Science.gov

Sample records for health score rhs

  1. Evolutionary diversification of an ancient gene family (rhs) through C-terminal displacement

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Rhs genes are prominent features of bacterial genomes that have previously been implicated in genomic rearrangements in E. coli. By comparing rhs repertoires across the Enterobacteriaceae, this study provides a robust explanation of rhs diversification and evolution, and a mechanistic model of how rhs diversity is gained and lost. Results Rhs genes are ubiquitous and comprise six structurally distinct lineages within the Enterobacteriaceae. There is considerable intergenomic variation in rhs repertoire; for instance, in Salmonella enterica, rhs are restricted to mobile elements, while in Escherichia coli one rhs lineage has diversified through transposition as older lineages have been deleted. Overall, comparative genomics reveals frequent, independent gene gains and losses, as well as occasional lateral gene transfer, in different genera. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Rhs 'core' domains and variable C-termini are evolutionarily decoupled, and propose that rhs diversity is driven by homologous recombination with circular intermediates. Existing C-termini are displaced by laterally acquired alternatives, creating long arrays of dissociated 'tips' that characterize the appearance of rhs loci. Conclusion Rhs repertoires are highly dynamic among Enterobacterial genomes, due to repeated gene gains and losses. In contrast, the primary structures of Rhs genes are evolutionarily conserved, indicating that rhs sequence diversity is driven, not by rapid mutation, but by the relatively slow evolution of novel core/tip combinations. Hence, we predict that a large pool of dissociated rhs C-terminal tips exists episomally and these are potentially transmitted across taxonomic boundaries. PMID:19968874

  2. Neck pain patients’ preference scores for their current health

    PubMed Central

    Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.; Côté, Pierre; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Hurwitz, Eric L.; Krahn, Murray

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To elicit neck pain (NP) patients’ preference scores for their current health, and investigate the association between their scores and NP disability. Methods Rating scale scores (RSs) and standard gamble scores (SGs) for current health were elicited from chronic NP patients (n = 104) and patients with NP following a motor vehicle accident (n = 116). Patients were stratified into Von Korff Pain Grades: Grade I (low-intensity pain, few activity limitations); Grade II (high-intensity pain, few activity limitations); Grade III (pain with high disability levels, moderate activity limitations); and Grade IV (pain with high disability levels, several activity limitations). Multivariable regression quantified the association between preference scores and NP disability. Results Mean SGs and RSs were as follows: Grade I patients: 0.81, 0.76; Grade II: 0.70, 0.60; Grade III: 0.64, 0.44; Grade IV: 0.57, 0.39. The association between preference scores and NP disability depended on type of NP and preference-elicitation method. Chronic NP patients’ scores were more strongly associated with depressive symptoms than with NP disability. In both samples, NP disability explained little more than random variance in SGs, and up to 51% of variance in RSs. Conclusion Health-related quality-of-life is considerably diminished in NP patients. Depressive symptoms and preference-elicitation methods influence preference scores that NP patients assign to their health. PMID:20349212

  3. 7 CFR 2003.18 - Functional organization of RHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrator. According to 7 CFR 2.49, the Administrator has responsibility for implementing programs aimed at... affordable housing and community facilities, in accordance with Title V of the Housing Act of 1949 (42 U.S.C... Program Loan Cost Expense funds, and maintaining the RHS Internet “Home Page.” (3) Office of...

  4. The Longitudinal Link between Student Health and Math Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcy, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between health conditions suffered over time and student scores on the Stanford Achievement Test 9 in Yuma County, Arizona, public grade schools. The majority of children in Yuma County were of Hispanic origin. The poverty and low income status of most of these children placed them at greater risk for…

  5. Selection of Orphan Rhs Toxin Expression in Evolved Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Koskiniemi, Sanna; Garza-Sánchez, Fernando; Sandegren, Linus; Webb, Julia S.; Braaten, Bruce A.; Poole, Stephen J.; Andersson, Dan I.; Hayes, Christopher S.; Low, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Clonally derived bacterial populations exhibit significant genotypic and phenotypic diversity that contribute to fitness in rapidly changing environments. Here, we show that serial passage of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 (StLT2) in broth, or within a mouse host, results in selection of an evolved population that inhibits the growth of ancestral cells by direct contact. Cells within each evolved population gain the ability to express and deploy a cryptic “orphan” toxin encoded within the rearrangement hotspot (rhs) locus. The Rhs orphan toxin is encoded by a gene fragment located downstream of the “main” rhs gene in the ancestral strain StLT2. The Rhs orphan coding sequence is linked to an immunity gene, which encodes an immunity protein that specifically blocks Rhs orphan toxin activity. Expression of the Rhs orphan immunity protein protects ancestral cells from the evolved lineages, indicating that orphan toxin activity is responsible for the observed growth inhibition. Because the Rhs orphan toxin is encoded by a fragmented reading frame, it lacks translation initiation and protein export signals. We provide evidence that evolved cells undergo recombination between the main rhs gene and the rhs orphan toxin gene fragment, yielding a fusion that enables expression and delivery of the orphan toxin. In this manner, rhs locus rearrangement provides a selective advantage to a subpopulation of cells. These observations suggest that rhs genes play important roles in intra-species competition and bacterial evolution. PMID:24675981

  6. Computerization of Mental Health Integration Complexity Scores at Intermountain Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Oniki, Thomas A.; Rodrigues, Drayton; Rahman, Noman; Patur, Saritha; Briot, Pascal; Taylor, David P.; Wilcox, Adam B.; Reiss-Brennan, Brenda; Cannon, Wayne H.

    2014-01-01

    Intermountain Healthcare’s Mental Health Integration (MHI) Care Process Model (CPM) contains formal scoring criteria for assessing a patient’s mental health complexity as “mild,” “medium,” or “high” based on patient data. The complexity score attempts to assist Primary Care Physicians in assessing the mental health needs of their patients and what resources will need to be brought to bear. We describe an effort to computerize the scoring. Informatics and MHI personnel collaboratively and iteratively refined the criteria to make them adequately explicit and reflective of MHI objectives. When tested on retrospective data of 540 patients, the clinician agreed with the computer’s conclusion in 52.8% of the cases (285/540). We considered the analysis sufficiently successful to begin piloting the computerized score in prospective clinical care. So far in the pilot, clinicians have agreed with the computer in 70.6% of the cases (24/34). PMID:25954401

  7. How Criterion Scores Predict the Overall Impact Score and Funding Outcomes for National Institutes of Health Peer-Reviewed Applications

    PubMed Central

    Eblen, Matthew K.; Wagner, Robin M.; RoyChowdhury, Deepshikha; Patel, Katherine C.; Pearson, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with successful funding outcomes of research project grant (R01) applications is critical for the biomedical research community. R01 applications are evaluated through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) peer review system, where peer reviewers are asked to evaluate and assign scores to five research criteria when assessing an application’s scientific and technical merit. This study examined the relationship of the five research criterion scores to the Overall Impact score and the likelihood of being funded for over 123,700 competing R01 applications for fiscal years 2010 through 2013. The relationships of other application and applicant characteristics, including demographics, to scoring and funding outcomes were studied as well. The analyses showed that the Approach and, to a lesser extent, the Significance criterion scores were the main predictors of an R01 application’s Overall Impact score and its likelihood of being funded. Applicants might consider these findings when submitting future R01 applications to NIH. PMID:27249058

  8. Comparative Validity of MMPI-2 Scores of African American and Caucasian Mental Health Center Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, John L.; Graham, John R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Stein, L. A. R.

    1997-01-01

    The comparative validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scores for 123 African American and 561 Caucasian clients from a community mental health center was studied by contrasting mean MMPI-2 scores and correlations between these scores and therapists' ratings. Correlations were not significantly different for racial…

  9. Do employers know the quality of health care benefits they provide? Use of HEDIS depression scores for health plans.

    PubMed

    Robst, John; Rost, Kathryn; Marshall, Donna

    2013-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Dissemination of health quality measures is a necessary ingredient of efforts to harness market-based forces, such as value-based purchasing by employers, to improve health care quality. This study examined reporting of Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures for depression to firms interested in improving depression care. METHODS During surveys conducted between 2009 and 2011, a sample of 325 employers that were interested in improving depression treatment were asked whether their primary health plan reports HEDIS scores for depression to the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) and if so, whether they knew the scores. Data about HEDIS reporting by the health plans were collected from the NCQA. RESULTS HEDIS depression scores were reported by the primary health plans of 154 (47%) employers, but only 7% of employers knew their plan's HEDIS scores. Because larger employers were more likely to report knowing the scores, 53% of all employees worked for employers who reported knowing the scores. A number of structural, health benefit, and need characteristics predicted knowledge of HEDIS depression scores by employers. CONCLUSIONS The study demonstrated that motivated employers did not know their depression HEDIS scores even when their plan publicly reported them. Measures of health care quality are not reaching the buyers of insurance products; however, larger employers were more likely to know the HEDIS scores for their health plan, suggesting that value-based purchasing may have some ability to affect health care quality. PMID:23945985

  10. Continual Screening of Patients Using mHealth: The Rolling Score Concept Applied to Sleep Medicine.

    PubMed

    Zluga, Claudio; Modre-Osprian, Robert; Kastner, Peter; Schreier, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Continual monitoring of patients utilizing mHealth-based telemonitoring applications are more and more used for individual management of patients. A new approach in risk assessment called Rolling Score Concept uses standardized questionnaires for continual scoring of individuals' health state through electronic patient reported outcome (ePRO). Using self-rated questionnaires and adding a specific Time Schedule to each question result in a movement of the questionnaires' scores over time, the Rolling Score. A text-processing pipeline was implemented with KNIME analytics platform to extract a Score Mapping Rule Set for three standardized screening questionnaires in the field of sleep medicine. A feasibility study was performed in 10 healthy volunteers equipped with a mHealth application on a smartphone and a sleep tracker. Results show that the proposed Rolling Score Concept is feasible and deviations of scores are in a reasonable range (< 7%), sustaining the new approach. However, further studies are required for verification. In addition, parameter quantification could avoid incorrect subjective evaluation by substitution of questions with sensor data. PMID:27139409

  11. Using the Bem and Klein Grid Scores to Predict Health Services Usage by Men.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G; Dyo, Melissa; Huckabay, Loucine M

    2016-01-01

    We examined the association between scores on the Bem Sex Roles Inventory (BSRI), Klein Sexual Orientation Grid, and utilization of hospital inpatient services, emergency departments, and outpatient clinic visits in the past 12 months among 53 men (mean age 39 years). The femininity subscale score on the BSRI, ever having had gonorrhea and age were the three variables identified in a multivariate linear regression significantly predicting use of total health services. This supports the hypothesis that sex roles can assist our understanding of men's use of health services. PMID:27337618

  12. Correlation of HEDIS diabetes health plan score with utilization of diabetes medications.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Richard; Bazalo, Gary; Clark, Nathaniel; Forma, Felicia; Ingram, Garrett; Alemayehu, Berhanu

    2007-10-01

    This study sought to determine the correlation between a health plan's Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) score for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) control in patients with diabetes and its utilization of analog insulin, human insulin, and oral drug therapy as determined by the share of prescriptions of each therapy. Prescription volumes were tracked for four categories of diabetes drug therapy: (1) analog insulin, (2) human insulin, (3) single-source brand oral products, and (4) multisource generic oral products, for the three months ending January 2005 and January 2006 and matched to the 2004 and 2005 HEDIS scores. A correlation analysis conducted between the HbA1c-based HEDIS score and the prescription share of each drug category found a favorable and statistically significant (P < .0001) correlation between plan HbA1c HEDIS score and plan prescription share of analog insulin in both 2004 and 2005. The correlation between HEDIS scores and human insulin was not statistically significant. Unfavorable correlations were found between HEDIS scores and both the single-source brand and the multisource generic oral category prescription shares, although these correlations were found to be significant only for the single-source products in 2005. PMID:18405202

  13. Effective Screening for Emotional Distress in Refugees: The Refugee Health Screener.

    PubMed

    Hollifield, Michael; Toolson, Eric C; Verbillis-Kolp, Sasha; Farmer, Beth; Yamazaki, Junko; Woldehaimanot, Tsegaba; Holland, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Screening for emotional distress is important, but not widely available. This study assesses the utility of the Refugee Health Screener 15 (RHS-15) in a public health setting. Refugee Health Screener 15 and diagnostic proxy (DP) instruments assessing anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder were administered to refugees from 3 countries at their public health examination. Properties of the RHS-15 and its components were evaluated utilizing appropriate methods. Scale Cronbach α was 0.95, and a factor analysis identified 1 factor accounting for 66% of scale variance. Refugee Health Screener 15 scores and cases discriminated between refugee groups similar to DPs. Refugee Health Screener 15 case sensitivity and specificity to DPs were acceptable (≥0.87/0.77). A shorter, 13-item component had acceptable metric properties. The RHS-15 appears to be a valid screener for emotional distress of refugees. The 13-item scale may be more efficient and as efficacious for case identification. The critical public health need and recommendations for implementation are discussed. PMID:26825376

  14. Mental health matters in elementary school: first-grade screening predicts fourth grade achievement test scores.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Maria Paz; Jellinek, Michael; George, Myriam; Hartley, Marcela; Squicciarini, Ana Maria; Canenguez, Katia M; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Yucel, Recai; White, Gwyne W; Guzman, Javier; Murphy, J Michael

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether mental health problems identified through screens administered in first grade are related to poorer academic achievement test scores in the fourth grade. The government of Chile uses brief teacher- and parent-completed measures [Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Revised (TOCA-RR) and Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-Cl)] to screen for mental health problems in about one-fifth of the country's elementary schools. In fourth grade, students take the national achievement tests (SIMCE) of language, mathematics and science. This study examined whether mental health problems identified through either or both screens predicted achievement test scores after controlling for student and family risk factors. A total of 17,252 students had complete first grade teacher forms and these were matched with fourth grade SIMCE data for 11,185 students, 7,903 of whom also had complete parent form data from the first grade. Students at risk on either the TOCA-RR or the PSC-Cl or both performed significantly worse on all SIMCE subtests. Even after controlling for covariates and adjusting for missing data, students with mental health problems on one screen in first grade had fourth grade achievement scores that were 14-18 points (~1/3 SD) lower than students screened as not at risk. Students at risk on both screens had scores that were on average 33 points lower than students at risk on either screen. Mental health problems in first grade were one of the strongest predictors of lower achievement test scores 3 years later, supporting the premise that for children mental health matters in the real world. PMID:21647553

  15. Child and Mother Client Satisfaction Questionnaire Scores regarding Mental Health Services: Race, Age, and Gender Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Valire Carr; Koeske, Gary; Greeno, Catherine G.

    2004-01-01

    This study used the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) to examine the level of consumer satisfaction with children's (ages 8 to 17 years) outpatient mental health services. Analyses were completed using both individual satisfaction items and a summed scale score. The CSQ scale had satisfactory internal consistency reliability for both…

  16. Identifying the spatial scale of land use that most strongly influences overall river ecosystem health score.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Fran; Peterson, Erin E; Boone, Ed L; Sippel, Suzanne; Bunn, Stuart E; Harch, Bronwyn D

    2012-12-01

    Catchment and riparian degradation has resulted in declining ecosystem health of streams worldwide. With restoration a priority in many regions, there is an increasing interest in the scale at which land use influences stream ecosystem health. Our goal was to use a substantial data set collected as part of a monitoring program (the Southeast Queensland, Australia, Ecological Health Monitoring Program data set, collected at 116 sites over six years) to identify the spatial scale of land use, or the combination of spatial scales, that most strongly influences overall ecosystem health. In addition, we aimed to determine whether the most influential scale differed for different aspects of ecosystem health. We used linear-mixed models and a Bayesian model-averaging approach to generate models for the overall aggregated ecosystem health score and for each of the five component indicators (fish, macroinvertebrates, water quality, nutrients, and ecosystem processes) that make up the score. Dense forest close to the survey site, mid-dense forest in the hydrologically active near-stream areas of the catchment, urbanization in the riparian buffer, and tree cover at the reach scale were all significant in explaining ecosystem health, suggesting an overriding influence of forest cover, particularly close to the stream. Season and antecedent rainfall were also important explanatory variables, with some land-use variables showing significant seasonal interactions. There were also differential influences of land use for each of the component indicators. Our approach is useful given that restoring general ecosystem health is the focus of many stream restoration projects; it allowed us to predict the scale and catchment position of restoration that would result in the greatest improvement of ecosystem health in the regions streams and rivers. The models we generated suggested that good ecosystem health can be maintained in catchments where 80% of hydrologically active areas in close

  17. Abductive machine learning for modeling and predicting the educational score in school health surveys.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, R E; Mangoud, A M

    1996-09-01

    The use of modern abductive machine learning techniques is described for modeling and predicting outcome parameters in terms of input parameters in medical survey data. The AIM (Abductory Induction Mechanism) abductive network machine-learning tool is used to model the educational score in a health survey of 2,720 Albanian primary school children. Data included the child's age, gender, vision, nourishment, parasite infection, family size, parents' education, and educational score. Models synthesized by training on just 100 cases predict the educational score output for the remaining 2,620 cases with 100% accuracy. Simple models represented as analytical functions highlight global relationships and trends in the survey population. Models generated are quite robust, with no change in the basic model structure for a 10-fold increase in the size of the training set. Compared to other statistical and neural network approaches, AIM provides faster and highly automated model synthesis, requiring little or no user intervention. PMID:8952313

  18. INTERPRETING PHYSICAL AND BEHAVIORAL HEALTH SCORES FROM NEW WORK DISABILITY INSTRUMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E.; Ni, Pengsheng; Chan, Leighton; Rasch, Elizabeth K.; McDonough, Christine M.; Brandt, Diane E.; Bogusz, Kara; Jette, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a system to guide interpretation of scores generated from 2 new instruments measuring work-related physical and behavioral health functioning (Work Disability – Physical Function (WD-PF) and WD – Behavioral Function (WD-BH)). Design Cross-sectional, secondary data from 3 independent samples to develop and validate the functional levels for physical and behavioral health functioning. Subjects Physical group: 999 general adult subjects, 1,017 disability applicants and 497 work-disabled subjects. Behavioral health group: 1,000 general adult subjects, 1,015 disability applicants and 476 work-disabled subjects. Methods Three-phase analytic approach including item mapping, a modified-Delphi technique, and known-groups validation analysis were used to develop and validate cut-points for functional levels within each of the WD-PF and WD-BH instrument’s scales. Results Four and 5 functional levels were developed for each of the scales in the WD-PF and WD-BH instruments. Distribution of the comparative samples was in the expected direction: the general adult samples consistently demonstrated scores at higher functional levels compared with the claimant and work-disabled samples. Conclusion Using an item-response theory-based methodology paired with a qualitative process appears to be a feasible and valid approach for translating the WD-BH and WD-PF scores into meaningful levels useful for interpreting a person’s work-related physical and behavioral health functioning. PMID:25729901

  19. Can You Party Your Way to Better Health? A Propensity Score Analysis of Block Parties and Health

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Lorraine T.; Hillier, Amy; Chau-Glendinning, Hang; Subramanian, SV; Williams, David R.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    While other indicators of social capital have been linked to health, the role of block parties on health in Black neighborhoods and on Black residents is understudied. Block parties exhibit several features of bonding social capital and are present in nearly 90% of Philadelphia’s predominantly Black neighborhoods. This analysis investigated: (1) whether or not block parties are an indicator of bonding social capital in Black neighborhoods; (2) the degree to which block parties might be related to self-rated health in the ways that other bonding social indicators are related to health; and (3) whether or not block parties are associated with average self-rated health for Black residents particularly. Using census tract-level indicators of bonding social capital and records of block parties from 2003 to 2008 for 381 Philadelphia neighborhoods (defined by census tracts), an ecological-level propensity score was generated to assess the propensity for a block party, adjusting for population demographics, neighborhood characteristics, neighborhood resources and violent crime. Results indicate that in multivariable regression, block parties were associated with increased bonding social capital in Black neighborhoods; however, the calculation of the average effect of the treatment on the treated (ATT) within each propensity score strata showed no effect of block parties on average self-rated health for Black residents. Block parties may be an indicator of bonding social capital in Philadelphia’s predominantly Black neighborhoods, but this analysis did not show a direct association between block parties and self-rated health for Black residents. Further research should consider what other health outcomes or behaviors block parties may be related to and how interventionists can leverage block parties for health promotion. PMID:26117555

  20. Can you party your way to better health? A propensity score analysis of block parties and health.

    PubMed

    Dean, Lorraine T; Hillier, Amy; Chau-Glendinning, Hang; Subramanian, S V; Williams, David R; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-08-01

    While other indicators of social capital have been linked to health, the role of block parties on health in Black neighborhoods and on Black residents is understudied. Block parties exhibit several features of bonding social capital and are present in nearly 90% of Philadelphia's predominantly Black neighborhoods. This analysis investigated: (1) whether or not block parties are an indicator of bonding social capital in Black neighborhoods; (2) the degree to which block parties might be related to self-rated health in the ways that other bonding social indicators are related to health; and (3) whether or not block parties are associated with average self-rated health for Black residents particularly. Using census tract-level indicators of bonding social capital and records of block parties from 2003 to 2008 for 381 Philadelphia neighborhoods (defined by census tracts), an ecological-level propensity score was generated to assess the propensity for a block party, adjusting for population demographics, neighborhood characteristics, neighborhood resources and violent crime. Results indicate that in multivariable regression, block parties were associated with increased bonding social capital in Black neighborhoods; however, the calculation of the average effect of the treatment on the treated (ATT) within each propensity score strata showed no effect of block parties on average self-rated health for Black residents. Block parties may be an indicator of bonding social capital in Philadelphia's predominantly Black neighborhoods, but this analysis did not show a direct association between block parties and self-rated health for Black residents. Further research should consider what other health outcomes or behaviors block parties may be related to and how interventionists can leverage block parties for health promotion. PMID:26117555

  1. Mental health screening among newly arrived refugees seeking routine obstetric and gynecologic care.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista E; Allen, Jennifer; Nizigiyimana, Jeanne F; Ramirez, Glenda; Hollifield, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression are common mental health disorders in the refugee population. High rates of violence, trauma, and PTSD among refugee women remain unaddressed. The process of implementing a mental health screening tool among multiethnic, newly arrived refugee women receiving routine obstetric and gynecologic care in a dedicated refugee women's health clinic is described. The Refugee Health Screener-15 (RHS-15) is a culturally responsive, efficient, validated screening instrument that detects symptoms of emotional distress across diverse refugee populations and languages. An interdisciplinary community partnership was established with a local behavioral health services agency to facilitate the referral of women scoring positive on the RHS-15. Staff and provider training sessions, as well as the incorporation of bicultural, multilingual cultural health navigators, greatly facilitated linguistically appropriate care coordination for refugee women in a culturally sensitive manner. Twenty-six (23.2%) of the 112 women who completed the RHS-15 scored positive, of which 14 (53.8%) were Iraqi, 1 (3.8%) was Burmese, and 3 (11.5%) were Somali. Among these 26 women, 8 (30.8%) are actively receiving mental health services and 5 (19.2%) have appointments scheduled. However, 13 (50%) are not enrolled in mental health care because of either declining services (46.2%) or a lack of insurance (53.8%). Screening for mental disorders among refugee women will promote greater awareness and identify those individuals who would benefit from further mental health evaluation and treatment. Sustainable interdisciplinary models of care are necessary to promote health education, dispel myths, and reduce the stigma of mental health. PMID:25383999

  2. Mental Health Screening Among Newly-Arrived Refugees Seeking Routine Obstetric and Gynecologic Care

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista E.; Allen, Jennifer; Nizigiyimana, Jeanne F.; Ramirez, Glenda; Hollifield, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression are the most common mental health disorders in the refugee population. High rates of violence, trauma, and PTSD among refugee women remain unaddressed. The process of implementing a mental health screening tool among multi-ethnic, newly-arrived refugee women receiving routine obstetric and gynecologic care in a dedicated refugee women’s health clinic is described. The Refugee Health Screener-15 (RHS-15) is a culturally-responsive, efficient, validated screening instrument that detects symptoms of emotional distress across diverse refugee populations and languages. An interdisciplinary community partnership was established with a local behavioral health services agency to facilitate the referral of women scoring positive on the RHS-15. Staff and provider training sessions, as well as the incorporation of bi-cultural, multi-lingual Cultural Health Navigators, greatly facilitated linguistically-appropriate care coordination for refugee women in a culturally sensitive manner. Twenty-six (23.2%) of the 112 women who completed the RHS-15 scored positive; of which 14 (53.8%) were Iraqi, one (3.8%) was Burmese, and three (11.5%) were Somali. Among these 26 women, eight (30.8%) are actively receiving mental health services, and five (19.2%) have appointments scheduled. However 13 (50%) are not enrolled in mental health care due to either declining services (46.2%), or a lack of insurance (53.8%). Screening for mental disorders among refugee women will promote greater awareness and identify those individuals who would benefit from further mental health evaluation and treatment. Sustainable interdisciplinary models of care are necessary to promote health education, dispel myths and reduce the stigma of mental health. PMID:25383999

  3. The Association Between Mental Health and Cognitive Screening Scores in Older Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Laura O.; Mavandadi, Shahrzad; Klaus, Johanna R.; Tew, James D.; Oslin, David W.; Sweet, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine overall cognitive screening results and the relationship between of cognitive screen score and sociodemographic characteristics, reason for referral, and clinical outcomes of older Veterans referred by primary care for a behavioral health assessment. Design Cross-sectional, naturalistic study. Setting Primary care clinics affiliated with two VA Medical Centers. Participants The sample included 4,325 older veterans referred to the Behavioral Health Laboratory who completed an initial mental health/substance abuse (MH/SA) assessment. Veterans were categorized into 3 groups based on cognitive status: Within Normal Limits (WNL), Possible Cognitive Impairment (PCI), and Possible Dementia (PD). Measurements Sociodemographic and clinical data on reason for referral, cognitive functioning (i.e., Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration (BOMC) Test), and behavioral health assessment outcomes were extracted from patients’ medical records. Data were analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression. Results Results of cognitive screenings indicated that the majority of the sample was WNL (62.5%), with 25.8%, 8.1%, and 3.6% of patients evidencing PCI, PD, and BOMC scores ≥17, respectively. With regard to reason for referral, patients with greater cognitive impairment were more likely to be identified by the antidepressant casefinder than patients with less impairment. Increased age, non-Caucasian ethnicity, self-perceived inadequate finances, Major Depressive Disorder, and symptoms of psychosis were associated with greater cognitive impairment. Conclusions Findings highlight the importance of evaluating cognitive status in older adults who are referred for a behavioral health assessment and/or receive a new MH/SA diagnosis. Doing so has the potential to improve recognition and treatment of cognitive impairment and dementia, thereby improving quality of care for many older adults. PMID:22251868

  4. Health Behaviors and Standardized Test Scores: The Impact of School Health Climate on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Whitney D.; Daly, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Research has found that many characteristics are related to performance on standardized tests. Many of these are not necessarily "academic" attributes. One area of this research is on the connection between physical health or lifestyles and test performance. The research that exists in this area is often disconnected with each other and…

  5. 7 CFR 1822.278 - Special requirements for RHS section 523 loans (loans to organizations providing sites for self...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special requirements for RHS section 523 loans (loans to organizations providing sites for self-help housing). 1822.278 Section 1822.278 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND...

  6. 7 CFR 1822.278 - Special requirements for RHS section 523 loans (loans to organizations providing sites for self...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... under this mortgage due to a prospective purchaser's race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age... exceed 18 months from the date of the first advance. (f) Note forms. Form RD 3560-52, “Multiple Family...-help housing (RHS sec. 523 loans) will be made under the provisions of this subpart with the...

  7. 7 CFR 1822.278 - Special requirements for RHS section 523 loans (loans to organizations providing sites for self...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... under this mortgage due to a prospective purchaser's race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age... exceed 18 months from the date of the first advance. (f) Note forms. Form RD 3560-52, “Multiple Family...-help housing (RHS sec. 523 loans) will be made under the provisions of this subpart with the...

  8. Mobile Health Applications, in the Absence of an Authentic Regulation, Does the Usability Score Correlate with a Better Medical Reliability?

    PubMed

    Yasini, Mobin; Marchand, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Health-related mobile applications (apps) have been shown to improve the quality of health and patient care. Their use in clinical and health-related environments is becoming more considerable. The number of health-related apps available for download has considerably increased, while the regulatory position of this new industry is not well known. Despite this lack of regulation, measuring the usability score of these apps is not difficult. We compared two samples of twenty health-related applications each. One of the samples contained the apps with top-rated usability scores, and the other contained the apps with lowest-rated usability scores. We found that a good usability score correlates with a better medical reliability of the app's content (p<0.005). In the period in which a valid regulation is still lacking, calculation and attribution of usability scores to mobile applications could be used to identify apps with better medical quality. However, the usability score method ought to be rigorous and should not be rounded off with a simple five stars rating (as is the case in the classic app stores). PMID:26262024

  9. Investigation of outliers of evaluation scores among school of health instructors using outlier - determination indices

    PubMed Central

    TABATABAEE, HAMIDREZA; GHAHRAMANI, FARIBA; CHOOBINEH, ALIREZA; ARVINFAR, MONA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Teacher evaluation, as an important strategy for improving the quality of education, has been considered by universities and leads to a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of education. Analysis of instructors’ scores is one of the main fields of educational research. Since outliers affect analysis and interpretation of information processes both structurally and conceptually, understanding the methods of detecting outliers in collected data can be helpful for scholars, data analysts, and researchers. The present study aimed to present and compare the available techniques for detecting outliers. Methods In this cross-sectional study, the statistical population included the evaluation forms of instructors completed by the students of Shiraz School of Health in the first and second semesters of the academic year 2012-2013. All the forms related to these years (N=1317) were entered into analysis through census. Then, four methods (Dixon, Gauss, Grubb, and Graphical methods) were used for determining outliers. Kappa coefficient was also used to determine the agreement among the methods. Results In this study 1317 forms were completed by 203 undergraduate and 1114 postgraduate students. The mean scores given by undergraduates and postgraduates were 17.24±3.04 and 18.90±1.82, respectively. The results showed that Dixon and Grubb were the most appropriate methods to determine the outliers of evaluation scores in small samples, because they had appropriate agreement. On the other hand, NPP and QQ plot were the most appropriate methods in large samples. Conclusion The results showed that each of the studied methods could help us, in some way, determine outliers. Researchers and analysts who intend to select and use the methods must first review the observations with the help of descriptive information and overview of the distribution. Determination of outliers is important in evaluation of instructors, because by determining the outliers

  10. Pregnancy Intentions, Maternal Behaviors, and Infant Health: Investigating Relationships With New Measures and Propensity Score Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kost, Kathryn; Lindberg, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The premise that unintended childbearing has significant negative effects on the behavior of mothers and on the health of infants strongly influences public health policy and much of current research on reproductive behaviors. Yet, the evidence base presents mixed findings. Using data from the U.S. National Survey of Family Growth, we employ a measure of pregnancy intentions that incorporates the extent of mistiming, as well as the desire scale developed by Santelli et al. (Studies in Family Planning, 40, 87–100, 2009). Second, we examine variation in the characteristics of mothers within intention status groups. Third, we account for the association of mothers, background characteristics with their pregnancy intentions and with the outcomes by employing propensity score weighting. We find that weighting eliminated statistical significance of many observed associations of intention status with maternal behaviors and birth outcomes, but not all. Mistimed and unwanted births were still less likely to be recognized early in pregnancy than intended ones. Fewer unwanted births received early prenatal care or were breast-fed, and unwanted births were also more likely than intended births to be of low birth weight. Relative to births at the highest level of the desire scale, all other births were significantly less likely to be recognized early in pregnancy and to receive early prenatal care. PMID:25573169

  11. Pregnancy intentions, maternal behaviors, and infant health: investigating relationships with new measures and propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Kost, Kathryn; Lindberg, Laura

    2015-02-01

    The premise that unintended childbearing has significant negative effects on the behavior of mothers and on the health of infants strongly influences public health policy and much of current research on reproductive behaviors. Yet, the evidence base presents mixed findings. Using data from the U.S. National Survey of Family Growth, we employ a measure of pregnancy intentions that incorporates the extent of mistiming, as well as the desire scale developed by Santelli et al. (Studies in Family Planning, 40, 87-100, 2009). Second, we examine variation in the characteristics of mothers within intention status groups. Third, we account for the association of mothers' background characteristics with their pregnancy intentions and with the outcomes by employing propensity score weighting. We find that weighting eliminated statistical significance of many observed associations of intention status with maternal behaviors and birth outcomes, but not all. Mistimed and unwanted births were still less likely to be recognized early in pregnancy than intended ones. Fewer unwanted births received early prenatal care or were breast-fed, and unwanted births were also more likely than intended births to be of low birth weight. Relative to births at the highest level of the desire scale, all other births were significantly less likely to be recognized early in pregnancy and to receive early prenatal care. PMID:25573169

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant-Pathogenic Soil Fungus Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group 3 Strain Rhs1AP

    PubMed Central

    Cubeta, Marc A.; Dean, Ralph A.; Jabaji, Suha; Neate, Stephen M.; Tavantzis, Stellos; Toda, Takeshi; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bharathan, Narayanaswamy; Fedorova-Abrams, Natalie; Pakala, Suman B.; Pakala, Suchitra M.; Zafar, Nikhat; Joardar, Vinita; Losada, Liliana; Nierman, William C.

    2014-01-01

    The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani is a pathogen of agricultural crops. Here, we report on the 51,705,945 bp draft consensus genome sequence of R. solani strain Rhs1AP. A comprehensive understanding of the heterokaryotic genome complexity and organization of R. solani may provide insight into the plant disease ecology and adaptive behavior of the fungus. PMID:25359908

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant-Pathogenic Soil Fungus Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group 3 Strain Rhs1AP.

    PubMed

    Cubeta, Marc A; Thomas, Elizabeth; Dean, Ralph A; Jabaji, Suha; Neate, Stephen M; Tavantzis, Stellos; Toda, Takeshi; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bharathan, Narayanaswamy; Fedorova-Abrams, Natalie; Pakala, Suman B; Pakala, Suchitra M; Zafar, Nikhat; Joardar, Vinita; Losada, Liliana; Nierman, William C

    2014-01-01

    The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani is a pathogen of agricultural crops. Here, we report on the 51,705,945 bp draft consensus genome sequence of R. solani strain Rhs1AP. A comprehensive understanding of the heterokaryotic genome complexity and organization of R. solani may provide insight into the plant disease ecology and adaptive behavior of the fungus. PMID:25359908

  14. Does the correspondence between EQ-5D health state description and VAS score vary by medical condition?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The EQ-5D health-related quality of life instrument comprises a health state classification (health problems by severity in five domains), followed by an evaluation using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Despite the EQ-5D’s use in health technology assessment and as a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM), the correspondence between the two parts of the instrument remains ill-understood. In this paper, we consider whether the association between health state classification and VAS score might vary by medical condition. Methods EQ-5D data collected for studies of patients in four different clinical conditions or circumstances (stroke, low back pain, colposcopic investigation or cytological surveillance) were pooled to generate a sample of 3,851 patient records. VAS scores were regressed on reported problem severities, with the inclusion of intercept and slope dummy variables specific to condition. Results The regression model achieved a goodness-of-fit of 0.54. Given its structure and the significance of the coefficients, the proportion of VAS scores which differed by condition for the same health state varied between 33.3 and 88.5 per cent of possible states. Conclusions Many of the patients with different medical conditions or in receipt of different interventions recorded different VAS valuations, in spite of ostensibly being in the same EQ-5D-defined health states. By implication, it is probable that the same state-to-state change would by valued differently by patients experiencing different conditions. PMID:24034630

  15. Characteristics of Walkable Built Environments and BMI z-Scores in Children: Evidence from a Large Electronic Health Record Database

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Mona; Melly, Steven J.; Marshall, Richard; Sequist, Thomas D.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity remains a prominent public health problem. Walkable built environments may prevent excess weight gain. Objectives: We examined the association of walkable built environment characteristics with body mass index (BMI) z-score among a large sample of children and adolescents. Methods: We used geocoded residential address data from electronic health records of 49,770 children and adolescents 4 to < 19 years of age seen at the 14 pediatric practices of Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates from August 2011 through August 2012. We used eight geographic information system (GIS) variables to characterize walkable built environments. Outcomes were BMI z-score at the most recent visit and BMI z-score change from the earliest available (2008–2011) to the most recent (2011–2012) visit. Multivariable models were adjusted for child age, sex, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood median household income. Results: In multivariable cross-sectional models, living in closer proximity to recreational open space was associated with lower BMI z-score. For example, children who lived in closest proximity (quartile 1) to the nearest recreational open space had a lower BMI z-score (β = –0.06; 95% CI: –0.08, –0.03) compared with those living farthest away (quartile 4; reference). Living in neighborhoods with fewer recreational open spaces and less residential density, traffic density, sidewalk completeness, and intersection density were associated with higher cross-sectional BMI z-score and with an increase in BMI z-score over time. Conclusions: Overall, built environment characteristics that may increase walkability were associated with lower BMI z-scores in a large sample of children. Modifying existing built environments to make them more walkable may reduce childhood obesity. Citation: Duncan DT, Sharifi M, Melly SJ, Marshall R, Sequist TD, Rifas-Shiman SL, Taveras EM. 2014. Characteristics of walkable built environments and BMI z-scores in children

  16. Relationship between body condition score and health traits in first-lactation Canadian Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Loker, S; Miglior, F; Koeck, A; Neuenschwander, T F-O; Bastin, C; Jamrozik, J; Schaeffer, L R; Kelton, D

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate daily genetic correlations between longitudinal body condition score (BCS) and health traits by using a random regression animal model in first-lactation Holsteins. The use of indicator traits may increase the rate of genetic progress for functional traits relative to direct selection for functional traits. Indicator traits of interest are those that are easier to record, can be measured early in life, and are strongly genetically correlated with the functional trait of interest. Several BCS records were available per cow, and only 1 record per health trait (1=affected; 0=not affected) was permitted per cow over the lactation. Two bivariate analyses were performed, the first between BCS and mastitis and the second between BCS and metabolic disease (displaced abomasum, milk fever, and ketosis). For the first analysis, 217 complete herds were analyzed, which included 28,394 BCS records for 10,715 cows and 6,816 mastitis records for 6,816 cows. For the second analysis, 350 complete herds were analyzed, which included 42,167 BCS records for 16,534 cows and 13,455 metabolic disease records for 13,455 cows. Estimation of variance components by a Bayesian approach via Gibbs sampling was performed using 400,000 samples after a burn-in of 150,000 samples. The average daily heritability (posterior standard deviation) of BCS was 0.260 (0.026) and the heritabilities of mastitis and metabolic disease were 0.020 (0.007) and 0.041 (0.012), respectively. Heritability estimates were similar to literature values. The average daily genetic correlation between BCS and mastitis was -0.730 (0.110). Cows with a low BCS during the lactation are more susceptible to mastitis, and mastitic cows are likely to have low BCS. Daily estimates of genetic correlations between BCS and mastitis were moderate to strong throughout the lactation, becoming stronger as the lactation progressed. The average daily genetic correlation between BCS and metabolic

  17. Neighborhood racial composition and trajectories of child self-rated health: an application of longitudinal propensity scores.

