were unrelated to participants' health behaviors. The findings support previous research which has found that traditional masculine gender socialization and social norms models encourage men to put their health at risk, and suggest directions for health promotion efforts when working with men. PMID:17383784

  11. Bullying behavior in relation to psychiatric disorders and physical health among adolescents: a clinical cohort of 508 underage inpatient adolescents in Northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Luukkonen, Anu-Helmi; Räsänen, Pirkko; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa

    2010-06-30

    The aim was to investigate the association of bullying behavior with psychiatric disorders and physical health in a sample of adolescent psychiatric patients, as there have to our knowledge been no previous studies using actual psychiatric diagnoses examining this relationship in boys and girls. We studied 508 Finnish adolescents (age 12-17) admitted to psychiatric inpatient care between April 2001 and March 2006 from the geographically large area of Northern Finland. The Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) was used to obtain psychiatric diagnoses of adolescents according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and information on bullying behavior. Logistic regression analyses showed that having an externalizing disorder increased the likelihood of being a bully or a bully-victim (i.e. a person who is both a bully and a victim of bullying) among both the boys (odds ratio, OR=14.4, P=0.001) and the girls (OR=10.0, P<0.001). In addition, having an internalizing disorder increased the likelihood of being a victim of bullying among the boys (OR=3.4, P=0.008), but not the girls. Chronic somatic diseases were also significantly associated with being bullied among the boys (OR=2.5, P=0.041). Our results suggest that adolescents who are involved in bullying behavior should be evaluated psychiatrically, as this might be an early marker of psychiatric disorders. PMID:20471097

  12. Demographic and health status differences among people aged 45 or older with and without functional difficulties related to increased confusion or memory loss, 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lynda A; Deokar, Angela; Edwards, Valerie J; Bouldin, Erin D; Greenlund, Kurt J

    2015-01-01

    We examined the demographic and health characteristics of people aged 45 years or older in 21 states with self-reported increased confusion or memory loss (ICML) (n = 10,583) by whether or not they also reported functional difficulties related to ICML. We used data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System optional module on impact of cognitive impairment. After adjusting for demographic differences, we found that respondents with ICML and functional difficulties were significantly more likely than those with ICML and no functional difficulties to report frequent poor physical health, frequent poor mental health, limited activity due to poor physical or mental health, and a need for more help. Further understanding of the implications for long-term services and supports is needed. PMID:25742067

  13. Health behaviors and demographic factors of chronic health conditions among elderly veteran men.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thanh V; Canfield, Julie; Wang, Kaipeng

    2016-04-01

    As male veterans age, there are unique opportunities for health-related prevention efforts to be introduced throughout the life cycle to ameliorate the effects of chronic health conditions such as cardiovascular disease, asthma, arthritis, and diabetes. This study analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2012) with a sample of 27,187 male veterans aged 65-84 years and 4,079 male veterans over 85 years of age. The study examined associations between behaviors, demographics, and five chronic health conditions with variables that included marital status, health insurance coverage, alcohol consumption, smoking history, and income levels. These associations varied between the two age groups, suggesting the need for intervention with veterans across their lifespans. Public health social workers could help veterans modify their health behaviors to prevent the occurrence or worsening of chronic health conditions over time and across the aging process. PMID:27123687

