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Sample records for health related fitness

  1. Health-Related Measures of Children's Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes health-related physical fitness measurement procedures for children, emphasizing field measures. Health-related physical fitness encompasses cardiorespiratory endurance, body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility. The article presents several issues pertinent to research on health-related fitness testing. (SM)

  2. Knowledge in Action: Fitness Lesson Segments That Teach Health-Related Fitness in Elementary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Michael G.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; van der Mars, Hans; Lee, Chong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine students' health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity levels after the implementation of a series of fitness lessons segments called Knowledge in Action (KIA). KIA aims to teach health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) during short episodes of the physical education lesson. Teacher…

  3. Health-Related Variables and Functional Fitness among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkin, Linda D.; Haddock, Bryan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the functional fitness of a convenient sample of older adults (greater than 70 years), to examine correlations between functional fitness and several other health-related variables and to compare with criterion performance data as established by Rikli and Jones (2001). One hundred and seven community-dwelling older adults with…

  4. Health-Related Fitness of Youths with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Byrne, Heidi; Mattern, Craig O.; Watt, Celia A.; Fernandez-Vivo, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the passing rates on five health-related fitness items on the Brockport Physical Fitness Test of youths aged 10-17 with visual impairments. It found that the youths had low passing rates on upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and body composition. (Contains 2 tables.)

  5. Evaluation of the NASA/JSC Health Related Fitness Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, Larry T.; Jackson, A. S.; Pinkerton, Mary B.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of the NASA Health Related Fitness Program (HRFP), which includes a 12-week educational component (EC) and quarterly fitness retests (RT), on the results of periodic testing of fitness, body composition, and blood lipids were evaluated in three goups of pilots. These included the group of compliers (those who completed EC and not less than 75 percent RT), the noncompliers (completed EC and lesss than 75 percent RT), and the dropouts from EC. Results show that beneficial changes in physical activity found two years after the completion of the HRFP were related to both the completion of the EC and the periodic fitness reevaluations. These changes were associated with maximal oxygen consumption, percent body fat, body weight, and blood lipids.

  6. Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…

  7. Improving health-related fitness in adolescents: the CrossFit Teens™ randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip James; Lubans, David Revalds

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and feasibility of the CrossFit Teens™ resistance training programme for improving health-related fitness and resistance training skill competency in adolescents. This assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in the Hunter Region, Australia, from July to September 2013. Ninety-six (96) students (age = 15.4 (.5) years, 51.5% female) were randomised into intervention (n = 51) or control (n = 45) conditions for 8-weeks (60 min twice per week). Waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), BMI-Z score (primary outcomes), cardiorespiratory fitness (shuttle run test), muscular fitness (standing jump, push-up, handgrip, curl-up test), flexibility (sit and reach) and resistance training skill competency were measured at baseline and immediate post-intervention. Feasibility measures of recruitment, retention, adherence and satisfaction were assessed. Significant group-by-time intervention effects were found for waist circumference [-3.1 cm, P < 0.001], BMI [-1.38 kg · m(‒)(2), P < 0.001], BMI-Z [-0.5 z-scores, P < 0.001], sit and reach [+3.0 cm, P < 0.001], standing jump [+0.1 m, P = 0.021] and shuttle run [+10.3 laps, P = 0.019]. Retention rate was 82.3%. All programme sessions were delivered and participants' mean satisfaction scores ranged from 4.2 to 4.6 out of 5. The findings demonstrate that CrossFit Teens™ is a feasible and efficacious programme for improving health-related fitness in adolescents. PMID:25972203

  8. The Evolution and Validity of Health-Related Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution fitness testing from an athletic emphasis to one with a public health focus and examines the forces that brought about the change in an environment that was not totally receptive. An atmosphere for change was created during this era with the development of exercise physiology, exercise epidemiology, and measurement.…

  9. [BOUGE-fitness test battery: health-related field-based fitness tests assessment in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Vanhelst, J; Béghin, L; Czaplicki, G; Ulmer, Z

    2014-01-01

    Physical fitness is an important determinant of global health in children and adolescents. Key components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, speed, and muscular and endurance strength. The school environment provides a great opportunity to assess the physical fitness level in children and adolescents. The french national program "Bouge... Une priorité pour ta santé! "(Move ... A priority for your health!) aims to assess the physical fitness of children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years old in French schools. The aim of this paper is to describe the interest to assess different health-related physical fitness components. It presents the chosen tests within said battery for children and adolescents and explains how the battery was conceived. The health-related physical fitness tests included in "BOUGE" were chosen for their validity, reliability, low cost and feasibility for all schools. PMID:25619047

  10. Active relatives and health-related physical fitness in European adolescents: the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Marcos, Ascensión; Béghin, Laurent; Kafatos, Anthony; González-Gross, Marcela; Zaccaria, Maria; Molnár, Dénes; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J

    2012-01-01

    High physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is positively associated with favourable health-related outcomes. Our aim was to examine the relationship between relatives' (father, mother, brother, sister, and best friend) physical activity engagement and encouragement on adolescents' physical fitness. Adolescents were part of the HELENA study, a multi-centre study conducted in 10 cities from nine European countries in 2006-2008. Participants were 3288 adolescents (48% boys, 52% girls) aged 12.5-17.5 years with valid data on at least one of the three fitness variables studied: muscular strength (standing long jump), speed/agility (4×10 m shuttle run), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run). The adolescents reported their relatives' physical activity engagement and encouragement. Analysis of covariance showed that relatives' physical activity engagement (father, mother, brother, and best friend) was positively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (P < 0.05); and mother's and sisters' physical activity engagement were positively associated with higher muscular strength in adolescents (P < 0.05). Furthermore, father's physical activity encouragement was positively linked to physical fitness (all fitness components) in adolescents (P < 0.05). Interventions aimed at improving physical fitness in young people might be more successful when family members, particularly mothers and fathers, are encouraged to engage in physical activity and support adolescents' physical activity. PMID:22906183

  11. Developing Teachers' Health-Related Fitness Knowledge through a Community of Practice: Impact on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunuk, Deniz; Ince, Mustafa Levent; Tannehill, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were twofold: to examine the effects of a community of practice (CoP) on (1) physical educators' and their students' health-related fitness content knowledge and (2) the physical educators' health-related fitness pedagogical content knowledge construction process. Twelve experienced physical education teachers (six in…

  12. Infusing Health-Related Physical Fitness in Physical Education Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulger, Sean M.; Mohr, Derek J.; Carson, Linda M.; Wiegand, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the infusion of a health-related physical fitness education strand into the physical education teacher education curriculum at West Virginia University, also discussing the role of health-related physical fitness in teacher preparation and explaining the infused curricular approach to physical education teacher education (sample infused…

  13. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  14. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  15. The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

  16. An Innovative Strategy for Teaching Health-Related Fitness Knowledge in Elementary Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For many decades, children and adolescents have had a deficient level of health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK). This is worrisome, since HRFK acquisition has been found to be fundamental for individuals' decision-making as it relates to healthy living. Consequently, Knowledge in Action (KIA) fitness was developed to offer elementary teachers an…

  17. Health-Related Fitness Models in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Jennifer; Kulinna, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Physical education has been an integral part of the school curriculum for more than a century. Although the focus has changed over time, the major objective has remained relatively constant: to provide students with the knowledge, skills, abilities, behaviors, and confidence to be physically active throughout their lifetime. As more physical…

  18. Urban Minority Ninth-Grade Students' Health-Related Fitness Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Xiaofen Deng; Chen, Li; Guan, Jianmin; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Dauenhauer, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine Hispanic and other minority ninth-grade students' health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge, using FitSmart, a standardized test for high school students. The test consisted of 50 weighted multiple choice items, measuring six subcontent components. Means and standard deviations of the overall scores and the…

  19. Developing Health-Related Fitness: It Takes More than a Week!--Fitnessgram Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkuski, Jeffrey J.; Masterson, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss some activities that will develop health-related fitness for students and recommend that teachers present activities that make students feel capable, confident and competent to their participation in physical activity. The authors present NASPE's Physical Best fitness education program and the Cooper…

  20. Health-Related Fitness and Nutritional Practices: Can They Be Enhanced in Upper Elementary School Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derri, Vassiliki; Aggeloussis, Nikos; Petraki, Christina

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of an eight-week health-related fitness and nutrition education program on fitness components and dietary habits in upper elementary school students. Forty children from the fifth and sixth grade, 10 to 12 years of age (M= 11.2, SD= 1.1), participated in the study. The experimental…

  1. Contribution of Physical Education and Sport to Health-Related Fitness in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared health-related fitness variables of high school students (14 to 19-years-old; 120 males, 67 females) participating in physical education (PE) and school-sponsored sports (SSS) to students participating solely in PE. Cardiovascular fitness, the primary variable of interest, was measured using the 20-Meter Shuttle Ran (number of…

  2. The Relationship between Preservice Teachers Health-Related Fitness and Movement Competency in Gymnastics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin Andrew; Webster, Liana; Cribbs, Jason; Wellborn, Benjamin; Lineberger, Matthew Blake; Doan, Rob

    2014-01-01

    The current National Initial Standards for Physical Education Teacher Education state that preservice teachers should achieve and maintain a level of health-related fitness consistent with that expected of K12 learners. However, little research has addressed the relevance of teacher fitness to effective physical education teaching. This study…

  3. The human gene map for performance and health-related fitness phenotypes: the 2005 update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current review presents the 2005 update of the human gene map for physical performance and health-related fitness phenotypes. It is based on peer-reviewed papers published by the end of 2005. The genes and markers with evidence of association or linkage with a performance or fitness phenotype in...

  4. The FORCE Fitness Profile--Adding a Measure of Health-Related Fitness to the Canadian Armed Forces Operational Fitness Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Patrick; Spivock, Michael; Reilly, Tara; Mattie, Paige; Stockbrugger, Barry

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) implemented the Fitness for Operational Requirements of Canadian Armed Forces Employment (FORCE), a field expedient fitness test designed to predict the physical requirements of completing common military tasks. Given that attaining this minimal physical fitness standard may not represent a challenge to some personnel, a fitness incentive program was requested by the chain of command to recognize and reward fitness over and above the minimal standard. At the same time, it was determined that the CAF would benefit from a measure of general health-related fitness, in addition to this measure of operational fitness. The resulting incentive program structure is based on gender and 8 age categories. The results on the 4 elements of the FORCE evaluation were converted to a point scale from which normative scores were derived, where the median score corresponds to the bronze level, and silver, gold, and platinum correspond to a score which is 1, 2, and 3 SDs above this median, respectively. A suite of rewards including merit board point toward promotions and recognition on the uniform and material rewards was developed. A separate group rewards program was also tabled, to recognize achievements in fitness at the unit level. For general fitness, oxygen capacity was derived from FORCE evaluation results and combined with a measure of abdominal circumference. Fitness categories were determined based on relative risks of mortality and morbidity for each age and gender group. Pilot testing of this entire program was performed with 624 participants to assess participants' reactions to the enhanced test, and also to verify logistical aspects of the electronic data capture, calculation, and transfer system. The newly dubbed fitness profile program was subsequently approved by the senior leadership of the CAF and is scheduled to begin a phased implementation in June 2015. PMID:26506187

  5. Health/Fitness Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Edward T.; Franks, B. Don

    This book identifies the components of physical fitness that are related to positive health as distinct from the simple performance of specific motor tasks. The positive health concept is expanded to further clarify the relationship of physical fitness to total fitness. The disciplinary knowledge base that is essential for fitness professionals is…

  6. THE HUMAN GENE MAP FOR PERFORMANCE AND HEALTH-RELATED FITNESS PHENOTYPES: THE 2004 UPDATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We began this series in 2000 with the aim of making available in an easily accessible format all the advances on the genetic basis of a large family of exercise-related traits. The current review presents the 2004 update of the human gene map for physical performance and health-related fitness pheno...

  7. Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Physical Activity of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Angela; Hannon, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge is related to self-reported physical activity (PA) of high school students. Students (N=165) enrolled in physical education from two schools in the Southwestern U.S participated. A 100-point HRF knowledge test was assembled, focusing on the HRF concepts of…

  8. A Survey of Health-Related Physical Fitness Knowledge Among Preservice and Inservice Physical Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael G.; Housner, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Assessed the health-related physical-fitness knowledge of preservice and inservice physical education teachers and graduate students in physical education and exercise physiology. Survey results indicated that exercise-physiology graduate students surpassed all others in knowledge. Though preservice teachers had relatively poor knowledge levels,…

  9. Reliability of health-related physical fitness tests in adolescents: the MOVE Program.

    PubMed

    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Béghin, Laurent; Fardy, Paul S; Ulmer, Zekya; Czaplicki, Grégory

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in a French health promotion program 'Move…A priority for your health'. Participants were 174 French youth (88 children and 86 adolescents) aged 8·2-16·2 years. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, speed and flexibility were tested using 20-m shuttle run test, ½ mile run test, basketball throw, standing long jump, shoulder stretch and 20/30/50-m sprint tests. Reliability was calculated for the basketball throw, standing long jump, shoulder stretch and sprint tests. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week. Reliability was examined with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman analysis. With the exception of the ½ mile run test, which resulted in moderate agreement (0·66), all tests had high reliability. ICCs were 0·97, 0·93, 0·91 and 0·93 for the sprint test, basketball throw, shoulder stretch and the standing long jump, respectively. The differences obtained between the first and the second trial were non-significant. Results from this study indicate that the BOUGE health-related physical fitness battery, administrated by physical education teachers, was reliable for measuring health-related components of fitness in children and adolescents in a school setting. PMID:25319253

  10. Health-Related Fitness in Sport Education and Multi-Activity Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Mitchum B.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    To date, studies examining the Sport Education (SE) model have largely focused on gains in sporting performance and/or psychosocial development. The purpose of this study was to compare the health-related fitness benefits for pupils participating in SE and traditional multi-activity (MA) units of instruction. Participants were two preservice…

  11. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  12. Teaching Skills and Health-Related Fitness through a Preservice Gymnastics Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donham-Foutch, Shae

    2007-01-01

    Children who do not develop a foundation of basic motor skills are less likely to participate in regular physical activity. An excellent way of teaching basic motor skills, as well as health-related fitness, is through gymnastics. Many young teachers, however, think that teaching gymnastics is too challenging and do not know how to incorporate it…

  13. The Relationship between Sports Participation and Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School and High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrow, Matthew S.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Otto, Stephanie M.; Farley, Richard F.; Eveland-Sayers, Brandi M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine the relationship between sports participation and health-related physical fitness in middle school and high school students. Health-related physical fitness was measured using the Fitnessgram test battery to assess healthy fitness zone (HFZ) achievement in five areas: body composition, muscular…

  14. Reliability of Health-Related Physical Fitness Tests among Colombian Children and Adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Rodrigues-Bezerra, Diogo; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Izquierdo, Mikel; Lobelo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that youth physical fitness levels are an important marker of lifestyle and cardio-metabolic health profiles and predict future risk of chronic diseases. The reliability physical fitness tests have not been explored in Latino-American youth population. This study’s aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in the Colombian health promotion “Fuprecol study”. Participants were 229 Colombian youth (boys n = 124 and girls n = 105) aged 9 to 17.9 years old. Five components of health-related physical fitness were measured: 1) morphological component: height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, and body fat (%) via impedance; 2) musculoskeletal component: handgrip and standing long jump test; 3) motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run); 4) flexibility component (hamstring and lumbar extensibility, sit-and-reach test); 5) cardiorespiratory component: 20-meter shuttle-run test (SRT) to estimate maximal oxygen consumption. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week, except for the SRT which was performed only once. Intra-observer technical errors of measurement (TEMs) and inter-rater (reliability) were assessed in the morphological component. Reliability for the Musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness components was examined using Bland–Altman tests. For the morphological component, TEMs were small and reliability was greater than 95% of all cases. For the musculoskeletal, motor, flexibility and cardiorespiratory components, we found adequate reliability patterns in terms of systematic errors (bias) and random error (95% limits of agreement). When the fitness assessments were performed twice, the systematic error was nearly 0 for all tests, except for the sit and reach (mean difference: -1.03% [95% CI = -4.35% to -2.28%]. The results from this study indicate that the

  15. Physical activity and health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Ching; Malina, Robert M

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between physical activity and health-related physical fitness was evaluated in 282 Taiwanese adolescents 12-14 years of age. The subjects were randomly selected from the 7th, 8th and 9th grades in two junior high schools in Taiwan. Physical activity was estimated as total daily energy expenditure and energy expenditure in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from 24-hour activity records for three days, two week days and one weekend day. Health-related fitness was assessed as the one-mile run (cardiorespiratory endurance), timed sit-ups (abdominal strength and endurance), sit-and-reach (lower back flexibility), and subcutaneous fatness (sum of the triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, and medial calf skinfolds). Physical activity is significantly and positively correlated with one-mile run performance and the sit-and-reach, but not with sit-ups and subcutaneous fatness. Overall, the strength of the relationships between estimated energy expenditure and specific fitness items in the total sample vary from low to moderate, with only 1% to 12% of the variance in fitness variables being explained by estimated energy expenditure. Comparisons of active versus inactive, and fit versus unfit adolescents provide additional insights. The more active (highest quartile) are also more fit in cardiorespiratory endurance and in the sit-and-reach than the less active (lowest quartile), and the more fit in the one-mile run (better time, lowest quartile) and the sit-and-reach (highest quartile) are more active than the less fit in each item, respectively. PMID:11938605

  16. The relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and health-related physical fitness in university students.

    PubMed

    Jeoung, Bog Ja

    2014-12-01

    College students with a tendency toward attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to act impulsively because they cannot control their behavior. They display low academic achievement and insufficient social skills, and are at high risk for alcoholism and drug abuse. Although various intervention methods have been used to reduce ADHD tendency (e.g., improving physical fitness and participating in sports and exercise), there are few studies on the relationship between ADHD and health-related physical fitness. Accordingly, this study explored the relationship between ADHD symptoms in college students and physical fitness. We measured health-related physical fitness and ADHD in 86 male college students using a self-report rating scale. The results showed the following. First, a significant relationship was found between ADHD tendency and inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and abdominal fat. Push-ups were associated with ADHD tendency and the inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and problems with self-concept subtests. Grip strength was significantly related to inattention/memory problems. Second, risk factors for ADHD tendency significantly increased for male college students with low muscular strength and endurance relative to those with greater muscular strength and endurance. Risk factors also significantly increased for male college students with high rates of abdominal obesity. PMID:25610821

  17. [The role of health education in promotion of health-related fitness concept].

    PubMed

    Brudecki, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important objectives of health education is to shape the habits of attention to positive physical health, which determines the low risk of health problems, particularly in later life. Therefore, an important indicator of correct pro-health behaviors is to maintain an appropriate ratio between body weight and height, as well as maintaining fat distribution indices (BMI, WHR) at the appropriate level. Aim of this paper is to attempt a synthetic view of the health-related fineness--its development, and maintenance level for life in the context of the objectives of health education. The results of children and adolescents and the population of adult males from Cracow indicate that the percentage of children with elevated values of the fat distribution indices (BMI, WHR) between 8 and 19 years is systematically reduced in relation to international standards. At the same time in the adult male population dramatically increased to almost 50% in the group of men after the age of 50. This implies that educational activities related to the promotion of healthy lifestyle and maintain appropriate physical activity can not be finished at the stage of school education, but must also continue at a later date. PMID:21446123

  18. The effects of a university fitness programme on health-related variables in previously sedentary males.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, S; Aitchison, T; Pettigrew, A R; Orrell, J M

    1992-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of a 10-week university fitness programme on health-related fitness variables. Twenty-one male exercisers, aged 37.0(10.3) years (mean(s.d.); range 21-58), and 22 male controls, aged 38.6(7.9) years (mean(s.d.); range 17-54), volunteered to take part. Two sample t-tests and 95% confidence intervals were used to determine if the exercise group demonstrated a greater average improvement than the control group and the average improvement in both groups separately. The exercise group showed a greater average improvement over the controls from Test 1 (before fitness programme) to Test 2 (after) in the following: steady-state heart rate (beats min-1) 95% confidence intervals (-7.8, -16.2); predicted VO2max (ml kg-1 min-1): 95% confidence intervals (3.2, 6.6); sit-ups (repetitions): 95% confidence intervals (3.1, 7.0); flexibility (cm): 95% confidence intervals (3.3, 6.9). There was no significant difference between the exercise group and control group in body weight, percentage body fat, blood pressure, total plasma cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides. The exercise programme improved aerobic fitness, local muscular endurance and flexibility. However, the increase in aerobic fitness did not coincide with beneficial changes in the coronary risk profile. PMID:1600453

  19. Health-Related Physical Fitness and Normative Data in Healthy Women, Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, MR; Fallahi, AA; Sangari, M

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the age-related loss of health-related physical fitness and normative data in healthy population women aged 20–60 years old of Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1000 healthy women aged 20–60 years old were randomly selected from northern, southern, eastern, western and center regions of Tehran. Cardiovascular fitness was determined by Ros and Jakson protocol. Body composition were measured using Jackson and Poolak procedure, flexibility was determined by sit and reach test, muscular strength with a standard dynamometer and muscular endurance were measured with Sit-ups test in one minutes. Results: Cardiovascular fitness (vo2max), body composition, flexibility, muscular strength and endurance remained unchanged in the 20 and 30 year old age groups. Around of 40 years old, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength and endurance began to gradually decline but body composition increased and flexibility unchanged. Data for Vo2max and the other variables in 4-yr groups provide “normative” results. Result indicated age-related declined in Vo2max (0.43 ml/ kg/min× yr (−1)), muscular strength (0.004 kg/weight ×yr (−1)) and endurance (0.63 repetition ×yr (−1)), and increased in body fat (0.43 % ×yr (−1)) in 30–60 year. One-way ANOVA test showed that all variables significantly differed (P<0.001) among decades except sit and rich test (P< 0.059) between the second and third decades. Vo2max had a significant relationship (P< 0.01) with Age, BMI, body fat percent and muscular strength and endurance. Conclusion: Iranian women have a greater decline in cardiovascular fitness; muscular strength and endurance. The results of this study can be used as reference material for clinical studies in different age groups. PMID:23113042

  20. The human gene map for performance and health-related fitness phenotypes: The 2006-2007 update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This update of the human gene map for physical performance and health-related fitness phenotypes covers the research advances reported in 2006 and 2007. The genes and markers with evidence of association or linkage with a performance or a fitness phenotype in sedentary or active people, in responses...

  1. The Health and Fitness Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, Anastasia M.

    1999-01-01

    "Health and Fitness Challenge" program was implemented using the "social marketing model" to raise awareness of health education and related services to students. Collaboration between faculty, student affairs professionals, and students occurred from design through evaluation. The primary goal of bringing students, faculty and staff together was…

  2. Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Self-Perception Changes Related to a University "Lifetime Fitness for Health" Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woekel, Erica; Ebbeck, Vicki; Concepcion, Rebecca Y.; Readdy, Tucker; Li, Kin-Kit; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate college students are at a crucial point in the development of significant health behaviors, most notably related to physical activity and dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively determine whether participation in a Lifetime Fitness for Health (LFH) curriculum in college had short-term and long-term benefits…

  3. Short-term tracking of performance and health-related physical fitness in girls: the Healthy Growth in Cariri Study.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Simonete Pereira; Beunen, Gaston; Prista, António; Maia, José

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to track the performance and health-related physical fitness of girls from Brazil's Cariri region. In the "Healthy Growth in Cariri Study", 294 girls from public and private schools were divided into four age cohorts--8, 10, 12, and 14 years--and followed for three consecutive years, with an assessment every 6 months. Shuttle run, hand grip, standing long jump, trunk lift, curl-up, 12-min run, and fatness were used to rate physical fitness performance and health-related components on each of six occasions. Tracking was done in a stepwise manner, using auto-correlation, by modelling the individual history of change in performance of each girl, and using Foulkes and Davies' γ-coefficient. SPSS 18.0 and TIMEPATH were used for data analysis. Auto-correlations evidenced low-to-moderate values in almost all components of performance and health-related physical fitness. Intra-individual tracking analysis showed large variation in all fitness components as a result of a wide spread in individual history of change in fitness performance. Population estimates of γ were low in all tests. Our results show low-to-moderate tracking of physical fitness components of girls. A wide range of intra-individual and inter-variability in fitness development was observed. PMID:22967201

  4. Age, Sex, and Body Composition as Predictors of Children's Performance on Basic Motor Abilities and Health-Related Fitness Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pissanos, Becky W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Step-wise linear regressions were used to relate children's age, sex, and body composition to performance on basic motor abilities including balance, speed, agility, power, coordination, and reaction time, and to health-related fitness items including flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular functions. Eighty subjects were in…

  5. Effect of Personalized System of Instruction on Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Class Time Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Colquitt, Gavin; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Newton, Maria; Shaw, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, researchers have identified a general low level of health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge among secondary students that can effect levels of physical activity (PA). An instructional strategy that may increase HRF knowledge without decreasing PA is the personalized system of instruction (PSI). Two classes from a private urban…

  6. Relationships between Health-Related Fitness Knowledge, Perceived Competence, Self- Determination, and Physical Activity Behaviors of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslem, Liz; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Christensen, William F.; Pennington, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to test a hypothesized model of motivation within the context of conceptual physical education (CPE), and (b) to explore the strength and directionality of perceived competence for physical activity as a possible mediator for health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity behaviors. High school…

  7. Health and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astrand, Per Olaf

    The need for physical activity to maintain good health is emphasized in this book. Regular exercise and a balanced diet are regarded as being of prime importance. The nutritional and caloric values of various diets are discussed in relation to their energy producing potential as well as their effect on body weight. Photographs, charts, and line…

  8. Fitness and Health. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on children's fitness and health: "Relaxation: Every Child's Right to Simply Be" (Patrice Thomas and Wendy Shepherd); "Infant Massage" (Carolyn Oleson); "Fitness and the Young Child" (James M. Poole); "Partners in Health: Helping Families Advocate for Their Children's Health Care" (Karen Sokal-Gutierrez); and "Preventing…

  9. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  10. Feasibility Study: Colombian Caribbean Folk Dances to Increase Physical Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Women.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Ernesto; Hoyos, Diana P; Watt, Willinton J; Lema, Lucía; Arango, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe the feasibility of an intervention in older women based on folk dances of the Colombian Caribbean region, and to analyze the effects of the intervention on physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A pilot study was conducted in a sample of 27 participants, 15 in the intervention group (IG) and 12 in the comparison group (CG). Caribbean Colombian dance rhythms were introduced as an intervention that lasted 12 weeks. Recruitment and retention was not optimal. Treatment fidelity components indicated that intervention was administered as intended. IG participants showed positive and statistically significant changes in some components of physical fitness. No significant changes were observed in HRQoL indicators for either group. In conclusion, the intervention was feasible, but recruitment and retention was challenging. Folk dances of the Colombian Caribbean region provoked significant results in physical fitness but not in HRQoL. PMID:26371771

  11. Distribution of Health-Related Physical Fitness in Texas Youth: A Demographic and Geographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Ihmels, Michelle; Seeger, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study examined demographic and geographic variability in aggregated school-level data on the percentage of students achieving the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zones[TM] (HFZ). Three-way analyses of variance were used to examine differences in fitness achievement rates among schools that had distinct diversity and socioeconomic status…

  12. Fitness. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantzler, Nora J.; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and to provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. The five sections in this book provide…

  13. Effects of two physical education programmes on health- and skill-related physical fitness of Albanian children.

    PubMed

    Jarani, J; Grøntved, A; Muca, F; Spahi, A; Qefalia, D; Ushtelenca, K; Kasa, A; Caporossi, D; Gallotta, M C

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two school-based physical education (PE) programmes (exercise-based and games-based) compared with traditional PE, on health- and skill-related physical fitness components in children in Tirana, Albania. Participants were 378 first-grade (6.8 years) and 389 fourth-grade (9.8 years) children attending four randomly selected schools in Tirana. Twenty-four school classes within these schools were randomly selected (stratified by school and school grade) to participate as exercise group (EG), games group (GG) and control group (CG). Both EG and GG intervention programmes were taught by professional PE teachers using station/circuit teaching framework while CG referred to traditional PE school lessons by a general teacher. All programmes ran in parallel and lasted 5 months, having the same frequency (twice weekly) and duration (45 min). Heart rate (HR) monitoring showed that intensity during PE lessons was significantly higher in the intervention groups compared with control (P < 0.001). Both PE exercise- and games programmes significantly improved several health- and skill-related fitness indicators compared with traditional PE lessons (e.g. gross motor skill summary score: 9.4 (95% CI 7.9; 10.9) for exercise vs. control and 6.5 (95% CI 5.1; 8.1) for games vs. control, cardiorespiratory fitness: 2.0 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1) (95% CI 1.5; 2.4) for exercise vs. control and 1.4 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1) (95% CI 1.0; 1.8) for games vs. control). Furthermore, compared to games-based PE, exercise-based PE showed more positive changes in some gross motor coordination skills outcomes, coordination skills outcomes and cardiorespiratory fitness. The results from this study show that exercise- and games-based PE represents a useful strategy for improving health- and skill-related physical fitness in Albanian elementary school children. In addition, the study shows that exercise-based PE was more effective than games-based PE in

  14. Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Its Relation to Student Physical Activity Patterns at a Large U.S. Southern State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Xiaofen D.; Castro-Pinero, Jose; Centeio, Erin; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Ramirez, Tere; Chen, Li

    2010-01-01

    This study examined student health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge and its relationship to physical activity (PA). The participants were undergraduate students from a large U.S. state university. HRF knowledge was assessed using a test consisting of 150 multiple choice items. Differences in HRF knowledge scores by sex, ethnicity, and years in…

  15. [The effect of yoga exercise intervention on health related physical fitness in school-age asthmatic children].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting-Lan; Mao, Hsin-Chun; Lai, Cheng-Hsiu; Li, Chung-Yi; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of yoga exercise on the health-related physical fitness of school-age children with asthma. The study employed a quasi-experimental research design in which 31 voluntary children (exercise group 16; control group15) aged 7 to 12 years were purposively sampled from one public elementary school in Taipei County. The yoga exercise program was practiced by the exercise group three times per week for a consecutive 7 week period. Each 60-minute yoga session included 10 minutes of warm-up and breathing exercises, 40 minutes of yoga postures, and 10 minutes of cool down exercises. Fitness scores were assessed at pre-exercise (baseline) and at the seventh and ninth week after intervention completion. A total of 30 subjects (exercise group 16; control group 14) completed follow-up. Results included: 1. Compared with children in the general population, the study subjects (n = 30) all fell below the 50th percentile in all five physical fitness items of interest. There was no significant difference in scores between the two groups at baseline (i.e., pre-exercise) for all five fitness items. 2. Research found a positive association between exercise habit after school and muscular strength and endurance among asthmatic children. 3. Compared to the control group, the exercise group showed favorable outcomes in terms of flexibility and muscular endurance. Such favorable outcomes remained evident even after adjusting for age, duration of disease and steroid use, values for which were unequally distributed between the two groups at baseline. 4. There was a tendency for all item-specific fitness scores to increase over time in the exercise group. The GEE analysis showed that yoga exercise indeed improved BMI, flexibility, and muscular endurance. After 2 weeks of self-practice at home, yoga exercise continued to improve BMI, flexibility, muscular strength, and cardiopulmonary fitness. PMID:19319803

  16. Association between health-related physical fitness and body mass index status in children.

    PubMed

    Casonatto, Juliano; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Batista, Mariana Biagi; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel João; de Arruda, Miguel; Vaz Ronque, Enio Ricardo

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) status and physical performance in Brazilian children. The analyzed sample was composed of 978 children of both sexes (518 boys and 460 girls), aged 7 to 11 years. BMI and skinfolds were measured, and three motor tests were applied (flexibility, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular strength/endurance). In both sexes, overweight/obese children presented poor performance in all motor tests, except flexibility. In general, overweight/obese children have an increased odds ratio (OR) to present poor physical performance (boys: OR = 3.64 for cardiorespiratory fitness, OR = 1.94 for muscular strength/endurance, OR = 1.52 for flexibility; girls: OR = 5.03 for cardiorespiratory fitness and OR = 2.62 for muscular strength/endurance). In conclusion, for both sexes, a poor physical performance in the tests measuring cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength/ endurance was associated with the presence of overweight/obesity. PMID:26396021

  17. Cross-Validation of FITNESSGRAM® Health-Related Fitness Standards in Hungarian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to cross-validate FITNESSGRAM® aerobic and body composition standards in a representative sample of Hungarian youth. Method: A nationally representative sample (N = 405) of Hungarian adolescents from the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study (ages 12-18.9 years) participated in an aerobic capacity assessment…

  18. Water-Based Exercise Improves Health-Related Aspects of Fitness in Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeshima, Nobuo; Rogers, Michael E.; Watanabe, Eiji; Brechue, William F.; Okada, Akiyoshi; Yamada, Tadaki; Islam, Mohammod M.; Hayano, Jyunichirou

    2002-01-01

    Examined the physiological responses of elderly Japanese women to a well-rounded exercise program performed in water. Results indicated that the 12-week program elicited significant improvements in intervention group women's cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, agility, flexibility, body fat, and total cholesterol. Water-based exercise…

  19. Health and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kharbeche, Ghaleb

    2007-01-01

    The theme of health offers a variety of language-learning possibilities. This three-part lesson plan for young learners can be adapted to other audiences. It includes a reading, a dialogue, and a listening script. The first lesson asks learners to analyze lifestyle choices and give advice. The second lesson takes students to a sporting goods…

  20. Fitness and health-related quality of life dimensions in community-dwelling middle aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to identify the physical fitness (PF) tests of a multi-component battery more related to the perception of problems in each dimension of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessed by the EuroQol 5 dimensions 3 level questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L) in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 7104 participants (6243 females and 861 males aged 50-99 years) who were recruited in the framework of the Exercise Looks After You Program, which is a public health program designed to promote physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Participants were assessed by the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire and a battery of fitness tests. The responses to each EQ-5D-3L dimension were collapsed into a two-tier variable consisting of «perceive problems» and «do not perceive problems». Correlation coefficients for the relationships between the HRQoL variables, between the PF variables, and between the HRQoL and PF variables were obtained. Two logistic regression models, one adjusted and one unadjusted, were developed for each EQ-5D-3L dimension. Results There were significant correlations between all variables except anxiety/depression and the back scratch test. The PF tests that correlated best with the HRQoL dimensions were the Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUG) and the 6-min walk; pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression correlated less well. All PF tests correlated, especially the TUG and 6-min walk tests. Unadjusted logistic models showed significant goodness of fit for the mobility and pain/discomfort dimensions only. Adjusted logistic models showed significant goodness of fit for all dimensions when the following potential confounding variables were included: age, gender, weekly level of PA, smoking and alcohol habits, body mass index, and educational level. For all dimensions, the highest odds ratios for the association with PF tests were with the TUG; this was

  1. Motor Coordination and Health-Related Physical Fitness of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Three-Year Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yao-Chuen; Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John; Hsieh, Chiu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness is an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease. While previous studies have identified children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) to be less physically fit than typically developing (TD) peers, there is limited longitudinal research in this area. This study was undertaken to evaluate concomitant…

  2. The Effects of a Non-Traditional Strength Training Program on the Health-Related Fitness Outcomes of Youth Strength Training Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Wendy; Foster, Byron

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a non-traditional strength training program will impact the health-related fitness of youth. Researchers hypothesized that the strengthening program would positively affect the fitness outcomes. Participant physical education classes incorporated strengthening exercises three days…

  3. The Effect of Preoperative Type 2 Diabetes and Physical Fitness on Mental Health and Health-Related Quality of Life after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine L.; Lund, Michael T.; Hansen, Merethe; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the predictive value of type 2 diabetes and lack of physical activity for mental health and health-related quality of life after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Method. Forty severely obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were included in the GASMITO study. Information about physiological and psychological factors was prospectively assessed at four time points, two times prior to surgery and two times after surgery. Measures included oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, VO2max test, Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90), Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36), Body Image Questionnaire, and a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic factors and medical status. Results. Mean % excess weight loss was 65% (±12) at 18-month follow-up and 50% of the participants with diabetes experienced total remission. Also, significant improvements were observed with regard to physical fitness, mental distress, health-related quality of life, and weight-related body image (p < 0.05). The interaction between follow-up time and type 2 diabetes at baseline significantly predicted six of the thirteen psychological subscales (p < 0.05) and, across the follow-ups, physical fitness level made modest contributions to variations in mental symptoms and HRQOL but not weight-related body image. Conclusion. The results suggest that baseline difference in mental symptoms and physical HRQOL between diabetic and nondiabetic patients declines across follow-ups and resolves around the time of surgery. PMID:27379183

  4. The Effects of Combined Exercise on Health-Related Fitness, Endotoxin, and Immune Function of Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Mo; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Ji, Jin-Goo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of combined exercise on health-related fitness, endotoxin concentrations, and immune functions of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. 20 voluntary participants were recruited and they were randomly allocated to the combined exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio ≥0.4 based on computed tomography (CT) results. Body composition, exercise stress testing, fitness measurement, CT scan, and blood variables were analyzed to elucidate the effects of combined exercise. The SPSS Statistics 18.0 program was used to calculate means and standard deviations for all variables. Significant differences between the exercise group and control group were determined with 2-way ANOVA and paired t-tests. The exercise group's abdominal obesity was mitigated due to visceral fat reduction; grip strength, push-ups, and oxygen uptake per weight improved; and HDL-C and IgA level also increased, while TNF-α, CD14, and endotoxin levels decreased. Lowered TNF-α after exercise might have an important role in the obesity reduction. Therefore, we can conclude that combined exercise is effective in mitigating abdominal obesity, preventing metabolic diseases, and enhancing immune function. PMID:26075288

  5. The Alberta moving beyond breast cancer (AMBER) cohort study: a prospective study of physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited research has examined the association between physical activity, health-related fitness, and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. Here, we present the rationale and design of the Alberta Moving Beyond Breast Cancer (AMBER) Study, a prospective cohort study designed specifically to examine the role of physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivorship from the time of diagnosis and for the balance of life. The AMBER Study will examine the role of physical activity and health-related fitness in facilitating treatment completion, alleviating treatment side effects, hastening recovery after treatments, improving long term quality of life, and reducing the risks of disease recurrence, other chronic diseases, and premature death. Methods/Design The AMBER Study will enroll 1500 newly diagnosed, incident, stage I-IIIc breast cancer survivors in Alberta, Canada over a 5 year period. Assessments will be made at baseline (within 90 days of surgery), 1 year, and 3 years consisting of objective and self-reported measurements of physical activity, health-related fitness, blood collection, lymphedema, patient-reported outcomes, and determinants of physical activity. A final assessment at 5 years will measure patient-reported data only. The cohort members will be followed for an additional 5 years for disease outcomes. Discussion The AMBER cohort will answer key questions related to physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivors including: (1) the independent and interactive associations of physical activity and health-related fitness with disease outcomes (e.g., recurrence, breast cancer-specific mortality, overall survival), treatment completion rates, symptoms and side effects (e.g., pain, lymphedema, fatigue, neuropathy), quality of life, and psychosocial functioning (e.g., anxiety, depression, self-esteem, happiness), (2) the determinants of physical activity and health-related fitness

  6. Brain Health Fitness: Beyond Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anand, Raksha; Chapman, Sandra B.; Rackley, Audette; Zientz, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The greatest accomplishment of the 20th century--the doubling of the human lifespan--has brought issues related to brain health to the forefront of public health policy. Given that our bodies are outlasting our minds, maximizing brain health is the scientific cause of this millennium. In this paper, we address three major issues related to…

  7. Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jonathan P. W.; Rienzi, Edgardo G.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in populations at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Purpose To examine the association between objectively measured CRF and physical and mental components of HRQoL in a Uruguayan cohort at risk for developing CVD. Methods Patient data records from 2002–2012 at the Calidad de Vida Center were examined. To assess CRF, participants performed a submaximal exercise test. During the evaluation, participants also completed the SF-36, a HRQoL measure comprised of eight dimensions that are summarized by physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS, respectively). ANCOVA was used to examine the relationship between HRQoL dimensions and CRF. Logistic regression was then used to compare the odds of having a HRQoL component score above the norm across CRF. All analyses were performed separately for males and females with additional stratified analyses across age and BMI conducted among significant trends. Results A total of 2,302 subjects were included in the analysis. Among females, a significant relationship was observed between CRF and vitality, physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, and general health dimensions. However, for males the only dimension found to be significantly associated with CRF was physical health. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant linear trend (p<0.001) for PCS scores above the norm across CRF levels was observed for females only. Conclusion Among females with one or more risk factors for developing CVD, higher levels of CRF were positively associated with the vitality and physical dimensions of HRQoL, as well as the overall PCS. However, among males the only dimension associated with CRF was physical functioning. Future studies should examine this relationship among populations at risk for developing CVD in more detail and over time. PMID:25901358

  8. Associations among Selected Motor Skills and Health-Related Fitness: Indirect Evidence for Seefeldt's Proficiency Barrier in Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; True, Larissa K.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Gao, Zan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study examined the notion of Seefeldt's (1980) hypothesized motor skill "proficiency barrier" related to composite levels of health-related physical fitness (HRF) in young adults. Method: A motor skill competence (MSC) index composed of maximum throwing and kicking speed and jumping distance in 187 young…

  9. Reliability and Validity of the "FITNESSGRAM"[R]: Quality of Teacher-Collected Health-Related Fitness Surveillance Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Martin, Scott B.; Jackson, Allen W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality (reliability and validity) of large-scale fitness testing in Texas and determine if reliabilities and validities were related to potential confounding variables. Four test administration scenarios were conducted to investigate the quality of data collected statewide as part of the Texas…

  10. Implementation of Health Fitness Exercise Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cundiff, David E., Ed.

    This monograph includes the following articles to aid in implementation of fitness concepts: (1) "Trends in Physical Fitness: A Personal Perspective" (H. Harrison Clarke); (2) "A Total Health-Fitness Life-Style" (Steven N. Blair); (3) "Objectives for the Nation--Physical Fitness and Exercise" (Jack H. Wilmore); (4) "A New Physical Fitness Test"…

  11. Pilot Testing a Cognitive-Behavioral Protocol on Psychosocial Predictors of Exercise, Nutrition, Weight, and Body Satisfaction Changes in a College-Level Health-Related Fitness Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Howton, Amy; Johnson, Ping H.; Porter, Kandice J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Small-scale pilot testing of supplementing a required college health-related fitness course with a cognitive-behavioral exercise-support protocol (The Coach Approach). Participants: Three classes were randomly assigned to Usual processes (n = 32), Coach Approach-supplemented: Mid-size Groups (n = 32), and Coach Approach-supplemented:…

  12. The Relationships among Fundamental Motor Skills, Health-Related Physical Fitness, and Body Fatness in South Korean Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, John T.; Harvey, Stephen; Chun, Hae-Ja; Kim, So-Yeun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the relationships among the latent constructs of fundamental motor skills (FMS), health-related physical fitness (HRF), and observed body fatness in South Korean adolescents with mental retardation (MR); (b) the indirect effect of fundamental motor skills on body fatness when mediated by…

  13. Effects of a Physical Education-Based Programme on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Its Maintenance in High School Students: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Montoro-Escaño, Jorge; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Viciana, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical education-based development and maintenance programme on objective and perceived health-related physical fitness in high school students. A sample of 111 students aged 12-14 years old from six classes were cluster-randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 54) or a control…

  14. Geographical Variation in Health-Related Physical Fitness and Body Composition among Chilean 8th Graders: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Michael D.; Sajuria, Marcelo; Lobelo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In addition to excess adiposity, low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and low musculoskeletal fitness (MSF) are important independent risk factors for future cardio-metabolic disease in adolescents, yet global fitness surveillance in adolescents is poor. The objective of this study was to describe and investigate geographical variation in levels of health-related physical fitness, including CRF, MSF, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) in Chilean 8th graders. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based, representative sample of 19,929 8th graders (median age = 14 years) in the 2011 National Physical Education Survey from Chile. CRF was assessed with the 20-meter shuttle run test, MSF with standing broad jump, and body composition with BMI and WC. Data were classified according to health-related standards. Prevalence of levels of health-related physical fitness was mapped for each of the four variables, and geographical variation was explored at the country level by region and in the Santiago Metropolitan Area by municipality. Results Girls had significantly higher prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI than boys (p<0.05). Overall, 26% of boys and 55% of girls had unhealthy CRF, 29% of boys and 35% of girls had unhealthy MSF, 29% of boys and 44% of girls had unhealthy BMI, and 31% of adolescents had unhealthy WC. High prevalence of unhealthy fitness levels concentrates in the northern and middle regions of the country and in the North and Southwest sectors for the Santiago Metropolitan Area. Conclusion Prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI is relatively high among Chilean 8th graders, especially in girls, when compared with global estimates. Identification of geographical regions and municipalities with high prevalence of unhealthy physical fitness presents opportunity for targeted intervention. PMID:25255442

  15. The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Stodden, David; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived motor competence and components of health-related physical fitness mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in 8- to 9-year-old Iranian girls. A convenience sample of 352 girls (mean age = 8.7, SD = 0.3 years) participated in the study. Actual motor competence, perceived motor competence and children's physical activity were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the physical ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, respectively. Body mass index, the 600 yard run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, and back-saver sit and reach tests assessed health-related physical fitness. Preacher & Hayes (2004) bootstrap method was used to assess the potential mediating effects of fitness and perceived competence on the direct relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity. Regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness (b = .28, 95% CI = [.21, .39]), as the only fitness measure, and perceived competence (b = .16, 95% CI = [.12, .32]) were measures that mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity with the models. Development of strategies targeting motor skill acquisition, children's self-perceptions of competence and cardiorespiratory fitness should be targeted to promote girls' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. PMID:26691581

  16. Predictors of “Liking” Three Types of Health and Fitness-Related Content on Social Media: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Alyce M; Lim, Megan SC

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescence and young adulthood are key periods for developing norms related to health behaviors and body image, and social media can influence these norms. Social media is saturated with content related to dieting, fitness, and health. Health and fitness–related social media content has received significant media attention for often containing objectifying and inaccurate health messages. Limited research has identified problematic features of such content, including stigmatizing language around weight, portraying guilt-related messages regarding food, and praising thinness. However, no research has identified who is “liking” or “following” (ie, consuming) such content. Objective This exploratory study aimed to identify demographics, mental health, and substance use–related behaviors that predicted consuming 3 types of health and fitness–related social media content—weight loss/fitness motivation pages (ie, “fitspiration”), detox/cleanse pages, and diet/fitness plan pages—among young social media users. Methods Participants (N=1001; age: median 21.06, IQR 17.64-24.64; female: 723/1001, 72.23%) completed a cross-sectional 112-question online survey aimed at social media users aged between 15-29 years residing in Victoria, Australia. Logistic regression was used to determine which characteristics predicted consuming the 3 types of health and fitness–related social media content. Results A total of 378 (37.76%) participants reported consuming at least 1 of the 3 types of health and fitness–related social media content: 308 (30.77%) fitspiration pages, 145 (14.49%) detox pages, and 235 (23.48%) diet/fitness plan pages. Of the health and fitness–related social media content consumers, 85.7% (324/378) identified as female and 44.8% (324/723) of all female participants consumed at least 1 type of health and fitness–related social media content. Predictors of consuming at least one type of health and fitness–related social media

  17. Positive Modulation Effect of 8-Week Consumption of Kaempferia parviflora on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Oxidative Status in Healthy Elderly Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Saenghong, Narisara; Thukhum-Mee, Wipawee; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2012-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness declines as the age advances. Oxidative stress is reported to contribute the crucial role on this phenomenon. This condition is also enhanced by antioxidant. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of Kaempferia parviflora, a plant reputed for antifatigue, longevity promotion, and antioxidant effects, on health-related quality physical fitness and oxidative status of the healthy elderly volunteers. Total 45 subjects had been randomized to receive placebo or K. parviflora extract at doses of 25 or 90 mg once daily for 8 weeks. They were determined baseline data of physical performance using 30 sec chair stand test, hand grip test, 6 min walk test, and tandem test. Serum oxidative stress markers including malondialdehde (MDA) level and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also assayed. All assessments were performed every 4 weeks throughout the 8-week study period. The results showed that K. parviflora increased performance in 30-second chair stand test and 6 min walk test together with the increased all scavenger enzymes activities and the decreased MDA level. Therefore, K. parviflora can enhance physical fitness partly via the decreased oxidative stress. In conclusion, K. parviflora is the potential health supplement for elderly. However, further study is required. PMID:22899957

  18. Positive Modulation Effect of 8-Week Consumption of Kaempferia parviflora on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Oxidative Status in Healthy Elderly Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Saenghong, Narisara; Thukhum-Mee, Wipawee; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2012-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness declines as the age advances. Oxidative stress is reported to contribute the crucial role on this phenomenon. This condition is also enhanced by antioxidant. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of Kaempferia parviflora, a plant reputed for antifatigue, longevity promotion, and antioxidant effects, on health-related quality physical fitness and oxidative status of the healthy elderly volunteers. Total 45 subjects had been randomized to receive placebo or K. parviflora extract at doses of 25 or 90 mg once daily for 8 weeks. They were determined baseline data of physical performance using 30 sec chair stand test, hand grip test, 6 min walk test, and tandem test. Serum oxidative stress markers including malondialdehde (MDA) level and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also assayed. All assessments were performed every 4 weeks throughout the 8-week study period. The results showed that K. parviflora increased performance in 30-second chair stand test and 6 min walk test together with the increased all scavenger enzymes activities and the decreased MDA level. Therefore, K. parviflora can enhance physical fitness partly via the decreased oxidative stress. In conclusion, K. parviflora is the potential health supplement for elderly. However, further study is required. PMID:22899957

  19. Two-year longitudinal health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality: The PAHL Study

    PubMed Central

    Toriola, Oluwatoyi O.; Toriola, Abel L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate a two-year longitudinal development of health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality, Potchefstroom, South Africa. Setting A total of 283 high-school learners (111 boys and 172 girls) of ages 14 and 15 years who were part of the ongoing Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PAHLS) participated in the study. For the purpose of the present study, data collected for 2011 and 2012 for anthropometric, body composition and health-related physical fitness were used. Results Body mass index (BMI) classification of boys and girls for 2011 and 2012 showed that 24.3% of them were underweight compared with 21% in 2012. In 2011, 50% of boys and girls had normal body weight compared with 52% in 2012, whilst 25.5% of the total group of participants were overweight compared with 27% in 2012. Both boys and girls showed significant increases of 5.9% in body fat (BF) and 3.2 kg in body weight over two years’ measurements, respectively. Regarding health-related fitness (i.e BAH), boys showed an increase of 14.8 seconds whilst girls gained 9.6 seconds. Significant decreases were found for sit-ups in both boys and girls. A significant VO2max increase of 2.9 mL/kg/min. was found in boys over the time period. A non-significant decrease of −0.5 mL/kg/min. was observed in girls. Regression coefficients showed that changes in BMI were inversely associated with those in health-related physical fitness. The changes in percentage BF were negatively associated with standing broad jump (SBJ), bent arm hang (BAH) and VO2 max in both boys and girls. A low significant positive association was found between changes in waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and SBJ in both genders, whilst inverse low associations were found between WHtR and BAH in girls and for VO2max in both genders. Conclusion Changes in BMI, %BF and WHtR were negatively associated with strength and running performances in the participating children