    PubMed

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Humphrey, Jamie L

    2014-11-01

    Children function within multiple socio-environmental contexts including family, school, and neighborhood. The role each of these contexts play in determining well-being is dynamic and changes throughout early-middle childhood. Recent literature on neighborhood context and health suggests that the life-course processes involved in building trajectories of health are not adequately captured in cross-sectional analysis, which has been the empirical focus of much of the research in this area. In this study we use a nationally representative longitudinal sample of approximately 21,400 United States school children derived from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) survey to examine the impact of longitudinal measures of neighborhood racial composition on child self-rated health between kindergarten and 8th grade. We employ two-level multilevel longitudinal logistic regression models with time-varying propensity scores to examine variation in the initial status and trajectories of child self-rated health between kindergarten and 8th grade. Since the ECLS-K tracked child mobility over time, we are able to model the impact of changes in neighborhood racial composition. We find significant differences in initial poor self-rated health by child race, household socioeconomic status and parental marital status but no evidence of a change in trajectory of health over time. Using time-varying propensity scores, we find no effect of neighborhood racial composition on initial health status or health status trajectories. PMID:25218151

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of caregiver reported Severe Early Childhood Caries in Manitoba First Nations children: results from the RHS Phase 2 (2008–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Schroth, Robert J.; Halchuk, Shelley; Star, Leona

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The high prevalence and severity of caries among Canadian First Nations children is a growing concern. Dental surgery in hospital is often necessary to treat the signs of decay but does not address the underlying factors contributing to its development. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of caregiver-reported Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD), or Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC), among preschool children recruited in Phase 2 of the First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (RHS). Study Design Cross-sectional study including interviews with caregivers. Methods This study was limited to data from Manitoba First Nations participating in the RHS Phase 2 (2008–10). Data were restricted to caregiver interviews for their child <72 months of age. The main variable of interest was caregiver-reported BBTD, an antecedent term for S-ECC. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses; p≤0.05 was significant. Results Overall, caregivers of 431 preschool children responded. According to caregiver reports, 102/410 (24.9%) children had S-ECC. Further, 65.0% responded that their child had already undergone treatment for caries. Children with S-ECC were significantly older than those without. S-ECC was also associated with paternal education levels and employment status, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Breastfed children were less likely to have S-ECC, while consuming drink crystal beverages in bottles, and daily intake of soft drinks, juice, sweets and fast food were associated with increased risk. Those who reported that healthcare services were not available and were not culturally appropriate were significantly more likely to have children with S-ECC. Conclusions Caregiver reports suggest that nearly 1 in every 4 children has been affected by S-ECC. Identified risk factors for Manitoba First Nations children included age, education and employment, dietary practices, access to care, and

  19. Cross-cultural equivalence in translation of the oral health impact profile: how to interpret the final score?

    PubMed

    Denis, Frederic; Trojak, Benoit; Rude, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    The oral health impact profile (OHIP) is one of the most widely known oral health-related quality of life instruments. In Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, MacEntee and Brondani report the results of a systematic review to identify acceptable methods for translating psychometric instruments for cross-cultural equivalence of the OHIP scale. But in no study has unidimensionality, one aspect of the validity of the internal structure of the scale, been verified, whereas it is a major psychometric step. In the absence of the study of unidimensionality, it is difficult to interpret the final score. The methodology of transcultural validation of the OHIP could be improved, and the study of the unidimensionality is a psychometrically necessary step for the interpretation of the finale score. PMID:26879212

  20. The Fruit & Vegetable Screener in the 2000 California Health Interview Survey: Scoring Procedures

    Cancer.gov

    Scoring procedures were developed to convert the individual respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for servings of fruits and vegetables using USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII 94-96) dietary recall data.

  1. Multifactor Screener in the 2000 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement: Scoring Procedures

    Cancer.gov

    Scoring procedures were developed to convert a respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for percentage energy from fat, grams of fiber, and servings of fruits and vegetables, using USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII 94-96) dietary recall data.

  2. Health literacy is associated with healthy eating index scores and sugar-sweetened beverage intake: findings from the rural lower Mississippi delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although health literacy has been a public health priority area for more than a decade, the relationship between health literacy and dietary quality has not been thoroughly explored. This study, evaluates health literacy skills in relation to Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores and sugar-sweetened bev...

  3. Environmental and health impacts of fine and ultrafine metallic particles: Assessment of threat scores

    SciTech Connect

    Goix, Sylvaine; Lévêque, Thibaut; Xiong, Tian-Tian; Schreck, Eva; and others

    2014-08-15

    This study proposes global threat scores to prioritize the harmfulness of anthropogenic fine and ultrafine metallic particles (FMP) emitted into the atmosphere at the global scale. (Eco)toxicity of physicochemically characterized FMP oxides for metals currently observed in the atmosphere (CdO, CuO, PbO, PbSO{sub 4}, Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and ZnO) was assessed by performing complementary in vitro tests: ecotoxicity, human bioaccessibility, cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential. Using an innovative methodology based on the combination of (eco)toxicity and physicochemical results, the following hazard classification of the particles is proposed: CdCl{sub 2}∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO{sub 4}>Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Both cadmium compounds exhibited the highest threat score due to their high cytotoxicity and bioaccessible dose, whatever their solubility and speciation, suggesting that cadmium toxicity is due to its chemical form rather than its physical form. In contrast, the Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} threat score was the lowest due to particles with low specific area and solubility, with no effects except a slight oxidative stress. As FMP physicochemical properties reveal differences in specific area, crystallization systems, dissolution process, and speciation, various mechanisms may influence their biological impact. Finally, this newly developed and global approach could be widely used in various contexts of pollution by complex metal particles and may improve risk management. - Highlights: • Seven micro- and nano- monometallic characterized particles were studied as references. • Bioaccessibility, eco and cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential assays were performed. • According to calculated threat scores: CdCl{sub 2}∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO{sub 4}>Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  4. Environmental and health impacts of fine and ultrafine metallic particles: assessment of threat scores.

    PubMed

    Goix, Sylvaine; Lévêque, Thibaut; Xiong, Tian-Tian; Schreck, Eva; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Geret, Florence; Uzu, Gaëlle; Austruy, Annabelle; Dumat, Camille

    2014-08-01

    This study proposes global threat scores to prioritize the harmfulness of anthropogenic fine and ultrafine metallic particles (FMP) emitted into the atmosphere at the global scale. (Eco)toxicity of physicochemically characterized FMP oxides for metals currently observed in the atmosphere (CdO, CuO, PbO, PbSO(4), Sb(2)O(3), and ZnO) was assessed by performing complementary in vitro tests: ecotoxicity, human bioaccessibility, cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential. Using an innovative methodology based on the combination of (eco)toxicity and physicochemical results, the following hazard classification of the particles is proposed: CdCl2~CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO(4)>Sb(2)O(3). Both cadmium compounds exhibited the highest threat score due to their high cytotoxicity and bioaccessible dose, whatever their solubility and speciation, suggesting that cadmium toxicity is due to its chemical form rather than its physical form. In contrast, the Sb(2)O(3) threat score was the lowest due to particles with low specific area and solubility, with no effects except a slight oxidative stress. As FMP physicochemical properties reveal differences in specific area, crystallization systems, dissolution process, and speciation, various mechanisms may influence their biological impact. Finally, this newly developed and global approach could be widely used in various contexts of pollution by complex metal particles and may improve risk management. PMID:24959986

  5. The French National Nutrition and Health Program score is associated with nutritional status and risk of major chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Estaquio, Carla; Castetbon, Katia; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Bertrais, Sandrine; Deschamps, Valérie; Dauchet, Luc; Péneau, Sandrine; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2008-05-01

    Few studies have found that adherence to dietary guidelines reduces the incidence of chronic disease. In 2001, a National Nutrition and Health Program (Program National Nutrition Santé) was implemented in France and included 9 quantified priority nutritional goals involving fruit, vegetable, and nutrient intakes, nutritional status, and physical activity. We developed an index score that includes indicators of these public health objectives and examined the association between this score and the incidence of major chronic diseases in the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants cohort. Data from middle-aged adults free of major chronic diseases and who provided at least 3 24-h dietary records during the first 2 y of follow-up have been included in the present analysis (n = 4,976). Major chronic disease, documented during the 8-y follow-up period (n = 455), was defined as the combination of cardiovascular disease (n = 131), cancer (n = 261), or death (n = 63), whichever came first. In fully adjusted Cox models, men in the top tertile score compared with those in the lowest one had a 36% lower risk of major chronic diseases (hazard ratio = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44-0.96). No association was found in women. Healthy diet and lifestyle were associated with a lower risk of chronic diseases, particularly in men, thereby underlying relevance of the French nutritional recommendations. PMID:18424606

  6. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores among Urban Youth in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must "strengthen schools as the heart of health." To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement,…

  7. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*

    PubMed Central

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p < .001). Conclusions Schools that utilize nontraditional instructional strategies to improve student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

  8. Impact of caregiver and parenting status on time trade-off and standard gamble utility scores for health state descriptions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of caregiver status on time trade-off (TTO) and standard gamble (SG) health state utility scores. Respondents were categorized as caregivers if they reported that either children or adults depended on them for care. Methods This study was a secondary analysis of data from three studies in which general population samples rated health state descriptions. Study 1: UK; four osteoarthritis health states. Study 2: UK; three adult ADHD health states. Study 3: US; 16 schizophrenia health states. All three studies included time trade-off assessment. Study 1 also included standard gamble. Descriptive statistics were calculated to examine willingness to trade in TTO or gamble in SG. Utilities for caregivers and non-caregivers were compared using t-tests and ANCOVA models. Results There were 364 respondents including 106 caregivers (n = 30, 47, and 29 in Studies 1, 2, and 3) and 258 non-caregivers. Most caregivers were parents of dependent children (78.3%). Compared to non-caregivers, caregivers had more responses at the ceiling (i.e., utility = 0.95), indicating less willingness to trade time or gamble. All utilities were higher for caregivers than non-caregivers (mean utility difference between groups: 0.07 to 0.16 in Study 1 TTO; 0.03 to 0.17 in Study 1 SG; 0.06 to 0.10 in Study 2 TTO; 0.11 to 0.22 in Study 3 TTO). These differences were statistically significant for at least two health states in each study (p < 0.05). Results of sensitivity analyses with two caregiver subgroups (parents of dependent children and parents of any child regardless of whether the child was still dependent) followed the same pattern as results of the primary analysis. The parent subgroups were generally less willing to trade time or gamble (i.e., resulting in higher utility scores) than comparison groups of non-parents. Conclusions Results indicate that caregiver status, including being a parent, influences responses in

  9. The Impact of Relative Poverty on Norwegian Adolescents’ Subjective Health: A Causal Analysis with Propensity Score Matching

    PubMed Central

    Elstad, Jon Ivar; Pedersen, Axel West

    2012-01-01

    Studies have revealed that relative poverty is associated with ill health, but the interpretations of this correlation vary. This article asks whether relative poverty among Norwegian adolescents is causally related to poor subjective health, i.e., self-reported somatic and mental symptoms. Data consist of interview responses from a sample of adolescents (N = 510) and their parents, combined with register data on the family’s economic situation. Relatively poor adolescents had significantly worse subjective health than non-poor adolescents. Relatively poor adolescents also experienced many other social disadvantages, such as parental unemployment and parental ill health. Comparisons between the relatively poor and the non-poor adolescents, using propensity score matching, indicated a negative impact of relative poverty on the subjective health among those adolescents who lived in families with relatively few economic resources. The results suggest that there is a causal component in the association between relative poverty and the symptom burden of disadvantaged adolescents. Relative poverty is only one of many determinants of adolescents’ subjective health, but its role should be acknowledged when policies for promoting adolescent health are designed. PMID:23249858

  10. Greater Equality: The Hidden Key to Better Health and Higher Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Richard; Pickett, Kate

    2011-01-01

    There are now many studies of income inequality and health that compare countries, American states, or other large regions, and the majority of these studies show that more egalitarian societies tend to be healthier. Inequality is associated with lower life expectancy, higher rates of infant mortality, shorter height, poor self-reported health,…

  11. The impact of employment transitions on health in Germany. A difference-in-differences propensity score matching approach.

    PubMed

    Gebel, Michael; Voßemer, Jonas

    2014-05-01

    This article investigates the effects of transitions between employment and unemployment on health. It also addresses the question of whether or not the widespread use of temporary employment has altered the positive health effects of employment. Drawing on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the period 1995-2010, we apply difference-in-differences propensity score matching to identify the direct causal effects of unemployment and reemployment on psychological and physical health. This combination of two approaches towards causal inference controls for both unobserved fixed effects and observable differences in a flexible semi-parametric specification. Our sample includes persons between the ages of 16-54 who have at least experienced one respective employment transition (treatment groups) or are continuously employed or unemployed (control groups). The results show that only psychological but not physical health is causally affected by the respective employment transitions. Specifically, the effects of unemployment and reemployment are of similar size, highlighting the importance of reemployment in compensating unemployment's negative impact on psychological health. In contrast, health selection and confounding seem to be important determinants of the cross-sectional association between unemployment and physical health. Carrying out separate analyses for permanent and temporary workers, we shed new light on the health effects of temporary employment. It has been argued that the rise of temporary employment has introduced a new inequality in the world of work, blurring the line between employment and unemployment. However, contrary to our expectations we find that both employment transitions have effects of a similar size for permanent and temporary workers. In sum, our results highlight two points. First, longitudinal research is needed to properly evaluate the health effects of unemployment, reemployment, and temporary employment. Second, compared to

  12. Development of Risk Score for Predicting 3-Year Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Akiko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Honda, Toru; Okazaki, Hiroko; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Tomita, Kentaro; Nagahama, Satsue; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Sasaki, Naoko; Hori, Ai; Sakamoto, Nobuaki; Nishiura, Chihiro; Totsuzaki, Takafumi; Kato, Noritada; Fukasawa, Kenji; Huanhuan, Hu; Akter, Shamima; Kurotani, Kayo; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Sone, Tomofumi; Dohi, Seitaro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk models and scores have been developed to predict incidence of type 2 diabetes in Western populations, but their performance may differ when applied to non-Western populations. We developed and validated a risk score for predicting 3-year incidence of type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population. Methods Participants were 37,416 men and women, aged 30 or older, who received periodic health checkup in 2008–2009 in eight companies. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥126 mg/dl, random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥6.5%, or receiving medical treatment for diabetes. Risk scores on non-invasive and invasive models including FPG and HbA1c were developed using logistic regression in a derivation cohort and validated in the remaining cohort. Results The area under the curve (AUC) for the non-invasive model including age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, hypertension, and smoking status was 0.717 (95% CI, 0.703–0.731). In the invasive model in which both FPG and HbA1c were added to the non-invasive model, AUC was increased to 0.893 (95% CI, 0.883–0.902). When the risk scores were applied to the validation cohort, AUCs (95% CI) for the non-invasive and invasive model were 0.734 (0.715–0.753) and 0.882 (0.868–0.895), respectively. Participants with a non-invasive score of ≥15 and invasive score of ≥19 were projected to have >20% and >50% risk, respectively, of developing type 2 diabetes within 3 years. Conclusions The simple risk score of the non-invasive model might be useful for predicting incident type 2 diabetes, and its predictive performance may be markedly improved by incorporating FPG and HbA1c. PMID:26558900

  13. Prediction of coronary heart disease mortality in Busselton, Western Australia: an evaluation of the Framingham, national health epidemiologic follow up study, and WHO ERICA risk scores.

    PubMed Central

    Knuiman, M W; Vu, H T

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of the Framingham, national health epidemiologic follow up study, and the WHO ERICA risk scores in predicting death from coronary heart disease (CHD) in an Australian population. DESIGN: Cohort follow up study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The cohort consisted of 1923 men and 1968 women who participated in health surveys in the town of Busselton in Western Australia over the period 1966-81. Baseline assessment included cardiovascular risk factor measurement. Mortality follow up to 31 December 1994 was used. MAIN RESULTS: Risk scores for death from CHD within 10 years based on age, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking, and BMI were derived from the Busselton study data using logistic regression analysis. Similar risk scores developed from the Framingham, the national health epidemiologic follow up study, and the WHO ERICA cohorts were found to perform just as well in Busselton as the Busselton-derived scores, both before and after controlling the effect of age. There was considerable overlap across the different risk scores in the identification of individuals in the highest quintile of risk. Those in the top 20% of scores included about 41% of deaths from CHD among men and about 63% of deaths from CHD among women. CONCLUSION: Although there is variation in risk score coefficients across the studies, the relative risk predictive performance of the scores is similar. The use of Framingham and other similar risk scores will not be misleading in white Australian populations. PMID:9425461

  14. Validation of acute physiologic and chronic health evaluation II scoring system software developed at The Aga Khan University, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, M; Asghar, A; Shamim, F; Khan, FH

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the predictive performance of Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) software available on the hospital intranet and analyze interrater reliability of calculating the APACHE II score by the gold standard manual method or automatically using the software. Materials and Methods: An expert scorer not involved in the data collection had calculated APACHE II score of 213 patients admitted to surgical Intensive Care Unit using the gold standard manual method for a previous study performed in the department. The same data were entered into the computer software available on the hospital intranet (http://intranet/apacheii) to recalculate the APACHE II score automatically along with the predicted mortality. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistical test and Pearson's correlation coefficient was computed. Results: The 213 patients had an average APACHE II score of 17.20 ± 8.24, the overall mortality rate was 32.8% and standardized mortality ratio was 1.00. The area under the ROC curve of 0.827 was significantly >0.5 (P < 0.01) and had confidence interval of 0.77-0.88. The goodness-of-fit test showed a good calibration (H = 5.46, P = 0.71). Interrater reliability using Pearson's product moment correlations demonstrated a strong positive relationship between the computer and the manual expert scorer (r = 0.98, P = 0.0005). Conclusion: APACHE II software available on the hospital's intranet has satisfactory calibration and discrimination and interrater reliability is good when compared with the gold standard manual method. PMID:26955310

  15. The impact of subsidized health insurance for the poor: evaluating the Colombian experience using propensity score matching.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Antonio J; Portillo, Jorge E; Vernon, John A

    2005-09-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of Colombia's subsidized health insurance program (SUBS) on medical care utilization. Colombia's SUBS program is a demand-side subsidy intended for low-income families, where the screening of beneficiaries takes place in decentralized locations across the country. Due to the self-selection problems associated with non-experimental data, we implement Propensity Score Matching (PSM) methods to measure the impact of this subsidy on medical care utilization. By combining unique household survey data with community and regional data, we are able to compute propensity scores in a way that is consistent with both the local government's decision to offer the subsidy, and with the individual's decision to accept the subsidy. Although the application of PSM using these rich datasets helps to achieve a balance between the treatment and control groups along observable dimensions, we also present instrumental variable estimates to control for the potential endogeneity of program participation. Using both methods, we find that Colombia's subsidized insurance program greatly increased medical care utilization among the country's poor and uninsured. This evidence supports the case for other Latin American countries implementing similar subsidy programs for health insurance for the poor. PMID:16082516

  16. Impact of dental neglect score on oral health among patients receiving fixed orthodontic treatment: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Vijayendra; Chandra, Subhash; Dilip Kumar, H. P.; Gupta, Ashish; Bhandari, Poonam Preet; Rathod, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Maintenance of meticulous oral health practices is critical for patients who are under orthodontic treatment as failure to do so can result in deterioration of periodontal health. Thus, the present study was commenced to assess dental negligence and oral health status among patients undergoing orthodontic treatment using dental neglect scale (DNS) questionnaire. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was planned and carried out among the 40 patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. The study comprised of two questionnaires, one was close-ended questionnaire which consisted of questions regarding patient practice in maintenance of oral health and other questionnaire comprised of DNS followed by examination of oral hygiene status using Oral Hygiene Index Simplified. Data so obtained were subjected to analysis using SPSS version 20 and Chi-square test was used to statistically analyze data with P < 0.05 regarded as a statistically significant value. Results: The present study revealed that 63% among the studied orthodontic patients brushed once daily, 26% brushed twice daily, and 11% brushed thrice. About one-fourth was using brush with soft bristles and only 9% among the respondents used interdental aids. Data revealed positive correlation between DNS and oral hygiene index-simplified score with P < 0.05. Conclusion: The present study found that less frequency of brushing, rinsing mouth, and eating sticky and hard food can be attributed to self-neglect of the orthodontic patients. PMID:27114950

  17. Population-Based Questionnaire Survey on Health Effects of Aircraft Noise on Residents Living around U.S. Airfields in the RYUKYUS—PART II: AN Analysis of the Discriminant Score and the Factor Score

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HIRAMATSU, K.; MATSUI, T.; MIYAKITA, T.; ITO, A.; TOKUYAMA, T.; OSADA, Y.; YAMAMOTO, T.

    2002-02-01

    Discriminant function values of psychosomatics and neurosis are calculated using the 12 scale scores of the Todai Health Index, a general health questionnaire, obtained in the survey done around the Kadena and Futenma U.S. airfields in Okinawa, Japan. The total number of answers available for the analysis is 6301. Factor analysis is applied to the 12 scale scores by means of the principal factor method, and Oblimin rotation is done because the factors extracted are considered likely to correlate with each other to a greater or lesser extent. The logistic regression analysis is made with the independent variables of discriminant function (DF) values and factor scores and with the dependent variables of Ldn, age (six levels), sex, occupation (four categories) and the interaction of age and sex. Results indicate that the odds ratio of the DF values regarding psychosomatic disorder and of the score of somatic factor have clear dose-response relationship. The odds ratios of the DF value of neurosis and of the score of the mental factor increase in the area where noise exposure is very intense.

  18. Recognizing obesity and its complications: the story of Score 1 for Health.

    PubMed

    Hampl, Sarah; Campbell, Annette

    2015-01-01

    This introductory article on the comorbidities of obesity in children is an overview and the first in a series of articles on the subject. One in three of our nation's school-age children is overweight or obese. The comorbidities they experience mirror those seen in adults, with over 60% of children having at least one complication. Virtually any body system may be affected. Complications include weight-related bullying and teasing, poor sleep hygiene, well-studied cardiovascular disease risk factors, liver disease, and musculoskeletal complications, to name a few. The article will further explore an exemplary program highlighting the important role that school nurses play in this child and adolescent health crisis. PMID:25626243

  19. How much does self-reported health status, measured by the SF-36, vary between electoral wards with different Jarman and Townsend scores?

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, P; Carlisle, R; Avery, A J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The best way for practices to determine the health status of patients living in areas with different socioeconomic characteristics is unclear. AIMS: To see how much SF-36 health status varies between electoral wards, how much of this variation can be explained by census-derived Jarman and Townsend scores, and compare the performance of census scores with direct socioeconomic information. METHOD: A postal questionnaire survey of 3000 randomly selected 18 to 75-year-olds residing in 15 electoral wards and registered with two urban practices. RESULTS: The response rate was 73%. Only two of the eight SF-36 domains were significantly associated with Jarman scores, whereas seven domains were associated with the Townsend score. Of the four socioeconomic variables derived directly from the survey, unemployment showed the weakest association, housing tenure was associated with seven domains, and car ownership and low income were associated with all eight. Income explained between 47% to 71% of the variation across the eight domains. CONCLUSION: The most accurate predictions about health status were made from direct socioeconomic information. Nonetheless, the association between Townsend score and health status was strong enough to be of practical importance. This study cautions against assuming the Jarman score of a population has a clear relationship with its health status. PMID:11042914

  20. Effects of Repeated Anesthesia Containing Urethane on Tumor Formation and Health Scores in Male C57BL/6J Mice.

    PubMed

    Rex, Tonia S; Boyd, Kelli; Apple, Troy; Bricker-Anthony, Courtney; Vail, Krystal; Wallace, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Repeated injection of urethane (ethyl carbamate) is carcinogenic in susceptible strains of mice. Most recent cancer studies involving urethane-induced tumor formation use p53(+/-) mice, which lack one copy of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. In contrast, the same protocol elicits at most a single tumor in wildtype C57BL/6 mice. The effect of repeatedly injecting urethane as a component of a ketamine-xylazine anesthetic mixture in the highly prevalent mouse strain C57BL/6 is unknown. Male C57BL/6J mice (n = 30; age, 3 mo) were anesthetized once monthly for 4 mo by using 560 mg/kg urethane, 28 mg/kg ketamine, and 5.6 mg/kg xylazine. The physical health of the mice was evaluated according to 2 published scoring systems. The average body condition score (scale, 1 to 5; normal, 3) was 3.3, 3.3, and 3.4 after the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th injections, respectively. The visual assessment score was 0 (that is, normal) at all time points examined. Within 1 wk after the 4th injection, the mice were euthanized, necropsied, and evaluated histopathologically. No histopathologic findings were noteworthy. We conclude that repeated monthly injection with urethane as a component of an anesthetic cocktail does not cause clinically detectable abnormalities or induce neoplasia in C57BL/6J mice. These findings are important because urethane combined with low-dose ketamine, unlike other anesthetic regimens, allows for accurate recording of neuronal activity in both the brain and retina. Longitudinal neuronal recordings minimize the number of mice needed and improve the analysis of disease progression and potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:27177562

  1. Predonation health-related quality of life scores predict time to recovery in hematopoietic stem cell donors.

    PubMed

    Billen, Annelies; Madrigal, J Alejandro; Strydom, Andre; Szydlo, Richard M; Switzer, Galen E; Shaw, Bronwen E

    2015-02-01

    The physical reactions to hematopoietic stem cell donation have been extensively studied, but less is known about factors that predict poorer donation experiences. The aim of this prospective study was to examine demographic and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) factors that might be associated with recovery and side effects. We also described the changes in HRQOL during the donation process. In total, 275 peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) and 37 bone marrow (BM) consecutive donors completed the SF-36 questionnaire predonation and 4 weeks, and 3 months postdonation. Predonation HRQOL markers were the strongest predictors of time to recovery. Poorer predonation physical health was associated with longer recovery (P = .017) and certain side effects in PBSC donors. Poorer predonation mental health was associated with longer recovery in BM donors (P = .03) and pain after PBSC donation (P = .003). Physical HRQOL scores declined significantly from predonation to 4 weeks postdonation. This was shown both for PBSC and BM donors (P < .001 and P = .009, respectively), but the decline was much greater for BM donors. There was a return to predonation HRQOL values 3 months after donation in both groups with values well above the mean of the general population (P < .001). PMID:25452034

  2. Relationship between cardiovascular health score and year-to-year blood pressure variability in China: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    An, Shasha; Bao, Minghui; Wang, Yang; Li, Zhifang; Zhang, Wenyan; Chen, Shuohua; Li, Junjuan; Yang, Xinchun; Wu, Shouling; Cai, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives On the basis of cardiovascular health factors and behaviours, the American Heart Association proposed the Cardiovascular Health Score (CHS). It has been widely used to estimate the cardiovascular health status of individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CHS and year-to-year blood pressure variability (BPV). Design Prospective cohort study. Settings We stratified participants into two groups by gender: first group, female group; second group, male group. The relationship between CHS and year-to-year blood pressure variability were analysed. Participants A total of 41 613 individuals met the inclusion criteria (no history of stroke, transient ischaemic attack, myocardial infarction, malignant tumour or atrial fibrillation) and had complete blood pressure data. Results The coefficient of the variation of systolic blood pressure (SCV) was 8.33% in the total population and 8.68% and 8.22% in female and male groups, respectively (p<0.05). Multivariable linear regression analysis revealed that higher CHS was inversely associated with increasing year-to-year BPV, which persisted after adjusting for baseline systolic blood pressure and other risk factors. Each SD increase in CHS could lead to a 0.016SD decrease in SCV (p<0.05). Conclusions In summary, CHS was inversely related to year-to-year BPV, which suggested that a healthy lifestyle may contribute to better blood pressure management. PMID:26503389

  3. Health Literacy is associated with Healthy Eating Index Scores and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake: Findings from the Rural Lower Mississippi Delta

    PubMed Central

    Zoellner, Jamie; You, Wen; Connell, Carol; Smith-Ray, Renae L.; Allen, Kacie; Tucker, Katherine L; Davy, Brenda M.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although health literacy has been a public health priority area for over a decade, the relationship between health literacy and dietary quality has not been thoroughly explored. Objective To evaluate health literacy skills in relation to Healthy Eating Index scores (HEI) and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage (SSB) consumption, while accounting for demographic variables. Design Cross-sectional survey. Participants/setting A community-based proportional sample of adults residing in the rural Lower Mississippi Delta. Methods Instruments included a validated 158-item regional food frequency questionnaire and the Newest Vital Sign (scores range 0–6) to assess health literacy. Statistical analyses performed Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and multivariate linear regression. Results Of 376 participants, the majority were African American (67.6%), without a college degree (71.5%), and household income level <$20,000/year (55.0%). Most participants (73.9%) scored in the two lowest health literacy categories. The multivariate linear regression model to predict total HEI scores was significant (R2=0.24; F=18.8; p<0.01), such that every 1 point increase in health literacy was associated with a 1.21 point increase in healthy eating index scores, while controlling for all other variables. Other significant predictors of HEI scores included age, gender, and SNAP participation. Health literacy also significantly predicted sugar-sweetened beverages consumption (R2=0.15; F=6.3; p<0.01), while accounting for demographic variables. Every 1 point in health literacy scores was associated with 34 fewer SSB kilocalories/day. Age was the only significant covariate in the SSB model. Conclusion While health literacy has been linked to numerous poor health outcomes, to our knowledge this is the first investigation to establish a relationship between health literacy and HEI scores and SSB consumption. Our study suggests that understanding the causes and consequences of limited health

  4. Community health workers' experiences and perspectives on mass drug administration for schistosomiasis control in western Kenya: the SCORE Project.

    PubMed

    Omedo, Martin O; Matey, Elizabeth J; Awiti, Alphonce; Ogutu, Michael; Alaii, Jane; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan; Mwinzi, Pauline N M

    2012-12-01

    Abstract. The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) includes communitywide treatment in areas with ≥ 25% prevalence of schistosomiasis along the shores of Lake Victoria using community health workers (CHWs). The CHWs are key drivers in community-owned mass drug administration (MDA) intervention programs. We explored their experiences and perceptions after initial MDA participation. Unstructured open-ended group discussions were conducted after completion of MDA activities. Narratives were obtained from CHWs using a digital audio recorder during the group discussion, transcribed verbatim and translated into English where applicable. Thematic decomposition of data was done using ATLAS.t.i. software. From the perspective of the CHWs, factors influencing MDA compliance included drug side effects, food supply stability, and conspiracy theories about the "real" purpose of treatment. The interest of CHWs to serve as community drug distributors stemmed from both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Feedback from CHWs can promote more effective MDA in rural Kenyan communities. PMID:23091190

  5. Health-related quality of life and utility scores in people with mental disorders: a comparison with the non-mentally ill general population.

    PubMed

    Prigent, Amélie; Auraaen, Ane; Kamendje-Tchokobou, Blaise; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Chevreul, Karine

    2014-03-01

    There is a lack of comparable health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and utility data across all mental disorders and all inpatient and outpatient settings. Our objective was to investigate the HRQoL and utility scores of people with mental disorders in France, treated in outpatient and inpatient settings, and to identify the HRQoL and utility score losses attributable to mental disorders compared to the non-mentally ill general population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess HRQoL (SF-12) and utility scores of patients with mental disorders and followed in four psychiatric sectors in France. Scores were described by demographic and clinical characteristics and were then adjusted on age and gender and compared with those of the non-mentally ill general population. Median HRQoL and utility scores were significantly lower in patients with mental disorders than in the non-mentally ill general population; median differences amounted to 5.4 for the HRQoL physical score, to 11.8 for the HRQoL mental score and to 0.125 for the utility score. Our findings underscore the negative impact of mental disorders on HRQoL in France and provide a baseline to assess the global impact of current and future organizational changes in the mental health care system. PMID:24608903

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life and Utility Scores in People with Mental Disorders: A Comparison with the Non-Mentally Ill General Population

    PubMed Central

    Prigent, Amélie; Auraaen, Ane; Kamendje-Tchokobou, Blaise; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Chevreul, Karine

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of comparable health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and utility data across all mental disorders and all inpatient and outpatient settings. Our objective was to investigate the HRQoL and utility scores of people with mental disorders in France, treated in outpatient and inpatient settings, and to identify the HRQoL and utility score losses attributable to mental disorders compared to the non-mentally ill general population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess HRQoL (SF-12) and utility scores of patients with mental disorders and followed in four psychiatric sectors in France. Scores were described by demographic and clinical characteristics and were then adjusted on age and gender and compared with those of the non-mentally ill general population. Median HRQoL and utility scores were significantly lower in patients with mental disorders than in the non-mentally ill general population; median differences amounted to 5.4 for the HRQoL physical score, to 11.8 for the HRQoL mental score and to 0.125 for the utility score. Our findings underscore the negative impact of mental disorders on HRQoL in France and provide a baseline to assess the global impact of current and future organizational changes in the mental health care system. PMID:24608903

  7. Changes in cardiovascular health score and atherosclerosis progression in middle-aged and older persons in China: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jingsheng; Bao, Minghui; Liu, Yan; Shi, Jihong; Huang, Zhe; Xing, Aijun; Wang, Yang; An, Shasha; Cai, Jun; Wu, Shouling; Yang, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The American Heart Association (AHA) proposed a definition of 4 cardiovascular health behaviours and 3 health factors. On the basis of the 7 metrics, the cardiovascular health score (CHS) was used to estimate individual-level changes in cardiovascular health status. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in CHS (⊿CHS) at different time-points are associated with atherosclerosis progression in middle-aged and older persons. Design Prospective cohort study in China. Settings We defined 8 groups (≤−4, −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2 and ≥3) according to ⊿CHS. The impact of ⊿CHS on the change of brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (⊿baPWV) and atherosclerosis progression was analysed. Participants A total of 3951 individuals met the inclusion criteria (≥40 years old; no history of stroke, transient ischaemic attack or myocardial infarction) and had complete information. Results ⊿baPWV decreased gradually (126.46±355.91, 78.4±343.81, 69.6±316.27, 49.59±287.57, 57.07±261.17, 40.45±264.27, 37.45±283.26 and 21.66±264.17 cm/s, respectively) with increasing ⊿CHS (p for trend<0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis suggested a negative relationship between these 2 variables, which persisted after adjustment for other risk factors. Each increase in CHS was associated with a reduced baPWV for 15.22 cm/s (B value −15.22, p<0.001). Conclusions ⊿CHS were negatively related to ⊿baPWV, which proved to be an independent predictor of the progression of atherosclerosis in middle-aged and older persons. Trial registration number Kailuan study (ChiCTR-TNC-11001489). PMID:26310397

  8. Transcription Factors Oct-1 and GATA-3 Cooperatively Regulate Th2 Cytokine Gene Expression via the RHS5 within the Th2 Locus Control Region

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kiwan; Kim, Najung; Lee, Gap Ryol

    2016-01-01

    The T helper type 2 (Th2) locus control region (LCR) regulates Th2 cell differentiation. Several transcription factors bind to the LCR to modulate the expression of Th2 cytokine genes, but the molecular mechanisms behind Th2 cytokine gene regulation are incompletely understood. Here, we used database analysis and an oligonucleotide competition/electrophoretic mobility shift assays to search for transcription factors binding to RHS5, a DNase I hypersensitive site (DHS) within the Th2 LCR. Consequently, we demonstrated that GATA-binding protein-3 (GATA-3), E26 transformation-specific protein 1 (Ets-1), octamer transcription factor-1 (Oct-1), and Oct-2 selectively associate with RHS5. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays showed that Oct-1 and Oct-2 bound within the Il4 promoter region and the Th2 LCR, and that Oct-1 and GATA-3 or Oct-2 synergistically triggered the transactivational activity of the Il4 promoter through RHS5. These results suggest that Oct-1 and GATA-3/Oct-2 direct Th2 cytokine gene expression in a cooperative manner. PMID:26840450

  9. Apgar score

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby's: Breathing effort Heart rate Muscle tone Reflexes Skin color Each category is scored with 0, ... scores 2 for muscle tone. Grimace response or reflex irritability is a term describing response to stimulation, ...

  10. Joint health scores in a haemophilia A cohort from Pakistan with minimal or no access to factor VIII concentrate: correlation with thrombin generation and underlying mutation.