  14. Physiology of Sedentary Behavior and Its Relationship to Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Thyfault, John P; Du, Mengmeng; Kraus, William E; Levine, James A; Booth, Frank W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This paper reports on the findings and recommendations of the “Physiology of Sedentary Behavior and its Relationship to Health Outcomes” group, a part of a larger workshop entitled Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities sponsored by the National Heart, and Lung and Blood Institute and the National Institute on Aging, which aimed to establish sedentary behavior research priorities. Methods The discussion within our workshop lead to the formation of critical physiological research objectives related to sedentary behaviors, that if appropriately researched would greatly impact our overall understanding of human health and longevity. Results and Conclusions Primary questions are related to physiological “health outcomes” including the influence of physical activity vs. sedentary behavior on function of a number of critical physiological systems (aerobic capacity, skeletal muscle metabolism and function, telomeres/genetic stability, and cognitive function). The group also derived important recommendations related to the “central and peripheral mechanisms” that govern sedentary behavior and how energy balance has a role in mediating these processes. General recommendations for future sedentary physiology research efforts include that studies of sedentary behavior, including that of sitting time only, should focus on the physiological impact of a “lack of human movement” in contradistinction to the effects of physical movement and that new models or strategies for studying sedentary behavior induced adaptations and links to disease development are needed to elucidate underlying mechanism(s). PMID:25222820

  15. Behavioral health leadership: new directions in occupational mental health.

    PubMed

    Adler, Amy B; Saboe, Kristin N; Anderson, James; Sipos, Maurice L; Thomas, Jeffrey L

    2014-10-01

    The impact of stress on mental health in high-risk occupations may be mitigated by organizational factors such as leadership. Studies have documented the impact of general leadership skills on employee performance and mental health. Other researchers have begun examining specific leadership domains that address relevant organizational outcomes, such as safety climate leadership. One emerging approach focuses on domain-specific leadership behaviors that may moderate the impact of combat deployment on mental health. In a recent study, US soldiers deployed to Afghanistan rated leaders on behaviors promoting management of combat operational stress. When soldiers rated their leaders high on these behaviors, soldiers also reported better mental health and feeling more comfortable with the idea of seeking mental health treatment. These associations held even after controlling for overall leadership ratings. Operational stress leader behaviors also moderated the relationship between combat exposure and soldier health. Domain-specific leadership offers an important step in identifying measures to moderate the impact of high-risk occupations on employee health. PMID:25160794

  16. A Scoping Review of Observational Studies Examining Relationships between Environmental Behaviors and Health Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Jayne; Prady, Stephanie L; Smith, Michaela A; White, Piran C L; Graham, Hilary M

    2015-05-01

    Individual lifestyles are key drivers of both environmental change and chronic disease. We undertook a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies which examined associations between environmental and health behaviors of individuals in high-income countries. We searched EconLit, Medline, BIOSIS and the Social Science Citation Index. A total of 136 studies were included. The majority were USA-based cross-sectional studies using self-reported measures. Most of the evidence related to travel behavior, particularly active travel (walking and cycling) and physical activity (92 studies) or sedentary behaviors (19 studies). Associations of public transport use with physical activity were examined in 18 studies, and with sedentary behavior in one study. Four studies examined associations between car use and physical activity. A small number included other environmental behaviors (food-related behaviors (n = 14), including organic food, locally-sourced food and plate waste) and other health behaviors ((n = 20) smoking, dietary intake, alcohol). These results suggest that research on individual environmental and health behaviors consists largely of studies examining associations between travel mode and levels of physical activity. There appears to be less research on associations between other behaviors with environmental and health impacts, and very few longitudinal studies in any domain. PMID:25950651

  17. A Scoping Review of Observational Studies Examining Relationships between Environmental Behaviors and Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Jayne; Prady, Stephanie L.; Smith, Michaela A.; White, Piran C. L.; Graham, Hilary M.

    2015-01-01

    Individual lifestyles are key drivers of both environmental change and chronic disease. We undertook a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies which examined associations between environmental and health behaviors of individuals in high-income countries. We searched EconLit, Medline, BIOSIS and the Social Science Citation Index. A total of 136 studies were included. The majority were USA-based cross-sectional studies using self-reported measures. Most of the evidence related to travel behavior, particularly active travel (walking and cycling) and physical activity (92 studies) or sedentary behaviors (19 studies). Associations of public transport use with physical activity were examined in 18 studies, and with sedentary behavior in one study. Four studies examined associations between car use and physical activity. A small number included other environmental behaviors (food-related behaviors (n = 14), including organic food, locally-sourced food and plate waste) and other health behaviors ((n = 20) smoking, dietary intake, alcohol). These results suggest that research on individual environmental and health behaviors consists largely of studies examining associations between travel mode and levels of physical activity. There appears to be less research on associations between other behaviors with environmental and health impacts, and very few longitudinal studies in any domain. PMID:25950651