  20. A holistic school-based intervention for improving health-related knowledge, body composition, and fitness in elementary school students: an evaluation of the HealthMPowers program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the past 30 years, obesity in the United States has increased twofold in children and threefold in adolescents. In Georgia, nearly 17% of children aged 10 – 17 are obese. In response to the high prevalence of child obesity in Georgia and the potential deleterious consequences that this can have, HealthMPowers was founded in 1999 with the goal of preventing childhood obesity by improving health-enhancing behaviors in elementary schools, utilizing a holistic three-year program. This study measures the effectiveness of the HealthMPowers program in improving the school environment, student knowledge, behavior, cardiovascular fitness levels, and Body Mass Index (BMI). Methods The present analysis utilizes data from 40 schools that worked with HealthMPowers over the course of the 2012 – 2013 school year (including schools at each of the three years of the intervention period) and provided information on demographics, student knowledge and behaviors, BMI, performance on the PACER test of aerobic capacity, and school practices and policies (measured via school self-assessment with the HealthMPowers-developed instrument “Continuous Improvement Tracking Tool” or CITT), measured at the beginning and end of each school year. Paired two-sample T tests were used to compare continuous variables (e.g., student knowledge scores, BMI-for-age Z scores), while chi-squared tests were used to assess categorical variables (e.g., trichotomized PACER performance). Results Students across all grades and cohorts demonstrated improvements in knowledge and self-reported behaviors, with particularly significant improvements for third-graders in schools in the second year of the HealthMPowers program (p < 0.0001). Similarly, decreases were observed in BMI-for-Age Z scores for this cohort (and others) across grades and gender, with the most significant decreases for students overweight or obese at baseline (p < 0.0005). Students also showed significant increases

  1. Definitions: Health, Fitness, and Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.; Pangrazi, Robert P.; Franks, B. Don

    2000-01-01

    This paper defines a variety of fitness components, using a simple multidimensional hierarchical model that is consistent with recent definitions in the literature. It groups the definitions into two broad categories: product and process. Products refer to states of being such as physical fitness, health, and wellness. They are commonly referred…

  2. Smartphone Applications for Patients' Health and Fitness.

    PubMed

    Higgins, John P

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare providers are often looking for ways to objectively monitor and improve their patients' health and fitness, especially in between patient visits. Some insurance companies are using applications data as incentives to improve health and lower premiums. As more and more people start to use smartphones, they may provide a tool to help improve a patient's health and fitness. Specifically, fitness applications or "apps" on smartphones are programs that use data collected from a smartphone's inbuilt tools, such as the Global Positioning System, accelerometer, microphone, speaker, and camera, to measure health and fitness parameters. The apps then analyze these data and summarize them, as well as devise individualized plans based on users' goals, provide frequent feedback, personalized coaching, and additional motivation by allowing milestones to be shared on social media. This article introduces evidence that apps can better help patients reach their health and fitness goals. It then discusses what features to look for in an app, followed by an overview of popular health and fitness apps. Last, patient scenarios with app recommendations, limitations of apps, and future research are discussed. PMID:26091764

  3. The Outcomes of a 12-Week Internet Intervention Aimed at Improving Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life in Overweight Adolescents: The Young & Active Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Riiser, Kirsti; Løndal, Knut; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Misvær, Nina; Helseth, Sølvi

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity among adolescents may have consequences, with potentially lasting effects on health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Excess weight is also associated with decreases in physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. The aim of the current study was to investigate the short-term effects of a 12-week Internet intervention in a primary care setting intended to increase cardiorespiratory fitness and HRQoL among overweight and obese adolescents. Methods In this controlled trial, participants (13–15 years) were non-randomly allocated to an intervention- or a control group. The intervention group received 12-weeks access to an online program providing tailored physical activity counseling based on principles from Self-determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing. The control group received standard follow-up by the school nurses. The primary outcome measure of cardiorespiratory fitness was determined using a shuttle run test. The secondary outcomes: HRQoL, leisure time exercise, body image and self-determined motivation for physical activity and exercise, were assessed by self-report measures. Age- and gender-adjusted body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on measurements of height and weight. To compare pre-to post intervention differences within groups, a paired samples t-test was used while crude differences between groups were analyzed with an independent samples t-test. Results Of the 120 participants, 108 completed the study, 75 in the intervention group and 33 in the control group. Exposure to the intervention had a small effect on cardiorespiratory fitness (0.14; 95% CI [0.01;0.28]; P = 0.04), and a moderate effect on HRQoL (5.22; 95% CI [0.90; 9.53]; P = 0.02). Moreover, the control group increased significantly in BMI, yielding a moderate preventive effect on BMI (−0.39; 95% CI [−0.74;−0.03]; P = 0.03) for the intervention group. Conclusion The results suggest that the Internet

  4. Health related quality of life, physical fitness and physical activity participation in treatment-seeking obese persons with and without binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Herdt, Amber; Vanderlinden, Johan; Lannoo, Matthias; Soundy, Andrew; Pieters, Guido; Adriaens, An; De Hert, Marc; Probst, Michel

    2014-04-30

    This study compared the mental and physical health related quality of life (HRQL) of 40 obese persons with BED with 20 age, gender and body mass index (BMI) matched obese persons without BED and 40 age and gender matched non-obese volunteers. Variables contributing to the variability in HRQL were identified. Participants were asked to fill in the MOS 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90), the Baecke questionnaire, the bulimia subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory and the Body Attitude Test. All participants also performed a 6-minute walk test (6MWT). BED patients showed a significant impaired physical and mental HRQL compared with obese and non-obese control groups. In the BED-group female participants showed a significantly more impaired mental HRQL than male participants (40.0±21.2 versus 66.6±10.1). The distance achieved on the 6MWT (512.1±75.8m) explained 22.5% of the variability in physical HRQL in the obese BED-group while gender and the SCL-90 depression score (39.1±12.2) explained 47.1% of the variability in mental HRQL. The present findings suggest that the treatment of obese individuals with BED might benefit by giving more attention to HRQL, depressive symptoms and physical fitness. PMID:24530157

  5. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running

    PubMed Central

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (24.2%, ES = 1.20) and RUN (21.5%, ES = 1.17) than in CON (-5.0%, ES = -0.24), partly due to large changes in body mass (-5.9, -5.7 and +2.6 kg, p<0.05 for SOC, RUN and CON, respectively). Over the 12 weeks, SJ and CMJ performance increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (14.8 and 12.1%, ES = 1.08 and 0.81) than in RUN (3.3 and 3.0%, ES = 0.23 and 0.19) and CON (0.3 and 0.2%), while flexibility also increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (94%, ES = 0.97) than in RUN and CON (0–2%). In conclusion, untrained men displayed marked improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention. PMID:26305880

  6. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (24.2%, ES = 1.20) and RUN (21.5%, ES = 1.17) than in CON (-5.0%, ES = -0.24), partly due to large changes in body mass (-5.9, -5.7 and +2.6 kg, p<0.05 for SOC, RUN and CON, respectively). Over the 12 weeks, SJ and CMJ performance increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (14.8 and 12.1%, ES = 1.08 and 0.81) than in RUN (3.3 and 3.0%, ES = 0.23 and 0.19) and CON (0.3 and 0.2%), while flexibility also increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (94%, ES = 0.97) than in RUN and CON (0-2%). In conclusion, untrained men displayed marked improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention. PMID:26305880

  7. Effects of Aerobic Step Combined with Resistance Training on Biochemical Bone Markers, Health-Related Physical Fitness and Balance in Working Women.

    PubMed

    Anek, Achariya; Kanungsukasem, Vijit; Bunyaratavej, Narong

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop an aerobic step combined with resistance training exercise program, and to compare the effects of A) aerobic step exercise training (STE), B) resistance aerobic exercise training (RES), C) a combined aerobic step with resistance exercise training (COM) on the health-related fitness, balance, and biochemical bone markers. Sixty participants were working female volunteers at the age of 35-45. They were divided into 4 groups by simple random sampling method. Fifteen of the participants were in the STE group, 14 in the RES group, 15 in the COM group, and 16 in the control group (CON). The STE, RES and COM exercise training programs were designed to yield the same intensity and achieve the same range of heart rate during each stage of the program. During the training, music was used to set the tempo of the workouts. At the 8th week, it was found that resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure significantly-increased only in the STE and COM groups. After 16 weeks, the experiment results showed the significant improvement in the COM and STE groups of exercise training for β-CrossLaps, P1NP NMID Osteocalcin and bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed significantly greater change than the RES group after the training intervention (p < 0.05). It can thus be concluded that the STE and COM training were effective in improving bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x 0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed more significant change than the RES group. Therefore, this is not only a good exercise choice for the working-age people but also it can help reduce the risks of osteoporosis and falling in women in particular. PMID:26529814

  8. Just a Fad? Gamification in Health and Fitness Apps

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gamification has been a predominant focus of the health app industry in recent years. However, to our knowledge, there has yet to be a review of gamification elements in relation to health behavior constructs, or insight into the true proliferation of gamification in health apps. Objective The objective of this study was to identify the extent to which gamification is used in health apps, and analyze gamification of health and fitness apps as a potential component of influence on a consumer’s health behavior. Methods An analysis of health and fitness apps related to physical activity and diet was conducted among apps in the Apple App Store in the winter of 2014. This analysis reviewed a sample of 132 apps for the 10 effective game elements, the 6 core components of health gamification, and 13 core health behavior constructs. A regression analysis was conducted in order to measure the correlation between health behavior constructs, gamification components, and effective game elements. Results This review of the most popular apps showed widespread use of gamification principles, but low adherence to any professional guidelines or industry standard. Regression analysis showed that game elements were associated with gamification (P<.001). Behavioral theory was associated with gamification (P<.05), but not game elements, and upon further analysis gamification was only associated with composite motivational behavior scores (P<.001), and not capacity or opportunity/trigger. Conclusions This research, to our knowledge, represents the first comprehensive review of gamification use in health and fitness apps, and the potential to impact health behavior. The results show that use of gamification in health and fitness apps has become immensely popular, as evidenced by the number of apps found in the Apple App Store containing at least some components of gamification. This shows a lack of integrating important elements of behavioral theory from the app industry

  9. Physical fitness and health education program at NASA Headquarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, Cathy

    1993-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: policy procedures to enter the NASA Headquarters Physical Fitness and Health Program; eligibility; TDY eligibility; health promotions offered; and general facility management.

  10. Traditional African Dance: An Excellent Approach to Fitness and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Iola

    This paper argues that traditional African dance can develop fitness and health particularly for those interested in both health and African culture. A discussion of fitness concludes that this quality enables the body to perform physical activities with greater efficiency and that all the qualities commonly found in notions of fitness are found…

  11. Physical characteristics related to bra fit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Man; LaBat, Karen; Bye, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper body angles from a sample of 103 college women; these data were used to categorise physical characteristics into shoulder slope, bust prominence, back curvature and acromion placement. Relationships between these physical categories and bra-fit problems were then analysed. Results show that significant main effects and two-way interactions of the physical categories exist in the fit problems of poor bra support and bra-motion restriction. The findings are valuable in helping the apparel industry create better-fitting bras. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. The findings regarding body-shape classification provide researchers with a statistics method to quantify physical characteristics and the findings regarding the relationship analysis between physical characteristics and bra fit offer bra companies valuable information about bra-fit perceptions attributable to women with figure variations. PMID:20309747

  12. Health and Fitness Through Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    A synthesis of research findings in exercise and physical fitness is presented to provide the general public with insights into establishing an individualized exercise program. The material is divided into seven subtopics: (1) a general overview of the need for exercise and fitness and how it is an integral part of preventive medicine programs;…

  13. Associations between Active Commuting to School and Health-Related Physical Fitness in Spanish School-Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Villa-González, Emilio; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Chillón, Palma

    2015-09-01

    Active commuting (walking or cycling) to school has been positively associated with improved fitness among adolescents. However, current evidence lacks information on whether this association persists in children. The aim of this study was to examine the association of active commuting to school with different fitness parameters in Spanish school-aged children. A total of 494 children (229 girls) from five primary schools in Granada and Jaén (Spain), aged between eight and 11 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Assessing Levels of Physical Activity (ALPHA) fitness test battery and answered a self-reported questionnaire regarding the weekly travel mode to school. Active commuting to school was significantly associated with higher levels of speed-agility in boys (p = 0.048) and muscle strength of the lower body muscular fitness in girls (p = 0.016). However, there were no significant associations between active commuting to school and cardiorespiratory fitness and upper body muscular fitness. Our findings suggest that active commuting to school was associated with higher levels of both speed-agility and lower body muscular fitness in boys and girls, respectively. Future studies should confirm whether increasing active commuting to school increases speed-agility and muscle strength of the lower body. PMID:26322487

  14. ACSM's Health/Fitness Facility Standards and Guidelines. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, James A., Ed; Tharrett, Stephen J., Ed.

    The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) sets the industry standard for certifying professionals involved in health and fitness and their clinical applications. This 5-part publication provides a revised edition of six standards representing the industry's consensus on design and operation of a safe and high-quality health/fitness facility.…

  15. Health Activities Project (HAP): Breathing Fitness Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) learning packet are activities for children in grades 5-8. Design of the activities centers around the idea that students can control their own health and safety. Within this module are teacher and student folios describing four activities which involve students in learning how to measure their…

  16. A short history of occupational fitness and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1991-05-01

    The suggestion of a linkage between adequate exercise and occupational health dates back to Ramazzini's classical observations on cobblers and tailors. However, excessive hours of work at too high an intensity were of greater concern than increase of fitness or health promotion in the early phases of the industrial revolution. Loss of physical condition is a more recent phenomenon, and it can be traced to automation in industry and the home, progressive urbanization, and widespread use of the automobile. The Canadian government has seen worksite fitness and health promotion programs as convenient tactics to reverse this trend. Exercise programs apparently yield a healthier and more effective labor force, and major corporations have thus followed the government's lead in developing fitness and health promotional facilities as a part of personnel or occupational health departments. Some health economists have suggested a substantial return upon such investment, but most corporations still regard the promotion of fitness and a healthy lifestyle as an expression of good citizenship. Currently, unifocal fitness programs are being replaced by modular health programs that address a wide range of lifestyle issues, including nutrition, stress relaxation, cigarette addiction, and drug abuse. The purpose of the present brief review is to trace from a personal perspective the development of an interest in employee fitness as an important component of occupational health programs over the past 300 years. The linkage of this phenomenon to the changing human demands of the worksite will also be explored. PMID:1862064

  17. Evaluation of a Health and Fitness Social Media Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimming, Renee E.; Polsgrove, Myles Jay; Bower, Glenna G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: University health and fitness faculty members are continually striving to enhance the health knowledge of their students. Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to survey student reflections of a social media experience. Methods: Students were placed into one of two groups: Learners (N = 92) or Pre-Service Health and Fitness…

  18. Health, fitness, physical activity, and morbidity of middle aged male factory workers. I.

    PubMed Central

    Tuxworth, W; Nevill, A M; White, C; Jenkins, C

    1986-01-01

    A description of the fitness, physical activity of lifestyle, and some aspects of health status and attitudes in a population of male factory workers aged 35-60 is presented as the first part of a report on a study of morbidity in this population. A total of 1394 subjects were included, undergoing medical examination, fitness testing by bicycle ergometry, assessment of body fat, and interview questionnaire. The inter-relation of fitness, body composition, habitual exertion, health risk factors, and attitudes to exercise are discussed. Fitness levels are compared with those reported in other studies and discussed in terms of capacity for walking and running and in relation to criteria for health benefit. In these two latter respects fitness appears to be inadequate among the great majority of those tested, although it is comparable with that reported by several other recent studies. Fitness is associated with physical activity of leisure but not that of work. Only relatively strenuous physical activity in leisure time appears to be related to fitness, and is only participated in by some 28% of the sample. Cycling has the strongest association with fitness of all the physical activity variables. Blood pressure and percentage body fat are also associated, inversely, with fitness, the latter not unexpectedly because of the weight related measure of fitness. PMID:3790455

  19. Influence of a Medium-Impact Exercise Program on Health-Related Quality of Life and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Females with Subclinical Hypothyroidism: An Open-Label Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Garces-Arteaga, Andrea; Nieto-Garcia, Nataly; Suarez-Sanchez, Freddy; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7) years). Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain) showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P < 0.01). Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:24490101

  20. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Smoking-Related and Total Cancer Mortality in Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chong Do.; Blair, Steven N.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and smoking-related, nonsmoking-related, and total cancer mortality, following 25,892 men age 30-87 years who had a preventive medical evaluation that included a maximal exercise test and self-reported health habits. Results indicated that cardiorespiratory fitness may have provided…

  1. Leading the Fit Life: Jobs in Health Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Depicts the health club work force: fitness personnel, such as instructors, trainers, and directors, and nonfitness personnel, such as receptionists, marketers, and managers, as well as physicians and therapists. Gives information on how to acquire credentials in the field. (SK)

  2. Health and Young Children. Focus on Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, David

    2006-01-01

    How much "junk food" is too much? This question is difficult to answer, because it depends on the health and weight status of the child. If the child already has a weight problem, then this type of snack should be more restricted than for a child without weight issues. In this article, Dr. Ludwig states that, as a general rule, parents should not…

  3. Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  4. Firefighter health and fitness assessment: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Abrazado, Marlon L; Smith, Denise L; Batalin, Maxim A; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-03-01

    Sudden cardiac deaths experienced by firefighters in the line of duty account for the largest proportion of deaths annually. Several fire service standards for fitness and wellness have been recommended but currently only 30% of U.S. fire departments are implementing programs for this purpose. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate has initiated the Physiological Health Assessment System for Emergency Responders (PHASER) program aiming to reduce these line-of-duty deaths through an integration of medical science and sensor technologies. Confirming previous reports, PHASER comprehensive risk assessment has identified lack of physical fitness with propensity for overexertion as a major modifiable risk factor. We sought to determine if current levels of fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a contemporary cohort of firefighters were better than those reported over the past 30 years. Fifty-one firefighters from a Southern California department were characterized for physical fitness and CVD risk factors using standard measures. Overall, physical fitness and risk factors were not different from previous reports of firefighter fitness and most subjects did not achieve recommended fitness standards. Considering the lack of widespread implementation of wellness/fitness programs in the U.S. fire service together with our findings that low physical fitness and the presence of CVD risk factors persist, we issue a call to action among health and fitness professionals to assist the fire service in implementing programs for firefighters that improve fitness and reduce CVD risk factors. Fitness professionals should be empowered to work with fire departments lending their expertise to guide programs that achieve these objectives, which may then lead to reduced incidence of sudden cardiac death or stroke. PMID:24566608

  5. Fit To Play: Musicians' Health Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Karen B.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on preventing performance-related injuries for music students. Discusses techniques for preventing injury, such as warm-ups, information on stretching and strength training, exercises for the upper arms, torso, and for selected muscle groups. Includes illustrations for some exercises. (CMK)

  6. Skill-Related Fitness of Undergraduate Kinesiology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaniol, Frank J.; Jarrett, Lindsey M.; Ocker, Liette B.; Bonnette, Randy A.; Melrose, Don R.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the skill-related fitness levels of undergraduate kinesiology majors in relation to the general population of college students of the same age, to investigate whether a difference exists between females and males in overall performance, and to examine the relationship between fitness and kinesiology…

  7. Young Students' Knowledge and Perception of Health and Fitness: A Study in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shu Mei; Zou, Jin Liang; Gifford, Mervyn; Dalal, Koustuv

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated how young urban students conceptualize health and fitness and tried to identify their sources of information about health-related issues. The findings are intended to help make suggestions for policy makers to design and develop effective health-education strategies. Methods: Focus group discussions (FGDs) of 20…

  8. Influence of an outpatient multidisciplinary pain management program on the health-related quality of life and the physical fitness of chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Joos, Bettina; Uebelhart, Daniel; Michel, Beat A; Sprott, Haiko

    2004-01-01

    Background Approximately 10 to 20 percent of the population is suffering from chronic pain. Since this represents a major contribution to the costs of the health care system, more efficient measures and interventions to treat these patients are sought. Results The development of general health and physical activity of patients with chronic pain was assessed in an interdisciplinary outpatient pain management program (IOPP). 36 patients with an average age of 48 years were included in the IOPP. Subjective assessment of well-being was performed at five time points (baseline, post intervention and 3, 6, and 12 months thereafter) by using standardized questionnaires. The study focused on the quality of life survey Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36, which is a validated instrument with established reliability and sensitivity. In addition, the patients participated in physical assessment testing strength, power, endurance, and mobility. Prior to therapy a substantial impairment was found on different levels. Marked improvements in the psychological parameters were obtained by the end of the program. No success was achieved with regard to the physical assessments. Conclusion Although many different studies have evaluated similar programs, only few of them have attained positive results such as improvements of general quality of life or of physical strength. Often no difference from the control group could be detected only some months after the intervention. In the present study no significant persistent improvement of well-being occurred. Possible reasons are either wrong instruments, wrong selection of patients or wrong interventions. PMID:15028119

  9. Health and Fitness Evaluations for Long Duration Microgravity Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roden, Sean Kevin; Ewert, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    The current health maintenance program for ISS is adequate; however the future of medical care and research in space requires a change where crew time efficiency and autonomy are emphasized. NASA s medical personnel are currently refining their ability to monitor and provide remote health care in such a manner. The proposed plan would evaluate health and fitness of the on orbit crew to; perform on orbit operations, and readiness to return to a terrestrial environment. A two tiered approach will utilize exercise and medical equipment, as well as periodic medical conferences with the flight surgeon, to provide a quantitative and clinical picture of the crew s health and fitness. Any off nominal health and fitness issues that could arise will be evaluated by providing an "armamentarium" of devices both medical and exercise specific to the on orbit crew to use. The ability for the crew to provide autonomous health care, with decreasing earth support, will become increasingly more important for exploration missions. This new plan of health care and maintenance will allow us to, development such efforts while continuing to monitor and provide the best possible health, care and medical research through the microgravity environment on board ISS.

  10. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females

    PubMed Central

    Zmijewski, P; Krawczyk, K; Czajkowska, A; Kęska, A; Kapuściński, P; Mazurek, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE) or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME). Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n = 24 or CME; n = 24) of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week) physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p < 0.001), similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME), despite body mass not changing significantly (p = 0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME). A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p = 0.018 and p = 0.018); a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p < 0.001), but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p = 0.022). Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions. PMID

  11. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, K; Zmijewski, P; Krawczyk, K; Czajkowska, A; Kęska, A; Kapuściński, P; Mazurek, T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE) or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME). Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n = 24 or CME; n = 24) of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week) physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%-75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p < 0.001), similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME), despite body mass not changing significantly (p = 0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME). A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p = 0.018 and p = 0.018); a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p < 0.001), but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p = 0.022). Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions. PMID:27274106

  12. Aerobic fitness predicts relational memory but not item memory performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Baym, Carol L; Khan, Naiman A; Pence, Ari; Raine, Lauren B; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-11-01

    Health factors such as an active lifestyle and aerobic fitness have long been linked to decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other adverse health outcomes. Only more recently have researchers begun to investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and memory function. Based on recent findings in behavioral and cognitive neuroscience showing that the hippocampus might be especially sensitive to the effects of exercise and fitness, the current study assessed hippocampal-dependent relational memory and non-hippocampal-dependent item memory in young adults across a range of aerobic fitness levels. Aerobic fitness was assessed using a graded exercise test to measure oxygen consumption during maximal exercise (VO2max), and relational and item memory were assessed using behavioral and eye movement measures. Behavioral results indicated that aerobic fitness was positively correlated with relational memory performance but not item memory performance, suggesting that the beneficial effects of aerobic fitness selectively affect hippocampal function and not that of the surrounding medial temporal lobe cortex. Eye movement results further supported the specificity of this fitness effect to hippocampal function, in that aerobic fitness predicted disproportionate preferential viewing of previously studied relational associations but not of previously viewed items. Potential mechanisms underlying this pattern of results, including neurogenesis, are discussed. PMID:24893739

  13. Perspectives of Fitness and Health in College Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Jennifer J.; Dieser, Rodney B.

    2010-01-01

    Because many college students engage in low levels of physical activity, the current study used a qualitative framework to interview 11 college students to examine the meaning physically active college students assign to the practice of fitness and health. Students discussed the importance of healthy eating, but that it was difficult to accomplish…

  14. Guidelines for Fitness for Health Programs in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Austin.

    This publication presents approved guidelines for Texas institutions of higher and postsecondary education in the academic preparation of practitioners in the field of fitness for health. Developed in response to the rapid growth of this field, the guidelines identify and recommend the knowledge and expertise required in career preparation, and…

  15. Relative value health insurance.

    PubMed

    Korobkin, Russell

    2014-04-01

    Increases in health costs continue to outpace general inflation, and implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will exacerbate the problem by adding more Americans to the ranks of the insured. The most commonly proposed solutions--bureaucratic controls, greater patient cost sharing, and changes to physician incentives--all have substantial weaknesses. This article proposes a new paradigm for rationalizing health care expenditures called "relative value health insurance," a product that would enable consumers to purchase health insurance that covers cost-effective treatments but excludes cost-ineffective treatments. A combination of legal and informational impediments prevents private insurers from marketing this type of product today, but creative use of comparative effectiveness research, funded as a part of health care reform, could make relative value health insurance possible. Data deficits, adverse selection risks, and heterogeneous values among consumers create obstacles to shifting the health insurance system to this paradigm, but they could be overcome. PMID:24523448

  16. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health. C.H. McCloy Research Lecture: 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.

    1993-01-01

    Examines recent evidence on the relations between physical activity, physical fitness, and health, noting the possible causal nature of the associations. The article evaluates the public health burden of sedentary lifestyles in the United States and provides suggestions for increasing participation in physical activity. (SM)

  17. Exaggerated Health Benefits of Physical Fitness and Activity dueto Self-selection.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-17

    Background: The predicted health benefits of becomingphysically active or fit will be exaggerated if health outcomes causefitness and activity rather than the converse in prospective andcross-sectional epidemiological studies. Objective: Assess whether therelationships of adiposity to fitness and activity are explained byadiposity prior to exercising. Design: Cross-sectional study of physicalfitness (running speed during 10km foot race) and physical activity(weekly running distance) to current BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at thestart of running (BMIstarting) in 44,370 male and 25,252 femaleparticipants of the National Runners' Health Study. Results: BMIstartingexplained all of the association between fitness and BMIcurrent in bothsexes, but less than a third of the association between physical activityand BMIcurrent in men. In women, BMIstarting accounted for 58 percent ofthe association between BMIcurrent and activity levels. The 95thpercentile of BMIcurrent showed substantially greater declines withfitness and activity levels than the 5th percentile of BMIcurrent in men(i.e., the negative slope for 95th percentile was 2.6-fold greater thanthe 5th percentile for fitness and 3-fold greater for activity) and women(6-fold and 3.4-fold greater, respectively). At all percentiles, theregression slopes relating BMIstarting to fitness were comparable orgreater (more negative) than the slopes relating BMIcurrent to fitness,whereas the converse was true for activity. Conclusion: Self-selectionbias accounts for all of the association between fitness and adiposityand probably a portion of other health outcomes, but has less affect onassociations involving physical activity

  18. FITness for LIFEstyle.....A Professional Seminar on Employee Fitness. Proceedings of a Workshop for Health and Fitness Professionals (Gimli, Manitoba, Canada, November 6, 7, 8, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweed, W. A.; And Others

    The speeches presented in this compilation address the topic of employee fitness and are given by professionals in health management, fitness consulting, and marketing and program development. An overview of developments by the Canadian federal government in the area of employee fitness is given in the first speech. A brief history of federal…

  19. The Fitbit Fault Line: Two Proposals to Protect Health and Fitness Data at Work.

    PubMed

    Brown, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Employers are collecting and using their employees' health data, mined from wearable fitness devices and health apps, in new, profitable, and barely regulated ways. The importance of protecting employee health and fitness data will grow exponentially in the future. This is the moment for a robust discussion of how law can better protect employees from the potential misuse of their health data. While scholars have just begun to examine the problem of health data privacy, this Article contributes to the academic literature in three important ways. First, it analyzes the convergence of three trends resulting in an unprecedented growth of health-related data: the Internet of Things, the Quantified Self movement, and the Rise of Health Platforms. Second, it describes the insufficiencies of specific data privacy laws and federal agency actions in the context of protecting employee health data from employer misuse. Finally, it provides two detailed and workable solutions for remedying the current lack of protection of employee health data that will realign employer use with reasonable expectations of health and fitness privacy. The Article proceeds in four Parts. Part I describes the growth of self-monitoring apps, devices, and other sensor-enabled technology that can monitor a wide range of data related to an employee's health and fitness and the relationship of this growth to both the Quantified Self movement and the Internet of Things. Part II explains the increasing use of employee monitoring through a wide range of sensors, including wearable devices, and the potential uses of that health and fitness data. Part III explores the various regulations and agency actions that might protect employees from the potential misuse of their health and fitness data and the shortcomings of each. Part IV proposes two specific measures that would help ameliorate the ineffective legal protections that currently exist in this context. In order to improve employee notice of and control

  20. Ontological Knowledge Engine and Health Screening Data Enabled Ubiquitous Personalized Physical Fitness (UFIT)

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chuan-Jun; Chiang, Chang-Yu; Chih, Meng-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Good physical fitness generally makes the body less prone to common diseases. A personalized exercise plan that promotes a balanced approach to fitness helps promotes fitness, while inappropriate forms of exercise can have adverse consequences for health. This paper aims to develop an ontology-driven knowledge-based system for generating custom-designed exercise plans based on a user's profile and health status, incorporating international standard Health Level Seven International (HL7) data on physical fitness and health screening. The generated plan exposing Representational State Transfer (REST) style web services which can be accessed from any Internet-enabled device and deployed in cloud computing environments. To ensure the practicality of the generated exercise plans, encapsulated knowledge used as a basis for inference in the system is acquired from domain experts. The proposed Ubiquitous Exercise Plan Generation for Personalized Physical Fitness (UFIT) will not only improve health-related fitness through generating personalized exercise plans, but also aid users in avoiding inappropriate work outs. PMID:24608002

  1. Experimental measures of pathogen competition and relative fitness.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jiasui; McDonald, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    Competition among pathogen strains for limited host resources can have a profound effect on pathogen evolution. A better understanding of the principles and consequences of competition can be useful in designing more sustainable disease management strategies. The competitive ability and relative fitness of a pathogen strain are determined by its intrinsic biological properties, the resistance and heterogeneity of the corresponding host population, the population density and genetic relatedness of the competing strains, and the physical environment. Competitive ability can be inferred indirectly from fitness components, such as basic reproduction rate or transmission rate. However, pathogen strains that exhibit higher fitness components when they infect a host alone may not exhibit a competitive advantage when they co-infect the same host. The most comprehensive measures of competitive ability and relative fitness come from calculating selection coefficients in a mixed infection in a field setting. Mark-release-recapture experiments can be used to estimate fitness costs associated with unnecessary virulence and fungicide resistance. PMID:23767846

  2. Moderation of P-E Fit--Job Satisfaction Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dik, Bryan J.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2011-01-01

    Research investigating Holland's congruence hypothesis (e.g., that the degree of fit between persons and work environments predicts outcomes such as job satisfaction) has revealed a mixture of significant and nonsignificant results. The current study tested the possibility that congruence-job satisfaction relations are moderated by work centrality…

  3. Choosy Cannibals Preferentially Consume Siblings with Relatively Low Fitness Prospects.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Matthew B; McCormack, Larkin; Gadau, Alice; Martin, Ryan A

    2016-07-01

    When an individual can selfishly cannibalize a relative or altruistically set it free, the benefits of altruism will be positively associated with the relative's fitness prospects (the benefits it receives from altruism). We tested the prediction that altruism should be preferentially directed toward high-quality relatives using larvae of the New Mexican spadefoot toad (Spea multiplicata), a species in which tadpoles plastically express omnivore and carnivore ecomorphs. In a no-choice design, we presented carnivores with sibling or nonsibling omnivores varying in developmental stage, which is positively associated with survival in this toad's ephemeral larval environment. There was a significant interaction between relatedness and developmental stage on the probability of cannibalism: carnivores were overall more likely to cannibalize less developed omnivores, but this effect was exaggerated when the potential victim was a sibling. This evidence that altruists favor relatives with high fitness prospects highlights the numerous factors shaping altruism's payoffs. PMID:27322127

  4. Linear/Nonlinear Relations of Activity and Fitness with Children’s Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, David M.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Lee, Jaehoon; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    A growing research base suggests the benefits of physical activity (PA) and aerobic fitness for children extend beyond overall health/well-being to include academic achievement (AA). The majority of research studies on relations of PA and fitness with AA have utilized linear-only analytic approaches, thereby precluding the possibility that PA and fitness could have a differing impact on AA for those more/less active or fit. Objective Evaluate both linear and non-linear associations of PA and aerobic fitness with children’s AA among a sample of 687 2nd and 3rd grade students from 17 Midwest schools. Study Design Using baseline data (fall 2011) from a larger 3-year intervention trial, multi-level regression analyses examined the linear and non-linear associations of AA with PA and with PACER laps (i.e., aerobic fitness), controlling for relevant covariates. Results Fitness, but not PA, had a significant quadratic association with both spelling and math achievement. Results indicate that 22–28 laps on the PACER was the point at which the associated increase in achievement per lap plateaued for spelling and math. Conclusions Increasing fitness could potentially have the greatest impact on children’s AA for those below the 50th fitness percentile on the PACER. PMID:24781896

  5. Group Counseling: Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Johnnie

    1979-01-01

    Diabetes and sickle cell anemia (SCA) are two health-related characteristics that distinguish young people from their peers. This article outlines the problems of children with diabetes and SCA and presents the goals and format for group counseling of these populations and their parents. (Author/BEF)

  6. Bringing Health and Fitness Data Together for Connected Health Care: Mobile Apps as Enablers of Interoperability

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background A transformation is underway regarding how we deal with our health. Mobile devices make it possible to have continuous access to personal health information. Wearable devices, such as Fitbit and Apple’s smartwatch, can collect data continuously and provide insights into our health and fitness. However, lack of interoperability and the presence of data silos prevent users and health professionals from getting an integrated view of health and fitness data. To provide better health outcomes, a complete picture is needed which combines informal health and fitness data collected by the user together with official health records collected by health professionals. Mobile apps are well positioned to play an important role in the aggregation since they can tap into these official and informal health and data silos. Objective The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a mobile app can be used to aggregate health and fitness data and can enable interoperability. It discusses various technical interoperability challenges encountered while integrating data into one place. Methods For 8 years, we have worked with third-party partners, including wearable device manufacturers, electronic health record providers, and app developers, to connect an Android app to their (wearable) devices, back-end servers, and systems. Results The result of this research is a health and fitness app called myFitnessCompanion, which enables users to aggregate their data in one place. Over 6000 users use the app worldwide to aggregate their health and fitness data. It demonstrates that mobile apps can be used to enable interoperability. Challenges encountered in the research process included the different wireless protocols and standards used to communicate with wireless devices, the diversity of security and authorization protocols used to be able to exchange data with servers, and lack of standards usage, such as Health Level Seven, for medical information exchange. Conclusions By

  7. Fluctuation Relations of Fitness and Information in Population Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.; Sughiyama, Yuki

    2015-12-01

    Phenotype switching with and without sensing environment is a common strategy of organisms to survive in a fluctuating environment. Understanding the evolutionary advantages of switching and sensing requires a quantitative evaluation of their fitness gain and its fluctuation together with the conditions for the switching and sensing strategies being adapted to a given environment. In this work, by using a pathwise formulation of the population dynamics, we show that the optimal switching strategy is characterized by a consistency condition for time-forward and backward path probabilities. The formulation also clarifies the underlying information-theoretic aspect of selection as a passive information compression. The loss of fitness by a suboptimal strategy is also shown to satisfy a fluctuation relation, which provides us with the information on how environmental fluctuation impacts the advantages of the optimal strategy. These results are naturally extended to the situation that organisms can use an environmental signal by actively sensing the environment. The fluctuation relations of the fitness gain by sensing are derived in which the multivariate mutual information among the phenotype, the environment, and the signal plays the role to quantify the relevant information in the signal for the fitness gain.

  8. Fruit consumption, fitness, and cardiovascular health in female adolescents: the Penn State Young Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, T; Chinchilli, V M; Rollings, N; Kieselhorst, K; Tregea, D F; Henderson, N A; Sinoway, L I

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the relations among nutrient intake, fitness, serum antioxidants, and cardiolipoprotein profiles in female adolescents. The study design was a cross-sectional analysis of the Penn State Young Women's Health Study. The present study was performed with the entire cohort (n = 86) when they were 17.1+/-0.5 y (x+/-SD) of age. Primary measurements included cardiolipoprotein indexes, serum antioxidants, nutrient intakes, aerobic fitness, and percentage body fat. The cohort was stratified by estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) measurements and by percentage body fat. The fifth quintile by estimated VO2max had significantly lower percentage body fat, higher athletic scores, higher fruit intake, lower total serum cholesterol, and lower ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL cholesterol than members of the first quintile. When the members of the first and fifth quintiles by percentage body fat were compared, the first quintile had significantly lower weight, lower body mass index, higher estimated VO2max, higher athletic scores, lower ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, and higher fruit, carbohydrate, and fiber intakes. Correlation analyses performed with the data for the entire cohort showed fruit consumption to be positively correlated with estimated VO2max, and predicted VO2max to be positively correlated with circulating beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol. This study provided evidence that the positive associations of exercise and fruit consumption with cardiovascular health apply to female adolescents as well as to adults. PMID:9537609

  9. Biological mechanisms underlying the role of physical fitness in health and resilience

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Marni N.; Deuster, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical fitness, achieved through regular exercise and/or spontaneous physical activity, confers resilience by inducing positive psychological and physiological benefits, blunting stress reactivity, protecting against potentially adverse behavioural and metabolic consequences of stressful events and preventing many chronic diseases. In this review, we discuss the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical fitness on mental and physical health. Physical fitness appears to buffer against stress-related disease owing to its blunting/optimizing effects on hormonal stress responsive systems, such as the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system. This blunting appears to contribute to reduced emotional, physiological and metabolic reactivity as well as increased positive mood and well-being. Another mechanism whereby regular exercise and/or physical fitness may confer resilience is through minimizing excessive inflammation. Chronic psychological stress, physical inactivity and abdominal adiposity have been associated with persistent, systemic, low-grade inflammation and exert adverse effects on mental and physical health. The anti-inflammatory effects of regular exercise/activity can promote behavioural and metabolic resilience, and protect against various chronic diseases associated with systemic inflammation. Moreover, exercise may benefit the brain by enhancing growth factor expression and neural plasticity, thereby contributing to improved mood and cognition. In summary, the mechanisms whereby physical fitness promotes increased resilience and well-being and positive psychological and physical health are diverse and complex. PMID:25285199

  10. Children's Perceptions of Fitness Self-Testing, the Purpose of Fitness Testing, and Personal Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graser, Susan Vincent; Sampson, Barbara B.; Pennington, Todd R.; Prusak, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    Flohr and Williams (1997) emphasized the importance of assessing students' attitudes about fitness testing as it contributes to effective, positive, and motivating physical education (PE) classes. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify fifth and sixth graders' perceptions of fitness testing using FITNESSGRAM in a self-testing…

  11. When the model fits the frame: the impact of regulatory fit on efficacy appraisal and persuasion in health communication.

    PubMed

    Bosone, Lucia; Martinez, Frédéric; Kalampalikis, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    In health-promotional campaigns, positive and negative role models can be deployed to illustrate the benefits or costs of certain behaviors. The main purpose of this article is to investigate why, how, and when exposure to role models strengthens the persuasiveness of a message, according to regulatory fit theory. We argue that exposure to a positive versus a negative model activates individuals' goals toward promotion rather than prevention. By means of two experiments, we demonstrate that high levels of persuasion occur when a message advertising healthy dietary habits offers a regulatory fit between its framing and the described role model. Our data also establish that the effects of such internal regulatory fit by vicarious experience depend on individuals' perceptions of response-efficacy and self-efficacy. Our findings constitute a significant theoretical complement to previous research on regulatory fit and contain valuable practical implications for health-promotional campaigns. PMID:25680684

  12. Plant fitness assessment for wild relatives of insect resistant crops.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Deborah K; Hagen, Joy A

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessments of new insect-resistant crops will need to estimate the potential for increased weediness of wild crop relatives as a consequence of gene flow. When field experiments are precluded by containment concerns, simulation experiments can identify hazards or measure expected differences between GMOs and parental plants. To measure plant fitness consequences of wild plant protection from Bt-susceptible herbivores, we used topical sprays of bacterial Bacillus thuringiensis larvacide (Bt) on Brassica rapa. Spontaneous crosses between B. rapa and Bt cole crops cannot be precluded, especially if adoption of Bt varieties leads to high exposure. We compared survivorship and seed output of B. rapa that were either protected from or exposed to Bt-susceptible Lepidoptera in the various conditions where hybrids are likely to occur: cultivated (disked) soil, uncultivated agricultural field margins, and nearby non-crop habitats (meadows and ruderal areas). The relative effect of herbivore protection varied among years, habitats, and populations of seedlings. In 2003-2004, Bt sprays did not result in lower herbivory on B. rapa, and plant fitness was not increased. However, in 2004-2006 B. rapa seedlings protected from Bt-susceptible herbivores lived 25% longer, on average, than those that were exposed to these herbivores. In addition, an average B. rapa seedling sprayed with Bt throughout its lifetime was twice as likely to produce siliques and had 251% of the seed output of a seedling exposed to herbivores. The fitness advantage of Bt-based plant protection was apparent in 2004-2005 in half the plants that experienced higher herbivory, and for 2005-2006, was more pronounced in agricultural habitats than in meadows with established, perennial vegetation and less disturbance. Positive effects of Bt-based plant protection and greater fitness in disturbed habitats suggest that crop-wild gene flow may benefit weed populations, and that field tests with herbivore exclusion

  13. Integrated, Articulated Fitness and Health Curriculum and Methods of Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Physical Education programs have monitored physical fitness and sport skills since the 1950's when the President's Council on Physical Fitness was formed. Unfortunately we have seen two divergent paths, the first is a dramatic decline in physical activity time often accompanied by a decline in fitness, and an equally dramatic increase in…

  14. Effects of recreational soccer on physical fitness and health indices in sedentary healthy and unhealthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hammami, A; Chamari, K; Slimani, M; Shephard, R J; Yousfi, N; Tabka, Z; Bouhlel, E

    2016-06-01

    Recreational soccer (RS) is becoming a popular alternative to the classical continuous exercise mode used for the improvement of cardiovascular and metabolic fitness in untrained people. The objective of this paper was to conduct a detailed systematic review of the literature, identifying the physiological responses to RS and the training effects of RS on aerobic fitness and health in untrained healthy individuals and clinical patients. PubMed, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases were searched using terms related to recreational soccer. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCT) that assessed acute physiological responses to RS or the training effects of RS on physical fitness and health in sedentary, untrained subjects of any age or health status. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria; seven examined the acute response to RS, and 28 assessed training effects. Clear evidence was found that RS had positive effects on many health-related indices and variables, including VO2max (gains of 7-16%), blood pressure (reductions of 6-13 mmHg), body composition (decreased fat mass and improved indices of bone health), and metabolic and cardiac function. These positive effects were observed in both healthy individuals and clinical patients, irrespective of age or sex. Although this review provides clear evidence of the positive effects of RS on health, most studies had limitations of methodology (an average PEDro score < 6). Furthermore, many of the training studies were from a small number of research groups. Future studies should be extended to other countries and institutions to ensure generality of the results. Regular RS training leads to significant cardiovascular and muscular adaptations and gains of health both in sedentary individuals and clinical patients at all ages, suggesting that RS is a potentially highly motivational method to enhance population health

  15. Effects of recreational soccer on physical fitness and health indices in sedentary healthy and unhealthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chamari, K; Slimani, M; Shephard, RJ; Yousfi, N; Tabka, Z; Bouhlel, E

    2016-01-01

    Recreational soccer (RS) is becoming a popular alternative to the classical continuous exercise mode used for the improvement of cardiovascular and metabolic fitness in untrained people. The objective of this paper was to conduct a detailed systematic review of the literature, identifying the physiological responses to RS and the training effects of RS on aerobic fitness and health in untrained healthy individuals and clinical patients. PubMed, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases were searched using terms related to recreational soccer. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCT) that assessed acute physiological responses to RS or the training effects of RS on physical fitness and health in sedentary, untrained subjects of any age or health status. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria; seven examined the acute response to RS, and 28 assessed training effects. Clear evidence was found that RS had positive effects on many health-related indices and variables, including VO2max (gains of 7-16%), blood pressure (reductions of 6-13 mmHg), body composition (decreased fat mass and improved indices of bone health), and metabolic and cardiac function. These positive effects were observed in both healthy individuals and clinical patients, irrespective of age or sex. Although this review provides clear evidence of the positive effects of RS on health, most studies had limitations of methodology (an average PEDro score < 6). Furthermore, many of the training studies were from a small number of research groups. Future studies should be extended to other countries and institutions to ensure generality of the results. Regular RS training leads to significant cardiovascular and muscular adaptations and gains of health both in sedentary individuals and clinical patients at all ages, suggesting that RS is a potentially highly motivational method to enhance population health

  16. There’s an App for That: Content Analysis of Paid Health and Fitness Apps

    PubMed Central

    Hall, P. Cougar; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe; Barrett, James

    2012-01-01

    Background The introduction of Apple’s iPhone provided a platform for developers to design third-party apps, which greatly expanded the functionality and utility of mobile devices for public health. Objective This study provides an overview of the developers’ written descriptions of health and fitness apps and appraises each app’s potential for influencing behavior change. Methods Data for this study came from a content analysis of health and fitness app descriptions available on iTunes during February 2011. The Health Education Curriculum Analysis Tool (HECAT) and the Precede-Proceed Model (PPM) were used as frameworks to guide the coding of 3336 paid apps. Results Compared to apps with a cost less than US $0.99, apps exceeding US $0.99 were more likely to be scored as intending to promote health or prevent disease (92.55%, 1925/3336 vs 83.59%, 1411/3336; P<.001), to be credible or trustworthy (91.11%, 1895/3336 vs 86.14%, 1454/3349; P<.001), and more likely to be used personally or recommended to a health care client (72.93%, 1517/2644 vs 66.77%, 1127/2644; P<.001). Apps related to healthy eating, physical activity, and personal health and wellness were more common than apps for substance abuse, mental and emotional health, violence prevention and safety, and sexual and reproductive health. Reinforcing apps were less common than predisposing and enabling apps. Only 1.86% (62/3336) of apps included all 3 factors (ie, predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing). Conclusions Development efforts could target public health behaviors for which few apps currently exist. Furthermore, practitioners should be cautious when promoting the use of apps as it appears most provide health-related information (predisposing) or make attempts at enabling behavior, with almost none including all theoretical factors recommended for behavior change. PMID:22584372

  17. Associations of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in Spanish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Moledo, Carmen; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Mora, Jesús; Castro-Piñero, José

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in 690 (n = 322 girls) Spanish children and adolescents (6-17.9 years old). Lower body muscular strength was assessed with the standing long jump test, and upper-body muscular strength was assessed with the throw basketball test. A muscular fitness index was computed by means of standardized measures of both tests. Psychosocial positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors were self-reported using the items of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire. Psychological positive health indicators included the following: perceived health status, life satisfaction, quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, and academic performance. We computed a health complaints index from 8 registered symptoms: headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties getting to sleep, and feeling dizzy. The health risk behavior indicators studied included tobacco use, alcohol use, and getting drunk. Children and adolescents with low muscular fitness (below the mean) had a higher odds ratio (OR) of reporting fair (vs. excellent) perceived health status, low life satisfaction (vs. very happy), low quality of family relationships (vs. very good), and low academic performance (vs. very good). Likewise, children and adolescents having low muscular fitness had a significantly higher OR of reporting smoking tobacco sometimes (vs. never), drinking alcohol sometimes (vs. never), and getting drunk sometimes (vs. never). The results of this study suggest a link between muscular fitness and psychological positive health and health risk behavior indicators in children and adolescents. PMID:22158258

  18. The Relative Importance of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to extend Michalos' [Social indicators research and health-related quality of life (QoL) research. "Social Indicators Research," 65, 27-72, 2004] discussion on bridging social indicators research and health-related QoL (HRQoL) research through an examination of (1) the relative importance of satisfaction with one's own health to…

  19. A University Faculty and Staff Health Fitness Program, University of Montevallo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tishler, J. Ward

    The effects of a health fitness program for college faculty and staff were studied at the University of Montevallo. The program covered physical fitness, assessment, prescription, training, and health education concerning nutrition and stress management. Six male and three female faculty members and staff participated in the 28-week health fitness…

  20. Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: How Integrative Medicine Fits.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ather; Katz, David L

    2015-11-01

    As a discipline, preventive medicine has traditionally been described to encompass primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. The fields of preventive medicine and public health share the objectives of promoting general health, preventing disease, and applying epidemiologic techniques to these goals. This paper discusses a conceptual approach between the overlap and potential synergies of integrative medicine principles and practices with preventive medicine in the context of these levels of prevention, acknowledging the relative deficiency of research on the effectiveness of practice-based integrative care. One goal of integrative medicine is to make the widest array of appropriate options available to patients, ultimately blurring the boundaries between conventional and complementary medicine. Both disciplines should be subject to rigorous scientific inquiry so that interventions that are efficacious and effective are systematically distinguished from those that are not. Furthermore, principles of preventive medicine can be infused into prevalent practices in complementary and integrative medicine, promoting public health in the context of more responsible practices. The case is made that an integrative preventive approach involves the responsible use of science with responsiveness to the needs of patients that persist when conclusive data are exhausted, providing a framework to make clinical decisions among integrative therapies. PMID:26477898

  1. CrossFit-related cervical internal carotid artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Lu, Albert; Shen, Peter; Lee, Paul; Dahlin, Brian; Waldau, Ben; Nidecker, Anna E; Nundkumar, Anoop; Bobinski, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    CrossFit is a high-intensity strength and conditioning program that has gained popularity over the past decade. Potential injuries associated with CrossFit training have been suggested in past reports. We report three cases of cervical carotid dissection that are associated with CrossFit workouts. Patient 1 suffered a distal cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection near the skull base and a small infarct in Wernicke's area. He was placed on anticoagulation and on follow-up has near complete recovery. Patient 2 suffered a proximal cervical ICA dissection that led to arterial occlusion and recurrent middle cerebral artery territory infarcts and significant neurological sequelae. Patient 3 had a skull base ICA dissection that led to a partial Horner's syndrome but no cerebral infarct. While direct causality cannot be proven, intense CrossFit workouts may have led to the ICA dissections in these patients. PMID:25917634

  2. Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health Annual Report to the Michigan Department of Public Health, December 29, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Health, Lansing. Council on Physical Fitness & Health.