    PubMed

    Khanum, F; Bowen, D J; Kerr, B C; Collins, P W

    2014-05-01

    Haemophilia A is associated with recurrent joint bleeding which leads to synovitis and debilitating arthropathy. Coagulation factor VIII level is an important determinant of bleed number and development of arthropathy . The aim of this study was to compare the haemophilia joint health score (HJHS) and Gilbert score with severity, age, thrombin generation (TG) and underlying mutation in a haemophilia A cohort which had minimal access to haemostatic replacement therapy. Ninety-two haemophilia A individuals were recruited from Pakistan. Age, age at first bleed, target joints, haemophilic arthropathy joints, HJHS and Gilbert score were recorded. A strong correlation was found between HJHS and Gilbert score (r = 0.98), both were significantly higher in severe (n = 59) compared with non-severe (n = 29) individuals before the age of 12 years (P ≤ 0.01) but not thereafter. When individuals were divided according to developmental age (<12 years, 12-16 years and >16 years), both HJHS and Gilbert score were significantly lower in the youngest group (P ≤ 0.001), there was no difference between 12-16 years and >16 years. In severe individuals there was no correlation between in vitro TG and joint score, whereas in non-severe individuals there was a weak negative correlation. In the severe group, no significant difference was observed for either joint score according to the underlying mutation type (inversion, missense, nonsense, frameshift). In this cohort of haemophilia A individuals with minimal access to haemostatic treatment, haemophilic arthropathy correlated with severity and age; among severe individuals, joint health scores did not relate to either the underlying mutation or in vitro TG. PMID:24354535

  11. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the association between school-based health center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to…

  12. Bridging the Gap through Academic Intervention Programs: A Quantitative Study of the Efficacy of the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) on Underrepresented Students' State Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Feon M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the quantitative research study was to determine if participation in the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) led to significant differences in the math and reading/language arts scores on the West Virginia Educational Standards Test 2 (WESTEST 2), between students who participated in the program compared to students who…

  13. Health-related quality of life and affective status in liver transplant recipients and patients on the waiting list with low MELD scores

    PubMed Central

    Benzing, Christian; Krezdorn, Nicco; Förster, Julia; Hinz, Andreas; Krenzien, Felix; Atanasov, Georgi; Schmelzle, Moritz; Hau, Hans-Michael; Bartels, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background This study seeks to examine the impact of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and mental health in patients with different MELD scores. Methods Patients who has undergone orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) or were on the waiting list for OLT were submitted to HRQoL and depression/anxiety assessment by questionnaire: Short-Form 36 (SF-36), Questions on Life Satisfaction (FLZ-M), Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4). Data were analysed following division of patients into three groups: pretransplant patients with a MELD score <10, ≥10, and OLT recipients. Results The surveys were sent to 940 consecutive patients within one week in June 2013. Of these 940 patients, 869 (92.4%) met the inclusion criteria. In total, 291 (33.5%) eligible questionnaires (OLT group: 235, MELD <10: 25; MELD _10: 31) were suitable for analysis. General health (GH), vitality (VIT), and mental health (MH) were lower in both pretransplant groups compared to the OLT group (all p < 0.05). Anxiety and depression were higher in the MELD <10 group than in the OLT group (anxiety: p < 0.05; depression: p < 0.01). Discussion Patients with low MELD scores seem to benefit from OLT with regards to HRQoL and mental health. PMID:27154809

  14. Biologic score and mortality based on a 30-year mortality follow-up: radiation effects research foundation adult health study.

    PubMed

    Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Yamada, Michiko; Sasaki, Hideo; Fujita, Shoichiro

    2009-08-01

    This study aimed to test whether scored biologic functions can predict individual life expectancies and to investigate the disease-related and time-related differences in evaluated associations. A biologic score was defined as the first principal component score of the five physiological tests. Study participants were 4,871 people aged 35-74 years at baseline examination in 1970-1972 and followed until the end of 1999. We evaluated the prognostic value of the biologic score by Cox proportional hazard analysis. In all age and sex groups, increasing trends of mortality for all diseases by increment of biologic score were observed after adjustment for potential risk factors. The validity of the biologic score was significant throughout the entire study period. Each disease except cancer showed a significant association with biologic score at baseline examination. In conclusion, the biologic score is a valid predictor of life span in this large-scale prospective study of middle-aged and elderly Japanese. PMID:19435953

  15. Milk Consumption and Framingham Risk Score: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data (2008-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Yang, Sung-Won; Park, Soo-Jung; Choi, Sung-Jin; Song, Byeng Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The benefit of milk intake remains controversial. The association between milk consumption and Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in a population consuming relatively low amounts of dairy products is undetermined. Materials and Methods A total of 13736 adults (5718 male and 8018 female) aged 20-80 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011) were divided into groups according to milk consumption (rarely, monthly, weekly, and daily) and compared according to FRS after relevant variable adjustments. Results The mean FRS in males and females were 6.53 and 5.74, respectively. Males who consumed milk daily (15.9%) had a significantly lower FRS than males having milk rarely (31.6%) or monthly (17.4%; p=0.007). Females who consumed milk daily (22.3%) also had significantly lower FRS than rarely (29.8%), monthly (13.8%), or weekly (34%; p=0.001) consumers. In particular, males ≥60 years old who consumed milk daily had a significantly lower FRS than males who consumed less milk (p<0.001). The odds ratio in this age group showed a significant and gradual increase in the weekly [OR=2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-4.03], monthly (OR=2.29; 95% CI 1.15-4.54), and rarely (OR=3.79; 95% CI 2.01-7.14) milk consumption groups when compared with the daily milk consumption group. Conclusion Milk consumption was associated with a lower FRS in a low milk-consuming population. In particular, daily milk consumption in males over 60 years old may be beneficial for those at risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26632401

  16. Estimating the effectiveness of health-risk communications with propensity-score matching: application to arsenic groundwater contamination in four US locations.

    PubMed

    Leidner, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a demonstration of propensity-score matching estimation methods to evaluate the effectiveness of health-risk communication efforts. This study develops a two-stage regression model to investigate household and respondent characteristics as they contribute to aversion behavior to reduce exposure to arsenic-contaminated groundwater. The aversion activity under study is a household-level point-of-use filtration device. Since the acquisition of arsenic contamination information and the engagement in an aversion activity may be codetermined, a two-stage propensity-score model is developed. In the first stage, the propensity for households to acquire arsenic contamination information is estimated. Then, the propensity scores are used to weight observations in a probit regression on the decision to avert the arsenic-related health risk. Of four potential sources of information, utility, media, friend, or others, information received from a friend appears to be the source of information most associated with aversion behavior. Other statistically significant covariates in the household's decision to avert contamination include reported household income, the presence of children in household, and region-level indicator variables. These findings are primarily illustrative and demonstrate the usefulness of propensity-score methods to estimate health-risk communication effectiveness. They may also be suggestive of areas for future research. PMID:25349622

  17. Estimating the Effectiveness of Health-Risk Communications with Propensity-Score Matching: Application to Arsenic Groundwater Contamination in Four US Locations

    PubMed Central

    Leidner, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a demonstration of propensity-score matching estimation methods to evaluate the effectiveness of health-risk communication efforts. This study develops a two-stage regression model to investigate household and respondent characteristics as they contribute to aversion behavior to reduce exposure to arsenic-contaminated groundwater. The aversion activity under study is a household-level point-of-use filtration device. Since the acquisition of arsenic contamination information and the engagement in an aversion activity may be codetermined, a two-stage propensity-score model is developed. In the first stage, the propensity for households to acquire arsenic contamination information is estimated. Then, the propensity scores are used to weight observations in a probit regression on the decision to avert the arsenic-related health risk. Of four potential sources of information, utility, media, friend, or others, information received from a friend appears to be the source of information most associated with aversion behavior. Other statistically significant covariates in the household's decision to avert contamination include reported household income, the presence of children in household, and region-level indicator variables. These findings are primarily illustrative and demonstrate the usefulness of propensity-score methods to estimate health-risk communication effectiveness. They may also be suggestive of areas for future research. PMID:25349622

  18. Valuing the Child Health Utility 9D: Using profile case best worst scaling methods to develop a new adolescent specific scoring algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Julie; Huynh, Elisabeth; Chen, Gang; Stevens, Katherine; Swait, Joffre; Brazier, John; Sawyer, Michael; Roberts, Rachel; Flynn, Terry

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to the recent proliferation of studies incorporating ordinal methods to generate health state values from adults, to date relatively few studies have utilised ordinal methods to generate health state values from adolescents. This paper reports upon a study to apply profile case best worst scaling methods to derive a new adolescent specific scoring algorithm for the Child Health Utility 9D (CHU9D), a generic preference based instrument that has been specifically designed for the estimation of quality adjusted life years for the economic evaluation of health care treatment and preventive programs targeted at young people. A survey was developed for administration in an on-line format in which consenting community based Australian adolescents aged 11-17 years (N = 1982) indicated the best and worst features of a series of 10 health states derived from the CHU9D descriptive system. The data were analyzed using latent class conditional logit models to estimate values (part worth utilities) for each level of the nine attributes relating to the CHU9D. A marginal utility matrix was then estimated to generate an adolescent-specific scoring algorithm on the full health = 1 and dead = 0 scale required for the calculation of QALYs. It was evident that different decision processes were being used in the best and worst choices. Whilst respondents appeared readily able to choose 'best' attribute levels for the CHU9D health states, a large amount of random variability and indeed different decision rules were evident for the choice of 'worst' attribute levels, to the extent that the best and worst data should not be pooled from the statistical perspective. The optimal adolescent-specific scoring algorithm was therefore derived using data obtained from the best choices only. The study provides important insights into the use of profile case best worst scaling methods to generate health state values with adolescent populations. PMID:27060541

  19. Scored Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, John

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a classroom strategy to help students learn to analyze and discuss significant issues from history and current policy debates. Describes scored discussions in which small groups of students receive points for participation. Provides an example of a discussion on gold mining. Includes an agenda. Explores uses of scored discussions and…

  20. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  1. Performance of the Framingham and SCORE cardiovascular risk prediction functions in a non-diabetic population of a Spanish health care centre: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Lourdes Cañón; Muro, Eloísa Cruces; Herrera, Natalio Díaz; Ochoa, Gerardo Fernández; Hueros, Juan Ignacio Calvo; Buitrago, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyse the 10-year performance of the original Framingham coronary risk function and of the SCORE cardiovascular death risk function in a non-diabetic population of 40–65 years of age served by a Spanish healthcare centre. Also, to estimate the percentage of patients who are candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. Design Longitudinal, observational study of a retrospective cohort followed up for 10 years. Setting Primary care health centre. Patients A total of 608 non-diabetic patients of 40–65 years of age (mean 52.8 years, 56.7% women), without evidence of cardiovascular disease were studied. Main outcome measures Coronary risk at 10 years from the time of their recruitment, using the tables based on the original Framingham function, and of their 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease using the SCORE tables. Results The actual incidence rates of coronary and fatal cardiovascular events were 7.9% and 1.5%, respectively. The original Framingham equation over-predicted risk by 64%, while SCORE function over-predicted risk by 40%, but the SCORE model performed better than the Framingham one for discrimination and calibration statistics. The original Framingham function classified 18.3% of the population as high risk and SCORE 9.2%. The proportions of patients who would be candidates for lipid-lowering therapy were 31.0% and 23.8% according to the original Framingham and SCORE functions, respectively, and 36.8% and 31.2% for antihypertensive therapy. Conclusion The SCORE function showed better values than the original Framingham function for each of the discrimination and calibration statistics. The original Framingham function selected a greater percentage of candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:20873973

  2. Analysis of development levels in the cities of Tehran province regarding health infrastructural index: the strategy of standardized score and Morris’ inequality index

    PubMed Central

    Javani, Ali; Abolhallaje, Masoud; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Rezaee Dehaghi, Hanieh; Nazari, Aslan; Nazari, Hamed; Chatrouz, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the main indexes of development is health index or the degree to which a society enjoys health and therapeutic services. The present study was done with the aim to analyze development levels in cities in Tehran regarding health infrastructural index using the standardized score and Morris’ model. Methods: This is a descriptive and pragmatic study which ranks 14 cities in Tehran province using the standardized score and Morris’ models based on 10 selected health indexes. The required data were gathered using a researcher-made information list and the information gathered from the Statistics Center and Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The data were analyzed using Excel software. Results: The development coefficient in the studied cities varies from 0.595 to -0.379 so that Rey city has the highest level of development and Pishva city has the lowest level of development among the studied cities. The more number of the cities (43%) was among the rather undeveloped group and none of the cities (0%) was in the rather developed group. Conclusion: Regarding the findings, there is a big gap and difference regarding enjoying health and therapeutic infrastructural indexes among the cities in Tehran province. Therefore, it is suggested that development-oriented plans consistentent with development levels should be implemented in these cities. PMID:26913267

  3. Effectiveness of and Factors Related to Possession of a Mother and Child Health Handbook: An Analysis Using Propensity Score Matching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawakatsu, Yoshito; Sugishita, Tomohiko; Oruenjo, Kennedy; Wakhule, Stephen; Kibosia, Kennedy; Were, Eric; Honda, Sumihisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mother and Child Health handbooks (MCH handbooks) serve as useful health education tools for mothers and sources of information that allow health care professionals to understand patient status. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the effectiveness of and identify the factors related to possession of an MCH handbook among parents in…

  4. Health-related quality of life assessed by the effect of bepotastine besilate in patients with pruritus: importance of emotions score in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tamihiro; Kimura, Satoko; Haga, Tsuneo; Doi, Risako; Kyoya, Mikiko; Nakagawa, Keiko; Soma, Yoshinao

    2012-06-01

    The Skindex-16 questionnaire was recently developed as a measure of dermatological health-related quality of life (HRQoL), including symptoms, emotions and functional aspects. Bepotastine besilate is a selective histamine H(1) -receptor antagonist and a second-generation non-sedating antihistamine to treat various dermatological disorders. We assessed changes of the HRQoL instrument (Skindex-16) on patients with pruritus, including those with atopic dermatitis (AD) over bepotastine treatment period. The patients' personal assessment of the intensity of pruritus was determined using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pruritus. Patients answered the Skindex-16 at baseline and at week 4. Forty-eight of 51 enrolled dermatological patients completed the Skindex-16. Of the 48 patients, 11 had AD and 37 had other conditions. Improvement in the clinical evaluation and VAS score was significant in all patients, the AD group and the other disorders group between baseline and week 4. Skindex-16 showed significantly lower scores for each of the three scales (symptoms, emotions and functioning) and the global score at baseline compared to that at week 4 in all patients and the other disorders. In contrast, there was a significant reduction in the emotions and global score among the AD patients. We found a significant correlation between falls in emotions score of Skindex-16 and falls in VAS scores for pruritus in the AD group. Bepotastine could be effective in the management of patients' HRQoL and useful in patients suffering with pruritus. We suggested that pruritus of AD patients could exert a stronger emotional effect due to the skin condition compared to the symptomatic or functional effects. PMID:22035542

  5. How to compare scores from different depression scales: equating the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and the ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR) using Item Response Theory.

    PubMed

    Fischer, H Felix; Tritt, Karin; Klapp, Burghard F; Fliege, Herbert

    2011-12-01

    A wide range of questionnaires for measuring depression are available. Item Response Theory models can help to evaluate the questionnaires exceeding the boundaries of Classical Test Theory and provide an opportunity to equate the questionnaires. In this study after checking for unidimensionality, a General Partial Credit Model was applied to data from two different depression scales [Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR)] obtained in clinical settings from a consecutive sample, including 4517 observations from a total of 2999 inpatients and outpatients of a psychosomatic clinic. The precision of each questionnaire was compared and the model was used to transform scores based on the assumed underlying latent trait. Both instruments were constructed to measure the same construct and their estimates of depression severity are highly correlated. Our analysis showed that the predicted scores provided by the conversion tables are similar to the observed scores in a validation sample. The PHQ-9 and ISR depression scales measure depression severity across a broad range with similar precision. While the PHQ-9 shows advantages in measuring low or high depression severity, the ISR is more parsimonious and also suitable for clinical purposes. Furthermore, the equation tables derived in this study enhance the comparability of studies using either one of the instruments, but due to substantial statistical spread the comparison of individual scores is imprecise. PMID:22021205

  6. A Clinical Scoring Algorithm for Determination of the Risk of Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Adults: A Cohort Study Performed at Ethiopian Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Balcha, T. T.; Skogmar, S.; Sturegård, E.; Schön, T.; Winqvist, N.; Reepalu, A.; Jemal, Z. H.; Tibesso, G.; Björk, J.; Björkman, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background  The World Health Organization (WHO) tuberculosis (TB) symptom screening instrument (WHO-TB) can identify human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals at low risk of tuberculosis (TB); however, many patients report WHO-TB symptoms and require further TB investigations. We hypothesized that further clinical scoring could classify subjects with a positive WHO-TB screening result (WHO-TB+) for the likelihood of TB. Methods  HIV-infected adults eligible to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) were recruited and prospectively followed at 5 Ethiopian health centers. Irrespective of symptoms, all participants underwent sputum bacteriological testing for TB. Symptoms, physical findings, hemoglobin, and CD4 cell count results were compared between subjects with and those without bacteriologically confirmed TB. Variables associated with TB in WHO-TB+ individuals were used to construct a scoring algorithm with multiple logistic regression analysis. Results  Among 812 participants, 137 (16.9%) had TB. One hundred fifty-nine persons (20%) had a negative WHO-TB screen, 10 of whom had TB (negative predictive value [NPV], 94% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 90%–97.5%]). For WHO-TB+ subjects, the following variables were independently associated with TB, and were assigned 1 point each in the clinical scoring algorithm: cough, Karnofsky score ≤80, mid-upper arm circumference <20 cm, lymphadenopathy, and hemoglobin <10 g/dL. Among subjects with 0–1 points, 20 of 255 had TB (NPV, 92% [95% CI, 89%–95%]), vs 19 of 34 participants with ≥4 points (positive predictive value, 56% [95% CI, 39%–73%]). The use of WHO-TB alone identified 159 of 784 (20%) with a low risk of TB, vs 414 of 784 (53%) using WHO-TB followed by clinical scoring (P< .001). The difference in proportions of confirmed TB in these subsets was nonsignificant (6.3% vs 7.2%; P= .69). Conclusions  Clinical scoring can further classify HIV-infected adults with positive WHO-TB screen to

  7. Application of propensity scores to estimate the association between government subsidy and injection use in primary health care institutions in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The problem posed by therapeutic injection is a clinical practice issue that influences health care quality and patient safety. Although sufficient government subsidy was one of the 12 key interventions to promote rational drug use initiated by WHO (World Health Organization), limited information is available about the association between government subsidy and injection use in primary health care institutions. In 2009, National Essential Medicines System (NEMS) was implemented in China. The subsidy policy plays an important role in maintaining primary health care institutions. This study explores the impact of government subsidies on the injection use in primary health care institutions in China. Methods 126 primary health institutions were included in this study. Institutions were divided into two groups (intervention and control groups) according to the median GS (General subsidy per personnel). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to minimize the observed covariate differences in the characteristics of the primary institutions between the two groups. Kappa score was calculated to determine the consistency between the groups. Paired chi-square test and Relative Risk (RR) were calculated to compare the differences in injection use between the groups. Results Among all the investigated prescriptions, the overall percent of people who received an injection prescribed was 36.96% (n = 12600). PSM showed no significant covariate difference among the 34 groups obtained through this analysis. Kappa score (k = −0.082, p = 0.558) indicated an inconsistency between groups and paired chi-square test revealed a significant difference (p < 0.05) in injection use between the two groups. Relative Risk = 0.679 (95%CI [0.485, 0.950]) indicate that high General subsidy per personnel is a protective factor for primary health care institutions to prescribe injections properly. The intervention group obtained a higher possibility of using

  8. Validation of the National Institutes of Health chronic GVHD Oral Mucosal Score using component-specific measures

    PubMed Central

    Bassim, CW; Fassil, H; Mays, JW; Edwards, D; Baird, K; Steinberg, SM; Williams, KM; Cowen, EW; Mitchell, SA; Cole, K; Taylor, T; Avila, D; Zhang, D; Pulanic, D; Grkovic, L; Fowler, D; Gress, RE; Pavletic, SZ

    2016-01-01

    Oral chronic GVHD (cGVHD) is a common, late complication of alloSCT that is associated with significant patient morbidity. The NIH Oral Mucosal Score (NIH OMS) was developed to assess oral cGVHD therapeutic response, but has not been fully validated. This study’s purpose was to conduct a rigorous construct validity and internal consistency analysis of this score and its components (erythema, lichenoid, ulcers, mucoceles) using established measures of oral pain, oral function, oral-related quality-of-life, nutrition and laboratory parameters in 198 patients with cGVHD. The construct validity of the NIH OMS was supported: a moderate correlation was observed between NIH OMS and mouth pain (rho =0.43), while a weaker correlation was observed with low albumin (rho = −0.26). Total NIH OMS, erythema and lichenoid components were associated with malnutrition, oral pain and impaired oral QOL, while ulcers were only associated with oral pain. No associations were found between mucoceles and any indicator evaluated, including salivary function or xerostomia. Kappa determined between scale components was low overall (all ≤0.35), supporting a conclusion that each component measures a distinct manifestation of oral cGVHD. This study supports the use of the NIH OMS and its components (erythema, lichenoid and ulcerations) to measure clinician-reported severity of oral cGVHD. PMID:23995099

  9. The strengths and difficulties questionnaire as a screening instrument for norwegian child and adolescent mental health services, application of UK scoring algorithms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of screening instruments can reduce waiting lists and increase treatment capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) with the original UK scoring algorithms, when used as a screening instrument to detect mental health disorders among patients in the Norwegian Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) North Study. Methods A total of 286 outpatients, aged 5 to 18 years, from the CAMHS North Study were assigned diagnoses based on a Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). The main diagnostic groups (emotional, hyperactivity, conduct and other disorders) were then compared to the SDQ scoring algorithms using two dichotomisation levels: 'possible' and 'probable' levels. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio (ORD) were calculated. Results Sensitivity for the diagnostic categories included was 0.47-0.85 ('probable' dichotomisation level) and 0.81-1.00 ('possible' dichotomisation level). Specificity was 0.52-0.87 ('probable' level) and 0.24-0.58 ('possible' level). The discriminative ability, as measured by ORD, was in the interval for potentially useful tests for hyperactivity disorders and conduct disorders when dichotomised on the 'possible' level. Conclusions The usefulness of the SDQ UK-based scoring algorithms in detecting mental health disorders among patients in the CAMHS North Study is only partly supported in the present study. They seem best suited to identify children and adolescents who do not require further psychiatric evaluation, although this as well is problematic from a clinical point of view. PMID:21992589

  10. Gender differences between WOMAC index scores, health-related quality of life and physical performance in an elderly Taiwanese population with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wen-Hui; Huang, Guo-Shu; Chang, Hsien-Feng; Chen, Ching-Yang; Kang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Chih-Chien; Lin, Chin; Yang, Jia-Hwa; Su, Wen; Kao, SenYeong; Su, Sui-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the importance of the WOMAC index score, health-related quality of life and physical performance in each domain affected by knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to identify gender differences in the importance of these domains and physical performances. Material and methods We performed a population-based study for radiographic knee OA among participants aged more than 65 years. Demographic data were collected and anthropometric measurement, radiographic assessment, the WOMAC index score, the short-form 12 (SF-12), the Timed and Up to Go Test (TUGT) and the Five Times Sit to Stand Test (FTSST) were performed. Result There were 901 individuals (409 males and 492 females) aged 74.04±6.92 (male: 76.35±7.33; female: 72.12±5.92) years included in this study. The WOMAC scores of participants with OA were higher than those without OA in males and females (male: 11.97±15.79 vs 8.23±12.84, p<0.001; female: 10.61±14.97 vs 7.59±3.31, p=0.032). The physical component summary (PCS) score was only significant in females with knee OA (62.14±24.66 vs 66.59±23.85, p=0.043), while the mental component summary (MCS) score was only significant in males with knee OA (78.02±18.59 vs 81.98±15.46, p=0.02). The TUGT and FTSST were not significant in individuals with and without OA in males and females. Moreover, the multivariate results for the WOMAC score were significant for females (3.928 (95% CI 1.287 to 6.569), p=0.004). Conclusions The PCS domains of SF-12 and MCS domains of SF-12 are crucial in Taiwanese females and elderly males, respectively, with knee OA. Different evaluation and treatment strategies based on gender differences should be considered in elderly Taiwanese patients with knee OA to improve their quality of life. PMID:26373405

  11. Nitric oxide and guanylate cyclase signalling are differentially involved in gonadotrophin (LH) release responses to two endogenous GnRHs from goldfish pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Meints, A N; Pemberton, J G; Chang, J P

    2012-08-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity is present in goldfish gonadotrophs. The present study investigated whether two native goldfish gonadotrophin-releasing hormones (GnRHs), salmon (s)GnRH and chicken (c)GnRH-II, use NOS/nitric oxide (NO) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/cyclic (c)GMP/protein kinase G (PKG) signalling to stimulate maturational gonadotrophin [teleost gonadotrophin-II, luteinising hormone (LH)] release. In cell column perifusion experiments with dispersed goldfish pituitary cells, the application of three NOS inhibitors (aminoguanidine hemisulphate, 1400W and 7-nitroindazole) and two NO scavengers [2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) and rutin hydrate] reduced sGnRH-elicited, but not cGnRH-II-induced, LH increases. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) increased NO production in goldfish pituitary cells in static incubation. SNP-stimulated LH release in column perifusion was attenuated by PTIO and the sGC inhibitor 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-oneon (ODQ), and additive to responses elicited by cGnRH-II, but not sGnRH. ODQ and the PKG inhibitor KT5823 decreased sGnRH- and cGnRH-II-stimulated LH release. Similarly, the LH response to dibutyryl cGMP was reduced by KT5823. These results indicate that, although only sGnRH uses the NOS/NO pathway to stimulate LH release, both GnRHs utilise sGC/PKG to increase LH secretion. PMID:22487215

  12. Expression profiles of three types of GnRH during sex-change in the protandrous cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus: Effects of exogenous GnRHs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Na; Shin, Hyun Suk; Habibi, Hamid R; Lee, Jehee; Choi, Cheol Young

    2012-02-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) play pivotal roles in the control of reproduction and gonadal maturation in teleost fish. Fish have multiple GnRH genes that encode structurally distinct peptides. We identified salmon GnRH (sGnRH), seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), and chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) by cDNA cloning in cinnamon clownfish (Amphiprion melanopus) using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR (RACE-PCR). Gene identity was confirmed by sequence alignment and subsequent phylogenetic analyses. We also investigated GnRH mRNA expression in the gonads by quantitative real time-PCR (Q-PCR), and measured plasma estradiol-17β (E(2)) levels in immature fish following treatment with the three molecular forms of GnRHs. The expression levels of sGnRH, sbGnRH, and cGnRH-II mRNA were higher in mature testes and ovaries, as compared to the levels in gonads at earlier stages of maturity. The levels of the three prepro-GnRH mRNA species and the plasma E(2) levels increased after injection of the three GnRH variants. These findings support the hypothesis that GnRH peptides play important roles in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are probably involved in paracrine control of gonadal development and sex change in cinnamon clownfish. PMID:22036613

  13. Development of a Korean Fracture Risk Score (KFRS) for Predicting Osteoporotic Fracture Risk: Analysis of Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun Jin; Park, ByeongJu; Kim, Tae-Young; Shin, Soon-Ae

    2016-01-01

    Background Asian-specific prediction models for estimating individual risk of osteoporotic fractures are rare. We developed a Korean fracture risk prediction model using clinical risk factors and assessed validity of the final model. Methods A total of 718,306 Korean men and women aged 50–90 years were followed for 7 years in a national system-based cohort study. In total, 50% of the subjects were assigned randomly to the development dataset and 50% were assigned to the validation dataset. Clinical risk factors for osteoporotic fracture were assessed at the biennial health check. Data on osteoporotic fractures during the follow-up period were identified by ICD-10 codes and the nationwide database of the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS). Results During the follow-up period, 19,840 osteoporotic fractures were reported (4,889 in men and 14,951 in women) in the development dataset. The assessment tool called the Korean Fracture Risk Score (KFRS) is comprised of a set of nine variables, including age, body mass index, recent fragility fracture, current smoking, high alcohol intake, lack of regular exercise, recent use of oral glucocorticoid, rheumatoid arthritis, and other causes of secondary osteoporosis. The KFRS predicted osteoporotic fractures over the 7 years. This score was validated using an independent dataset. A close relationship with overall fracture rate was observed when we compared the mean predicted scores after applying the KFRS with the observed risks after 7 years within each 10th of predicted risk. Conclusion We developed a Korean specific prediction model for osteoporotic fractures. The KFRS was able to predict risk of fracture in the primary population without bone mineral density testing and is therefore suitable for use in both clinical setting and self-assessment. The website is available at http://www.nhis.or.kr. PMID:27399597

  14. Data Quality in the Human and Environmental Health Sciences: Using Statistical Confidence Scoring to Improve QSAR/QSPR Modeling.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Fabian P; Madden, Judith C; Cronin, Mark T D

    2015-08-24

    A greater number of toxicity data are becoming publicly available allowing for in silico modeling. However, questions often arise as to how to incorporate data quality and how to deal with contradicting data if more than a single datum point is available for the same compound. In this study, two well-known and studied QSAR/QSPR models for skin permeability and aquatic toxicology have been investigated in the context of statistical data quality. In particular, the potential benefits of the incorporation of the statistical Confidence Scoring (CS) approach within modeling and validation. As a result, robust QSAR/QSPR models for the skin permeability coefficient and the toxicity of nonpolar narcotics to Aliivibrio fischeri assay were created. CS-weighted linear regression for training and CS-weighted root-mean-square error (RMSE) for validation were statistically superior compared to standard linear regression and standard RMSE. Strategies are proposed as to how to interpret data with high and low CS, as well as how to deal with large data sets containing multiple entries. PMID:26186603

  15. The Youth Throwing Score

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Christopher S.; Padaki, Ajay S.; Noticewala, Manish Suresh; Makhni, Eric Chugh; Popkin, Charles Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Epidemic levels of shoulder and elbow injuries have been reported in youth and adolescent baseball players. Despite the concerning frequency of these injuries, no instrument has been validated to assess upper extremity injury in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to validate an upper extremity assessment tool specifically designed for youth baseball players. We hypothesize this tool will be reliable, responsive and valid. Methods: The Youth Throwing Score (YTS) was constructed by a multidisciplinary healthcare provider team in addition to baseball coaches as a tool to assess upper extremity injury in 10 to 18 year old baseball players. The instrument was comprised of a demographics section and a 14 item assessment of pain, fatigue and psychosocial health. The 14 items were scored from 1 to 5 and weighted equally, with higher scores reflecting fewer symptoms and less functional disability. The psychometric properties, including the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and responsiveness were calculated. Additionally, the Pearson correlation coefficient to 4 validated outcomes was determined. Results: A pilot form of the instrument was administered to 25 players to assess comprehension and mean item importance. Pilot analysis resulted in none of the 14 items receiving less than a 3 out of 5 mean athlete importance rating and the final instrument read at a Flesch-Kincaid level of 4.1, appropriate for patients age 9 and older. A total of 223 players completed the Youth Throwing Score, with an average player age of 14.3 ± 2.7 years old. The players self-assigned injury status, resulting in an average survey score of 59.7 ± 8.4 for the 148 players ‘playing without pain,’ 42.0 ± 11.5 for the 60 players ‘playing with pain,’ and 40.4 ± 10.5 for the 15 players ‘not playing due to pain.’ Players playing without pain scored significantly higher than those playing with pain (p < .001). The scoring tiers of the Youth

  16. Apgar Scores

    MedlinePlus

    ... 12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School 5-12yrs. Teen 12-18yrs. Young Adult 18-21yrs. Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & ...

  17. Greater Independence in Activities of Daily Living is Associated with Higher Health-Related Quality of Life Scores in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Charice S.; Slaughter, Susan E.; Jones, C. Allyson; Wagg, Adrian S.

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) for nursing home residents is important, however, the concept of quality of life is broad, encompasses many domains and is difficult to assess in people with dementia. Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are measured routinely in nursing homes using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set Version 2.0 (RAI-MDS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) instrument. We examined the relationship between HRQL and ADL to assess the future possibility of ADL dependency level serving as a surrogate measure of HRQL in residents with dementia. To assess ADL, measures derived from the RAI-MDS and FIM data were gathered for 111 residents at the beginning of our study and at 6-month follow-up. Higher scores for independence in ADL were correlated with higher scores for a disease-specific HRQL measure, the Quality of Life—Alzheimer’s Disease Scale. Preliminary evidence suggests that FIM-assessed ADL is associated with HRQL for these residents. The associations of the dressing and toileting items with HRQL were particularly strong. This finding suggests the importance of ADL function in HRQL. The RAI-MDS ADL scales should be used with caution to evaluate HRQL.

  18. Assessing the Impact of School Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California

    PubMed Central

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the association between School-Based Health Center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to reduce bias inherent in non-randomized control studies, was used to select comparison schools. Regression analyses, controlling for proportion of English Language Learners, was conducted for each outcome including: proportion of students participating in three College Board Exams, graduation rates, and meeting University graduation requirements. Findings suggest that SBHC presence is positively associated with college preparation outcomes, but not with academic achievement outcomes (graduation rates or meeting state graduation requirements). Future research must examine underlying mechanisms supporting this association, such as school connectedness. Additional research should explore the role that SBHC staff could have in supporting college preparation efforts. PMID:27009589

  19. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California.

    PubMed

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the association between school-based health center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to reduce bias inherent in nonrandomized control studies, was used to select comparison schools. Regression analyses, controlling for proportion of English-language learners, were conducted for each outcome including proportion of students participating in three College Board exams, graduation rates, and meeting university graduation requirements. Findings suggest that SBHC presence is positively associated with college preparation outcomes but not with academic achievement outcomes (graduation rates or meeting state graduation requirements). Future research must examine underlying mechanisms supporting this association, such as school connectedness. Additional research should explore the role that SBHC staff could have in supporting college preparation efforts. PMID:27009589

  20. Longitudinal Changes in Health-Related Quality of Life Scores in Brazilian Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients (BRAZPD): Socio-economic Status Not a Barrier

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Grincenkov, Fabiane Rossi; Fernandes, Natália; Chaoubah, Alfredo; da Silva Fernandes, Neimar; Bastos, Kleyton; Lopes, Antonio Alberto; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Finkelstein, Fredric O.; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Divino-Filho, José Carolino; Bastos, Marcus Gomes

    2013-01-01

    ♦ Background and Objectives: A large proportion of the patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) in Brazil have low levels of education and family income. The present study assessed whether education level and family income are associated with baseline and longitudinal changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores during the first year of PD therapy. ♦ Methods: We evaluated 1624 incident patients from the Brazilian Peritoneal Dialysis Multicenter Study (BRAZPD) at baseline, and 486 of them after 12 months. The SF-36 was used to determine HRQOL and the Karnofsky index (KI), physical performance. ♦ Results: At baseline, patients received high KI scores compared with scores on the SF-36. The means of the mental and physical components at baseline and after 12 months were 39.9 ± 10.5 compared with 38.7 ± 11.7 and 41.8 ± 9.6 compared with 40.7 ± 9.8 respectively, which were not statistically different. A multivariate regression analysis showed that age, sex, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease were predictors of the mental component (respectively, β = 0.12, p < 0.001; β = 0.11, p < 0.001; β = -0.08, β = 0.007; and β = -0.07, p = 0.007) and that age, sex, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hemoglobin, glucose, and creatinine were predictors of the physical component (respectively, β = -0.28, p < 0.001; β = 0.06, p = 0.009; β = -0.09, p = 0.002; β = -0.09, p = 0.001; β = 0.07, p = 0.004; β = -0.05, p = 0.040; and β = 0.05, p = 0.040). Education level and family income were not significantly associated with HRQOL (mental and physical components) in the multivariate regression. ♦ Conclusions: The results indicate that, as predictors, family income and education level have no impact on HRQOL, supporting the idea that socio-economic status should not be a barrier to the selection of PD as a treatment modality in Brazil. PMID:24335126

  1. Cocoa flavanol intake improves endothelial function and Framingham Risk Score in healthy men and women: a randomised, controlled, double-masked trial: the Flaviola Health Study.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Roberto; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Heuel, Jan; Falk, David; Schuler, Dominik; Wagstaff, Rabea; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Merx, Marc W; Kelm, Malte; Heiss, Christian

    2015-10-28

    Cocoa flavanol (CF) intake improves endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular risk factors and disease. We investigated the effects of CF on surrogate markers of cardiovascular health in low risk, healthy, middle-aged individuals without history, signs or symptoms of CVD. In a 1-month, open-label, one-armed pilot study, bi-daily ingestion of 450 mg of CF led to a time-dependent increase in endothelial function (measured as flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD)) that plateaued after 2 weeks. Subsequently, in a randomised, controlled, double-masked, parallel-group dietary intervention trial (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01799005), 100 healthy, middle-aged (35-60 years) men and women consumed either the CF-containing drink (450 mg) or a nutrient-matched CF-free control bi-daily for 1 month. The primary end point was FMD. Secondary end points included plasma lipids and blood pressure, thus enabling the calculation of Framingham Risk Scores and pulse wave velocity. At 1 month, CF increased FMD over control by 1·2 % (95 % CI 1·0, 1·4 %). CF decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 4·4 mmHg (95 % CI 7·9, 0·9 mmHg) and 3·9 mmHg (95 % CI 6·7, 0·9 mmHg), pulse wave velocity by 0·4 m/s (95 % CI 0·8, 0·04 m/s), total cholesterol by 0·20 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·39, 0·01 mmol/l) and LDL-cholesterol by 0·17 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·32, 0·02 mmol/l), whereas HDL-cholesterol increased by 0·10 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·04, 0·17 mmol/l). By applying the Framingham Risk Score, CF predicted a significant lowering of 10-year risk for CHD, myocardial infarction, CVD, death from CHD and CVD. In healthy individuals, regular CF intake improved accredited cardiovascular surrogates of cardiovascular risk, demonstrating that dietary flavanols have the potential to maintain cardiovascular health even in low-risk subjects. PMID:26348767

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF IRANIAN NURSES ACCORDING TO THEIR MENTAL HEALTH OUTCOMES USING GHQ-12 QUESTIONNAIRE: A COMPARISON BETWEEN LATENT CLASS ANALYSIS AND K-MEANS CLUSTERING WITH TRADITIONAL SCORING METHOD

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nurses constitute the most providers of health care systems. Their mental health can affect the quality of services and patients’ satisfaction. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) is a general screening tool used to detect mental disorders. Scoring method and determining thresholds for this questionnaire are debatable and the cut-off points can vary from sample to sample. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of mental disorders among Iranian nurses using GHQ-12 and also compare Latent Class Analysis (LCA) and K-means clustering with traditional scoring method. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Fars and Bushehr provinces of southern Iran in 2014. Participants were 771 Iranian nurses, who filled out the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Traditional scoring method, LCA and K-means were used to estimate the prevalence of mental disorder among Iranian nurses. Cohen’s kappa statistic was applied to assess the agreement between the LCA and K-means with traditional scoring method of GHQ-12. Results: The nurses with mental disorder by scoring method, LCA and K-mean were 36.3% (n=280), 32.2% (n=248), and 26.5% (n=204), respectively. LCA and logistic regression revealed that the prevalence of mental disorder in females was significantly higher than males. Conclusion: Mental disorder in nurses was in a medium level compared to other people living in Iran. There was a little difference between prevalence of mental disorder estimated by scoring method, K-means and LCA. According to the advantages of LCA than K-means and different results in scoring method, we suggest LCA for classification of Iranian nurses according to their mental health outcomes using GHQ-12 questionnaire PMID:26622202

  3. Sarcopenia is associated with Framingham risk score in the Korean population: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Chae-Hwa; Kang, Kee-Young; Kang, Se-Hun; Bae, Eun-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is a risk factor for metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease, but the association between sarcopenia and cardiovascular risk factors according to age and obesity status in the general population remains unknown. We thus investigated these associations in the Korean population. Methods We included 8,958 and 8,518 subjects from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (from 2010 and 2011, respectively). The study was restricted to participants ≥ 20 years old who had completed the health examination survey, including whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. After exclusion, 7,366 subjects (3,188 men, 4,178 women) were included in our final analysis. Age was categorized according to three age groups (20–39, 40–59, and ≥ 60 years), and subjects were categorized according to their sarcopenic and obesity status. Cardiovascular risk was assessed with Framingham risk score (FRS). Results The sarcopenic obese group had a higher FRS than the non-sarcopenic obese group, which had a higher FRS than the non-sarcopenic non-obese group. Age-wise, the 20–39 year-old group showed a non-significant association between sarcopenia and FRS. In the 40–59 year-old group, regardless of obesity status, sarcopenic subjects had a higher FRS than non-sarcopenic subjects. In the ≥ 60 year-old group, sarcopenic subjects had a higher FRS than non-sarcopenic subjects for the non-obese group. Conclusions Sarcopenia was associated with cardiovascular disease and may be an early predictor of its susceptibility in both elderly and middle-aged subjects. Thus, management of sarcopenia is necessary to prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:26346573

  4. Teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of an urban health sciences curriculum in closing the Black-White test score gap: A participatory case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, Joan Marie

    1999-12-01

    Over the past years, progress in Black academic achievement, particularly in the area of science, has generally slowed or ceased. According to the 1994 NAEP assessment, twelfth-grade Black students are performing at the level of White eighth-grade students in the discipline of science (Department of Education, 1996). These students, in their last year of required schooling, are about to graduate, yet they lag at least four years behind their white counterparts in science achievement. Despite the establishment and implementation of numerous science intervention programs, Black students still suffer from a disparate gap in standardized test score achievement. The purpose of this research is to investigate teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of an urban sciences intervention tool that was designed to assist in narrowing the Black-White science academic achievement gap. Specifically, what factors affect teachers' personal sense of instructional efficacy, and how does this translate into their outcome expectancy for student academic success? A multiple-case, replicative design, grounded in descriptive theory, was selected for the study. Multiple sources of evidence were queried to provide robust findings. These sources included a validated health sciences self-efficacy instrument, an interview protocol, a classroom observation, and a review of archival material that included case study participants' personnel files and meeting minutes. A cross-comparative analytic approach was selected for interpretation (Yin, 1994). Findings indicate that teachers attribute the success or failure of educational intervention tools in closing the Black-White test score gap to a variety of internal and external factors. These factors included a perceived lack of both monetary and personal support by the school leadership, as well as a perceived lack of parental involvement which impacted negatively on student achievement patterns. The case study participants displayed a depressed

  5. Spectroscopical Determination of ground-level concentrations of Reactive Halogen Species (RHS) above salt lakes, salt pans and other areas with high halogen emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holla, Robert; Landwehr, Sebastian; Platt, Ulrich; Kotte, Karsten; Lisitsyna, Linda V.; Mulder, Ines; Emmerich, Maren; Huber, Stefan; Heidak, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Reactive Halogen Species (RHS), especially BrO and IO, are crucial for the photo chemistry of ozone, the oxidation capacity of the troposphere and have an impact on the equilibria of many atmospheric reaction cycles. This also induces a potential influence on the earth's climate. Beside polar regions, volcanoes and the marine boundary layer salt lakes are an important source for reactive halogen species. At the Dead Sea BrO mixing ratios of up to 176 ppt were measured in summer 2001 [Matveev et al., 2001] and IO was identified with maximal mixing ratios of more than 10 ppt by [Zingler and Platt, 2005]. The Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia showed the presence of up to 20 ppt BrO [Hönninger et al., 2004]. Salt pans and salt deserts may be important halogen sources as well. Saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth and might increase in the near future due to desertification as one aspect of the global climate change. Within the scope of the DFG research group HALOPROC a measurement campaign in Southern Russia was performed in August 2009. The ground-level concentrations of BrO, IO, Ozone and other trace gases above the salt lakes El'Ton, Baskuntschak and other local areas were measured using the Multi-AXis-DOAS technique. A further campaign was performed in Mauritania in November/December 2009 in cooperation with the BMBF project SOPRAN. In addition to the above-mentioned measurements the Long-Path DOAS technique was used in order to measure the ground-level concentrations at two different sites: 1. the salt pan Sebkha N'Dramcha and 2. close to a sea weed field at Poste Iwik in a coastal area. We present results from both campaigns concerning the concentrations of bromine oxide (BrO), iodine oxide (IO), ozone (O3)and formaldehyde (HCHO) and give an outlook on possible further campaigns in the future.