  18. The Effects of Parental Health Shocks on Adult Offspring Smoking Behavior and Self-Assessed Health.

    PubMed

    Darden, Michael; Gilleskie, Donna

    2016-08-01

    An important avenue for smoking deterrence may be through familial ties if adult smokers respond to parental health shocks. In this paper, we merge the Original Cohort and the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study to study how adult offspring smoking behavior and subjective health assessments vary with elder parent smoking behavior and health outcomes. These data allow us to model the smoking behavior of adult offspring over a 30-year period contemporaneously with parental behaviors and outcomes. We find strong 'like father, like son' and 'like mother, like daughter' correlations in smoking behavior. We find that adult offspring significantly curtail their own smoking following an own health shock; however, we find limited evidence that offspring smoking behavior is sensitive to parent health, with the notable exception that women significantly reduce both their smoking participation and intensity following a smoking-related cardiovascular event of a parent. We also model the subjective health assessment of adult offspring as a function of parent health, and we find that women report significantly worse health following the smoking-related death of a parent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25981179

  19. The Implications of Rapid Economic Growth for Health-Related Behaviors and Chronic Metabolic Diseases: An Exploratory Study in Post-Earthquake West China

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Hilary; Gipson, Jessica D.; Yang, Fan; Li, Jinrong; Li, Ping; Liu, Wei; Yang, Cui; Mao, Meng; Chang, Yen-Jung; Seto, Edmund; Wang, May C.

    2015-01-01

    A devastating earthquake struck west China in 2008. Reconstruction efforts have focused on urbanization and modernization, hastening economic growth in the area. This rapid growth provides a unique opportunity to explore the potential impact of rapid environmental changes on metabolic disease risk. The study objective was to gather qualitative information from residents of a rapidly changing area in China to determine perceived changes in food- and physical activity-related aspects of the environment and their perceived effects on health. We conducted extensive interviews with 30 residents of an area where towns were rapidly rebuilt after being destroyed by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Findings suggest that a longitudinal investigation of children and their families in this rapidly developing region may identify mechanisms by which environmental factors influence the development of diet-related chronic illnesses. PMID:26478828

  20. Behavioral Health and Substance Abuse Treatment Services Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Agencies Behavioral Health Agencies Informational Websites Self-Help, Peer Support, and Consumer Groups Self-Help Groups (Addiction) Peer Support (Mental Health) Mental Health Consumer Assistance Consumer ...

  1. Applying the Health Belief Model to college students' health behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak-Seon; Ahn, Joo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how university students' nutrition beliefs influence their health behavioral intention. This study used an online survey engine (Qulatrics.com) to collect data from college students. Out of 253 questionnaires collected, 251 questionnaires (99.2%) were used for the statistical analysis. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) revealed that six dimensions, "Nutrition Confidence," "Susceptibility," "Severity," "Barrier," "Benefit," "Behavioral Intention to Eat Healthy Food," and "Behavioral Intention to do Physical Activity," had construct validity; Cronbach's alpha coefficient and composite reliabilities were tested for item reliability. The results validate that objective nutrition knowledge was a good predictor of college students' nutrition confidence. The results also clearly showed that two direct measures were significant predictors of behavioral intentions as hypothesized. Perceived benefit of eating healthy food and perceived barrier for eat healthy food to had significant effects on Behavioral Intentions and was a valid measurement to use to determine Behavioral Intentions. These findings can enhance the extant literature on the universal applicability of the model and serve as useful references for further investigations of the validity of the model within other health care or foodservice settings and for other health behavioral categories. PMID:23346306