    The projects which the Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health undertook in 1978 are reported and described here. The projects and activities include: a school physical fitness program that provided assistance to public, private, and parochial schools in monitoring the physical fitness levels of all students in grades kindergarten through…

  3. Could Sport Specialization Influence Fitness and Health of Adults with Mental Retardation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guidetti, Laura; Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Baldari, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Although several studies showed the positive effects of exercise and physical activity on health and well-being for individuals with ID, there is a lack of information about the influence of sport specialization on fitness and health components. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess: (a) physical fitness of athletes with intellectual…

  4. Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: a powerful marker of health.

    PubMed

    Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R; Castillo, M J; Sjöström, M

    2008-01-01

    This review aims to summarize the latest developments with regard to physical fitness and several health outcomes in young people. The literature reviewed suggests that (1) cardiorespiratory fitness levels are associated with total and abdominal adiposity; (2) both cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness are shown to be associated with established and emerging cardiovascular disease risk factors; (3) improvements in muscular fitness and speed/agility, rather than cardiorespiratory fitness, seem to have a positive effect on skeletal health; (4) both cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness enhancements are recommended in pediatric cancer patients/survivors in order to attenuate fatigue and improve their quality of life; and (5) improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness have positive effects on depression, anxiety, mood status and self-esteem, and seem also to be associated with a higher academic performance. In conclusion, health promotion policies and physical activity programs should be designed to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, but also two other physical fitness components such us muscular fitness and speed/agility. Schools may play an important role by identifying children with low physical fitness and by promoting positive health behaviors such as encouraging children to be active, with special emphasis on the intensity of the activity. PMID:18043605

  5. Effect of a primary health-care-based controlled trial for cardiorespiratory fitness in refugee women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Refugee women have a high risk of coronary heart disease with low physical activity as one possible mediator. Furthermore, cultural and environmental barriers to increasing physical activity have been demonstrated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of an approximate 6-month primary health care- and community-based exercise intervention versus an individual written prescription for exercise on objectively assessed cardiorespiratory fitness in low-active refugee women. Methods A controlled clinical trial, named "Support for Increased Physical Activity", was executed among 243 refugee women recruited between November 2006 and April 2008 from two deprived geographic areas in southern Stockholm, Sweden. One geographic area provided the intervention group and the other area the control group. The control group was on a higher activity level at both baseline and follow-up, which was taken into consideration in the analysis by applying statistical models that accounted for this. Relative aerobic capacity and fitness level were assessed as the two main outcome measures. Results The intervention group increased their relative aerobic capacity and the percentage with an acceptable fitness level (relative aerobic capacity > 23 O2ml·kg·min-1) to a greater extent than the control group between baseline and the 6-month follow-up, after adjusting for possible confounders (P = 0.020). Conclusions A combined primary health-care and community-based exercise programme (involving non-profit organizations) can be an effective strategy to increase cardiorespiratory fitness among low-active refugee women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00747942 PMID:20678219

  6. The health-enhancing efficacy of Zumba® fitness: An 8-week randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Domene, Pablo A; Moir, Hannah J; Pummell, Elizabeth; Knox, Allan; Easton, Chris

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a holistic understanding of the efficacy of Zumba® fitness in a community-recruited cohort of overweight and physically inactive women by evaluating (i) its physiological effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory biomarkers and (ii) its mental health-enhancing effects on factors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Participants were randomly assigned to either engagement in one to two 1 h classes of Zumba® fitness weekly (intervention group; n = 10) or maintenance of habitual activity (control group; n = 10). Laboratory assessments were conducted pre- (week 0) and post-intervention (week 8) with anthropometric, physiological, inflammatory and HRQoL data collected. In the intervention group, maximal oxygen uptake significantly increased (P < 0.05; partial η(2) = 0.56) by 3.1 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1), per cent body fat significantly decreased (P < 0.05; partial η(2) = 0.42) by -1.2%, and interleukin-6 and white blood cell (WBC) count both significantly decreased (P < 0.01) by -0.4 pg · mL(-1) (partial η(2) = 0.96) and -2.1 × 10(9) cells · L(-1) (partial η(2) = 0.87), respectively. Large magnitude enhancements were observed in the HRQoL factors of physical functioning, general health, energy/fatigue and emotional well-being. When interpreted in a community-based physical activity and psychosocial health promotion context, our data suggest that Zumba® fitness is indeed an efficacious health-enhancing activity for adults. PMID:26571136

  7. Accumulating Brisk Walking for Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk, and Psychological Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne

    2002-01-01

    Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective…

  8. Physical Fitness: The Pathway to Healthful Living. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockey, Robert V.

    This text is designed for university-level foundations of physical education courses that incorporate student participation in alternate lecture and laboratory sessions. The material is presented so that each individual might evaluate his present level of physical fitness, might carefully consider all the information available, and then make an…

  9. Physical fitness in relation to transport to school in adolescents: the Danish youth and sports study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, L B; Lawlor, D A; Cooper, A R; Froberg, K; Anderssen, S A

    2009-06-01

    In many Western countries, there are concerns about declining levels of physical activity in school-aged children. Active transport is one way to increase physical activity in children, but few studies have evaluated whether active transport in school-aged children and adolescents has beneficial effects on fitness and, if so, whether different modes of transport affect different aspects of fitness. In this study, we examined the association of active transport with different aspects of fitness in a representative Danish sample of 545 boys and 704 girls, 15-19 years of age. Physical fitness was assessed through a number of field tests, including a maximal cycle test, dynamic and static strength in different muscle groups, muscle endurance, flexibility and agility. Transport to school was reported as the mode of transport. Almost two-thirds of the population cycled to school. Cyclists had higher aerobic power than both walkers and passive travelers (4.6-5.9%). Isometric muscle endurance (10-16%), dynamic muscle endurance in the abdominal muscles (10%) and flexibility (6%) were also higher in cyclists compared with walkers and passive travelers. Mode of travel was not related to leisure-time sports participation. Our findings suggest that commuter bicycling may be a way to improve health in adolescents. PMID:18492054

  10. Body Composition, Fitness Status, and Health Behaviors Upon Entering College: An Examination of Female College Students From Diverse Populations

    PubMed Central

    Price, Amanda A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.; Kraus, Caroline L.; McKenzie, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Although poor health-related behaviors that impact development of chronic diseases begin much earlier than when actual disease is evident, few studies have examined health behaviors in college students, who may be at an important transitional period where early intervention could prevent development of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine health-related factors in female college students (N = 61) by race/ethnicity and weight status. We found significant differences in health profiles between non-Hispanic White (White) and African American students, including greater physical fitness and healthier diets among White students. Overweight/obese students had worse health profiles than healthy BMI students. Furthermore, weight status was significantly associated with cardiovascular fitness. This supports a focus on PA promotion for interventions in the period of emerging adulthood, alongside the other healthy behaviors, to elicit improvements in weight status and potential reduction of chronic disease risks. PMID:27279760

  11. Relative and Absolute Fit Evaluation in Cognitive Diagnosis Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jinsong; de la Torre, Jimmy; Zhang, Zao

    2013-01-01

    As with any psychometric models, the validity of inferences from cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) determines the extent to which these models can be useful. For inferences from CDMs to be valid, it is crucial that the fit of the model to the data is ascertained. Based on a simulation study, this study investigated the sensitivity of various fit…

  12. Aerobic exercise and endurance: improving fitness for health benefits.

    PubMed

    Wilmore, Jack H

    2003-05-01

    Clinicians who understand how the body responds to exercise, how aerobic training improves cardiovascular fitness, and the benefits and principles of prescribing aerobic exercise can effectively encourage patients to become active and optimize programs for those already active. Patients who are active at an early age and who continue to enjoy active lifestyles as adults will attenuate the normal losses in cardiovascular endurance, strength, and flexibility that accompany aging and sedentary living, thereby maintaining greater independence throughout their life spans. PMID:20086470

  13. Reducing Health Disparities: The Perfect Fit for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buki, Lydia P.

    2007-01-01

    This reaction to the Major Contribution presents a conceptualization of health disparities as another form of oppression of marginalized populations in our society. Consistent with this view, health disparities are then situated within a larger, national context, showing that counseling psychologists' involvement is an integral part of a…

  14. Service Learning and Community Health Nursing: A Natural Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Marilyn P.; Swanson, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Community health nursing students performed community assessments and proposed and implemented service learning projects that addressed adolescent smoking in middle schools, home safety for elderly persons, industrial worker health, and sexual abuse of teenaged girls. Students learned to apply epidemiological research methods, mobilize resources,…

  15. This Good-Health Regimen Keeps Employes Fit--And School Budgets Trim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collingwood, Thomas R.

    1984-01-01

    The Dallas Independent School District's staff stress reduction and health awareness program is described. The program features medical screening, fitness assessment, goal setting, exercise and nutrition prescriptions, health education, exercise classes, motivation, and feedback. Benefits reported include significantly improved health and attitude…

  16. Classification of Health Related Applications.

    PubMed

    Höhn, Matthias; von Jan, Ute; Framke, Theodor; Albrecht, Urs-Vito

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a large number of health related apps available in the stores of the major mobile platforms, the stores do not really offer clear definitions of what health related apps are and how they can be categorized. A similar picture is found in literature. Here, many proposals covering different app related aspects have been published, but often, these only cover a narrow field. There is no common terminology describing what health apps are and neither is there a common classification. In order to alleviate the situation, we developed a proposal for categorization that can be used as a basis for discussing aspects related to health applications and for describing the unclear situation on the market. In this paper, the function related aspects are covered, although the scheme itself covers many other aspects related to users of health apps, technical aspects and so on. This initial classification was applied to a sample of health apps available for iOS and Android. PMID:27350487

  17. A school-based intervention incorporating smartphone technology to improve health-related fitness among adolescents: rationale and study protocol for the NEAT and ATLAS 2.0 cluster randomised controlled trial and dissemination study

    PubMed Central

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Peralta, Louisa R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Salmon, Jo; Eather, Narelle; Dewar, Deborah L; Kennedy, Sarah; Lonsdale, Chris; Hilland, Toni A; Estabrooks, Paul; Finn, Tara L; Pollock, Emma; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity has been described as a global pandemic. Interventions aimed at developing skills in lifelong physical activities may provide the foundation for an active lifestyle into adulthood. In general, school-based physical activity interventions targeting adolescents have produced modest results and few have been designed to be ‘scaled-up’ and disseminated. This study aims to: (1) assess the effectiveness of two physical activity promotion programmes (ie, NEAT and ATLAS) that have been modified for scalability; and (2) evaluate the dissemination of these programmes throughout government funded secondary schools. Methods and analysis The study will be conducted in two phases. In the first phase (cluster randomised controlled trial), 16 schools will be randomly allocated to the intervention or a usual care control condition. In the second phase, the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (Re-AIM) framework will be used to guide the design and evaluation of programme dissemination throughout New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In both phases, teachers will be trained to deliver the NEAT and ATLAS programmes, which will include: (1) interactive student seminars; (2) structured physical activity programmes; (3) lunch-time fitness sessions; and (4) web-based smartphone apps. In the cluster RCT, study outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6 months (primary end point) and 12-months. Muscular fitness will be the primary outcome and secondary outcomes will include: objectively measured body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, resistance training skill competency, physical activity, self-reported recreational screen-time, sleep, sugar-sweetened beverage and junk food snack consumption, self-esteem and well-being. Ethics and dissemination This study has received approval from the University of Newcastle (H-2014-0312) and the NSW Department of Education (SERAP: 2012121) human research ethics committees. This

  18. Sport, Health, Fitness and Dance. AAHPER Research Consortium Symposium Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B., Ed.

    This collection of symposium papers provides current synthesis of research in the field of physical education and health. In this volume the physiological aspects of physical activities are discussed. The effects of chronic heavy physical training in swimming are examined, comparing age groups and males and females. Stress factors are also…

  19. Estrogen-related receptor-α coordinates transcriptional programs essential for exercise tolerance and muscle fitness.

    PubMed

    Perry, Marie-Claude; Dufour, Catherine R; Tam, Ingrid S; B'chir, Wafa; Giguère, Vincent

    2014-12-01

    Muscle fitness is an important determinant of health and disease. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the coordinate regulation of the metabolic and structural determinants of muscle endurance are still poorly characterized. Herein, we demonstrate that estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα, NR3B1) is essential for skeletal muscle fitness. Notably, we show that ERRα-null animals are hypoactive and that genetic or therapeutic disruption of ERRα in mice results in reduced exercise tolerance. Mice lacking ERRα also exhibited lactatemia at exhaustion. Gene expression profiling demonstrates that ERRα plays a key role in various metabolic processes important for muscle function including energy substrate transport and use (Ldhd, Slc16a1, Hk2, and Glul), the tricarboxylic acid cycle (Cycs, and Idh3g), and oxidative metabolism (Pdha1, and Uqcrq). Metabolomics studies revealed impairment in replenishment of several amino acids (eg, glutamine) during recovery to exercise. Moreover, loss of ERRα was found to alter the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response (Hmox1), maintenance of muscle fiber integrity (Trim63, and Hspa1b), and muscle plasticity and neovascularization (Vegfa). Taken together, our study shows that ERRα plays a key role in directing transcriptional programs required for optimal mitochondrial oxidative potential and muscle fitness, suggesting that modulation of ERRα activity could be used to manage metabolic myopathies and/or promote the adaptive response to physical exercise. PMID:25361393

  20. Towards a relational health promotion.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry; Burnett, Patrick John

    2016-03-01

    The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion exhibits a substantialist approach to the agency-structure dichotomy. From a substantialist point of view, both individual agency and social structure come preformed and subsequently relate to and influence one another, starkly positioning the choices made by individuals against the structured sets of opportunities and constraints in reference to which choices are made. From a relational perspective, however, relations between elements, not the elements themselves, are the primary ontological focus. We advocate for a relational approach to the structure-agency dichotomy, one that locates both agency and structure in social relations and thereby dissolves the stark distinction between them, suggesting that relational theories can provide useful insights into how and why people 'choose' to engage in health-related behaviours. Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice, predicated upon the notions of field, capital and habitus, is exemplary in this regard. PMID:25080467

  1. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviours, and Cardiovascular Health: When Will Cardiorespiratory Fitness Become a Vital Sign?

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Although it is generally agreed upon that a physically active lifestyle and regular exercise are good for heart health, it is much less appreciated by the public that the prolonged hours of sedentary time resulting from sitting at work or screen time are also risk factors for cardiovascular outcomes and other cardiometabolic diseases. In this short narrative review, evidence is discussed and prudent recommendations are made in the context of the sedentary, affluent lifestyle that characterizes a large proportion of our population. It has become overwhelmingly clear that a sedentary lifestyle is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. In addition, vigorous physical activity and exercise is also associated with metabolic and cardiovascular adaptations that are compatible with cardiovascular health. In that regard, cardiorespiratory fitness, a reliable metric to assess the ability of the cardiovascular system to sustain prolonged physical work, has been shown to be the most powerful predictor of mortality and morbidity, way beyond classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as smoking, cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes. On the basis of the evidence available, it is proposed that both dimensions of overall physical activity level (reducing sedentary time and performing regular physical activity or endurance type exercise) should be targeted to reduce CVD risk. Finally, because of the robust evidence that poor cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent risk factor for CVD and related mortality, it is proposed that this simple physiological metric should be incorporated as a vital sign in CVD risk factor evaluation and management. PMID:26907579

  2. An analysis of weight loss articles and advertisements in mainstream women’s health and fitness magazines

    PubMed Central

    Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey H.; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Berdnik, Alyssa; Huynh, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: Magazines are a commonly used source for health and fitness information. Little is known about the nature and extent of weight loss strategies and products presented in mainstream women’s health and fitness magazines. Methods: This preliminary cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of articles and advertisements featuring weight loss content and products in mainstream US-based health and fitness magazines, as well as assessed weight loss themes presented. Thirty-one US health and fitness-focused magazine issues were coded. Prevalence of, product type, and themes related to weight loss in articles and advertisements were assessed. Results: Among the 31 issues of the five US-based women’s magazines examined, we identified 39 articles (4.8% [95% CI = 3.3% to 5.5%] of 819 articles) related to weight loss with 14 identified weight loss topics. The most prevalent article topics covered were exercising/workouts (32.0% [95% CI = 28.8% to 33.6%]) followed by dieting (18.6% [95% CI = 15.9% to 19.9%]).The most common product advertised was weight loss pills (46.0% [95% CI = 42.6% to 47.7%]). Fat burners were also frequently advertised (14.9% [95% CI = 12.5% to 16.1%]) followed by hunger reduction strategies (10.3% [95% CI = 8.2% to 11.3%]) and fat blockers (6.9% [95% CI= 5.2% to 7.8%]). Conclusion: Articles presented information about exercise and dieting whereas advertisements supported potentially harmful health beliefs and behaviors. As a well-utilized American media format, health and fitness-focused magazines have an opportunity to communicate frequent,accurate messaging about healthy weight reduction and limit advertisements that may include misleading claims. PMID:27386422

  3. Fitness consequences of artificial selection on relative male genital size.

    PubMed

    Booksmythe, Isobel; Head, Megan L; Keogh, J Scott; Jennions, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Male genitalia often show remarkable differences among related species in size, shape and complexity. Across poeciliid fishes, the elongated fin (gonopodium) that males use to inseminate females ranges from 18 to 53% of body length. Relative genital size therefore varies greatly among species. In contrast, there is often tight within-species allometric scaling, which suggests strong selection against genital-body size combinations that deviate from a species' natural line of allometry. We tested this constraint by artificially selecting on the allometric intercept, creating lines of males with relatively longer or shorter gonopodia than occur naturally for a given body size in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. We show that relative genital length is heritable and diverged 7.6-8.9% between our up-selected and down-selected lines, with correlated changes in body shape. However, deviation from the natural line of allometry does not affect male success in assays of attractiveness, swimming performance and, crucially, reproductive success (paternity). PMID:27188478

  4. We are making inroads on health and fitness traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers have used genetic selection to make dramatic improvements in milk and components yields over the past 50 years. Production traits are easy to measure, have relatively high heritabilities, and are directly tied to the financial success of the farm enterprise. The increasing importance...

  5. Health and Fitness Courses in Higher Education: A Historical Perspective and Contemporary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerke, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among 18- to 24-year-olds has steadily increased. Given that the majority of young American adults are enrolled in colleges and universities, the higher education setting could be an appropriate environment for health promotion programs. Historically, health and fitness in higher education have been provided via…

  6. Fitness consequences of artificial selection on relative male genital size

    PubMed Central

    Booksmythe, Isobel; Head, Megan L.; Keogh, J. Scott; Jennions, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Male genitalia often show remarkable differences among related species in size, shape and complexity. Across poeciliid fishes, the elongated fin (gonopodium) that males use to inseminate females ranges from 18 to 53% of body length. Relative genital size therefore varies greatly among species. In contrast, there is often tight within-species allometric scaling, which suggests strong selection against genital–body size combinations that deviate from a species' natural line of allometry. We tested this constraint by artificially selecting on the allometric intercept, creating lines of males with relatively longer or shorter gonopodia than occur naturally for a given body size in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. We show that relative genital length is heritable and diverged 7.6–8.9% between our up-selected and down-selected lines, with correlated changes in body shape. However, deviation from the natural line of allometry does not affect male success in assays of attractiveness, swimming performance and, crucially, reproductive success (paternity). PMID:27188478

  7. Physical fitness and vegetarian diets: is there a relation?

    PubMed

    Nieman, D C

    1999-09-01

    The available evidence supports neither a beneficial nor a detrimental effect of a vegetarian diet on physical performance capacity, especially when carbohydrate intake is controlled for. Concerns have been raised that an emphasis on plant foods to enhance carbohydrate intake and optimize body glycogen stores may lead to increases in dietary fiber and phytic acid intake to concentrations that reduce the bioavailability of several nutrients, including zinc, iron, and some other trace minerals. There is no convincing evidence, however, that vegetarian athletes suffer impaired nutrient status from the interactive effect of their heavy exertion and plant-food based dietary practices to the extent that performance, health, or both are impaired. Although there has been some concern about protein intake for vegetarian athletes, data indicate that all essential and nonessential amino acids can be supplied by plant food sources alone as long as a variety of foods is consumed and the energy intake is adequate. There has been some concern that vegetarian female athletes are at increased risk for oligoamenorrhea, but evidence suggests that low energy intake, not dietary quality, is the major cause. In conclusion, a vegetarian diet per se is not associated with improved aerobic endurance performance. Although some concerns have been raised about the nutrient status of vegetarian athletes, a varied and well-planned vegetarian diet is compatible with successful athletic endeavor. PMID:10479233

  8. Health and fitness benefits of a resistance training intervention performed in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Zavanela, Plinio M; Crewther, Blair T; Lodo, Leandro; Florindo, Alex A; Miyabara, Elen H; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the effects of a workplace-based resistance training intervention on different health-, fitness-, and work-related measures in untrained men (bus drivers). The subjects were recruited from a bus company and divided into a training (n = 48) and control (n = 48) groups after initial prescreening. The training group performed a 24-week resistance training program, whereas the control group maintained their normal daily activities. Each group was assessed for body composition, blood pressure (BP), pain incidence, muscular endurance, and flexibility before and after the 24-week period. Work absenteeism was also recorded during this period and after a 12-week follow-up phase. In general, no body composition changes were identified in either group. In the training group, a significant reduction in BP and pain incidence, along with improvements in muscle endurance and flexibility were seen after 24 weeks (p < 0.05). There were no changes in these parameters in the control group, and the between-group differences were all significant (p < 0.05). A reduction in worker absenteeism rate was also noted in the training (vs. control) group during both the interventional and follow-up periods (p < 0.05). In conclusion, it was found that a periodized resistance training intervention performed within the workplace improved different aspects of health and fitness in untrained men, thereby potentially providing other work-related benefits. Thus, both employers and employees may benefit from the setup, promotion, and support of a work-based physical activity program involving resistance training. PMID:22289695

  9. Health-related intrusive thoughts.

    PubMed

    Freeston, M H; Gagnon, F; Ladouceur, R; Thibodeau, N; Letarte, H; Rhéaume, J

    1994-04-01

    Two studies address the prevalence, concomitants, and appraisal of health-related intrusive thoughts. Eighty-three percent of adults (N = 658) in waiting rooms of two general hospitals reported at least one intrusive thought during the preceding month and 75.0% of patients and 55.5% of people accompanying them reported a health-related intrusive thought in the same period. The intrusions were associated with anxious and depressive symptoms. Health related intrusive thoughts were reported by 61% of a sample of university students (N = 608) and were the most frequent intrusive thought among 19.9% of the students. First, triggering stimuli reported by the subjects were significant predictors of thought frequency, worry, removal difficulty, and effort used in removing the thought. Second, appraisals of high probability were significant predictors of high frequency, worry, and especially difficulty in removing the thought. Finally, perceived responsibility and disapproval of the thought were also significant predictors of thought frequency, worry, removal difficulty, effort used in removing the thought, and guilt. These data support the position that cognitive appraisal of intrusive thoughts is closely linked to the subjective experience of the thought: more extreme appraisals were associated with more troublesome thoughts. The clinical implications of these studies are discussed in terms of current models of hypochondriasis and health anxiety. PMID:8027960

  10. Assessing fitness-to-practice of overseas-trained health practitioners by Australian registration & accreditation bodies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessment of fitness-to-practice of health professionals trained overseas and who wish to practice in Australia is undertaken by a range of organisations. These organisations conduct assessments using a range of methods. However there is very little published about how these organisations conduct their assessments. The purpose of the current paper is to investigate the methods of assessment used by these organisations and the issues associated with conducting these assessments. Methods A series of semi-structured interviews was undertaken with a variety of organisations who undertake assessments of overseas-trained health professionals who wish to practice in Australia. Content analysis of the interviews was used to identify themes and patterns. Results Four themes were generated from the content analysis of the interviews: (1) assessing; (2) process; (3) examiners; and (4) cost-efficiency. The themes were interconnected and each theme also had a number of sub-themes. Conclusions The organisations who participated in the present study used a range of assessment methods to assess overseas trained health professionals. These organisations also highlighted a number of issues, particularly related to examiners and process issues, pre- and post-assessment. Organisations demonstrated an appreciation for ongoing review of their assessment processes and incorporating evidence from the literature to inform their processes and assessment development. PMID:23020885

  11. From cognitive motor preparation to visual processing: The benefits of childhood fitness to brain health.

    PubMed

    Berchicci, M; Pontifex, M B; Drollette, E S; Pesce, C; Hillman, C H; Di Russo, F

    2015-07-01

    The association between a fit body and a fit brain in children has led to a rise of behavioral and neuroscientific research. Yet, the relation of cardiorespiratory fitness on premotor neurocognitive preparation with early visual processing has received little attention. Here, 41 healthy, lower and higher fit preadolescent children were administered a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task while electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures were recorded. Event-related potentials (ERPs) locked to the stimulus onset with an earlier than usual baseline (-900/-800 ms) allowed investigation of both the usual post-stimulus (i.e., the P1, N1 and P2) as well as the pre-stimulus ERP components, such as the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) and the prefrontal negativity (pN component). At the behavioral level, aerobic fitness was associated response accuracy, with higher fit children being more accurate than lower fit children. Fitness-related differences selectively emerged at prefrontal brain regions during response preparation, with larger pN amplitude for higher than lower fit children, and at early perceptual stages after stimulus onset, with larger P1 and N1 amplitudes in higher relative to lower fit children. Collectively, the results suggest that the benefits of being aerobically fit appear at the stage of cognitive preparation prior to stimulus presentation and the behavioral response during the performance of a task that challenges cognitive control. Further, it is likely that enhanced activity in prefrontal brain areas may improve cognitive control of visuo-motor tasks, allowing for stronger proactive inhibition and larger early allocation of selective attention resources on relevant external stimuli. PMID:25907444

  12. The Relation among Fit Indexes, Power, and Sample Size in Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kevin H.

    2005-01-01

    The relation among fit indexes, power, and sample size in structural equation modeling is examined. The noncentrality parameter is required to compute power. The 2 existing methods of computing power have estimated the noncentrality parameter by specifying an alternative hypothesis or alternative fit. These methods cannot be implemented easily and…

  13. A methodological approach to short-term tracking of youth physical fitness: the Oporto Growth, Health and Performance Study.

    PubMed

    Souza, Michele; Eisenmann, Joey; Chaves, Raquel; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; Forjaz, Cláudia; Maia, José

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, three different statistical approaches were used to investigate short-term tracking of cardiorespiratory and performance-related physical fitness among adolescents. Data were obtained from the Oporto Growth, Health and Performance Study and comprised 1203 adolescents (549 girls) divided into two age cohorts (10-12 and 12-14 years) followed for three consecutive years, with annual assessment. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with 1-mile run/walk test; 50-yard dash, standing long jump, handgrip, and shuttle run test were used to rate performance-related physical fitness. Tracking was expressed in three different ways: auto-correlations, multilevel modelling with crude and adjusted model (for biological maturation, body mass index, and physical activity), and Cohen's Kappa (κ) computed in IBM SPSS 20.0, HLM 7.01 and Longitudinal Data Analysis software, respectively. Tracking of physical fitness components was (1) moderate-to-high when described by auto-correlations; (2) low-to-moderate when crude and adjusted models were used; and (3) low according to Cohen's Kappa (κ). These results demonstrate that when describing tracking, different methods should be considered since they provide distinct and more comprehensive views about physical fitness stability patterns. PMID:26890706

  14. "Your body is your business card": Bodily capital and health authority in the fitness industry.

    PubMed

    Hutson, David J

    2013-08-01

    Although scholars have noted the connection between appearance and assumptions of health, the degree to which these assumptions matter for establishing authority in social interaction remains less clear. Using a theoretical framework involving "bodily capital"--that is, the value generated from appearance, attractiveness, and physical ability--I investigate the role of appearance in the U.S. fitness industry. Drawing on data from interviews with 26 personal trainers and 25 clients between 2010 and 2011, I find that a trainer's fit-appearing physique imbues their interactions with a degree of moral and health authority. This corporeal credibility engenders trust among clients and allows exercise to be understood as a form of health work. The implications for academics and medical practitioners reach beyond the gym setting and extend recent research linking appearance to health, authority, and medical credibility. PMID:23746610

  15. The making of a modern female body: beauty, health and fitness in interwar Britain.

    PubMed

    Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina

    2011-01-01

    In interwar Britain female athleticism, keep-fit classes and physical culture were celebrated as emblems of modernity, and women who cultivated their bodies in the pursuit of beauty, health and fitness represented civic virtue. This article argues that a modern, actively managed female body was part of women's liberation during this period. A modern female body required sex reform and birth control. Fitness culture was circumscribed by traditional notions of femininity. Women's competitive sport remained controversial and slimming in pursuit of fashion was widely condemned. Women from across the social spectrum embraced sport and joined fitness organizations. The rise of a modern female body contributed towards greater equality between the sexes. However, the gender order did not change fundamentally and the ideal woman of the interwar years was represented as a modern, emancipated race mother. PMID:21751481

  16. M-health system for life-style enhancement: WiFIT.

    PubMed

    Zvikhachevskaya, A; Grant, R; Kolev, G

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel m-health system which provides personalized real-time recommendations for life-style enhancement. The system, termed WiFIT, is capable of monitoring a wide range of the a priori defined biometric parameters and generates recommendations for achieving or maintaining the desired health and life-style goals. WiFIT is designed as an open platform which could be as complex or as simple as required for a particular application. Its key components include secure wireless broadband links, personal area body area sensory network, and an interactive data base with built-in prediction algorithms. The paper describes the WiFIT architecture and outlines system performance for certain case studies. PMID:23365884

  17. Tradeoffs in the design of health plan payment systems: Fit, power and balance.

    PubMed

    Geruso, Michael; McGuire, Thomas G

    2016-05-01

    In many markets, including the new U.S. Marketplaces, health insurance plans are paid by risk-adjusted capitation, sometimes combined with reinsurance and other payment mechanisms. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating the de facto insurer incentives embedded in these complex payment systems. We discuss fit, power and balance, each of which addresses a distinct market failure in health insurance. We implement empirical metrics of fit, power, and balance in a study of Marketplace payment systems. Using data similar to that used to develop the Marketplace risk adjustment scheme, we quantify tradeoffs among the three classes of incentives. We show that an essential tradeoff arises between the goals of limiting costs and limiting cream skimming because risk adjustment, which is aimed at discouraging cream-skimming, weakens cost control incentives in practice. A simple reinsurance system scores better on our measures of fit, power and balance than the risk adjustment scheme in use in the Marketplaces. PMID:26922122

  18. Perceived social isolation, evolutionary fitness and health outcomes: a lifespan approach

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Capitanio, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Sociality permeates each of the fundamental motives of human existence and plays a critical role in evolutionary fitness across the lifespan. Evidence for this thesis draws from research linking deficits in social relationship—as indexed by perceived social isolation (i.e. loneliness)—with adverse health and fitness consequences at each developmental stage of life. Outcomes include depression, poor sleep quality, impaired executive function, accelerated cognitive decline, unfavourable cardiovascular function, impaired immunity, altered hypothalamic pituitary–adrenocortical activity, a pro-inflammatory gene expression profile and earlier mortality. Gaps in this research are summarized with suggestions for future research. In addition, we argue that a better understanding of naturally occurring variation in loneliness, and its physiological and psychological underpinnings, in non-human species may be a valuable direction to better understand the persistence of a ‘lonely’ phenotype in social species, and its consequences for health and fitness. PMID:25870400

  19. Quantifying relative within-host replication fitness in influenza virus competition experiments.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Stephen M; Butler, Jeff; Barr, Ian G; McVernon, Jodie; Hurt, Aeron C; McCaw, James M

    2015-10-01

    Through accumulation of genetic mutations in the neuraminidase gene, the influenza virus can become resistant to antiviral drugs such as oseltamivir. Quantifying the fitness of emergent drug-resistant influenza viruses, relative to contemporary circulating viruses, provides valuable information to complement existing efforts in the surveillance of drug-resistance. We have previously developed a co-infection based method for the assessment of the relative in vivo fitness of two competing viruses. We have also introduced a model of within-host co-infection dynamics that enables relative within-host fitness to be quantified in these competitive-mixtures experiments. The model assumed that fitness differences between co-infecting strains were mediated by strain-dependent viral production rates from infected epithelial cells. Here we extend the model to enable a more complete exploration of biological processes that may differ between virus pairs and hence generate fitness differences. We use the extended model to re-analyse data from competitive-mixtures experiments that investigated the fitness of oseltamivir-resistant (OR) H1N1 pandemic 2009 ("H1N1pdm09") viruses that emerged during a community outbreak in Australia in 2011. Results are consistent with those of our previous analysis, suggesting that the within-host replication fitness of these OR viruses is not compromised relative to that of related oseltamivir-susceptible (OS) strains, and that potentially permissive mutations in the neuraminidase gene (V241I and N369K) significantly enhance the fitness of H1N1pdm09 OR viruses. These results are consistent regardless of the hypothesised biological cause of fitness difference. PMID:26188087

  20. [Occupational physicians' system in the United kingdom and fit note to promote access to occupational health services].

    PubMed

    Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Muramatsu, Keiji; Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    The Statement of Fitness for Work (Fit Note) policy was started in the UK in 2010 in order to promote return to work after sickness absence. Fit Note is issued by General Practitioners (GP). We conducted an interview survey of 2 occupational physicians working in the UK to ascertain the impact of the introduction of Fit Note on occupational health in the UK. They regard the low coverage of occupational health services in the UK, especially among small companies and self-employed workers, as a serious issue. Fit Note was regarded as a tool to induce GPs to participate in occupational health services, and it is expected that they will be new partners in occupational health. The English occupational physicians evaluated the Fit Note system highly, and believe that the increasing participation of GPs in occupational health services will be a steady advancement in occupational health in the UK. PMID:24334697

  1. Health and Fitness: An Issue for High School Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2011-01-01

    Health and fitness are important issues for high school administrators, teachers, and students. Obesity is a growing concern for all ages, and it is particularly relevant for adolescents because they are at a stage in which they may be establishing habits that will last a lifetime. It is also a critical problem at this level because there is…

  2. Work, Family, and Mental Health: Testing Different Models of Work-Family Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Bass, Brenda L.

    2003-01-01

    Using family resilience theory, this study examined the effects of work-family conflict and work-family facilitation on mental health among working adults to gain a better understanding of work-family fit. Results suggest that family to work facilitation is a family protective factor that offsets and buffers the deleterious effects of work-family…

  3. Attitudinal and Psychosocial Outcomes of a Fitness and Health Education Program on Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Tamar; Hsieh, Kelly; Rimmer, James H.

    2004-01-01

    Attitudinal and psychosocial outcomes of a fitness and health education program for adults with Down syndrome were examined. Participants were 53 adults with Down syndrome ages 30 years and older (29 females, 24 males, M age = 39.72 years) who were randomized into a training (n = 32) or control group (n = 21). The training group participated in a…

  4. Service Quality Assessment Scale (SQAS): An Instrument for Evaluating Service Quality of Health-Fitness Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Eddie T. C.; Zhang, James J.; Jensen, Barbara E.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to develop the Service Quality Assessment Scale to evaluate the service quality of health-fitness clubs. Through a review of literature, field observations, interviews, modified application of the Delphi technique, and a pilot study, a preliminary scale with 46 items was formulated. The preliminary scale was administered to…

  5. Designing a University-Wide Fitness Program to Promote Campus Health and Department Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSickle, Jennifer; Hancher-Rauch, Heidi; Hicks, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Health and physical education departments across the United States often face perception and reputation problems on campus and a general misunderstanding of the nature of their academic work. One solution is to offer a faculty-and-staff fitness program that showcases the academic and leadership skills of the faculty, opens doors for collaboration…

  6. Solution focused nursing: a fitting model for mental health nurses working in a public health paradigm.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The Australian Federal Government health agenda is advocating an extension of public health principles across all levels of the health sector. Since mental health nurses have long been proponents of public health and health promoting behaviours, an opportunity exists for this specialty of nursing to extend their influence and contribution within health. Solution focused nursing (SFN), a model that emerged from mental health practice, offers a framework to assist mental health nurses and leaders to more clearly practise public health principles within nursing and articulate that practice - for it is in the articulation of practice that nurses and nursing is made visible and valued. This paper aims to expand on and reiterate the SFN model, showing how it connects to public health principles and develops the mental health nurse's role - particularly in those clinical areas that require more than medical management and illness stabilization. PMID:20509799

  7. Using Career-Related Aspects to Assess Person-Environment Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The relation between person and environment fit, defined on the basis of career-related aspects and occupational satisfaction, was examined. The characteristics of 12 occupations along 36 career-related aspects were elicited from 12 career counselors. Thirty professionals in each of the 12 occupations reported their preferences in the same set of…

  8. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness and Leukocyte Telomere Length: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Imamura, Fumiaki; Siscovick, David; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The influence of physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) at older ages on changes in telomere length (TL), repetitive DNA sequences that may mark biologic aging, is not well-established. Few prior studies have been conducted in older adults, these were mainly cross-sectional, and few evaluated PF. Methods We investigated cross-sectional and prospective associations of PA and PF with leukocyte TL among 582 older adults (age 73±5 y at baseline) in the Cardiovascular Health Study, having serial TL measures and PA and PF assessed multiple times. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using multivariable repeated-measures regression, in which cumulatively averaged PA and PF measures were related to TL. Longitudinal analyses assessed cumulatively averaged PA and PF against later changes in TL; and changes in cumulatively averaged PA and PF against changes in TL. Results Cross-sectionally, greater walking distance and chair test performance, but not other PA and PF measures, were each associated with longer TL (p-trend=0.007, 0.04 respectively). In longitudinal analyses, no significant associations of baseline PA and PF with change in TL were observed. In contrast, changes in leisure-time activity and chair test performance were each inversely associated with changes in TL. Conclusions Cross-sectional analyses suggest that greater PA and PF are associated with longer TL. Prospective analyses show that changes in PA and PF are associated with differences in changes in TL. Even later in life, changes in certain PA and PF measures are associated with changes in TL, suggesting that leisure-time activity and fitness could reduce leukocyte telomere attrition among older adults. PMID:26083773

  9. Could sport specialization influence fitness and health of adults with mental retardation?

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Laura; Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Baldari, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Although several studies showed the positive effects of exercise and physical activity on health and well-being for individuals with ID, there is a lack of information about the influence of sport specialization on fitness and health components. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess: (a) physical fitness of athletes with intellectual disability (ID) compared with individuals included in recreational and leisure activity programs (non-athletic people); (b) contribution of sport specialization on athletes' fitness; and c) correlation of each fitness variable with subjects' ID levels. Twenty-two track and field, 19 basketball, and 23 non-athletic adults were recruited. Before and after a 9-month period, all participants performed fitness tests assessing body composition, flexibility (SR), arm muscular strength (HG), lower and upper-body muscular strength and endurance (SUP and PUP), explosive leg power (SLJ), cardiovascular endurance (ST), balance ability (FT), motor coordination (TUGT). The results showed that participants' weight, BMI and FT were significantly affected by time; SLJ by activity; ST, HG, PUP, SUP, and TUGT by both time and activity. Only track and field athletes increased significantly ST. All athletes improved significantly HG, PUP and SUP, instead non-athletic people decreased significantly SUP (p<0.01). TUGT improved significantly in track and field athletes (p<0.05), and decreased significantly in non-athletic people. ID level was positively correlated to TUGT. Findings of this study showed that physical activity improved fitness in adult athletes with ID, decreasing health risks. Athletes with lower ID obtained higher performance scores in motor coordination test. PMID:20434307

  10. Into Adolescence: Fitness, Health and Hygiene. A Curriculum for Grades 5-8. Contemporary Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garzino, Mary S.

    The Contemporary Health Series is intended to help teachers address critical health issues in their classrooms. It is designed to provide educators with the curricular tools necessary to challenge students to take personal responsibility for their health. This learning module, directed at middle school teachers, focuses on several health and…

  11. A Study of the Physical Fitness Test in Relation to Demographics, Academic Achievement, and Students' Physical Fitness Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobilia-Jones, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the overall results of the Physical Fitness Test (PFT) and the six fitness areas of the PFT, academic achievement, demographics and self perceptions and the potential impact on students' performance on the PFT. While academic expectations are increasing, the adolescent obesity rate is also increasing, producing a decline in the…

  12. The health and fitness profiles of nurses in KwaZulu-Natal.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, R; Coopoo, Y

    2007-06-01

    Backpain has been recognized as a problem in hospitals, with up to 50% of healthcare staff reporting symptoms (Smedly, Egger, Cooper and Coggon, 1997 and Engels, van der Guilden, Senden and van't Hof 1996). The general purpose of this study was to determine the health and fitness profiles of nurses working in a public hospital. It was hypothesized that there is a correlation between the prevalence of lower back pain and being overweight or obese amongst nurses. One hundred and seven nurses from a local hospital in KwaZulu Natal participated in this study. Responses from a health questionnaire examining medical history, dietary, exercise and lifestyle patterns were analyzed. Fitness tests determined flexibility (sit and reach), muscular strength (back and grip strength), aerobic capacity (Astrand-Rhyming cycle) and anthropometrical data (percent body fat and BMI). Results suggested overall poor health and fitness profiles and a high incidence of back pain correlating with increased body fat percentages, thus accepting the hypothesis. The need for health and wellness intervention strategies in hospitals for the nurses was emphasized. PMID:17703824

  13. Direct and indirect causal effects of heterozygosity on fitness-related traits in Alpine ibex

    PubMed Central

    Brambilla, Alice; Biebach, Iris; Bassano, Bruno; Bogliani, Giuseppe; von Hardenberg, Achaz

    2015-01-01

    Heterozygosity–fitness correlations (HFCs) are a useful tool to investigate the effects of inbreeding in wild populations, but are not informative in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects of heterozygosity on fitness-related traits. We tested HFCs in male Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) in a free-ranging population (which suffered a severe bottleneck at the end of the eighteenth century) and used confirmatory path analysis to disentangle the causal relationships between heterozygosity and fitness-related traits. We tested HFCs in 149 male individuals born between 1985 and 2009. We found that standardized multi-locus heterozygosity (MLH), calculated from 37 microsatellite loci, was related to body mass and horn growth, which are known to be important fitness-related traits, and to faecal egg counts (FECs) of nematode eggs, a proxy of parasite resistance. Then, using confirmatory path analysis, we were able to show that the effect of MLH on horn growth was not direct but mediated by body mass and FEC. HFCs do not necessarily imply direct genetic effects on fitness-related traits, which instead can be mediated by other traits in complex and unexpected ways. PMID:25392468

  14. The globalization of training in adolescent health and medicine: one size does not fit all.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Adolescent medicine across the globe is practiced within a variety of healthcare models, with the shared vision of the promotion of optimal health outcomes for adolescents. In the past decade, there has been a call for transformation in how health professionals are trained, with recommendations that there be adoption of a global outlook, a multiprofessional perspective and a systems approach that considers the connections between education and health systems. Many individuals and groups are now examining how best to accomplish this educational reform. There are tensions between the call for globally accepted standards of education models and practice (a one-size fits all approach) and the need to promote the ability for education practices to be interpreted and transformed to best suit local contexts. This paper discusses some of the key considerations for 'importing' training program models for adolescent health and medicine, including the importance of cultural alignment and the utilization of best evidence and practice in health professions education. PMID:26115497

  15. Correlation between prior exercise and present health and fitness status of entering medical students.

    PubMed

    Peterson, D Fred; Degenhardt, Brian F; Smith, Carol M

    2003-08-01

    Four hundred forty-one students were tested for strength, agility, flexibility, and endurance as well as for body fat, heart rate, and blood pressure. Questionnaires estimated prior exercise, sleep, diet, and leisure habits. Students were more fit than published norms. Their reported prior exercise habits correlated positively with estimated VO2max. Positive results of endurance tests correlated with better eating habits and lower blood pressure. Strong correlation existed between reported exercise and lower body fat, heart rate, and diastolic blood pressure. Blood pressure was in the hypertensive range in 57 individuals, and high blood pressure correlated with higher body weight, percent body fat, and resting heart rate. The authors concluded that most incoming medical students are fit and physically active. Positive correlations exist between prior exercise habits, performance on fitness tests, and indicators of reduced health risks. There was high correlation between risk factors for heart disease and measured blood pressure. PMID:12956248

  16. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is related to indicators of overall physical fitness in healthy postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inadequate vitamin D status is related to increased adiposity, risk of falls, and muscle weakness, particularly in the elderly. We hypothesized that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) vitamin D) is related to physical fitness indices (androidal fat, whole body lean mass, balance, strength) in healthy...

  17. Using modular psychotherapy in school mental health: Provider perspectives on intervention-setting fit

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Ludwig, Kristy; Romano, Evalynn; Koltracht, Jane; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective The “fit” or appropriateness of well-researched interventions within usual care contexts is among the most commonly-cited, but infrequently researched, factors in the successful implementation of new practices. The current study was initiated to address two exploratory research questions: (1) How do clinicians describe their current school mental health service delivery context? and (2) How do clinicians describe the fit between modular psychotherapy and multiple levels of the school mental health service delivery context? Method Following a year-long training and consultation program in an evidence-based, modular approach to psychotherapy, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with seventeen school-based mental health providers to evaluate their perspectives on the appropriateness of implementing the approach within a system of school-based health centers. Interviews were transcribed and coded for themes using conventional and directed content analysis. Results Findings identified key elements of the school mental health context including characteristics of the clinicians, their practices, the school context, and the service recipients. Specific evaluation of intervention-setting appropriateness elicited many comments about both practical and value-based (e.g., cultural considerations) aspects at the clinician and client levels, but fewer comments at the school or organizational levels. Conclusions Results suggest that a modular approach may fit well with the school mental health service context, especially along practical aspects of appropriateness. Future research focused on the development of methods for routinely assessing appropriateness at different stages of the implementation process is recommended. PMID:24134063

  18. In Fitness and Health? A Prospective Study of Changes in Marital Status and Fitness in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Francisco B.; Brown, Wendy J.; Lee, Duck-chul; Baruth, Meghan; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the prospective associations between marital status transitions and changes in fitness in men and women. Between 1987 and 2005, a total of 8,871 adults (6,900 men) aged 45.6 (standard deviation, 9.1) years were examined at the Cooper Clinic, Dallas, Texas; the median follow-up was ∼3 years. Marital transition categories (from single to married, married to divorced, divorced to remarried) were derived from self-reported marital status at baseline and follow-up. Fitness (maximal oxygen consumption) was assessed by a maximal treadmill test. Analyses were adjusted for baseline levels and changes in body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and major chronic diseases. Compared with the corresponding “control” groups (remaining single, married, or divorced), transitioning from being single to married was associated with a reduction in fitness in women (P = 0.03); divorce was associated with an increase in fitness in men (P = 0.04); and remarriage was associated with a reduction in fitness in men (P = 0.05). The authors conclude that the transitions to being married (from single to married or from divorced to remarried) are associated with a modest reduction, while divorce is associated with a modest increase in fitness levels in men. Study results suggest that these patterns may be different in women, but further research is required to confirm this. PMID:21123852

  19. Breaking down "Healthism": Barriers to Health and Fitness as Identified by Immigrant Youth in St. John's, NL, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Jennifer M.; Beausoleil, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we challenge dominant health and fitness discourses which stress individual responsibility in the attainment of these statuses. We examine the results of an empirical study exploring how a group of 15 Canadian immigrant youth, aged 12-17, discursively construct notions of health and fitness. Qualitative data were collected through…

  20. Inscribing healthification: governance, risk, surveillance and the subjects and spaces of fitness and health.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Caroline

    2006-03-01

    This paper considers the interface between the hygienic geographies of a fitness and exercise space and the discourses of risk and subjectivity in this era of the new public health. Using an analysis of space, power and the subject, the paper assesses the ways in which subjects govern themselves and others in public health spaces through an intensification of surveillance, in order to ensure health and safety compliance. In this paper, first, I introduce the locker room as a place of health and hygiene. Second, I set out the wider context of the inscription of health on spaces and subjects. Third, I examine the relationship between discourses of risk and subjectivity and how risk discourses are fundamental to the fabrication of subjects and social life. The paper then examines, more specifically, techniques of self- and other-governance that help to inscribe and prescribe the new public health in locker rooms. Drawing on the findings of a spatial and ethnographic case study of an urban, Canadian university locker room, I conclude that the macro- and micro-politics and economics of policing public health require both the regulation of bodies and the participation of active, health-conscious citizens in order to keep (western) neo-liberal imperatives of health in place. PMID:16243681

  1. Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.

    PubMed

    Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations. PMID:23844558

  2. How to Infer Relative Fitness from a Sample of Genomic Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Dayarian, Adel; Shraiman, Boris I.