  6. A composite scoring of genotypes discriminates coronary heart disease risk beyond conventional risk factors in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Few studies have examined the usefulness of genetic scores to identify subjects at increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Using a genetic predisposition score (GPS), integrating the additive associations of a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with CHD, we examined t...

  7. Mapping health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI) score, pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) onto the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility score with the KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Lin; Kim, Dam; Jang, Eun Jin; Lee, Min-Young; Song, Hyun Jin; Park, Sun-Young; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Won, Soyoung; Bang, So-Young; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Jun, Jae-Bum; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Jong; Koh, Eunmi; Lee, Hwajeong; Lee, Hye-Soon; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Sung Won; Park, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Bo Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the mapping model for EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility values using the health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) in a large, nationwide cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in Korea. The KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data on 3557 patients with RA were used. Data were randomly divided into a modeling set (80 % of the data) and a validation set (20 % of the data). The ordinary least squares (OLS), Tobit, and two-part model methods were employed to construct a model to map to the EQ-5D index. Using a combination of HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28, four model versions were examined. To evaluate the predictive accuracy of the models, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) were calculated using the validation dataset. A model that included HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 produced the highest adjusted R (2) as well as the lowest Akaike information criterion, RMSE, and MAE, regardless of the statistical methods used in modeling set. The mapping equation of the OLS method is given as EQ-5D = 0.95-0.21 × HAQ-DI-0.24 × pain VAS/100-0.01 × DAS28 (adjusted R (2) = 57.6 %, RMSE = 0.1654 and MAE = 0.1222). Also in the validation set, the RMSE and MAE were shown to be the smallest. The model with HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 showed the best performance, and this mapping model enabled the estimation of an EQ-5D value for RA patients in whom utility values have not been measured. PMID:26849891

  8. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and increase of metabolic syndrome score and serum vitamin D levels in Korean adults: 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun; Kim, Gwang Seok; Kim, Sung Gil; Moon, Ae Eun

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score (MSS) and serum vitamin D levels in adults aged 20 or older (n = 5,483) using 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, which represents national data in Korea. Key study results were as follows: First, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels decreased significantly with an increase in MSS (p = 0.004), shown by serum 25(OH)D levels after adjusting the variables (age, gender, BMI, TC, HDL-C, FBS, SBP, and DBP, etc.). These were 17.30 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 0, 17.13 ± 0.15 ng/ml for MSS 1, 17.02 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 2, 16.60 ± 0.20 ng/ml for MSS 3, 16.55 ± 0.28 ng/ml for MSS 4, and 15.52 ± 0.50 ng/ml for MSS 5. Second, after adjusting the related variables, serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower (p = 0.004) in the metabolic syndrome group (16.49 ± 0.19 ng/ml) than the non-metabolic syndrome group (17.16 ± 0.09 ng/ml). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome and the increased levels of its components are inversely associated with the serum vitamin D concentration in Korean adults. PMID:26236105

  9. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and increase of metabolic syndrome score and serum vitamin D levels in Korean adults: 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyun; Kim, Gwang Seok; Kim, Sung Gil; Moon, Ae Eun

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score (MSS) and serum vitamin D levels in adults aged 20 or older (n = 5,483) using 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, which represents national data in Korea. Key study results were as follows: First, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels decreased significantly with an increase in MSS (p = 0.004), shown by serum 25(OH)D levels after adjusting the variables (age, gender, BMI, TC, HDL-C, FBS, SBP, and DBP, etc.). These were 17.30 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 0, 17.13 ± 0.15 ng/ml for MSS 1, 17.02 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 2, 16.60 ± 0.20 ng/ml for MSS 3, 16.55 ± 0.28 ng/ml for MSS 4, and 15.52 ± 0.50 ng/ml for MSS 5. Second, after adjusting the related variables, serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower (p = 0.004) in the metabolic syndrome group (16.49 ± 0.19 ng/ml) than the non-metabolic syndrome group (17.16 ± 0.09 ng/ml). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome and the increased levels of its components are inversely associated with the serum vitamin D concentration in Korean adults. PMID:26236105

  10. Vegetable intake is associated with lower Frammingham risk scores in Korean men: Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2007-2009

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Observational studies suggest that an association between vegetable consumption and coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the results are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate the daily intake of vegetables on a national level and its effect on the risk of CHD risk, as determined by the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted a cross-sectional design of 2,510 male adults 40-64y of age who participated in the 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Daily intake of vegetable was assessed by 24-h recall, and the consumption frequency of vegetables was determined using a food frequency questionnaire. The odd ratio of CHD risk according to daily intake and frequency of vegetables was analyzed. RESULTS Total vegetable intake was inversely and significantly associated with the risk of CHD (Model 1: 4th vs. 1st quartile, OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.96, P for trend = 0.0015), and the significant relationship with CHD risk remained even after adjusting for potential confounders (Model 3: 4th vs. 1st quartile, adjusted OR [aOR] = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49-0.95, P for trend = 0.0492). Subjects in the higher quartiles of non-salted vegetable intake had 31% lower odds of the risk of CHD compared to those in the lowest quartile after adjusting for various potential confounders in model 3 (aOR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.49-0.97, P for trend = 0.0478). No significant associations between the frequency of vegetable intake (total, green, white and red vegetable) and the risk of CHD were found. CONCLUSIONS The major results of this study indicate that higher vegetable intake may help prevent CHD in Korean men. PMID:26865921

  11. Duodenal crypt health following exposure to Cr(VI): Micronucleus scoring, γ-H2AX immunostaining, and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Elbekai, Reem H; Paranjpe, Madhav G; Seiter, Jennifer M; Chappell, Mark A; Tappero, Ryan V; Suh, Mina; Proctor, Deborah M; Bichteler, Anne; Haws, Laurie C; Harris, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    Lifetime exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal damage and an increase in duodenal tumors in B6C3F1 mice. To assess whether these tumors could be the result of a direct mutagenic or genotoxic mode of action, we conducted a GLP-compliant 7-day drinking water study to assess crypt health along the entire length of the duodenum. Mice were exposed to water (vehicle control), 1.4, 21, or 180 ppm Cr(VI) via drinking water for 7 consecutive days. Crypt enterocytes in Swiss roll sections were scored as normal, mitotic, apoptotic, karyorrhectic, or as having micronuclei. A single oral gavage of 50mg/kg cyclophosphamide served as a positive control for micronucleus induction. Exposure to 21 and 180 ppm Cr(VI) significantly increased the number of crypt enterocytes. Micronuclei and γ-H2AX immunostaining were not elevated in the crypts of Cr(VI)-treated mice. In contrast, treatment with cyclophosphamide significantly increased numbers of crypt micronuclei and qualitatively increased γ-H2AX immunostaining. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy revealed the presence of strong Cr fluorescence in duodenal villi, but negligible Cr fluorescence in the crypt compartment. Together, these data indicate that Cr(VI) does not adversely effect the crypt compartment where intestinal stem cells reside, and provide additional evidence that the mode of action for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal cancer in B6C3F1 mice involves chronic villous wounding resulting in compensatory crypt enterocyte hyperplasia. PMID:26232259

  12. The use of weighted health-related Quality of Life scores in people with diabetic macular oedema at baseline in a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, P H; Loftus, J; Starita, C; Stratton, I M

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the relationship between visual acuity in each eye and Quality of Life (QoL) outcomes in people with diabetic macular oedema. Methods Cross sectional retrospective analysis of data collected at baseline in 289 people entered into a randomized clinical trial with diabetic macular oedema which investigated the safety and efficacy of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, pegaptanib sodium. At the baseline visit, visual acuity was measured through refraction and using retro-illuminated modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Log MAR charts, and patient health-related QoL was determined using the European Quality of Life EQ–5D–3L and the Visual Functioning Questionnaire–25 (NEI–VFQ25). A regression analysis with QoL score from each vision-related domain as the dependent variable was fitted using linear and quadratic terms of the better and worse eye, age, gender, adjusted for number of concurrent conditions, ethnicity and level of diabetes control. Results For all vision-related QoL domains from NEI–VFQ25 and EQ–5D–3L except ocular pain, both visual acuity in the better-seeing and the worse-seeing eye gave a significant increase in correlation coefficient over that obtained from clinical and demographic data. The NEI–VFQ25 correlation was most closely associated with a weighted visual acuity measure of 0.75 in the better and 0.25 in the worse eye or 0.60 in the better and 0.40 in the worse eye. Conclusions We recommend that a weighted visual acuity measure from both eyes is considered in future diabetic macular oedema trials. PMID:25251842

  13. Effects of precalving body condition score and prepartum feeding level on production, reproduction, and health parameters in pasture-based transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roche, J R; Meier, S; Heiser, A; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M A; Riboni, M Vailati; Loor, J J; Kay, J K

    2015-10-01

    Precalving feeding level alters postcalving energy balance, dry matter intake, the liver and adipose tissue transcriptome, hepatic lipidosis, and the risk of metabolic diseases in both high-production cows consuming total mixed rations and moderate-production cows grazing pasture. We hypothesized that the reported benefits of a controlled restriction before calving are dependent on precalving body condition score (BCS): low BCS animals would not benefit from reduced feeding levels precalving, but high BCS cows would have metabolic and immunomodulatory profiles indicative of an improved health status. One hundred sixty-one days before calving, 150 cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatment groups (n = 25) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: 2 precalving BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0; based on a 10-point scale: BCS4 and BCS5, respectively) and 3 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75, 100, and 125% of estimated requirements). Cows in the BCS4 and BCS5 groups were managed through late lactation to ensure that target calving BCS was achieved at dry off. Cows were then fed to maintain this BCS target until 3 wk before expected calving date, at which point they were managed within their allotted precalving energy intake treatments by offering different allowances of fresh pasture/cow per day. Milk production, body weight, and BCS were measured weekly; blood was sampled weekly before and after calving and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 relative to calving. Aspirated plasma was assayed for nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, haptoglobin, IL-1β, IL-6, total antioxidant capacity, and reactive oxygen species. Liver was sampled wk 1, 2, and 4 postcalving for triacylglycerol analysis. Results confirm that precalving BCS and precalving feeding level have both independent and interdependent effects on production and health characteristics of transition dairy cows. Irrespective of precalving BCS, a controlled

  14. Using Educational Test Scores To Evaluate Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandiani, John A.; Simon, Monica M.; Banks, Steven M.

    This paper reports on an ongoing effort of the Vermont Mental Health Performance Indicator Project (PIP) to examine the relevance and utility of standardized test scores for evaluating community mental health programs. This analysis is of test scores from Vermont's first four years of statewide testing. The study is examining anonymous…

  15. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Chronic GVHD Staging in Severely Affected Patients: Organ and Global Scoring Correlate with Established Indicators of Disease Severity and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Baird, K.; Steinberg, S.M.; Grkovic, L.; Pulanic, D.; Cowen, E.W.; Mitchell, S.A.; Williams, K.M.; Datiles, M.B.; Bishop, R.; Bassim, C.W.; Mays, J.W.; Edwards, D.; Cole, K.; Avila, D.N.; Taylor, T.; Urban, A.; Joe, G.O.; Comis, L.E.; Berger, A.; Stratton, P.; Zhang, D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Gea-Banacloche, J.C.; Sportes, C.; Fowler, D.H.; Gress, R.E.; Pavletic, S.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Between 2004 and 2010, 189 adult patients were enrolled on the National Cancer Institute (NCI) cross-sectional chronic Graft-versus-Host disease (cGVHD) natural history study. Patients were evaluated by multiple disease scales and outcome measures including the 2005 NIH Consensus Project cGVHD severity score. The purpose of this study is to assess the validity of the NIH scoring variables as determinants of disease severity in severely affected patients in order to standardize clinician evaluation and staging of cGVHD. 125 of 189 patients met criteria for severe cGVHD on the NIH global score and 62 had moderate disease, with a median of 4 (range 1–8) involved organs. Clinician average NIH organ score and the corresponding organ scores performed by subspecialists were highly correlated (r=0.64). NIH global severity scores showed significant associations with nearly all functional and quality of life outcome measures including Lee Scale, SF-36 Physical Component Scale (PCS), 2 minutes walk, grip strength, range of motion and Human Activity Profile (HAP). Joints/fascia, skin, and lung involvement impacted function and quality of life most significantly and showed highest number of correlations with outcome measures. The final Cox model showing factors jointly predictive for survival contained the time from cGVHD diagnosis (>49 vs. ≤49 months, HR=0.23; p=0.0011), absolute eosinophil count of (0–0.5 vs. >0.5 cells/µL, HR=3.95; p=0.0006) at the time of NIH evaluation, and NIH lung score (3 vs. 0–2, HR=11.02; p <0.0001). These results demonstrate that NIH organs and global severity scores are reliable measures of cGVHD disease burden. Strong association with subspecialist evaluation suggests that NIH organs and global severity scores are appropriate for clinical and research assessments, and may serve as a surrogate for more complex sub-specialist exams. In this population of severely affected patients, NIH lung score is the strongest predictor of poor overall

  16. In early returns scoring scores big.

    PubMed

    Butman, Samuel M

    2016-07-01

    A scoring or cutting balloon is always useful in preventing slippage during therapy of in-stent restenosis. A drug-coated scoring balloon for in-stent restenosis may be an alternative to a drug-coated balloon Definitive comparison trials are needed and likely to help define their exact role in patients with in-stent restenosis. PMID:27400636

  17. The UPA score and teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Garlick, R; Ineichen, B; Hudson, F

    1993-03-01

    Teenage motherhood is often said to be the result of deficient contraceptive and abortion services. Using data from the Public Health Common Data Set (PH CDS) we demonstrate two important effects in a Regional Health Authority: higher rates of conception are related to a live birth rather than an abortion pregnancy outcome; District Health Authorities (DHAs) with high underprivileged area scores (UPA) are more likely to have high rates of conception in the teenage years than those districts with low scores. PMID:8480012

  18. A composite scoring of genotypes discriminates coronary heart disesase risk beyond conventional risk factors in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and aims: Using a genetic predisposition score (GPS), integrating the additive associations of a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with CHD, we examined the consequences of the joint presence of a high GPS and conventional risk factors (CRFs). Methods and results: We studied...

  19. Reliability of a Retail Food Store Survey and Development of an Accompanying Retail Scoring System to Communicate Survey Findings and Identify Vendors for Healthful Food and Marketing Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Participants/Setting: Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Intervention: Observational. Main Outcome Measure(s): Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store…

  20. The Effect of a Health Communication Campaign on Compliance with Mass Drug Administration for Schistosomiasis Control in Western Kenya—The SCORE Project

    PubMed Central

    Omedo, Martin; Ogutu, Michael; Awiti, Alphonce; Musuva, Rosemary; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Montgomery, Susan P.; Secor, W. Evan; Mwinzi, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Compliance with mass drug administration (MDA) can be affected by rumors and mistrust about the drug. Communication campaigns are an effective way to influence attitudes and health behaviors in diverse public health contexts, but there is very little documentation about experiences using health communications in schistosomiasis control programs. A qualitative study was conducted with community health workers (CHWs) as informants to explore the effect of a health communication campaign on their experiences during subsequent praziquantel MDA for schistosomiasis. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated into English where applicable, and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti software. According to the CHWs, exposure to mass media messages improved awareness of the MDA, which in turn, led to better treatment compliance. Our findings suggest that communication campaigns influence health behaviors and create awareness of schistosomiasis control interventions, which may ultimately improve praziquantel MDA. PMID:25246690

  1. The Apgar Score.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions. PMID:26416932

  2. Comparison of clinical symptoms scored according to the National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptoms index and assessment of antimicrobial treatment in patients with chronic prostatitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Skerk, Visnja; Roglić, S; Cajić, V; Markotić, A; Radonić, A; Skerk, Vedrana; Granić, J; Zidovec-Lepej, S; Parazajder, J; Begovac, J

    2009-04-01

    We examined a total of 194 patients over 18 years of age with chronic prostatitis syndrome and no evidence of structural or functional lower genitourinary tract abnormalities. The following data were obtained for each patient: clinical history--the severity of chronic prostatitis symptoms scored by a Croatian translation of the NiH CPSI questionnaire, clinical status including digitorectal examination, urethral swab specimens, and selective samples of urine and expressed prostatic secretion, according to the 4-glass localization test (meares and Stamey localization technique). Patients were treated orally with antimicrobial agents in doses and duration according to clinical practice in Croatia. An infectious etiology was determined in 169 (87%) patients. Chlamydia trachomatis was the causative pathogen in 38 (20%), Trichomonas vaginalis in 35 (18%), Enterococcus in 36 (19%) and Escherichia coli in 35 (18%) patients. In the remaining 25 patients the following causative pathogens were found: Ureaplasma urealyticum, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Comparison of symptoms scores and effect on quality of life has shown that the most severe clinical presentation of disease was recorded in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis caused by E. coli and Enterococcus (p<0.001). Clinical success was paralleled by bacteriological eradication in chronic bacterial prostatitis caused by C. trachomatis, Enterococcus and E. coli (kappa >0.2<0.5), but not in inflammatory chronic pelvic pain syndrome caused by T. vaginalis. PMID:19423471

  3. Food variety score is associated with dual burden of malnutrition in Orang Asli (Malaysian indigenous peoples) households: implications for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Saibul, Nurfaizah; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Ghani, Nawalyah Abdul; Rahman, Hejar Abdul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the presence of dual burden households in Orang Asli (OA, indigenous people) communities and its associated factors. A total of 182 OA households in two districts in Selangor with the required criteria (182 non-pregnant women of child bearing age and 284 children aged 2-9 years old) participated in the study. Height and weight of both women and children were measured. Energy intake and food variety score (FVS) were determined using three 24-hour diet recalls. While 58% were underweight and 64% of the children were stunted, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women were 31% and 20% respectively. The percentage of dual burden households (overweight mother/underweight child) was 25.8% while 14.8% households had normal weight mother/normal weight child. The mean food variety score (FVS) was similar for women (7.0+/-2.1) and children (6.9+/-1.9). Dual burden households were associated with women's employment status (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 2.65-5.66), FVS of children (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.95) and FVS of women (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.02- 1.89). The FVS of children (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.89) and women (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.64-2.77) remained significant even when dual burden households were compared to only households with normal weight mother/normal weight child. In these OA communities, food variety may predict a healthier diet in children, but may increase the risk of overweight and obesity in adults. Efforts to address households with dual burden malnutrition should consider promotion of healthy diets and lifestyle for all members. PMID:19786390

  4. Home Energy Score

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The Home Energy Score allows a homeowner to compare her or his home's energy consumption to that of other homes, similar to a vehicle's mile-per-gallon rating. A home energy assessor will collect energy information during a brief home walk-through and then score that home on a scale of 1 to 10.

  5. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  6. Comparing Self-Rated Health, Satisfaction and Quality of Life Scores between Diabetics and Others Living in the Bella Coola Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Angela; Thommasen, Harvey V.; Tildesley, Hugh; Michalos, Alex C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relative effect that diabetes has on self-rated health, satisfaction with various specific domains of life, and satisfaction with quality of life operationalized as happiness, satisfaction with life as a whole, and satisfaction with overall quality of life. Design: Mixed methods--mailed survey and chart review. Study…

  7. A Comparison of Methamphetamine Users to a Matched NHANES Cohort: Propensity Score Analyses for Oral Health Care and Dental Service Need

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Debra A.; Harrell, Lauren; Fintzy, Rachel; Belin, Thomas R.; Gutierrez, Alexis; Vitero, Steven J.; Shetty, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Dental problems are among the most frequently reported health issues of drug users. This study describes, among the largest population of methamphetamine (MA) users to date (N = 459, including both HIV-negative and HIV-positive participants): oral hygiene practice, dental care access, and dental quality of life. A matched control group from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was utilized. Findings conclusively establish that MA users have severe oral health deficits compared to the general population: they are 3.5 times more likely to experience painful toothaches, 6.6 times to experience difficulty eating, and 8.6 times to be self-conscious due to dental appearance. HIV-positive users were more likely to have regular dental visits than HIV-negative users. Severity of use (both high frequency use as well as injection as the method) was associated with poorer oral health care. Despite the magnitude of the need, few MA users receive the needed care. PMID:25398257

  8. Reporting Valid and Reliable Overall Scores and Domain Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2010-01-01

    In educational assessment, overall scores obtained by simply averaging a number of domain scores are sometimes reported. However, simply averaging the domain scores ignores the fact that different domains have different score points, that scores from those domains are related, and that at different score points the relationship between overall…

  9. Well-being and employee health-how employees' well-being scores interact with demographic factors to influence risk of hospitalization or an emergency room visit.

    PubMed

    Gandy, William M; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Rula, Elizabeth Y

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between individual well-being and risk of a hospital event in the subsequent year. The authors hypothesized an inverse relationship in which low well-being predicts higher likelihood of hospital use. The study specifically sought to understand how well-being segments and demographic variables interact in defining risk of a hospital event (inpatient admission or emergency room visit) in an employed population. A retrospective study design was conducted with data from 8835 employees who completed a Well-Being Assessment questionnaire based on the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the impact of Individual Well-Being Score (IWBS) segments and member demographics on hazard ratios (HRs) for a hospital event during the 12 months following assessment completion. Significant main effects were found for the influence of IWBS segments, sex, education, and relationship status on HRs of a hospital event, but not for age. However, further analysis revealed significant interactions between age and IWBS segments (P=0.005) and between age and sex (P<0.0001), indicating that the effects for IWBS segments and sex on HRs of a hospital event are mediated through their relationship with age. Overall, the strong relationship between low well-being and higher risk of an event in employees ages 44 years and older is mitigated in younger age groups. These results suggest that youth attenuates the risk engendered in poor well-being; therefore, methods to maintain or improve well-being as individuals age presents a strong opportunity for reducing hospital events. PMID:23560493

  10. Nutrient Density Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.

    1979-01-01

    Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)

  11. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  12. Does Future Diabetes Risk Impair Current Quality of Life? A Cross-Sectional Study of Health-Related Quality of Life in Relation to the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC)

    PubMed Central

    Väätäinen, Saku; Cederberg, Henna; Roine, Risto; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Saramies, Jouko; Uusitalo, Hannu; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Martikainen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Present study examines the relationship between the estimated risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We quantify the association between Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and HRQoL, and examine the potential use of FINDRISC as tool to evaluate HRQoL indirectly. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study comprising 707 Finnish people without a diagnosis of T2D between the ages of 51 and 75 years. The risk of developing T2D was assessed using the validated and widely used FINDRISC (range 0–26 points), and quality of life was measured using two preference-based HRQoL instruments (15D and SF-6D) and one health profile instrument (SF-36). Effects of the individual FINDRISC items and demographic and clinical characteristics, such as co-morbidities, on HRQoL were studied using multivariable Tobit regression models. Results Low HRQoL was significantly and directly associated with the estimated risk of developing T2D. An approximate 4–5 point change in FINDRISC score was observed to be associated with clinically noticeable changes in the preference-based instrument HRQoL index scores. The association between HRQoL and the risk of developing T2D was also observed for most dimensions of HRQoL in all applied HRQoL instruments. Overall, old age, lack of physical activity, obesity, and history of high blood glucose were the FINDRISC factors most prominently associated with lower HRQoL. Conclusions The findings may help the health care professionals to substantiate the possible improvement in glucose metabolism and HRQoL potentially achieved by lifestyle changes, and better convince people at high risk of T2D to take action towards healthier lifestyle habits. FINDRISC may also provide an accurate proxy for HRQoL, and thus by estimating the risk of T2D with the FINDRISC, information about patients’ HRQoL may also be obtained indirectly, when it is not feasible to use HRQoL instruments. PMID:26840374

  13. Pronuclear scoring. Time for international standardization.

    PubMed

    Zollner, Ursula; Zollner, Klaus-Peter; Steck, Thomas; Dietl, Johannes

    2003-05-01

    Zygote scoring is an efficient tool for embryo selection not only in countries where embryo selection is not permitted. Several different scoring systems have been published so far, making comparisons of assessments between investigators and laboratories extremely difficult. Pronuclear evaluation should be standardized in a manner analogous to the standardization of cleavage stage embryo scoring or of semen evaluation by the World Health Organization. The ideal score should be clear and easily applicable. The items that have the greatest influence on embryonic development seem to be alignment and size of pronuclei, alignment and number of nucleoli, halo effect and appearance of vacuoles. These morphologic parameters can be observed in different features and can be summarized as a zygote score. PMID:12815911

  14. Methods for Constructing and Assessing Propensity Scores

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Melissa M; Kelley, Amy S; Paris, Julia; Roza, Katherine; Meier, Diane E; Morrison, R Sean; Aldridge, Melissa D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To model the steps involved in preparing for and carrying out propensity score analyses by providing step-by-step guidance and Stata code applied to an empirical dataset. Study Design Guidance, Stata code, and empirical examples are given to illustrate (1) the process of choosing variables to include in the propensity score; (2) balance of propensity score across treatment and comparison groups; (3) balance of covariates across treatment and comparison groups within blocks of the propensity score; (4) choice of matching and weighting strategies; (5) balance of covariates after matching or weighting the sample; and (6) interpretation of treatment effect estimates. Empirical Application We use data from the Palliative Care for Cancer Patients (PC4C) study, a multisite observational study of the effect of inpatient palliative care on patient health outcomes and health services use, to illustrate the development and use of a propensity score. Conclusions Propensity scores are one useful tool for accounting for observed differences between treated and comparison groups. Careful testing of propensity scores is required before using them to estimate treatment effects. PMID:24779867

  15. Iron/folic acid supplementation during pregnancy prevents neonatal and under-five mortality in Pakistan: propensity score matched sample from two Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir B.; Dibley, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Several epidemiological studies from low- and middle-income countries have reported a protective effect of maternal antenatal iron/folic acid (IFA) on childhood mortality. Objective The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of maternal antenatal IFA supplementation on childhood mortality in Pakistan. Design A propensity score–matched sample of 8,512 infants live-born within the 5 years prior to interview was selected from the pooled data of two Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (2006/07 and 2012/13). The primary outcomes were childhood mortality indicators and the main exposure variable was maternal antenatal IFA supplementation. Post-matched analyses used Cox proportional hazards regression and adjusted for 16 potential confounders. Results Maternal antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the adjusted risk of death on day 0 by 33% [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=0.67, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.48–0.94], during the neonatal period by 29% (aHR=0.71, 95% CI 0.57–0.88), and for under-fives by 27% (aHR=0.73, 95% CI 0.60–0.89). When IFA was initiated in the first 4 months of pregnancy, the adjusted risk of neonatal and under-five deaths was significantly reduced by 35 and 33%, respectively. Twenty percent of under-five deaths were attributable to non-initiation of IFA in the first 4 months of pregnancy. With universal initiation of IFA in the first 4 months of pregnancy, 80,300 under-five deaths could be prevented annually in Pakistan. Conclusions Maternal antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced neonatal and under-five deaths in Pakistan. Earlier initiation of supplements in pregnancy was associated with a greater prevention of neonatal and under-five deaths. PMID:26873178

  16. Walk Score®

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Scott C.; Pantin, Hilda; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Barrera-Allen, Lloyd; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    Background Walk Score® is a nationally and publicly available metric of neighborhood walkability based on proximity to amenities (e.g., retail, food, schools). However, few studies have examined the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior. Purpose To examine the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who overwhelmingly report little choice in their selection of neighborhood built environments when they arrive in the U.S. Methods Participants were 391 recent healthy Cuban immigrants (M age=37.1 years) recruited within 90 days of arrival in the U.S., and assessed within 4 months of arrival (M=41.0 days in the U.S.), who resided throughout Miami-Dade County FL. Data on participants’ addresses, walking and sociodemographics were collected prospectively from 2008 to 2010. Analyses conducted in 2011 examined the relationship of Walk Score for each participant’s residential address in the U.S. to purposive walking, controlling for age, gender, education, BMI, days in the U.S., and habitual physical activity level in Cuba. Results For each 10-point increase in Walk Score, adjusting for covariates, there was a significant 19% increase in the likelihood of purposive walking, a 26% increase in the likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations by walking, and 27% more minutes walked in the previous week. Conclusions Results suggest that Walk Score is associated with walking in a sample of recent immigrants who initially had little choice in where they lived in the U.S. These results support existing guidelines indicating that mixed land use (such as parks and restaurants near homes) should be included when designing walkable communities. PMID:23867028

  17. Diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score, and health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Dietary patterns consider synergistic effects compared with isolated foods or nutrients on health outcomes. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the associations of diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score and the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality or incidence, cancer mortality or incidence, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and neurodegenerative diseases. A literature search was performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and EMBASE with an end date of May 10, 2014. Study-specific risk ratios were pooled using a random effect model by the Cochrane software package Review Manager 5.2. Fifteen cohort studies (34 reports), including 1,020,642 subjects, met the criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Diets of the highest quality, as assessed by the HEI, AHEI, and DASH score, resulted in a significant risk reduction (RR) for all-cause mortality (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.80; P<0.00001; I²=61%, 95% CI 20% to 81%), cardiovascular disease (incidence or mortality) (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.81; P<0.00001; I²=45%, 95% CI 13% to 66%), cancer (incidence or mortality) (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.88; P<0.00001; I²=77%, 95% CI 68% to 84%), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.85; P<0.00001; I²=74%, 95% CI 52% to 86%). Differences observed for neurodegenerative diseases were not significant. Egger regression tests provided no evidence of publication bias. Diets that score highly on the HEI, AHEI, and DASH are associated with a significant reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes mellitus by 22%, 22%, 15%, and 22%, respectively, and therefore is of high public health relevance. PMID:25680825

  18. Time to Definitive Health-Related Quality of Life Score Deterioration in Patients with Resectable Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Treated with FOLFOX4 versus Sequential Dose-Dense FOLFOX7 followed by FOLFIRI: The MIROX Randomized Phase III Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hamidou, Zeinab; Chibaudel, Benoist; Hebbar, Mohamed; Hug de Larauze, Marine; André, Thierry; Louvet, Christophe; Brusquant, David; Garcia-Larnicol, Marie-Line; de Gramont, Aimery; Bonnetain, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We previously showed that a sequential chemotherapy with dose-dense oxaliplatin (FOLFOX7) and irinotecan (FOLFIRI; irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin) is not superior to FOLFOX4 in patients at advanced stage of colorectal cancer with liver metastases. Here we aimed to determine whether time to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) score definitive deterioration (TUDD) differs by study arm. Methods HRQoL was evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 at baseline and every 4 cycles until the end of the study or death. Functional scale, symptom scale, global health status, and financial difficulties were analyzed. The TUDD was defined as the time interval between randomization and the first decrease in HRQoL score ≥ 5-point with no further improvement in HRQoL score ≥ 5 points or any further HRQoL data. TUDD was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the long-rank test. Cox regression analyses were used to identify HRQoL items influencing TUDD. Sensitivity analyses were done using a multiple imputation method and different definitions of TUDD. Results Of the 284 patients, 171 (60.2%) completed HRQoL questionnaires. Cox multivariate analysis showed no statistically significant difference in TUDD for most of the QLQ-C30 scales between treatments. Patients with dyspnea and those without symptoms at baseline had a significantly longer TUDD when there was a delay >12 months between diagnosis of the primary tumor and metastases (HR 0.48 [0.26–0.89]) and when there was diarrhea (HR 0.59 [0.36–0.96]), respectively. Conclusion This study shows that TUDD does not differ significantly according to type of treatment. The TUDD method produces meaningful longitudinal HRQoL results that may facilitate effective clinical decision making in patients with mCRC. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00268398 PMID:27310205

  19. Scoring from Contests

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Elizabeth Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new model for scoring alternatives from “contest” outcomes. The model is a generalization of the method of paired comparison to accommodate comparisons between arbitrarily sized sets of alternatives in which outcomes are any division of a fixed prize. Our approach is also applicable to contests between varying quantities of alternatives. We prove that under a reasonable condition on the comparability of alternatives, there exists a unique collection of scores that produces accurate estimates of the overall performance of each alternative and satisfies a well-known axiom regarding choice probabilities. We apply the method to several problems in which varying choice sets and continuous outcomes may create problems for standard scoring methods. These problems include measuring centrality in network data and the scoring of political candidates via a “feeling thermometer.” In the latter case, we also use the method to uncover and solve a potential difficulty with common methods of rescaling thermometer data to account for issues of interpersonal comparability. PMID:24748759

  20. Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…

  1. Developing Scoring Algorithms

    Cancer.gov

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  2. Syncopation and the Score

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chunyang; Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Harte, Christopher A.; Pearce, Marcus T.; Sandler, Mark B.