  2. Quality of Life, Health Status, and Health Service Utilization Related to a New Measure of Health Literacy FLIGHT/VIDAS

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Raymond L; Acevedo, Amarilis; Jacobs, Robin J.; Caballero, Joshua; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna

    2014-01-01

    Objective Researchers have identified significant limitations in some currently-used measures of health literacy. The purpose of this paper is to present data on the relation of health-related quality of life, health status, and health service utilization to performance on a new measure of health literacy in a nonpatient population. Methods The new measure was administered to 475 English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling volunteers along with existing measures of health literacy and assessments of health-related quality of life, health status, and healthcare service utilization. Relations among measures were assessed via correlations and health status and utilization was tested across levels of health literacy using ANCOVA models. Results The new health literacy measure is significantly related to existing measures of health literacy as well as to participants’ health-related quality of life. Persons with lower levels of health literacy reported more health conditions, more frequent physical symptoms, and greater healthcare service utilization. Conclusion The new measure of health literacy is valid and shows relations to measures of conceptually-related constructs such as quality of life and health behaviors. Practice Implications: FLIGHT/VIDAS may be useful to researchers and clinicians interested in a computer administered and scored measure of health literacy. PMID:24856447

  3. Integrating Health Belief Model and Technology Acceptance Model: An Investigation of Health-Related Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude toward Internet use for health purposes for women who were health conscious and who perceived their health to be at risk. Conclusions The integrated model proposed and tested in this study shows that the HBM, when combined with the TAM, is able to predict Internet use for health purposes. For women who subjectively evaluate their health as vulnerable to diseases and are concerned about their health, cognition beliefs in and positive affective feelings about the Internet come into play in determining the use of health-related Internet use. Furthermore, this study shows that engaging in health-related Internet use is a proactive behavior rather than a reactive behavior, suggesting that TAM dimensions have a significant mediating role in Internet health management. PMID:25700481

  4. The business cycle and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin

    2013-01-01

    While it is well documented that economic expansions provide widespread and immediate financial benefits, the evidence on how an economic downturn affects individual's health behaviors is surprisingly mixed. In this paper, we take a structural approach to investigate the effects of wages and working hours on health behaviors of low-educated persons using variations in wages and hours caused by changes in local economic activity. In the empirical analysis, we adopt a two-sample instrumental variables approach to combine the data on individual health behaviors from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) with the data on individual employment from the Current Population Survey (CPS). The total sample size of the combined CPS-BRFSS data for the time period of 1984-2005 is 967,594, while that of the combined CPS-NHIS data for the time period of 1976-2001 is 364,078. We find that increases in wages caused by economic expansions are associated with greater consumption of cigarettes in the United States. We also find that increases in hours of work caused by economic expansions are associated with more cigarette consumption, but less physical activity and physician visits. More importantly, the evidence suggests that most of such effects associated with changes in hours of work can be attributed to the changes at the extensive margin of employment, meaning the changes in employment status, rather than the changes at the intensive margin, meaning changes in hours of work conditional on being employed. These findings imply that changes in employment may have heterogeneous impacts on time-intensive and less time-intensive health behaviors and also provide additional evidence on the importance of time in health production, particularly for time-intensive activities. PMID:23219162

  5. Examining television as an influence on children's health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, C

    2000-10-01

    This article is a review of select empirical research studies examining television as an influence on children's health behaviors. The reader is first provided with an overview of the research on the role of television in children's lives. This is followed by an in-depth presentation of the research related to television content and its effect on risk-taking and the role of television commercials and their influence on nutrition and dietary behaviors. PMID:11077764