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that natural populations can harbor extensive fitness diversity with numerous genomic loci under selection. It is also known that genealogical trees for populations under selection are quantifiably different from those expected under neutral evolution and described statistically by Kingman’s coalescent. While differences in the statistical structure of genealogies have long been used as a test for the presence of selection, the full extent of the information that they contain has not been exploited. Here we demonstrate that the shape of the reconstructed genealogical tree for a moderately large number of random genomic samples taken from a fitness diverse, but otherwise unstructured, asexual population can be used to predict the relative fitness of individuals within the sample. To achieve this we define a heuristic algorithm, which we test in silico, using simulations of a Wright–Fisher model for a realistic range of mutation rates and selection strength. Our inferred fitness ranking is based on a linear discriminator that identifies rapidly coalescing lineages in the reconstructed tree. Inferred fitness ranking correlates strongly with actual fitness, with a genome in the top 10% ranked being in the top 20% fittest with false discovery rate of 0.1–0.3, depending on the mutation/selection parameters. The ranking also enables us to predict the genotypes that future populations inherit from the present one. While the inference accuracy increases monotonically with sample size, samples of 200 nearly saturate the performance. We propose that our approach can be used for inferring relative fitness of genomes obtained in single-cell sequencing of tumors and in monitoring viral outbreaks. PMID:24770330

  3. How to infer relative fitness from a sample of genomic sequences.

    PubMed

    Dayarian, Adel; Shraiman, Boris I

    2014-07-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that natural populations can harbor extensive fitness diversity with numerous genomic loci under selection. It is also known that genealogical trees for populations under selection are quantifiably different from those expected under neutral evolution and described statistically by Kingman's coalescent. While differences in the statistical structure of genealogies have long been used as a test for the presence of selection, the full extent of the information that they contain has not been exploited. Here we demonstrate that the shape of the reconstructed genealogical tree for a moderately large number of random genomic samples taken from a fitness diverse, but otherwise unstructured, asexual population can be used to predict the relative fitness of individuals within the sample. To achieve this we define a heuristic algorithm, which we test in silico, using simulations of a Wright-Fisher model for a realistic range of mutation rates and selection strength. Our inferred fitness ranking is based on a linear discriminator that identifies rapidly coalescing lineages in the reconstructed tree. Inferred fitness ranking correlates strongly with actual fitness, with a genome in the top 10% ranked being in the top 20% fittest with false discovery rate of 0.1-0.3, depending on the mutation/selection parameters. The ranking also enables us to predict the genotypes that future populations inherit from the present one. While the inference accuracy increases monotonically with sample size, samples of 200 nearly saturate the performance. We propose that our approach can be used for inferring relative fitness of genomes obtained in single-cell sequencing of tumors and in monitoring viral outbreaks. PMID:24770330

  4. Monitoring Health, Activity and Fitness in Physical Education: Its Current and Future State of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo; Chen, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Various government policies, strategies and responses in England over the years have highlighted schools and physical education to be instrumental in addressing health and the focus on health has been strengthened within subsequent revisions of the National Curriculum. Whilst this might seem encouraging, concerns have been expressed that such…

  5. Dietary Guidelines and Your Health: Health Educator's Guide to Nutrition and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Nutrition Information Service (USDA), Hyattsville, MD.

    This manual was designed to help incorporate the seven Dietary Guidelines for Americans, published by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services, into a health or physical education curriculum and to make nutrition education contemporary, interesting, and relevant at either the junior or senior high school level. The…

  6. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels. PMID:23666598

  7. Branding campaign exceeds initial goals for New Hampshire fitness site. Campaign utilizes humor, insights from market research. Synergy Health and Fitness Center, Exeter.

    PubMed

    Rees, T

    1998-01-01

    Exeter Health Resources Inc. and agency BBK Communications create a comprehensive brand-building campaign for its centers that combine fitness services and programs under Synergy. With success, the center signed up more than 1,600 members by the time it opened in January. PMID:10179501

  8. Fun & Fitness with Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Anne; Faigenbaum, Avery; Radler, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    The urgency to improve fitness levels and decrease the rate of childhood obesity has been at the forefront of physical education philosophy and praxis. Few would dispute that school-age youth need to participate regularly in physical activities that enhance and maintain both skill- and health-related physical fitness. Regular physical activity…

  9. Chapter 6: Children's Environmental Access in Relation to Motor Competence, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Woods, Martha K.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activity engagement, motor competence, and physical fitness as related to child access to physical activity facilities in the home and school environments. The present investigation attempts to further efforts to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and access.…

  10. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams "CW-FIT" Efficacy Trial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard; Dawson-Bannister, Harriett; Heitzman-Powell, Linda; Kottwitz, Esther; Hansen, Blake; Fleming, Kandace

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of the Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program for improving students' on-task behavior, and increasing teacher recognition of appropriate behavior. The intervention is a group contingency classroom management program consisting of teaching and reinforcing appropriate…

  11. Adaptive Memory: Young Children Show Enhanced Retention of Fitness-Related Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Alp; Bauml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary psychologists propose that human cognition evolved through natural selection to solve adaptive problems related to survival and reproduction, with its ultimate function being the enhancement of reproductive fitness. Following this proposal and the evolutionary-developmental view that ancestral selection pressures operated not only on…

  12. "Fitness Freaks": A Healthier Lifestyle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balding, John

    1989-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which the lifestyles of young people are affected by health and fitness considerations. An analysis of data from 3253 Health Related Behavior Questionnaires, completed by fourth-year secondary school pupils is presented. (IAH)

  13. Analysis and Modeling of Threatening Factors of Workforce’s Health in Large-Scale Workplaces: Comparison of Four-Fitting Methods to select optimum technique

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Savareh, Behrouz Alizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Workforce is one of the pillars of development in any country. Therefore, the workforce’s health is very important, and analyzing its threatening factors is one of the fundamental steps for health planning. This study was the first part of a comprehensive study aimed at comparing the fitting methods to analyze and model the factors threatening health in occupational injuries. Methods In this study, 980 human occupational injuries in 10 Iranian large-scale workplaces within 10 years (2005–2014) were analyzed and modeled based on the four fitting methods: linear regression, regression analysis, generalized linear model, and artificial neural networks (ANN) using IBM SPSS Modeler 14.2. Results Accident Severity Rate (ASR) of occupational injuries was 557.47 ± 397.87. The results showed that the mean of age and work experience of injured workers were 27.82 ± 5.23 and 4.39 ± 3.65 years, respectively. Analysis of health-threatening factors showed that some factors, including age, quality of provided H&S training, number of workers, hazard identification (HAZID), and periodic risk assessment, and periodic H&S training were important factors that affected ASR. In addition, the results of comparison of the four fitting methods showed that the correlation coefficient of ANN (R = 0.968) and the relative error (R.E) of ANN (R.E = 0.063) were the highest and lowest, respectively, among other fitting methods. Conclusion The findings of the present study indicated that, despite the suitability and effectiveness of all fitting methods in analyzing severity of occupational injuries, ANN is the best fitting method for modeling of the threatening factors of a workforce’s health. Furthermore, all fitting methods, especially ANN, should be considered more in analyzing and modeling of occupational injuries and health-threatening factors as well as planning to provide and improve the workforce’s health. PMID:27053999

  14. Trekking exercise promotes cardiovascular health and fitness benefits in older obese women.

    PubMed

    Kang, Suh-Jung

    2014-08-01

    Trekking includes downhill walking and enhances lower limb strength. Muscle fitness is a predictor of mortality and is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trekking on cardiovascular health and fitness in older obese women. The participants were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG, n= 32) and a control group (CG, n= 48). The EG participated in the trekking program for 12 weeks, 3 times per week, and 90 min per session, at a moderate intensity. Cardiovascular health (BMI, percentage of body fat, blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol) and fitness (muscle strength, muscle endurance, balance, and flexibility) were measured before and after the 12-week program. A twoway repeated ANOVA was used to compare and analyze the group differences. Body weight, systolic blood pressure, and muscle strength were significantly different between the groups. These results indicate that trekking played a significant role in the reduction of weight and systolic blood pressure in obese women. The results of this study can be utilized to reduce cardiovascular risk factors associated with aging. PMID:25210697

  15. Is Good Fit Related to Good Behaviour? Goodness of Fit between Daycare Teacher-Child Relationships, Temperament, and Prosocial Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipson, Will E.; Séguin, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    The Goodness-of-Fit model [Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel] proposes that a child's temperament interacts with the environment to influence child outcomes. In the past, researchers have shown how the association between the quality of the teacher-child relationship in daycare and child…

  16. A wearable chemical-electrophysiological hybrid biosensing system for real-time health and fitness monitoring.

    PubMed

    Imani, Somayeh; Bandodkar, Amay J; Mohan, A M Vinu; Kumar, Rajan; Yu, Shengfei; Wang, Joseph; Mercier, Patrick P

    2016-01-01

    Flexible, wearable sensing devices can yield important information about the underlying physiology of a human subject for applications in real-time health and fitness monitoring. Despite significant progress in the fabrication of flexible biosensors that naturally comply with the epidermis, most designs measure only a small number of physical or electrophysiological parameters, and neglect the rich chemical information available from biomarkers. Here, we introduce a skin-worn wearable hybrid sensing system that offers simultaneous real-time monitoring of a biochemical (lactate) and an electrophysiological signal (electrocardiogram), for more comprehensive fitness monitoring than from physical or electrophysiological sensors alone. The two sensing modalities, comprising a three-electrode amperometric lactate biosensor and a bipolar electrocardiogram sensor, are co-fabricated on a flexible substrate and mounted on the skin. Human experiments reveal that physiochemistry and electrophysiology can be measured simultaneously with negligible cross-talk, enabling a new class of hybrid sensing devices. PMID:27212140

  17. A wearable chemical–electrophysiological hybrid biosensing system for real-time health and fitness monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Somayeh; Bandodkar, Amay J.; Mohan, A. M. Vinu; Kumar, Rajan; Yu, Shengfei; Wang, Joseph; Mercier, Patrick P.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible, wearable sensing devices can yield important information about the underlying physiology of a human subject for applications in real-time health and fitness monitoring. Despite significant progress in the fabrication of flexible biosensors that naturally comply with the epidermis, most designs measure only a small number of physical or electrophysiological parameters, and neglect the rich chemical information available from biomarkers. Here, we introduce a skin-worn wearable hybrid sensing system that offers simultaneous real-time monitoring of a biochemical (lactate) and an electrophysiological signal (electrocardiogram), for more comprehensive fitness monitoring than from physical or electrophysiological sensors alone. The two sensing modalities, comprising a three-electrode amperometric lactate biosensor and a bipolar electrocardiogram sensor, are co-fabricated on a flexible substrate and mounted on the skin. Human experiments reveal that physiochemistry and electrophysiology can be measured simultaneously with negligible cross-talk, enabling a new class of hybrid sensing devices. PMID:27212140

  18. A Multi Parameters Wearable Telemetric System for Cardio-Pulmonary Fitness of e-Health.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tsung-Che; Chiu, Nan-Fu; Liao, Fang-Ren; Lu, Shey-Shi; Ping, Feng; Yang, Chang-Rung; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2005-01-01

    We report a multi parameters cardio-pulmonary (CP) monitoring system with features of low power consumptions (30mA,3.3V), miniaturization (size 25 cm2), and wireless data communications (Frequency 96 MHz) for wearable applications in e-Health. Its target application is forthe evaluation of fitness of CP during exercises. We use aminiature bi-directional hot-wire sensor for respiratory function,an optical sensor for saturated blood oxygen level or plethsymograph, and two surface electrodes for single lead electrocardiograph. The fitness indexes include blood oxygen level, ECG, and respiratory functions, which will be used for the quantitative evaluation of the level of physical activity. PMID:17280978

  19. An Assessment of the Factors that Influence the Promotion and Delivery of Sport, Fitness, and Health Courses: Contributors of Marketing to Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Ketra L.; O'Bryant, Camille; Costa, Carla

    2002-01-01

    Examined the demographics of college students enrolled in sport, fitness, and health program (SFHP) courses, investigating frequency of enrollment in courses, reasons for enrolling, and evaluation of course quality. Student surveys indicated that the main reasons for enrolling related to skill development or enhancement of knowledge about health…

  20. Inventory of Health and Physical Fitness Promotion Materials, Research and Articles from Periodicals of General Interest. Final Report. Report No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozzo, Robert; And Others

    This document reports on an effort to identify, collect, and catalog: (1) various fitness- and health-related promotion materials available to the general public by federal, state, and local agencies; and (2) informational items distributed by the private sector. Printed materials are categorized as: (1) currently available brochures and pamphlets…

  1. Health literacy and women's health-related behaviors in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D; Tsai, Tzu-I; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Ken N

    2012-04-01

    Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food expiration dates, and monitoring physical changes) in women and to test whether the association is mediated by health knowledge. A national sample of 1,754 female adults in Taiwan was included in the study. Result showed that health literacy was positively and independently related to checking food expiration dates and monitoring physical changes, and that health literacy was not related to physical checkup and Pap smear screening. Interestingly, women with high health literacy were more likely to be a current smoker. Study findings suggest that efforts to improve health promotion behaviors in women should consider health literacy as an important factor and that the effect of health literacy on health prevention behaviors may vary by women's access to care. PMID:21742948

  2. Promoting Fitness and Safety in Elementary Students: A Randomized Control Study of the Michigan Model for Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, James M.; Clark, Jeffrey K.; Jones, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In elementary grades, comprehensive health education curricula have demonstrated effectiveness in addressing singular health issues. The Michigan Model for Health (MMH) was implemented and evaluated to determine its impact on nutrition, physical fitness, and safety knowledge and skills. Methods: Schools (N = 52) were randomly assigned…

  3. Obesity and Body Ideals in the Media: Health and Fitness Practices of Young African-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Margaret Carlisle; Robinson, T. Tavita

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the "outsider-within," we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American…

  4. Research on a Community-based Platform for Promoting Health and Physical Fitness in the Elderly Community

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Hsu, Chien-Lung; Tseng, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the acceptability of a fitness testing platform (iFit) for installation in an assisted living community with the aim of promoting fitness and slowing the onset of frailty. The iFit platform develops a means of testing Bureau of Health Promotion mandated health assessment items for the elderly (including flexibility tests, grip strength tests, balance tests, and reaction time tests) and integrates wireless remote sensors in a game-like environment to capture and store subject response data, thus providing individuals in elderly care contexts with a greater awareness of their own physical condition. In this study, we specifically evaluated the users’ intention of using the iFit using a technology acceptance model (TAM). A total of 101 elderly subjects (27 males and 74 females) were recruited. A survey was conducted to measure technology acceptance, to verify that the platform could be used as intended to promote fitness among the elderly. Results indicate that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and usage attitude positively impact behavioral intention to use the platform. The iFit platform can offer user-friendly solutions for a community-based fitness care and monitoring of elderly subjects. In summary, iFit was determined by three key drivers and discussed as follows: risk factors among the frail elderly, mechanism for slowing the advance frailty, and technology acceptance and support for promoting physical fitness. PMID:23460859

  5. Fitness versus Fatness: Which Influences Health and Mortality Risk the Most?

    PubMed

    Gaesser, Glenn A; Tucker, Wesley J; Jarrett, Catherine L; Angadi, Siddhartha S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a more powerful predictor of mortality than body mass index or adiposity, and improving CRF is more important than losing body fat for reducing risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Data on reduced morbidity and mortality associated with increased CRF are strong and consistent. By contrast, data on intentional weight loss and mortality are uncertain, and weight loss-induced risk factor modification may be largely transient. Because weight loss maintenance is poor and considering the health risks associated with chronic weight instability ( "yo-yo" dieting), we propose an alternative paradigm that focuses on improving CRF rather than reducing body weight. We contend that this is a safer alternative for management of obesity and the associated comorbidities. Exercise adherence may improve if clinicians emphasized to their patients the importance of CRF compared with weight loss in improving health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases. PMID:26166058

  6. Double Trouble at High Density: Cross-Level Test of Resource-Related Adaptive Plasticity and Crowding-Related Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Gergs, André; Preuss, Thomas G.; Palmqvist, Annemette

    2014-01-01

    Population size is often regulated by negative feedback between population density and individual fitness. At high population densities, animals run into double trouble: they might concurrently suffer from overexploitation of resources and also from negative interference among individuals regardless of resource availability, referred to as crowding. Animals are able to adapt to resource shortages by exhibiting a repertoire of life history and physiological plasticities. In addition to resource-related plasticity, crowding might lead to reduced fitness, with consequences for individual life history. We explored how different mechanisms behind resource-related plasticity and crowding-related fitness act independently or together, using the water flea Daphnia magna as a case study. For testing hypotheses related to mechanisms of plasticity and crowding stress across different biological levels, we used an individual-based population model that is based on dynamic energy budget theory. Each of the hypotheses, represented by a sub-model, is based on specific assumptions on how the uptake and allocation of energy are altered under conditions of resource shortage or crowding. For cross-level testing of different hypotheses, we explored how well the sub-models fit individual level data and also how well they predict population dynamics under different conditions of resource availability. Only operating resource-related and crowding-related hypotheses together enabled accurate model predictions of D. magna population dynamics and size structure. Whereas this study showed that various mechanisms might play a role in the negative feedback between population density and individual life history, it also indicated that different density levels might instigate the onset of the different mechanisms. This study provides an example of how the integration of dynamic energy budget theory and individual-based modelling can facilitate the exploration of mechanisms behind the regulation

  7. Effects of inbreeding on fitness-related traits in a small isolated moose population

    PubMed Central

    Haanes, Hallvard; Markussen, Stine S; Herfindal, Ivar; Røed, Knut H; Solberg, Erling J; Heim, Morten; Midthjell, Liv; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Inbreeding can affect fitness-related traits at different life history stages and may interact with environmental variation to induce even larger effects. We used genetic parentage assignment based on 22 microsatellite loci to determine a 25 year long pedigree for a newly established island population of moose with 20–40 reproducing individuals annually. We used the pedigree to calculate individual inbreeding coefficients and examined for effects of individual inbreeding (f) and heterozygosity on fitness-related traits. We found negative effects of f on birth date, calf body mass and twinning rate. The relationship between f and calf body mass and twinning rate were found to be separate but weaker after accounting for birth date. We found no support for an inbreeding effect on the age-specific lifetime reproductive success of females. The influence of f on birth date was related to climatic conditions during the spring prior to birth, indicating that calves with a low f were born earlier after a cold spring than calves with high f. In years with a warm spring, calf f did not affect birth date. The results suggest that severe inbreeding in moose has both indirect effects on fitness through delayed birth and lower juvenile body mass, as well as separate direct effects, as there still was a significant relationship between f and twinning rate after accounting for birth date and body mass as calf. Consequently, severe inbreeding as found in the study population may have consequences for population growth and extinction risk. PMID:24324873

  8. Exploring the relationship between national economic indicators and relative fitness and frailty in middle-aged and older Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Theou, Olga; Brothers, Thomas D.; Rockwood, Michael R.; Haardt, David; Mitnitski, Arnold; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Background: on an individual level, lower-income has been associated with disability, morbidity and death. On a population level, the relationship of economic indicators with health is unclear. Objective: the purpose of this study was to evaluate relative fitness and frailty in relation to national income and healthcare spending, and their relationship with mortality. Design and setting: secondary analysis of data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE); a longitudinal population-based survey which began in 2004. Subjects: a total of 36,306 community-dwelling people aged 50 and older (16,467 men; 19,839 women) from the 15 countries which participated in the SHARE comprised the study sample. A frailty index was constructed as the proportion of deficits present in relation to the 70 deficits available in SHARE. The characteristics of the frailty index examined were mean, prevalence of frailty and proportion of the fittest group. Results: the mean value of the frailty index was lower in higher-income countries (0.16 ± 0.12) than in lower-income countries (0.20 ± 0.14); the overall mean frailty index was negatively correlated with both gross domestic product (r = −0.79; P < 0.01) and health expenditure (r = −0.63; P < 0.05). Survival in non-frail participants at 24 months was not associated with national income (P = 0.19), whereas survival in frail people was greater in higher-income countries (P < 0.05). Conclusions: a country's level of frailty and fitness in adults aged 50+ years is strongly correlated with national economic indicators. In higher-income countries, not only is the prevalence of frailty lower, but frail people also live longer. PMID:23443511

  9. Short-Term Effects of Different Loading Schemes in Fitness-Related Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Eifler, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Eifler, C. Short-term effects of different loading schemes in fitness-related resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1880-1889, 2016-The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the short-term effects of different loading schemes in fitness-related resistance training and to identify the most effective loading method for advanced recreational athletes. The investigation was designed as a longitudinal field-test study. Two hundred healthy mature subjects with at least 12 months' experience in resistance training were randomized in 4 samples of 50 subjects each. Gender distribution was homogenous in all samples. Training effects were quantified by 10 repetition maximum (10RM) and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) testing (pre-post-test design). Over a period of 6 weeks, a standardized resistance training protocol with 3 training sessions per week was realized. Testing and training included 8 resistance training exercises in a standardized order. The following loading schemes were randomly matched to each sample: constant load (CL) with constant volume of repetitions, increasing load (IL) with decreasing volume of repetitions, decreasing load (DL) with increasing volume of repetitions, daily changing load (DCL), and volume of repetitions. For all loading schemes, significant strength gains (p < 0.001) could be noted for all resistance training exercises and both dependent variables (10RM, 1RM). In all cases, DCL obtained significantly higher strength gains (p < 0.001) than CL, IL, and DL. There were no significant differences in strength gains between CL, IL, and DL. The present data indicate that resistance training following DCL is more effective for advanced recreational athletes than CL, IL, or DL. Considering that DCL is widely unknown in fitness-related resistance training, the present data indicate, there is potential for improving resistance training in commercial fitness clubs. PMID:26670986

  10. Grape consumption's effects on fitness, muscle injury, mood, and perceived health.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick J; Caravalho, Amanda L; Freese, Eric C; Cureton, Kirk J

    2013-02-01

    Compounds found in the skins of grapes, including catechins, quercetin, and resveratrol, have been added to the diet of rodents and improved run time to exhaustion, fitness, and skeletal-muscle mitochondrial function. It is unknown if such effects occur in humans. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether 6 wk of daily grape consumption influenced maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, and arm-function responses to a mild eccentric-exercise-induced arm-muscle injury. Forty recreationally active young adults were randomly assigned to consume a grape or placebo drink for 45 consecutive days. Before and after 42 d of supplementation, assessments were made of treadmill-running VO(2max), work capacity (treadmill performance time), mood (Profile of Mood States), and perceived health status (SF-36 Health Survey). The day after posttreatment treadmill tests were completed, 18 high-intensity eccentric actions of the nondominant elbow flexors were performed. Arm-muscle inflammation, pain, and function (isometric strength and range of motion) were measured before and on 2 consecutive days after the eccentric exercise. Mixed-model ANOVA showed no significant effect of grape consumption on any of the outcomes. Six weeks of supplemental grape consumption by recreationally active young adults has no effect on VO(2max), work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, or physical-function responses to a mild injury induced by eccentric exercise. PMID:22952194

  11. Practical Management Concerns regarding the Use of Health-Related, Motor and Skill Tests to Achieve Sex-Fair Ability Groupings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Janet

    There are many advantages and disadvantages of ability tests for sex-fairness. Several types of assessment criteria for sex-fair ability grouping could be used in fitness-related activities in the curriculum. Health-related physical fitness tests, designed to measure an individual's health fitness and provide for individual improvement, are not…

  12. Consumer Health Concepts That Do Not Map to the UMLS: Where Do They Fit?

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Smith, Catherine Arnott; Divita, Guy; Kim, Hyeoneui; Browne, Allen C.; Leroy, Gondy; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study has two objectives: first, to identify and characterize consumer health terms not found in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus (2007 AB); second, to describe the procedure for creating new concepts in the process of building a consumer health vocabulary. How do the unmapped consumer health concepts relate to the existing UMLS concepts? What is the place of these new concepts in professional medical discourse? Design The consumer health terms were extracted from two large corpora derived in the process of Open Access Collaboratory Consumer Health Vocabulary (OAC CHV) building. Terms that could not be mapped to existing UMLS concepts via machine and manual methods prompted creation of new concepts, which were then ascribed semantic types, related to existing UMLS concepts, and coded according to specified criteria. Results This approach identified 64 unmapped concepts, 17 of which were labeled as uniquely “lay” and not feasible for inclusion in professional health terminologies. The remaining terms constituted potential candidates for inclusion in professional vocabularies, or could be constructed by post-coordinating existing UMLS terms. The relationship between new and existing concepts differed depending on the corpora from which they were extracted. Conclusion Non-mapping concepts constitute a small proportion of consumer health terms, but a proportion that is likely to affect the process of consumer health vocabulary building. We have identified a novel approach for identifying such concepts. PMID:18436906

  13. Social Provisions and Young Women's Health-Related Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Ulvick, Jocelyn D; Spink, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors involved in being active enough for health benefits is necessary to promote health-related physical activity. Given the documented role of social support in women's activity (Molloy et al. 2010), this study examined the relationship between Weiss's (1974) social provisions and health-related physical activity in young women. College undergraduate women (N = 136) from a kinesiology course completed a modified Social Provisions Scale (Cutrona and Russell 1987) and reported on the physical activity they engaged in with others over a 4-week period in the fall of 2011. We used average daily energy expenditure, calculated based on participants' reported activity involvement, to classify participants as either sufficiently or insufficiently active (Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Research Institute 1999). A logistic regression using sufficient/insufficient activity levels for health as the dependent variable revealed that the six provisions reliably differentiated between those who were active enough for health benefits versus not. Of the six, two provisions were significantly associated with health-related physical activity--specifically, those who held higher perceptions of reassurance of worth and social integration were more likely to be in the sufficiently-active group. These results provide an initial indication of the specific social provisions associated with young women who are active enough to achieve health benefits. PMID:26086201

  14. College Health: Health Services and Common Health Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health College Health: Health Services and Common Health Problems Posted under Health Guides . ... March 2015. +Related Content What are student health services? The student health services (sometimes called the student ...

  15. The Impact of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on Age-Related Lipids and Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Moon Mark; Sui, Xuemei; Liu, Junxiu; Zhou, Haiming; Kokkinos, Peter F.; Lavie, Carl J.; Hardin, James W.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence on the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on age-related longitudinal changes of lipids and lipoproteins is scarce. Objectives This study sought to assess the longitudinal, aging trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins for the life course in adults, and to determine whether CRF modifies the age-associated trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins. Methods Data came from 11,418 men, 20 to 90 years of age, without known high cholesterol, high triglycerides, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline and during follow-up from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. There were 43,821 observations spanning 2 to 25 (mean 3.5) health examinations between 1970 and 2006. CRF was quantified by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Marginal models using generalized estimating equations were applied. Results Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) presented similar inverted U-shaped quadratic trajectories with aging: gradual increases were noted until the mid-40s to early 50s, with subsequent declines (all p < 0.0001). Compared to men with higher CRF, those with lower CRF developed abnormal values earlier in life: TC (≥200 mg/dl), LDL-C (≥130 mg/dl), non-HDL-C (≥160 mg/dl), and TG/HDL-C ratio (≥3.0). Notably, abnormal values for TC and LDL-C in men with low CRF were observed around 15 years earlier than in those with high CRF. After adjusting for time-varying covariates, a significant interaction was found between age and CRF in each trajectory, indicating that CRF was more strongly associated with the aging trajectories of lipids and lipoproteins in young to middle-aged men than in older men. Conclusions Our investigation reveals a differential trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins with aging according to CRF in healthy men, and suggests that promoting increased CRF levels may help delay the development of dyslipidemia. PMID:25975472

  16. Linking habitat selection to fitness-related traits in herbivores: the role of the energy landscape.

    PubMed

    Long, Ryan A; Bowyer, R T; Porter, Warren P; Mathewson, Paul; Monteith, Kevin L; Findholt, Scott L; Dick, Brian L; Kie, John G

    2016-07-01

    Animals may partially overcome environmental constraints on fitness by behaviorally adjusting their exposure to costs and supplies of energy. Few studies, however, have linked spatiotemporal variation in the energy landscape to behaviorally mediated measures of performance that ostensibly influence individual fitness. We hypothesized that strength of selection by North American elk (Cervus elaphus) for areas that reduced costs of thermoregulation and activity, and increased access to high-quality forage, would influence four energetically mediated traits related to fitness: birth mass of young, nutritional condition of adult females at the onset of winter, change in nutritional condition of females between spring and winter, and neonatal survival. We used a biophysical model to map spatiotemporally explicit costs of thermoregulation and activity experienced by elk in a heterogeneous landscape. We then combined model predictions with data on forage characteristics, animal locations, nutritional condition, and mass and survival of young to evaluate behaviorally mediated effects of the energy landscape on fitness-related traits. During spring, when high-quality forage was abundant, female elk that consistently selected low-cost areas before parturition gave birth to larger young than less-selective individuals, and birth mass had a strong, positive influence on probability of survival. As forage quality declined during autumn, however, lactating females that consistently selected the highest quality forage available accrued more fat and entered winter in better condition than less-selective individuals. Results of our study highlight the importance of understanding the dynamic nature of energy landscapes experienced by free-ranging animals. PMID:27003702

  17. A Novel Way to Promote Youth Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crum, Tom

    1989-01-01

    Basic steps in organizing and implementing Fun and Fitness Day are outlined. This event, jointly planned by local schools and Triton College, provided 1800 elementary students with health-related fitness testing and a day of fun and competition. (IAH)

  18. Health care workers and respiratory protection: is the user seal check a surrogate for respirator fit-testing?

    PubMed

    Danyluk, Quinn; Hon, Chun-Yip; Neudorf, Mike; Yassi, Annalee; Bryce, Elizabeth; Janssen, Bob; Astrakianakis, George

    2011-05-01

    Many agencies recommend that health care workers wear N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95-FFR) to minimize occupational exposure to bioaerosols, such as tuberculosis and pandemic influenza. Published standards outline procedures for the proper selection of an N95-FFR model, including user seal checks and respirator fit-testing. Some health officials have argued that the respirator fit-test step should be eliminated altogether, given its additional time and cost factors, and that only a user seal check be utilized to ensure that an adequate face seal has been achieved. One of the aims of the current study is to examine whether a user seal check is an appropriate surrogate for respirator fit-testing. Subjects were assigned an N95-FFR and asked to perform a user seal check (as per manufacturer's instructions) after which they immediately underwent a respirator fit-test. Successfully passing a respirator fit-test was based on not detecting a leakage through the face seal (either qualitatively with a test agent or quantitatively with a particulate counter). The sample population consisted of 647 subjects who had never been previously fit-tested (naive), while the remaining 137 participants were experienced respirator users. Only four of the 647 naive subjects (0.62%) identified an inadequate seal during their user seal check. Of the 643 remaining naive subjects who indicated that they had an adequate face seal prior to fit-testing, 158 (25%) failed the subsequent quantitative fit-test and 92 (14%) failed the qualitative fit-test. All 137 experienced users indicated that they had an adequate seal after performing the user seal check; however, 41 (30%) failed the subsequent quantitative fit-test, and 30 (22%) failed the qualitative fit-test. These findings contradict the argument to eliminate fit-testing and rely strictly on a user seal check to evaluate face seal. PMID:21462067

  19. Fitting IRT Models to Dichotomous and Polytomous Data: Assessing the Relative Model-Data Fit of Ideal Point and Dominance Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Louis; Ali, Usama S.; Drasgow, Fritz; Williams, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relative model-data fit of an ideal point item response theory (IRT) model (the generalized graded unfolding model [GGUM]) and dominance IRT models (e.g., the two-parameter logistic model [2PLM] and Samejima's graded response model [GRM]) to simulated dichotomous and polytomous data generated from each of these models.…

  20. Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose was to: 1) perform a systematic review of studies examining the relation between physical activity, fitness, and health in school-aged children and youth, and 2) make recommendations based on the findings. Methods The systematic review was limited to 7 health indicators: high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, the metabolic syndrome, obesity, low bone density, depression, and injuries. Literature searches were conducted using predefined keywords in 6 key databases. A total of 11,088 potential papers were identified. The abstracts and full-text articles of potentially relevant papers were screened to determine eligibility. Data was abstracted for 113 outcomes from the 86 eligible papers. The evidence was graded for each health outcome using established criteria based on the quantity and quality of studies and strength of effect. The volume, intensity, and type of physical activity were considered. Results Physical activity was associated with numerous health benefits. The dose-response relations observed in observational studies indicate that the more physical activity, the greater the health benefit. Results from experimental studies indicate that even modest amounts of physical activity can have health benefits in high-risk youngsters (e.g., obese). To achieve substantive health benefits, the physical activity should be of at least a moderate intensity. Vigorous intensity activities may provide even greater benefit. Aerobic-based activities had the greatest health benefit, other than for bone health, in which case high-impact weight bearing activities were required. Conclusion The following recommendations were made: 1) Children and youth 5-17 years of age should accumulate an average of at least 60 minutes per day and up to several hours of at least moderate intensity physical activity. Some of the health benefits can be achieved through an average of 30 minutes per day. [Level 2, Grade A]. 2) More vigorous intensity activities should

  1. Mental health and fitness to plead proposals in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Mudathikundan, Faisal; Chao, Oriana; Forrester, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Proposals to reform fitness to plead legislation have been published by the Law Commission in England and Wales; they include a new test of decision making capacity and a new psychiatric test that has yet to be fully developed. Although proposals have met with some support, there have also been detractors. The history of fitness to plead is reviewed and current case law (including the 1836 Pritchard criteria) is examined. Although existing arrangements have been criticised, this may be attributable to inconsistent practical application, rather than inherent conceptual flaws. The Pritchard test has largely stood the test of time and has emerged relatively unscathed. Fitness to plead is not a medical construct, but rather a legal entity and any new test would be likely to introduce its own difficulties. A capacity based assessment could enhance debate and disagreement and increase court time in many cases, presenting new resource implications with questionable benefit. As the existing Pritchard criteria, amended by case law, already include a five limb test that closely resembles a capacity assessment (ability to plead to the indictment, to understand the course of the proceedings, to instruct a lawyer, to challenge a juror and to understand the evidence) and given the difficulties in introducing a functional test format in other jurisdictions, the Law Commission's proposals should now be set aside, perhaps for another day: reconsideration may be possible some decades hence, pending enhanced scientific developments within psychiatry and better understanding of the mind. PMID:24268448

  2. The Relation between Career Decision-Making Strategies and Person-Job Fit: A Study of Job Changers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Romila; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined relations between three career decision-making strategies (rational, intuitive, and dependent) and person--job fit among 361 professionals who had recently changed jobs. We found that the relation between each decision-making strategy and fit was contingent upon the concurrent use of other strategies. A rational strategy…

  3. Regular exercise and aerobic fitness in relation to psychological make-up and physiological stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    de Geus, E J; van Doornen, L J; Orlebeke, J F

    1993-01-01

    This study assessed the association of aerobic fitness with psychological make-up and physiological stress-reactivity in a group of untrained men, as well as the effects of 4 and 8 months of exercise training on these parameters. Psychological assessment included questionnaires on personality (Neuroticism, Type A, Hostility), coping styles (Anger In, Anger Out), negative affect (Depression, Anxiety), and self-esteem. Stress reactivity was measured as the cardiovascular and urinary catecholamine response to two competitive reaction time tasks and the cold pressor test. No cross sectional relationships were found between aerobic fitness, defined as the maximal oxygen consumption during an exhaustive exercise test, and any of the psychological variables. In addition, psychological make-up did not change as a consequence of exercise training. In further contrast to our hypothesis, aerobic fitness was associated with high, rather than low, cardiovascular reactivity. Longitudinal effects of training were limited to a reduction in the overall levels of heart rate and diastolic blood pressure. This suggests that regular exercise does not increase the resistance to stress-related disease by influencing psychological make-up or acute psychophysiologic reactivity. PMID:8416085

  4. The Effects of a Lifetime Physical Fitness (LPF) Course on College Students’ Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    QUARTIROLI, ALESSANDRO; MAEDA, HOTAKA

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine motivational constructs and the effect of physical activity engagement on health behaviors in college students who were required to take a 15-week lifetime physical fitness (LPF) course for graduation. A total of fifty-eight first and second year college students aged between 17 and 23 years (M=18.72; SD=1.09). Paper and pencil questionnaires were anonymously administered at the beginning and at the end of the 15-week long spring 2012 semester. Analysis of the differences between the beginning and the end of the semester was completed. Physical activity behaviors and Behavioral Regulations variables did not change across time (p > .05). Appearance (d = −0.34, p = .013) and fitness (d = −0.37, p = .006) reasons for participating in physical activity and all Theory of Planned Behavior variables decreased over time (d = −0.32 to − 0.41, p < .05). Changes in attitude toward physical activity negatively predicted changes in alcohol consumption (r = −.261 to −.357). This study sustains the already existing literature that supports the positive impact of LPF courses offered to college students. PMID:27293510

  5. The effect of baduanjin on promoting the physical fitness and health of adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Ran; Jin, Li; Hong, Ping; He, Zi-Hong; Huang, Chuan-Ye; Zhao, Jie-Xiu; Wang, Mei; Tian, Ye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of study was to assess the efficacy of a 16-week Baduanjin qigong training intervention in promoting physical fitness and health for adults. An experimental design was adopted, and subjects were assigned randomly into an experimental group (n = 55) and a control group (n = 55). In the intervention group comprised of adults, there were no significant variations in blood glucose, blood lipid, blood pressure, heart rate variability, and vital capacity indices. The body weight and body mass index (BMI) dropped in the intervention group. Compared with the control group, the skinfold thicknesses decreased at lower corner of scapula, triceps brachii, and abdomen, with a statistical significance (P < 0.001; P = 0.005; P = 0.003). By comparing the physical fitness indices, it was found that the increase of the results of sit-and-reach test in the intervention group had statistical significance (P = 0.001). In conclusion, it was found by our trial that Baduanjin exercise could significantly improve the physical flexibility and subcutaneous adipose accumulation in the healthy adults. PMID:25050127

  6. Re-insurance in the Swiss health insurance market: Fit, power, and balance.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Christian P R; Beck, Konstantin

    2016-07-01

    Risk equalization mechanisms mitigate insurers' incentives to practice risk selection. On the other hand, incentives to limit healthcare spending can be distorted by risk equalization, particularly when risk equalization payments depend on realized costs instead of expected costs. In addition, cost based risk equalization mechanisms may incentivize health insurers to distort the allocation of resources among different services. The incentives to practice risk selection, to limit healthcare spending, and to distort the allocation of resources can be measured by fit, power, and balance, respectively. We apply these three measures to evaluate the risk adjustment mechanism in Switzerland. Our results suggest that it performs very well in terms of power but rather poorly in terms of fit. The latter indicates that risk selection might be a severe problem. We show that re-insurance can reduce this problem while power remains on a high level. In addition, we provide evidence that the Swiss risk equalization mechanism does not lead to imbalances across different services. PMID:27157115

  7. Skin Cancer Prevention Coverage in Popular US Women’s Health and Fitness Magazines: An Analysis of Advertisements and Articles

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Berdnik, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    The desire to be tan is a phenomenon that public health researchers have investigated, as exposure to UV radiation increases the chances of developing skin cancer. Media messages in women’s magazines have been shown to contribute to this problem. Much less is known about the prevalence of skin cancer prevention messages in these magazines. This study’s aim was to identify the number and type of articles and advertised products devoted to skin health (sun protection and skin cancer prevention in particular) within five popular U.S. greater than women’s health and fitness magazines. We analyzed articles and advertisements over seven months of issues of the following popular women’s health and fitness magazines: Fitness, Health, Self, Shape, and Women’s Health, March 2013 through September 2013. Overall, 31 issues of the five magazines with a total of 780 articles and 1,986 advertisements were analyzed. Of the 780 articles, a mere 2.9% (n=23) were devoted to skin. Of the 258 skin product advertisements, less than 20% of the products contained sun protection factor (SPF). These findings suggest that women’s health and fitness magazines can improve their efforts in informing women of skin cancer risks and preventive measures to minimize these risks. The role of these magazines in building health literacy among their readers is also discussed. PMID:24999136

  8. Skin cancer prevention coverage in popular US women's health and fitness magazines: an analysis of advertisements and articles.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Berdnik, Alyssa

    2014-07-01

    The desire to be tan is a phenomenon that public health researchers have investigated, as exposure to UV radiation increases the chances of developing skin cancer.  Media messages in women's magazines have been shown to contribute to this problem. Much less is known about the prevalence of skin cancer prevention messages in these magazines. This study's aim was to identify the number and type of articles and advertised products devoted to skin health (sun protection and skin cancer prevention in particular) within five popular U.S. greater than women's health and fitness magazines. We analyzed articles and advertisements over seven months of issues of the following popular women's health and fitness magazines: Fitness, Health, Self, Shape, and Women's Health, March 2013 through September 2013. Overall, 31 issues of the five magazines with a total of 780 articles and 1,986 advertisements were analyzed. Of the 780 articles, a mere 2.9% (n=23) were devoted to skin. Of the 258 skin product advertisements, less than 20% of the products contained sun protection factor (SPF). These findings suggest that women's health and fitness magazines can improve their efforts in informing women of skin cancer risks and preventive measures to minimize these risks. The role of these magazines in building health literacy among their readers is also discussed. PMID:24999136

  9. Making Our Health and Care Systems Fit for an Ageing Population: Considerations for Canada

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Melissa K.; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    A report from the United Kingdom on making health and care systems fit for an ageing population proposes a range of interventions to make care better for older adults, especially those who are frail. Here, we discuss the proposed shift for the acute care hospital to other models of care. The key for these models of care requires a fundamental shift to care that addresses the full range of an individual’s needs, rather than being based around single diseases. How this might apply in the Canadian context is considered. We emphasize strategies to keep people out of hospital but still receive needed care, make acute hospital care less hazardous, and improve the interface between acute and long-term care. PMID:25452826

  10. The Relative Age Effect and Physical Fitness Characteristics in German Male Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Ulbricht, Alexander; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to test: 1) whether the relative age effect (RAE) was prevalent in young (U12-U18) German male tennis players; 2) the potential influence of age and/or skill level on RAE and 3) whether maturity, anthropometric and fitness measures vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth tennis players. For the present study the following male populations were analysed: Overall German population (n = 3.216.811), all players affiliated to the German Tennis Federation (DTB) (n = 120.851), players with DTB official ranking (n = 7165), regional (n = 381) and national (n = 57) squads (11-17 years old), as well as the top 50 German senior players were analyzed. RAEs were more prevalent at higher competitive levels with more players born in the first quarter of the year compared with the reference population for ranked (29.6%), regional (38.1%) and national (42.1%) players. No systematic differences were found in any of the maturity, anthropometric and fitness characteristics of the regional squad players born across different quarters. RAEs are present in the DTB competitive system and it was more pronounced at higher competitive levels. Compared with early born, late born players who were selected into elite squads did not differ in maturation, anthropometric and fitness characteristics. Key points RAEsexist in the selection of youth tennis players in Germany, a greater percentage of players analyzed was born in the 1st quarter compared to all licensed tennis players in the country, and more pronounced with an increased competition level in youth players. Players born later in the selection year and still selected in elite squads were likely to be similar across a range of physical fitness attributes compared with those born earlier in the year. The selection process should be reevaluated and changed to reduce the impact of RAEs on tennis players. PMID:26336351

  11. Relative Replicative Fitness of Zidovudine-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolates In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Harrigan, P. Richard; Bloor, Stuart; Larder, Brendan A.

    1998-01-01

    Replication of mixtures of two or more human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants would be expected to result in the eventual selection of the fittest virus due to Darwinian competition among the variants. The relative proportions of known HIV-1 variants (which may differ only by a single nucleotide from a standard “wild-type” virus, HIV-1HXB2) in mixed viral cultures were quantified by analysis of automated sequence signals of reverse transcriptase PCR products. With this method, the relative levels of replicative fitness of several zidovudine (3′-azidothymidine)-resistant HIV-1HXB2 variants were estimated under controlled in vitro conditions by measuring the rate of change in the proportions of viral variants as they replicated in cell cultures both in the presence and in the absence of drug selection pressure. These variants were engineered to contain commonly observed zidovudine resistance mutations in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (M41L, K70R, T215Y, and M41L+T215Y). In the absence of zidovudine, all variants tested displayed reduced replicative fitness compared to wild-type HIV-1HXB2. The order of relative fitness was wild type > K70R ≫ T215Y = M41L+T215Y > M41L. Mixed cultures in the presence of zidovudine showed a dose-dependent selection pressure against the wild-type virus which varied according to the resistance profile of each virus. The information gathered from this approach provides insight into competition among multiple HIV-1 variants, which likely occurs in vivo with drug selection pressure, and may be applicable in more complex mathematical models for predicting the emergence of HIV-1 variants after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:9557659

  12. Tennis Play Intensity Distribution and Relation with Aerobic Fitness in Competitive Players.

    PubMed

    Baiget, Ernest; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime; Iglesias, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to describe the relative intensity of simulated tennis play based on the cumulative time spent in three metabolic intensity zones, and (ii) to determine the relationships between this play intensity distribution and the aerobic fitness of a group of competitive players. 20 male players of advanced to elite level (ITN) performed an incremental on-court specific endurance tennis test to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2). Ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were monitored using a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4 b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy). Two weeks later the participants played a simulated tennis set against an opponent of similar level. Intensity zones (1: low, 2: moderate, and 3: high) were delimited by the individual VO2 values corresponding to VT1 and VT2, and expressed as percentage of maximum VO2 and heart rate. When expressed relative to VO2max, percentage of playing time in zone 1 (77 ± 25%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in zone 2 (20 ± 21%) and zone 3 (3 ± 5%). Moderate to high positive correlations were found between VT1, VT2 and VO2max, and the percentage of playing time spent in zone 1 (r = 0.68-0.75), as well as low to high inverse correlations between the metabolic variables and the percentage of time spent in zone 2 and 3 (r = -0.49-0.75). Players with better aerobic fitness play at relatively lower intensities. We conclude that players spent more than 75% of the time in their low-intensity zone, with less than 25% of the time spent at moderate to high intensities. Aerobic fitness appears to determine the metabolic intensity that players can sustain throughout the game. PMID:26098638

  13. Tennis Play Intensity Distribution and Relation with Aerobic Fitness in Competitive Players

    PubMed Central

    Baiget, Ernest; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime; Iglesias, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to describe the relative intensity of simulated tennis play based on the cumulative time spent in three metabolic intensity zones, and (ii) to determine the relationships between this play intensity distribution and the aerobic fitness of a group of competitive players. 20 male players of advanced to elite level (ITN) performed an incremental on-court specific endurance tennis test to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2). Ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were monitored using a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4 b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy). Two weeks later the participants played a simulated tennis set against an opponent of similar level. Intensity zones (1: low, 2: moderate, and 3: high) were delimited by the individual VO2 values corresponding to VT1 and VT2, and expressed as percentage of maximum VO2 and heart rate. When expressed relative to VO2max, percentage of playing time in zone 1 (77 ± 25%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in zone 2 (20 ± 21%) and zone 3 (3 ± 5%). Moderate to high positive correlations were found between VT1, VT2 and VO2max, and the percentage of playing time spent in zone 1 (r = 0.68–0.75), as well as low to high inverse correlations between the metabolic variables and the percentage of time spent in zone 2 and 3 (r = -0.49–0.75). Players with better aerobic fitness play at relatively lower intensities. We conclude that players spent more than 75% of the time in their low-intensity zone, with less than 25% of the time spent at moderate to high intensities. Aerobic fitness appears to determine the metabolic intensity that players can sustain throughout the game. PMID:26098638

  14. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  15. Australia's international health relations in 2003

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, Simon

    2005-01-01

    A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages. PMID:15720728

  16. Short-term street soccer improves fitness and cardiovascular health status of homeless men.

    PubMed

    Randers, Morten B; Petersen, Jesper; Andersen, Lars Juel; Krustrup, Birgitte R; Hornstrup, Therese; Nielsen, Jens J; Nordentoft, Merete; Krustrup, Peter

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the effect of 12 weeks of small-sided street soccer (2.2 ± 0.7 sessions/week) and fitness center training (0.5 ± 0.2 sessions/week) on physical fitness and cardiovascular health profile for homeless men. Exercise capacity, maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), body composition (DXA scans), blood pressure (BP), and blood lipid profile were determined before and after the intervention period for 22 soccer-group subjects (SG) and 10 waiting list controls (CO). In addition, time-motion analyses, HR measurements, and pedometer recordings were performed during street soccer training and daily-life activities. During a 60 min 4 versus 4 street soccer session 182 ± 62 intense running bouts were performed; mean HR was 82 ± 4% HR(max) and HR was >90% HR(max) for 21 ± 12% (±SD) of total time. On a day without training the participants performed 10,733 ± 4,341 steps and HR was >80% HR(max) for 2.4 ± 4.3 min. In SG, VO(2max) was elevated (p < 0.05) from 36.7 ± 7.6 to 40.6 ± 8.6 ml/min/kg after 12 weeks and incremental cycle test performance was improved (p < 0.05) by 81 s (95% CI: 47-128 s). After 12 weeks, fat percentage (19.4 ± 8.5 to 17.5 ± 8.6%) and LDL cholesterol (3.2 ± 1.1 to 2.8 ± 0.8 mmol L(-1)) were lowered (p < 0.05) in SG. The observed changes in SG were different (p < 0.05) from CO and no intra-group changes occurred for CO (p > 0.05). BP was unaltered after 12 weeks (p > 0.05), but diastolic BP was lowered for all SG subjects with pre-values >75 mmHg (83 ± 6 to 76 ± 6 mmHg, n = 8, p < 0.05). In conclusion, the exercise intensity is high during street soccer and regular street soccer training can be used as an effective activity to promote physical fitness and cardiovascular health status for homeless men. PMID:21956486

  17. Relative financial burden of health care expenditures.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kevin J; Powell, M Paige; Probst, Janice C

    2010-01-01

    Out-of-pocket health expenditures potentially have a large impact on patients, particularly those with low incomes, leading to reduced utilization of health services and even bankruptcy. This analysis examines the burden of out-of-pocket spending, relative to total income, across several demographic groups. Rural residents had a higher relative burden than urban residents, as did women and Whites. Important policy implications are discussed. PMID:20391250

  18. Do soccer and Zumba exercise improve fitness and indicators of health among female hospital employees? A 12-week RCT.