    2013-01-01

    The score is a symbolic encoding that describes a piece of music, written according to the conventions of music theory, which must be rendered as sound (e.g., by a performer) before it may be perceived as music by the listener. In this paper we provide a step towards unifying music theory with music perception in terms of the relationship between notated rhythm (i.e., the score) and perceived syncopation. In our experiments we evaluated this relationship by manipulating the score, rendering it as sound and eliciting subjective judgments of syncopation. We used a metronome to provide explicit cues to the prevailing rhythmic structure (as defined in the time signature). Three-bar scores with time signatures of 4/4 and 6/8 were constructed using repeated one-bar rhythm-patterns, with each pattern built from basic half-bar rhythm-components. Our manipulations gave rise to various rhythmic structures, including polyrhythms and rhythms with missing strong- and/or down-beats. Listeners (N = 10) were asked to rate the degree of syncopation they perceived in response to a rendering of each score. We observed higher degrees of syncopation in time signatures of 6/8, for polyrhythms, and for rhythms featuring a missing down-beat. We also found that the location of a rhythm-component within the bar has a significant effect on perceived syncopation. Our findings provide new insight into models of syncopation and point the way towards areas in which the models may be improved. PMID:24040323

  3. The Relation between Factor Score Estimates, Image Scores, and Principal Component Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)

  4. Gender differences in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress among married adults: A propensity score-matched analysis from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the gender-specific associations between cohabitation with parents and stress using an econometric approach. A total of 13,565 (41.7% men and 58.3% women) Korean adults aged 20-59 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008 to 2011 were pooled. They reported their gender, age, marital status, education level, employment status, income, home ownership, and cohabitation status with their parents. The association of living with parents and stress, as well as the gender difference in the association, was investigated using propensity score matching and the average treatment effect on the treated. Adults with higher education and income, not owning a house, or living in larger cities were less likely to live with parents. Stress was associated with having children and participating in the labor market for both married men and women. Moreover, living with parents was a protective factor for stress among husbands, but a risk factor for wives in Korea. Gender differences existed in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress. Greater stress was related to cohabiting with parents and working for married women. PMID:26211934

  5. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2007-01-01

    The current research was conducted to investigate the validity of automated essay scoring (AES) by comparing group mean scores assigned by an AES tool, IntelliMetric [TM] and human raters. Data collection included administering the Texas version of the WriterPlacer "Plus" test and obtaining scores assigned by IntelliMetric [TM] and by human…

  6. Maxillofacial trauma scoring systems.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Vaibhav

    2016-07-01

    The changing complexity of maxillofacial fractures in recent years has created a situation where classical systems of classification of maxillofacial injuries fall short of defining trauma particularly that observed with high-velocity collisions where more than one region of the maxillofacial skeleton is affected. Trauma scoring systems designed specifically for the maxillofacial region are aimed to provide a more accurate assessment of the injury, its prognosis, the possible treatment outcomes, economics, length of hospital stay, and triage. The evolution and logic of such systems along with their merits and demerits are discussed. The author also proposes a new system to aid users in quickly and methodically choosing the system best suited to their needs without having to study a plethora of literature available in order to isolate their choice. PMID:26971084

  7. Fingerprinting of music scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Jonathan; Schmucker, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Publishers of sheet music are generally reluctant in distributing their content via the Internet. Although online sheet music distribution's advantages are numerous the potential risk of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) infringement, e.g. illegal online distributions, disables any innovation propensity. While active protection techniques only deter external risk factors, additional technology is necessary to adequately treat further risk factors. For several media types including music scores watermarking technology has been developed, which ebeds information in data by suitable data modifications. Furthermore, fingerprinting or perceptual hasing methods have been developed and are being applied especially for audio. These methods allow the identification of content without prior modifications. In this article we motivate the development of watermarking and fingerprinting technologies for sheet music. Outgoing from potential limitations of watermarking methods we explain why fingerprinting methods are important for sheet music and address potential applications. Finally we introduce a condept for fingerprinting of sheet music.

  8. Olympic Scoring of English Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; Panther, Edward

    1974-01-01

    Examines empirically the efficacy of utilizing Olympic diving and gymnastic scoring systems for grading graduate students' English compositions. Results indicated that such scoring rules do not produce ratings different in reliability or in level from conventional letter grades. (ED)

  9. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  10. Association of dietary diversity score with anxiety in women.

    PubMed

    Poorrezaeian, Mina; Siassi, Fereydoun; Qorbani, Mostafa; Karimi, Javad; Koohdani, Fariba; Asayesh, Hamid; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2015-12-15

    Evidence suggests that diet plays an important role in the development of mental disorders, especially anxiety. Dietary diversity score is an indicator for assessing diet quality. However, its association with anxiety has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the association of dietary diversity score with anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 women attending health centers in the south of Tehran in 2014. General information among others were collected. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Dietary intake and anxiety score were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) questionnaires, respectively. Dietary diversity score was computed according to the guidelines of FAO. About 35% of the participants were found to exhibit anxiety. The dietary diversity score in 12.5% of the subjects were between 1 and 3 (low dietary diversity score) but 87.5% scored between 4 and 7 (high dietary diversity score). The adjusted mean of anxiety score in subjects with high dietary diversity score was significantly lower than those with low dietary diversity score. Dietary diversity score was found to be inversely associated with anxiety. However, the causality between anxiety and dietary diversity could not be determined. PMID:26506017

  11. Prepartum concentrate supplementation of a diet based on medium-quality grass silage: Effects on performance, health, fertility, metabolic function, and immune function of low body condition score cows.

    PubMed

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Welsh, M D; Barley, J; Meade, K G; Ferris, C P

    2016-09-01

    When cows with a "higher" body condition score (BCS) are oversupplied with energy during the dry period, postpartum energy balance is normally reduced, which can have a detrimental effect on immune competence and increase the infectious disease risk. However, within grassland-based systems higher yielding cows frequently have a low BCS at drying off. The effects on performance, health, and metabolic and immune functions of providing additional energy to cows with low BCS during the dry period is less certain. To address this uncertainty, 53 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (mean BCS of 2.5; 1-5 scale) were allocated to 1 of 2 treatments at dry-off: silage only or silage plus concentrates. Cows on the silage-only treatment were offered ad libitum access to medium-quality grass silage. Cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment were offered ad libitum access to a mixed ration comprising the same grass silage plus concentrates [in a 75:25 dry matter (DM) ratio], which provided a mean concentrate DM intake of 3.0kg/cow per day. Postpartum, cows were offered a common mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (in a 40:60 DM ratio) for a 70-d period. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased DM intake, tended to increase energy balance, and increased body weight (BW) and BCS gain prepartum. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased BW and BCS loss postpartum and tended to increase milk fat percentage and serum nonesterified fatty acid concentration, but it did not affect postpartum DM intake, energy balance, and milk yield. Although the percentage of phagocytosis-positive neutrophils did not differ, neutrophils from cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment had higher phagocytic fluorescence intensity at 1 and 2 wk postpartum and higher phagocytic index at 1 wk postpartum. Serum haptoglobin concentrations and IFN-γ production by pokeweed mitogen stimulated whole blood culture were unaffected by treatment, although haptoglobin

  12. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

  13. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    PubMed

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

  14. ECRHS Screening Questionnaire Scoring: A Methodological Suggestion for Asthma Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biino, G.; Rezzani, C.; Grassi, M.; Marinoni, A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the unidimensionality of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) screening questionnaire and determined and validated a scoring of asthma-like symptoms seriousness. Data from 6,946 adults at 3 Italian screening centers found a single dimension underlying the screening questionnaire. A scoring of asthma-like symptoms…

  15. Beyond Statistics: The Economic Content of Risk Scores

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Kluender, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    “Big data” and statistical techniques to score potential transactions have transformed insurance and credit markets. In this paper, we observe that these widely-used statistical scores summarize a much richer heterogeneity, and may be endogenous to the context in which they get applied. We demonstrate this point empirically using data from Medicare Part D, showing that risk scores confound underlying health and endogenous spending response to insurance. We then illustrate theoretically that when individuals have heterogeneous behavioral responses to contracts, strategic incentives for cream skimming can still exist, even in the presence of “perfect” risk scoring under a given contract. PMID:27429712

  16. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to analyze the relationship between automated essay scoring (AES) and human scoring in order to determine the validity and usefulness of AES for large-scale placement tests. Specifically, a correlational research design was used to examine the correlations between AES performance and human raters' performance.…

  17. IMPOSE (IMProving Outcomes after Sepsis)—the effect of a multidisciplinary follow-up service on health-related quality of life in patients postsepsis syndromes—a double-blinded randomised controlled trial: protocol

    PubMed Central

    Paratz, Jennifer D; Kenardy, Justin; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Comans, Tracy; Coyer, Fiona; Thomas, Peter; Singh, Sunil; Luparia, Louise; Boots, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patients post sepsis syndromes have a poor quality of life and a high rate of recurring illness or mortality. Follow-up clinics have been instituted for patients postgeneral intensive care but evidence is sparse, and there has been no clinic specifically for survivors of sepsis. The aim of this trial is to investigate if targeted screening and appropriate intervention to these patients can result in an improved quality of life (Short Form 36 health survey (SF36V.2)), decreased mortality in the first 12 months, decreased readmission to hospital and/or decreased use of health resources. Methods and analysis 204 patients postsepsis syndromes will be randomised to one of the two groups. The intervention group will attend an outpatient clinic two monthly for 6 months and receive screening and targeted intervention. The usual care group will remain under the care of their physician. To analyse the results, a baseline comparison will be carried out between each group. Generalised estimating equations will compare the SF36 domain scores between groups and across time points. Mortality will be compared between groups using a Cox proportional hazards (time until death) analysis. Time to first readmission will be compared between groups by a survival analysis. Healthcare costs will be compared between groups using a generalised linear model. Economic (health resource) evaluation will be a within-trial incremental cost utility analysis with a societal perspective. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been granted by the Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC; HREC/13/QRBW/17), The University of Queensland HREC (2013000543), Griffith University (RHS/08/14/HREC) and the Australian Government Department of Health (26/2013). The results of this study will be submitted to peer-reviewed intensive care journals and presented at national and international intensive care and/or rehabilitation conferences. Trial registration

  18. More than Just Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Around the world we hear considerable talk about creating world-class schools. Usually the term refers to schools whose students get very high scores on the international comparisons of student achievement such as PISA or TIMSS. The practice of restricting the meaning of exemplary schools to the narrow criterion of achievement scores is usually…

  19. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  20. Improving Test Scores. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2003-01-01

    What strategies can improve test scores? According to research done by Amrein and Berliner, who studied 18 states with high stakes testing, their conclusion was that students did not necessarily score higher and often remained at the same level prior to the introduction of the high stakes testing. In other research done by Carnoy and Loeb, their…

  1. Skyrocketing Scores: An Urban Legend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A new urban legend claims, "As a result of the state dropping bilingual education, test scores in California skyrocketed." Krashen disputes this theory, pointing out that other factors offer more logical explanations of California's recent improvements in SAT-9 scores. He discusses research on the effects of California's Proposition 227, which…

  2. Interpreting Linked Psychomotor Performance Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Given that equating/linking applications are now appearing in kinesiology literature, this article provides an overview of the different types of linked test scores: equated, concordant, and predicted. It also addresses the different types of evidence required to determine whether the scores from two different field tests (measuring the same…

  3. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions. PMID:25647463

  4. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  5. High Scores but Low Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Liqun; Neilson, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper college admissions are based on test scores and students can exert two types of effort: real learning and exam preparation. The former improves skills but the latter is more effective in raising test scores. In this setting the students with the lowest skills are no longer the ones with the lowest aptitude, but instead are the ones…

  6. Walk Score® and Transit Score® and Walking in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jana A.; Moore, Kari A.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Walk Score® and Transit Score® are open-source measures of the neighborhood built environment to support walking (“walkability”) and access to transportation. Purpose To investigate associations of Street Smart Walk Score and Transit Score with self-reported transport and leisure walking using data from a large multi-city and diverse population-based sample of adults. Methods Data from a sample of 4552 residents of Baltimore MD; Chicago IL; Forsyth County NC; Los Angeles CA; New York NY; and St. Paul MN from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2010–2012) were linked to Walk Score and Transit Score (collected in 2012). Logistic and linear regression models estimated ORs of not walking and mean differences in minutes walked, respectively, associated with continuous and categoric Walk Score and Transit Score. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results After adjustment for site, key sociodemographic, and health variables, a higher Walk Score was associated with lower odds of not walking for transport and more minutes/week of transport walking. Compared to those in a “walker’s paradise,” lower categories of Walk Score were associated with a linear increase in odds of not transport walking and a decline in minutes of leisure walking. An increase in Transit Score was associated with lower odds of not transport walking or leisure walking, and additional minutes/week of leisure walking. Conclusions Walk Score and Transit Score appear to be useful as measures of walkability in analyses of neighborhood effects. PMID:23867022

  7. Reading Ages and Standardized Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookbinder, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of and objections to testing children's reading ages and recommends that test results be given for both reading age and percentile levels (rather than standardized scores). (JM)

  8. Formulas for Image Factor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph

    1973-01-01

    Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)

  9. Assessing effective care in normal labor: the Bologna score.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, B; Porter, R

    2001-06-01

    The intention of the "Bologna score" is to quantify, both in an individual labor and in a wider population, the extent to which labors have been managed as if they are normal as opposed to complicated. In this way it may be possible to assess both attitudes and practices within a maternity service toward the effective care of normal labor. A scoring system for normal labor was proposed at the World Health Organization (Regional Office for Europe) Task Force Meeting on Monitoring and Evaluation of Perinatal Care, held in Bologna in January 2000. This paper describes conceptual development of the scale. Recommendations for future evaluation of the Bologna score's validity and potential include field testing globally, comparison with the Apgar score, and evaluation of the relative weight contributed by each of the five measures comprising the Bologna score. PMID:11380378

  10. Can Score Databanks Help Teaching?

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Alessandro; Barral-Netto, Manoel

    2011-01-01

    Background Basic courses in most medical schools assess students' performance by conferring scores. The objective of this work is to use a large score databank for the early identification of students with low performance and to identify course trends based on the mean of students' grades. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied scores from 2,398 medical students registered in courses over a period of 10 years. Students in the first semester were grouped into those whose ratings remained in the lower quartile in two or more courses (low-performance) and students who had up to one course in the lower quartile (high-performance). ROC curves were built, aimed at the identification of a cut-off average score in the first semesters that would be able to predict low performances in future semesters. Moreover, to follow the long-term pattern of each course, the mean of all scores conferred in a semester was compared to the overall course mean obtained by averaging 10 years of data. Individuals in the low-performance group had a higher risk of being in the lower quartile of at least one course in the second semester (relative risk 3.907; 95% CI: 3.378–4.519) and in the eighth semester (relative risk 2.873; 95% CI: 2.495–3.308). The prediction analysis revealed that an average score of 7.188 in the first semester could identify students that presented scores below the lower quartiles in both the second and eighth semesters (p<0.0001 for both AUC). When scores conferred by single courses were compared over time, three time-trend patterns emerged: low variation, upward trend and erratic pattern. Conclusion/Significance An early identification of students with low performance may be useful in promoting pedagogical strategies for these individuals. Evaluation of the time trend of scores conferred by courses may help departments monitoring changes in personnel and methodology that may affect a student's performance. PMID:21246033

  11. Genetic scores of smoking behaviour in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shanshan; He, Yao; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Yiyan; Wu, Lei; Zeng, Jing; Liu, Miao; Zhang, Di; Jiang, Bin; Li, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to structure a genetic score for smoking behaviour in a Chinese population. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were evaluated in a community-representative sample (N = 3,553) of Beijing, China. The candidate SNPs were tested in four genetic models (dominance model, recessive model, heterogeneous codominant model and additive model), and 7 SNPs were selected to structure a genetic score. A total of 3,553 participants (1,477 males and 2,076 females) completed the survey. Using the unweighted score, we found that participants with a high genetic score had a 34% higher risk of trying smoking and a 43% higher risk of SI at ≤18 years of age after adjusting for age, gender, education, occupation, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) and sports activity time. The unweighted genetic scores were chosen to best extrapolate and understand these results. Importantly, genetic score was significantly associated with smoking behaviour (smoking status and SI at ≤18 years of age). These results have the potential to guide relevant health education for individuals with high genetic scores and promote the process of smoking control to improve the health of the population. PMID:26948517

  12. [Trauma scores: reproducibility and reliability].

    PubMed

    Waydhas, C; Nast-Kolb, D; Trupka, A; Kerim-Sade, C; Kanz, G; Zoller, J; Schweiberer, L

    1992-02-01

    The inter-rater reliability of the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Polytraumaschlüssel (PTS) [multiple trauma code] was studied using diagnosis sheets filled in for 107 multiple injured patients. The scoring was performed by eight physicians with different levels of qualification. The scores for individual patients varied widely depending on the scorer, with extremes differing from the mean by about 80% and 70% for the ISS and PTS, respectively. The mean ISS and PTS for the whole study population also varied significantly between the scorers (P less than 0.0001, one-way analysis of variance). Raters with experience in trauma scoring calculated significantly higher scores (P less than 0.01, t-test) Neither the ISS nor the PTS seem reliable enough to describe injury severity in an individual patient. Treatment decisions must not be based on such grounds. Even for larger groups, caution must be exercised in comparison of different populations of multiple traumatized patients. PMID:1570531

  13. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms. PMID:21561101

  14. A Seven-Year Follow-Up of Intelligence Test Scores of Foster Grandparents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    After seven years, a group (N=32) of originally nonemployed poverty-level older people (over 60) now employed as foster grandparents were retested with the WAIS. Three subtest scores showed stability and Digit Span showed a statistically significant drop. Neither age nor initial level of health or WAIS scores was related to test-score changes over…

  15. Interpreting Force Concept Inventory Scores: Normalized Gain and SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G) on the force concept inventory (FCI) were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE) courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335) and one university (N=292), and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations (r=0.57 and r=0.46, respectively).…

  16. A Genomic Score Prognostic of Outcome in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Warren, H Shaw; Elson, Constance M; Hayden, Douglas L; Schoenfeld, David A; Cobb, J Perren; Maier, Ronald V; Moldawer, Lyle L; Moore, Ernest E; Harbrecht, Brian G; Pelak, Kimberly; Cuschieri, Joseph; Herndon, David N; Jeschke, Marc G; Finnerty, Celeste C; Brownstein, Bernard H; Hennessy, Laura; Mason, Philip H; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic injuries frequently lead to infection, organ failure, and death. Health care providers rely on several injury scoring systems to quantify the extent of injury and to help predict clinical outcome. Physiological, anatomical, and clinical laboratory analytic scoring systems (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE], Injury Severity Score [ISS]) are utilized, with limited success, to predict outcome following injury. The recent development of techniques for measuring the expression level of all of a person’s genes simultaneously may make it possible to develop an injury scoring system based on the degree of gene activation. We hypothesized that a peripheral blood leukocyte gene expression score could predict outcome, including multiple organ failure, following severe blunt trauma. To test such a scoring system, we measured gene expression of peripheral blood leukocytes from patients within 12 h of traumatic injury. cRNA derived from whole blood leukocytes obtained within 12 h of injury provided gene expression data for the entire genome that were used to create a composite gene expression score for each patient. Total blood leukocytes were chosen because they are active during inflammation, which is reflective of poor outcome. The gene expression score combines the activation levels of all the genes into a single number which compares the patient’s gene expression to the average gene expression in uninjured volunteers. Expression profiles from healthy volunteers were averaged to create a reference gene expression profile which was used to compute a difference from reference (DFR) score for each patient. This score described the overall genomic response of patients within the first 12 h following severe blunt trauma. Regression models were used to compare the association of the DFR, APACHE, and ISS scores with outcome. We hypothesized that patients with a total gene response more different from uninjured volunteers would tend to have poorer

  17. A Bootstrap Procedure of Propensity Score Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score estimation plays a fundamental role in propensity score matching for reducing group selection bias in observational data. To increase the accuracy of propensity score estimation, the author developed a bootstrap propensity score. The commonly used propensity score matching methods: nearest neighbor matching, caliper matching, and…

  18. Estimating Decision Indices Based on Composite Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knupp, Tawnya Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…

  19. Electronic Scoring of Essays: Does Topic Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Cindy L.

    2008-01-01

    The scoring of student essays by computer has generated much debate and subsequent research. The majority of the research thus far has focused on validating the automated scoring tools by comparing the electronic scores to human scores of writing or other measures of writing skills, and exploring the predictive validity of the automated scores.…

  20. LSAT Scores of Economics Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieswiadomy, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Argues that economics education provides many benefits to students, including preparation for law school. Examines the ranking of economics majors on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). Finds that among the 14 majors having more than 2,000 students take the LSAT, economics students received the highest average score. (DSK)

  1. Population Mean Scores Predict Child Mental Disorder Rates: Validating SDQ Prevalence Estimators in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Anna; Goodman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: For adult physical and mental health, the population mean predicts the proportion of individuals with "high" scores. This has not previously been investigated for child mental health. It is also unclear how far symptom scores on brief questionnaires provide an unbiased method of comparing children with different individual, family or…

  2. Do Examinees Understand Score Reports for Alternate Methods of Scoring Computer Based Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Williams, Natasha J.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the interpretability of scaled scores based on either number correct (NC) scoring for a paper-and-pencil test or one of two methods of scoring computer-based tests: an item pattern (IP) scoring method and a method based on equated NC scoring. The equated NC scoring method for computer-based tests was proposed as an alternative…

  3. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2007-06-01

    Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G) on the force concept inventory (FCI) were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE) courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335) and one university (N=292) , and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations ( r=0.57 and r=0.46 , respectively). These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  4. An Optimizing Weight For Wrong Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlon, Thomas F.

    This study empirically determined the optimizing weight to be applied to the Wrongs Total Score in scoring rubrics of the general form = R - kW, where S is the Score, R the Rights Total, k the weight and W the Wrongs Total, if reliability is to be maximized. As is well known, the traditional formula score rests on a theoretical framework which is…

  5. Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are still…

  6. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents' Adherence to Dietary Recommendations-Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score.

    PubMed

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents' dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents' adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen's Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14-15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  7. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents’ Adherence to Dietary Recommendations—Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score

    PubMed Central

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents’ dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents’ adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen’s Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14–15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  8. Validating MMI Scores: Are We Measuring Multiple Attributes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Tom; Hecker, Kent; Hausdorf, Peter A.; Conlon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The multiple mini-interview (MMI) used in health professional schools' admission processes is reported to assess multiple non-cognitive constructs such as ethical reasoning, oral communication, or problem evaluation. Though validation studies have been performed with total MMI scores, there is a paucity of information regarding how well MMI…

  9. Correlation of the score for subjective pain with physical disability, clinical and radiographic scores in recent onset rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Fiorini, Tania; Panni, Benedetta; Turiel, Maurizio; Cazzola, Marco; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2002-01-01

    Background To analyse the relationship between subjective pain score and other measures of clinical, radiographic and functional status; in particular Larsen radiographic scores and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ); in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with a disease duration of less than 3 years. Methods In this cross sectional study of 105 patients with RA (76 women, 29 men: mean age 50.93; mean disease duration 15.86 months; 71% rheumatoid factor positive) subjective pain was assessed according to the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Correlation coefficients between pain score and disease activity measures (patients' global assessment of disease by VAS, number of tender and swollen joints, morning stiffness, erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], C-reactive protein [CRP] and titre of rheumatoid factor, radiographic evaluations (Larsen-Dale scores for radiographic damage of the small joints of the hands, wrist and feet), disability measures (health assessment questionnaire [HAQ]), and demographic variables were calculated; hierarchical regression analysis was done with subjective pain score as the dependent variable. Results The Spearman's correlation coefficient comparing subjective pain and HAQ was 0.421 (p < 0.001), between subjective pain and global assessment of disease and morning stiffness was 0.573 (p < 0.001) and 0.427 (p < 0.001) respectively, and between pain and number of tender and swollen joints 0.037 and 0.050 respectively (p > 0.05). In regression analysis, global assessment of disease by patients explained 32.8% of the variation in pain intensity score, morning stiffness 10.7%, CRP 4.0%, HAQ 3.8% and Larsen-Dale scores explained 2.1%; other variables were not significant in the model. Conclusions Pain scores of patients with early severe rheumatoid arthritis are correlated at higher levels with patients' global assessment of disease and with morning stiffness rather than with radiographic or other clinical variables such as number of

  10. 42 CFR 414.1275 - Value-based payment modifier quality-tiering scoring methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Value-based payment modifier quality-tiering scoring methodology. 414.1275 Section 414.1275 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Value-Based...

  11. The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score

    PubMed Central

    Kepler, Christopher K.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Koerner, John D.; Vialle, Luiz R.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R.; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F. Cumhur

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Using the results, as well as limited input from the AOSpine Trauma Knowledge Forum, the Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score was developed. Results Beginning with 1 point for A1, groups A, B, and C were consecutively awarded an additional point (A1, 1 point; A2, 2 points; A3, 3 points); however, because of a significant increase in the severity between A3 and A4 and because the severity of A4 and B1 was similar, both A4 and B1 were awarded 5 points. An uneven stepwise increase in severity moving from N0 to N4, with a substantial increase in severity between N2 (nerve root injury with radicular symptoms) and N3 (incomplete spinal cord injury) injuries, was identified. Hence, each grade of neurologic injury was progressively given an additional point starting with 0 points for N0, and the substantial difference in severity between N2 and N3 injuries was recognized by elevating N3 to 4 points. Finally, 1 point was awarded to the M1 modifier (indeterminate posterolateral ligamentous complex injury). Conclusion The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score is an easy-to-use, data-driven metric that will allow for the development of a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. PMID:27190734

  12. The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Schroeder, Gregory D; Koerner, John D; Vialle, Luiz R; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J; Dvorak, Marcel F; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F Cumhur

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Using the results, as well as limited input from the AOSpine Trauma Knowledge Forum, the Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score was developed. Results Beginning with 1 point for A1, groups A, B, and C were consecutively awarded an additional point (A1, 1 point; A2, 2 points; A3, 3 points); however, because of a significant increase in the severity between A3 and A4 and because the severity of A4 and B1 was similar, both A4 and B1 were awarded 5 points. An uneven stepwise increase in severity moving from N0 to N4, with a substantial increase in severity between N2 (nerve root injury with radicular symptoms) and N3 (incomplete spinal cord injury) injuries, was identified. Hence, each grade of neurologic injury was progressively given an additional point starting with 0 points for N0, and the substantial difference in severity between N2 and N3 injuries was recognized by elevating N3 to 4 points. Finally, 1 point was awarded to the M1 modifier (indeterminate posterolateral ligamentous complex injury). Conclusion The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score is an easy-to-use, data-driven metric that will allow for the development of a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. PMID:27190734

  13. Utility scores for vesicoureteral reflux and anti-reflux surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Caleb; Routh, Jonathan C.; Logvinenko, Tanya; Rosoklija, Ilina; Kokorowski, Paul; Prosser, Lisa A.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Management of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) continues to be controversial. In conditions of uncertainty, decision analytic techniques such as cost-utility analysis (CUA) can help to structure the decision-making process. However, CUA analyses require a “utility,” a value between 0 (death) and 1 (perfect health) corresponding to the quality of life associated with a health state. Ideally, utility values are elicited directly from representative community samples, but utilities have not been rigorously measured for pediatric urology conditions. Objectives To elicit utility scores for VUR and open anti-reflux surgery (ARS) from a representative, well-characterized community sample of adults who have been parents. Methods Cross-sectional survey of nationally representative adults who had ever been parents. Each respondent saw one of four descriptions of VUR, with or without continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) and occurrence of febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). A 6-week postoperative health state following ARS was also assessed. We used the time trade-off (TTO) method to elicit utility scores. Factors associated with utility score were assessed with a multivariate linear regression model. Results The survey was completed by 1200 individuals. Data were weighted to adjust for demographic differences between responders and non-responders. Mean age was 52 ± 15 years, 44% were male, and 68% were White. In terms of education, 29% had a college degree or higher. The mean utility score for VUR overall was 0.82 ± 0.28. VUR utility scores did not differ significantly based on inclusion of CAP or UTI in the health state description (p=0.21). The 6-week postoperative period garnered a utility of 0.71 ± 0.43. Discussion Our results showed that VUR has a mean utility score of 0.82, which indicates that the community perceives this condition to be a substantial burden. For comparison, conditions with similar utility scores include compensated hepatitis

  14. "Score the Core" Web-based pathologist training tool improves the accuracy of breast cancer IHC4 scoring.

    PubMed

    Engelberg, Jesse A; Retallack, Hanna; Balassanian, Ronald; Dowsett, Mitchell; Zabaglo, Lila; Ram, Arishneel A; Apple, Sophia K; Bishop, John W; Borowsky, Alexander D; Carpenter, Philip M; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Datnow, Brian; Elson, Sarah; Hasteh, Farnaz; Lin, Fritz; Moatamed, Neda A; Zhang, Yanhong; Cardiff, Robert D

    2015-11-01

    Hormone receptor status is an integral component of decision-making in breast cancer management. IHC4 score is an algorithm that combines hormone receptor, HER2, and Ki-67 status to provide a semiquantitative prognostic score for breast cancer. High accuracy and low interobserver variance are important to ensure the score is accurately calculated; however, few previous efforts have been made to measure or decrease interobserver variance. We developed a Web-based training tool, called "Score the Core" (STC) using tissue microarrays to train pathologists to visually score estrogen receptor (using the 300-point H score), progesterone receptor (percent positive), and Ki-67 (percent positive). STC used a reference score calculated from a reproducible manual counting method. Pathologists in the Athena Breast Health Network and pathology residents at associated institutions completed the exercise. By using STC, pathologists improved their estrogen receptor H score and progesterone receptor and Ki-67 proportion assessment and demonstrated a good correlation between pathologist and reference scores. In addition, we collected information about pathologist performance that allowed us to compare individual pathologists and measures of agreement. Pathologists' assessment of the proportion of positive cells was closer to the reference than their assessment of the relative intensity of positive cells. Careful training and assessment should be used to ensure the accuracy of breast biomarkers. This is particularly important as breast cancer diagnostics become increasingly quantitative and reproducible. Our training tool is a novel approach for pathologist training that can serve as an important component of ongoing quality assessment and can improve the accuracy of breast cancer prognostic biomarkers. PMID:26410019

  15. Neurointerventional Treatment in Acute Stroke. Whom to Treat? (Endovascular Treatment for Acute Stroke: Utility of THRIVE Score and HIAT Score for Patient Selection)

    SciTech Connect

    Fjetland, Lars Roy, Sumit Kurz, Kathinka D.; Solbakken, Tore; Larsen, Jan Petter Kurz, Martin W.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Intra-arterial therapy (IAT) is used increasingly as a treatment option for acute stroke caused by central large vessel occlusions. Despite high rates of recanalization, the clinical outcome is highly variable. The authors evaluated the Houston IAT (HIAT) and the totaled health risks in vascular events (THRIVE) score, two predicting scores designed to identify patients likely to benefit from IAT. Methods: Fifty-two patients treated at the Stavanger University Hospital with IAT from May 2009 to June 2012 were included in this study. We combined the scores in an additional analysis. We also performed an additional analysis according to high age and evaluated the scores in respect of technical efficacy. Results: Fifty-two patients were evaluated by the THRIVE score and 51 by the HIAT score. We found a strong correlation between the level of predicted risk and the actual clinical outcome (THRIVE p = 0.002, HIAT p = 0.003). The correlations were limited to patients successfully recanalized and to patients <80 years. By combining the scores additional 14.3 % of the patients could be identified as poor candidates for IAT. Both scores were insufficient to identify patients with a good clinical outcome. Conclusions: Both scores showed a strong correlation to poor clinical outcome in patients <80 years. The specificity of the scores could be enhanced by combining them. Both scores were insufficient to identify patients with a good clinical outcome and showed no association to clinical outcome in patients aged {>=}80 years.

  16. Scoring with the Computer: Alternative Procedures for Improving the Reliability of Holistic Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Lewis, Will; Steier, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Automated essay scoring can produce reliable scores that are highly correlated with human scores, but is limited in its evaluation of content and other higher-order aspects of writing. The increased use of automated essay scoring in high-stakes testing underscores the need for human scoring that is focused on higher-order aspects of writing. This…

  17. Does weight affect children's test scores and teacher assessments differently?

    PubMed

    Zavodny, Madeline

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased dramatically in the United States during the past three decades. This increase has adverse public health implications, but its implication for children's academic outcomes is less clear. This paper uses data from five waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten to examine how children's weight is related to their scores on standardized tests and to their teachers' assessments of their academic ability. The results indicate that children's weight is more negatively related to teacher assessments of their academic performance than to test scores. PMID:24014932

  18. Development and validation of the Essen Intracerebral Haemorrhage Score

    PubMed Central

    Weimar, C; Benemann, J; Diener, H‐C

    2006-01-01

    Background Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) accounts for the highest in‐hospital mortality of all stroke types. Nevertheless, outcome is favourable in about 30% of patients. Only one model for the prediction of favourable outcome has been validated so far. Objective To describe the development and validation of the Essen ICH score. Methods Inception cohorts were assessed on the National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIH‐SS) on admission and after follow up of 100 days. On the basis of previously validated clinical variables, a simple clinical score was developed to predict mortality and complete recovery (Barthel index after 100 days ⩾95) in 340 patients with acute ICH. Subscores for age (<60 = 0; 60–69 = 1; 70–79 = 2; ⩾80 = 3), NIH‐SS level of consciousness (alert = 0; drowsy = 1; stuporose = 2; comatose = 3), and NIH‐SS total score (0–5 = 0; 6–10 = 1; 11–15 = 2; 16–20 = 3; >20 or coma = 4) were combined into a prognostic scale with <3 predicting complete recovery and >7 predicting death. The score was subsequently validated in an external cohort of 371 patients. Results The Essen ICH score showed a high prognostic accuracy for complete recovery and death in both the development and validation cohort. For prediction of complete recovery on the Barthel index after 100 days, the Essen ICH score was superior to the physicians' prognosis and to two previous prognostic scores developed for a slightly modified outcome. Conclusions The Essen ICH score provides an easy to use scale for outcome prediction following ICH. Its high positive predictive values for adverse outcomes and easy applicability render it useful for individual prognostic indications or the design of clinical studies. In contrast, physicians tended to predict outcome too pessimistically. PMID:16354736

  19. Retrospective study on prognostic importance of serum procalcitonin and amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels as compared to Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV Score on Intensive Care Unit admission, in a mixed Intensive Care Unit population

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Chitra; Dara, Babita; Mehta, Yatin; Tariq, Ali M.; Joby, George V.; Singh, Manish K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Timely decision making in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is very essential to improve the outcome of critically sick patients. Conventional scores like Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE IV) are quite cumbersome with calculations and take minimum 24 hours. Procalcitonin has shown to have prognostic value in ICU/Emergency department (ED) in disease states like pneumonia, sepsis etc. NTproBNP has demonstrated excellent diagnostic and prognostic importance in cardiac diseases. It has also been found elevated in non-cardiac diseases. We chose to study the prognostic utility of these markers on ICU admission. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: A Retrospective analysis of 100 eligible patients was done who had undergone PCT and NTproBNP measurements on ICU admission. Their correlations with all cause mortality, length of hospital stay, need for ventilator support, need for vasopressors were performed. Results: Among 100 randomly selected ICU patients, 28 were non-survivors. NTproBNP values on admission significantly correlated with all cause mortality (P = 0.036, AUC = 0.643) and morbidity (P = 0.000, AUC = 0.763), comparable to that of APACHE-IV score. PCT values on admission did not show significant association with mortality, but correlated well with morbidity and prolonged hospital length of stay (AUC = 0.616, P = 0.045). Conclusion: The current study demonstrated a good predictive value of NTproBNP, in terms of mortality and morbidity comparable to that of APACHE-IV score. Procalcitonin, however, was found to have doubtful prognostic importance. These findings need to be confirmed in a prospective larger study. PMID:27052066

  20. Risk models and scores for type 2 diabetes: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Rohini; Dent, Tom; Meads, Catherine; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2011-01-01

    intervention aimed at reducing actual risk in people were sparse. Conclusion Much work has been done to develop diabetes risk models and scores, but most are rarely used because they require tests not routinely available or they were developed without a specific user or clear use in mind. Encouragingly, recent research has begun to tackle usability and the impact of diabetes risk scores. Two promising areas for further research are interventions that prompt lay people to check their own diabetes risk and use of risk scores on population datasets to identify high risk “hotspots” for targeted public health interventions. PMID:22123912

  1. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  2. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ)

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of the English Developmental Sentence Scoring model (Lee, 1974). Using this measure, we calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8 and 5;2 on the basis of 100-sentence samples collected from free-play child-adult conversations. The analysis showed a high correlation of the DSSJ overall score with the Mean Length of Utterance. The analysis of the DSSJ subarea scores revealed large variations between these subarea scores for children with similar overall DSSJ scores. When investigating the high-scoring children (over 1 SD over group average), most children scored high in three to five subareas, but the combination of scores for these subareas varied from child to child. It is concluded that DSSJ is a valuable tool especially for the language acquisition research. The overall DSSJ score reliably reflects the overall morpho-syntactic development of Japanese children, and the subarea scores provide specific information on individual acquisition patterns. PMID:25414535

  3. Smoothing Methods for Estimating Test Score Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Estimation/smoothing methods that are flexible enough to fit a wide variety of test score distributions are reviewed: kernel method, strong true-score model-based method, and method that uses polynomial log-linear models. Applications of these methods include describing/comparing test score distributions, estimating norms, and estimating…

  4. Validation of Automated Scoring of Science Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Rios, Joseph A.; Heilman, Michael; Gerard, Libby; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Constructed response items can both measure the coherence of student ideas and serve as reflective experiences to strengthen instruction. We report on new automated scoring technologies that can reduce the cost and complexity of scoring constructed-response items. This study explored the accuracy of c-rater-ML, an automated scoring engine…

  5. 7 CFR 4280.316 - Application scoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application scoring. 4280.316 Section 4280.316... Program § 4280.316 Application scoring. Applications will be scored based on the criteria specified in this section using only the information submitted in the application. The total available points...

  6. Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

  7. "Score Choice": A Tempest in a Teapot?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new option that allows students to choose which of their test scores to send to colleges has generated renewed criticism of the College Board. College Board officials tout the option, called Score Choice, as a way to ease test taker anxiety. Some prominent admissions officials have publicly described Score Choice as a sales tactic that will…

  8. The metabolic score: A decision making tool in diabetes care.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2015-11-01

    The heterogeneity of diabetes mellitus, and the various metabolic abnormalities associated with it, are well known. Current management guidelines used to help choose glucose-lowering drugs in diabetes mellitus describe various drug classes in detail, but do not take the overall metabolic profile into consideration. To help physicians choose appropriate oral therapy, we propose a discrete metabolic score, based upon the presence and absence of metabolic comorbidities included in the definition of metabolic syndrome. This communication describes how to choose an appropriate oral antidiabetic drug using such a score. The metabolic score based decision making aid should be able to prove its utility in all health care settings, especially resource constrained societies. PMID:26564303

  9. Learning a Severity Score for Sepsis: A Novel Approach based on Clinical Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Dyagilev, Kirill; Saria, Suchi

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. Early administration of treatment has been shown to decrease sepsis-related mortality and morbidity. Existing scoring systems such as the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores (SOFA) achieve poor sensitivity in distinguishing between the different stages of sepsis. Recently, we proposed the Disease Severity Score Learning (DSSL) framework that automatically derives a severity score from data based on clinical comparisons – pairs of disease states ordered by their severity. In this paper, we test the feasibility of using DSSL to develop a sepsis severity score. We show that the learned score significantly outperforms APACHE-II and SOFA in distinguishing between the different stages of sepsis. Additionally, the learned score is sensitive to changes in severity leading up to septic shock and post treatment administration. PMID:26958288

  10. 42 CFR 412.165 - Performance scoring under the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Performance scoring under the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program. 412.165 Section 412.165 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Adjustments to the...