  6. Health education and multimedia learning: educational psychology and health behavior theory (Part 1).

    PubMed

    Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice. PMID:14610999

  7. Distal and Proximal Factors of Health Behaviors and Their Associations with Health in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lämmle, Lena; Woll, Alexander; Mensink, Gert B. M.; Bös, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present paper was to analyze factors affecting distal and proximal health behavior within a biopsychosocial model for examining their interactions and associations with respect to health. Methods: Path analysis was based on the nationwide, cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (2003 to 2006). The data was collected from 4,529 participants with an average age of 9.45 years (SD = 4.01). Socio-demographic data, psychosocial factors and health behavior were assessed via questionnaire. Participants also underwent physical fitness tests and a medical examination. Results: Over the five levels of the model analyzed with socioeconomic status, immigration background, and rural-urban differences on the first level; physical activity of relatives and peers, intrinsic motivation, and quality of life on the second level; eating patterns, sedentary behavior, and physical activity on the third level; physical fitness and objective health on the fourth level; and health complaints and subjective health on the fifth level; direct, moderation, and mediation effects could be shown. Conclusions: Several distal and proximal factors are needed to take account of the multivariate complexity of health: e.g., immigration background affected health behaviors only indirectly and the effect of physical activity on objective health was mediated by physical fitness. PMID:23863614

  8. Associations between multiple health risk behaviors and mental health among Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yong-ling; Wang, Pei-gang; Qu, Geng-cong; Yuan, Shuai; Phongsavan, Philayrath; He, Qi-qiang

    2016-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence that health risk behaviors increase risks of premature morbidity and mortality, little is known about the multiple health risk behaviors in Chinese college students. Here, we investigated the prevalence of multiple health risk behaviors and its relation to mental health among Chinese college students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wuhan, China from May to June 2012. The students reported their health risk behaviors using self-administered questionnaires. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the self-rating depression scale and self-rating anxiety scale, respectively. A total of 2422 college students (1433 males) aged 19.7 ± 1.2 years were participated in the study. The prevalence of physical inactivity, sleep disturbance, poor dietary behavior, Internet addiction disorder (IAD), frequent alcohol use and current smoking was 62.0, 42.6, 29.8, 22.3, 11.6 and 9.3%, respectively. Significantly increased risks for depression and anxiety were found among students with frequent alcohol use, sleep disturbance, poor dietary behavior and IAD. Two-step cluster analysis identified two different clusters. Participants in the cluster with more unhealthy behaviors showed significantly increased risk for depression (odds ratio (OR): 2.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.83, 2.67) and anxiety (OR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.85, 2.92). This study indicates that a relatively high prevalence of multiple health risk behaviors was found among Chinese college students. Furthermore, the clustering of health risk behaviors was significantly associated with increased risks for depression and anxiety. PMID:26222809

  9. Mindfulness and Health Behaviors: Is Paying Attention Good for You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kimberly C.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The investigators examined relations between mindfulness and health behaviors in college students, as well as the role of stress in mediating these effects. Participants: Participants were 553 undergraduates (385 females; mean age = 18.8 years, SD = 2.1) recruited from a university in the northeastern United States. Methods:…

  10. Adolescent Health Behavior, Contentment in School, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.; Helgason, Asgeir R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the association between health behavior indicators, school contentment, and academic achievement. Methods: Structural equation modeling with 5810 adolescents. Results: Our model explained 36% of the variance in academic achievement and 24% in school contentment. BMI and sedentary lifestyle were negatively related to school…

  11. Critically Reflective Work Behavior of Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Esther; Jaarsma, Debbie; Endedijk, Maaike; Mainhard, Tim; Lam, Ineke; Simons, Robert-Jan; van Beukelen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Better understanding of critically reflective work behavior (CRWB), an approach for work-related informal learning, is important in order to gain more profound insight in the continuing development of health care professionals. Methods: A survey, developed to measure CRWB and its predictors, was distributed to veterinary…

  12. Can an Immersion in Wellness Camp Influence Youth Health Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabary-Olsen, Elizabeth A.; Litchfield, Ruth E.; Foster, Randal; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Campbell, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Summer 4-H camps present an untapped opportunity for advancement of mission mandates. The project reported here immersed campers in healthy living experiential learning. The goal was to improve self-efficacy and health behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity. Data was collected from enrolled campers through multiple survey tools. A…