    PubMed

    Barene, S; Krustrup, P; Jackman, S R; Brekke, O L; Holtermann, A

    2014-12-01

    This randomized controlled study investigated the effectiveness of soccer and Zumba on fitness and health indicators in female participants recruited from a workplace. One hundred seven hospital employees were cluster-randomized to either a soccer group (SG), Zumba group (ZG), or control group (CG). Intervention effects for the two training groups were compared with CG. The training was conducted outside working hours as 2-3 1-h sessions per week for 12 weeks. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ), fat percentage, fat mass, bone mineral content, and plasma osteocalcin were measured before and after the intervention period. Based on intention-to-treat-analyses, SG significantly improved the VO2peak relative to body mass (5%; P = 0.02) and decreased heart rate during 100-W cycle exercise (-7 bpm; P = 0.01), total body fat percentage (-1.1%; P = 0.002), and total body fat mass (-1.0 kg; P = 0.001) compared with CG. ZG significantly improved the VO2peak relative to body mass (5%; P = 0.03) and decreased total fat mass (-0.6 kg; P < 0.05) compared with CG. Plasma osteocalcin increased in SG (21%; P < 0.001) and ZG (10%; P = 0.01) compared with CG. The present study indicates that workplace initiated short-term soccer training as well as Zumba outside working hours may result in fitness and modest health benefits among female hospital employees. PMID:24151956

  19. Oral Health-related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Sischo, L.; Broder, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite its relatively recent emergence over the past few decades, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) has important implications for the clinical practice of dentistry and dental research. OHRQoL is a multidimensional construct that includes a subjective evaluation of the individual’s oral health, functional well-being, emotional well-being, expectations and satisfaction with care, and sense of self. It has wide-reaching applications in survey and clinical research. OHRQoL is an integral part of general health and well-being. In fact, it is recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an important segment of the Global Oral Health Program (2003). This paper identifies the what, why, and how of OHRQoL and presents an oral health theoretical model. The relevance of OHRQoL for dental practitioners and patients in community-based dental practices is presented. Implications for health policy and related oral health disparities are also discussed. A supplemental Appendix contains a Medline and ProQuest literature search regarding OHRQoL research from 1990-2010 by discipline and research design (e.g., descriptive, longitudinal, clinical trial, etc.). The search identified 300 articles with a notable surge in OHRQoL research in pediatrics and orthodontics in recent years. PMID:21422477

  20. Exergames for health and fitness: the roles of GPS and geosocial apps

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of children and adolescents in Canada, UK and USA are not getting their recommended daily dose of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and are thus more prone to obesity and its ill health effects. Exergames (video games that require physical activity to play) are rapidly gaining user acceptance, and may have the potential to increase physical activity levels among young people. Mobile exergames for GPS (global positioning system)-enabled smartphones and mini-tablets take players outdoors, in the open air, unlike console exergames, e.g., Xbox 360 Kinect exergames, which limit players to playing indoors in front of a TV set. In this paper and its companion ‘Additional file 1’, we review different examples of GPS exergames and of gamified geosocial apps and gadgets (mobile, location-aware apps and devices with social and gamification features), and briefly discuss some of the issues surrounding their use. Further research is needed to document best practices in this area, quantify the exact health and fitness benefits of GPS exergames and apps (under different settings and scenarios), and find out what is needed to improve them and the best ways to promote their adoption by the public. PMID:23561306

  1. Executive summary: the health and fitness benefits of regular participation in small-sided football games.

    PubMed

    Krustrup, P; Dvorak, J; Junge, A; Bangsbo, J

    2010-04-01

    The present special issue of Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports deals with health and fitness benefits of regular participation in small-sided football games. One review article and 13 original articles were the result of a 2-year multi-center study in Copenhagen and Zurich and include studies of different age groups analyzed from a physiological, medical, social and psychological perspective. The main groups investigated were middle-aged, former untrained, healthy men and women who were followed for up to 16 months. In addition, elderly, children and hypertensive patients were studied. A summary and interpretations of the main findings divided into an analysis of the physical demands during training of various groups and the effect of a period of training on performance, muscle adaptations and health profile follow. In addition, social and psychological effects on participation in recreational football are considered, the comparison of football training and endurance running is summarized and the effects of football practice on the elderly and children and youngsters are presented. PMID:20210910

  2. Exergames for health and fitness: the roles of GPS and geosocial apps.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Yang, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of children and adolescents in Canada, UK and USA are not getting their recommended daily dose of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and are thus more prone to obesity and its ill health effects. Exergames (video games that require physical activity to play) are rapidly gaining user acceptance, and may have the potential to increase physical activity levels among young people. Mobile exergames for GPS (global positioning system)-enabled smartphones and mini-tablets take players outdoors, in the open air, unlike console exergames, e.g., Xbox 360 Kinect exergames, which limit players to playing indoors in front of a TV set. In this paper and its companion 'Additional file 1', we review different examples of GPS exergames and of gamified geosocial apps and gadgets (mobile, location-aware apps and devices with social and gamification features), and briefly discuss some of the issues surrounding their use. Further research is needed to document best practices in this area, quantify the exact health and fitness benefits of GPS exergames and apps (under different settings and scenarios), and find out what is needed to improve them and the best ways to promote their adoption by the public. PMID:23561306

  3. Effects of fluoranthene on the fitness-related traits and antioxidative defense in Lymantria dispar L.

    PubMed

    Mrdaković, Marija; Ilijin, Larisa; Vlahović, Milena; Todorović, Dajana; Gavrilović, Anja; Mrkonja, Aleksandra; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluoranthene, supplemented to an artificial diet, on the fitness-related traits and activity of midgut antioxidative enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and expression of their isoforms in the fifth-instar gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. Prolonged duration of development and reduced weight and relative growth rate were recorded in larvae reared on the diets supplemented with different concentrations of fluoranthene. SOD and CAT activities were significantly higher in the midguts of fluoranthene-treated larvae, compared to that of the control group. Different expression patterns were detected for SOD as well as for CAT isoforms, depending on the supplemented concentration of fluoranthene. Obtained results suggest that the activity of these enzymes in gypsy moth larvae may be used as biomarkers for assessing pollution, even at low concentrations of the pollutant. PMID:25976328

  4. Time and size at metamorphosis related to adult fitness in Ambystoma talpoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Semlitsch, R.D.; Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.

    1988-02-01

    The relationships among timing of metamorphosis, size at metamorphosis, and traits related to adult fitness were studied for 8 yr in the salamander Ambystoma talpoideum at a temporary pond. Among years, the modal time of metamorphosis and mean body size at metamorphosis were positively correlated with the date the pond dried. In years that the pond dried late, one group of larvae metamorphosed well before the pond dried, whereas the other group metamorphosed just before pond drying. Mean body size of late-metamorphosing individuals was not greater than that of individuals metamorphosing early. Early-metamorphosing males and females were larger at first and second reproduction than were late-metamorphosing individuals. Independent of timing of metamorphosis, larger juveniles at metamorphosis were also larger adults at first reproduction. Age at first reproduction for males was not associated with timing of or size at metamorphosis but large early-metamorphosing females reproduced at a younger age than did small early-metamorphosing females. Neither time of metamorphosis nor size at metamorphosis was associated with survival to first reproduction. These results demonstrate a direct relationship between phenotypic variation generated in the larval stage and adult traits closely associated with an individual's fitness.

  5. Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: an event-related cortical desynchronization study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10 ± 2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. PMID:25308605

  6. A comparison between heart rate and heart rate variability as indicators of cardiac health and fitness.

    PubMed

    Grant, Catharina C; Murray, Carien; Janse van Rensburg, Dina C; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2013-01-01

    Quantification of cardiac autonomic activity and control via heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) is known to provide prognostic information in clinical populations. Issues with regard to standardization and interpretation of HRV data make the use of the more easily accessible HR on its own as an indicator of autonomic cardiac control very appealing. The aim of this study was to investigate the strength of associations between an important cardio vascular health metric such as VO2max and the following: HR, HRV indicators, and HR normalized HRV indicators. A cross sectional descriptive study was done including 145 healthy volunteers aged between 18 and 22 years. HRV was quantified by time domain, frequency domain and Poincaré plot analysis. Indirect VO2max was determined using the Multistage Coopers test. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to quantify the strength of the associations. Both simple linear and multiple stepwise regressions were performed to be able to discriminate between the role of the individual indicators as well as their combined association with VO2max. Only HR, RR interval, and pNN50 showed significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p = 0.03) correlations with VO2max. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that, when combining all HRV indicators the most important predictor of cardio vascular fitness as represented by VO2max, is HR. HR explains 17% of the variation, while the inclusion of HF (high frequency HRV indicator) added only an additional 3.1% to the coefficient of determination. Results also showed when testing the normalized indicators, HR explained of the largest percentage of the changes in VO2max (16.5%). Thus, HR on its own is the most important predictor of changes in an important cardiac health metric such as VO2max. These results may indicate that during investigation of exercise ability (VO2max) phenomena, quantification of HRV may not add significant value. PMID:24312058

  7. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored. PMID:16521670

  8. Relation between aerobic fitness and brain structures in amnestic mild cognitive impairment elderly.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Camila Vieira Ligo; Rezende, Thiago J R; Weiler, Marina; Nogueira, Mateus H; Campos, Brunno M; Pegoraro, Luiz F L; Vicentini, Jessica E; Scriptore, Gabriela; Cendes, Fernando; Balthazar, Marcio L F

    2016-06-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a clinical condition, with high risk to develop Alzheimer's disease. Physical exercise may have positive effect on cognition and brain structure in older adults. However, it is still under research whether these influences are true on aMCI subjects with low Ab_42 and high total tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is considered a biomarker for AD. Therefore, we aimed to investigate a possible relation between aerobic fitness (AF) and gray matter (GM) volume and AF and white matter (WM) integrity in aMCI with a CSF biomarker. Twenty-two participants with aMCI acquired the images on a 3.0-T MRI. AF was assessed by a graded exercise test on a treadmill. Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistic methods were used to analyze the GM volume and WM microstructural integrity, respectively. We correlated AF and GM volume and WM integrity in aMCI (p < 0.05, FWE corrected, cluster with at least five voxels). There was a positive relation between AF and GM volume mostly in frontal superior cortex. In WM integrity, AF was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy and negatively correlated with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity, all in the same tracts that interconnect frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas (longitudinal fasciculus, fronto-occipital fasciculus, and corpus callosum). These results suggest that aerobic fitness may have a positive influence on protection of brain even in aMCI CSF biomarker, a high-risk population to convert to AD. PMID:27106271

  9. Oral health related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Bennadi, Darshana; Reddy, C. V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Diseases and disorders that damage the mouth and face can disturb well-being and his self-esteem. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) is a relatively new but rapidly growing notion. The concept of OHRQOL can become a tool to understand and shape not only the state of clinical practice, dental research and dental education but also that of community at large. There are different approaches to measure OHRQOL; the most popular one is multiple item questionnaires. OHRQOL should be the basis for any oral health programme development. Moreover, research at the conceptual level is needed in countries where OHRQOL has not been previously assessed, including India. PMID:24478972

  10. Pilot Implementation of the Improving Children's Health through Farming, Food, and Fitness Program in Select California Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heneman, Karrie; Junge, Sharon K.; Schneider, Connie; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this pilot project was to evaluate the effect of the Improving Children's Health through Farming, Food, and Fitness Program (CHF3) on the dietary knowledge and habits of participating children. Methods: The CHF3 program aims to 1) establish salad bars and integrate nutrition messages into cafeteria activities; 2) develop…

  11. Demographic shifts related to mycoheterotrophy and their fitness impacts in two Cephalanthera species.

    PubMed

    Shefferson, Richard P; Roy, Mélanie; Püttsepp, Ülle; Selosse, Marc-André

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary losses of photosynthesis in terrestrial plants all originate in photosynthetic ancestors. The adaptive context under which this transition happens has remained elusive because of the rarity of plants in which both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic forms exist as a polymorphism. Here, we report on demographic patterns in photosynthetic ("green") and nonphotosynthetic ("albino") individuals within populations of two such species, Cephalanthera damasonium and C. longifolia, which also acquire nutrition from their mycorrhizal hosts (partial mycoheterotrophy). We hypothesized that demographic shifts in albinos relative to greens would include compensatory patterns with respect to fitness, such that maladaptive changes to survival or reproduction would be adaptively countered by changes to other parameters, such as growth probabilities. We tracked individuals in two populations of C. damasonium for 3 yr, and in one population of C. longifolia for 14 yr. We then analyzed vital rates for both phenotypes using general linear mixed models (GLMMs) and multi-state capture mark-recapture models (CMR), and used these models to develop size-classified, function-based population projection matrices. We estimated fitness as the deterministic population growth rate (λ) for each phenotype, and explored the impact of shifts in demographic patterns to albinism via life table response experiments (LTREs). Mortality differed between greens and albinos, but not similarly across species. Albinos generally sprouted less than greens, and flowered more when small but less at other times. Albinos typically had a higher probability of fruiting, although their lower flower numbers yielded lower numbers of fruits overall. Fitness did not differ significantly among phenotypes. Thus, we did not find significant evidence that albinism is adaptive or maladaptive; however, if in fact it is the latter, then we did find evidence of incomplete compensation for declines in survival and

  12. Lifting a veil on diversity: a Bayesian approach to fitting relative-abundance models.

    PubMed

    Golicher, Duncan J; O'Hara, Robert B; Ruíz-Montoya, Lorena; Cayuela, Luis

    2006-02-01

    Bayesian methods incorporate prior knowledge into a statistical analysis. This prior knowledge is usually restricted to assumptions regarding the form of probability distributions of the parameters of interest, leaving their values to be determined mainly through the data. Here we show how a Bayesian approach can be applied to the problem of drawing inference regarding species abundance distributions and comparing diversity indices between sites. The classic log series and the lognormal models of relative- abundance distribution are apparently quite different in form. The first is a sampling distribution while the other is a model of abundance of the underlying population. Bayesian methods help unite these two models in a common framework. Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation can be used to fit both distributions as small hierarchical models with shared common assumptions. Sampling error can be assumed to follow a Poisson distribution. Species not found in a sample, but suspected to be present in the region or community of interest, can be given zero abundance. This not only simplifies the process of model fitting, but also provides a convenient way of calculating confidence intervals for diversity indices. The method is especially useful when a comparison of species diversity between sites with different sample sizes is the key motivation behind the research. We illustrate the potential of the approach using data on fruit-feeding butterflies in southern Mexico. We conclude that, once all assumptions have been made transparent, a single data set may provide support for the belief that diversity is negatively affected by anthropogenic forest disturbance. Bayesian methods help to apply theory regarding the distribution of abundance in ecological communities to applied conservation. PMID:16705973

  13. Training for impact: the socio-economic impact of a fit for purpose health workforce on communities.

    PubMed

    Pálsdóttir, Björg; Barry, Jean; Bruno, Andreia; Barr, Hugh; Clithero, Amy; Cobb, Nadia; De Maeseneer, Jan; Kiguli-Malwadde, Elsie; Neusy, André-Jacques; Reeves, Scott; Strasser, Roger; Worley, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Across the globe, a "fit for purpose" health professional workforce is needed to meet health needs and challenges while capitalizing on existing resources and strengths of communities. However, the socio-economic impact of educating and deploying a fit for purpose health workforce can be challenging to evaluate. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of six promising strategies and interventions that provide context-relevant health professional education within the health system. The strategies focused on in the paper are:1. Distributed community-engaged learning: Education occurs in or near underserved communities using a variety of educational modalities including distance learning. Communities served provide input into and actively participate in the education process.2. Curriculum aligned with health needs: The health and social needs of targeted communities guide education, research and service programmes.3. Fit for purpose workers: Education and career tracks are designed to meet the needs of the communities served. This includes cadres such as community health workers, accelerated medically trained clinicians and extended generalists.4. Gender and social empowerment: Ensuring a diverse workforce that includes women having equal opportunity in education and are supported in their delivery of health services.5. Interprofessional training: Teaching the knowledge, skills and attitudes for working in effective teams across professions.6. South-south and north-south partnerships: Sharing of best practices and resources within and between countries.In sum, the sharing of resources, the development of a diverse and interprofessional workforce, the advancement of primary care and a strong community focus all contribute to a world where transformational education improves community health and maximizes the social and economic return on investment. PMID:27523088

  14. Entering Adulthood: Moving into Fitness. A Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Contemporary Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Betty M.

    This module includes seven lessons designed to help students in grades 9-12 enhance their present and future levels of fitness. It begins with an exploration of the meaning and benefits of fitness. In lesson 1, students complete an inventory to assess their present level of physical activity. Lesson 2 deals with students' feelings about their…

  15. Talking Sport and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Keogh, Brenda; Naylor, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    For some time the Association for Science Education (ASE) has been aware that it would be useful to have some resources available to get children talking and thinking about issues related to health, sport and fitness. Some of the questions about pulse, breathing rate and so on are pretty obvious to everyone, and there is a risk of these being…

  16. The Other 23 Hours: A Qualitative Study of Fitness Provider Perspectives on Social Support for Health Promotion for Adults with Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Aschbrenner, Kelly; Mueser, Kim; Bartels, Stephen; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Pratt, Sarah; Barre, Laura; Naslund, John; Kinney, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Current efforts to reduce the increased risk of premature death from preventable cardiovascular disease among adults with serious mental illness (SMI) through lifestyle change have had limited success. Engaging informal support systems to promote healthy behaviors in everyday life may increase the effectiveness of health promotion interventions targeting this at-risk population. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 fitness trainers serving adults with SMI in a health promotion program at community mental health centers to explore their perspectives on the potential of enlisting support from significant others for health behavior change. Trainers reported that the majority of participants had a relative or significant other who influenced their health behaviors, and they saw potential value in involving them in efforts to improve health outcomes by extending support into participants' daily lives. They did not feel qualified to work with families of individuals with mental illness, but they were willing to partner with providers who had experience in this area. Social workers who practice with families could play a critical role on health promotion teams addressing cardiovascular risk in adults with SMI by using their skills and experiences to engage families in supporting a relative through the process of health behavior change. PMID:26027417

  17. Effect of supervised, periodized exercise training vs. self-directed training on lean body mass and other fitness variables in health club members.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Berenc, Matthew N; Timmins, John E; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-07-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that exercise training with a personal trainer (PTr) is more beneficial for improving health-related fitness than training alone. However, there are no published data that confirm whether fitness club members who exercise with a PTr in the fitness club setting obtain superior results compared with self-directed training. We hypothesized that club members randomized to receive an evidence-based training program would accrue greater improvements in lean body mass (LBM) and other fitness measures than members randomized to self-training. Men, aged 30-44 years, who were members of a single Southern California fitness club were randomized to exercise with a PTr administering a nonlinear periodized training program (TRAINED, N = 17) or to self-directed training (SELF, N = 17); both groups trained 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Lean body mass was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcomes included muscle strength 1 repetition maximum (1RM), leg power (vertical jump), and aerobic capacity (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). TRAINED individuals increased LBM by 1.3 (0.4) kg, mean (SEM) vs. no change in SELF, p = 0.029. Similarly, significantly greater improvements were seen for TRAINED vs. SELF in chest press strength (42 vs. 19%; p = 0.003), peak leg power (6 vs. 0.6%; p < 0.0001), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (7 vs. -0.3%; p = 0.01). Leg press strength improved 38 and 25% in TRAINED and SELF, respectively (p = 0.14). We have demonstrated for the first time in a fitness club setting that members whose training is directed by well-qualified PTrs administering evidence-based training regimens achieve significantly greater improvements in LBM and other dimensions of fitness than members who direct their own training. PMID:24276303

  18. Periodontal Infection and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Younger Adults: Results from Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Papapanou, Panos N.; Jacobs, David R.; Desvarieux, Moïse

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies report associations between periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness but no study has examined the association among younger adults. Our objective was to study the association between clinical measures of periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness levels among a population-based sample of younger adults. Methods The Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004 enrolled 2,863 participants (46% women) who received a partial-mouth periodontal examination and completed a submaximal treadmill test for the assessment of estimated VO2 max(eVO2 max ). Participants were mean±SD age 33±9 years (range = 20–49 years), 30% Hispanic, 48% White, 19% Black, and 3% other. Mean eVO2 max (mL/kg/minute) as well as eVO2 max≤32 mL/kg/minute (20th percentile) were regressed across quartiles of mean probing depth and mean attachment loss in multivariable linear and logistic regression models. Results After multivariable adjustment, mean eVO2 max levels±SE across quartiles of attachment loss were 39.72±0.37, 39.64±0.34, 39.59±0.36, and 39.85±0.39 (P = 0.99). Mean eVO2 max±SE across quartiles of probing depth were 39.57±0.32, 39.78±0.38, 39.19±0.25, and 40.37±0.53 (P = 0.28). Similarly, multivariable adjusted mean eVO2 max values were similar between healthy participants vs. those with moderate/severe periodontitis: 39.70±0.21 vs. 39.70±0.90 (P = 1.00). The odds ratio (OR) for low eVO2 max comparing highest vs. lowest quartile of attachment loss = 0.89[95% CI 0.64–1.24]. The OR for comparing highest vs. lowest probing depth quartile = 0.77[95% CI 0.51–1.15]. Conclusion Clinical measures of periodontal infection were not related to cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of generally healthy younger adults. PMID:24663097

  19. Adaptive divergence for a fitness-related trait among invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia populations in France.

    PubMed

    Chun, Young Jin; LE Corre, Valérie; Bretagnolle, François

    2011-04-01

    The impact of natural selection on the adaptive divergence of invasive populations can be assessed by testing the null hypothesis that the extent of quantitative genetic differentiation (Q(ST) ) would be similar to that of neutral molecular differentiation (F(ST) ). Using eight microsatellite loci and a common garden approach, we compared Q(ST) and F(ST) among ten populations of an invasive species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) in France. In a common garden study with varying water and nutrient levels, we measured Q(ST) for five traits (height, total biomass, reproductive allocation, above- to belowground biomass ratio, and days to flowering). Although low F(ST) indicated weak genetic structure and strong gene flow among populations, we found significant diversifying selection (Q(ST) > F(ST) ) for reproductive allocation that may be closely related to fitness. It suggests that abiotic conditions may have exerted selection pressure on A. artemisiifolia populations to differentiate adaptively, such that populations at higher altitude or latitude evolved greater reproductive allocation. As previous studies indicate multiple introductions from various source populations of A. artemisiifolia in North America, our results suggest that the admixture of introduced populations may have increased genetic diversity and additive genetic variance, and in turn, promoted the rapid evolution and adaptation of this invasive species. PMID:21306459

  20. Spontaneous mutational variances and covariances for fitness-related traits in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, J.; Lopez-Fanjul, C.

    1996-06-01

    Starting from a completely homozygous population of Drosophila melanogaster, 176 lines were derived and independently maintained by a single brother-sister mating per generation. Three fitness-related traits were considered (fecundity, egg-to-pupa and pupa-to-adult viabilities). Mutational heritabilities of these traits and genetic correlations between all possible pairs were calculated from the between line divergence (codivergence), after 104-106 generations of mutation accumulation. Mutational heritabilities ranged from 0.60 x 10{sup -3} to 0.82 x 10{sup -3} and correlations from -0.11 to 0.25. These values are likely to be underestimates due to selection against deleterious mutations. The distribution of the means of the lines was asymmetric, positive for fecundity and negative for both viability components. The coefficients of asymmetry are also likely to be biased, again due to selection. Extreme lines from the two tails of the distribution were examined in detail. Homozygous line effects were all negative for viability traits but predominantly positive for fecundity, indicating the fixation of mutations with positive effects on the latter. Corresponding heterozygous line effects showed a variable degree of dominance. 30 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  1. A review of cardiorespiratory fitness-related neuroplasticity in the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Scott M.; Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Cadden, Margaret; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    The literature examining the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and the brain in older adults has increased rapidly, with 30 of 34 studies published since 2008. Here we review cross-sectional and exercise intervention studies in older adults examining the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and brain structure and function, typically assessed using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Studies of patients with Alzheimer's disease are discussed when available. The structural MRI studies revealed a consistent positive relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and brain volume in cortical regions including anterior cingulate, lateral prefrontal, and lateral parietal cortex. Support for a positive relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and medial temporal lobe volume was less consistent, although evident when a region-of-interest approach was implemented. In fMRI studies, cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults was associated with activation in similar regions as those identified in the structural studies, including anterior cingulate, lateral prefrontal, and lateral parietal cortex, despite heterogeneity among the functional tasks implemented. This comprehensive review highlights the overlap in brain regions showing a positive relationship with cardiorespiratory fitness in both structural and functional imaging modalities. The findings suggest that aerobic exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness contribute to healthy brain aging, although additional studies in Alzheimer's disease are needed. PMID:23874299

  2. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases. PMID:20390976

  3. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exercise Current Sports Medicine Reports Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal Guidelines Books & Multimedia Sports Medicine Basics Fact Sheets Sports Medicine & Physical Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Fit ...

  4. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Public Information Newsletters ACSM Blog ACSM Blog Search By ... Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Home Public Information Newsletters Fit Society Page ACSM Fit Society ® ...

  5. Occupational health related concerns among surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Anjuman Gul; Naeem, Zahid; Zaman, Atif; Zahid, Faryal

    2016-01-01

    The surgeon’s daily workload renders him/her susceptible to a variety of the common work-related illness. They are exposed to a number of occupational hazards in their professional work. These hazards include sharp injuries, blood borne pathogens, latex allergy, laser plumes, hazardous chemicals, anesthetic gases, equipment hazards, static postures, and job related stressors. However, many pay little attention to their health, and neither do they seek the appropriate help when necessary. It is observed that occupational hazards pose a huge risk to the personal well-being of surgeons. As such, the importance of early awareness and education alongside prompt intervention is duly emphasized. Therefore, increased attention to the health, economic, personal, and social implications of these injuries is essential for appropriate management and future prevention. These risks are as great as any other occupational hazards affecting surgeons today. The time has come to recognize and address them. PMID:27103909

  6. Occupational health related concerns among surgeons.

    PubMed

    Memon, Anjuman Gul; Naeem, Zahid; Zaman, Atif; Zahid, Faryal

    2016-04-01

    The surgeon's daily workload renders him/her susceptible to a variety of the common work-related illness. They are exposed to a number of occupational hazards in their professional work. These hazards include sharp injuries, blood borne pathogens, latex allergy, laser plumes, hazardous chemicals, anesthetic gases, equipment hazards, static postures, and job related stressors. However, many pay little attention to their health, and neither do they seek the appropriate help when necessary. It is observed that occupational hazards pose a huge risk to the personal well-being of surgeons. As such, the importance of early awareness and education alongside prompt intervention is duly emphasized. Therefore, increased attention to the health, economic, personal, and social implications of these injuries is essential for appropriate management and future prevention. These risks are as great as any other occupational hazards affecting surgeons today. The time has come to recognize and address them. PMID:27103909

  7. Effects of Exercise Training on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Biomarkers of Cardiometabolic Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Jianjun; Roberts, Christian K; McKenzie, Steve; Wu, Wen-Chih; Liu, Simin; Song, Yiqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Guidelines recommend exercise for cardiovascular health, although evidence from trials linking exercise to cardiovascular health through intermediate biomarkers remains inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to quantify the impact of exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and a variety of conventional and novel cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults without cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results Two researchers selected 160 randomized controlled trials (7487 participants) based on literature searches of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central (January 1965 to March 2014). Data were extracted using a standardized protocol. A random-effects meta-analysis and systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effects of exercise interventions on cardiorespiratory fitness and circulating biomarkers. Exercise significantly raised absolute and relative cardiorespiratory fitness. Lipid profiles were improved in exercise groups, with lower levels of triglycerides and higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1. Lower levels of fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c were found in exercise groups. Compared with controls, exercise groups had higher levels of interleukin-18 and lower levels of leptin, fibrinogen, and angiotensin II. In addition, we found that the exercise effects were modified by age, sex, and health status such that people aged <50 years, men, and people with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or metabolic syndrome appeared to benefit more. Conclusions This meta-analysis showed that exercise significantly improved cardiorespiratory fitness and some cardiometabolic biomarkers. The effects of exercise were modified by age, sex, and health status. Findings from this study have significant implications for future design of targeted lifestyle interventions. PMID:26116691

  8. Effects of 32-year leisure time physical activity discordance in twin pairs on health (TWINACTIVE study): aims, design and results for physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Leskinen, Tuija; Waller, Katja; Mutikainen, Sara; Aaltonen, Sari; Ronkainen, Paula H A; Alén, Markku; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko; Perhonen, Merja; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Cheng, Sulin; Suominen, Harri; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M

    2009-02-01

    The physically active lifestyle is associated with low future morbidity and mortality, but the causality between physical activity and health is not always clear. As some inherited biological characteristics and childhood experiences may cause selection bias in observational studies, we sought to take them into account by identifying 16 twin pairs (7 MZ, 9 DZ, mean age 60 years) discordant for leisure time physical activity habits for thirty years. We conducted detailed health-related examinations among these twin pairs. Our main aims were to study the effects of physical activity and genes on fitness and body composition, with special reference to body fat compartments, metabolic syndrome components and related diseases and risk factor levels, status of arteries, structure and function of the heart, bone properties, and muscle and fat tissue-related mechanisms linked to physical activity and chronic disease development. Our physical activity assessments showed that inactive co-twins were on average 8.8 MET hours/day less active than their active co-twins through out their midlife (2.2+/-2.3 vs. 11.0+/-4.1 MET h/day, p< .001). Follow-up fitness tests showed that physically inactive co-twins were less fit than their active co-twins (estimated VO(2peak) 26.4+/-4.9 vs. 32.5+/-5.5 ml/kg/min, p< .001). Similar differences were found in both MZ and DZ pairs. On the basis of earlier epidemiological observations on nonrelated individuals, these physical activity and fitness differences are large enough to cause differences in many mechanisms and risk factors related to the development of chronic diseases and to permit future analyses. PMID:19210186

  9. Elevated carbon dioxide alters the relative fitness of Taraxacum officinale genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    I tested whether elevated carbon dioxide concentration differentially affected which genotypes of the apomictic species dandelion produced the largest number of viable seeds in two different field experiments, and identified morphological and physiological traits associated with fitness at elevated ...

  10. Modifying the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time to Measure Teacher Practices Related to Physical Activity Promotion: SOFIT+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin A.; Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Beets, Michael W.; Choukroun, Hadrien; Kaysing, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) is commonly used to measure variables related to physical activity during physical education (PE). However, SOFIT does not yield detailed information about teacher practices related to children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study describes the modification of SOFIT…

  11. Relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and selected risk factors for coronary heart disease in a population of Canadian men and women.

    PubMed Central

    Jetté, M; Sidney, K; Quenneville, J; Landry, F

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between cardiorespiratory fitness, as determined with the Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (CAFT), and selected risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Canadian population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. On the basis of age-specific and sex-specific national percentile scores, subjects were classified as being in the low-fitness, moderate-fitness or high-fitness category according to maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) predicted from performance on the CAFT. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4082 male and 1205 female Canadian federal public servants aged 30 to 59 years who participated in a voluntary fitness testing program between 1984 and 1991. OUTCOME MEASURES: Body composition (body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, sum of four skinfold measurements, predicted percentage of body fat and waist-hip ratio), blood lipid levels (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C) and hemodynamic measurements (heart rate and blood pressure at rest and during exercise and predicted VO2 max). MAIN RESULTS: For both men and women the mean anthropometric measurements, blood lipid levels and blood pressure measurements at rest and after exercise were significantly associated with fitness category (p less than 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In both men and women a higher level of aerobic fitness, as defined by VO2 max predicted from performance on the CAFT, is associated with a more favourable CHD risk profile. The results support the use of VO2 max predicted from performance on the CAFT as a valid procedure for classifying people according to fitness level. PMID:1555164

  12. A Crack Where the Light Gets In: A Study of Health and Physical Education Teachers' Perspectives on Fitness Testing as a Context for Learning about Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfrey, Laura; Gard, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive critique, the teaching of Health and Physical Education (HPE) continues to be characterised by individualised and performative ideologies which are reflected in part by a continued focus upon fitness testing. There has been little attempt, however, to explore Australian HPE teachers' thoughts and reasoning for its privileged…

  13. Effects of Aerobic Fitness on Aging-Related Changes of Interhemispheric Inhibition and Motor Performance

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Keith M.; Nocera, Joe R.; Sudhyadhom, Atchar; Patten, Carolynn; Manini, Todd M.; Kleim, Jeffrey A.; Crosson, Bruce; Butler, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Physical fitness has been long associated with maintenance and improvement of motor performance as we age. In particular, measures of psychomotor speed and motor dexterity tend to be higher in physically fit aging adults as compared to their sedentary counterparts. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we explored the patterns of neural activity that may, in part, account for differences between individuals of varying physical fitness levels. In this study, we enrolled both sedentary and physically fit middle age (40–60) and younger (18–30) adults and measured upper extremity motor performance during behavioral testing. In a follow-up session, we employed TMS and fMRI to assess levels of interhemispheric communication during unimanual tasks. Results show that increased physical fitness is associated with better upper extremity motor performance on distal dexterity assessments and increased levels of interhemispheric inhibition in middle age adults. Further, the functional correlates of changes of ipsilateral activity appears to be restricted to the aging process as younger adults of varying fitness levels do not differ in hemispheric patterns of activity or motor performance. We conclude that sedentary aging confers a loss of interhemispheric inhibition that is deleterious to some aspects of motor function, as early as midlife, but these changes can be mediated by chronic engagement in aerobic exercise. PMID:24198784

  14. Personal financial incentives in health promotion: where do they fit in an ethic of autonomy?

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, Richard E

    2011-01-01

    Aim This paper reviews the ethical controversy concerning the use of monetary incentives in health promotion, focussing specifically on the arguments relating to the impact on personal autonomy of such incentives. Background Offering people small amounts of money in the context of health promotion and medical care has been attempted in a number of settings in recent years. This use of personal financial incentives has attracted a degree of ethical controversy. One form of criticism is that such schemes interfere with the autonomy of the patient or citizen in an illegitimate way. Methods This paper presents a thematic analysis of the main arguments concerning personal autonomy and the use of monetary incentives in behaviour change. Results The main moral objections to the uses of incentives are that they may be in general or in specific instances paternalistic, coercive, involve bribery, or undermine the agency of the person. Conclusion While incentive schemes may engage these problems on occasion, there is no good reason to think that they do so inherently and of necessity. We need better behavioural science evidence to understand how incentives work, in order to evaluate their moral effects in practice. PMID:21348904

  15. Health Literacy and Women's Health-Related Behaviors in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Tsai, Tzu-I; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Ken N.

    2012-01-01

    Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food…

  16. Serum Vitamin D status and its relations to body fatness and fitness and risk factors in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinkook; Gong, Jiyoung; Hong, Hyeryun; Ha, Changduk; Kang, Hyunsik

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relations of serum vitamin D levels to body fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and metabolic risk factors in young adults in Korea. A total of 593 young men completed a health examination, body fatness, maximal treadmill exercise test, and assessment of metabolic risk factors. Participants were classified by serum vitamin D levels as deficient (< 20 ng/mL), insufficient (20~30 ng/mL), and sufficient (> 30 ng/mL). Body fatness, CRF, and metabolic risk factors were evaluated according to serum vitamin D classification. Significant inverse trends in body fatness and metabolic risk factors were observed, as was a significant linear trend for CRF across incremental vitamin D categories in this study population. Serum vitamin D levels were negatively associated with body fatness parameters, blood pressures, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin and positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and CRF. Compared to the BMI-based lean group, the obese groups had significantly higher odds ratio for serum vitamin D insufficiency before and after adjusting for age, CRF, and physical activity. Similarly, compared to percent body fat- and waist circumference-based lean groups, the obese groups had significant higher odds ratios for serum vitamin D insufficiency. In conclusion, the current findings of the study suggest that along with vitamin D intakes, body fat loss and outdoor physical activity should be promoted as non-pharmacologic means to improve metabolic risk factors in young adults. PMID:25566425

  17. The Texas Youth Fitness Study: Looking at School Policies as They Relate to Physical Fitness and Academic Variables. Program Results Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiden, Karyn

    2011-01-01

    In partnership with three universities, the Cooper Institute, Dallas, completed the Texas Youth Fitness Study from 2008 to 2009. The study explored three key questions: (1) Is physical fitness associated with academic performance?; (2) Can physical education teachers collect high-quality information on student fitness?; and (3) Are school policies…

  18. [Health and social harm related alcohol].

    PubMed

    Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Sordo, Luis; Molist, Gemma; Hoyos, Juan; Guitart, Anna M; Barrio, Gregorio

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol affects the brain and most organs and systems, and its use is related to a large number of health problems. These include mental, neurological, digestive, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, perinatal, cancerous, and infectious diseases, as well as intentional and non-intentional injuries. Physiopathological mechanisms still remain unraveled, though direct toxicity of ethanol and its metabolites, nutritional deficit and intestinal microbial endotoxin absorption have been suggested, all of which would be further modulated by use patterns and genetic and environmental factors. Individually it is difficult to precisely predict who will or will not suffer health consequences. At population level several disorders show a linear or exponential dose-response relationship, as is the case with various cancer types, hepatopathies, injuries, and probably risky behaviors such as unsafe sex. Other health problems such as general mortality in people above 45 years of age, ischemic disease or diabetes mellitus show a J-shaped relationship with alcohol use. The overall effect of alcohol on the global burden of disease is highly detrimental, despite the possible beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. Large differences are found by country, age, gender, socioeconomic and other factors. Disease burden is mostly related with alcohol's capacity to produce dependence and with acute intoxication. Often alcohol also produces negative consequences for other people (violence, unattended family or work duties, etc) which are generally not taken into account when evaluating burden of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the main alcohol-related social and health harms, as well as their generating mechanisms, using secondary data sources. PMID:25090405

  19. Links Between Workplace Spirituality, Job-Related Attitudes, and Value Fit in a Non-Profit Agency.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kimberly T; DeSouza, Eros R; Durst, Renee N

    2015-01-01

    We examined perceptions of spirituality and meaning among 192 employees (77% female) from a non-profit organization in a mid-sized Midwestern city in the United States. We hypothesized that employees' values related to workplace spirituality would be positively related to various measures of job satisfaction and general meaning in life. We also examined employees' perceptions of the fit of their co-workers' values with the agency mission and predicted that these perceptions would act as a moderator of the relationship between employees' workplace spirituality and job satisfaction. Our hypotheses were generally supported. Spirituality predicted work contributing to the meaning of life and various facets of job satisfaction. Implications of the importance of employees' perceptions of organizational fit related to spirituality and the perceived fit of co-workers' values with the organizational mission are discussed. PMID:26151169

  20. A toolbox for health risk related decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, C.E.; Jones, T.D.

    1996-10-01

    Development efforts since the late 1970s have resulted in a generalized method for ranking health hazards. This method provides the basis for a wide range of applications where decisions are needed for allocating resources on the basis of health risk considerations. It has been used for more than a decade to solve real problems, and it is supported by 23 publications in the open literature. The diversity of this generalized methodology allows us to provide support in a great number of problem areas. we give four examples in this manuscript: the relative toxicities of petroleum mixtures; a method to derive Emergency Response Planning Guides; an estimate of the possible carcinogenic potency of tungsten, an alternative material to depleted uranium for heavy armor penetrators; and an approach to low dose extrapolation. Our experience suggests that many more applications of the original concept and variations on it can be of utility in military situations. Some potentially fruitful areas may be in the: development of a health-risk-ranking system for alternative solutions to manufacturing, waste management, and remediation; provision of a basis for identifying levels of hazardous agents which are below health concerns, or which should be of concern; development of a framework for evaluating chemicals and radioactive materials on the same basis, and in the development of a battery of in vitro bioassays which could take the place of long-term whole animal tests.

  1. [Health aspects of diving in ENT medicine. Part II: Diving fitness].

    PubMed

    Klingmann, C; Wallner, F

    2004-09-01

    Diving has become increasingly popular. With the growing number of patients who want to dive, there is an increasing number of divers who require their regular medical examination. As ENT problems are the most common disorders in divers, otorhinolaryngologists regularly have to assess the diver's fitness. It should be noted that an ENT examination does not certify complete fitness to dive! Diving can be resumed 3 months after middle ear surgery, especially after tympanoplastic type I, II and III with insertion of a PORP, when there is regular middle ear ventilation without atrophic scars of the tympanic membrane. Even after stapes surgery, diving can be resumed when there are no signs of vestibular irritation during a provocation test. By 3 months after sinus surgery, the diver should perform a test dive under supervision before fitness to dive can be certified. After inner ear barotrauma, the diver remains fit to dive depending on his hearing ability in the involved ear. After inner ear decompression illness, one should look for a vascular right-to-left shunt before diving can be resumed. These and many more aspects are discussed in this article on how to determine whether a diver with ENT problems is fit to dive. PMID:15221086

  2. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001). The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001). The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors (smoking, regular

  3. Learning Curves: Making Quality Online Health Information Available at a Fitness Center

    PubMed Central

    Dobbins, Montie T.; Tarver, Talicia; Adams, Mararia; Jones, Dixie A.

    2012-01-01

    Meeting consumer health information needs can be a challenge. Research suggests that women seek health information from a variety of resources, including the Internet. In an effort to make women aware of reliable health information sources, the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center – Shreveport Medical Library engaged in a partnership with a franchise location of Curves International, Inc. This article will discuss the project, its goals and its challenges. PMID:22545020

  4. Health-related quality of life and related factors of military police officers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to determine the effect of demographic characteristics, occupation, anthropometric indices, and leisure-time physical activity levels on coronary risk and health-related quality of life among military police officers from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods The sample included 165 military police officers who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey were used, in addition to a spreadsheet of socio-demographic, occupational and anthropometric data. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive analysis followed by Spearman Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using the backward method. Results The waist-to-height ratio was identified as a risk factor low health-related quality of life. In addition, the conicity index, fat percentage, years of service in the military police, minutes of work per day and leisure-time physical activity levels were identified as risk factors for coronary disease among police officers. Conclusions These findings suggest that the Military Police Department should adopt an institutional policy that allows police officers to practice regular physical activity in order to maintain and improve their physical fitness, health, job performance, and quality of life. PMID:24766910

  5. Criterion-Related Validity of the 20-M Shuttle Run Test for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Aguilar-Soto, Pablo; Viciana, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. Relevant studies were searched from twelve electronic databases up to December 2014, as well as from several alternative modes of searching. The Hunter-Schmidt’s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test. From 57 studies that were included in the present meta-analysis, a total of 78 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test had a moderate-to-high criterion-related validity for estimating maximum oxygen uptake (rp = 0.66-0.84), being higher when other variables (e.g. sex, age or body mass) were used (rp = 0.78-0.95). The present meta-analysis also showed that the criterion-related validity of Léger’s protocol was statistically higher for adults (rp = 0.94, 0.87-1.00) than for children (rp = 0.78, 0.72-0.85). However, sex and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity values. When an individual’s maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory-based test is not feasible, the 20-m shuttle run test seems to be a useful alternative for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. In adults the performance score only seems to be a strong estimator of cardiorespiratory fitness, in contrast among children the performance score should be combined with other variables. Nevertheless, as in the application of any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. Key points Overall the 20-m shuttle run test has a moderate-to-high mean criterion-related validity for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. The criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test is significantly

  6. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Musculoskeletal Physical Fitness Testing in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Sharon Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the 10 most pressing questions relevant to musculoskeletal physical fitness testing in children and adolescents. The goal is to stimulate research to answer these questions. The most pressing needs include establishing definitive links between valid, reliable, and feasible field test measures of…

  7. Fitness of resprouters versus seeders in relation to nutrient availability in two Plantago species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latzel, Vít; Klimešová, Jitka

    2009-07-01

    Two contrasting strategies of plants from disturbed areas are reported to depend on nutrient availability. Resprouters, investing into storage and capable of vegetative regeneration after disturbance, are predicted to be enhanced in nutrient poor environments. This contrasts to seeders, which invest preferentially into seed production and regenerating only from seeds, and are thought to prevail in nutrient rich environments. To test such predicted dichotomy, we set up an experiment with two facultative resprouters with contrasting nutrient demands and assessed the fitness of individuals regenerated from seeds and root fragments in differently productive environments. We hypothesized that 1) plants with higher nutrient demands have a higher fitness as seeders irrespectable of nutrient availability and/or 2) both species will have a higher fitness as resprouters under lower nutrient availability and as seeders when nutrient availability is higher. Nutrient availability was also manipulated prior to and after disturbance to evaluate the impact of changing nutrient availability on the strategy of resprouting. The results of our pot experiment with Plantago lanceolata and Plantago media supported the first but not the second hypothesis. Moreover, high nutrient availability prior to disturbance negatively affected resprouting success, but the growth and fitness of successfully regenerated individuals were enhanced under higher nutrient availability. We concluded that resprouting from roots after disturbance is affected by nutrient availability, but this effect considerably differs between individual life-history stages.

  8. Learning to Form a Spatial Category of Tight-Fit Relations: How Experience with a Label Can Give a Boost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasola, Marianella; Bhagwat, Jui; Burke, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments explored the ability of 18-month-old infants to form an abstract categorical representation of tight-fit spatial relations in a visual habituation task. In Experiment 1, infants formed an abstract spatial category when hearing a familiar word ("tight") during habituation but not when viewing the events in silence or when hearing a…

  9. An Examination of the Mediating Role of Person-Job Fit in Relations between Information Literacy and Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chung-Kai; Hung, Chia-Hung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how information literacy can enhance job performance in the workplace setting. Design/methodology/approach: Building on extant research, an integrated framework in which information literacy is related to person-job fit which in turn influences job performance is proposed. A survey questionnaire…

  10. The Effects of Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) on Students' Prosocial Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Carl G.

    2010-01-01

    Students with challenging, disruptive behavior have difficulty learning in school and their behavior adversely impacts the learning of other students and the classroom teacher. Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a promising approach that teachers can use to prevent and reduce problem behavior and increase prosocial…

  11. Health Related Aspects of Artificial Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansler, Richard; Kubulins, Vilnis; Carome, Edward

    2011-04-01

    It was long thought that the "sleep hormone," melatonin, is produced by the pineal gland only when the eyes are in darkness. Thus, in developed countries, due to the use of electric lighting after dark, melatonin production usually occurs only when one is asleep. For most people, this is substantially less than the 9 to 10 hour production time capability of the pineal gland. However, in 2001 it was discovered that not all light, but mainly a band of wavelengths in the blue portion of the spectrum, below 530nm, suppresses melatonin production. On learning this, and that melatonin is a very active cancer fighting antioxidant and has many other health promoting properties, it was decided to make available lighting products that can enhance melatonin production. Included are lamps that do not emit the offending blue wavelengths and eyeglasses that filter out the blue portion of the spectrum. These and other related products are meant to be used for several hours in the evening, before retiring, thus maximizing the pineal gland's production time. The effects of their use on sleep and several other health related conditions are discussed.

  12. Income-related inequality in health and health-related behaviour: exploring the equalisation hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Hale, Daniel; Morris, Stephen; Viner, Russell M

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found the socioeconomic gradient in health among adolescents to be lower than that observed during childhood and adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine income-related inequalities in health and health-related behaviour across the lifespan in England to explore ‘equalisation’ in adolescence. Methods We used five years of data (2006–2010) from the Health Survey for England to explore inequalities in six indicators: self-assessed general health, longstanding illness, limiting longstanding illness, psychosocial wellbeing, obesity and smoking status. We ran separate analyses by age/gender groups. Inequality was measured using concentration indices. Results Our findings for longstanding illnesses, psychosocial wellbeing and obesity were consistent with the equalisation hypothesis. For these indicators, the extent of income-related inequality was lower among late adolescents (16–19 years) and young adults (20–24 years) compared to children and young adolescents (under 15 years), mid- and late-adults (25–44 and 45–64 years) and the elderly (65+ years). The remaining indicators showed lower inequality among adolescents compared to adults, but higher inequality when compared with children. Conclusions Our work shows that inequalities occur across the life-course but that for some health issues there may be a period of equalisation in late adolescence and early adulthood. PMID:24619989

  13. Genetic Drift during Systemic Arbovirus Infection of Mosquito Vectors Leads to Decreased Relative Fitness during Host Switching.

    PubMed

    Grubaugh, Nathan D; Weger-Lucarelli, James; Murrieta, Reyes A; Fauver, Joseph R; Garcia-Luna, Selene M; Prasad, Abhishek N; Black, William C; Ebel, Gregory D

    2016-04-13

    The emergence of mosquito-borne RNA viruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV), is facilitated by genetically complex virus populations within hosts. Here, we determine whether WNV enzootic (Culex tarsalis, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. pipiens) and bridge vectors (Aedes aegypti) have differential impacts on viral mutational diversity and fitness. During systemic mosquito infection, WNV faced stochastic reductions in genetic diversity that rapidly was recovered during intra-tissue population expansions. Interestingly, this intrahost selection and diversification was mosquito species dependent with Cx. tarsalis and Cx. quinquefasciatus exhibiting greater WNV divergence. However, recovered viral populations contained a preponderance of potentially deleterious mutations (i.e., high mutational load) and had lower relative fitness in avian cells compared to input virus. These findings demonstrate that the adaptive potential associated with mosquito transmission varies depending on the mosquito species and carries a significant fitness cost in vertebrates. PMID:27049584

  14. Health and Fitness App Use in College Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowin, Mary; Cheney, Marshall; Gwin, Shannon; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Background: College students experience weight gain that can contribute to serious health issues. Health education efforts with college students are increasingly utilizing new technologies. Smartphone applications (apps) in particular are growing in popularity and use in all young adults. Purpose: Formative research was conducted to describe how…

  15. Overview of the Texas Youth Fitness Study.

    PubMed

    Morrow, James R; Martin, Scott B; Welk, Gregory J; Zhu, Weimo; Meredith, Marilu D

    2010-09-01

    This paper summarizes the historical and legislative backgrounds leading to statewide testing of health-related physical fitness in Texas children grades 3-12 as mandated by Texas Senate Bill 530. The rationale and goals for an associated research project (the Texas Youth Fitness Study, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation) to evaluate data collected from the statewide initiative are provided. The study investigated the relations between health-related physical fitness and educational variables, including academic achievement, absenteeism, and negative school incidents. It also provides unique insights into the quality (both reliability and validity) of collected data and implications of large-scale school-based physical fitness testing. Teacher commentary and experiences add to the description of the data collection processes. Last, the relations between psychosocial variables and health-related fitness in middle school students are described. PMID:21049832

  16. Identification of Vehicle Health Assurance Related Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Evans, Joni K.; Barr, Lawrence C.; Leone, Karen M.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    Trend analysis in aviation as related to vehicle health management (VHM) was performed by reviewing the most current statistical and prognostics data available from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident, and the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident datasets. In addition, future directions in aviation technology related to VHM research areas were assessed through the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) Safety Enhancements Reserved for Future Implementations (SERFIs), the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Most-Wanted List and recent open safety recommendations, the National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics, and the Future Aviation Safety Team (FAST) areas of change. Future research direction in the VHM research areas is evidently strong as seen from recent research solicitations from the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), and VHM-related technologies actively being developed by aviation industry leaders, including GE, Boeing, Airbus, and UTC Aerospace Systems. Given the highly complex VHM systems, modifications can be made in the future so that the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project (VSST) technical challenges address inadequate maintenance crew's trainings and skills, and the certification methods of such systems as recommended by the NTSB, NRC, and FAST areas of change.