  11. Could There Be a Medical Basis for the Declining SAT Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Charles B.

    The scores of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) have been declining since 1963. While this decline has occurred, scores on achievement tests administered to students in grades 3 to 11 have been stable. An alalysis of the medical and epidemiological literature was conducted to determine whether there could be a health factor that might have caused…

  12. 42 CFR 414.1275 - Value-based payment modifier quality-tiering scoring methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... beneficiary risk scores. (2) The following value-based payment modifier percentages apply to the CY 2016... value-based payment modifier that have an attributed beneficiary population with an average risk score... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Value-based payment modifier...

  13. A Comparison of Two Scoring Methods for an Automated Speech Scoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Xiaoming; Higgins, Derrick; Zechner, Klaus; Williamson, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares two alternative scoring methods--multiple regression and classification trees--for an automated speech scoring system used in a practice environment. The two methods were evaluated on two criteria: construct representation and empirical performance in predicting human scores. The empirical performance of the two scoring models…

  14. Are the Best Scores the Best Scores for Predicting College Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Mattern, Krista D.; Swerdzewski, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The College Board's SAT[R] Score Choice[TM] policy allows students to choose which set(s) of scores to send to colleges and universities to which they plan to apply. Based on data gathered before the implementation of that policy, the following study evaluated the predictive validity of the various sets of SAT scores. The value of five score sets…

  15. Oswestry Disability Index Scoring Made Easy

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, A; Baker, D; Disney, S; Pynsent, PB

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Low back pain effects up to 80% of the population at some time during their active life. Questionnaires are available to help measure pain and disability. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is the most commonly used outcome measure for low back pain. The aim of this study was to see if training in completing the ODI forms improved the scoring accuracy. PATIENTS AND METHODS The last 100 ODI forms completed in a hospital's spinal clinic were reviewed retrospectively and errors in the scoring were identified. Staff members involved in scoring the questionnaire were made aware of the errors and the correct method of scoring explained. A chart was created with all possible scores to aid the staff with scoring. A prospective audit on 50 questionnaires was subsequently performed. RESULTS The retrospective study showed that 33 of the 100 forms had been incorrectly scored. All questionnaires where one or more sections were not completed by the patient were incorrectly scored. A scoring chart was developed and staff training was implemented. This reduced the error rate to 14% in the prospective audit. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians applying outcome measures should read the appropriate literature to ensure they understand the scoring system. Staff must then be given adequate training in the application of the questionnaires. PMID:18598595

  16. [The diagnostic scores for deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Junod, A

    2015-08-26

    Seven diagnostic scores for the deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of lower limbs are analyzed and compared. Two features make this exer- cise difficult: the problem of distal DVT and of their proximal extension and the status of patients, whether out- or in-patients. The most popular score is the Wells score (1997), modi- fied in 2003. It includes one subjective ele- ment based on clinical judgment. The Primary Care score 12005), less known, has similar pro- perties, but uses only objective data. The pre- sent trend is to associate clinical scores with the dosage of D-Dimers to rule out with a good sensitivity the probability of TVP. For the upper limb DVT, the Constans score (2008) is available, which can also be coupled with D-Dimers testing (Kleinjan). PMID:26502582

  17. [The cardiovascular surgeon and the Syntax score].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sánchez, Mario; Soulé-Egea, Mauricio; Herrera-Alarcón, Valentín; Barragán-García, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The Syntax score has been established as a tool to determine the complexity of coronary artery disease and as a guide for decision-making among coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine what the Syntax score is, and how the surgeon should integrate the information in the selection and treatment of patients. We reviewed the results of the SYNTAX Trial, the clinical practice guidelines, as well as the benefits and limitations of the score. Finally we discuss the future directions of the Syntax score. PMID:25595855

  18. Scoring the VIA Survey of Character.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Mark R; O'Brien-Malone, Angela; Woodworth, Rosalind J

    2010-12-01

    The VIA Survey of Character (VIA) is a self-report inventory designed to measure and assess 24 character strengths that are linked conceptually to six fundamental "virtues"--Wisdom and Knowledge, Courage, Humanity, Justice, Temperance, and Transcendence, as developed by Peterson and Seligman in 2004. Despite its popularity, the current presentation of the VIA is not easy to score; researchers must either use a limited online scoring facility or must use outdated scoring keys. This paper presents a full description of the scoring key. PMID:21323141

  19. Psychometric analysis of the Functional Independence Score in Haemophilia (FISH).

    PubMed

    Poonnoose, P M; Thomas, R; Keshava, S N; Cherian, R S; Padankatti, S; Pazani, D; Kavitha, M L; Devadarasini, M; Bhattacharji, S; Viswabandya, A; John, J A; Macaden, A S; Mathews, V; Srivastava, A

    2007-09-01

    Joint morbidity in haemophilia has traditionally been measured using clinical and radiological scores. There have been no reliable, validated tools for the assessment of functional independence in persons with haemophilia till recently. The Functional Independence Score in Haemophilia (FISH) has been developed as a performance based assessment tool to address this need. The FISH is designed to measure the patient's independence in performing activities of daily living (grooming and eating, bathing and dressing), transfers (chair and floor), and mobility (walking, step climbing and running). On assessment of its psychometric properties in 63 patients with haemophilia (mean age 14 years), FISH was found to have good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.85). It had moderate correlation with the World Federation of Hemophilia clinical score (r = -0.61), and a correlation with the Pettersson score of -0.38. It had good correlation with other self-rated functional scores, such as the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (r = -0.75); the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (r = -0.66) and the Haemophilia Activities List (HAL) (r = -0.66). It had good reliability with a pooled intra class correlation of 0.98. On assessing responsiveness following treatment of flexion deformities of the knee in 12 patients, the FISH showed significant changes in the score with a standardized responsiveness mean of -1.93. In conclusion, the FISH was found to be a reliable and valid tool with good internal consistency and responsiveness to therapy, for the assessment of functional independence in persons with haemophilia. PMID:17880453

  20. Serious game scores as health condition indicator for cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Peters, Konrad; Kayali, Fares; Reithofer, Andrea; Wölfle, Rebecca; Mateus-Berr, Ruth; Kuczwara, Jens; Lehner, Zsuzsanna; Lawitschka, Anita; Brunmaier, Barbara; Martinek, Daniel; Silbernagl, Marisa; Hlavacs, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present INTERACCT (Integrating Entertainment and Reaction Assessment into Child Cancer Therapy), a multidisciplinary research project aiming at creating a communication tool for pediatric patients after cancer treatment with HSCT (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) in after care. The communication platform should foster communication between patients and clinicians, but also increase motivation for treatment compliance by using appropriate designs and gamification elements. A state of the art web interface enables the physicians to evaluate data submitted by the patients, joining data from various sources (lab data, survey data, physiotherapy performance) using HL7 and visualizing imporant changes. This contribution outlines the challenges of designing such a system and presents a solution for the medical data interface and evaluation. PMID:25991284

  1. Scoring Dawg Core Breakoff and Retention Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Backes, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    This novel core break-off and retention mechanism consists of a scoring dawg controlled by a set of two tubes (a drill tube and an inner tube). The drill tube and the inner tube have longitudinal concentric holes. The solution can be implemented in an eccentric tube configuration as well where the tubes have eccentric longitudinal holes. The inner tube presents at the bottom two control surfaces for controlling the orientation of the scoring dawg. The drill tube presents a sunk-in profile on the inside of the wall for housing the scoring dawg. The inner tube rotation relative to the drill tube actively controls the orientation of the scoring dawg and hence its penetration and retrieval from the core. The scoring dawg presents a shaft, two axially spaced arms, and a tooth. The two arms slide on the control surfaces of the inner tube. The tooth, when rotated, can penetrate or be extracted from the core. During drilling, the two tubes move together maintaining the scoring dawg completely outside the core. After the desired drilling depth has been reached the inner tube is rotated relative to the drill tube such that the tooth of the scoring dawg moves toward the central axis. By rotating the drill tube, the scoring dawg can score the core and so reduce its cross sectional area. The scoring dawg can also act as a stress concentrator for breaking the core in torsion or tension. After breaking the core, the scoring dawg can act as a core retention mechanism. For scoring, it requires the core to be attached to the rock. If the core is broken, the dawg can be used as a retention mechanism. The scoring dawg requires a hard-tip insert like tungsten carbide for scoring hard rocks. The relative rotation of the two tubes can be controlled manually or by an additional actuator. In the implemented design solution the bit rotation for scoring was in the same direction as the drilling. The device was tested for limestone cores and basalt cores. The torque required for breaking the

  2. APACHE II scoring system on a general intensive care unit: audit of daily APACHE II scores and 6-month survival of 691 patients admitted to a general intensive care unit between May 1990 and December 1991.

    PubMed

    Campbell, N N; Tooley, M A; Willatts, S M

    1994-02-01

    In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the use of the APACHE II (acute physiological and chronic health evaluation) scoring system on all of the patients admitted to the general intensive care unit at the Bristol Royal Infirmary over a 20-month period. The 6-month survival of 691 adult medical and surgical patients following intensive care was recorded and this data was analysed with admission and daily APACHE II scores using a relational database. Our data confirms the relationship between admission APACHE II scores and outcome, with mean scores decreasing as duration of survival increases. We also demonstrate that the best day one scores are approximately 50% less than the admission score, irrespective of outcome, indicating the benefit of intensive care. By contrast, however, the scores on day one have either not improved or have worsened since admission, reflecting the importance of the pre-morbid health status of the patient in determining outcome from intensive care. PMID:8196033

  3. APACHE II scoring system on a general intensive care unit: audit of daily APACHE II scores and 6-month survival of 691 patients admitted to a general intensive care unit between May 1990 and December 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, N N; Tooley, M A; Willatts, S M

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the use of the APACHE II (acute physiological and chronic health evaluation) scoring system on all of the patients admitted to the general intensive care unit at the Bristol Royal Infirmary over a 20-month period. The 6-month survival of 691 adult medical and surgical patients following intensive care was recorded and this data was analysed with admission and daily APACHE II scores using a relational database. Our data confirms the relationship between admission APACHE II scores and outcome, with mean scores decreasing as duration of survival increases. We also demonstrate that the best day one scores are approximately 50% less than the admission score, irrespective of outcome, indicating the benefit of intensive care. By contrast, however, the scores on day one have either not improved or have worsened since admission, reflecting the importance of the pre-morbid health status of the patient in determining outcome from intensive care. PMID:8196033

  4. Toward More Substantively Meaningful Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Simon, Anat; Bennett, Randy Elliott

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated a "substantively driven" method for scoring NAEP writing assessments automatically. The study used variations of an existing commercial program, e-rater[R], to compare the performance of three approaches to automated essay scoring: a "brute-empirical" approach in which variables are selected and weighted solely according to…

  5. Factor Score Reliabilities and Domain Validities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Richard L.

    1980-01-01

    Kaiser and Michael reported a formula for factor scores giving an internal consistency reliability and its square root, the domain validity. Using this formula is inappropriate if variables are included which have trival weights rather than salient weights for the factor for which the score is being computed. (Author/RL)

  6. The Scoring of Writing Samples: A Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronnell, Bruce

    Although the design of the writing task itself may present assessment problems, the scoring of the piece of writing raises the greatest difficulties for large-scale testing of writing ability. A study investigated whether teachers and staff members of the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) (1) scored the same way, (2) agreed with each other in…

  7. Using Empirical Data to Set Cutoff Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, John R.

    Six experimental approaches to the problems of setting cutoff scores and choosing proper test length are briefly mentioned. Most of these methods share the premise that a test is a random sample of items, from a domain associated with a carefully specified objective. Each item is independent and is scored zero or one, with no provision for…

  8. Observed Score Linear Equating with Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branberg, Kenny; Wiberg, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined observed score linear equating in two different data collection designs, the equivalent groups design and the nonequivalent groups design, when information from covariates (i.e., background variables correlated with the test scores) was included. The main purpose of the study was to examine the effect (i.e., bias, variance, and…

  9. Predicting Latent Class Scores for Subsequent Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Janne; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Larsen, Klaus Groes

    2012-01-01

    Latent class regression models relate covariates and latent constructs such as psychiatric disorders. Though full maximum likelihood estimation is available, estimation is often in three steps: (i) a latent class model is fitted without covariates; (ii) latent class scores are predicted; and (iii) the scores are regressed on covariates. We propose…

  10. Using Test Score Data to Focus Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Susan; Gay, Anne; Matthews, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Advances in technology available to access test data coupled with the challenges of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) are pushing schools to grapple with the complexities of test score data. With the current frenzy to raise test scores, there is little attention being paid to teacher development in learning to use data to improve learning. For the past…

  11. Enriching Automated Essay Scoring Using Discourse Marking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Jill; Kukich, Karen; Wolff, Susanne; Lu, Chi; Chodorow, Martin

    Electronic Essay Rater (e-rater) is a prototype automated essay scoring system built at Educational Testing Service that uses discourse marking in addition to syntactic information and topical content vector analyses to assign essay scores automatically. This paper gives a general description of e-rater as a whole, but its emphasis is on the…

  12. Coefficient Alpha and Reliability of Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almehrizi, Rashid S.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of large-scale assessments develop various score scales that are either linear or nonlinear transformations of raw scores for better interpretations and uses of assessment results. The current formula for coefficient alpha (a; the commonly used reliability coefficient) only provides internal consistency reliability estimates of raw…

  13. MMPI T Scores: Linear versus Normalized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Louis M.

    1984-01-01

    Includes two articles regarding scoring for Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scales. Comments on the advisability of utilizing normalized T scores (Hsu), and addresses these objections from a theoretical standpoint and in the context of responses from a new reference sample (Colligan, Osborne, and Offord). (LLL)

  14. Validation of Automated Scoring of Oral Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, Jennifer; Bernstein, Jared; Cheng, Jian; Van Moere, Alistair; Townshend, Brent; Suzuki, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    A two-part experiment is presented that validates a new measurement tool for scoring oral reading ability. Data collected by the U.S. government in a large-scale literacy assessment of adults were analyzed by a system called VersaReader that uses automatic speech recognition and speech processing technologies to score oral reading fluency. In the…

  15. Geometric Facial Gender Scoring: Objectivity of Perception

    PubMed Central

    Gilani, Syed Zulqarnain; Rooney, Kathleen; Shafait, Faisal; Walters, Mark; Mian, Ajmal

    2014-01-01

    Gender score is the cognitive judgement of the degree of masculinity or femininity of a face which is considered to be a continuum. Gender scores have long been used in psychological studies to understand the complex psychosocial relationships between people. Perceptual scores for gender and attractiveness have been employed for quality assessment and planning of cosmetic facial surgery. Various neurological disorders have been linked to the facial structure in general and the facial gender perception in particular. While, subjective gender scoring by human raters has been a tool of choice for psychological studies for many years, the process is both time and resource consuming. In this study, we investigate the geometric features used by the human cognitive system in perceiving the degree of masculinity/femininity of a 3D face. We then propose a mathematical model that can mimic the human gender perception. For our experiments, we obtained 3D face scans of 64 subjects using the 3dMDface scanner. The textureless 3D face scans of the subjects were then observed in different poses and assigned a gender score by 75 raters of a similar background. Our results suggest that the human cognitive system employs a combination of Euclidean and geodesic distances between biologically significant landmarks of the face for gender scoring. We propose a mathematical model that is able to automatically assign an objective gender score to a 3D face with a correlation of up to 0.895 with the human subjective scores. PMID:24923319

  16. Evaluating Score Equity Assessment for State NAEP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Craig S.; Baldwin, Su; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sireci, Stephen G.; Karatonis, Ana; Jirka, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Score equity assessment is an important analysis to ensure inferences drawn from test scores are comparable across subgroups of examinees. The purpose of the present evaluation was to assess the extent to which the Grade 8 NAEP Math and Reading assessments for 2005 were equivalent across selected states. More specifically, the present study…

  17. Understanding Scoring Rubrics: A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Carol, Ed.

    This compilation provides an introduction to using scoring rubrics in the classroom. When good rubrics are used well, teachers and students receive extensive feedback on the quality and quantity of student learning. When scoring rubrics are used in large-scale assessment, technical questions related to interrater reliability tend to dominate the…

  18. An Overview of Automated Scoring of Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    Automated Essay Scoring (AES) is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003). AES systems are mainly used to overcome time, cost, reliability, and generalizability issues in writing assessment (Bereiter, 2003; Burstein,…

  19. More Issues in Observed-Score Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a response to the commentaries on the position paper on observed-score equating by van der Linden (this issue). The response focuses on the more general issues in these commentaries, such as the nature of the observed scores that are equated, the importance of test-theory assumptions in equating, the necessity to use multiple…

  20. Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…

  1. Do Student Growth Scores Measure Academic Growth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomplun, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated convergent validity evidence for student growth scores with high school course grades. The Measures of Academic Progress and Educational Planning and Assessment System growth scores for approximately 1,800 ninth-grade students over 2 years were related to language, arts, and mathematics course grades for developmental,…

  2. Linking Teacher Pay to Student Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2000-01-01

    A suburban Philadelphia district set aside $100,000 for merit-pay (bonuses) for individuals and groups of teachers. Although teachers are resistant, vowing to give to charity any bonuses linked to test scores, morale and scores have improved. Cincinnati and Castle Rock, Colorado, have workable plans. (MLH)

  3. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  4. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  5. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  6. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  7. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  8. 24 CFR 902.63 - PHAS scoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... indicators. (b) Adjustments to the PHAS score. (1) Adjustments to the score may be made after a PHA's audit... changed by HUD in accordance with data included in the independent audit report, or obtained through such... adjustments determined necessary as a result of the independent public accountant (IPA) audit, as provided...

  9. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore Bayesian model averaging in the propensity score context. Previous research on Bayesian propensity score analysis does not take into account model uncertainty. In this regard, an internally consistent Bayesian framework for model building and estimation must also account for model uncertainty. The…

  10. Model feedback in Bayesian propensity score estimation.

    PubMed

    Zigler, Corwin M; Watts, Krista; Yeh, Robert W; Wang, Yun; Coull, Brent A; Dominici, Francesca

    2013-03-01

    Methods based on the propensity score comprise one set of valuable tools for comparative effectiveness research and for estimating causal effects more generally. These methods typically consist of two distinct stages: (1) a propensity score stage where a model is fit to predict the propensity to receive treatment (the propensity score), and (2) an outcome stage where responses are compared in treated and untreated units having similar values of the estimated propensity score. Traditional techniques conduct estimation in these two stages separately; estimates from the first stage are treated as fixed and known for use in the second stage. Bayesian methods have natural appeal in these settings because separate likelihoods for the two stages can be combined into a single joint likelihood, with estimation of the two stages carried out simultaneously. One key feature of joint estimation in this context is "feedback" between the outcome stage and the propensity score stage, meaning that quantities in a model for the outcome contribute information to posterior distributions of quantities in the model for the propensity score. We provide a rigorous assessment of Bayesian propensity score estimation to show that model feedback can produce poor estimates of causal effects absent strategies that augment propensity score adjustment with adjustment for individual covariates. We illustrate this phenomenon with a simulation study and with a comparative effectiveness investigation of carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy among 123,286 Medicare beneficiaries hospitlized for stroke in 2006 and 2007. PMID:23379793

  11. Assessing health care in Canada's North: what can we learn from national and regional surveys?

    PubMed Central

    Young, T. Kue; Ng, Carmina; Chatwood, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Health surveys are a rich source of information on a variety of health issues, including health care. Objectives This article compares various national and regional surveys in terms of their geographical coverage with respect to the Canadian North, especially their Aboriginal population, and the comparability of the survey contents relating to health care. Methods Three surveys were selected as providing some information on health care, with separate estimates for the North and its Aboriginal populations. They are the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) and the First Nations Regional Health Survey (RHS). Results Different surveys focus on different categories of Aboriginal people, and no single survey has covered all categories of Aboriginal people in the North consistently. RHS is targeted at the on-reserve First Nations population only. APS and CCHS sample the off-reserve First Nations population as well as Métis and Inuit. To achieve adequate sample size for North–South comparisons and comparisons among Aboriginal groups within the North, several cycles of the biennial/annual CCHS can be merged, producing a large data set with consistent coverage of topics using comparable questions. The content areas of the 3 surveys can be broadly categorized as health status, health determinants and health care. Substantial variation exists across surveys in the domains covered. There are also changes over time in terms of definitions, questions and even basic concepts. The available health care content of the 3 surveys focus on access to different types of health services, contact with different categories of health professionals, unmet health needs and the use of preventive services. Many important dimensions of health care are not covered. Not all these basic indicators are available for the North or its Aboriginal populations. Conclusions A comprehensive survey of health care in the North with sufficient sample size to

  12. Ethics Requirement Score: new tool for evaluating ethics in publications

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Lígia Gabrielle; Fonseca, Ana Carolina da Costa e; Bica, Claudia Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze ethical standards considered by health-related scientific journals, and to prepare the Ethics Requirement Score, a bibliometric index to be applied to scientific healthcare journals in order to evaluate criteria for ethics in scientific publication. Methods Journals related to healthcare selected by the Journal of Citation Reports™ 2010 database were considered as experimental units. Parameters related to publication ethics were analyzed for each journal. These parameters were acquired by analyzing the author’s guidelines or instructions in each journal website. The parameters considered were approval by an Internal Review Board, Declaration of Helsinki or Resolution 196/96, recommendations on plagiarism, need for application of Informed Consent Forms with the volunteers, declaration of confidentiality of patients, record in the database for clinical trials (if applicable), conflict of interest disclosure, and funding sources statement. Each item was analyzed considering their presence or absence. Result The foreign journals had a significantly higher Impact Factor than the Brazilian journals, however, no significant results were observed in relation to the Ethics Requirement Score. There was no correlation between the Ethics Requirement Score and the Impact Factor. Conclusion Although the Impact Factor of foreigner journals was considerably higher than that of the Brazilian publications, the results showed that the Impact Factor has no correlation with the proposed score. This allows us to state that the ethical requirements for publication in biomedical journals are not related to the comprehensiveness or scope of the journal. PMID:25628189

  13. Does field reliability for Static-99 scores decrease as scores increase?

    PubMed

    Rice, Amanda K; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Harris, Paige B; Hawes, Samuel W

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the field reliability of Static-99 (Hanson & Thornton, 2000) scores among 21,983 sex offenders and focused on whether rater agreement decreased as scores increased. As expected, agreement was lowest for high-scoring offenders. Initial and most recent Static-99 scores were identical for only about 40% of offenders who had been assigned a score of 6 during their initial evaluations, but for more than 60% of offenders who had been assigned a score of 2 or lower. In addition, the size of the difference between scores increased as scores increased, with pairs of scores differing by 2 or more points for about 30% of offenders scoring in the high-risk range. Because evaluators and systems use high Static-99 scores to identify sexual offenders who may require intensive supervision or even postrelease civil commitment, it is important to recognize that there may be more measurement error for high scores than low scores and to consider adopting procedures for minimizing or accounting for measurement error. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24932647

  14. A Bayesian Approach to Learning Scoring Systems.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Şeyda; Rudin, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    We present a Bayesian method for building scoring systems, which are linear models with coefficients that have very few significant digits. Usually the construction of scoring systems involve manual effort-humans invent the full scoring system without using data, or they choose how logistic regression coefficients should be scaled and rounded to produce a scoring system. These kinds of heuristics lead to suboptimal solutions. Our approach is different in that humans need only specify the prior over what the coefficients should look like, and the scoring system is learned from data. For this approach, we provide a Metropolis-Hastings sampler that tends to pull the coefficient values toward their "natural scale." Empirically, the proposed method achieves a high degree of interpretability of the models while maintaining competitive generalization performances. PMID:27441407

  15. Palatable Eating Motives Scale in a college population: Distribution of scores and scores associated with greater BMI and binge-eating.

    PubMed

    Boggiano, Mary M

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to provide distributive data for the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) on a large (N=1947) ethnically-diverse college student population along with motive scores characteristic of obesity and binge-eating severity. Students completed the PEMS, or a revised version of the PEMS, the Binge Eating Scale, and reported height and weight for a body mass index (BMI). The PEMS identified Coping, Reward Enhancement, Social, and Conformity motives for eating tasty but unhealthy foods for reasons other than hunger. The revised PEMS (included here) had better goodness-of-fit with the motives. Percentile rankings are presented for each of the motive scores. Separate Coping scores are presented for females and males given a modest effect size for females to score higher. Generally, scores on Coping, Reward Enhancement, Conformity, and a total PEMS score in the 70th percentile (those scoring higher than 70% of the sample) were associated with obesity and severe binge-eating. Unlike these motives, Social scores were the highest at each percentile rank but unassociated with BMI or binge-eating, reflecting the culturally-normative intake of these foods for social reasons. These distribution scores on PEMS motives in college students along with scores linked to higher BMI and binge-eating severity represent the first reported data of this type. Knowledge of these scores can be used to individualize and correspondingly improve current strategies aimed at preventing and treating obesity, binge-eating, maladaptive use of food to regulate internal and external pressures, and to improve overall nutritional health. PMID:26826648

  16. Bilateral Hallux Valgus: A Utility Outcome Score Assessment.

    PubMed

    Makhdom, Asim M; Sinno, Hani; Aldebeyan, Sultan; Cota, Adam; Hamdy, Reggie Charles; Alzahrani, Mohammad; Janelle, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Hallux valgus is the most common forefoot problem in adults. Although it can cause considerable disability and affect the quality of life of those affected, many patients seek medical attention because of cosmetic concerns. Our aim was to objectively measure the perceived health burden of living with bilateral hallux valgus. Previously validated utility outcome measures, including the visual analog scale, time trade-off, and standard gamble tests, were used to quantify the health burden for single-eye blindness, double-eye blindness, and bilateral hallux valgus in 103 healthy subjects using an online survey. The Student t test and linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. The mean visual analog scale, time trade-off, and standard gamble scores for bilateral hallux valgus were 0.86 ± 1.6, 0.95 ± 0.5, and 0.95 ± 0.14, respectively. These were significantly greater than the utility scores for single-eye and double-eye blindness (p < .05). Age, gender, race, income, and education were not statistically significant independent predictors of the utility scores for hallux valgus. In conclusion, we have objectively demonstrated the effect of living with bilateral hallux valgus deformities. Our sample population reported being willing to undergo a procedure with a 5% mortality rate and sacrifice 1.8 years of life to attain perfect health and avoid the bilateral hallux valgus health state. Our findings will guide us in counseling our patients and understanding how they perceive their foot deformity. PMID:27289218

  17. Teachers' Use of Rubrics to Score Non-traditional Tasks: Factors Related to Discrepancies in Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Sherry L.; Rich, Beverly S.; Cady, JoAnn

    2006-01-01

    This study considered middle school mathematics teachers use of rubrics to score non-traditional tasks. A group of eighth-grade teachers attended a two-day workshop where they evaluated assessment tasks and discussed the use of an associated scoring rubric. Scored samples of student work submitted by the teachers indicated that they had difficulty…

  18. Rapid Conversion of Adolescent MMPI Raw Scores to T Scores Using the HP-67 Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembling, David W.

    1984-01-01

    Used a programmable Hewlett-Packard scientific calculator to rapidly convert raw scores from adolescent MMPI protocols to T scores, scale by scale. The K factor is handled, as needed, automatically. Complete scoring and profiling of the R-form MMPI can be done in less than 10 minutes. (Author/JAC)

  19. Concurrent Validity of LibQUAL+[TM] Scores: What Do LibQUAL+[TM] Scores Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Cook, Colleen; Kyrillidou, Martha

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the validity of LibQUAL+[TM] scores, and specifically how total and subscale LibQUAL+[TM] scores are associated with self-reported, library-related satisfaction and outcomes scores. Participants included 88,664 students and faculty who completed the American English (n[AE] = 69,494) or the British English (n[BE] =…

  20. The quantile score and its decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentzien, Sabrina; Friederichs, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Forecast verification for probabilistic weather and climate predictions gain more and more importance due to the increasing number of ensemble prediction systems. The predictive performance of probabilistic forecasts is generally assessed using proper score functions, which are applied to a set of forecast-observation pairs. The propriety of a score guarantees honesty and prevents hedging. A variety of proper scores exist for different types of probabilistic forecasts. Moreover, proper scoring functions can be decomposed into the three parts reliability, resolution, and uncertainty, which describe main characteristics of a forecasting scheme. This decomposition is well known for the Brier score and the continuous ranked probability score. This study expands the pool of verification methods for probabilistic forecasts by a decomposition of the quantile score (QS). Quantiles are suitable probabilistic measures especially for extreme forecast events, since they do not depend on an apriori defined threshold. The QS is a weighted absolute error between quantile forecasts and observations. We derive a decomposition of the QS in reliability, resolution, and uncertainty, and give a brief description of potential biases. A quantile reliability plot is presented. The quantile verification within this framework is illustrated on precipitation forecasts derived from the mesoscale ensemble prediction system COSMO-DE-EPS of the German Meteorological Service.

  1. Malnutrition-Inflammation Score and Quality of Life in Hemodialysis Patients: Is There Any Correlation?

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Zahra; Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi; Rezaeianzadeh, Abbas; Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition, inflammation and poor quality of life are prevalent among hemodialysis (HD) patients. Health-related quality of life is an important determinant of hospitalization and mortality in HD patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between quality of life and malnutrition-inflammation status according to subjective global assessment (SGA) and malnutrition-inflammation scores (MIS) in HD patients. Patients and Methods: We randomly selected 87 of 180 stable HD patients from two HD centers. Those on hemodialysis for at least three months and with malnutrition according to the SGA scores were included in this study. They were divided into two groups of mild to moderate malnutrition (n = 39) and severe malnutrition (n = 49) based on the SGA scores. Serum levels of transferrin, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, kt/v, body mass index and malnutrition-inflammation scores were measured in all patients. Health-related quality of life was assessed by validated short form-12 (SF-12) questionnaire for each patient. These values were compared between the two groups of patients by independent sample t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. The correlations of nutritional variables with SGA and MIS scores were determined by Pearson and Spearman correlation tests. Results: There were no differences in measured parameters between the two groups except for MIS scores. Those with severe malnutrition showed higher MIS scores. All quality of life aspects and total scores (PCS, MCS) (rather than social functioning (SF) aspect) were significantly different between the two groups, which showed lower physical and mental scores in severely-malnourished patients. Physical functioning (PF), role limitations due to physical heath (RP), general health (GH), mental health (MH), SF, role limitation due to emotional health (RE), vitality (VT) aspects and total scores (PCS and MCS) had negative significant correlations with MIS and SGA scores (All P

  2. The APGAR rubric for scoring online discussion boards.

    PubMed

    Phillippi, Julia C; Schorn, Mavis N; Moore-Davis, Tonia

    2015-05-01

    The World Health Organization has called for a dramatic increase in the number of midwives and supports the use of innovative programs to assist students in achieving midwifery competencies. Online discussion boards are excellent educational tools for stimulating in-depth student engagement. However, complex discussions can be difficult to grade without a well-constructed rubric. The 'discussion-board APGAR' provides clear scoring criteria for discussions of midwifery care. The discussion-board APGAR has 5 components: Application, Professionalism, Group work, Analysis, and Rationale and provides scoring criteria for unacceptable, marginal, and proficient performance. The discussion-board APGAR is based on the Core Competencies for Basic Midwifery Practice in the United States (US), consistent with the International Confederation of Midwives Essential Competencies for Basic Midwifery Practice, and can be adjusted to be congruent with other midwifery standards. PMID:25735842

  3. Examining the Predictive Validity of NIH Peer Review Scores

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Mark D.; Nakamura, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    The predictive validity of peer review at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has not yet been demonstrated empirically. It might be assumed that the most efficient and expedient test of the predictive validity of NIH peer review would be an examination of the correlation between percentile scores from peer review and bibliometric indices of the publications produced from funded projects. The present study used a large dataset to examine the rationale for such a study, to determine if it would satisfy the requirements for a test of predictive validity. The results show significant restriction of range in the applications selected for funding. Furthermore, those few applications that are funded with slightly worse peer review scores are not selected at random or representative of other applications in the same range. The funding institutes also negotiate with applicants to address issues identified during peer review. Therefore, the peer review scores assigned to the submitted applications, especially for those few funded applications with slightly worse peer review scores, do not reflect the changed and improved projects that are eventually funded. In addition, citation metrics by themselves are not valid or appropriate measures of scientific impact. The use of bibliometric indices on their own to measure scientific impact would likely increase the inefficiencies and problems with replicability already largely attributed to the current over-emphasis on bibliometric indices. Therefore, retrospective analyses of the correlation between percentile scores from peer review and bibliometric indices of the publications resulting from funded grant applications are not valid tests of the predictive validity of peer review at the NIH. PMID:26039440

  4. 42 CFR 425.502 - Calculating the ACO quality performance score.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... four domains: (i) Patient/care giver experience. (ii) Care coordination/Patient safety. (iii) Preventative health. (iv) At-risk population. (2) To satisfy quality performance requirements for a domain: (i... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calculating the ACO quality performance score....

  5. 42 CFR 425.502 - Calculating the ACO quality performance score.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Patient/care giver experience. (ii) Care coordination/Patient safety. (iii) Preventative health. (iv) At... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calculating the ACO quality performance score. 425... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE SHARED SAVINGS PROGRAM...

  6. Randomized controlled trial of a scoring aid to improve GCS scoring by EMS providers (Brief Report)

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Amanda Lynn; Hart, Kimberly Ward; Lindsell, Christopher John; McMullan, Jason T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel frequently use the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) to assess injured and critically ill patients. This study assessed the accuracy of EMS providers’ GCS scoring as well as the improvement in GCS assessment with the use of a scoring aid. Methods This randomized, controlled study was conducted in the emergency department (ED) of an urban, academic trauma center. Emergency medical technicians or paramedics who transported a patient to the ED were randomly assessed one of nine written scenarios, either with or without a GCS scoring aid. Scenarios were created by consensus of expert attending emergency medicine, EMS, and neurocritical care physicians with universal consensus agreement on GCS scores. Chi-square and student’s t-tests were used to compare groups. Results Of 180 participants, 178 completed the study. Overall, 73/178 (41%) participants gave a GCS score that matched the expert consensus score. GCS was correct in 22/88 (25%) of cases without the scoring aid. GCS was correct in 51/90 (57%) of cases with the scoring aid. Most (69%) of total GCS scores fell within one point of the expert consensus GCS score. Differences in accuracy were most pronounced in scenarios with a correct GCS of 12 or below. Sub-component accuracy was: eye 62%, verbal 70%, and motor 51%. Conclusion In this study, 60% of EMS participants provided inaccurate GCS estimates. Use of a GCS scoring aid improved accuracy of EMS GCS assessments. PMID:25199613

  7. Estimating Reading Skill from ACT Assessment Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Julie

    1986-01-01

    A study correlating Nelson-Denny Reading Test scores with American College Testing Program Assessments (ACT) indicates that reading skill can be predicted accurately from the ACT social studies reading and English usage subtests. (MSE)

  8. AIR SCORE ASSESSMENT FOR ACUTE APPENDICITIS

    PubMed Central

    VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli; BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; KRUEL, Nicolau; LUPSELO, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. Approximately 7% of the population will be affected by this condition during full life. The development of AIR score may contribute to diagnosis associating easy clinical criteria and two simple laboratory tests. Aim: To evaluate the score AIR (Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score) as a tool for the diagnosis and prediction of severity of acute appendicitis. Method: Were evaluated all patients undergoing surgical appendectomy. From 273 patients, 126 were excluded due to exclusion criteria. All patients were submitted o AIR score. Results: The value of the C-reactive protein and the percentage of leukocytes segmented blood count showed a direct relationship with the phase of acute appendicitis. Conclusion: As for the laboratory criteria, serum C-reactive protein and assessment of the percentage of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes count were important to diagnosis and disease stratification. PMID:26537139

  9. GMAT Scores of Undergraduate Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Paul A.; Monson, Terry D.

    2008-01-01

    The average score of economics majors on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exceeds those of nearly all humanities and arts, social sciences, and business undergraduate majors but not those of most science, engineering, and mathematics majors. (Contains 1 table.)

  10. Exercise + Classwork May = Better Math Scores

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_157446.html Exercise + Classwork May = Better Math Scores Dutch study also found bringing exercise to ... time learning if exercise is part of their math and spelling lessons, a new study suggests. Dutch ...

  11. 24 CFR 902.9 - PHAS scoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... indicators: Physical condition, financial condition, management operations, and the Capital Fund program... a single score for the physical condition, financial condition, and management operations indicators...: (1) The physical condition indicator is weighted 40 percent (40 points) of the overall PHAS...

  12. Purposes and methods of scoring earthquake forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, J.

    2010-12-01

    There are two kinds of purposes in the studies on earthquake prediction or forecasts: one is to give a systematic estimation of earthquake risks in some particular region and period in order to give advice to governments and enterprises for the use of reducing disasters, the other one is to search for reliable precursors that can be used to improve earthquake prediction or forecasts. For the first case, a complete score is necessary, while for the latter case, a partial score, which can be used to evaluate whether the forecasts or predictions have some advantages than a well know model, is necessary. This study reviews different scoring methods for evaluating the performance of earthquake prediction and forecasts. Especially, the gambling scoring method, which is developed recently, shows its capacity in finding good points in an earthquake prediction algorithm or model that are not in a reference model, even if its overall performance is no better than the reference model.

  13. Interpreting Standardized Test Scores: Some Fine Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William J.

    1980-01-01

    An essential function of the school guidance worker is the translation of test results into plain language and/or concrete recommendations. To do so requires a thorough understanding of the various test scores publishers provide. (Author)

  14. Multifactor Screener in OPEN: Scoring Procedures & Results

    Cancer.gov

    Scoring procedures were developed to convert a respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for percentage energy from fat, grams of fiber, and servings of fruits and vegetables.