  13. Health care reform, behavioral health, and the criminal justice population.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Alison Evans; Cheema, Jehanzeb

    2014-10-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has a number of important features for individuals who are involved with the criminal justice system. Among the most important changes is the expansion of Medicaid to more adults. The current study estimates that 10% of the total Medicaid expansion could include individuals who have experienced recent incarceration. The ACA also emphasizes the importance of mental health and substance abuse benefits, potentially changing the landscape of behavioral health treatment providers willing to serve criminal justice populations. Finally, it seeks to promote coordinated care delivery. New care delivery and appropriate funding models are needed to address the behavioral health and other chronic conditions experienced by those in criminal justice and to coordinate care within the complex structure of the justice system itself. PMID:24807645

  14. Relative Prevalence and Relations among Stereotyped and Similar Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkson, Gershon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Relative prevalence of stereotyped behaviors was studied with 246 children and adults with developmental disabilities. Two staff members completed a 54-item checklist assessing stereotyped behaviors, abnormal focused affections, compulsions, rigidity, savant skills, and defensiveness. Factor analyses produced weak evidence for a general stereotypy…

  15. Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…

  16. [Health and social harm related alcohol].

    PubMed

    Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Sordo, Luis; Molist, Gemma; Hoyos, Juan; Guitart, Anna M; Barrio, Gregorio

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol affects the brain and most organs and systems, and its use is related to a large number of health problems. These include mental, neurological, digestive, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, perinatal, cancerous, and infectious diseases, as well as intentional and non-intentional injuries. Physiopathological mechanisms still remain unraveled, though direct toxicity of ethanol and its metabolites, nutritional deficit and intestinal microbial endotoxin absorption have been suggested, all of which would be further modulated by use patterns and genetic and environmental factors. Individually it is difficult to precisely predict who will or will not suffer health consequences. At population level several disorders show a linear or exponential dose-response relationship, as is the case with various cancer types, hepatopathies, injuries, and probably risky behaviors such as unsafe sex. Other health problems such as general mortality in people above 45 years of age, ischemic disease or diabetes mellitus show a J-shaped relationship with alcohol use. The overall effect of alcohol on the global burden of disease is highly detrimental, despite the possible beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. Large differences are found by country, age, gender, socioeconomic and other factors. Disease burden is mostly related with alcohol's capacity to produce dependence and with acute intoxication. Often alcohol also produces negative consequences for other people (violence, unattended family or work duties, etc) which are generally not taken into account when evaluating burden of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the main alcohol-related social and health harms, as well as their generating mechanisms, using secondary data sources. PMID:25090405

  17. Feasibility of a Tailored Intervention Targeting STD-Related Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, Jeffery M.; Grimely, Diane M.; Alexander, Leah R.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether high risk populations would be receptive to tailored, multimedia interventions to promote adoption of health-protective behaviors related to sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention and control. Feedback from predominantly African American, urban participants aged 16-50 years, recruited from a STD clinic, indicated that…

  18. Alcohol-Related Fan Behavior on College Football Game Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley E.; Jobli, Edessa; Bian, Hui

    2007-01-01

    High-risk drinking on game day represents a unique public health challenge. Objective: The authors examined the drinking behavior of college football fans and assessed the support for related interventions. Participants: The authors randomly selected 762 football fans, including college students, alumni, and other college football fans, to…

  19. Risk Factors for Behavioral Dysfunction: The Relative Impact of Maltreatment, SES, Physical Health Problems, Cognitive Ability, and Quality of Parent-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenkohl, Ellen C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study assessed physically abused/neglected and nonabused/nonneglected children (n=206) at preschool and elementary school age to identify variables significantly affecting children's behavioral functioning. Behavioral functioning was most strongly differentiated by the sociocultural and family climate in which the child was raised, with…