  17. Experiences of Transgender-Related Discrimination and Implications for Health: Results From the Virginia Transgender Health Initiative Study

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Honnold, Julie A.; Xavier, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined relationships between social determinants of health and experiences of transgender-related discrimination reported by transgender people in Virginia. Methods. In 2005 through 2006, 387 self-identified transgender people completed a statewide health needs assessment; 350 who completed eligibility questions were included in this examination of factors associated with experiences of discrimination in health care, employment, or housing. We fit multivariate logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations to adjust for survey modality (online vs paper). Results. Of participants, 41% (n = 143) reported experiences of transgender-related discrimination. Factors associated with transgender-related discrimination were geographic context, gender (female-to male spectrum vs male-to-female spectrum), low socioeconomic status, being a racial/ethnic minority, not having health insurance, gender transition indicators (younger age at first transgender awareness), health care needed but unable to be obtained (hormone therapy and mental health services), history of violence (sexual and physical), substance use health behaviors (tobacco and alcohol), and interpersonal factors (family support and community connectedness). Conclusions. Findings suggest that transgender Virginians experience widespread discrimination in health care, employment, and housing. Multilevel interventions are needed for transgender populations, including legal protections and training for health care providers. PMID:23153142

  18. Mental health-related stigma in health care and mental health-care settings.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Claire; Noblett, Jo; Parke, Hannah; Clement, Sarah; Caffrey, Alison; Gale-Grant, Oliver; Schulze, Beate; Druss, Benjamin; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-11-01

    This Review considers the evidence for mental-health-related stigma in health-care and mental-health-care settings. Do mental-health-care and other health-care professionals stigmatise people using their services? If so, what are the effects on quality of mental and physical health care? How can stigma and discrimination in the context of health care be reduced? We show that the contact mental-health-care professionals have with people with mental illness is associated with positive attitudes about civil rights, but does not reduce stigma as does social contact such as with friends or family members with mental illness. Some evidence suggests educational interventions are effective in decreasing stigma especially for general health-care professionals with little or no formal mental health training. Intervention studies are needed to underpin policy; for instance, to decrease disparity in mortality associated with poor access to physical health care for people with mental illness compared with people without mental illness. PMID:26361202

  19. Estimates of Preventability and Their Relation to Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Gary D.

    It was hypothesized that a person's estimates of the preventability of health problems would be related to health behaviors such that a person who engages in healthful behavior should make higher estimates of preventability. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between causal attribution of health problems and health-related…

  20. Fitting Community Based Newborn Care Package into the health systems of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Y V; Upreti, S R; Kc, N P; Thapa, K; Shrestha, P R; Shedain, P R; Dhakwa, J R; Aryal, D R; Aryal, S; Paudel, D C; Paudel, D; Khanal, S; Bhandari, A; Kc, A

    2011-10-01

    Community-based strategies for delivering effective newborn interventions are an essential step to avert newborn death, in settings where the health facilities are unable to effectively deliver the interventions and reach their population. Effective implementation of community-based interventions as a large scale program and within the existing health system depends on the appropriate design and planning, monitoring and support systems. This article provides an overview of implementation design of Community-Based Newborn Care Package (CB-NCP) program, its setup within the health system, and early results of the implementation from one of the pilot districts. The evaluation of CB-NCP in one of the pilot districts shows significant improvement in antenatal, intrapartum and post natal care. The implementation design of the CB-NCP has six different health system management functions: i) district planning and orientation, ii) training/human resource development, iii) monitoring and evaluation, iv) logistics and supply chain management, v) communication strategy, and vi) pay for performance. The CB-NCP program embraced the existing system of monitoring with some additional components for the pilot phase to test implementation feasibility, and aligns with existing safe motherhood and child health programs. Though CB-NCP interventions are proven independently in different local and global contexts, they are piloted in 10 districts as a "package" within the national health system settings of Nepal. PMID:22929840

  1. A new curriculum for fitness education.

    PubMed Central

    Boone, J L

    1983-01-01

    Regular exercise is important in a preventive approach to health care because it exerts a beneficial effect on many risk factors in the development of coronary heart disease. However, many Americans lack the skills required to devise and carry out a safe and effective exercise program appropriate for a life-time of fitness. This inability is partly due to the lack of fitness education during their school years. School programs in physical education tend to neglect training in the health-related aspects of fitness. Therefore, a new curriculum for fitness education is proposed that would provide seventh, eighth, and ninth grade students with (a) a basic knowledge of their physiological response to exercise, (b) the means to develop their own safe and effective physical fitness program, and (c) the motivation to incorporate regular exercise into their lifestyle. This special 4-week segment of primarily academic study is designed to be inserted into the physical education curriculum. Daily lessons cover health-related fitness, cardiovascular fitness, body fitness, and care of the back. A final written examination covering major areas of information is given to emphasize this academic approach to exercise. Competition in athletic ability is deemphasized, and motivational awards are given based on health-related achievements. The public's present lack of knowledge about physical fitness, coupled with the numerous anatomical and physiological benefits derived from regular, vigorous exercise, mandate an intensified curriculum of fitness education for school children. PMID:6414039

  2. Differences in relative fitness among alternative mating tactics might be more apparent than real.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Stephen M

    2011-09-01

    Two theoretical frameworks guide research on multiple male phenotypes within natural populations. Each scheme recognizes that male polymorphisms vary in the degree to which genotype and environment influence trait expression. Consensus remains elusive, however, on whether average fitnesses must be equivalent and whether genetic differences need exist for polymorphism to persist over time. Schradin and Lindholm address these hypotheses in African four-striped mice with detailed parentage and body size data. Their results and interpretation call each framework's predictions into question, but reveal a common truth. Debate might be resolved if researchers agreed on which parameters to measure and compare. PMID:21790591

  3. The Fit for School health outcome study - a longitudinal survey to assess health impacts of an integrated school health programme in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Child health in many low- and middle-income countries lags behind international goals and affects children’s education, well-being, and general development. Large-scale school health programmes can be effective in reducing preventable diseases through cost-effective interventions. This paper outlines the baseline and 1-year results of a longitudinal health study assessing the impact of the Fit for School Programme in the Philippines. Methods A longitudinal 4-year cohort study was conducted in the province of Camiguin, Mindanao (experimental group); an external concurrent control group was studied in Gingoog, Mindanao. The study has three experimental groups: group 1—daily handwashing with soap, daily brushing with fluoride toothpaste, biannual deworming with 400 mg albendazole (Essential Health Care Program [EHCP]); group 2—EHCP plus twice-a-year access to school-based Oral Urgent Treatment; group 3—EHCP plus weekly toothbrushing with high-fluoride concentration gel. A non-concurrent internal control group was also included. Baseline data on anthropometric indicators to calculate body mass index (BMI), soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infection in stool samples, and dental caries were collected in August 2009 and August 2010. Data were analysed to assess validity of the control group design, baseline, and 1-year results. Results In the cohort study, 412 children were examined at baseline and 341 1 year after intervention. The baseline results were in line with national averages for STH infection, BMI, and dental caries in group 1 and the control groups. Children lost to follow-up had similar baseline characteristics in the experimental and control groups. After 1 year, group 1 showed a significantly higher increase in mean BMI and lower prevalence of moderate to heavy STH infection than the external concurrent control group. The increases in caries and dental infections were reduced but not statistically significant. The results for groups 2

  4. The relative importance of health, income and social relations for subjective well-being: An integrative analysis.

    PubMed

    Lamu, Admassu N; Olsen, Jan Abel

    2016-03-01

    There is much evidence that health, income and social relationships are important for our well-being, but little evidence on their relative importance. This study makes an integrative analysis of the relative influence of health related quality of life (HRQoL), household income and social relationships for subjective well-being (SWB), where SWB is measured by the first three of the five items on the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS). In a comprehensive 2012 survey from six countries, seven disease groups and representative healthy samples (N = 7933) reported their health along several measures of HRQoL. A Shapley value decomposition method measures the relative importance of health, income and social relationships, while a quantile regression model tests how the effects of each of the three predictors vary across different points of SWB distributions. Results are compared with the standard regression. The respective marginal contribution of social relationships, health and income to SWB (as a share of goodness-of-fit) is 50.2, 19.3 and 7.3% when EQ-5D-5L is used as a measure of health. These findings are consistent across models based on five alternative measures of HRQoL. The influence of the key determinants varied significantly between low and high levels of the SWB distribution, with health and income having stronger influence among those with relatively lower SWB. Consistent with several studies, income has a significantly positive association with SWB, but with diminishing importance. PMID:26854627

  5. A History of Regression and Related Model-Fitting in the Earth Sciences (1636?-2000)

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, Richard J.

    2001-12-15

    The (statistical) modeling of the behavior of a dependent variate as a function of one or more predictors provides examples of model-fitting which span the development of the earth sciences from the 17th Century to the present. The historical development of these methods and their subsequent application is reviewed. Bond's predictions (c. 1636 and 1668) of change in the magnetic declination at London may be the earliest attempt to fit such models to geophysical data. Following publication of Newton's theory of gravitation in 1726, analysis of data on the length of a 1{sup o} meridian arc, and the length of a pendulum beating seconds, as a function of sin{sup 2}(latitude), was used to determine the ellipticity of the oblate spheroid defining the Figure of the Earth. The pioneering computational methods of Mayer in 1750, Boscovich in 1755, and Lambert in 1765, and the subsequent independent discoveries of the principle of least squares by Gauss in 1799, Legendre in 1805, and Adrain in 1808, and its later substantiation on the basis of probability theory by Gauss in 1809 were all applied to the analysis of such geodetic and geophysical data. Notable later applications include: the geomagnetic survey of Ireland by Lloyd, Sabine, and Ross in 1836, Gauss's model of the terrestrial magnetic field in 1838, and Airy's 1845 analysis of the residuals from a fit to pendulum lengths, from which he recognized the anomalous character of measurements of gravitational force which had been made on islands. In the early 20th Century applications to geological topics proliferated, but the computational burden effectively held back applications of multivariate analysis. Following World War II, the arrival of digital computers in universities in the 1950s facilitated computation, and fitting linear or polynomial models as a function of geographic coordinates, trend surface analysis, became popular during the 1950-60s. The inception of geostatistics in France at this time by Matheron had

  6. Climate change adaptation: where does global health fit in the agenda?

    PubMed

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Friel, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Human-induced climate change will affect the lives of most populations in the next decade and beyond. It will have greatest, and generally earliest, impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged populations on the planet. Changes in climatic conditions and increases in weather variability affect human wellbeing, safety, health and survival in many ways. Some impacts are direct-acting and immediate, such as impaired food yields and storm surges. Other health effects are less immediate and typically occur via more complex causal pathways that involve a range of underlying social conditions and sectors such as water and sanitation, agriculture and urban planning. Climate change adaptation is receiving much attention given the inevitability of climate change and its effects, particularly in developing contexts, where the effects of climate change will be experienced most strongly and the response mechanisms are weakest. Financial support towards adaptation activities from various actors including the World Bank, the European Union and the United Nations is increasing substantially. With this new global impetus and funding for adaptation action come challenges such as the importance of developing adaptation activities on a sound understanding of baseline community needs and vulnerabilities, and how these may alter with changes in climate. The global health community is paying heed to the strengthening focus on adaptation, albeit in a slow and unstructured manner. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of adaptation and its relevance to global health, and highlight the opportunities to improve health and reduce health inequities via the new and additional funding that is available for climate change adaptation activities. PMID:22632569

  7. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  8. Fitness and Our Forebears: Insights into the Health of the Modern Human.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William T.

    1989-01-01

    The Discordance Hypothesis suggests that the human genetic makeup has only changed one-hundredth of one percent in the last 10,000 years. In that time the world has changed dramatically and the environment has become hazardous to our health. The goal is to emulate our ancestors' diet and lifestyle. (MLW)

  9. A Well Woman's Health Maintenance Study Comparing Physical Fitness and Group Support Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Alice Ann; And Others

    1984-01-01

    To examine the effect of group support and physical activity on 75 physiological and psychological health indicators in women 40 to 64 years of age, 50 subjects were placed in exercise, discussion, exercise and discussion, or control groups. Pre- and postprogram psychosocial and physical measures were analyzed, and implications for prevention and…

  10. Effect of the Bienestar Health Program on Physical Fitness in Low-Income Mexican American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino, Roberto P.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Yin, Zenong; Garcia, Oralia A.; Hernandez, Irene

    2005-01-01

    Once considered an adult onset disease, type 2 diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed in low-income Mexican American children. Studies have suggested that most of those so diagnosed were overweight, reported low levels of physical activity, and were generally unaware of their disease. The Bienestar Health Program was designed to reduce risk…

  11. AAHPER Research Consortium Symposium Papers: Health, Fitness, Recreation, and Dance. Volume II, Book 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard H., Ed.

    The titles included in this collection are: Biographical Research in Health Education; Historical Research as it Applies to Groups or Institutions; Water & Electrolytes and Other Aids; Limiting Factors of Endurance Performance: A Brief Review; Limiting Factors for Endurance Exercise: Carbohydrate and Fat Utilization; Hooked on Running: A…

  12. What Happens after Inbreeding Avoidance? Inbreeding by Rejected Relatives and the Inclusive Fitness Benefit of Inbreeding Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Duthie, A. Bradley; Reid, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    Avoiding inbreeding, and therefore avoiding inbreeding depression in offspring fitness, is widely assumed to be adaptive in systems with biparental reproduction. However, inbreeding can also confer an inclusive fitness benefit stemming from increased relatedness between parents and inbred offspring. Whether or not inbreeding or avoiding inbreeding is adaptive therefore depends on a balance between inbreeding depression and increased parent-offspring relatedness. Existing models of biparental inbreeding predict threshold values of inbreeding depression above which males and females should avoid inbreeding, and predict sexual conflict over inbreeding because these thresholds diverge. However, these models implicitly assume that if a focal individual avoids inbreeding, then both it and its rejected relative will subsequently outbreed. We show that relaxing this assumption of reciprocal outbreeding, and the assumption that focal individuals are themselves outbred, can substantially alter the predicted thresholds for inbreeding avoidance for focal males. Specifically, the magnitude of inbreeding depression below which inbreeding increases a focal male’s inclusive fitness increases with increasing depression in the offspring of a focal female and her alternative mate, and it decreases with increasing relatedness between a focal male and a focal female’s alternative mate, thereby altering the predicted zone of sexual conflict. Furthermore, a focal male’s inclusive fitness gain from avoiding inbreeding is reduced by indirect opportunity costs if his rejected relative breeds with another relative of his. By demonstrating that variation in relatedness and inbreeding can affect intra- and inter-sexual conflict over inbreeding, our models lead to novel predictions for family dynamics. Specifically, parent-offspring conflict over inbreeding might depend on the alternative mates of rejected relatives, and male-male competition over inbreeding might lead to mixed inbreeding

  13. Cognitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain. PMID:18159786

  14. Fitness Unfolding: How To Begin and Maintain a Quality, Healthy Lifestyle. Tips, Guidelines, Resources, and References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Sydney

    This book presents a holistic approach to fitness, opens channels of information, and identifies useful resources and references. After an introduction to the subject of health related fitness, the book presents 12 chapters answering the following questions: (1) Why Not Be Fit? (2) What Is Physical Fitness? (3) Why Participate in Fitness? (4) What…

  15. Current Literature Related to Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lawrence W., Ed.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Documents in this bibliography are grouped into fifteen categories under four broad headings. The first heading, health problems, contains documents which cover several aspects of a given type or class of health problems. The categories listed under this heading are: chronic disorders; acute episodes; mental and personality disorders; pregnancy,…

  16. Better stay together: pair bond duration increases individual fitness independent of age-related variation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2014-07-01

    Prolonged pair bonds have the potential to improve reproductive performance of socially monogamous animals by increasing pair familiarity and enhancing coordination and cooperation between pair members. However, this has proved very difficult to test robustly because of important confounds such as age and reproductive experience. Here, we address limitations of previous studies and provide a rigorous test of the mate familiarity effect in the socially monogamous blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, a long-lived marine bird with a high divorce rate. Taking advantage of a natural disassociation between age and pair bond duration in this species, and applying a novel analytical approach to a 24 year database, we found that those pairs which have been together for longer establish their clutches five weeks earlier in the season, hatch more of their eggs and produce 35% more fledglings, regardless of age and reproductive experience. Our results demonstrate that pair bond duration increases individual fitness and further suggest that synergistic effects between a male and female's behaviour are likely to be involved in generating a mate familiarity effect. These findings help to explain the age- and experience-independent benefits of remating and their role in life-history evolution. PMID:24827435

  17. Better stay together: pair bond duration increases individual fitness independent of age-related variation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged pair bonds have the potential to improve reproductive performance of socially monogamous animals by increasing pair familiarity and enhancing coordination and cooperation between pair members. However, this has proved very difficult to test robustly because of important confounds such as age and reproductive experience. Here, we address limitations of previous studies and provide a rigorous test of the mate familiarity effect in the socially monogamous blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, a long-lived marine bird with a high divorce rate. Taking advantage of a natural disassociation between age and pair bond duration in this species, and applying a novel analytical approach to a 24 year database, we found that those pairs which have been together for longer establish their clutches five weeks earlier in the season, hatch more of their eggs and produce 35% more fledglings, regardless of age and reproductive experience. Our results demonstrate that pair bond duration increases individual fitness and further suggest that synergistic effects between a male and female's behaviour are likely to be involved in generating a mate familiarity effect. These findings help to explain the age- and experience-independent benefits of remating and their role in life-history evolution. PMID:24827435

  18. Measuring Physical Neighborhood Quality Related to Health

    PubMed Central

    Rollings, Kimberly A.; Wells, Nancy M.; Evans, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work. PMID:25938692

  19. Subjective food intake ability related to oral health-related quality of life and psychological health.

    PubMed

    Choi, S-H; Kim, J-S; Cha, J-Y; Lee, K-J; Yu, H-S; Hwang, C-J

    2016-09-01

    Reduced food intake ability can restrict an individual's choice of foods and might have a significant impact on the individual's quality of life and mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between self-reported masticatory ability and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) and psychological health. The study included 72 (26 men, 46 women) adults with a mean age of 26·4 ± 8·6 years. Each participant completed the key subjective food intake ability (KFIA) test for five key foods, the Korean version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14K) and three questionnaires for measuring anxiety, depression and self-esteem. The participants were distributed into two groups by sex (a mean age of 23·9 ± 5·2 for men and 27·9 ± 9·8 for women) and by the median KFIA score. There were no significant differences in any of the variables according to sex. Thirty-two participants (12 men, 20 women) in the lower KFIA group had a higher total OHIP-14K (P < 0·001) and depression level (P < 0·05) than the 40 participants (14 men, 26 women) in the higher KFIA group. As the KFIA decreased, OHRQOL worsened (P < 0·001) and depression increased (P < 0·05). Participants with lower KFIA scores were more than 4·3 times as likely as to have a poor OHRQOL than the reference group (odds ratio, 4·348; 95% confidence interval, 1·554-12·170, P < 0·01). Lower subjective food intake ability is associated with a poor oral health-related quality of life and higher depression level. PMID:27224265

  20. Genome-Enabled Modeling of Biogeochemical Processes Predicts Metabolic Dependencies that Connect the Relative Fitness of Microbial Functional Guilds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, E.; King, E.; Molins, S.; Karaoz, U.; Steefel, C. I.; Banfield, J. F.; Beller, H. R.; Anantharaman, K.; Ligocki, T. J.; Trebotich, D.

    2015-12-01

    Pore-scale processes mediated by microorganisms underlie a range of critical ecosystem services, regulating carbon stability, nutrient flux, and the purification of water. Advances in cultivation-independent approaches now provide us with the ability to reconstruct thousands of genomes from microbial populations from which functional roles may be assigned. With this capability to reveal microbial metabolic potential, the next step is to put these microbes back where they belong to interact with their natural environment, i.e. the pore scale. At this scale, microorganisms communicate, cooperate and compete across their fitness landscapes with communities emerging that feedback on the physical and chemical properties of their environment, ultimately altering the fitness landscape and selecting for new microbial communities with new properties and so on. We have developed a trait-based model of microbial activity that simulates coupled functional guilds that are parameterized with unique combinations of traits that govern fitness under dynamic conditions. Using a reactive transport framework, we simulate the thermodynamics of coupled electron donor-acceptor reactions to predict energy available for cellular maintenance, respiration, biomass development, and enzyme production. From metagenomics, we directly estimate some trait values related to growth and identify the linkage of key traits associated with respiration and fermentation, macromolecule depolymerizing enzymes, and other key functions such as nitrogen fixation. Our simulations were carried out to explore abiotic controls on community emergence such as seasonally fluctuating water table regimes across floodplain organic matter hotspots. Simulations and metagenomic/metatranscriptomic observations highlighted the many dependencies connecting the relative fitness of functional guilds and the importance of chemolithoautotrophic lifestyles. Using an X-Ray microCT-derived soil microaggregate physical model combined

  1. Quality of Life, Health Status, and Health Service Utilization Related to a New Measure of Health Literacy FLIGHT/VIDAS

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Raymond L; Acevedo, Amarilis; Jacobs, Robin J.; Caballero, Joshua; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna

    2014-01-01

    Objective Researchers have identified significant limitations in some currently-used measures of health literacy. The purpose of this paper is to present data on the relation of health-related quality of life, health status, and health service utilization to performance on a new measure of health literacy in a nonpatient population. Methods The new measure was administered to 475 English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling volunteers along with existing measures of health literacy and assessments of health-related quality of life, health status, and healthcare service utilization. Relations among measures were assessed via correlations and health status and utilization was tested across levels of health literacy using ANCOVA models. Results The new health literacy measure is significantly related to existing measures of health literacy as well as to participants’ health-related quality of life. Persons with lower levels of health literacy reported more health conditions, more frequent physical symptoms, and greater healthcare service utilization. Conclusion The new measure of health literacy is valid and shows relations to measures of conceptually-related constructs such as quality of life and health behaviors. Practice Implications: FLIGHT/VIDAS may be useful to researchers and clinicians interested in a computer administered and scored measure of health literacy. PMID:24856447

  2. Fatness but Not Fitness Relative to the Fat-Free Mass Is Related to C-Reactive Protein in 18 Year-Old Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hinriksdóttir, Gunnhildur; Tryggvadóttir, Ágústa; Ólafsdóttir, Anna Sigríður; Arngrímsson, Sigurbjörn Árni

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The interaction between fatness, fitness, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adolescents is not well characterized but may be important to prevent low grade inflammation. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between adiposity, different expressions of fitness, and CRP in late adolescence using direct measures of fitness and fatness. Methods Anthropometric measurements were taken on 245 eighteen-year-old participants (116 girls). Fasting CRP, glucose, and insulin were measured and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) calculated. Body composition was estimated via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fitness was assessed with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during a treadmill test and also expressed relative to the fat-free mass (VO2maxFFM). Results Prevalence of overweight/obesity based on body mass index (BMI) was 20.7% and 25.6% among girls and boys, respectively (p = 0.407), but 42.5% and 58.1% when based on body fat percentage (%fat, p = 0.015). Higher proportion of boys (81.3%) than girls (54.5%) were highly fit (p<0.001), but the percentage of girls with high levels of CRP was greater (12.1% vs 6.2%, p = 0.028). Adiposity, indicated with BMI, waist circumference, fat mass, android fat mass (aFM), or %fat, was positively associated with CRP independent of VO2max (r = 0.13-0.18, p<0.05) and VO2maxFFM (r = 0.24-0.32, p<0.001). VO2max, was negatively associated with CRP independent only of BMI and waist circumference (r = -0.21, p = 0.001), but not %fat, fat mass or aFM (r = -0.08 to -0.12, p>0.05). VO2maxFFM was unrelated to CRP with (r = -0.07 to -0.11, p>0.05) or without (r = -0.10, p = 0.142) adjustment for adiposity. Additional adjustment for HOMA did not change any of the relationships, although the coefficients were attenuated. Conclusions Fatness has a greater association with CRP than fitness in late adolescence. However, VO2maxFFM, which is truly independent of adiposity, is unrelated to CRP, indicating that the effects of

  3. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Executive Control in Late-Middle-Aged Adults: An Event-Related (De) Synchronization (ERD/ERS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chien-Heng; Yang, Kao-Teng; Song, Tai-Fen; Liu, Jen-Hao; Hung, Tsung-Min; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive function in late-middle-aged adults from event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) perspectives. Late-middle-aged adults were categorized into either the high-fitness group or the low-fitness group based on their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values. The participants completed the Stroop Test, which is comprised of incongruent and neutral conditions, while the brain activities were recoded. The alpha ERD and ERS values based on the equation proposed by Pfurtscheller (1977) were further calculated. The results revealed that the adults with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated superior Stroop performance, regardless of Stroop congruency. While these high-fitness adults had less positive upper alpha ERD values in the later epoch window compared to their lower-fitness counterparts, they had greater lower alpha ERD values in the early epoch window. Additionally, in the late epoch window, the high-fitness adults showed less positive lower alpha ERD values on neutral, but not incongruent condition, relative to their low-fitness counterparts. These findings suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness of the late-middle-aged adults is positively associated with cognitive functioning, especially the cognitive processes related to the inhibition of task-irrelevant information and those processes required the devotion of greater amounts of attentional resources to a given task. PMID:27536259

  4. Integrating Health Belief Model and Technology Acceptance Model: An Investigation of Health-Related Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, people use the Internet to satisfy health-related information and communication needs. In Malaysia, Internet use for health management has become increasingly significant due to the increase in the incidence of chronic diseases, in particular among urban women and their desire to stay healthy. Past studies adopted the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Health Belief Model (HBM) independently to explain Internet use for health-related purposes. Although both the TAM and HBM have their own merits, independently they lack the ability to explain the cognition and the related mechanism in which individuals use the Internet for health purposes. Objective This study aimed to examine the influence of perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use based on the HBM. Drawing on the TAM, it also tested the mediating effects of perceived usefulness of the Internet for health information and attitude toward Internet use for health purposes for the relationship between health-related factors, namely perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use. Methods Data obtained for the current study were collected using purposive sampling; the sample consisted of women in Malaysia who had Internet access. The partial least squares structural equation modeling method was used to test the research hypotheses developed. Results Perceived health risk (β=.135, t 1999=2.676) and health consciousness (β=.447, t 1999=9.168) had a positive influence on health-related Internet use. Moreover, perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude toward Internet use for health-related purposes partially mediated the influence of health consciousness on health-related Internet use (β=.025, t 1999=3.234), whereas the effect of perceived health risk on health-related Internet use was fully mediated by perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude (β=.029, t 1999=3.609). These results suggest the central role of

  5. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as major markers of cardiovascular risk: their independent and interwoven importance to health status.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jonathan; McAuley, Paul; Lavie, Carl J; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Arena, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The evolution from hunting and gathering to agriculture, followed by industrialization, has had a profound effect on human physical activity (PA) patterns. Current PA patterns are undoubtedly the lowest they have been in human history, with particularly marked declines in recent generations, and future projections indicate further declines around the globe. Non-communicable health problems that afflict current societies are fundamentally attributable to the fact that PA patterns are markedly different than those for which humans were genetically adapted. The advent of modern statistics and epidemiological methods has made it possible to quantify the independent effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and PA on health outcomes. Based on more than five decades of epidemiological studies, it is now widely accepted that higher PA patterns and levels of CRF are associated with better health outcomes. This review will discuss the evidence supporting the premise that PA and CRF are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as the interplay between both PA and CRF and other CVD risk factors. A particular focus will be given to the interplay between CRF, metabolic risk and obesity. PMID:25269064

  6. A model to predict the frequency of integration of fitness-related QTLs from cultivated to wild soybean.

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, N; Kaga, A; Kuroda, Y; Ohsawa, R

    2012-02-01

    With the proliferation of genetically modified (GM) products and the almost exponential growth of land use for GM crops, there is a growing need to develop quantitative approaches to estimating the risk of escape of transgenes into wild populations of crop relatives by natural hybridization. We assessed the risk of transgene escape by constructing a population genetic model based on information on fitness-related QTLs obtained from an F (2) population of wild soybean G. soja × cultivated soybean Glycine max. Simulation started with ten F (1) and 990 wild soybeans reproducing by selfing or outcrossing. Seed production was determined from the genetic effects of two QTLs for number of seeds (SN). Each seed survived winter according to the maternal genotype at three QTLs for winter survival (WS). We assumed that one neutral transgene was inserted at various sites and calculated its extinction rate. The presence of G. max alleles at SN and WS QTLs significantly decreased the probability of introgression of the neutral transgene at all insertion sites equally. The presence of G. max alleles at WS QTLs lowered the risk more than their presence at SN QTLs. Although most model studies have concentrated only on genotypic effects of transgenes, we show that the presence of fitness-related domestication genes has a large effect on the risk of transgene escape. Our model offers the advantage of considering the effects of both domestication genes and a transgene, and they can be widely applied to other wild × crop relative complexes. PMID:21544624

  7. Authentic Teaching of Fitness Concepts to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Thomas; Kane, Jennifer

    This paper stresses the importance of teaching aerobic and muscle fitness concepts as part of a health-related fitness curriculum in physical education, recommending outcomes for teaching aerobic endurance and muscle/strength endurance in kindergarten through sixth grade. It describes important learning aid materials and presents national…

  8. Overview of the Texas Youth Fitness Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Martin, Scott B.; Welk, Gregory J.; Zhu, Weimo; Meredith, Marilu D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the historical and legislative backgrounds leading to statewide testing of health-related physical fitness in Texas children grades 3-12 as mandated by Texas Senate Bill 530. The rationale and goals for an associated research project (the Texas Youth Fitness Study, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation) to evaluate…

  9. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept

    PubMed Central

    Costa, James T.

    2013-01-01

    In 1963–1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's ‘special difficulty’—the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of ‘offspring ideas’ that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

  10. Health and Health Related Career Exploration: Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    The manual contains secondary level materials designed to integrate career education concepts into the Roosevelt High school (Portland, Oregon) health education curriculum. The materials are divided into three sections. The first concerns self-concepts and presents: short-term activities designed to encourage students to begin thinking about…

  11. Comparing the Relative Fit of Categorical and Dimensional Latent Variable Models Using Consistency Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscio, John; Walters, Glenn D.; Marcus, David K.; Kaczetow, Walter

    2010-01-01

    A number of recent studies have used Meehl's (1995) taxometric method to determine empirically whether one should model assessment-related constructs as categories or dimensions. The taxometric method includes multiple data-analytic procedures designed to check the consistency of results. The goal is to differentiate between strong evidence of…

  12. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  13. Environmental heterogeneity generates opposite gene-by-environment interactions for two fitness-related traits within a population.

    PubMed

    Culumber, Zachary W; Schumer, Molly; Monks, Scott; Tobler, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Theory predicts that environmental heterogeneity offers a potential solution to the maintenance of genetic variation within populations, but empirical evidence remains sparse. The live-bearing fish Xiphophorus variatus exhibits polymorphism at a single locus, with different alleles resulting in up to five distinct melanistic "tailspot" patterns within populations. We investigated the effects of heterogeneity in two ubiquitous environmental variables (temperature and food availability) on two fitness-related traits (upper thermal limits and body condition) in two different tailspot types (wild-type and upper cut crescent). We found gene-by-environment (G × E) interactions between tailspot type and food level affecting upper thermal limits (UTL), as well as between tailspot type and thermal environment affecting body condition. Exploring mechanistic bases underlying these G × E patterns, we found no differences between tailspot types in hsp70 gene expression despite significant overall increases in expression under both thermal and food stress. Similarly, there was no difference in routine metabolic rates between the tailspot types. The reversal of relative performance of the two tailspot types under different environmental conditions revealed a mechanism by which environmental heterogeneity can balance polymorphism within populations through selection on different fitness-related traits. PMID:25496554

  14. [Health-related problems in adopted children].

    PubMed

    Laubjerg, Merete; Petersson, Birgit H

    2006-10-01

    International research shows that the standard of health among children adopted from abroad, especially those adopted by single parents, is not as good as that of other children. Danish studies indicate similar problems. The causes could be several, such as poor development in the embryonic and fetal stages, low birth weight, starvation, neglect, infections, and the lack of the natural bonds between mother and child. Surveys indicate that many adoptive parents, single parents in particular, receive children with health problems. There is no Danish research available, but it is important to be aware of these issues in order for both adoptees and adoptants to receive the most support. PMID:17059801

  15. Health-related internet habits and health anxiety in university students.

    PubMed

    Singh, Karmpaul; Brown, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Health-related Internet use has grown rapidly, yet little research has considered how health anxious individuals use the Internet for this purpose. Our aim was to examine the relationships between health anxiety and the extent of, reasons for, and consequences of health-related Internet usage in university students (n = 255). Responses on a purpose-made Internet use questionnaire were correlated with health anxiety scores; multiple regression analyses controlling for depression and anxiety were also conducted. Health anxiety positively correlated with (all ps < .01): frequency of health-related searching (r(s) = .163), proportion of health-related information sought (r(s) = .200), time spent online for health purposes (r(s) = .166), and number of searches for both illness (r(s) = .453) and wellness (r(s) = .208) information. Health anxiety further positively correlated with advantages perceived in health-related Internet use (r(s) = .183), heightened tension (r(s) = .364) and relief (r(s) = .174) post-search, and perceived doctor disadvantages (r(s) = .306), yet a greater likelihood to visit a doctor post-search (r(s) = .217). Health anxiety also correlated with six measures of possible addiction to using the Internet for health purposes (r(s) range = .171 to .366, all ps < .01). Some (including several potentially dysfunctional) aspects of health-related Internet use correlate with health anxiety. Research evaluating the possible role of Internet use in the development and maintenance of health anxiety is warranted. PMID:24467278

  16. Age-related increases in human lymphocyte DNA damage: is there a role of aerobic fitness?

    PubMed

    Soares, Jorge Pinto; Mota, Maria Paula; Duarte, José Alberto; Collins, Andrew; Gaivão, Isabel

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been advanced as one of the major causes of damage to DNA and other macromolecules. Although physical exercise may also increase oxidative stress, an important role has been recognized for regular exercise in improving the overall functionality of the body, as indicated by an increase in maximal aerobic uptake ((V)O2max), and in resistance to cell damage. The aims of this study were 1) to evaluate the association between DNA damage in human lymphocytes and age and 2) to evaluate the association between DNA damage in human lymphocytes and ((V)O2max. The sample was composed of 36 healthy and nonsmoking males, aged from 20 to 84 years. ((V)O2max was evaluated through the Bruce protocol with direct measurement of oxygen consumption. The comet assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage, strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites. We found a positive correlation of age with DNA strand breaks but not with FPG-sensitive sites. ((V)O2max was significantly inversely related with DNA strand breaks, but this relation disappeared when adjusted for age. A significantly positive relation between ((V)O2max and FPG-sensitive sites was verified. In conclusion, our results showed that younger subjects have lower DNA strand breaks and higher (V)O2max compared with older subjects and FPG-sensitive sites are positively related with ((V)O2max, probably as transient damage due to the acute effects of daily physical activity. PMID:24446564

  17. Current Issues in Flexibility Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane V.; Magnusson, Peter; McHugh, Malachy

    2000-01-01

    Physical activity is extremely important in maintaining good health. Activity is not possible without a certain amount of flexibility. This report discusses issues related to flexibility fitness. Flexibility is a property of the musculoskeletal system that determines the range of motion achievable without injury to the joints. Static flexibility…

  18. Indoor moisture and mold-related health problems.

    PubMed

    Johanning, Eckardt

    2004-05-01

    Moisture, microbial and in particular mold related indoor exposure and health problems in homes, offices, and public buildings (Kindergartens, schools, library, and hospitals) have been gaining recognition as one of the most common indoor environmental health issues. Proper recognition of microbial related health problems and the differential diagnosis of sick building syndrome (SBS) or building related illness (BRI) are important for early and effective exposure intervention, treatment, referral and prevention of more serious illness. PMID:15206571

  19. Health Related Concerns of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Arnold

    1976-01-01

    The author presents data from six years of correspondence generated by his weekly health column in the Michigan State University student newspaper, detailing methods, student concerns, male/female questioner division, comparison of earlier and later letters, a discussion of the results, and general conclusions. (MB)

  20. Health Related Legal Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.

    This monograph analyzes health and safety issues in education in terms of relevant constitutional and statutory provisions. Chapter 1, an introduction, summarizes Fourteenth Amendment equal protection and due process clauses and defines "handicapped" under the Rehabilitation Act. State assistance and student eligibility under the Education for All…

  1. The Manitoba Schools' Physical Fitness Survey (1976-77).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    An abundance of research relative to physical fitness and, more generally, physical education of school children, has surfaced during the past few years. Negative aspects of health and physical fitness are increasing year by year, and further evidence suggests that academic performance is negatively affected by low levels of fitness. A survey was…

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life in HIV Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Ron D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The structure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was studied in 205 symptomatic adults. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model of HRQOL, with physical and mental health dimensions. Correlations of HRQOL with other aspects of health and support are discussed. (SLD)

  3. Soccer Player Characteristics in English Lower-League Development Programmes: The Relationships between Relative Age, Maturation, Anthropometry and Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Lovell, Ric; Towlson, Chris; Parkin, Guy; Portas, Matt; Vaeyens, Roel; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes. Birth dates of 1,212 players, chronologically age-grouped (i.e., U9’s-U18’s), representing 17 professional clubs (i.e., playing in Leagues 1 & 2) were obtained and categorised into relative age quartiles from the start of the selection year (Q1 = Sep-Nov; Q2 = Dec-Feb; Q3 = Mar-May; Q4 = Jun-Aug). Players were measured for somatic maturation and performed a battery of physical tests to determine aerobic fitness (Multi-Stage Fitness Test [MSFT]), Maximal Vertical Jump (MVJ), sprint (10 & 20m), and agility (T-Test) performance capabilities. Odds ratio’s (OR) revealed Q1 players were 5.3 times (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.08–6.83) more likely to be selected than Q4’s, with a particularly strong RAE bias observed in U9 (OR: 5.56) and U13-U16 squads (OR: 5.45–6.13). Multivariate statistical models identified few between quartile differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics, and confirmed chronological age-group and estimated age at peak height velocity (APHV) as covariates. Assessment of practical significance using magnitude-based inferences demonstrated body size advantages in relatively older players (Q1 vs. Q4) that were very-likely small (Effect Size [ES]: 0.53–0.57), and likely to very-likely moderate (ES: 0.62–0.72) in U12 and U14 squads, respectively. Relatively older U12-U14 players also demonstrated small advantages in 10m (ES: 0.31–0.45) and 20m sprint performance (ES: 0.36–0.46). The data identify a strong RAE bias at the entry-point to English soccer developmental programmes. RAE was also stronger circa-PHV, and relatively older players demonstrated anaerobic performance advantages during the pubescent period. Talent selectors should consider motor function and maturation status assessments to avoid

  4. Soccer Player Characteristics in English Lower-League Development Programmes: The Relationships between Relative Age, Maturation, Anthropometry and Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Ric; Towlson, Chris; Parkin, Guy; Portas, Matt; Vaeyens, Roel; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes. Birth dates of 1,212 players, chronologically age-grouped (i.e., U9's-U18's), representing 17 professional clubs (i.e., playing in Leagues 1 & 2) were obtained and categorised into relative age quartiles from the start of the selection year (Q1 = Sep-Nov; Q2 = Dec-Feb; Q3 = Mar-May; Q4 = Jun-Aug). Players were measured for somatic maturation and performed a battery of physical tests to determine aerobic fitness (Multi-Stage Fitness Test [MSFT]), Maximal Vertical Jump (MVJ), sprint (10 & 20m), and agility (T-Test) performance capabilities. Odds ratio's (OR) revealed Q1 players were 5.3 times (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.08-6.83) more likely to be selected than Q4's, with a particularly strong RAE bias observed in U9 (OR: 5.56) and U13-U16 squads (OR: 5.45-6.13). Multivariate statistical models identified few between quartile differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics, and confirmed chronological age-group and estimated age at peak height velocity (APHV) as covariates. Assessment of practical significance using magnitude-based inferences demonstrated body size advantages in relatively older players (Q1 vs. Q4) that were very-likely small (Effect Size [ES]: 0.53-0.57), and likely to very-likely moderate (ES: 0.62-0.72) in U12 and U14 squads, respectively. Relatively older U12-U14 players also demonstrated small advantages in 10m (ES: 0.31-0.45) and 20m sprint performance (ES: 0.36-0.46). The data identify a strong RAE bias at the entry-point to English soccer developmental programmes. RAE was also stronger circa-PHV, and relatively older players demonstrated anaerobic performance advantages during the pubescent period. Talent selectors should consider motor function and maturation status assessments to avoid premature and unwarranted

  5. Contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Shelley Anne; Letourneau, Nicole Lyn; Stoppard, Janet M

    2010-04-01

    Mental health problems are serious health concerns that affect women across diverse settings internationally. Knowledge of this population historically has been informed by research using a positivist approach. This article is a critical examination of contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health. We begin the article with an introduction to women's mental health, followed by an overview of the postpositivist, critical theory, and constructivist paradigms. We then present a critical examination of the benefits and limitations of these paradigms in relation to the study of women's mental health. We conclude with implications for research and practice. PMID:20390655

  6. Impact of a School Health Coordinator Intervention on Health-Related School Policies and Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; MacDonald, Pamela B.; Ellis, Jacqueline; Berry, Susan; Martin, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health-related, school-based interventions may serve to prevent disease and improve academic performance. The Healthy Maine Partnerships (HMP) initiative funded local school health coordinators (SHCs) as a part of Maine's Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) beginning in January 2001. SHCs established school health leadership teams…

  7. Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, A; Bitto, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported. Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics’ related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties’ needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making. Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential. In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health. There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice. PMID:23113159

  8. Do Health-Related Feared Possible Selves Motivate Healthy Eating?

    PubMed Central

    Noureddine, Samar; Metzger, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    The question of what motivates individuals to assume healthy eating habits remains unanswered. The purpose of this descriptive survey is to explore health-related feared possible selves in relation to dietary beliefs and behavior in adults. A convenience sample of 74 middle-aged employees of a health maintenance organization completed self-administered questionnaires. Health-related feared selves, current health perception, knowledge of diet-health association, dietary self-efficacy, dietary intention and intake were measured. Health-related fears were the most frequently reported feared selves, but very few of those represented illnesses and none were related to dietary intake. The number of health and body weight related fears was significantly associated with lower dietary self-efficacy and weaker intention to eat in a healthy manner. Multivariate analysis showed self-efficacy to be the only significant predictor of dietary intention. These adults may not have perceived being at risk for diet-associated illnesses, and so their feared selves did not motivate them to eat in a healthy manner. Research on the effect of hoped for health related possible selves and the perceived effectiveness of diet in reducing health risk are recommended. PMID:26973927

  9. Comparative analysis of basal physical fitness and muscle function in relation to muscle balance pattern using rowing machines.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seung Rok; Yu, Chang Ho; Han, Kap Soo; Kwon, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate muscle function and basal physical fitness in relation to muscle balance pattern using rowing machines. Twenty four subjects participated in this study, using three different rowing machines. Rowing exercises were performed for twenty-five times a set, four sets a day, 3 days a week, for 8 weeks. Biodex system 3(Biodex Medical Systems Co., New York, USA) was used to measure joint torques in the elbow, shoulder, lumbar and knee of subjects, for analyzing muscle function. The evaluation of basal physical fitness included body composition, muscle strength, muscle endurance, muscle reaction, agility, flexibility and explosive power. Before the experiment, significant differences of joint torques in the elbow, shoulder, lumbar and knee were present between subjects in the group. After the rowing exercise, significant improvement in every joint was witnessed. All aspects of basic fitness increased significantly, and the most improvement was observed in muscle strength from the joint torque results. As shown in the following results, every joint it was evident to have improved by more than 30% with the use of dependent load deviation type over the previously used water load method. This means that it is more effective for enhancing muscle strength and endurance to keep the muscle balance using dependent load deviation. The human body maintains motor coordination of muscle contraction during exercise. The muscle balances in the upper-lower and left-right arms could assist with effective activation of motor coordination. In this paper, an exercise method using dependent load deviation was demonstrated to be more efficient for improving muscle imbalance and strengthening muscles. PMID:25226943

  10. Controlling alcohol-related global health problems.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tai Hing; Chim, David

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol's adverse public health impact includes disease, injury, violence, disability, social problems, psychiatric illness, drunk driving, drug use, unsafe sex, and premature death. Furthermore, alcohol is a confirmed human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum, and breast. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that the evidence justifies recommending avoidance of consuming any alcohol, even in small quantities. Despite being responsible for 3.8% of global deaths (2,255,000 deaths) and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life years in 2004, alcohol consumption is increasing rapidly in China and Asia. Contrary to the World Health Assembly's call for global control action, Hong Kong has reduced wine and beer taxes to zero since 2008. An International Framework Convention on Alcohol Control is urgently needed. Increasing alcohol taxation and banning alcohol advertisement and promotion are among the most effective policies. PMID:20566555

  11. Gender relations and health research: a review of current practices

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a) as emergent findings; and b) as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women) are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health. PMID:22151578

  12. The Afrocentric Paradigm in Health-Related Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Beverly D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the potential role of culture in health-related physical activity participation, discussing kinesiology and reporting results from a health-related physical activity study of women, some of whom had taken a culturally designed aerobics class. Participants demonstrated the positive impact of culture on physical activity participation.…

  13. The Relation of Socio-Ecological Factors to Adolescents' Health-Related Behaviour: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aura, Annamari; Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe adolescents' health-related behaviours from a socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological factors have been widely shown to be related to health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) in adolescence and to affect health. The review integrates evidence…

  14. Activity profile of top-class association football referees in relation to fitness-test performance and match standard.

    PubMed

    Mallo, Javier; Navarro, Enrique; Aranda, Jose María Garcia; Helsen, Werner F

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the kinematic activity profiles, cardiovascular responses and physical fitness of top-class football referees (n=11) during the FIFA Confederations Cup 2005. Computerised match-analyses (n=9) were performed with a two-dimensional photogrammetric video system, and the cardiovascular demand imposed on the referees (n=12) was measured using heart rate recordings. Total distance covered was 10,218, s=643 m of which 3531, s=510 m was covered at high intensities (>3.6 m.s(-1)). Both total distance covered (r2=0.59; P=0.02) and high-intensity activities (r2=0.44; P=0.05) were related to the distance covered by the ball in the same match. The referees ran at high speed 37% further (P=0.01) in the actual tournament than during under-17 top-level officiating. After the 5-min interval during which high-speed running peaked, in the following 5 min the performance was reduced by 19% (P=0.01) in relation to the mean of the game. Mean heart rate was 161, s=9 b.min(-1) (86, s=3% of maximal heart rate (HRmax)). Mean heart rate (expressed as percentage of HRmax) was related in part (r2=0.36; P<0.01) to the number of high-intensity activities performed in the same 5-min interval. The results of this study show that: (1) kinematic activity profiles of top-class referees can be influenced by the distance covered by the ball; (2) the amount of high-speed running (>5 m.s(-1)) best describes the physical performance of referees; (3) heart rate recording can be a useful tool to determine the most intense periods of a match and (4) the new fitness tests adopted by FIFA were poor predictors of match activities. PMID:18979338

  15. Structural equation modeling of the associations between the home environment and obesity-related cardiovascular fitness and insulin resistance among Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Torres, Margarita; Cui, Yuchen; Adams, Alexandra K; Allen, David B; Carrel, Aaron L; Guo, Jessica Y; LaRowe, Tara L; Schoeller, Dale A

    2016-06-01

    Hispanic children are disproportionally affected by obesity-related risk of metabolic disease. We used the structural equation modeling to examine the associations between specific diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors at home and Hispanic children's metabolic health. A total of 187 Hispanic children and their parents from an urban community in Wisconsin participated in the study. Exposure variables included, children's daily intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and PA; home availability of SSB and PA areas/equipment; and parents' intake of SSB and PA, assessed through self-administered questionnaires. Outcome variables for children's metabolic health included, measured anthropometrics; cardiovascular fitness assessed using the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER); and insulin resistance determined with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR). We found that children's daily intake of SSB was positively associated with BMI z-score, which in turn, was positively associated with HOMAIR (P < 0.05). Specific diet behaviors at home associated with children's intake of SSB, included home availability of SSB, which mediated the association between parents' and children's intake of SSB (P < 0.05). Children's PA was positively associated with PACER z-score, which in turn, was inversely associated with HOMAIR (P < 0.05). Specific PA behaviors at home associated with children's PA, included home availability of PA areas/equipment, which mediated the association between parents' and children's PA (P < 0.05). The structural equation model indices suggested a satisfactory model fit (Chi-square, X(2) = 53.1, comparative fix index = 0.92, root-mean-squared error associated = 0.04). The findings confirm the need for interventions at the family level that promotes healthier home environments by targeting poor diet and low levels of PA in all family members. PMID:26850309

  16. Not all developmental assets are related to positive health outcomes in college students

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this investigation was to model the relationships between developmental assets, life satisfaction, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among a stratified, random sample (n = 765, 56% response rate) of college students. Methods Structural equation modeling techniques were employed to test the relationships using Mplus v4.21; Model evaluations were based on 1) theoretical salience, 2) global fit indices (chi-square goodness of fit, comparative fit index: CFI and Tucker-Lewis Index: TLI), 3) microfit indices (parameter estimates, root mean squared error of approximation: RMSEA and residuals) and 4) parsimony. Results The model fit the data well: χ2(n = 581, 515) = 1252.23, CFI = .94, TLI = .93 and RMSEA = .05. First, participants who reported increased Family Communication also reported higher levels of life satisfaction. Second, as participants reported having more Non-Parental Role Models, life satisfaction decreased and poor mental HRQOL days increased. Finally increased Future Aspirations was related to increased poor mental HRQOL days. Results were variant across gender. Conclusions Preliminary results suggest not all developmental assets are related to positive health outcomes among college students, particularly mental health outcomes. While the findings for Family Communication were expected, the findings for Non-Parental Role Models suggest interactions with potential role models in college settings may be naturally less supportive. Future Aspirations findings suggest college students may harbor a greater temporal urgency for the rigors of an increasingly competitive work world. In both cases, these assets appear associated with increased poor mental HRQOL days. PMID:21752293

  17. Applying social theory to understand health-related behaviours.

    PubMed

    Holman, Daniel; Borgstrom, Erica

    2016-06-01

    Health-related behaviours are a concern for contemporary health policy and practice given their association with a range of illness outcomes. Many of the policies and interventions aimed at changing health-related behaviours assume that people are more or less free to choose their behaviour and how they experience health. Within sociology and anthropology, these behaviours are viewed not as acts of choice but as actions and practices situated within a larger sociocultural context. In this paper, we outline three theoretical perspectives useful in understanding behaviours that may influence one's health in this wider context: theories of social practice, social networks and interactionism. We argue that by better understanding how health-related behaviours are performed in people's everyday lives, more suitable interventions and clinical management can be developed. PMID:26494826

  18. Learning Science-Based Fitness Knowledge in Constructivist Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Haichun; Chen, Ang; Zhu, Xihe; Ennis, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching fitness-related knowledge has become critical in developing children's healthful living behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a science-based, constructivist physical education curriculum on learning fitness knowledge critical to healthful living in elementary school students. The schools (N = 30) were randomly…

  19. Web Searching for Health: Theoretical Foundations and Connections to Health Related Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, M. J.; Bodie, G. D.