  15. Identifying Mendelian disease genes with the Variant Effect Scoring Tool

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Whole exome sequencing studies identify hundreds to thousands of rare protein coding variants of ambiguous significance for human health. Computational tools are needed to accelerate the identification of specific variants and genes that contribute to human disease. Results We have developed the Variant Effect Scoring Tool (VEST), a supervised machine learning-based classifier, to prioritize rare missense variants with likely involvement in human disease. The VEST classifier training set comprised ~ 45,000 disease mutations from the latest Human Gene Mutation Database release and another ~45,000 high frequency (allele frequency >1%) putatively neutral missense variants from the Exome Sequencing Project. VEST outperforms some of the most popular methods for prioritizing missense variants in carefully designed holdout benchmarking experiments (VEST ROC AUC = 0.91, PolyPhen2 ROC AUC = 0.86, SIFT4.0 ROC AUC = 0.84). VEST estimates variant score p-values against a null distribution of VEST scores for neutral variants not included in the VEST training set. These p-values can be aggregated at the gene level across multiple disease exomes to rank genes for probable disease involvement. We tested the ability of an aggregate VEST gene score to identify candidate Mendelian disease genes, based on whole-exome sequencing of a small number of disease cases. We used whole-exome data for two Mendelian disorders for which the causal gene is known. Considering only genes that contained variants in all cases, the VEST gene score ranked dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) number 2 of 2253 genes in four cases of Miller syndrome, and myosin-3 (MYH3) number 2 of 2313 genes in three cases of Freeman Sheldon syndrome. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the potential power gain of aggregating bioinformatics variant scores into gene-level scores and the general utility of bioinformatics in assisting the search for disease genes in large-scale exome sequencing studies. VEST is

  16. Cardiovascular risk score in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wagan, Abrar Ahmed; Mahmud, Tafazzul E Haque; Rasheed, Aflak; Zafar, Zafar Ali; Rehman, Ata ur; Ali, Amjad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the 10-year Cardiovascular risk score with QRISK-2 and Framingham risk calculators in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Non Rheumatoid Arthritis subjects and asses the usefulness of QRISK-2 and Framingham calculators in both groups. Methods: During the study 106 RA and 106 Non RA patients age and sex matched participants were enrolled from outpatient department. Demographic data and questions regarding other study parameters were noted. After 14 hours of fasting 5 ml of venous blood was drawn for Cholesterol and HDL levels, laboratory tests were performed on COBAS c III (ROCHE). QRISK-2 and Framingham risk calculators were used to get individual 10-year CVD risk score. Results: In this study the mean age of RA group was (45.1±9.5) for Non RA group (43.7±8.2), with female gender as common. The mean predicted 10-year score with QRISK-2 calculator in RA group (14.2±17.1%) and Non RA group was (13.2±19.0%) with (p-value 0.122). The 10-year score with Framingham risk score in RA group was (12.9±10.4%) and Non RA group was (8.9±8.7%) with (p-value 0.001). In RA group QRISK-2 (24.5%) and FRS (31.1%) cases with predicted score were in higher risk category. The maximum agreement scores between both calculators was observed in both groups (Kappa = 0.618 RA Group; Kappa = 0.671 Non RA Group). Conclusion: QRISK-2 calculator is more appropriate as it takes RA, ethnicity, CKD, and Atrial fibrillation as factors in risk assessment score. PMID:27375684

  17. Comparability of IQ Scores over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Must, Olev; te Nijenhuis, Jan; Must, Aasa; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the comparability of IQ scores. Three cohorts (1933/36, 1997/98, 2006) of Estonian students (N = 2173) are compared using the Estonian National Intelligence Test. After 72 years the secular rise of the IQ test scores is 0.79 SD. The mean 0.16 SD increase in the last 8 years suggests a rapid increase of the Flynn Effect (FE)…

  18. Genetic evaluation of elbow scores and the relationship with hip scores in UK Labrador retrievers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, T W; Ilska, J J; Blott, S C; Woolliams, J A

    2011-08-01

    A linear mixed model analysis of elbow and hip score data from UK Labrador retrievers was used to estimate the heritability of elbow score (0.16-0.19) and to determine a moderate and beneficial genetic correlation with hip score (0.40). A small improvement in the genetic trend of elbow score was observed during the years 2000-2008, equivalent to avoiding only the worst 3-4% of scored dogs for breeding, but close to what may have been anticipated if the current British Veterinary Association-approved guidelines were followed. Calculations suggested that a correlated response to indirect selection on hip score may elicit a greater response than direct selection on elbow score and that the genetic trend in elbow score may be explained as a consequence of the stronger selection pressure that has been placed on hip score. Increases in the accuracy of estimated breeding values for elbow score of 4-7% for dogs with elbow data only and 7-11% for dogs with both hip and elbow score were observed from bivariate analysis of elbow and hip data. A selection index confirmed the benefits of bivariate analysis of elbow and hip score data by identifying increases in accuracy (directly related to the response to selection) of 14% from the use of optimum coefficients compared to use of hip data only. The quantified genetic correlation means that hip score effectively acts as a 'secondary indicator' of elbow score in this breed and the preponderance of hip data means that it acts as a major source of information that may be used to improve the accuracy of estimates of genetic risk for elbow dysplasia. PMID:21737324

  19. Pharmacophore-Based Similarity Scoring for DOCK

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacophore modeling incorporates geometric and chemical features of known inhibitors and/or targeted binding sites to rationally identify and design new drug leads. In this study, we have encoded a three-dimensional pharmacophore matching similarity (FMS) scoring function into the structure-based design program DOCK. Validation and characterization of the method are presented through pose reproduction, crossdocking, and enrichment studies. When used alone, FMS scoring dramatically improves pose reproduction success to 93.5% (∼20% increase) and reduces sampling failures to 3.7% (∼6% drop) compared to the standard energy score (SGE) across 1043 protein–ligand complexes. The combined FMS+SGE function further improves success to 98.3%. Crossdocking experiments using FMS and FMS+SGE scoring, for six diverse protein families, similarly showed improvements in success, provided proper pharmacophore references are employed. For enrichment, incorporating pharmacophores during sampling and scoring, in most cases, also yield improved outcomes when docking and rank-ordering libraries of known actives and decoys to 15 systems. Retrospective analyses of virtual screenings to three clinical drug targets (EGFR, IGF-1R, and HIVgp41) using X-ray structures of known inhibitors as pharmacophore references are also reported, including a customized FMS scoring protocol to bias on selected regions in the reference. Overall, the results and fundamental insights gained from this study should benefit the docking community in general, particularly researchers using the new FMS method to guide computational drug discovery with DOCK. PMID:25229837

  20. Clinical risk scores to guide perioperative management.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Sarah; Moonesinghe, Suneetha Ramani

    2011-08-01

    Perioperative morbidity is associated with reduced long term survival. Comorbid disease, cardiovascular illness, and functional capacity can predispose patients to adverse surgical outcomes. Accurate risk stratification would facilitate informed patient consent and identify those individuals who may benefit from specific perioperative interventions. The ideal clinical risk scoring system would be objective, accurate, economical, simple to perform, based entirely on information available preoperatively, and suitable for patients undergoing both elective and emergency surgery. The POSSUM (Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and Morbidity) scoring systems are the most widely validated perioperative risk predictors currently utilised; however, their inclusion of intra- and postoperative variables precludes validation for preoperative risk prediction. The Charlson Index has the advantage of consisting exclusively of preoperative variables; however, its validity varies in different patient cohorts. Risk models predicting cardiac morbidity have been extensively studied, despite the relatively uncommon occurrence of postoperative cardiac events. Probably the most widely used cardiac risk score is the Lee Revised Cardiac Risk Index, although it has limited validity in some patient populations and for non-cardiac outcomes. Bespoke clinical scoring systems responding to dynamic changes in population characteristics over time, such as those developed by the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, are more precise, but require considerable resources to implement. The combination of objective clinical variables with information from novel techniques such as cardiopulmonary exercise testing and biomarker assays, may improve the predictive precision of clinical risk scores used to guide perioperative management. PMID:21257993

  1. 7 CFR 2003.18 - Functional organization of RHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... affordable housing and community facilities, in accordance with Title V of the Housing Act of 1949 (42 U.S.C... section 233 of the Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 6943). (b) Office of the Administrator. According to 7 CFR 2.49, the Administrator has responsibility for implementing programs aimed...

  2. 7 CFR 2003.18 - Functional organization of RHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... affordable housing and community facilities, in accordance with Title V of the Housing Act of 1949 (42 U.S.C... section 233 of the Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 6943). (b) Office of the Administrator. According to 7 CFR 2.49, the Administrator has responsibility for implementing programs aimed...

  3. 7 CFR 2003.18 - Functional organization of RHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Property Management Division, and Single Family Housing Centralized Servicing Center in St. Louis, Mo. (i... an opportunity to have decent, safe, and sanitary rental housing. The following programs are administered and managed by this office: Section 515 Rural Rental Housing, Rural Cooperative and...

  4. 7 CFR 2003.18 - Functional organization of RHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Property Management Division, and Single Family Housing Centralized Servicing Center in St. Louis, Mo. (i... an opportunity to have decent, safe, and sanitary rental housing. The following programs are administered and managed by this office: Section 515 Rural Rental Housing, Rural Cooperative and...

  5. Neighborhood Social Context and Individual Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposures Associated with Child Cognitive Test Scores.

    PubMed

    Lovasi, Gina S; Eldred-Skemp, Nicolia; Quinn, James W; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Rauh, Virginia A; Rundle, Andrew; Orjuela, Manuela A; Perera, Frederica P

    2014-07-01

    Childhood cognitive and test-taking abilities have long-term implications for educational achievement and health, and may be influenced by household environmental exposures and neighborhood contexts. This study evaluates whether age 5 scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R, administered in English) are associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and neighborhood context variables including poverty, low educational attainment, low English language proficiency, and inadequate plumbing. The Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health enrolled African-American and Dominican-American New York City women during pregnancy, and conducted follow-up for subsequent childhood health outcomes including cognitive test scores. Individual outcomes were linked to data characterizing 1-km network buffers around prenatal addresses, home observations, interviews, and prenatal PAH exposure data from personal air monitors. Prenatal PAH exposure above the median predicted 3.5 point lower total WPPSI-R scores and 3.9 point lower verbal scores; the association was similar in magnitude across models with adjustments for neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood-level low English proficiency was independently associated with 2.3 point lower mean total WPPSI-R score, 1.2 point lower verbal score, and 2.7 point lower performance score per standard deviation. Low neighborhood-level educational attainment was also associated with 2.0 point lower performance scores. In models examining effect modification, neighborhood associations were similar or diminished among the high PAH exposure group, as compared with the low PAH exposure group. Early life exposure to personal PAH exposure or selected neighborhood-level social contexts may predict lower cognitive test scores. However, these results may reflect limited geographic exposure variation and limited generalizability. PMID:24994947

  6. Neighborhood Social Context and Individual Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposures Associated with Child Cognitive Test Scores

    PubMed Central

    Eldred-Skemp, Nicolia; Quinn, James W.; Chang, Hsin-wen; Rauh, Virginia A.; Rundle, Andrew; Orjuela, Manuela A.; Perera, Frederica P.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood cognitive and test-taking abilities have long-term implications for educational achievement and health, and may be influenced by household environmental exposures and neighborhood contexts. This study evaluates whether age 5 scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R, administered in English) are associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and neighborhood context variables including poverty, low educational attainment, low English language proficiency, and inadequate plumbing. The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health enrolled African-American and Dominican-American New York City women during pregnancy, and conducted follow-up for subsequent childhood health outcomes including cognitive test scores. Individual outcomes were linked to data characterizing 1-km network buffers around prenatal addresses, home observations, interviews, and prenatal PAH exposure data from personal air monitors. Prenatal PAH exposure above the median predicted 3.5 point lower total WPPSI-R scores and 3.9 point lower verbal scores; the association was similar in magnitude across models with adjustments for neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood-level low English proficiency was independently associated with 2.3 point lower mean total WPPSI-R score, 1.2 point lower verbal score, and 2.7 point lower performance score per standard deviation. Low neighborhood-level educational attainment was also associated with 2.0 point lower performance scores. In models examining effect modification, neighborhood associations were similar or diminished among the high PAH exposure group, as compared with the low PAH exposure group. Early life exposure to personal PAH exposure or selected neighborhood-level social contexts may predict lower cognitive test scores. However, these results may reflect limited geographic exposure variation and limited generalizability. PMID:24994947

  7. Quality scores for 32,000 genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background More than 80% of the microbial genomes in GenBank are of ‘draft’ quality (12,553 draft vs. 2,679 finished, as of October, 2013). We have examined all the microbial DNA sequences available for complete, draft, and Sequence Read Archive genomes in GenBank as well as three other major public databases, and assigned quality scores for more than 30,000 prokaryotic genome sequences. Results Scores were assigned using four categories: the completeness of the assembly, the presence of full-length rRNA genes, tRNA composition and the presence of a set of 102 conserved genes in prokaryotes. Most (~88%) of the genomes had quality scores of 0.8 or better and can be safely used for standard comparative genomics analysis. We compared genomes across factors that may influence the score. We found that although sequencing depth coverage of over 100x did not ensure a better score, sequencing read length was a better indicator of sequencing quality. With few exceptions, most of the 30,000 genomes have nearly all the 102 essential genes. Conclusions The score can be used to set thresholds for screening data when analyzing “all published genomes” and reference data is either not available or not applicable. The scores highlighted organisms for which commonly used tools do not perform well. This information can be used to improve tools and to serve a broad group of users as more diverse organisms are sequenced. Unexpectedly, the comparison of predicted tRNAs across 15,000 high quality genomes showed that anticodons beginning with an ‘A’ (codons ending with a ‘U’) are almost non-existent, with the exception of one arginine codon (CGU); this has been noted previously in the literature for a few genomes, but not with the depth found here. PMID:25780509

  8. Quality scores for 32,000 genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Land, Miriam L.; Hyatt, Doug; Jun, Se-Ran; Kora, Guruprasad H.; Hauser, Loren J.; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David W.

    2014-12-08

    More than 80% of the microbial genomes in GenBank are of ‘draft’ quality (12,553 draft vs. 2,679 finished, as of October, 2013). In this study, we have examined all the microbial DNA sequences available for complete, draft, and Sequence Read Archive genomes in GenBank as well as three other major public databases, and assigned quality scores for more than 30,000 prokaryotic genome sequences. Scores were assigned using four categories: the completeness of the assembly, the presence of full-length rRNA genes, tRNA composition and the presence of a set of 102 conserved genes in prokaryotes. Most (~88%) of the genomes had quality scores of 0.8 or better and can be safely used for standard comparative genomics analysis. We compared genomes across factors that may influence the score. We found that although sequencing depth coverage of over 100x did not ensure a better score, sequencing read length was a better indicator of sequencing quality. With few exceptions, most of the 30,000 genomes have nearly all the 102 essential genes. The score can be used to set thresholds for screening data when analyzing “all published genomes” and reference data is either not available or not applicable. The scores highlighted organisms for which commonly used tools do not perform well. This information can be used to improve tools and to serve a broad group of users as more diverse organisms are sequenced. Finally and unexpectedly, the comparison of predicted tRNAs across 15,000 high quality genomes showed that anticodons beginning with an ‘A’ (codons ending with a ‘U’) are almost non-existent, with the exception of one arginine codon (CGU); this has been noted previously in the literature for a few genomes, but not with the depth found here.

  9. Quality scores for 32,000 genomes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Land, Miriam L.; Hyatt, Doug; Jun, Se-Ran; Kora, Guruprasad H.; Hauser, Loren J.; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David W.

    2014-12-08

    More than 80% of the microbial genomes in GenBank are of ‘draft’ quality (12,553 draft vs. 2,679 finished, as of October, 2013). In this study, we have examined all the microbial DNA sequences available for complete, draft, and Sequence Read Archive genomes in GenBank as well as three other major public databases, and assigned quality scores for more than 30,000 prokaryotic genome sequences. Scores were assigned using four categories: the completeness of the assembly, the presence of full-length rRNA genes, tRNA composition and the presence of a set of 102 conserved genes in prokaryotes. Most (~88%) of the genomes hadmore » quality scores of 0.8 or better and can be safely used for standard comparative genomics analysis. We compared genomes across factors that may influence the score. We found that although sequencing depth coverage of over 100x did not ensure a better score, sequencing read length was a better indicator of sequencing quality. With few exceptions, most of the 30,000 genomes have nearly all the 102 essential genes. The score can be used to set thresholds for screening data when analyzing “all published genomes” and reference data is either not available or not applicable. The scores highlighted organisms for which commonly used tools do not perform well. This information can be used to improve tools and to serve a broad group of users as more diverse organisms are sequenced. Finally and unexpectedly, the comparison of predicted tRNAs across 15,000 high quality genomes showed that anticodons beginning with an ‘A’ (codons ending with a ‘U’) are almost non-existent, with the exception of one arginine codon (CGU); this has been noted previously in the literature for a few genomes, but not with the depth found here.« less

  10. An assessment of the test–retest reliability of the New Nordic Diet score

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Stea, Tonje Holte; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Bere, Elling

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in the New Nordic Diet (NND) as a potentially health promoting, environmentally friendly, and palatable regional diet. Also, dietary scores are gaining ground as a complementary approach for examining relations between dietary patterns and various health outcomes. A score assessing adherence to the NND has earlier been published, yet not tested for reliability. Objective To assess the test–retest reliability of the NND score in a sample of parents of toddlers, residing in Southern Norway. Design A questionnaire survey was completed on two occasions, approximately 14 days apart, by 67 parents of toddlers [85% females, mean age 34 years (SD=5.3 years)]. The NND score was constructed from 24 items and comprised 10 subscales that summarize meal pattern and intake of typical Nordic foods. Each subscale was dichotomized by the median and assigned values of ‘0’ or ‘1’. Adding the subscales yielded a score ranging from 0 to 10, which was further trichotomized. Test–retest reliability of the final NND score and individual subscales was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, respectively. Additionally, cross tabulation and kappa measure of agreement (k) were used to assess the test–retest agreement of classification into the NND score, and the subscales. Results Test–retest correlations of the NND score and subscales were r=0.80 (Pearson) and r=0.54–0.84 (Spearman), respectively, all p<0.001. There were 69% (k=0.52) and 67–88% (k=0.32–0.76) test–retest correct classification of the trichotomized score and the dichotomized subscales, respectively. Conclusion The NND score and the 10 subscales appear to have acceptable test–retest reliability when tested in a sample of parents of toddlers. PMID:26268707

  11. Coefficient α as a Measure of Test Score Reliability: Review of 3 Popular Misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Morera, Osvaldo F; Stokes, Sonya M

    2016-03-01

    We discuss 3 popular misconceptions about Cronbach α or coefficient α, traditionally used in public health and the behavioral sciences as an index of test score reliability. We also review several other indices of test score reliability. We encourage researchers to thoughtfully consider the nature of their data and the options when choosing an index of reliability, and to clearly communicate this choice and its implications to their audiences. PMID:26885962

  12. Propensity score and proximity matching using random forest.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Su, Xiaogang; Ge, Tingting; Fan, Juanjuan

    2016-03-01

    In order to derive unbiased inference from observational data, matching methods are often applied to produce balanced treatment and control groups in terms of all background variables. Propensity score has been a key component in this research area. However, propensity score based matching methods in the literature have several limitations, such as model mis-specifications, categorical variables with more than two levels, difficulties in handling missing data, and nonlinear relationships. Random forest, averaging outcomes from many decision trees, is nonparametric in nature, straightforward to use, and capable of solving these issues. More importantly, the precision afforded by random forest (Caruana et al., 2008) may provide us with a more accurate and less model dependent estimate of the propensity score. In addition, the proximity matrix, a by-product of the random forest, may naturally serve as a distance measure between observations that can be used in matching. The proposed random forest based matching methods are applied to data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Our results show that the proposed methods can produce well balanced treatment and control groups. An illustration is also provided that the methods can effectively deal with missing data in covariates. PMID:26706666

  13. Assessment of ICU readmission risk with the Stability and Workload Index for Transfer score*

    PubMed Central

    Oakes, Daiane Ferreira; Borges, Ingrid Nemitz Krás; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Rieder, Marcelo de Mello

    2014-01-01

    Patient discharge from the ICU is indicated on the basis of clinical evidence and the result of strategies aimed at improving health care. Nevertheless, some patients might be discharged too early. We attempted to identify risk factors for unplanned ICU readmission, using a score for risk assessment, designated the Stability and Workload Index for Transfer (SWIFT) score. We evaluated 100 patients discharged from an ICU and found that the SWIFT score can be used as a tool for improving the assessment of ICU patients and the appropriateness of ICU discharge, thus preventing readmission. PMID:24626273

  14. The specificity of the Stroop interference score of errors to ADHD in boys.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, L; Plessen, K J; Adolfsdottir, S; Lundervold, A J

    2014-01-01

    The Stroop Interference Test is widely used to assess the inhibition function; however, divergent results have emerged from meta-analyses in children with ADHD. This has led to conflicting results as to whether the Stroop test detects the level of inhibition in these children. We hypothesized that the general approach to include interference scores depending on response time causes conflicting results, whereas recordings of errors may prove a superior measure of the inhibition function in children with ADHD. In the present study, 39 children with an ADHD diagnosis, two subgroups with and without another comorbid mental health disorder, were compared with respect to their interference scores of response time and errors with two subgroups of children with no ADHD. The two subgroups comprised 33 children with another mental health disorder other than ADHD and 56 children with no psychiatric disorder. The between-group analyses detected a multivariate, marginal main effect of an ADHD diagnosis on the Stroop interference scores, and a univariate main effect of an ADHD diagnosis on the interference score of errors. Further, only the interference score of errors predicted significantly the parent reported scores on the Inhibit scale from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. These findings support that a Stroop interference score of errors is sensitive for inhibition problems in children with ADHD and encourages the use of Stroop versions including error recordings independent of response time. PMID:24228780

  15. Risk of Ovarian Cancer Relapse Score

    PubMed Central

    Rizzuto, Ivana; Stavraka, Chara; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Borley, Jane; Hopkins, Thomas Glass; Gabra, Hani; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Huson, Les; Blagden, Sarah P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to construct a prognostic index that predicts risk of relapse in women who have completed first-line treatment for ovarian cancer (OC). Methods A database of OC cases from 2000 to 2010 was interrogated for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, grade and histological subtype of cancer, preoperative and posttreatment CA-125 level, presence or absence of residual disease after cytoreductive surgery and on postchemotherapy computed tomography scan, and time to progression and death. The strongest predictors of relapse were included into an algorithm, the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Relapse (ROVAR) score. Results Three hundred fifty-four cases of OC were analyzed to generate the ROVAR score. Factors selected were preoperative serum CA-125, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage and grade of cancer, and presence of residual disease at posttreatment computed tomography scan. In the validation data set, the ROVAR score had a sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 61%, respectively. The concordance index for the validation data set was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.96). The score allows patient stratification into low (<0.33), intermediate (0.34–0.67), and high (>0.67) probability of relapse. Conclusions The ROVAR score stratifies patients according to their risk of relapse following first-line treatment for OC. This can broadly facilitate the appropriate tailoring of posttreatment care and support. PMID:25647256

  16. Gambling scores for earthquake predictions and forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jiancang

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a new method, namely the gambling score, for scoring the performance earthquake forecasts or predictions. Unlike most other scoring procedures that require a regular scheme of forecast and treat each earthquake equally, regardless their magnitude, this new scoring method compensates the risk that the forecaster has taken. Starting with a certain number of reputation points, once a forecaster makes a prediction or forecast, he is assumed to have betted some points of his reputation. The reference model, which plays the role of the house, determines how many reputation points the forecaster can gain if he succeeds, according to a fair rule, and also takes away the reputation points betted by the forecaster if he loses. This method is also extended to the continuous case of point process models, where the reputation points betted by the forecaster become a continuous mass on the space-time-magnitude range of interest. We also calculate the upper bound of the gambling score when the true model is a renewal process, the stress release model or the ETAS model and when the reference model is the Poisson model.

  17. Prognostic Value of TIMI Score versus GRACE Score in ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Luis C. L.; Garcia, Guilherme; Kalil, Felipe; Ferreira, Felipe; Carvalhal, Manuela; Oliveira, Ruan; Silva, André; Vasconcelos, Isis; Henri, Caio; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia

    2014-01-01

    Background The TIMI Score for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was created and validated specifically for this clinical scenario, while the GRACE score is generic to any type of acute coronary syndrome. Objective Between TIMI and GRACE scores, identify the one of better prognostic performance in patients with STEMI. Methods We included 152 individuals consecutively admitted for STEMI. The TIMI and GRACE scores were tested for their discriminatory ability (C-statistics) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow) in relation to hospital death. Results The TIMI score showed equal distribution of patients in the ranges of low, intermediate and high risk (39 %, 27 % and 34 %, respectively), as opposed to the GRACE Score that showed predominant distribution at low risk (80 %, 13 % and 7%, respectively). Case-fatality was 11%. The C-statistics of the TIMI score was 0.87 (95%CI = 0.76 to 0.98), similar to GRACE (0.87, 95%CI = 0.75 to 0.99) - p = 0.71. The TIMI score showed satisfactory calibration represented by χ2 = 1.4 (p = 0.92), well above the calibration of the GRACE score, which showed χ2 = 14 (p = 0.08). This calibration is reflected in the expected incidence ranges for low, intermediate and high risk, according to the TIMI score (0 %, 4.9 % and 25 %, respectively), differently to GRACE (2.4%, 25% and 73%), which featured middle range incidence inappropriately. Conclusion Although the scores show similar discriminatory capacity for hospital death, the TIMI score had better calibration than GRACE. These findings need to be validated populations of different risk profiles. PMID:25029471

  18. Vinardo: A Scoring Function Based on Autodock Vina Improves Scoring, Docking, and Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Marcos A.

    2016-01-01

    Autodock Vina is a very popular, and highly cited, open source docking program. Here we present a scoring function which we call Vinardo (Vina RaDii Optimized). Vinardo is based on Vina, and was trained through a novel approach, on state of the art datasets. We show that the traditional approach to train empirical scoring functions, using linear regression to optimize the correlation of predicted and experimental binding affinities, does not result in a function with optimal docking capabilities. On the other hand, a combination of scoring, minimization, and re-docking on carefully curated training datasets allowed us to develop a simplified scoring function with optimum docking performance. This article provides an overview of the development of the Vinardo scoring function, highlights its differences with Vina, and compares the performance of the two scoring functions in scoring, docking and virtual screening applications. Vinardo outperforms Vina in all tests performed, for all datasets analyzed. The Vinardo scoring function is available as an option within Smina, a fork of Vina, which is freely available under the GNU Public License v2.0 from http://smina.sf.net. Precompiled binaries, source code, documentation and a tutorial for using Smina to run the Vinardo scoring function are available at the same address. PMID:27171006

  19. Generalizing Observational Study Results: Applying Propensity Score Methods to Complex Surveys

    PubMed Central

    DuGoff, Eva H; Schuler, Megan; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo provide a tutorial for using propensity score methods with complex survey data. Data SourcesSimulated data and the 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Study DesignUsing simulation, we compared the following methods for estimating the treatment effect: a naïve estimate (ignoring both survey weights and propensity scores), survey weighting, propensity score methods (nearest neighbor matching, weighting, and subclassification), and propensity score methods in combination with survey weighting. Methods are compared in terms of bias and 95 percent confidence interval coverage. In Example 2, we used these methods to estimate the effect on health care spending of having a generalist versus a specialist as a usual source of care. Principal FindingsIn general, combining a propensity score method and survey weighting is necessary to achieve unbiased treatment effect estimates that are generalizable to the original survey target population. ConclusionsPropensity score methods are an essential tool for addressing confounding in observational studies. Ignoring survey weights may lead to results that are not generalizable to the survey target population. This paper clarifies the appropriate inferences for different propensity score methods and suggests guidelines for selecting an appropriate propensity score method based on a researcher’s goal. PMID:23855598

  20. Are There Adverse Consequences to Being a Sibling of a Person with a Disability? A Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely-Barnes, Susan L.; Graff, J. Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether siblings of children with disabilities have increased mental health problems, behavioral difficulties, or greater mental health service use as compared to siblings of children without disabilities. Data come from the 2006 National Health Interview Survey. Propensity score matching was used to complete the analysis.…

  1. Multidimensional Linking for Domain Scores and Overall Scores for Nonequivalent Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires state assessments to report not only overall scores but also domain scores. To see the information on students' overall achievement, progress, and detailed strengths and weaknesses, and thereby identify areas for improvement in educational quality, students' performances across years or across forms need to be…

  2. What Do Test Score Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, James; Munk, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyse a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-1955, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has…

  3. Observed Score and True Score Equating Procedures for Multidimensional Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brossman, Bradley Grant

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop observed score and true score equating procedures to be used in conjunction with the Multidimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT) framework. Currently, MIRT scale linking procedures exist to place item parameter estimates and ability estimates on the same scale after separate calibrations are conducted.…

  4. Relationship between Students' Scores on Research Methods and Statistics, and Undergraduate Project Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossai, Peter Agbadobi Uloku

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between students' scores on Research Methods and statistics, and undergraduate project at the final year. The purpose was to find out whether students matched knowledge of research with project-writing skill. The study adopted an expost facto correlational design. Scores on Research Methods and Statistics for…

  5. Multidimensional CAT Item Selection Methods for Domain Scores and Composite Scores: Theory and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    Multidimensional computer adaptive testing (MCAT) can provide higher precision and reliability or reduce test length when compared with unidimensional CAT or with the paper-and-pencil test. This study compared five item selection procedures in the MCAT framework for both domain scores and overall scores through simulation by varying the structure…

  6. Analysis of WAIS-IV Index Score Scatter Using Significant Deviation from the Mean Index Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoire, Jacques; Coalson, Diane L.; Zhu, Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not include verbal IQ and performance IQ scores, as provided in previous editions of the scale; rather, this edition provides comparisons among four index scores, allowing analysis of an individual's WAIS-IV performance in more discrete domains of cognitive ability. To supplement…

  7. Estimating Total-Test Scores from Partial Scores in a Matrix Sampling Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachar, Jane; Suppes, Patrick

    1980-01-01

    The present study compared six methods, two of which utilize the content structure of items, to estimate total-test scores using 450 students and 60 items of the 110-item Stanford Mental Arithmetic Test. Three methods yielded fairly good estimates of the total-test score. (Author/RL)

  8. Agreement Between Cardiovascular Disease Risk Scores in Resource-Limited Settings: Evidence from 5 Peruvian Sites

    PubMed Central

    Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Quispe, Renato; Peralta, Frank; Poterico, Julio A.; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Burroughs, Melissa; Pillay, Timesh; Gilman, Robert H.; Checkley, William; Malaga, Germán; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how well currently available risk scores predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in low-income and middle-income countries. We aim to compare the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Pooled Cohort risk equations (ACC/AHA model) with 6 other CVD risk tools to assess the concordance of predicted CVD risk in a random sample from 5 geographically diverse Peruvian populations. We used data from 2 Peruvian, age and sex-matched, population-based studies across 5 geographical sites. The ACC/AHA model were compared with 6 other CVD risk prediction tools: laboratory Framingham risk score for CVD, non-laboratory Framingham risk score for CVD, Reynolds risk score, systematic coronary risk evaluation, World Health Organization risk charts, and the Lancet chronic diseases risk charts. Main outcome was in agreement with predicted CVD risk using Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient. Two thousand one hundred and eighty-three subjects, mean age 54.3 (SD ± 5.6) years, were included in the analysis. Overall, we found poor agreement between different scores when compared with ACC/AHA model. When each of the risk scores was used with cut-offs specified in guidelines, ACC/AHA model depicted the highest proportion of people at high CVD risk predicted at 10 years, with a prevalence of 29.0% (95% confidence interval, 26.9–31.0%), whereas prevalence with World Health Organization risk charts was 0.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.2–8.6%). In conclusion, poor concordance between current CVD risk scores demonstrates the uncertainty of choosing any of them for public health and clinical interventions in Latin American populations. There is a need to improve the evidence base of risk scores for CVD in low-income and middle-income countries. PMID:26102017

  9. Agreement Between Cardiovascular Disease Risk Scores in Resource-Limited Settings: Evidence from 5 Peruvian Sites.

    PubMed

    Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Quispe, Renato; Peralta, Frank; Poterico, Julio A; Valle, Giancarlo A; Burroughs, Melissa; Pillay, Timesh; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Malaga, Germán; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-06-01

    It is unclear how well currently available risk scores predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in low-income and middle-income countries. We aim to compare the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Pooled Cohort risk equations (ACC/AHA model) with 6 other CVD risk tools to assess the concordance of predicted CVD risk in a random sample from 5 geographically diverse Peruvian populations. We used data from 2 Peruvian, age and sex-matched, population-based studies across 5 geographical sites. The ACC/AHA model were compared with 6 other CVD risk prediction tools: laboratory Framingham risk score for CVD, non-laboratory Framingham risk score for CVD, Reynolds risk score, systematic coronary risk evaluation, World Health Organization risk charts, and the Lancet chronic diseases risk charts. Main outcome was in agreement with predicted CVD risk using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Two thousand one hundred and eighty-three subjects, mean age 54.3 (SD ± 5.6) years, were included in the analysis. Overall, we found poor agreement between different scores when compared with ACC/AHA model. When each of the risk scores was used with cut-offs specified in guidelines, ACC/AHA model depicted the highest proportion of people at high CVD risk predicted at 10 years, with a prevalence of 29.0% (95% confidence interval, 26.9-31.0%), whereas prevalence with World Health Organization risk charts was 0.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.2-8.6%). In conclusion, poor concordance between current CVD risk scores demonstrates the uncertainty of choosing any of them for public health and clinical interventions in Latin American populations. There is a need to improve the evidence base of risk scores for CVD in low-income and middle-income countries. PMID:26102017

  10. HPXML to Home Energy Score Translator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-09-08

    Home Energy Score is a simulation-based rating method for existing homes. Home Performance XML (HPXML) is a data transfer standard for home energy audit and retrofit data used throughout the industry. This software receives an HPXML document and translates the building characteristics into HEScore inputs compliant with their API.

  11. 24 CFR 902.9 - PHAS scoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false PHAS scoring. 902.9 Section 902.9 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  12. Scoring Guides and National Percentages of Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    This book of scoring guides and national percentages is part of a kit consisting of four documents which bring together different types of items that measure a number of career and occupational development (COD) objectives developed by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). (NAEP--which completed a national survey measuring the…

  13. Teacher Use of Achievement Test Score Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    The Wyoming Department of Education (WDE) has invested time and money developing standardized achievement test score reports designed to give teachers data about each of their students' levels of mastery of particular concepts in order to differentiate their instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which…

  14. Incorporating Quality Scores in Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Soyeon; Becker, Betsy Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of quality-score weights in meta-analysis. A simulation examines the roles of study characteristics such as population effect size (ES) and its variance on the bias and mean square errors (MSEs) of the estimators for several patterns of relationship between quality and ES, and for specific patterns of systematic…

  15. A Tutorial on Interpreting Bifactor Model Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial addresses possible sources of confusion in interpreting trait scores from the bifactor model. The bifactor model may be used when subscores are desired, either for formative feedback on an achievement test or for theoretically different constructs on a psychological test. The bifactor model is often chosen because it requires fewer…

  16. Keeping Score on Alcohol: Millennium Hangover.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    This report is issued by Drug Strategies, a non-profit research institute that promotes more effective approaches to the nation's drug problems and supports private and public initiatives that reduce the demand for drugs through prevention, treatment, and law enforcement. Drug Strategies prepares "Keeping Score" annually to capture the dimensions…

  17. SCORE, A Measurement of Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeler, Richard J.

    The University of Denver Libraries employed SCORE (Service Components Reliability and Efficiency), a cost analysis technique, to measure effectiveness and cost of reference activity. This report examines the results and the problems encountered in application of this methodology. A reference model, designed as a flow chart, was developed by…

  18. Computer Scoring of Sentence Completion Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldman, Donald J.; And Others

    This paper outlines the development of techniques for computer-based personality assessment from sentence completions. The One-Word Sentence Completion (OWSC) instrument was designed to elicit data suitable for machine processing, while retaining most of the advantages of a free-response format. Two operative scoring systems are described. The…

  19. Scoring Writing with an Informative Aim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabianski, Nancyanne

    Designed to evaluate the degree to which an essay is successful in giving information, this instrument is an analytic/holistic scoring guide for evaluating any writing that contains generalizations supported by elaboration. The following criteria are applied: (1) relevance--any statement that gives information or elaborates on information already…

  20. Scoring the All-Day Screener

    Cancer.gov

    For the All-Day screener, scoring involves a series of operations that are shown below and implemented in the All-Day Screener Pyramid Servings SAS Program and the All-Day Screener MyPyramid Cup Equivalents SAS Program.

  1. Local Observed-Score Kernel Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberg, Marie; van der Linden, Wim J.; von Davier, Alina A.

    2014-01-01

    Three local observed-score kernel equating methods that integrate methods from the local equating and kernel equating frameworks are proposed. The new methods were compared with their earlier counterparts with respect to such measures as bias--as defined by Lord's criterion of equity--and percent relative error. The local kernel item response…

  2. FEEDBACK SCORING SYSTEMS FOR REUSABLE KINDERGARTEN WORKBOOKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GACH, PENELOPE J.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMICAL FEEDBACK SCORING SYSTEMS FOR REUSABLE KINDERGARTEN WORKBOOKS IS DESCRIBED. THREE PROTOTYPE SYSTEMS WERE DEVELOPED--(1) A METAL FOIL ACTIVATING AN ELECTRICAL PROBE, (2) A METAL FOIL REACTING WITH A MAGNETIC PROBE, AND (3) INVISIBLE FLUORESCENT INK REVEALED BY THE APPLICATION OF LONGWAVE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT. (MS)

  3. Graduate Research: Score Comparison by Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Robert L.; Broadston, Pamela M.