  20. Incarceration, Maternal Hardship, and Perinatal Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Dora M.; Wildeman, Christopher; Lee, Hedwig; Gjelsvik, Annie; Valera, Pamela A.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental incarceration is associated with mental and physical health problems in children, yet little research directly tests mechanisms through which parental incarceration could imperil child health. We hypothesized that the incarceration of a woman or her romantic partner in the year before birth constituted an additional hardship for already-disadvantaged women, and that these additionally vulnerable women were less likely to engage in positive perinatal health behaviors important to infant and early childhood development. Methods We analyzed 2006-2010 data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) to assess the association between incarceration in the year prior to the birth of a child and perinatal maternal hardships and behaviors. Results Women reporting incarceration of themselves or their partners in the year before birth of a child had 0.86 the odds (95% CI .78-.95) of beginning prenatal care in the first trimester compared to women not reporting incarceration. They were nearly twice as likely to report partner abuse and were significantly more likely to rely on WIC and/or Medicaid for assistance during pregnancy. These associations persist after controlling for socioeconomic measures and other stressors, including homelessness and job loss. Conclusions Incarceration of a woman or her partner in the year before birth is associated with higher odds of maternal hardship and poorer perinatal health behaviors. The unprecedented scale of incarceration in the U.S. simultaneously presents an underutilized public health opportunity and constitutes a social determinant of health that may contribute to disparities in early childhood development. PMID:24615355

  1. Panel V: Adaptive Health Behaviors Among Ethnic Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Shirley P.; Angel, Ronald; Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye; Liu, William; Schinke, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Race, ethnicity, and cultural attitudes and practices are among the variables that influence health behaviors, including adaptive health behaviors. The following discussions highlight the important role of social conditions in shaping health behaviors and the central role of family in promoting health across the Asian, Hispanic, Native American, and African American ethnic groups. Factors that may lead to health-damaging behaviors are also discussed. The need for additional research that identifies correlations among physiological, social, and behavioral factors and health behaviors, as well as underlying mechanisms, is called for. PMID:8654341

  2. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health. PMID:25847855

  3. Understanding Differences in Health Behaviors by Education

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, David M.; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    Using a variety of data sets from two countries, we examine possible explanations for the relationship between education and health behaviors, known as the education gradient. We show that income, health insurance, and family background can account for about 30 percent of the gradient. Knowledge and measures of cognitive ability explain an additional 30 percent. Social networks account for another 10 percent. Our proxies for discounting, risk aversion, or the value of future do not account for any of the education gradient, and neither do personality factors such as a sense of control of oneself or over one’s life. PMID:19963292

  4. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

  5. Workforce competencies in behavioral health: an overview.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Michael A; Paris, Manuel; Adger, Hoover; Collins, Frank L; Finn, Cherry V; Fricks, Larry; Gill, Kenneth J; Haber, Judith; Hansen, Marsali; Ida, D J; Kaplan, Linda; Northey, William F; O'Connell, Maria J; Rosen, Anita L; Taintor, Zebulon; Tondora, Janis; Young, Alexander S

    2005-01-01

    Competency-based training approaches are being used more in healthcare to guide curriculum content and ensure accountability and outcomes in the educational process. This article provides an overview of the state of competency development in the field of behavioral health. Specifically, it identifies the groups and organizations that have conducted and supported this work, summarizes their progress in defining and assessing competencies, and discusses both the obstacles and future directions for such initiatives. A major purpose of this article is to provide a compendium of current competency efforts so that these might inform and enhance ongoing competency development in the varied behavioral health disciplines and specialties. These varied resources may also be useful in identifying the core competencies that are common to the multiple disciplines and specialties. PMID:16082798