    Increasingly, consumers are using the Internet to seek out health information. This increasing demand for health information on the Internet has been accompanied by an increase in the number of Websites delivering health information online. This rise in online health information search calls for a theoretical approach that explains consumer health information seeking on the Internet. Based on a review of the literature related to health information seeking, this chapter introduces an integrative model of online health information seeking, arguing that the motivation and ability to seek out health information are two key constructs in predicting health information seeking. Finally, the chapter highlights the implications of adopting the integrative model of online health information seeking in understanding the health outcomes associated with new communication technologies.

  20. Fitness for duty: A 3 minute version of the Psychomotor Vigilance Test predicts fatigue related declines in luggage screening performance

    PubMed Central

    Basner, Mathias; Rubinstein, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of a 3-min Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) to predict fatigue related performance decrements on a simulated luggage screening task (SLST). Methods Thirty-six healthy non-professional subjects (mean age 30.8 years, 20 female) participated in a 4 day laboratory protocol including a 34 hour period of total sleep deprivation with PVT and SLST testing every 2 hours. Results Eleven and 20 lapses (355 ms threshold) on the PVT optimally divided SLST performance into high, medium, and low performance bouts with significantly decreasing threat detection performance A′. Assignment to the different SLST performance groups replicated homeostatic and circadian patterns during total sleep deprivation. Conclusions The 3 min PVT was able to predict performance on a simulated luggage screening task. Fitness-for-duty feasibility should now be tested in professional screeners and operational environments. PMID:21912278

  1. Promoting Health-Related Fitness during Warm-Up Activities for Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    It is common to begin a physical education class by having students run laps. Many teachers find that doing the same running warm-up day after day leads to boredom and a lack of interest in their students. This article provides teachers with developmentally appropriate warm-up activities that will not only motivate students, but also keep them…

  2. Design and rationale for the PREVAIL study: effect of e-Health individually tailored encouragements to physical exercise on aerobic fitness among adolescents with congenital heart disease--a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Klausen, Susanne Hwiid; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Hirth, Asle; Wetterslev, Jørn; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Søndergaard, Lars; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2012-04-01

    Intensive exercise may be an important part of rehabilitation in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). However, performing regular physical exercise is challenging for many adolescent patients. Consequently, effective exercise encouragements may be needed. Little is known on the effect of e-Health encouragements on physical fitness, physical activity, and health-related quality of life in adolescents. This trial is a nationwide interactive e-Health rehabilitation study lasting 1 year, centered on interactive use of mobile phone and Internet technology. We hypothesize that e-Health encouragements and interactive monitoring of intensive exercise for 1 year can improve physical fitness, physical activity, and health-related quality of life. Two hundred sixteen adolescents (age, 13-16 years) with surgically corrected complex CHD but without significant hemodynamic residual defects and no restrictions to participate in physical activity are in the process of being enrolled by invitation after informed consent. Physical fitness is measured as the maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)) at baseline and after 12 months by an assessor blinded to the randomization group. After baseline testing, the patients are 1:1 randomized to an intervention group or a control group. Individually fully automated tailored e-Health encouragements--SMS, Internet, and mobile applications--aimed at increasing physical activity are delivered to the participants in the intervention group once a week. The Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory inspires the behavioral theoretical background. The e-Health intervention and the Godfrey cycle ergometer protocol have been feasibility tested and seem applicable to adolescents with CHD. The trial is expected to contribute with new knowledge regarding how physical activity in adolescents with CHD can be increased and, possibly, comorbidity be reduced. PMID:22520519

  3. Association of current employment status with oral health-related behaviors: findings from the Finnish Health 2000 Survey.

    PubMed

    Al-Sudani, Fouad Y H; Vehkalahti, Miira M; Suominen, Anna L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the oral health-related behaviors of unemployed people with those of employed people and to assess whether they differ according to the length of unemployment. This study is part of the Health 2000 Survey in Finland. The cross-sectional data were based on interviews and questionnaires. The present study comprised dentate participants, 30-63 yr of age (n = 4,670). Current employment status (employed vs. unemployed) and length of current unemployment (≤1, >1-2, >2-5, and >5 yr) were used as exposures. Binary logistic regression models were fitted separately for the oral health-related behaviors, and latent class analysis (LCA) was used to form behavioral clusters. Current unemployment and being unemployed for longer than 5 yr were inversely associated with regular use of dental services. Current unemployment indicated non-regular dental attendance, infrequent use of xylitol, daily smoking, and risky use of alcohol. Findings from the LCA supported the assumption that unemployed people could be considered as a risk group for poor oral health-related behaviors. PMID:27090490

  4. Overconstrained library-based fitting method reveals age- and disease-related differences in transcutaneous Raman spectra of murine bones

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Jason R.; Inzana, Jason A.; Awad, Hani A.; Berger, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely on measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent on its chemical composition. Raman spectroscopy has been used extensively in ex vivo studies to measure the chemical composition of bone. Recently, spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) has been utilized to measure bone transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make noninvasive, in vivo measurements of bone with SORS that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based on fitting with spectral libraries. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both bone and soft tissue. The algorithm was utilized to transcutaneously detect biochemical differences in the tibiae of wild-type mice between 1 and 7 months of age and between the tibiae of wild-type mice and a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta. These results represent the first diagnostically sensitive, transcutaneous measurements of bone using SORS. PMID:23817761

  5. The effects of gender and age on health related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Deeks, Amanda; Lombard, Catherine; Michelmore, Janet; Teede, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Background Lifestyle-related diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers represent the greatest global health threat. Greater insight into health needs and beliefs, using broad community samples, is vital to reduce the burden of chronic disease. This study aimed to investigate gender, age, screening practices, health beliefs, and perceived future health needs for healthy ageing. Methods Random probability sampling using self-completion surveys in 1456 adults residing in Australia. Results Screening behaviors were associated with gender and age. Men and women >51 years were more likely (27%) to have screening health checks than those <50 years (2%). Factors nominated to influence health were lifestyle (92%), relationships (82%), and environment (80%). Women were more likely to nominate preparedness to have an annual health check, willingness to seek advice from their medical practitioner and to attend education sessions. Numerous health fears were associated with ageing, however participants were more likely to have a financial (72%) rather than a health plan (42%). More women and participants >51 years wanted information regarding illness prevention than men or those aged <30 years. Conclusion Age and gender are associated with health related behaviors. Optimal health is perceived as a priority, yet often this perception is not translated into preventative action. These findings will inform future research and policy makers as we strive towards a healthier ageing society and the prevention of chronic disease. PMID:19563685

  6. Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Fitness among Adolescents: Varying Definitions Yield Differing Results in Fitness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerner, Matthew S.

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to assess the relationships among leisure-time physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and measures of health-related and performance-related physical fitness, and (2) to determine the primary predictors of performance-related physical fitness from the variables investigated. This study updates the literature with…

  7. Comparison of relative and non-relative adoptive parent health status.

    PubMed

    Foli, Karen J; Lim, Eunjung; Sands, Laura P

    2015-03-01

    Across the United States, kinship parents, extended family members and close friends, render care to the 2.7 million children who have been removed from their birth parents' care. However, differences between relative and non-relative parents reported health statuses have not been explored. The National Survey of Adoptive Parents data were used to investigate the health status of relative (n = 469) and non-relative (n = 1,599) adoptive parents. Perceived happiness in the parent-child relationship and the parents' ability to cope appear to affect parental health status. Only non-related mothers of children younger than 6 years reported better emotional health than those mothers who were related to their children. With this exception, and despite caring for children who have a greater likelihood of abuse, neglect, and exposure to drugs and alcohol prior to birth, the reported health statuses of relative parents did not differ from non-relative parents. PMID:24249305

  8. Impact of task-related changes in heart rate on estimation of hemodynamic response and model fit.

    PubMed

    Hillenbrand, Sarah F; Ivry, Richard B; Schlerf, John E

    2016-05-15

    The blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal, as measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), is widely used as a proxy for changes in neural activity in the brain. Physiological variables such as heart rate (HR) and respiratory variation (RV) affect the BOLD signal in a way that may interfere with the estimation and detection of true task-related neural activity. This interference is of particular concern when these variables themselves show task-related modulations. We first establish that a simple movement task reliably induces a change in HR but not RV. In group data, the effect of HR on the BOLD response was larger and more widespread throughout the brain than were the effects of RV or phase regressors. The inclusion of HR regressors, but not RV or phase regressors, had a small but reliable effect on the estimated hemodynamic response function (HRF) in M1 and the cerebellum. We next asked whether the inclusion of a nested set of physiological regressors combining phase, RV, and HR significantly improved the model fit in individual participants' data sets. There was a significant improvement from HR correction in M1 for the greatest number of participants, followed by RV and phase correction. These improvements were more modest in the cerebellum. These results indicate that accounting for task-related modulation of physiological variables can improve the detection and estimation of true neural effects of interest. PMID:26944859

  9. Global Health Cooperation: International Relations' New Frontier.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    This issue of MEDICC Review appears in the wake of a media splash on the reopening of the Cuban and US embassies in Washington and Havana, signaling the renewal of full diplomatic relations between the two governments. Although the US embargo is still law and one of the thorniest bilateral issues remaining, the Obama administration's bold opening towards Cuba is being echoed in the chambers of Senate committees, calling for an end to the policy in place since 1962. Meanwhile, people from the United States have begun to travel to Cuba in droves, and for the first time in many years, we perceive real hope that cooperation may replace hostility-at least in the sectors that most matter to ordinary people in both nations. PMID:26947151

  10. Effectiveness and Reach of the FLU-FIT Program in an Integrated Health Care System: A Multisite Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ackerson, Lynn M.; Gomez, Vicky; Walsh, Judith M. E.; Green, Lawrence W.; Levin, Theodore R.; Somkin, Carol P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the effectiveness of offering home fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) during influenza vaccination clinics to increase colorectal cancer screening (CRCS). Methods. In a clinical trial at Kaiser Permanente Northern California influenza clinics in Redwood City, Richmond, South San Francisco, Union City, and Fresno, we randomly assigned influenza clinic dates to intervention (FIT offered) or control (FIT not offered) and compared subsequent CRCS activity. Results. Clinic staff provided FITs to 53.9% (1805/3351) of intervention patients aged 50 to 75 years. In the intent-to-treat analysis, 26.9% (900/3351) and 11.7% (336/2884) of intervention and control patients completed an FIT, respectively, within 90 days of vaccination (P ≤ .001). The adjusted odds ratio for completing FIT in the intervention versus the control arm was 2.75 (95% confidence interval = 2.40, 3.16). In the per protocol analysis, 35.4% (648/1830) of patients given FIT and 13.3% (588/4405) of patients not given FIT completed FIT within 90 days of vaccination (P ≤ .001). Conclusions. This intervention may increase CRCS among those not reached by other forms of CRCS outreach. Future research should include the extent to which these programs can be disseminated and implemented nationally. PMID:23597357

  11. Does a Fitness Factor Contribute to the Association between Intelligence and Health Outcomes? Evidence from Medical Abnormality Counts among 3654 US Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arden, Rosalind; Gottfredson, Linda S.; Miller, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    We suggest that an over-arching "fitness factor" (an index of general genetic quality that predicts survival and reproductive success) partially explains the observed associations between health outcomes and intelligence. As a proof of concept, we tested this idea in a sample of 3654 US Vietnam veterans aged 31-49 who completed five cognitive…

  12. The Relationship bBetween Health and Fitness Magazine Reading and Eating-Disordered Weight-Loss Methods among High School Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.; Weber, Michele M.; Brown, Lora Beth

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between reading women's health and fitness magazines and using eating disordered diet methods (laxatives, appetite suppressants/diet pills, vomiting, and over-restricting calories) among adolescent high school girls. Student surveys found positive associations between reading frequency and use of unhealthy weight…

  13. Factors Associated with Implementation of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005: Elementary School Principals' and Physical Activity Directors' Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Miriam Jones

    2012-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with implementation of the physical education and physical activity standards of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005 in Title I elementary schools. The study was framed using selected components of the diffusion of innovations theory, which looked at characteristics of the law and their…

  14. A Survey of Health-Related Activities on Second Life

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Leslie; Wilson, Kumanan; Morra, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Background Increasingly, governments, health care agencies, companies, and private groups have chosen Second Life as part of their Web 2.0 communication strategies. Second Life offers unique design features for disseminating health information, training health professionals, and enabling patient education for both academic and commercial health behavior research. Objectives This study aimed to survey and categorize the range of health-related activities on Second Life; to examine the design attributes of the most innovative and popular sites; and to assess the potential utility of Second Life for the dissemination of health information and for health behavior change. Methods We used three separate search strategies to identify health-related sites on Second Life. The first used the application’s search engine, entering both generic and select illness-specific keywords, to seek out sites. The second identified sites through a comprehensive review of print, blog, and media sources discussing health activities on Second Life. We then visited each site and used a snowball method to identify other health sites until we reached saturation (no new health sites were identified). The content, user experience, and chief purpose of each site were tabulated as well as basic site information, including user traffic data and site size. Results We found a wide range of health-related activities on Second Life, and a diverse group of users, including organizations, groups, and individuals. For many users, Second Life activities are a part of their Web 2.0 communication strategy. The most common type of health-related site in our sample (n = 68) were those whose principle aim was patient education or to increase awareness about health issues. The second most common type of site were support sites, followed by training sites, and marketing sites. Finally, a few sites were purpose-built to conduct research in SL or to recruit participants for real-life research. Conclusions Studies

  15. Total force fitness: the military family fitness model.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Stephen V; Pollock, Liz Davenport; Moore, Monique; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Cato, Colanda; Dekle, Judith Ward; Meyer, Sonia Wei; Shriver, Amber; Mueller, Bill; Stephens, Mark; Seidler, Dustin A; Sheldon, Joseph; Picano, James; Finch, Wanda; Morales, Ricardo; Blochberger, Sean; Kleiman, Matthew E; Thompson, Daniel; Bates, Mark J

    2015-03-01

    The military lifestyle can create formidable challenges for military families. This article describes the Military Family Fitness Model (MFFM), a comprehensive model aimed at enhancing family fitness and resilience across the life span. This model is intended for use by Service members, their families, leaders, and health care providers but also has broader applications for all families. The MFFM has three core components: (1) family demands, (2) resources (including individual resources, family resources, and external resources), and (3) family outcomes (including related metrics). The MFFM proposes that resources from the individual, family, and external areas promote fitness, bolster resilience, and foster well-being for the family. The MFFM highlights each resource level for the purpose of improving family fitness and resilience over time. The MFFM both builds on existing family strengths and encourages the development of new family strengths through resource-acquiring behaviors. The purpose of this article is to (1) expand the military's Total Force Fitness (TFF) intent as it relates to families and (2) offer a family fitness model. This article will summarize relevant evidence, provide supportive theory, describe the model, and proffer metrics that support the dimensions of this model. PMID:25735013

  16. Income-related health inequalities across regions in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In addition to economic inequalities, there has been growing concern over socioeconomic inequalities in health across income levels and/or regions. This study measures income-related health inequalities within and between regions and assesses the possibility of convergence of socioeconomic inequalities in health as regional incomes converge. Methods We considered a total of 45,233 subjects (≥ 19 years) drawn from the four waves of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We considered true health as a latent variable following a lognormal distribution. We obtained ill-health scores by matching self-rated health (SRH) to its distribution and used the Gini Coefficient (GC) and an income-related ill-health Concentration Index (CI) to examine inequalities in income and health, respectively. Results The GC estimates were 0.3763 and 0.0657 for overall and spatial inequalities, respectively. The overall CI was -0.1309, and the spatial CI was -0.0473. The spatial GC and CI estimates were smaller than their counterparts, indicating substantial inequalities in income (from 0.3199 in Daejeon to 0.4233 Chungnam) and income-related health inequalities (from -0.1596 in Jeju and -0.0844 in Ulsan) within regions. The results indicate a positive relationship between the GC and the average ill-health and a negative relationship between the CI and the average ill-health. Those regions with a low level of health tended to show an unequal distribution of income and health. In addition, there was a negative relationship between the GC and the CI, that is, the larger the income inequalities, the larger the health inequalities were. The GC was negatively related to the average regional income, indicating that an increase in a region's average income reduced income inequalities in the region. On the other hand, the CI showed a positive relationship, indicating that an increase in a region's average income reduced health inequalities in the

  17. Physical fitness assessment: an update.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Robert P; Greene, Jill Amanda; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K; Edlich, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) gives the following definition of health-related physical fitness: Physical fitness is defined as a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity. It is also characterized by (1) an ability to perform daily activities with vigor, and (2) a demonstration of traits and capacities that are associated with a low risk of premature development of hypokinetic diseases (e.g., those associated with physical inactivity). Information from an individual's health and medical records can be combined with information from physical fitness assessment to meet the specific health goals and rehabilitative needs of that individual. Attaining adequate informed consent from participants prior to exercise testing is mandatory because of ethical and legal considerations.A physical fitness assessment includes measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular fitness, and musculoskeletal flexibility. The three common techniques for assessing body composition are hydrostatic weighing, and skinfold measurements, and anthropometric measurements. Cardiorespiratory endurance is a crucial component of physical fitness assessment because of its strong correlation with health and health risks. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is the traditionally accepted criterion for measuring cardiorespiratory endurance. Although maximal-effort tests must be used to measure VO2max, submaximal exercise can be used to estimate this value. Muscular fitness has historically been used to describe an individual's integrated status of muscular strength and muscular endurance. An individual's muscular strength is specific to a particular muscle or muscle group and refers to the maximal force (N or kg) that the muscle or muscle group can generate. Dynamic strength can be assessed by measuring the movement of an individual's body against an external load. Isokinetic testing may be performed by assessing

  18. Nurses' dilemmas concerning support of relatives in mental health care.

    PubMed

    Weimand, Bente M; Sällström, Christina; Hall-Lord, Marie-Louise; Hedelin, Birgitta

    2013-05-01

    Relatives of persons with severe mental illness face a straining life situation and need support. Exclusion of relatives in mental health care has long been reported. The aim of this study was to describe conceptions of nurses in mental health care about supporting relatives of persons with severe mental illness. Focus group interviews with nurses from all levels of mental health care in Norway were performed. A phenomenographic approach was used. The nurses found that their responsibility first and foremost was the patient, especially to develop an alliance with him or her. Additional premises for supporting relatives were the context framing the nursing care, aspects of the actors, and relational concerns between them. Competing or contradictory demands were found within these premises. Two paths were identified concerning the nurses' support of relatives: seeing the relative in the shadow of the patient or as an individual person. PMID:23361144

  19. The Impact of Health Communication on Health-Related Decision Making: A Review of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review evidence related to the factors that influence people's understanding of health information and how miscommunication of health information can jeopardize people's health. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review was conducted of English language articles, cited in major literature databases…

  20. A Descriptive Analysis of Health-Related Infomercials: Implications for Health Education and Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Susan C.; Lindsay, Gordon B.; Thomsen, Steve R.; Olsen, Astrid M.

    2003-01-01

    Media literacy education helps individuals become discriminating consumers of health information. Informed consumers are less likely to purchase useless health products if informed of misleading and deceptive advertising methods. The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of health-related TV infomercials. An instrument…

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health-Promoting Behaviors in Black Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Wilma J.; Isaac,, E. Paulette; Johnson, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the health-related quality of life and health-promoting behaviors in a convenience sample of low-income black men. Almost three-fourths reported their overall health as good or better. However, the mean number of recent (that is, past 30 days) mentally unhealthy days was 13.12, and more than half reported frequent (greater than…

  2. How Physicians' Answers Relate to Health Consumers' Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Laura; Soergel, Dagobert

    2003-01-01

    Examines the semantic relationships in consumers' health-related questions, physician-provided answers, and between questions and answers with the purpose of supporting the design of health consumer question-answering systems. The information present in the text was expressed using a "pilot" ontology that was based on the semantic relationships…

  3. Health-Related Effects of Creative and Expressive Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of some health-related effects of creative and expressive writing. Design/methodology/approach: Reviews some of the main research studies exploring links between expressive writing and aspects of health, including two new experimental studies showing effects of poetry on mood and immune…

  4. Neighborhood Comparisons of Dog-Related Health Hazards and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Melinda

    1984-01-01

    Undergraduate students increase their understanding of human geography and become aware of their community's health ecology by examining the degree and geographical pattern of dog-associated health hazards in Athens, Georgia, and by studying the behavioral patterns and attitudes of Athens's residents that might be causally related to these health…

  5. The Health-Related Quality of Life of Custodial Grandparents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely-Barnes, Susan L.; Graff, J. Carolyn; Washington, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was explored in a sample of 119 custodial grandparents. A latent profile analysis identified three groups of grandparents along a continuum of good to poor HRQOL, with most custodial grandparents reporting Short Form-12 Health Survey (version 2) scores significantly below U.S. population means. Grandparent…

  6. Relative Deprivation and Health: Which Reference Groups Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangyo, Eiji; Park, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We examine the extent to which self-reported health and psychosocial health are affected by relative economic status in China, for the first time examining the importance of reference groups not defined by geographic location or demographic characteristics. We propose a methodology to address potential bias from subjective reporting biases and…

  7. Born Fat: The Relations Between Weight Changeability Beliefs and Health Behaviors and Physical Health.

    PubMed

    Parent, Mike C; Alquist, Jessica L

    2016-06-01

    Although some popular press and nonscholarly sources have claimed that weight is largely unchangeable, the relationship between this belief and objective measures of health remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that people who believe weight is unchangeable will have poorer objective and subjective health, and fewer exercise behaviors and poorer eating habits, than people who believe weight is changeable. Participants were 4,166 men and 4,655 women enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the 2007 to 2010 iterations. Believing that weight was uncontrollable was negatively related to exercise and healthful dietary practices and positively related to unhealthful eating. Lack of exercise and unhealthful eating were, in turn, associated with poor physical health. Age, but not gender, moderated the relationships between belief in weight changeability and exercise behaviors, healthful eating, and unhealthful eating. This study suggests that believing weight is unchangeable is associated with poor health behaviors and poorer physical health. PMID:26351266

  8. Psychosocial and Health-Related Characteristics of Adolescent Television Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined relationship between television viewing frequency and adolescents' health-related and psychosocial characteristics. Found that shyness and exercise frequency predicted television viewing frequency. Among females, exercise frequency, shyness, loneliness, and perceived attractiveness predicted viewing frequency. Light viewers exercised more…

  9. 42 CFR 433.57 - General rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-related donations and health care-related taxes. 433.57 Section 433.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes. Effective... FFP, funds from provider-related donations and revenues generated by health care-related...

  10. 42 CFR 433.57 - General rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-related donations and health care-related taxes. 433.57 Section 433.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes. Effective... FFP, funds from provider-related donations and revenues generated by health care-related...

  11. 42 CFR 433.57 - General rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-related donations and health care-related taxes. 433.57 Section 433.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes. Effective... FFP, funds from provider-related donations and revenues generated by health care-related...

  12. 42 CFR 433.57 - General rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-related donations and health care-related taxes. 433.57 Section 433.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes. Effective... FFP, funds from provider-related donations and revenues generated by health care-related...

  13. 42 CFR 433.57 - General rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-related donations and health care-related taxes. 433.57 Section 433.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes. Effective... FFP, funds from provider-related donations and revenues generated by health care-related...

  14. Physical Education and School Contextual Factors Relating to Students' Achievement and Cross-Grade Differences in Aerobic Fitness and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo; Boiarskaia, Elena A.; Welk, Gregory J.; Meredith, Marilu D.

    2010-01-01

    Using two major data sets from the Texas Youth Fitness Study, ordinary least squares regression, and hierarchical linear modeling, we examined the impact of key correlates in school physical education programs and policies on students' fitness status and cross-grade differences. While a number of factors, such as teachers' training/updates, recess…

  15. Are Health-Related Tweets Evidence Based? Review and Analysis of Health-Related Tweets on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care professionals are utilizing Twitter to communicate, develop disease surveillance systems, and mine health-related information. The immediate users of this health information is the general public, including patients. This necessitates the validation of health-related tweets by health care professionals to ensure they are evidence based and to avoid the use of noncredible information as a basis for critical decisions. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate health-related tweets on Twitter for validity (evidence based) and to create awareness in the community regarding the importance of evidence-based health-related tweets. Methods All tweets containing health-related information in the Arabic language posted April 1-5, 2015, were mined from Twitter. The tweets were classified based on popularity, activity, interaction, and frequency to obtain 25 Twitter accounts (8 physician accounts, 10 nonofficial health institute accounts, 4 dietitian accounts, and 3 government institute accounts) and 625 tweets. These tweets were evaluated by 3 American Board–certified medical consultants and a score was generated (true/false) and interobserver agreement was calculated. Results A total of 625 health-related Arabic-language tweets were identified from 8 physician accounts, 10 nonofficial health institute accounts, 4 dietician accounts, and 3 government institute accounts. The reviewers labeled 320 (51.2%) tweets as false and 305 (48.8%) tweets as true. Comparative analysis of tweets by account type showed 60 of 75 (80%) tweets by government institutes, 124 of 201 (61.7%) tweets by physicians, and 42 of 101 (41.6%) tweets by dieticians were true. The interobserver agreement was moderate (range 0.78-0.22). More than half of the health-related tweets (169/248, 68.1%) from nonofficial health institutes and dietician accounts (59/101, 58.4%) were false. Tweets by the physicians were more likely to be rated “true” compared to other groups (P<.001

  16. Physical Activity is Related to Fatty Liver Marker in Obese Youth, Independently of Central Obesity or Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Clarice; Aires, Luisa; Júnior, Ismael Freitas; Silva, Gustavo; Silva, Alexandre; Lemos, Luís; Mota, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent complications associated with excess adiposity and has been identified as the leading cause of liver disease in pediatric populations worldwide. Because cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is related to physical activity (PA) levels, and increased PA plays a protective role against NAFLD risk factors, the aim of this study was to analyze the association between PA and a fatty liver marker (alanine aminotransferase - ALT) in obese children and adolescents, independently of central adiposity or CRF. 131 obese children (83 girls, 7-15 year-olds) involved in a PA promotion program comprised the sample. Measurements included anthropometric and body composition evaluations (DEXA), biological measurements (venipuncture), CRF (progressive treadmill test), PA (accelerometry), and maturational stage (Tanner criteria). The associations between ALT with PA intensities, central obesity, and CRF were calculated by three different models of linear regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Level of significance was set at 95%. RESULTS: ALT was negatively associated with MVPA (β = -0.305), and CRF (β = -0.426), and positively associated with central obesity (β=.468). After adjustment for central obesity the negative and statistically significant association between ALT with MVPA (β = -0.364) and CRF (β = -0.550) still persists while a positive and significantly correlation was shown between ALT and SB (β = 0.382). Additional adjustment for CRF (Model 3) showed significant associations for all the PA intensities analyzed including light activity. PA at different intensities is associated to a fatty liver marker in obese children and adolescents, independently of central adiposity or CRF. Key points In a previous study our group observed that there might be a potential protective effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) against abnormal ALT values; Considering that CRF is related to physical activity (PA

  17. A Fitting Routine to Obtain Temperature and Relative Spectral Emissivity from Mixed Material (C, W, Be) Surfaces in PSI Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seraydarian, Ray; Hanna, Jeremy; Doerner, Russ; Baldwin, Matt

    2007-11-01

    A nonlinear least-squares fitting code has been written to fit a black body profile multiplied by a polynomial spectral emissivity to the data from an IR spectroscopy diagnostic on the PISCES-B machine. The result is the absolute surface temperature and the coefficients of the polynomial emissivity. Emissivity measurements are important for thermal balance calculations of first wall materials in ITER, especially under conditions for which mixed materials can be created (e.g., combinations of C, W and Be) for which no other emissivity data are available. A straightforward data-to-theory-function fit is made possible by an intensity calibration using a commercially available illumination source. The raw spectrum has sufficient detail (512 pixels) to see and eliminate atomic line emission and absorption features from the spectrum before fitting. Fitting code details and preliminary experimental data analysis will be presented and discussed.

  18. Effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness and self-assessment of the quality of health of women of the perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To determine the effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness of women of the perimenopausal age and self-assessment of the quality of their health. Material and methods Eighty-four women between 48 and 58 years of age were included in the study. Half of the group (42) was assigned to the control group and the other half was assigned to the experimental group. In both groups studied, physical fitness was evaluated using a modified Fullerton's test and a quality of life self-assessment SF-36 (Short Form of Health Status Questionnaire). Similar tests were repeated 4 weeks later. In the experimental group, a Nordic walking training was conducted between the two tests. During 4 weeks, 10 training sessions were performed, each session was 60 minutes long, and there was an interval of 2 days between the sessions. Results A 4-week Nordic walking training resulted in a significant improvement (p < 0.001) of physical fitness as demonstrated by an increased strength and flexibility of the upper and lower part of the body and the ability to walk a longer distance during a 6-minute walking test. Women participating in the training also showed a significant improvement in health in terms of both physical health (p < 0.001) and mental health (p < 0.001). Conclusions A 4-week Nordic walking training has a positive effect on the physical fitness of the women in the perimenopausal age. Participation in training contributes also to a clearly higher self-assessment of the quality of health. PMID:26327897

  19. Health Related Quality of Life among Insulin-Dependent Diabetics: Disease-Related and Psychosocial Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Uutela, Antti; Aro, Arja R.

    1997-01-01

    The associations of health and psychosocial factors with the Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire were examined in adult type 1 diabetic patients (N=385). The most important factors from multivariate analysis were self-efficacy and diabetes-related social support, especially among those in good physical condition. Diabetes-specific factors…

  20. Relative Fitness of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Seven Host Plants: A Perspective for IPM in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reigada, C; Guimarães, K F; Parra, J R P

    2016-01-01

    The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a widespread pest of many cultivated and wild plants in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. In 2013, this species was reported in Brazil, attacking various host crops in the midwestern and northeastern regions of the country and is now found countrywide. Aiming to understand the effects of different host plants on the life cycle of H. armigera, we selected seven species of host plants that mature in different seasons and are commonly grown in these regions: cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, "FM993"), corn (Zea mays, "2B587"), soybean (Glycine max, "99R01"), rattlepods (Crotalaria spectabilis), millet (Pennisetum glaucum, "ADR300"), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, "AGROMEN70G35"), and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, "SEMPRE VERDE"). The development time of immatures, body weight, survivorship, and fecundity of H. armigera were evaluated on each host plant under laboratory conditions. The bollworms did not survive on corn, millet, or sorghum and showed very low survival rates on rattlepods. Survival rates were highest on soybean, followed by cotton and cowpea. The values for relative fitness found on soybean, cotton, cowpea, and rattlepods were 1, 0.5, 0.43, and 0.03, respectively. Survivorship, faster development time, and fecundity on soybean, cotton, and cowpea were positively correlated. Larger pupae and greater fecundity were found on soybean and cotton. The results indicated that soybean, cotton, and cowpea are the most suitable plants to support the reproduction of H. armigera in the field. PMID:26798139

  1. [Position of health at international relations. Part II. Organizational dimensions of health].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of some concepts and definitions related with "set up of health", used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of organizational dimensions of health at worldwide agenda. The following organizational dimensions of health were discussed: (a) health for all, (b) health promotion, intersectoral and multisectoral actions, health in all policies, (c) health development, health as an element of human development, (d) investment for health, (e) health diplomacy and (f) mainstreaming of health. The analysis was based on World Health Assembly and UN General Assembly resolutions as well as supranational reports and statements available through conventional channels, not grey literature. It is apparent that some of notions are not in common use in Poland, some seems to be unknown. It was argued that some general and discreet thoughts and statements concerning organizational aspects of health were expressed in the preamble of WHO Constitution. Nevertheless they are not comparable with later propositions and proceedings. The first modern concepts and notions related as process were developed at late seventies. They originated from efforts to realize a vision of health for all and formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action for attaining this goal. The turning point was in 1981, when WHA adopted Global Strategy for Heath for All by the Year 2000. Since then one can observe considerable progress and new concepts came into existence, more and more precise and better reflecting the sense of health actions. The evolution of organizational dimensions of health was described in the context of brand positioning. It was assumed that first step of positioning was concentrated on structural dimensions of health. That served to awareness raise, attitudes change and motivation to action. That made a foundation to the next step--positioning based on process approach to health. Among others the

  2. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Strengthen your bones and muscles Improve your mental health and mood Improve your ability to do daily activities and prevent falls, if you're an older adult Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise ...

  3. Relative Contributions of a Set of Health Factors to Selected Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojun; Roubal, Anne M; Jovaag, Amanda; Gennuso, Keith P; Catlin, Bridget B

    2015-12-01

    Although many researchers agree that multiple determinants impact health, there is no consensus regarding the magnitude of the relative contributions of individual health factors to health outcomes. This study presents a method to empirically estimate the relative contributions of health behaviors, clinical care, social and economic factors, and the physical environment to health outcomes using nationally representative county-level data and statistical approaches that account for potential sources of bias. The analyses for this study were conducted in 2014. Data were from the 2010-2013 County Health Rankings & Roadmaps. Data covered 2,996 of 3,141 U.S. counties. Ordinary least squares modeling was used as a baseline model. Multilevel latent growth curve modeling was used to estimate the relative contributions of health factors to health outcomes while accounting for measurement errors and state-specific characteristics. Almost half of the variance of health outcomes was due to state-level variation rather than county-level variation. When adjusted for measurement errors and state-level variation using multilevel latent growth curve modeling, the relative contribution of clinical care decreased and that of social and economic factors increased compared with the baseline model. This study presents how potential sources of bias affected the estimates of the relative contributions of a set of modifiable health factors to health outcomes at the county level. Further verification of these approaches with other data sources could lead to a better understanding of the impact of specific health determinants to health outcomes, and will provide useful information on policy interventions. PMID:26590942

  4. Intergroup Relations and Health Disparities: A Social Psychological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Dovidio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article considers how the social psychology of intergroup processes helps to explain the presence and persistence of health disparities between members of socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Method Social psychological theory and research on intergroup relations, including prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, stigma, prejudice concerns, social identity threat, and the dynamics of intergroup interactions, is reviewed and applied to understand group disparities in health and health care. Potential directions for future research are considered. Results Key features of group relations and dynamics, including social categorization, social hierarchy, and the structural positions of groups along dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, influence how members of high status groups perceive, feel about, and behave toward members of low status groups, how members of low status groups construe and cope with their situation, and how members of high and low status groups interact with each other. These intergroup processes, in turn, contribute to health disparities by leading to differential exposure to and experiences of chronic and acute stress, different health behaviors, and different quality of health care experienced by members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Within each of these pathways, social psychological theory and research identifies mediating mechanisms, moderating factors, and individual differences that can affect health. Conclusions A social psychological perspective illuminates the intergroup, interpersonal, and intrapersonal processes by which structural circumstances which differ between groups for historical, political, and economic reasons can lead to group differences in health. PMID:23646834

  5. Health-related media use among youth audiences in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Glik, Deborah; Massey, Philip; Gipson, Jessica; Dieng, Thierno; Rideau, Alexandre; Prelip, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid changes in access to and use of new internet and digital media technologies. The purpose of this study was to better understand how younger audiences are navigating traditional and newer forms of media technologies, with particular emphasis on the skills and competencies needed to obtain, evaluate and apply health-related information, also defined as health and media literacy. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted throughout Senegal in September 2012 with youth aged 15-25. Using an iterative coding process based on grounded theory, four themes emerged related to media use for health information among Senegalese youth. They include the following: (i) media utilization; (ii) barriers and conflicts regarding media utilization; (iii) uses and gratifications and (iv) health and media literacy. Findings suggest that Senegalese youth use a heterogeneous mix of media platforms (i.e. television, radio, internet) and utilization often occurs with family members or friends. Additionally, the need for entertainment, information and connectedness inform media use, mostly concerning sexual and reproductive health information. Importantly, tensions arise as youth balance innovative and interactive technologies with traditional and conservative values, particularly concerning ethical and privacy concerns. Findings support the use of multipronged intervention approaches that leverage both new media, as well as traditional media strategies, and that also address lack of health and media literacy in this population. Implementing health-related interventions across multiple media platforms provides an opportunity to create an integrated, as opposed to a disparate, user experience. PMID:25113152

  6. The Langley Fitness Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  7. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Fitness and Walking Related Outcomes in Ambulatory Individuals with Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    DiPiro, Nicole D.; Embry, Aaron E.; Fritz, Stacy L.; Middleton, Addie; Krause, James S.; Gregory, Chris M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Single group, pretest-posttest study. Objectives To determine the effects of a non-task-specific, voluntary, progressive aerobic exercise training (AET) intervention on fitness and walking-related outcomes in ambulatory adults with chronic motor-incomplete SCI. Setting Rehabilitation research center. Methods Ten ambulatory individuals (50% female; 57.94 ± 9.33 years old; 11.11 ± 9.66 years post injury) completed voluntary, progressive moderate-to-vigorous intensity AET on a recumbent stepper three days per week for six weeks. The primary outcome measures were aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and self-selected overground walking speed (OGWS). Secondary outcome measures included: walking economy, six-minute walk test (6MWT), daily step counts, Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI-II), Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results Nine participants completed all testing and training. Significant improvements in aerobic capacity (P=0.011), OGWS (P=0.023), the percentage of VO2peak utilized while walking at self-selected speed (P=0.03), and daily step counts (P=0.025) resulted following training. Conclusions The results indicate that total-body, voluntary, progressive AET is safe, feasible, and effective for improving aerobic capacity, walking speed, and select walking-related outcomes in an exclusively ambulatory SCI sample. This study suggests the potential for non-task-specific aerobic exercise to improve walking following incomplete SCI and builds a foundation for further investigation aimed at the development of exercise based rehabilitation strategies to target functionally limiting impairments in ambulatory individuals with chronic SCI. PMID:26666508

  8. Health crises and media relations: relationship management-by-fire.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver-Lariscy, Ruthann

    2007-01-01

    Media relations is an important function in the operation of any health organization, yet it is often relegated as a simple task function. Such an orientation can be problematic, particularly in times of crisis. This article provides an overview of some of the inherent internal conflicts within health organizations that may mitigate against the best media relations practices in times of crises. The article surveys some of the predominant theoretical models used for crisis management, and suggests directions for the further development of media relations and crisis communication theory and practice. PMID:19042529

  9. Fitness of the US workforce.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Nicolaas P

    2015-03-18

    Fitness matters for the prevention of premature death, chronic diseases, productivity loss, excess medical care costs, loss of income or family earnings, and other social and economic concerns. The workforce may be viewed as a corporate strategic asset, yet its fitness level appears to be relatively low and declining. Over the past half-century, obesity rates have doubled, physical activity levels are below par, and cardiorespiratory fitness often does not meet minimum acceptable job standards. During this time, daily occupational energy expenditure has decreased by more than 100 calories. Employers should consider best practices and design workplace wellness programs accordingly. Particular attention should be paid to human-centered cultures. Research should address ongoing surveillance needs regarding fitness of the US workforce and close gaps in the evidence base for fitness and business-relevant outcomes. Policy priorities should consider the impact of both state and federal regulations, adherence to current regulations that protect and promote worker health, and the introduction of incentives that allow employers to optimize the fitness of their workforce through supportive legislation and organizational policies. PMID:25785887

  10. The Effects of Traumatic Stressors and HIV-Related Trauma Symptoms on Health and Health Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Tamara G.; Mattson, Melissa; Thilges, Sarah; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2012-01-01

    The study identified relations among traumatic stressors, HIV-related trauma symptoms, comorbid medical conditions, and health related quality of life (HRQL) in individuals with HIV. Participants (N = 118) completed a structured clinical interview on HIV as a traumatic stressor and other severe traumatic stressors and completed the Impact of Event Scale to assess HIV-related trauma symptoms and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form (SF-36) to assess HRQL. Medical chart reviews determined comorbid conditions. Path analysis findings indicated participants with prior severe traumatic stressors experienced their HIV diagnosis as traumatic and in turn were more likely to have current HIV-related trauma symptoms which were negatively related to HRQL. HIV as a traumatic stressor was related to coronary artery diseases and HRQL. Traumatic stressors and HIV-related trauma symptoms impact health in individuals with HIV and highlight the need for psychological interventions prior to diagnosis and throughout treatment. PMID:21667297

  11. Linking the Fits, Fitting the Links: Connecting Different Types of PO Fit to Attitudinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Aegean; Chaturvedi, Sankalp

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the linkages among various types of person-organization (PO) fit and their effects on employee attitudinal outcomes. We propose and test a conceptual model which links various types of fits--objective fit, perceived fit and subjective fit--in a hierarchical order of cognitive information processing and relate them to…

  12. Correlates of Health-Related Social Media Use Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sixty percent of Internet users report using the Internet to look for health information. Social media sites are emerging as a potential source for online health information. However, little is known about how people use social media for such purposes. Objectives The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to establish the frequency of various types of online health-seeking behaviors, and (2) to identify correlates of 2 health-related online activities, social networking sites (SNS) for health-related activities and consulting online user-generated content for answers about health care providers, health facilities, or medical treatment. Methods The study consisted of a telephone survey of 1745 adults who reported going online to look for health-related information. Four subscales were created to measure use of online resources for (1) using SNS for health-related activities; (2) consulting online rankings and reviews of doctors, hospitals or medical facilities, and drugs or medical treatments; (3) posting a review online of doctors, hospitals or medical facilities, and drugs or medical treatments, and (4) posting a comment or question about health or medical issues on various social media. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Respondents consulted online rankings or reviews (41.15%), used SNS for health (31.58%), posted reviews (9.91%), and posted a comment, question, or information (15.19%). Respondents with a chronic disease were nearly twice as likely to consult online rankings (odds ratio [OR] 2.09, 95% CI 1.66-2.63, P<.001). Lower odds of consulting online reviews were associated with less formal education (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.37-0.65, P<.001) and being male (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.87, P<.001). Respondents with higher incomes were 1.5 times as likely to consult online rankings or reviews (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.10-2.24, P=.05), than respondents with a regular provider (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.52-2.78, P<.001), or

  13. The fitness advantage of commercial wine yeasts in relation to the nitrogen concentration, temperature, and ethanol content under microvinification conditions.

    PubMed

    García-Ríos, Estéfani; Gutiérrez, Alicia; Salvadó, Zoel; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé; Guillamon, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the main environmental factors governing wine fermentation on the fitness of industrial yeast strains has barely received attention. In this study, we used the concept of fitness advantage to measure how increasing nitrogen concentrations (0 to 200 mg N/liter), ethanol (0 to 20%), and temperature (4 to 45°C) affects competition among four commercial wine yeast strains (PDM, ARM, RVA, and TTA). We used a mathematical approach to model the hypothetical time needed for the control strain (PDM) to out-compete the other three strains in a theoretical mixed population. The theoretical values obtained were subsequently verified by competitive mixed fermentations in both synthetic and natural musts, which showed a good fit between the theoretical and experimental data. Specifically, the data show that the increase in nitrogen concentration and temperature values improved the fitness advantage of the PDM strain, whereas the presence of ethanol significantly reduced its competitiveness. However, the RVA strain proved to be the most competitive yeast for the three enological parameters assayed. The study of the fitness of these industrial strains is of paramount interest for the wine industry, which uses them as starters of their fermentations. Here, we propose a very simple method to model the fitness advantage, which allows the prediction of the competitiveness of one strain with respect to different abiotic factors. PMID:24242239

  14. The Fitness Advantage of Commercial Wine Yeasts in Relation to the Nitrogen Concentration, Temperature, and Ethanol Content under Microvinification Conditions

    PubMed Central

    García-Ríos, Estéfani; Gutiérrez, Alicia; Salvadó, Zoel; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the main environmental factors governing wine fermentation on the fitness of industrial yeast strains has barely received attention. In this study, we used the concept of fitness advantage to measure how increasing nitrogen concentrations (0 to 200 mg N/liter), ethanol (0 to 20%), and temperature (4 to 45°C) affects competition among four commercial wine yeast strains (PDM, ARM, RVA, and TTA). We used a mathematical approach to model the hypothetical time needed for the control strain (PDM) to out-compete the other three strains in a theoretical mixed population. The theoretical values obtained were subsequently verified by competitive mixed fermentations in both synthetic and natural musts, which showed a good fit between the theoretical and experimental data. Specifically, the data show that the increase in nitrogen concentration and temperature values improved the fitness advantage of the PDM strain, whereas the presence of ethanol significantly reduced its competitiveness. However, the RVA strain proved to be the most competitive yeast for the three enological parameters assayed. The study of the fitness of these industrial strains is of paramount interest for the wine industry, which uses them as starters of their fermentations. Here, we propose a very simple method to model the fitness advantage, which allows the prediction of the competitiveness of one strain with respect to different abiotic factors. PMID:24242239

  15. Dance Your Way to Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ... vigorous program for people of all ability and fitness levels. Dance video games and DVDs are also ...

  16. Dance Your Way to Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000809.htm Dance Your Way to Fitness To use the sharing features on this page, ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ...

  17. Health-Related Decision-Making in HIV Disease.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Katie L; Woods, Steven Paul; Morgan, Erin E; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Cameron, Marizela V; Gilbert, Paul E; Beltran, Jessica

    2016-06-01

    Individuals living with HIV show moderate decision-making deficits, though no prior studies have evaluated the ability to make optimal health-related decisions across the HIV healthcare continuum. Forty-three HIV+ individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND+), 50 HIV+ individuals without HAND (HAND-), and 42 HIV- participants were administered two measures of health-related decision-making as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological battery: (1) The Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS), and (2) The Modified UCSD Brief Assessment for Capacity to Consent (UBACC-T). Multiple regression analyses revealed that HAND was an independent predictor of both the DCS and the UBACC-T, such that the HAND+ sample evidenced significantly poorer scores relative to comparison groups. Within the HIV+ sample, poorer health-related decision-making was associated with worse performance on tests of episodic memory, risky decision-making, and health literacy. Findings indicate that individuals with HAND evidence moderate deficits in effectively comprehending and evaluating various health-related choices. PMID:26946300

  18. Health Related Quality of Life and Influencing Factors among Welders

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jingxiang; Liu, Wuzhong; Zhu, Jun; Weng, Wei; Xu, Jiaming; Ai, Zisheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL) of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. Methods 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis) and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. Results Six dimensions including role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), validity (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. Conclusions Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL. PMID:25048102

  19. Adverse Health Effects in Relation to Urban Residential Soundscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SKÅNBERG, A.; ÖHRSTRÖM, E.

    2002-02-01

    Noise pollution from road traffic in residential areas is a growing environmental problem. New approaches to turn the negative trend are needed. The programme “Soundscape Support to Health” will achieve new knowledge about the adverse health effects of noise pollution on humans and will investigate the link between well-being and health and perceived soundscapes for optimizing the acoustic soundscapes in urban residential areas. This paper will briefly present the programme and presents preliminary results from the first study of how various adverse health effects are related to individual noise exposures among individuals in residential areas with and without access to a quiet side of the dwelling.

  20. Providing multilingual access to health-related content.

    PubMed

    Plumbaum, Till; Narr, Sascha; Eryilmaz, Elif; Hopfgartner, Frank; Klein-Ellinghaus, Funda; Reese, Anna; Albayrak, Sahin

    2014-01-01

    Finding health-related content is not an easy task. People have to know what to search for, which medical terms to use, and where to find accurate information. This task becomes even harder when people such as immigrants wish to find information in their country of residence and do not speak the national language very well. In this paper, we present a new health information system that allows users to search for health information using natural language queries composed of multiple languages. We present the technical details of the system and outline the results of a preliminary user study to demonstrate the usability of the system. PMID:25160213

  1. How society shapes the health gradient: work-related health inequalities in a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Christopher B; Hall, Peter A; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Hertzman, Clyde

    2012-04-01

    Analyses in comparative political economy have the potential to contribute to understanding health inequalities within and between societies. This article uses a varieties of capitalism approach that groups high-income countries into coordinated market economies (CME) and liberal market economies (LME) with different labor market institutions and degrees of employment and unemployment protection that may give rise to or mediate work-related health inequalities. We illustrate this approach by presenting two longitudinal comparative studies of unemployment and health in Germany and the United States, an archetypical CME and LME. We find large differences in the relationship between unemployment and health across labor-market and institutional contexts, and these also vary by educational status. Unemployed Americans, especially of low education or not in receipt of unemployment benefits, have the poorest health outcomes. We argue for the development of a broader comparative research agenda on work-related health inequalities that incorporates life course perspectives. PMID:22429159

  2. Health-related outcomes of war in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, R M; Frieden, T; Vermund, S H

    1987-01-01

    Since 1983, war in Nicaragua has slowed improvements in health which had developed rapidly from 1979-82. The rate of war-related deaths among Nicaraguans now exceeds that of the United States citizens in either the Vietnam War or World War II. Forty-two of the 84 documented war-related casualties among Nicaraguan health workers have been deaths. This high case fatality rate reflects the targeting of health workers by contra troops. The number of staff and services of the public medical system decreased by approximately 10 per cent from 1983 to 1985. Population movements, the establishment of new settlements, and war-related destruction of the primary health infrastructure are associated with recent epidemics of malaria, dengue, measles, and leishmaniasis. The estimated rate of infant mortality in Nicaragua, which had declined from 120 per 1,000 in 1978 to 76/1,000 live births in 1983, has since shown no further decline. Internationally mandated protections enjoyed by civilians and health workers during times of war do not appear to operate in this so-called "low intensity" conflict. Further declines in infant mortality, prevention of epidemics, and improvement in other health indicators will likely await the cessation of military hostilities. PMID:3565659

  3. Gender differences in health related behaviour: some unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Kandrack, M A; Grant, K R; Segall, A

    1991-01-01

    To date, no single explanation has accounted for discrepancies between male and female morbidity rates and health care utilization patterns. The sociomedical approach to sex/gender differences in health related behaviour has generated a variety of hypotheses. However, despite extensive study, many unanswered questions remain. The findings of this study fall short of offering conclusive evidence as to the causes of variations in morbidity and health services use between women and men. However, an effort is made to identify the salience of social role and related social status characteristics (e.g. labour force participation) in accounting for variation in health, illness and sick role behaviour. This paper utilizes data from the 1983 Winnipeg Area Study. Findings of this study raise questions about the adequacy of current concepts and measures for studying sex/gender differences in health related behaviour. The study concludes with a critical discussion of conceptual, methodological and theoretical issues which must be considered in our efforts to advance our understanding of why women experience greater longevity, but experience greater morbidity and make more extensive use of health services. PMID:2017726

  4. Oral health, nutrition, and oral health-related quality of life among Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young-Mi; Shin, Dong-Soo

    2008-10-01

    Oral health affects older adults and their quality of life. Oral care is reported to have a low priority in nursing care of older adults, and repeated assessments to detect oral health problems are seldom performed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among level of oral health, nutrition, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQL) and to identify predictors of OHRQL in Korean older adults. The design was a descriptive, correlational study. The level of oral pain contributed most significantly to OHRQL, followed by nutrition and number of teeth. These three predictor variables explained 46.4% of the variance in OHRQL. Older adults could benefit from oral health care, such as routine screening for oral health and nutritional status. Nurses are at the forefront in providing such services, and it is recommended they integrate oral health care into their routine nursing care plans. PMID:18942537

  5. Relating realist metatheory to issues of gender and mental health.

    PubMed

    Bergin, M; Wells, John S G; Owen, Sara

    2010-06-01

    This paper seeks to advance the debate that considers critical realism as an alternative approach for understanding gender and mental health and its relatedness to mental health research and practice. The knowledge base of how 'sex' and 'gender' affect mental health and illness is expanding. However, the way we conceptualize gender is significant and challenging as quite often our ability to think about 'gender' as independent of 'sex' is not common. The influences and interplay of how sex (biological) and gender (social) affect mental health and illness requires consideration. Critical realism suggests a shared ontology and epistemology for the natural and social sciences. While much of the debate surrounding gender is guided within a constructivist discourse, an exploration of the concept 'gender' is reflected on and some key realist propositions are considered for mental health research and practice. This is achieved through the works of some key realist theorists. Critical realism offers potential for research and practice in relation to gender and mental health because it facilitates changes in our understanding, while simultaneously, not discarding that which is already known. In so doing, it allows the biological (sex) and social (gender) domains of knowledge for mental health and illness to coexist, without either being reduced to or defined by the other. Arguably, greater depth and explanations for gender and mental health issues are presented within a realist metatheory. PMID:20584241

  6. METABOLIC SYNDROME IN RELATION TO CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS, ACTIVE AND SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR IN HIV+ HISPANICS WITH AND WITHOUT LIPODYSTROPHY

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Marrero, Farah A.; Santana-Bagur, Jorge L.; Joyner, Michael J.; Rodríguez-Zayas, Jorge; Frontera, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Hispanics in Puerto Rico (PR) have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (met-syn), partially explained by low physical activity (PA) and possibly low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak). Met-syn is also associated with lipodystrophy in HIV infected (HIV+) adults taking antiretroviral therapies. However, associations between met-syn, VO2peak, PA, sedentary behavior and lipodystrophy among HIV+ Hispanics have not been adequately reported. Objective We tested the following hypotheses: 1) HIV+ Hispanics with lipodystrophy (HIV-Lipo) would have a higher prevalence of met-syn, lower VO2peak and PA, and higher sedentary behavior compared with those without lipodystrophy (HIV-no-Lipo) and without HIV infection (Non-HIV); and 2) met-syn would be inversely associated with VO2peak and PA, and directly associated with sedentary behavior. METHODS Ninety Hispanic adults (32 HIV-Lipo, 28 HIV-no-Lipo, 30 Non-HIV) completed measurements of VO2peak, anthropometry, PA and sedentary behavior with accelerometry, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipids. ANOVA and chi-square tests were used to detect differences between groups, and regression analyses to test associations between variables. RESULTS More HIV-Lipo (69%) had met-syn compared with HIV-no-Lipo (39%) and Non-HIV (37%) (P=0.002). Sedentary behavior and PA were not different, but VO2peak differed between all groups: lowest in HIV-Lipo and highest in non-HIV. PA and sedentary behavior were not associated with met-syn, but PA was directly associated with VO peak (R2=0.26, p<0.01). Also, a lower odds ratio for met-syn was observed with higher VO2peak (0.87; 95% CI: 0.83-0.95). CONCLUSION Met-syn is related to lipodystrophy in HIV+ Hispanics in PR, and high VO2peak may protect against met-syn in this population. PMID:25563033

  7. Relative Fitness of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Seven Host Plants: A Perspective for IPM in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Reigada, C.; Guimarães, K. F.; Parra, J. R. P.

    2016-01-01

    The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a widespread pest of many cultivated and wild plants in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. In 2013, this species was reported in Brazil, attacking various host crops in the midwestern and northeastern regions of the country and is now found countrywide. Aiming to understand the effects of different host plants on the life cycle of H. armigera, we selected seven species of host plants that mature in different seasons and are commonly grown in these regions: cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, “FM993”), corn (Zea mays, “2B587”), soybean (Glycine max, “99R01”), rattlepods (Crotalaria spectabilis), millet (Pennisetum glaucum, “ADR300”), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, “AGROMEN70G35”), and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, “SEMPRE VERDE”). The development time of immatures, body weight, survivorship, and fecundity of H. armigera were evaluated on each host plant under laboratory conditions. The bollworms did not survive on corn, millet, or sorghum and showed very low survival rates on rattlepods. Survival rates were highest on soybean, followed by cotton and cowpea. The values for relative fitness found on soybean, cotton, cowpea, and rattlepods were 1, 0.5, 0.43, and 0.03, respectively. Survivorship, faster development time, and fecundity on soybean, cotton, and cowpea were positively correlated. Larger pupae and greater fecundity were found on soybean and cotton. The results indicated that soybean, cotton, and cowpea are the most suitable plants to support the reproduction of H. armigera in the field. PMID:26798139

  8. Statewide Physical Fitness Testing: A BIG Waist or a BIG Waste?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Ede, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Statewide physical fitness testing is gaining popularity in the United States because of increased childhood obesity levels, the relations between physical fitness and academic performance, and the hypothesized relations between adult characteristics and childhood physical activity, physical fitness, and health behaviors. Large-scale physical…

  9. The clinical significance of marginal fit.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2012-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of restoration acceptability includes marginal adaptation, restoration and preservation of anatomic form, color match, cavosurface discoloration, and presence of marginal caries. This paper will review what is known about marginal fit of all materials relative to their acceptable fit. Some explanation will be given of how material properties affect marginal fit, what the expected longevity of different materials is relative to marginal fit, and how marginal fit affects development of secondary or marginal caries. Marginal fit is assumed to affect restoration longevity by either encouraging or discouraging microleakage and development of secondary or marginal caries. Marginal fit and its effect on the health of the gingival tissues have been reviewed in an earlier paper on polishing and will not be reviewed here. Is there some correlation between marginal fit of the various materials used in restorative dentistry and this assumption? This paper will review the literature found on Medline and present the science behind the clinical significance of marginal fit utilizing in vitro studies where necessary and in vivo studies whenever possible. Numerous authors replicating these studies are used to improve reliability and replicability. PMID:22439529

  10. School based oral health promotional intervention: Effect on knowledge, practices and clinical oral health related parameters

    PubMed Central

    Gauba, Arjun; Bal, Ikreet Singh; Jain, Ashish; Mittal, Hitesh Chander

    2013-01-01

    Background: No organized school oral health program is existent in India. Aim: The aim of this study is to test the feasibility and efficacy of an economical school oral health promotional intervention with educational and preventive components. Settings and Design: School oral health promotional intervention carried out in one of the randomly selected school and evaluated through short duration prospective model. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 children with an age range of 10-12 years with no previous history of dental intervention were enrolled. Interventions comprised of oral health education (delivered through lecture and demonstrations by an undergraduate dental student) and topical antibacterial therapy (fluoride varnish and povidone iodine). Outcomes consisted of Knowledge and practices (KAP) regarding oral health, clinical oral health related parameters such as plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) and caries activity as per Modified Snyder's test. These were reported at baseline, 3 weeks and 6 months follow-up examination by a calibrated examiner. Statistical Analysis: McNemar Bowker's test, Student's t-test, Pearson Chi-square tests were used. Results: Highly significant (P < 0.001) improvements in KAP scores, PI scores, GI scores and caries activity were reported at 3 weeks and 6 months follow-up examination. Conclusion: This small economical school oral health program positively influenced oral health related practices and parameters of oral health such as oral cleanliness, gingival health and caries activity. PMID:24403795

  11. African American College Students' Health Behaviors and Perceptions of Related Health Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Denyce S.; Goode, Carolyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A study of African American college students compared students' health-related behaviors with their perceptions of corresponding health issues. Students had low smoking rates but higher alcohol consumption. Most students did not practice good nutrition or daily physical activity. Over half managed stress well, and three-quarters were sexually…

  12. Adult Day Health Center Participation and Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Eva M.; Sands, Laura P.; Weiss, Sara; Dowling, Glenna; Covinsky, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between Adult Day Health Center (ADHC) participation and health-related quality of life. Design and Methods: Case-controlled prospective study utilizing the Medical Outcomes Survey Form 36 (SF-36) to compare newly enrolled participants from 16 ADHC programs with comparable…

  13. THE ORTHOGONAL FITTING PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINATION OF THE EMPIRICAL {Sigma}-D RELATIONS FOR SUPERNOVA REMNANTS: APPLICATION TO STARBURST GALAXY M82

    SciTech Connect

    Urosevic, D.; Arbutina, B.; Vukotic, B.; Sarevska, M. E-mail: arbo@math.r

    2010-08-10

    The radio surface brightness-to-diameter ({Sigma}-D) relation for supernova remnants (SNRs) in the starburst galaxy M82 is analyzed in a statistically more robust manner than in the previous studies that mainly discussed sample quality and related selection effects. The statistics of data fits in the log {Sigma}-log D plane are analyzed by using vertical (standard) and orthogonal regressions. As the parameter values of D-{Sigma} and {Sigma}-D fits are invariant within the estimated uncertainties for orthogonal regressions, slopes of the empirical {Sigma}-D relations should be determined by using the orthogonal regression fitting procedure. Thus obtained {Sigma}-D relations for samples which are not under severe influence of the selection effects could be used for estimating SNR distances. Using the orthogonal regression fitting procedure, the {Sigma}-D slope {beta} {approx} 3.9 is obtained for the sample of 31 SNRs in M82. The results of implemented Monte Carlo simulations show that the sensitivity selection effect does not significantly influence the slope of the M82 relation. This relation could be used for estimating distances to SNRs that evolve in a denser interstellar environment, with number density up to 1000 particles per cm{sup 3}.

  14. Obtaining, Maintaining, and Advancing Your Fitness Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Patricia; Herman, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Public awareness of health, fitness, and exercise has increased and the fitness industry has expanded in recent years. Yet, ironically, the health of our nation continues to deteriorate. Now more than ever there is the need for qualified fitness professionals to help individuals to improve or maintain health and fitness. Since fitness…

  15. India-EU relations in health services: prospects and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background India and the EU are currently negotiating a Trade and Investment Agreement which also covers services. This paper examines the opportunities for and constraints to India-EU relations in health services in the context of this agreement, focusing on the EU as a market for India's health services exports and collaboration. The paper provides an overview of key features of health services in the EU and India and their bearing on bilateral relations in this sector. Methods Twenty six semi-structured, in-person, and telephonic interviews were conducted in 2007-2008 in four Indian cities. The respondents included management and practitioners in a variety of healthcare establishments, health sector representatives in Indian industry associations, health sector officials in the Indian government, and official representatives of selected EU countries and the European Commission based in New Delhi. Secondary sources were used to supplement and corroborate these findings. Results The interviews revealed that India-EU relations in health services are currently very limited. However, several opportunity segments exist, namely: (i) Telemedicine; (ii) Clinical trials and research in India for EU-based pharmaceutical companies; (iii) Medical transcriptions and back office support; (iv) Medical value travel; and (v) Collaborative ventures in medical education, research, training, staff deployment, and product development. However, various factors constrain India's exports to the EU. These include data protection regulations; recognition requirements; insurance portability restrictions; discriminatory conditions; and cultural, social, and perception-related barriers. The interviews also revealed several constraints in the Indian health care sector, including disparity in domestic standards and training, absence of clear guidelines and procedures, and inadequate infrastructure. Conclusions The paper concludes that although there are several promising areas for India

  16. Pre- and Postnatal Effects of Corticosterone on Fitness-Related Traits and the Timing of Endogenous Corticosterone Production in a Songbird.

    PubMed

    Strange, Meghan S; Bowden, Rachel M; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2016-07-01

    Maternally derived corticosterone in the egg and corticosterone produced endogenously by altricial nestling birds play essential roles during development. Although persistently high corticosterone levels can be harmful, moderately elevated levels above baseline can lead to reallocation of resources between growth and maintenance to ensure immediate survival or to enhance the development of fitness-related traits. We tested two hypotheses concerning the fitness consequences of elevated corticosterone during prenatal and postnatal development in altricial house wrens: (1) elevated corticosterone shifts resources away from growth and immune function and (2) elevated corticosterone serves as a signal to allocate resources to fitness-related traits. We also explored the development of the stress response, hypothesizing that early-stage nestlings have little endogenously produced corticosterone, but that their baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels increase with age. Nestlings hatching from corticosterone-injected eggs were lighter at hatching, but through compensatory growth, ended up heavier than controls near the time of fledging, an important, fitness-related trait. Nestlings that hatched from corticosterone-injected eggs and those given oral doses of corticosterone did not differ from controls in three other fitness-related traits: immunoresponsiveness, size, or haematocrit. Early- and late-stage nestlings had similar baseline corticosterone levels, and all nestlings increased their plasma corticosterone levels in response to a capture-and-restraint protocol, with older nestlings mounting a stronger stress-induced response than younger nestlings. These results suggest that prenatal exposure to corticosterone is important in shaping offspring phenotype and are consistent with the hypothesis that maternally derived corticosterone in the egg can have long-term, fitness-related effects on offspring phenotype. PMID:27279255

  17. Pre- and Post-Natal Effects of Corticosterone on Fitness-Related Traits and the Timing of Endogenous Corticosterone Production in a Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Strange, Meghan S.; Bowden, Rachel M.; Thompson, Charles F.; Sakaluk, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    Maternally-derived corticosterone in the egg and corticosterone produced endogenously by altricial nestling birds play essential roles during development. Although persistently high corticosterone levels can be harmful, moderately elevated levels above baseline can lead to reallocation of resources between growth and maintenance to ensure immediate survival or to enhance the development of fitness-related traits. We tested two hypotheses concerning the fitness consequences of elevated corticosterone during pre-natal and post-natal development in altricial house wrens: (1) elevated corticosterone shifts resources away from growth and immune function and (2) elevated corticosterone serves as a signal to allocate resources to fitness-related traits. We also explored the development of the stress response, hypothesizing that early-stage nestlings have little endogenously produced corticosterone, but that their baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels increase with age. Nestlings hatching from corticosterone-injected eggs were lighter at hatching, but through compensatory growth, ended up heavier than controls near the time of fledgling, an important, fitness-related trait. Nestlings that hatched from corticosterone-injected eggs and those given oral doses of corticosterone did not differ from controls in three other fitness-related traits: immunoresponsiveness, size, or haematocrit. Early- and late-stage nestlings had similar baseline corticosterone levels, and all nestlings increased their plasma corticosterone levels in response to a capture-and-restraint protocol, with older nestlings mounting a stronger stress-induced response than younger nestlings. These results suggest that pre-natal exposure to corticosterone is important in shaping offspring phenotype, and are consistent with the hypothesis that maternally derived corticosterone in the egg can have long-term, fitness-related effects on offspring phenotype. PMID:27279255

  18. Privacy-Related Context Information for Ubiquitous Health

    PubMed Central

    Nykänen, Pirkko; Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Background Ubiquitous health has been defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems. A system is composed of one or more information systems, their stakeholders, and the environment. These systems offer health services to individuals and thus implement ubiquitous computing. Privacy is the key challenge for ubiquitous health because of autonomous processing, rich contextual metadata, lack of predefined trust among participants, and the business objectives. Additionally, regulations and policies of stakeholders may be unknown to the individual. Context-sensitive privacy policies are needed to regulate information processing. Objective Our goal was to analyze privacy-related context information and to define the corresponding components and their properties that support privacy management in ubiquitous health. These properties should describe the privacy issues of information processing. With components and their properties, individuals can define context-aware privacy policies and set their privacy preferences that can change in different information-processing situations. Methods Scenarios and user stories are used to analyze typical activities in ubiquitous health to identify main actors, goals, tasks, and stakeholders. Context arises from an activity and, therefore, we can determine different situations, services, and systems to identify properties for privacy-related context information in information-processing situations. Results Privacy-related context information components are situation, environment, individual, information technology system, service, and stakeholder. Combining our analyses and previously identified characteristics of ubiquitous health, more detailed properties for the components are defined. Properties define explicitly what context information for different components is needed to create context-aware privacy policies that can control, limit, and constrain information processing. With properties, we can define, for example, how

  19. Re: Making Health and Care Systems Fit for and Ageing Population. Why We Wrote It, Who We Wrote It For, and How Relevant It Might Be to Canada

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, David

    2014-01-01

    In response to the commentary(1) in this month’s Canadian Geriatrics Journal by Andrew and Rockwood on the recent paper I co-wrote with King’s Fund colleagues—“Making Health and Care Systems Fit for an Ageing Population”(2)—I wanted to pen a very personal response, not least because of my visits to health systems in Ontario and Alberta and conversations with many Canadian colleagues that are fresh in my mind. The paper was certainly the most important and influential thing I have written, and was an attempt to weave all the elements of good practice in health care for older people into one overarching narrative. Whilst its biggest target audience is UK health services, I hope it has some relevance to Canada and might stimulate some constructive conversations. PMID:25452827

  20. The health-related behaviors and attitudes of student nurses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vowell, Maribeth

    Nurses are an important component of primary medical care, and patient education is a common and important role of most nurses. Patient education and positive role modeling by nurses have the potential to influence patients' life style choices and the serious diseases that may be affected by those choices. A greater understanding of the ways nurses think about their own health could help facilitate healthier choices for them and in their patients. The purpose of this inquiry was to examine the experiences, attitudes and beliefs of student nurses related to their personal health, and to investigate those experiences, attitudes and beliefs as they relate to their education, relationships, values and career choice. The purpose was achieved through phenomenological interviews with eleven senior nursing students, nine females and two males, encouraging them to provide in as much detail as possible their attitudes and values about their personal health. The interviews were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim, and phenomenologically analyzed. A thematic structure emerged such that the nursing students experiences were represented by the four interrelated themes of caring for myself/caring for others ; I control my health/my world controls my health; I have energy/I'm tired; and feeling good/looking good. The contextual grounds for the themes that emerged during the analysis were the Body and Time. This structure was presented in terms of its relationship to health education, other research and to current theory.

  1. Factors Related to Continuation of Health Behaviours among Stroke Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: This study investigated stroke survivors' perspectives of health behaviours after stroke. We aimed to explore the actual process by which stroke survivors changed their health behaviours. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 people in a 1-year prospective study in the regional city of Chiba, Japan. Interviews covered views of health behaviours in order to explore why patients change their risk factors. Data were analysed using the principles of modified grounded theory. Results: Six categories related to practising health behaviours were identified: cause of stroke, antithetic thinking, awareness of the body, fear of disease progression, view of health, and psychological meaning of practise. Stroke survivors constructed a meaning of practise for each health behaviour. The recognition of previous lifestyle as cause of stroke, hope for recovery, and fear of future progression influenced health behaviours. Conclusions: The key finding of this study is that when cognitive behavioural therapy principles are enforced, an important aspect is that stroke survivors recognize the possibility that previous lifestyle was a cause of stroke and appreciate the necessity of preventing a new stroke. PMID:25792892

  2. 75 FR 34537 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan Under the Patient Protection...-AB68 Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a... Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION:...

  3. Attachment and Health-Related Physiological Stress Processes

    PubMed Central

    Pietromonaco, Paula R.; Powers, Sally I.

    2015-01-01

    People who are more securely attached to close partners show health benefits, but the mechanisms underlying this link are not well specified. We focus on physiological pathways that are potential mediators of the connection between attachment in childhood and adulthood and health and disease outcomes. Growing evidence indicates that attachment insecurity (vs. security) is associated with distinctive physiological responses to stress, including responses involving the HPA, SAM and immune systems, but these responses vary with type of stressor (e.g., social/nonsocial) and contextual factors (e.g., partner’s attachment style). Taking this more nuanced perspective will be important for understanding the conditions under which attachment shapes health-related physiological processes as well as downstream health and disease consequences. PMID:25729755

  4. Skew-t fits to mortality data--can a Gaussian-related distribution replace the Gompertz-Makeham as the basis for mortality studies?

    PubMed

    Clark, Jeremy S C; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Mongiało, Zbigniew; Ignaczak, Paweł; Czajkowski, Andrzej A; Klęsk, Przemysław; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2013-08-01

    Gompertz-related distributions have dominated mortality studies for 187 years. However, nonrelated distributions also fit well to mortality data. These compete with the Gompertz and Gompertz-Makeham data when applied to data with varying extents of truncation, with no consensus as to preference. In contrast, Gaussian-related distributions are rarely applied, despite the fact that Lexis in 1879 suggested that the normal distribution itself fits well to the right of the mode. Study aims were therefore to compare skew-t fits to Human Mortality Database data, with Gompertz-nested distributions, by implementing maximum likelihood estimation functions (mle2, R package bbmle; coding given). Results showed skew-t fits obtained lower Bayesian information criterion values than Gompertz-nested distributions, applied to low-mortality country data, including 1711 and 1810 cohorts. As Gaussian-related distributions have now been found to have almost universal application to error theory, one conclusion could be that a Gaussian-related distribution might replace Gompertz-related distributions as the basis for mortality studies. PMID:23233550

  5. Mental Health and Health-Related Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis Caregivers in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Marilyn; Arelis, Adriana Aguayo; Islas, Miguel Angel Macias; Barajas, Brenda Viridiana Rábago

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) rates are increasing in Latin America, and caregiving for an individual with MS is associated with poorer mental and physical health outcomes. No existing research has examined the relation between mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in MS caregivers in Latin America. Methods: The present study examined the association between mental health (Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and HRQOL (36-item Short Form Health Status Survey) in 81 Mexican MS caregivers. Results: A canonical correlation analysis uncovered a large, significant overall association between mental health and HRQOL, with 52.7% of the variance shared between the two sets of constructs. When individual canonical loadings were examined in this analysis, the most substantial pattern that emerged was between depression and general health. Four regressions controlling for demographic variables found that HRQOL uniquely accounted for 19.0% of the variance in caregiver anxiety, 32.5% in depression, 13.5% in satisfaction with life, and 14.3% in self-esteem. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated a strong association between HRQOL and mental health, which points to directions for future studies on interventions for MS caregivers, particularly in Mexican and other Latino populations. PMID:26917994

  6. Stigma Related to HIV among Community Health Workers in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; McCreary, Linda; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Miner, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose When healthcare workers have stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV it may lead to discriminatory behavior that interferes with prevention, treatment, and care. This research examined the HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes reported by health workers in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study used focus group data from the first phase of a larger study to develop and test a HIV prevention intervention for Chilean health workers. Ten focus groups were conducted with Health workers in two communities in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two central themes emerged: Societal stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV and healthcare system’s policies related to HIV. Both inaccurate fears of transmission among the general public and Chilean Health workers and societal prejudices against homosexuals contributed to stigmatization and discrimination. Conclusions Health workers did not recognize their own stigmatizing attitudes or discriminatory behaviors, but their discussion indicated that these behaviors and attitudes did exist. Healthcare system issues identified included problems with confidentiality due to the desire to inform other health workers about client HIV status. Health workers must be sensitized to the current stigmatization and misinformation associated with HIV and its negative impacts on persons living with HIV and the general community. Implications All clinical and non-clinical workers at community clinics need mandatory education for HIV prevention that focuses on changing attitudes as well as sharing knowledge. Also, the Chilean law protecting people living with HIV and the confidentiality of their medical care needs to be publicized, along with guidelines for its enactment in clinics and other health facilities. PMID:21687824

  7. Policies and interventions on employment relations and health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Michael; Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Vergara, Montserrat; Eijkemans, Gerry; Santana, Vilma; Chung, Haejoo; Castedo, Antía; Benach, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The association between certain increasingly pervasive employment conditions and serious health inequalities presents a significant policy challenge. A critical starting point is the recognition that these problems have not arisen in a policy vacuum. Rather, policy frameworks implemented by governments over the past 35 years, in conjunction with corporate globalization (itself facilitated by neoliberal policies), have undermined preexisting social protection policies and encouraged the growth of health-damaging forms of work organization. After a brief description of the context in which recent developments should be viewed, this article describes how policies can be reconfigured to address health-damaging employment conditions. A number of key policy objectives and entry points are identified, with a summary of policies for each entry point, relating to particular employment conditions relevant to rich and poor countries. Rather than trying to elaborate these policy interventions in detail, the authors point to several critical issues in relation to these interventions, linking these to illustrative examples. PMID:20440972

  8. SentiHealth: creating health-related sentiment lexicon using hybrid approach.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Muhammad Zubair; Ahmad, Shakeel; Qasim, Maria; Zahra, Syeda Rabail; Kundi, Fazal Masud

    2016-01-01

    The exponential increase in the health-related online reviews has played a pivotal role in the development of sentiment analysis systems for extracting and analyzing user-generated health reviews about a drug or medication. The existing general purpose opinion lexicons, such as SentiWordNet has a limited coverage of health-related terms, creating problems for the development of health-based sentiment analysis applications. In this work, we present a hybrid approach to create health-related domain specific lexicon for the efficient classification and scoring of health-related users' sentiments. The proposed approach is based on the bootstrapping modal, a dataset of health reviews, and corpus-based sentiment detection and scoring. In each of the iteration, vocabulary of the lexicon is updated automatically from an initial seed cache, irrelevant words are filtered, words are declared as medical or non-medical entries, and finally sentiment class and score is assigned to each of the word. The results obtained demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed technique. PMID:27504237

  9. Family Relational Health, Psychological Resources, and Health Behaviors: A Dyadic Study of Military Couples.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A; Ferraro, Anthony J; Ross, D Bruce

    2016-02-01

    In addition to facing stressors that are typical of life course development (e.g., marital struggles, balancing work/family demands), military families face additional stress attributed to their military context (e.g., deployments, relocations). Using a systems framework and stress process perspective, this study examined military couples' relational health, as a gauge for how couples collectively cope and address challenges as a united front and how their relational health influences crucial health behaviors (sleeping and eating) through the promotion or erosion of psychological resources (N = 236 couples). This study evaluated a latent variable structural equation dyadic model whereby each partner's perspective of their family's relational health was hypothesized to influence their own eating and sleeping behaviors (actor effects), as well as the eating and sleeping behaviors of their spouse (partner effects). The role of psychological resources (high self-efficacy, few depressive symptoms, and minimal anxiety) as a mechanism linking family functioning to health behaviors was also examined. Overall, the findings supported the hypothesized model, particularly for actor (intraindividual) effects. Discussion is provided pertinent to service providers and researchers, including the importance of improving, or maintaining, family relational health, as a means for encouraging positive health behaviors among active duty military members and their spouses. PMID:26837084

  10. 42 CFR 433.55 - Health care-related taxes defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health care-related taxes defined. 433.55 Section 433.55 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Financial Participation § 433.55 Health care-related taxes defined. (a) A health care-related tax is...

  11. 42 CFR 433.55 - Health care-related taxes defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health care-related taxes defined. 433.55 Section 433.55 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Financial Participation § 433.55 Health care-related taxes defined. (a) A health care-related tax is...

  12. 42 CFR 433.55 - Health care-related taxes defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health care-related taxes defined. 433.55 Section 433.55 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Financial Participation § 433.55 Health care-related taxes defined. (a) A health care-related tax is...

  13. Does health promotion work in relation to noise?

    PubMed

    Borchgrevink, H M

    2003-01-01

    Noise is a health risk. The only scientifically established adverse health effect of noise is noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Besides noise may affect quality of life and cause annoyance and sleep disturbance. The present scientific evidence of potential non-auditory effects of noise on health is quite weak. Whether health promotion works in relation to noise may be reflected by permanent hearing threshold shift development in population studies. Hearing impairment continues to be the most prevalent disability in Western societies. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) still rates noise induced hearing loss among the top ten work-related problems. Recent studies report that employees continue to develop noise induced hearing loss although to a lesser extent than before, in spite of occupational hearing conservation programmes. Besides socio-acusis and leisure noise seem to be an increasing hazard to hearing, also in young children and adolescents. This seems partly related to acute leisure noise exposure (e.g. toy pistols, amplified music). However, population studies increasingly find non-normal high-frequency hearing including the characteristic NIHL-"notch" around 6 kHz also in subjects who do not report noise exposure incidents or activities. Today 12.5% of US children 6-19 years show a noise-"notch" in one or both ears (n= 5249, Niskar et al 2001). A Norwegian county audiometry survey on adults >/= 20 years n=51.975) showed mean unscreened thresholds +10 dB at 6 kHz for both genders even or the youngest age group 20-24 years (Borchgrevink et al 2001). Accordingly, the present health promotion initiatives seem insufficient in relation to noise and noise-induced hearing loss. PMID:12631433

  14. Goodness-of-Fit in Center Day Care: Relations of Temperament, Stability, and Quality of Care with the Child's Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Schipper, J. Clasien; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Van Zeijl, Jantien

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the concept of "goodness-of-fit" between the child's temperament and the environment, introduced by Thomas and Chess [Temperament and Development, Brunner/Mazel, New York, 1977], is applied within the setting of center day care. Mothers and primary professional caregivers of 186 children, aged 6-30 months, participated in this…

  15. A Cautionary Note on Using G[squared](dif) to Assess Relative Model Fit in Categorical Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maydeu-Olivares, Albert; Cai, Li

    2006-01-01

    The likelihood ratio test statistic G[squared](dif) is widely used for comparing the fit of nested models in categorical data analysis. In large samples, this statistic is distributed as a chi-square with degrees of freedom equal to the difference in degrees of freedom between the tested models, but only if the least restrictive model is correctly…

  16. Relationship between Locus of Control and Health-Related Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graffeo, Lisa Cotlar; Silvestri, Lynette

    2006-01-01

    Locus of Control (LOC) deals with an individual's personal attribution of successful or failure. Those with internal LOC believe that events in their lives are under their personal control while individuals with external LOC feel that their lives are dominated by the environment. The theory has been applied to achievement and health-related issues…

  17. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, William D.; Renes, Robert

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the industrial, institutional, structural and health related pest control category. The text discusses the use and safety of applying pesticides to control invertebrate and vertebrate pests such as ants,…

  18. EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN VIRGINIA FOR FIELDS RELATED TO HEALTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGLOTHLIN, WILLIAM J.

    FOR EACH OF 18 HEALTH RELATED OCCUPATIONS, THE REPORT IDENTIFIES MAJOR NEEDS, OUTLINES THE RELEVANT EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM, AND RECOMMENDS ACTION. COMMENTS GO BEYOND EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS ALONE, FOR IN SOME FIELDS THE PROBLEM FOR VIRGINIA IS NOT HOW TO EDUCATE MORE STUDENTS BUT HOW TO RETAIN MORE GRADUATES IN THE STATE. THE STUDY COMMITTEE RECOMMENDS…

  19. Review of published criteria for evaluating health-related websites

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Paul; Eng, Thomas R; Deering, Mary Jo; Maxfield, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    •Objective To review published criteria for specifically evaluating health-related information on the World Wide Web and to identify areas of consensus in evaluation. •Design Search of Web sites and peer-reviewed medical journals for explicit criteria for evaluating health-related information on the Web using Medline and Lexis-Nexis databases and the following Internet search engines: Yahoo!, Excite, Altavista, Webcrawler, HotBot, Infoseek, Magellan Internet Guide, and Lycos. Criteria were extracted and grouped into categories. •Results Twenty-nine published rating tools and journal articles were identified that had explicit criteria for assessing health-related Web sites. Of the 165 criteria extracted from these tools and articles, 132 (80%) were grouped under 1 of 12 specific categories, and 33 (20%) were grouped as miscellaneous because they lacked specificity or were unique. The most frequently cited criteria were those dealing with the content, design, and aesthetics of a site; disclosure of authors, sponsors, or developers; currency of information (includes frequency of update, freshness, and maintenance of site); authority of source; ease of use; and accessibility and availability. •Conclusions Many authors agree on the key criteria for evaluating health-related Web sites and efforts to develop consensus criteria may be helpful. The next step is to identify and assess a clear, simple set of consensus criteria that the general public can understand and use. PMID:18751150

  20. Tackling Work Related Stress in a National Health Service Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Donna; Whyatt, Hilary

    2004-01-01

    The challenge of tackling the problem of coping with work related stress in a National Health Service (NHS) Trust was undertaken. Ideas were developed within the context of two different action learning sets and led to actions resulting in a large therapy Taster Session event and the establishment of a centre offering alternative therapies and…

  1. Published criteria for evaluating health related web sites: review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Paul; Eng, Thomas R; Deering, Mary Jo; Maxfield, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    Objective To review published criteria for specifically evaluating health related information on the world wide web, and to identify areas of consensus. Design Search of world wide web sites and peer reviewed medical journals for explicit criteria for evaluating health related information on the web, using Medline and Lexis-Nexis databases, and the following internet search engines: Yahoo!, Excite, Altavista, Webcrawler, HotBot, Infoseek, Magellan Internet Guide, and Lycos. Criteria were extracted and grouped into categories. Results 29 published rating tools and journal articles were identified that had explicit criteria for assessing health related web sites. Of the 165 criteria extracted from these tools and articles, 132 (80%) were grouped under one of 12 specific categories and 33 (20%) were grouped as miscellaneous because they lacked specificity or were unique. The most frequently cited criteria were those dealing with content, design and aesthetics of site, disclosure of authors, sponsors, or developers, currency of information (includes frequency of update, freshness, maintenance of site), authority of source, ease of use, and accessibility and availability. Conclusions Results suggest that many authors agree on key criteria for evaluating health related web sites, and that efforts to develop consensus criteria may be helpful. The next step is to identify and assess a clear, simple set of consensus criteria that the general public can understand and use. Key messagesMany organisations and individuals have published criteria to evaluate health related information on the world wide webA literature and world wide web search found that the most frequently cited criteria were those dealing with content, design and aesthetics of site, disclosure of authors, sponsors, or developers, currency of information, authority of source, and ease of useCriteria related to confidentiality and privacy were only cited by one authorConsensus regarding critical criteria for

  2. BMI Group-Related Differences in Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Preschool-Age Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…

  3. HIV-Related discrimination in European health care settings.

    PubMed

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Platteau, Tom; Dias, Sonia; Le Gall, Jean

    2014-03-01

    This cross-sectional European study assessed self-reported HIV-related discrimination and its associated factors in health care settings. Socio-demographics, health status, support needs relating to sexual and reproductive health (SRH), and self-reported HIV-related discrimination were measured using an anonymous survey in a sample of 1549 people living with HIV from 14 countries. Thirty-two per cent of the participants had experienced HIV-related discrimination during the previous 3 years; almost half of them felt discriminated against by health care providers. For this type of discrimination, logistic regression analysis revealed significant associations with not being a migrant (OR: 2.0; IC 1.0-3.7; p<0.05), having been forced into sexual activities (OR: 1.6; IC 1.2-2.2; p<0.001), reporting lack of time to discuss SRH during service provision (OR: 1.7; IC 1.0-2.7; p<0.05), and insufficient openness among service providers to discuss SRH (OR: 2.0; IC 1.1-3.4; p<0.05). Other significant associations related to unmet support needs on safer sex practices (OR: 1.8; IC 1.0-3.2; p<0.05), partner communication about sexuality (OR: 2.0; IC 1.1-3.4; p<0.05), and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (OR: 1.7; IC 1.0-3.0; p<0.05). Female gender had a protective effect (OR: 0.2; IC 0.0-0.9; p<0.05). Being denied the opportunity to discuss SRH may translate in feelings of discrimination. Improving health care providers' communication skills, and fostering openness about SRH topics in HIV care could contribute to destigmatization of PLHIV. PMID:24568694

  4. Availability and Primary Health Care Orientation of Dementia-Related Services in Rural Saskatchewan, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Debra G.; Kosteniuk, Julie G.; Stewart, Norma J.; O’Connell, Megan E.; Kirk, Andrew; Crossley, Margaret; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Forbes, Dorothy; Innes, Anthea

    2015-01-01

    Community-based services are important for improving outcomes for individuals with dementia and their caregivers. This study examined: (a) availability of rural dementia-related services in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, and (b) orientation of services toward six key attributes of primary health care (i.e., information/education, accessibility, population orientation, coordinated care, comprehensiveness, quality of care). Data were collected from 71 rural Home Care Assessors via cross-sectional survey. Basic health services were available in most communities (e.g., pharmacists, family physicians, palliative care, adult day programs, home care, long-term care facilities). Dementia-specific services typically were unavailable (e.g., health promotion, counseling, caregiver support groups, transportation, week-end/night respite). Mean scores on the primary health care orientation scales were low (range 12.4 to 17.5/25). Specific services to address needs of rural individuals with dementia and their caregivers are limited in availability and fit with primary health care attributes. PMID:26496646

  5. Measuring health related quality of life in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Carle, Adam C.; Dewitt, E. Morgan; Seid, M.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric researchers and clinicians increasingly recognize the importance of measuring the impact of childhood disease across many aspects of a child’s life. In this review, we describe four measures of health related quality of life (HRQOL) designed specifically for children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). HRQOL generally refers to how an individual feels about aspects of their life in relation to their health. The World Health Organization originally described HRQOL as minimally including: physical, mental, and social health dimensions.1 Subsequent HRQOL definitions, while varied, have incorporated the notion that individuals have an important and distinct viewpoint regarding their disease and the quality of their life.2 They have also often emphasized HRQOL’s subjective nature.2 These features present unique challenges when measuring HRQOL in children. Cognizant of these issues, we review the development and psychometric properties of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Rheumatology Module 3.0, the Juvenile Arthritis Quality of Life Questionnaire (JAQQ), the Paediatric Rheumatology Quality of Life Scale (PRQL), and the Childhood Arthritis Health Profile (CAHP). PMID:22588764

  6. Research in the United States relative to geochemistry and health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrie, W.L.; Cannon, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing concern regarding the effects of the geochemical environment on health in the United States has fostered research studies in a number of universities and government agencies. The necessity to evaluate the effects of natural and man-made elemental excesses in the environment on health requires the establishment of requirements and tolerance limits for the various elements in water and crops. Maps of the geographic distribution of these elements in rocks, surficial materials and ground and surface waters are also essential for comparison with the occurrence of disease. Funding support for research projects that relate to various parameters of these problems emanates largely from a few federal agencies, and much of the work is conducted at government, university and private facilities. An example of the latter is the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, which has several components that are addressing a variety of comparative studies of the geochemical environment related to health; studies involve specific trace elements (like selenium and magnesium), diseases (like cancer, urolithiasis and cardiovascular disease), other health factors (like aging and nutrition) and links with timely major problems (like the health effects of greatly increasing the use of coal). ?? 1979.

  7. Descriptive Assessment of Exercise Program on Fitness and Correlates of Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanier, Angela Baldwin; Jackson, Erica Marie; Azar-Dickens, John; Anderson, Brock; Briggs, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess health-related fitness, physical activity correlates, and completion of a half-marathon using a 3-day training program in a college community. Methods: 26 volunteers participated in a 20-week, half-marathon training program. Results: All participants completed the half-marathon. Positive changes in health-related fitness and…

  8. Exploratory versus Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Collegiate Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Tim P.; Legg, David L.

    Twenty-one variables believed to be important indicators of health related physical fitness were measured on male and female college students between 1991 and 1993 (n=433). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were used in an attempt to derive important components of physical fitness. The exploratory factor analysis identified…

  9. Physical Fitness and Fatness in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated health-related fitness in adolescents with intellectual disabilities and analysed the various performances in physical fitness tests according to degrees of obesity. Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven French intellectual disabilities adolescents (14.24 [plus or minus] 1.48 years) performed the EUROFIT physical…

  10. Indirect health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Arundel, A.V.; Sterling, E.M.; Biggin, J.H.; Sterling, T.D.

    1986-03-01

    A review of the health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments suggests that relative humidity can affect the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Experimental studies on airborne-transmitted infectious bacteria and viruses have shown that the survival or infectivity of these organisms is minimized by exposure to relative humidities between 40 and 70%. Nine epidemiological studies examined the relationship between the number of respiratory infections or absenteeism and the relative humidity of the office, residence, or school. The incidence of absenteeism or respiratory infections was found to be lower among people working or living in environments with mid-range versus low or high relative humidities. The indoor size of allergenic mite and fungal populations is directly dependent upon the relative humidity. Mite populations are minimized when the relative humidity is below 50% and reach a maximum size at 80% relative humidity. Most species of fungi cannot grow unless the relative humidity exceeds 60%. Relative humidity also affects the rate of offgassing of formaldehyde from indoor building materials, the rate of formation of acids and salts from sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and the rate of formation of ozone. The influence of relative humidity on the abundance of allergens, pathogens, and noxious chemicals suggests that indoor relative humidity levels should be considered as a factor of indoor air quality. The majority of adverse health effects caused by relative humidity would be minimized by maintaining indoor levels between 40 and 60%. This would require humidification during winter in areas with cold winter climates. Humidification should preferably use evaporative or steam humidifiers, as cool mist humidifiers can disseminate aerosols contaminated with allergens.

  11. Indirect health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments.

    PubMed Central

    Arundel, A V; Sterling, E M; Biggin, J H; Sterling, T D

    1986-01-01

    A review of the health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments suggests that relative humidity can affect the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Experimental studies on airborne-transmitted infectious bacteria and viruses have shown that the survival or infectivity of these organisms is minimized by exposure to relative humidities between 40 and 70%. Nine epidemiological studies examined the relationship between the number of respiratory infections or absenteeism and the relative humidity of the office, residence, or school. The incidence of absenteeism or respiratory infections was found to be lower among people working or living in environments with mid-range versus low or high relative humidities. The indoor size of allergenic mite and fungal populations is directly dependent upon the relative humidity. Mite populations are minimized when the relative humidity is below 50% and reach a maximum size at 80% relative humidity. Most species of fungi cannot grow unless the relative humidity exceeds 60%. Relative humidity also affects the rate of offgassing of formaldehyde from indoor building materials, the rate of formation of acids and salts from sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and the rate of formation of ozone. The influence of relative humidity on the abundance of allergens, pathogens, and noxious chemicals suggests that indoor relative humidity levels should be considered as a factor of indoor air quality. The majority of adverse health effects caused by relative humidity would be minimized by maintaining indoor levels between 40 and 60%. This would require humidification during winter in areas with cold winter climates. Humidification should preferably use evaporative or steam humidifiers, as cool mist humidifiers can disseminate aerosols contaminated with allergens. PMID:3709462

  12. The Nursing Informatician's Role in Mediating Technology Related Health Literacies.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Ramona; Carter-Templeton, Heather D

    2016-01-01

    The advent of computer based technology and the internet have not changed nurses' responsibility for patient education; but they are rapidly changing what we teach and how we teach. The challenge for nursing informaticians is to create innovative patient education models and applications with the goal of achieving literate, engaged, empowered and informed patients as well as preparing health professionals to maximize the advantages offered by digital media and other new technology based tools. This paper explores the interrelationship of basic literacy, health literacy and technology related literacies that provide the foundation for achieving these goals. PMID:27332198

  13. Traumatic Tear of the Latissimus Dorsi Myotendinous Junction: Case Report of a CrossFit-Related Injury.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Michael V; Stensby, J Derek; Hillen, Travis J; Demertzis, Jennifer L; Keener, Jay D

    2015-01-01

    A case of a latissimus dorsi myotendinous junction strain in an avid CrossFit athlete is presented. The patient developed acute onset right axillary burning and swelling and subsequent palpable pop with weakness while performing a "muscle up." Magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a high-grade tear of the right latissimus dorsi myotendinous junction approximately 9 cm proximal to its intact humeral insertion. There were no other injuries to the adjacent shoulder girdle structures. Isolated strain of the latissimus dorsi myotendinous junction is a very rare injury with a scarcity of information available regarding its imaging appearance and preferred treatment. This patient was treated conservatively and was able to resume active CrossFit training within 3 months. At 6 months postinjury, he had only a mild residual functional deficit compared with his preinjury level. PMID:26502450

  14. Effect of test exercises and mask donning on measured respirator fit.

    PubMed

    Crutchfield, C D; Fairbank, E O; Greenstein, S L

    1999-12-01

    Quantitative respirator fit test protocols are typically defined by a series of fit test exercises. A rationale for the protocols that have been developed is generally not available. There also is little information available that describes the effect or effectiveness of the fit test exercises currently specified in respiratory protection standards. This study was designed to assess the relative impact of fit test exercises and mask donning on respirator fit as measured by a controlled negative pressure and an ambient aerosol fit test system. Multiple donnings of two different sizes of identical respirator models by each of 14 test subjects showed that donning affects respirator fit to a greater degree than fit test exercises. Currently specified fit test protocols emphasize test exercises, and the determination of fit is based on a single mask donning. A rationale for a modified fit test protocol based on fewer, more targeted test exercises and multiple mask donnings is presented. The modified protocol identified inadequately fitting respirators as effectively as the currently specified Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) quantitative fit test protocol. The controlled negative pressure system measured significantly (p < 0.0001) more respirator leakage than the ambient aerosol fit test system. The bend over fit test exercise was found to be predictive of poor respirator fit by both fit test systems. For the better fitting respirators, only the talking exercise generated aerosol fit factors that were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) than corresponding donning fit factors. PMID:10633954

  15. Effectiveness of a Multilevel Workplace Health Promotion Program on Vitality, Health, and Work-Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, Ingrid J.M.; Snoijer, Mirjam; de Kok, Brenda P.H.; van Vilsteren, Jeroen; Hofstetter, Hedwig

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the effectiveness of a workplace health promotion program on employees’ vitality, health, and work-related outcomes, and exploring the influence of organizational support and the supervisors’ role on these outcomes. Methods: The 5-month intervention included activities at management, team, and individual level targeting self-management to perform healthy behaviors: a kick-off session, vitality training sessions, workshops, individual coaching, and intervision. Outcome measures were collected using questionnaires, health checks, and sickness absence data at baseline, after the intervention and at 10 months follow-up. For analysis linear and generalized mixed models were used. Results: Vitality, work performance, sickness absence, and self-management significantly improved. Good organizational support and involved supervisors were significantly associated with lower sickness absence. Conclusions: Including all organizational levels and focusing on increasing self-management provided promising results for improving vitality, health, and work-related outcomes. PMID:27136605

  16. Does aerobic exercise intensity affect health-related parameters in overweight women?

    PubMed

    Botero, João P; Prado, Wagner L; Guerra, Ricardo L F; Speretta, Guilherme F F; Leite, Richard D; Prestes, Jonato; Sanz, Adrián V; Lyons, Scott; de Azevedo, Paulo H S M; Baldissera, Vilmar; Perez, Sergio E A; Dâmaso, Ana; da Silva, Rozinaldo G

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a cycling training programme performed at intensity corresponding to the lowest value of the respiratory quotient (RQ) versus at intensity corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT), on body composition and health-related parameters in overweight women. Thirty-two sedentary obese women (27-42 years old) were studied in a randomized trial of either RQ (n = 17) or VT (n = 15). RQ and VT training sessions were equalized by time (60 min) and performed in a cycloergometer. Anthropometry, body composition, lipid profile, glucose, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and fitness (maximal oxygen uptake) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Body weight, body mass index, fatness and fitness were improved in both groups (P<0·001). Triglycerides (TG) levels decreased only in response to RQ (P<0·001) and fat-free mass (FFM) to VT (P = 0·002). No differences were observed between groups. Both exercise intensities seem to be effective for improving health in overweight women. However, low-intensity compared with the high-intensity exercise training appears to have additional benefits on TG levels and to maintenance of FFM. PMID:23898989

  17. Minority Youth, Physical Activity, and Fitness Levels: Targeted Interventions Needed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane; Hall, Heather L.; Gutuskey, Lila

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a clear disparity in health in the United States such that African Americans and Hispanics are more likely to suffer from morbidity and mortality related to chronic disease than their Caucasian counterparts. Purpose: We will determine whether fourth- and fifth-grade students' measures of health-related fitness and physical…

  18. Physical Fitness and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmkamp, Jill M.

    Human beings are a delicate balance of mind, body, and spirit, so an imbalance in one domain affects all others. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects that physical fitness may have on such human characteristics as personality and behavior. A review of the literature reveals that physical fitness is related to, and can affect,…

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life Following Blind Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kuyk, Thomas; Liu, Lei; Elliott, Jeffry L.; Grubbs, Hartley E.; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Griffin, Russell L.; Fuhr, Patti S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of residential blind rehabilitation on patients’ vision targeted health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and general physical and mental function. Methods The National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ) plus appendix questions, the 12 item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), Hope Scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory were administered to 206 legally blind veterans prior to their entering a residential (in-patient) blind rehabilitation program and again to 185 and 176 of the original cohort at two and six months after completion of the rehabilitation program, respectively. Data on visual acuity, visual field extent, contrast sensitivity and scanning ability were also collected. The duration of the in-patient rehabilitation programs ranged from 11–109 days. Questionnaire scores were compared pre-rehabilitation and post-rehabilitation. Results Following rehabilitation there was a significant improvement in nine of eleven NEI VFQ subscales and in a composite score at both 2- and 6-month post-rehab intervals. Mental health (SF-12) and self esteem also improved significantly although physical health ratings declined over the course of the study (approximately 10 months). Conclusions Residential blind rehabilitation appears to improve patients’ self-reported vision-targeted HRQOL, self-esteem, and mental health aspects of generic HRQOL. PMID:18392688

  20. Oral health related quality of life in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Taleghani, Ferial; Farhadi, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Diabetic patients display an increased risk of oral disorders, and oral health related quality of life (OHRQL) might affect their management and treatment modalities. The aim of the present study was to determine OHRQL and associated parameters in patients with diabetes. Materials and methods. In this study two hundred patients were recruited from the diabetes clinic in Mustafa Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. OHRQL was assessed using Oral Health Impact Profile Questionnaire (OHIP-20). Also, another questionnaire was designed which contained questions regarding participants' knowledge about oral complications of diabetes and oral health behavior. OHRQL was categorized as low and good. Data were analyzed using logistic regression at P = 0.05. Results. Of the diabetic patients assessed, 77.5% were in good and 22.5% were in low categories of OHRQL. This quality was significantly associated with age (OR = 4.03, 95% CI = 1.63-11.29), knowledge about diabetes oral complications (OR = 18.17 95% CI = 4.42-158.6), educational level (OR = 26.31 95% CI = 4.2-1080.3), referred for dental visit by physician (OR = 3.16 95% CI = 1.48-6.69), frequency of brushing (OR = 10.29 95% CI = 3.96-31.2) and length of time diagnosed with diabetes (OR = 6.21 95% CI = 2.86-13.63). Conclusion. Oral health related quality of life was not negatively affected by diabetes mellitus in the assessed sample. PMID:25587385