  6. Adolescent Health-Risk Behavior and Community Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wiehe, Sarah E.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wilson, Jeff; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Background Various forms of community disorder are associated with health outcomes but little is known about how dynamic context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behaviors. Objective Assess whether exposure to contexts associated with crime (as a marker of community disorder) correlates with self-reported health-related behaviors among adolescent girls. Methods Girls (N = 52), aged 14–17, were recruited from a single geographic urban area and monitored for 1 week using a GPS-enabled cell phone. Adolescents completed an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview survey on substance use (cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use) and sexual intercourse in the last 30 days. In addition to recorded home and school address, phones transmitted location data every 5 minutes (path points). Using ArcGIS, we defined community disorder as aggregated point-level Unified Crime Report data within a 200-meter Euclidian buffer from home, school and each path point. Using Stata, we analyzed how exposures to areas of higher crime prevalence differed among girls who reported each behavior or not. Results Participants lived and spent time in areas with variable crime prevalence within 200 meters of their home, school and path points. Significant differences in exposure occurred based on home location among girls who reported any substance use or not (p 0.04) and sexual intercourse or not (p 0.01). Differences in exposure by school and path points were only significant among girls reporting any substance use or not (p 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). Exposure also varied by school/non-school day as well as time of day. Conclusions Adolescent travel patterns are not random. Furthermore, the crime context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behavior. These data may guide policy relating to crime control and inform time- and space-specific interventions to improve adolescent health. PMID:24278107

  7. Neighborhood Context and Youth Cardiovascular Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Cubbin, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to determine the relationships between race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and cardiovascular health behaviors among youths and whether neighborhood characteristics are associated with such behaviors independently of individual characteristics. Methods. Linear models determined the effects of individual and neighborhood characteristics (SES, social disorganization, racial/ethnic minority concentration, urbanization) on dietary habits, physical activity, and smoking among 8165 youths aged 12 to 21 years. Results. Low SES was associated with poorer dietary habits, less physical activity, and higher odds of smoking. After adjustment for SES, Black race was associated with poorer dietary habits and lower odds of smoking. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with healthier dietary habits, lower levels of physical activity, and lower odds of smoking than non-Hispanic ethnicity. Low neighborhood SES and high neighborhood social disorganization were independently associated with poorer dietary habits, while high neighborhood Hispanic concentration and urbanicity were associated with healthier dietary habits. Neighborhood characteristics were not associated with physical activity or smoking. Conclusions. Changes in neighborhood social structures and policies that reduce social inequalities may enhance cardiovascular health behaviors. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:428–436) PMID:11867325

  8. Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, A; Bitto, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported. Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics’ related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties’ needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making. Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential. In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health. There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice. PMID:23113159

  9. Health behaviors and personality in burnout: a third dimension.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Osama M

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of burnout among healthcare professionals warrants a thorough examination aimed at improving the current understanding of its predictors and preventive measures. Cecil et al. have underscored the alarming prevalence of burnout among medical students and assessed its association with demographic, lifestyle, and behavioral factors. Of interest, health behaviors were found to be predictive of burnout. The study suggests certain behaviors (such as high physical activity) to be protective, and thus, calls for their establishment early in college life to prevent the development of this professionally-disabling mental state. Although the adoption of advisable health behaviors may independently reduce the risk of burnout, recognition of the existence and influence of closely related factors allows for an enhanced understanding and a greater precision for any conclusions to be made. Personality, through deductive and inductive reasoning, is likely to exert significant influence on both the student's behavior and his/her susceptibility to burnout. Thus, with personality representing--in and of itself--a principal model for prediction of burnout risk, controlling for personality traits when addressing health behaviors' influence per se on burnout is essential. PMID:26365101

  10. Critical Behaviors in Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing. Volume 3: Behavior of Attendants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Angeline Marchese; And Others

    Part of a three-volume document, this volume is concerned with providing source data about the activities of mental health nursing personnel as the activities relate to patient care and contains abstracts of more than 4,000 critical behaviors of psychiatric attendants in 50 psychiatric hospitals, general hospitals with psychiatric units, and…