    2004-01-01

    Do males and females differ as to performance in a graduate-level research class? To investigate this question, the study compared test scores before and after a graduate-level advanced research class, by sex. The six classes that were the focus of this study were offered in the fall 2001, spring and fall 2002 and 2003, and spring 2004 terms under…

  4. Empathic veterinarians score cattle pain higher.

    PubMed

    Norring, Marianna; Wikman, Ingela; Hokkanen, Ann-Helena; Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Hänninen, Laura

    2014-04-01

    The treatment of cattle pain often relies upon veterinarians. The aim of this study was to qualify the influence of veterinarians skills, attitudes, and empathy on cattle pain assesment and consequently disbudding pain management. A web-based questionnaire was sent to Finnish veterinary students in either the preclinical or clinical stage, and also to production-animal practice oriented veterinarians. The questionnaire recorded demographics, statements of opinions, pain scoring of cattle conditions and procedures. Empathy towards humans (Interpersonal Reactivity Index, IRI) and reworded IRI to measure empathy towards animals were also covered. The overall response rate was approximately 40%. The association between pain and empathy scores were analyzed by Pearsońs correlation, and the factors affecting pain scores and empathy towards animals analyzed using linear models. The need for pain medication of calves during disbudding was well recognized and the intention to treat such pain was very common. Higher mean scores for cattle pain were associated with greater empathy towards humans. On average, respondents' empathy towards animals was greater than towards humans, and was associated with respondents' empathy towards humans, family size and attachment to family pet. PMID:24685101

  5. Misidentifying Factors Underlying Singapore's High Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    2012-01-01

    Singapore students have scored exceedingly well on international tests in mathematics. In response, there has been a desire in the United States--both at the policy level and at the school level--to emulate Singapore. Because what can be identified most easily about Singapore's school mathematics can be gleaned from curriculum documents from the…

  6. Equating Scores from Adaptive to Linear Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2006-01-01

    Two local methods for observed-score equating are applied to the problem of equating an adaptive test to a linear test. In an empirical study, the methods were evaluated against a method based on the test characteristic function (TCF) of the linear test and traditional equipercentile equating applied to the ability estimates on the adaptive test…

  7. Test Scores, Creativity, and Global Competitiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2002-01-01

    Examines correlation between national test scores in mathematics from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Current Competitiveness Index (CCI). Finds, for example, that while the United States ranks 29th in TIMSS mathematics, it ranks second in competitiveness on the CCI. Korea ranks 3rd in mathematics, but 27th in…

  8. Critical Thinking: More than Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vernon G.; Szymanski, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    This article is for practicing or aspiring school administrators. The demand for excellence in public education has lead to an emphasis on standardized test scores. This article explores the development of a professional enhancement program designed to prepare teachers to teach higher order thinking skills. Higher order thinking is the primary…

  9. The Nature of Automated Essay Scoring Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the nature of feedback that English as a Second Language (ESL) students received on their writings either from an automated essay scoring (AES) system or from the teacher. The participants were 12 adult ESL students who were attending an intensive English center at a university in Florida. The drafts of the…

  10. Scoring annual earthquake predictions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Jiang, Changsheng

    2012-02-01

    The Annual Consultation Meeting on Earthquake Tendency in China is held by the China Earthquake Administration (CEA) in order to provide one-year earthquake predictions over most China. In these predictions, regions of concern are denoted together with the corresponding magnitude range of the largest earthquake expected during the next year. Evaluating the performance of these earthquake predictions is rather difficult, especially for regions that are of no concern, because they are made on arbitrary regions with flexible magnitude ranges. In the present study, the gambling score is used to evaluate the performance of these earthquake predictions. Based on a reference model, this scoring method rewards successful predictions and penalizes failures according to the risk (probability of being failure) that the predictors have taken. Using the Poisson model, which is spatially inhomogeneous and temporally stationary, with the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquake magnitudes as the reference model, we evaluate the CEA predictions based on 1) a partial score for evaluating whether issuing the alarmed regions is based on information that differs from the reference model (knowledge of average seismicity level) and 2) a complete score that evaluates whether the overall performance of the prediction is better than the reference model. The predictions made by the Annual Consultation Meetings on Earthquake Tendency from 1990 to 2003 are found to include significant precursory information, but the overall performance is close to that of the reference model.

  11. The Black-White Test Score Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jencks, Christopher, Ed.; Phillips, Meredith, Ed.

    The 15 chapters of this book address issues related to the continuing test score gap between black and white students. The editors argue against traditional explanations which emphasize differences in economic resources and demographic factors, and they urge that more emphasis be put on psychological and cultural factors. The book suggests studies…

  12. Teacher Greetings Increase College Students' Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio; Alexander, Ralph; Stewart, Megan

    2009-01-01

    The current study is an extension of a previous investigation dealing with teacher greetings to students. The present investigation used teacher greetings with college students and academic performance (test scores). We report data using university students and in-class test performance. Students in introductory psychology who received teachers'…

  13. Automated Essay Scoring: Psychometric Guidelines and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramineni, Chaitanya; Williamson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of psychometric procedures and guidelines Educational Testing Service (ETS) uses to evaluate automated essay scoring for operational use. We briefly describe the e-rater system, the procedures and criteria used to evaluate e-rater, implications for a range of potential uses of e-rater, and directions for…

  14. Leveraging Gender Differences to Boost Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Bill

    2008-01-01

    According to the 2004 National Assessment of Educational Progress, males who have made it through 12 years of school have significantly poorer reading skills than their female peers. In every age group, boys have been scoring lower than girls annually for more than three decades on U.S. Department of Education reading tests. The longer boys are in…

  15. 42 CFR 414.1260 - Composite scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... each quality of care measure is classified into one of the following equally weighted domains to determine the quality composite: (i) Patient safety. (ii) Patient experience. (iii) Care coordination. (iv... the quality of care composite. (b)(1) The standardized score for each cost measure is grouped into...

  16. 42 CFR 414.1260 - Composite scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... each quality of care measure is classified into one of the following equally weighted domains to determine the quality composite: (i) Patient safety. (ii) Patient experience. (iii) Care coordination. (iv... the quality of care composite. (b)(1) The standardized score for each cost measure is grouped into...

  17. [Propensity score: A credible alternative to randomization?].

    PubMed

    Filleron, Thomas; Kwiatowski, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    In clinical research, the reference method to evaluate treatment benefit without bias is the randomized trial. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to realize one, as for example in surgery or for particular observational studies. In these cases, Rosenbaum and Rubin introduced in 1983 a new methodology: the calculation of a propensity score. When several treatments are compared, this calculation enables to take into account confusion bias using a score that synthesizes the influence on treatment choice of clinical parameters evaluated before. This article describes how to build this score, to estimate its validity, and how to use it: as a new variable into a multivariate analysis, as a matching criterion, or as a stratification parameter. Examples are given to illustrate each case and point out the limitations of such a methodology. This approach, although innovative and useful, cannot reach the level of evidence of randomized clinical trials: simulations have demonstrated this fact in several situations. On the other hand, it can be compared to standard multivariate analysis which permits in a non-randomized context, to limit evaluation bias of treatments by adjusting on potential confusion factors. Some guidelines are given in the last chapter to help researchers decide whether to use a propensity score or a standard multivariate analysis. PMID:26657188

  18. 34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be representative of the population of high school graduates in the United States. (Authority: 20 U.S... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY...

  19. 34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be representative of the population of high school graduates in the United States. (Authority: 20 U.S... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY...

  20. 34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be representative of the population of high school graduates in the United States. (Authority: 20 U.S... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY...

  1. 34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be representative of the population of high school graduates in the United States. (Authority: 20 U.S... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY...

  2. 34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standard deviation below the mean for students with high school diplomas who have taken the test within... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY...

  3. Concurrent Validation of the Banff Patella Instability Instrument to the Norwich Patellar Instability Score and the Kujala Score in Patients With Patellofemoral Instability

    PubMed Central

    Hiemstra, Laurie A.; Kerslake, Sarah; Lafave, Mark; Mohtadi, Nicholas G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Banff Patella Instability Instrument (BPII) is a disease-specific, patient-reported, quality-of-life outcome measure designed to assess patients with patellofemoral instability. The iterative assessment of the validity, reliability, and responsiveness of a health-related patient-reported outcome measure is vital to the development of a high-quality evaluation tool. Purpose: To assess the concurrent validity of the BPII to the Norwich Patellar Instability (NPI) score and the Kujala score. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 74 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of recurrent patellofemoral instability completed the BPII, NPI, and Kujala scores at the initial orthopaedic consultation. A Pearson r correlation coefficient was computed to determine the relationship between each of these patient-reported outcomes. Results: There were statistically significant correlations between the BPII and the NPI score (r = −0.53; P < .001) as well as the BPII and the Kujala score (r = 0.50; P < .001). Conclusion: This study demonstrated a moderately strong correlation of the BPII to other outcome measures used to evaluate patients with patellofemoral instability. This study adds further validity to the BPII in accordance with the COSMIN (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments) guidelines. PMID:27231700

  4. The scoring of movements in sleep.

    PubMed

    Walters, Arthur S; Lavigne, Gilles; Hening, Wayne; Picchietti, Daniel L; Allen, Richard P; Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Kushida, Clete A; Bliwise, Donald L; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2007-03-15

    The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) has separated sleep-related movement disorders into simple, repetitive movement disorders (such as periodic limb movements in sleep [PLMS], sleep bruxism, and rhythmic movement disorder) and parasomnias (such as REM sleep behavior disorder and disorders of partial arousal, e.g., sleep walking, confusional arousals, night terrors). Many of the parasomnias are characterized by complex behaviors in sleep that appear purposeful, goal directed and voluntary but are outside the conscious awareness of the individual and therefore inappropriate. All of the sleep-related movement disorders described here have specific polysomnographic findings. For the purposes of developing and/or revising specifications and polysomnographic scoring rules, the AASM Scoring Manual Task Force on Movements in Sleep reviewed background literature and executed evidence grading of 81 relevant articles obtained by a literature search of published articles between 1966 and 2004. Subsequent evidence grading identified limited evidence for reliability and/or validity for polysomnographic scoring criteria for periodic limb movements in sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder, and sleep bruxism. Published scoring criteria for rhythmic movement disorder, excessive fragmentary myoclonus, and hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation were empirical and based on descriptive studies. The literature review disclosed no published evidence defining clinical consequences of excessive fragmentary myoclonus or hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation. Because of limited or absent evidence for reliability and/or validity, a standardized RAND/UCLA consensus process was employed for recommendation of specific rules for the scoring of sleep-associated movements. PMID:17557425

  5. Visual scoring of clots in foremilk.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten D

    2005-11-01

    The necessary unequivocal and generally accepted definitions of normal and abnormal milk are not available. A precise definition is needed in order for companies to develop sensors to detect and sort abnormal milk at the time of milking. Experts at a workshop defined abnormal milk to be that from cows whose foremilk had changed in homogeneity or was coloured by blood. The objectives of this paper were: firstly, to explore how different groups of people scored the appearance of foremilk; and secondly, to develop a method suitable as an objective reference for testing of manual and automatic detection systems. Consumers, farmers and advisors did not agree on the visual appearance of normal, watery, clotty milk, or milk with blood, and experience is needed to score the visual appearance of foremilk correctly. It seems reasonable to expect a sensitivity of at least 70% for detection of abnormal milk during foremilking. Filter sizes 0.05, 0.07, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mm were used to filter milk from cows with visually abnormal foremilk. If clots appeared in the foremilk, clots appeared on all size filters, but the filter with pore size 0.1 mm was the easiest to read and work with. The filter method is not reliable in identifying quarters with watery, yellowish, or bloody milk, whereas the method seems consistent, and at least as good as scoring of visual appearance in finding clots in the milk. Clots should show clearly on the filter to be counted as abnormal milk. All clinical cases with clots in the foremilk can be found on the filter and such cases have high somatic cell count (SCC). Both trained and untrained persons using the filter method can score normal and abnormal foremilk with a high specificity (>90%) and a high sensitivity (>80%). The filter method is recommended as a reference for scoring the homogeneity of foremilk. PMID:16223455

  6. Negative emotions affect postoperative scores for evaluating functional knee recovery and quality of life after total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Qi, A; Lin, C; Zhou, A; Du, J; Jia, X; Sun, L; Zhang, G; Zhang, L; Liu, M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQL) and recovery of knee function in total knee replacement (TKR) patients. A total of 119 TKR patients (male: 38; female: 81) completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQR-S), Knee Society Score (KSS), and HRQL (SF-36). At 1 and 6 months after surgery, anxiety, depression, and KSS scores in TKR patients were significantly better compared with those preoperatively (P<0.05). SF-36 scores at the sixth month after surgery were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.001). Preoperative Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS) and Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS) scores were negatively associated with extraversion (E score) (B=-0.986 and -0.967, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative PCS and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) scores were negatively associated with neuroticism (N score; B=-0.137 and -0.991, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative MCS, SAI, Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI), and BAI scores were also negatively associated with the N score (B=-0.367, -0.107, -0.281, and -0.851, respectively, all P<0.05). The KSS function score at the sixth month after surgery was negatively associated with TAI and N scores (B=-0.315 and -0.532, respectively, both P<0.05), but positively associated with the E score (B=0.215, P<0.05). The postoperative KSS joint score was positively associated with postoperative PCS (B=0.356, P<0.05). In conclusion, for TKR patients, the scores used for evaluating recovery of knee function and HRQL after 6 months are inversely associated with the presence of negative emotions. PMID:26577843

  7. Negative emotions affect postoperative scores for evaluating functional knee recovery and quality of life after total knee replacement

    PubMed Central

    Qi, A.; Lin, C.; Zhou, A.; Du, J.; Jia, X.; Sun, L.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, L.; Liu, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQL) and recovery of knee function in total knee replacement (TKR) patients. A total of 119 TKR patients (male: 38; female: 81) completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQR-S), Knee Society Score (KSS), and HRQL (SF-36). At 1 and 6 months after surgery, anxiety, depression, and KSS scores in TKR patients were significantly better compared with those preoperatively (P<0.05). SF-36 scores at the sixth month after surgery were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.001). Preoperative Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS) and Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS) scores were negatively associated with extraversion (E score) (B=-0.986 and -0.967, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative PCS and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) scores were negatively associated with neuroticism (N score; B=-0.137 and -0.991, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative MCS, SAI, Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI), and BAI scores were also negatively associated with the N score (B=-0.367, -0.107, -0.281, and -0.851, respectively, all P<0.05). The KSS function score at the sixth month after surgery was negatively associated with TAI and N scores (B=-0.315 and -0.532, respectively, both P<0.05), but positively associated with the E score (B=0.215, P<0.05). The postoperative KSS joint score was positively associated with postoperative PCS (B=0.356, P<0.05). In conclusion, for TKR patients, the scores used for evaluating recovery of knee function and HRQL after 6 months are inversely associated with the presence of negative emotions. PMID:26577843

  8. Frailty score on admission predicts outcomes in elderly burn injury.

    PubMed

    Romanowski, Kathleen S; Barsun, Alura; Pamlieri, Tina L; Greenhalgh, David G; Sen, Soman

    2015-01-01

    With longer life expectancy, the number of burn injuries in the elderly continues to increase. Prediction of outcomes for the elderly is complicated by preinjury physical fitness and comorbid illness. The authors hypothesize that admission frailty assessment would be predictive of outcomes in the elderly burn population. Our primary aim was to determine if higher frailty scores were associated with higher risk of mortality for elderly burn patients. The secondary aims were to assess if higher frailty scores were associated with increased length of stay, increased needs for mechanical ventilation and poor discharge disposition. A 2-year retrospective chart review was performed of all admitted acute burn patients 65 years or older. Data collected included: age, gender, %TBSA of burn injury, presence of inhalation injury, in hospital mortality, hospital length of stay, ventilator days, ICU length of stay, surgical procedures, insurance status, and discharge disposition. Frailty scores were assessed from admission data and calculated using the Canadian Study of Health and Aging clinical frailty scale. A total of 89 patients met entry criteria. Mean age was 75.3 ± 8.1 years and consisted of 62 men and 27 women. Mean %TBSA was 9.6 ± 9.1% and mean frailty score (FS) was 4.5 ± 1.2. Eighty patients survived to discharge and nine died. Nonsurvivors had significantly higher FS compared to survivors (5.2 ± 1.2 vs 4.4 ± 1.2). FS were also significantly higher in patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities (SNF) (5.34 ± 0.9) compared to those who were discharged home (4.1 ± 1.2) or to physical rehabilitation facilities (4 ± 1.5). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that age (B = 0.04) and discharge to SNF (B = 1.2) are independently associated with higher FS. However, survivors were independently associated with a significantly lower FS (B = -1.3). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed high admission FS independently increased the risk of

  9. Digit symbol substitution test score and hyperhomocysteinemia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Chu, Yi-Chuan; Fung, Hon-Chung; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Mounting evidence shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline. This study enrolled subjects with normal serum levels of B12 and folate and performed thorough neuropsychological assessments to illuminate the independent role of homocysteine on cognitive functions.Participants between ages 50 and 85 were enrolled with Modified Hachinski ischemic score of <4, adequate visual and auditory acuity to allow neuropsychological testing, and good general health. Subjects with cognitive impairment resulting from secondary causes were excluded. Each of the participants completed evaluations of general intellectual function, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Clinical Dementia Rating, and a battery of neuropsychological assessments.This study enrolled 225 subjects (90 subjects younger than 65 years and 135 subjects aged 65 years or older). The sex proportion was similar between the 2 age groups. Years of education were significantly fewer in the elderly (7.49 ± 5.40 years) than in the young (9.76 ± 4.39 years, P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in body mass index or levels of vitamin B12 and folate between the 2 age groups. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the younger group (10.8 ± 2.7 vs. 9.5 ± 2.5 μmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0006). After adjusting for age, sex, and education, only the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) score was significantly lower in subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia (homocysteine >12 μmol/L) than those with homocysteine ≤12 μmol/L in the elderly group (DSS score: 7.1 ± 2.7 and 9.0 ± 3.0, respectively, beta = -1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -2.8∼-0.5, P = 0.001) and borderline significance was noted in the combined age group (beta = -1.1, 95% CI = -2.1∼-0.1, P = 0.04). We did not find an association between hyperhomocysteinemia and other

  10. Digit symbol substitution test score and hyperhomocysteinemia in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Chu, Yi-Chuan; Fung, Hon-Chung; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline. This study enrolled subjects with normal serum levels of B12 and folate and performed thorough neuropsychological assessments to illuminate the independent role of homocysteine on cognitive functions. Participants between ages 50 and 85 were enrolled with Modified Hachinski ischemic score of <4, adequate visual and auditory acuity to allow neuropsychological testing, and good general health. Subjects with cognitive impairment resulting from secondary causes were excluded. Each of the participants completed evaluations of general intellectual function, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Clinical Dementia Rating, and a battery of neuropsychological assessments. This study enrolled 225 subjects (90 subjects younger than 65 years and 135 subjects aged 65 years or older). The sex proportion was similar between the 2 age groups. Years of education were significantly fewer in the elderly (7.49 ± 5.40 years) than in the young (9.76 ± 4.39 years, P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in body mass index or levels of vitamin B12 and folate between the 2 age groups. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the younger group (10.8 ± 2.7 vs. 9.5 ± 2.5 μmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0006). After adjusting for age, sex, and education, only the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) score was significantly lower in subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia (homocysteine >12 μmol/L) than those with homocysteine ≤12 μmol/L in the elderly group (DSS score: 7.1 ± 2.7 and 9.0 ± 3.0, respectively, beta = −1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −2.8∼−0.5, P = 0.001) and borderline significance was noted in the combined age group (beta = −1.1, 95% CI = −2.1∼−0.1, P = 0.04). We did not find an association between

  11. Development of a spirometry T-score in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sei Won; Kim, Hyun Kuk; Baek, Seunghee; Jung, Ji-Ye; Kim, Young Sam; Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Sang-Do; Mannino, David M; Oh, Yeon-Mok

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Spirometry values may be expressed as T-scores in standard deviation units relative to a reference in a young, normal population as an analogy to the T-score for bone mineral density. This study was performed to develop the spirometry T-score. Methods T-scores were calculated from lambda-mu-sigma-derived Z-scores using a young, normal age reference. Three outcomes of all-cause death, respiratory death, and COPD death were evaluated in 9,101 US subjects followed for 10 years; an outcome of COPD-related health care utilization (COPD utilization) was evaluated in 1,894 Korean subjects followed for 4 years. Results The probability of all-cause death appeared to remain nearly zero until −1 of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) T-score but increased steeply where FEV1 T-score reached below −2.5. Survival curves for all-cause death, respiratory death, COPD death, and COPD utilization differed significantly among the groups when stratified by FEV1 T-score (P<0.001). The adjusted hazard ratios of the FEV1 T-score for the four outcomes were 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.48–0.60), 0.43 (95% CI: 0.37–0.50), 0.30 (95% CI: 0.24–0.37), and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.59–0.81), respectively, adjusting for covariates (P<0.001). Conclusion The spirometry T-score could predict all-cause death, respiratory death, COPD death, and COPD utilization. PMID:26966359

  12. Scoring Methods for Building Genotypic Scores: An Application to Didanosine Resistance in a Large Derivation Set

    PubMed Central

    Houssaini, Allal; Assoumou, Lambert; Miller, Veronica; Calvez, Vincent; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Flandre, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Several attempts have been made to determine HIV-1 resistance from genotype resistance testing. We compare scoring methods for building weighted genotyping scores and commonly used systems to determine whether the virus of a HIV-infected patient is resistant. Methods and Principal Findings Three statistical methods (linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine and logistic regression) are used to determine the weight of mutations involved in HIV resistance. We compared these weighted scores with known interpretation systems (ANRS, REGA and Stanford HIV-db) to classify patients as resistant or not. Our methodology is illustrated on the Forum for Collaborative HIV Research didanosine database (N = 1453). The database was divided into four samples according to the country of enrolment (France, USA/Canada, Italy and Spain/UK/Switzerland). The total sample and the four country-based samples allow external validation (one sample is used to estimate a score and the other samples are used to validate it). We used the observed precision to compare the performance of newly derived scores with other interpretation systems. Our results show that newly derived scores performed better than or similar to existing interpretation systems, even with external validation sets. No difference was found between the three methods investigated. Our analysis identified four new mutations associated with didanosine resistance: D123S, Q207K, H208Y and K223Q. Conclusions We explored the potential of three statistical methods to construct weighted scores for didanosine resistance. Our proposed scores performed at least as well as already existing interpretation systems and previously unrecognized didanosine-resistance associated mutations were identified. This approach could be used for building scores of genotypic resistance to other antiretroviral drugs. PMID:23555613

  13. Rapid conversion of adolescent MMPI raw scores to T scores using the HP-67 programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Hembling, D W

    1984-01-01

    Used a programmable Hewlett-Packard scientific calculator (HP-67, 97, 41C, 41CV) to rapidly convert raw scores from adolescent MMPI protocols to T scores, scale by scale. The K factor is handled, as needed, automatically. The program is stored on one side of a standard HP magnetic card. The norm data for adolescents (or optionally any other group) in the age groups less than 15, 15, 16, and 17 occupy two sides per sex per age group of eight magnetic data cards. Complete scoring and profiling of the R-form MMPI can be done in less than 10 minutes. PMID:6547731

  14. Knee instability scores for ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rahnemai-Azar, Ata A; Naendrup, Jan-Hendrik; Soni, Ashish; Olsen, Adam; Zlotnicki, Jason; Musahl, Volker

    2016-06-01

    Despite abundant biological, biomechanical, and clinical research, return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury remains a significant challenge. Residual rotatory knee laxity has been identified as one of the factors responsible for poor functional outcome. To improve and standardize the assessment of knee instability, a variety of instability scoring systems is available. Recently, devices to objectively quantify static and dynamic clinical exams have been developed to complement traditional subjective grading systems. These devices enable an improved evaluation of knee instability and possible associated injuries. This additional information may promote the development of new treatment algorithms and allow for individualized treatment. In this review, the different subjective laxity scores as well as complementary objective measuring systems are discussed, along with an introduction of injury to an individualized treatment algorithm. PMID:26980119

  15. High Scores at BASIS Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2014-01-01

    While U.S. schools struggled to reach even an average score on a key international exam for 15-year-olds in 2012, BASIS Tucson North, an economically modest, ethnically diverse charter school in Arizona, outperformed every country in the world, and left even Shanghai, China's academic gem in the dust. With the U.S. frantic about its place in…

  16. Visual scoring of milk mixed with blood.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten D; Bjerring, Martin

    2005-08-01

    Sorting of normal and abnormal milk at time of milking is done visually for conventional milking systems, but more concrete standards are needed when milking is done in automatic milking systems (AMS). Several panel tests were carried out to find out how different consumer groups, milkers and advisors look at and respond to the visual appearance of milk mixed with blood, in order to set a limit for what they think is acceptable. It is concluded from the test panel results that milk samples with 0.4% or more of blood all will be scored as pink and samples with 0.1% blood (about 6 microM-haemoglobin or 100 mg/l) can be visually detected if they are compared with milk samples without blood. The consumer group scored fewer of the samples with 0-1% blood as normal than did the professional groups. The test panel scored 65% of the samples with 1% blood as normal when milk was presented in a black strip cup, which is the reference method when foremilking takes place in a conventional parlour. Only 2% of the milk samples with 2% blood (about 120 microM-haemoglobin or 2000 mg/l) were scored as normal in a black strip cup and should consequently be detected by conventional as well as automatic systems. One model of AMS was tested for its ability to detect and separate milk coloured by blood. The model separated milk with > or = 6 microM-haemoglobin. Milk mixed with blood injected into the milk stream for a short time at the beginning of milking was not separated. We lack data on how blood is naturally expelled into milk and in what amount. We propose that cow composite milk with > 6 microM-haemoglobin should be separated because at this level milk will have a red tinge. PMID:16174354

  17. Relationship between Age and the Ability to Break Scored Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Notenboom, Kim; Vromans, Herman; Schipper, Maarten; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical problems with the use of medicines, such as difficulties with breaking tablets, are an often overlooked cause for non-adherence. Tablets frequently break in uneven parts and loss of product can occur due to crumbling and powdering. Health characteristics, such as the presence of peripheral neuropathy, decreased grip strength and manual dexterity, can affect a patient's ability to break tablets. As these impairments are associated with aging and age-related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and arthritis, difficulties with breaking tablets could be more prevalent among older adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between age and the ability to break scored tablets. Methods: A comparative study design was chosen. Thirty-six older adults and 36 young adults were systematically observed with breaking scored tablets. Twelve different tablets were included. All participants were asked to break each tablet by three techniques: in between the fingers with the use of nails, in between the fingers without the use of nails and pushing the tablet downward with one finger on a solid surface. It was established whether a tablet was broken or not, and if broken, whether the tablet was broken accurately or not. Results: The older adults experienced more difficulties to break tablets compared to the young adults. On average, the older persons broke 38.1% of the tablets, of which 71.0% was broken accurately. The young adults broke 78.2% of the tablets, of which 77.4% was broken accurately. Further analysis by mixed effects logistic regression revealed that age was associated with the ability to break tablets, but not with the accuracy of breaking. Conclusions: Breaking scored tablets by hand is less successful in an elderly population compared to a group of young adults. Health care providers should be aware that tablet breaking is not appropriate for all patients and for all drugs. In case tablet breaking is unavoidable, a

  18. High throughput sample processing and automated scoring.

    PubMed

    Brunborg, Gunnar; Jackson, Petra; Shaposhnikov, Sergey; Dahl, Hildegunn; Azqueta, Amaya; Collins, Andrew R; Gutzkow, Kristine B

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a sensitive and versatile method for assessing DNA damage in cells. In the traditional version of the assay, there are many manual steps involved and few samples can be treated in one experiment. High throughput (HT) modifications have been developed during recent years, and they are reviewed and discussed. These modifications include accelerated scoring of comets; other important elements that have been studied and adapted to HT are cultivation and manipulation of cells or tissues before and after exposure, and freezing of treated samples until comet analysis and scoring. HT methods save time and money but they are useful also for other reasons: large-scale experiments may be performed which are otherwise not practicable (e.g., analysis of many organs from exposed animals, and human biomonitoring studies), and automation gives more uniform sample treatment and less dependence on operator performance. The HT modifications now available vary largely in their versatility, capacity, complexity, and costs. The bottleneck for further increase of throughput appears to be the scoring. PMID:25389434

  19. High throughput sample processing and automated scoring

    PubMed Central

    Brunborg, Gunnar; Jackson, Petra; Shaposhnikov, Sergey; Dahl, Hildegunn; Azqueta, Amaya; Collins, Andrew R.; Gutzkow, Kristine B.

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a sensitive and versatile method for assessing DNA damage in cells. In the traditional version of the assay, there are many manual steps involved and few samples can be treated in one experiment. High throughput (HT) modifications have been developed during recent years, and they are reviewed and discussed. These modifications include accelerated scoring of comets; other important elements that have been studied and adapted to HT are cultivation and manipulation of cells or tissues before and after exposure, and freezing of treated samples until comet analysis and scoring. HT methods save time and money but they are useful also for other reasons: large-scale experiments may be performed which are otherwise not practicable (e.g., analysis of many organs from exposed animals, and human biomonitoring studies), and automation gives more uniform sample treatment and less dependence on operator performance. The HT modifications now available vary largely in their versatility, capacity, complexity, and costs. The bottleneck for further increase of throughput appears to be the scoring. PMID:25389434

  20. Missing gene identification using functional coherence scores

    PubMed Central

    Chitale, Meghana; Khan, Ishita K.; Kihara, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing metabolic and signaling pathways is an effective way of interpreting a genome sequence. A challenge in a pathway reconstruction is that often genes in a pathway cannot be easily found, reflecting current imperfect information of the target organism. In this work, we developed a new method for finding missing genes, which integrates multiple features, including gene expression, phylogenetic profile, and function association scores. Particularly, for considering function association between candidate genes and neighboring proteins to the target missing gene in the network, we used Co-occurrence Association Score (CAS) and PubMed Association Score (PAS), which are designed for capturing functional coherence of proteins. We showed that adding CAS and PAS substantially improve the accuracy of identifying missing genes in the yeast enzyme-enzyme network compared to the cases when only the conventional features, gene expression, phylogenetic profile, were used. Finally, it was also demonstrated that the accuracy improves by considering indirect neighbors to the target enzyme position in the network using a proper network-topology-based weighting scheme. PMID:27552989

  1. Inertia based functional scoring of the shoulder in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Körver, R J P; Heyligers, I C; Samijo, S K; Grimm, B

    2014-02-01

    Shoulder-related dysfunction is the second most common musculoskeletal disorder and is responsible for an increasing burden on health-care systems. Commonly used clinical outcome scores suffer from subjectivity, pain dominance and a ceiling effect. Objective functional measurement has been identified as a relevant issue in clinical rehabilitation. In recognition of this goal simple techniques for routine clinical application have been investigated with some success. Inertia based motion analysis (IMA) is a new generation of objective outcome assessment tool; it can produce objective movement parameters while being fast, cheap and easy to operate. This study investigates if a simple IMA shoulder test is suitable as a functional outcome measure for routine clinical follow-up. We measured 100 healthy subjects and 50 patients with confirmed unilateral shoulder pathology. Two motion tasks were performed on both shoulders and two simple motion parameters based on angular rate and acceleration were calculated. Patients were also assessed by the disability of arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) and the simple shoulder test. IMA produced high intra- (ICC = 0.94) and inter-assessor reliability (ICC = 0.90). Asymmetry was >3 times higher in patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.01). Healthy and pathological subjects could be distinguished with high diagnostic sensitivity (>84.0%) and specificity (>81.0%). There was a weak correlation between the IMA shoulder score and the clinical questionnaires (Pearson R < 0.25), as it may add an objective functional dimension to outcome assessment. The fast assessment (t < 5 min) of a simple motion task makes it workable for routine clinical follow-up. The IMA shoulder test adds objective information on functional capacity to the clinical scores and may help the physician in his decision-making, follow-up of treatment, effect of training and possibly lead to the development of new therapeutic interventions. PMID:24398361

  2. The ORBIT bleeding score: a simple bedside score to assess bleeding risk in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Emily C.; Simon, DaJuanicia N.; Thomas, Laine E.; Hylek, Elaine M.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Ansell, Jack E.; Kowey, Peter R.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Chang, Paul; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Pencina, Michael J.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Peterson, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Therapeutic decisions in atrial fibrillation (AF) are often influenced by assessment of bleeding risk. However, existing bleeding risk scores have limitations. Objectives We sought to develop and validate a novel bleeding risk score using routinely available clinical information to predict major bleeding in a large, community-based AF population. Methods We analysed data from Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF), a prospective registry that enrolled incident and prevalent AF patients at 176 US sites. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we identified factors independently associated with major bleeding among patients taking oral anticoagulation (OAC) over a median follow-up of 2 years (interquartile range = 1.6–2.5). We also created a numerical bedside risk score that included the five most predictive risk factors weighted according to their strength of association with major bleeding. The predictive performance of the full model, the simple five-item score, and two existing risk scores (hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile INR, elderly, drugs/alcohol concomitantly, HAS-BLED, and anticoagulation and risk factors in atrial fibrillation, ATRIA) were then assessed in both the ORBIT-AF cohort and a separate clinical trial population, Rivaroxaban Once-daily oral direct factor Xa inhibition compared with vitamin K antagonism for prevention of stroke and embolism trial in atrial fibrillation (ROCKET-AF). Results Among 7411 ORBIT-AF patients taking OAC, the rate of major bleeding was 4.0/100 person-years. The full continuous model (12 variables) and five-factor ORBIT risk score (older age [75+ years], reduced haemoglobin/haematocrit/history of anaemia, bleeding history, insufficient kidney function, and treatment with antiplatelet) both had good ability to identify those who bled vs. not (C-index 0.69 and 0.67, respectively). These scores both had

  3. A novel score predicting PEG placement in ICH – the GRAVo score

    PubMed Central

    Faigle, Roland; Marsh, Elisabeth B.; Llinas, Rafael H.; Urrutia, Victor C.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dysphagia after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) contributes significantly to morbidity, often necessitating placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. This study describes a novel risk prediction score for PEG placement after ICH. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 234 ICH patients presenting during a 4-year period. One hundred and eighty nine patients met inclusion criteria. The sample was randomly divided into a development and a validation cohort. Logistic regression was used to develop a risk score by weighting predictors of PEG placement based on strength of association. Results Age (OR 1.64 per 10 years increase in age, 95% CI 1.02–2.65), African American race (OR 3.26, 95% CI 0.96–11.05), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS; OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.62–1.03), and ICH volume (OR 1.38 per 10 cc increase in ICH volume) were independent predictors of PEG placement. The final model for score development achieved an AUC of 0.7911 (95% CI 0.6931–0.8892) in the validation group. The score was named the GRAVo score: GCS ≤12 (2 points), Race (1 point for African-American), Age >50 years (2 points), and ICH Volume >30 cc (1 point). A score >4 was associated with nearly 12 times higher odds of PEG placement compared to a score ≤4 (OR 11.81, 95% CI 5.04–27.66), predicting PEG placement with 46.55% sensitivity and 93.13% specificity. Conclusion The GRAVo score, combining information about GCS, race, age, and ICH volume, may be a useful predictor of PEG placement in ICH patients. PMID:25468881

  4. Estimating Total-test Scores from Partial Scores in a Matrix Sampling Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachar, Jane; Suppes, Patrick

    It is sometimes desirable to obtain an estimated total-test score for an individual who was administered only a subset of the items in a total test. The present study compared six methods, two of which utilize the content structure of items, to estimate total-test scores using 450 students in grades 3-5 and 60 items of the ll0-item Stanford Mental…

  5. Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement for Composite Scores Using IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.; Wang, Tianyou; Lee, Won-Chan

    2012-01-01

    Composite scores are often formed from test scores on educational achievement test batteries to provide a single index of achievement over two or more content areas or two or more item types on that test. Composite scores are subject to measurement error, and as with scores on individual tests, the amount of error variability typically depends on…

  6. Scores Based on Dangerous Responses to Multiple-Choice Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Martin E.

    1986-01-01

    Scores based on the number of correct answers were compared with scores based on dangerous responses to items in the same multiple choice test developed by American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery. Results showed construct validity for both sets of scores. However, both scores were redundant when evaluated by correlation coefficient. (Author/JAZ)

  7. On Interpreting Test Scores as Social Indicators: Statistical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Bruce D.

    1983-01-01

    Because test scores are ordinal not cordinal attributes, the average test score often is a misleading way to summarize the scores of a group of individuals. Similarly, correlation coefficients may be misleading summary measures of association between test scores. Proper, readily interpretable, summary statistics are developed from a theory of…

  8. Evaluation of temperament scoring methods for beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate methods of temperament scoring. Crossbred (n=228) calves were evaluated for temperament by an individual evaluator at weaning by two methods of scoring: 1) pen score (1 to 5 scale, with higher scores indicating increasing degree of nervousness, aggressiven...

  9. Simple Adding versus Differential Weighting of MCAT Subtest Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Michael B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A statistical comparison of Medical College Admission Test scores with National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Part I scores of one school's students supported simple averaging of subtest scores rather than weighting as a predictor of NBME Part I performance. Similar results were obtained using basic science course examination scores. (MSE)

  10. Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    To validate an interpretation or use of test scores is to evaluate the plausibility of the claims based on the scores. An argument-based approach to validation suggests that the claims based on the test scores be outlined as an argument that specifies the inferences and supporting assumptions needed to get from test responses to score-based…

  11. Integrating Genetics and Social Science: Genetic Risk Scores

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Israel, Salomon

    2014-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome and the advent of low-cost genome-wide assays that generate millions of observations of individual genomes in a matter of hours constitute a disruptive innovation for social science. Many public-use social science datasets have or will soon add genome-wide genetic data. With these new data come technical challenges, but also new possibilities. Among these, the lowest hanging fruit and the most potentially disruptive to existing research programs is the ability to measure previously invisible contours of health and disease risk within populations. In this article, we outline why now is the time for social scientists to bring genetics into their research programs. We discuss how to select genetic variants to study. We explain how the polygenic architecture of complex traits and the low penetrance of individual genetic loci pose challenges to research integrating genetics and social science. We introduce genetic risk scores as a method of addressing these challenges and provide guidance on how genetic risk scores can be constructed. We conclude by outlining research questions that are ripe for social science inquiry. PMID:25343363

  12. Nonstandard Work Schedules and Developmentally Generative Parenting Practices: An Application of Propensity Score Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Tucker, Jenna; Walls, Jill; Leerkes, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Data from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care (Phase I) and propensity score techniques were used to determine whether working full time in a nonstandard schedule job during the child's first year predicted parenting practices over 3 years. Results indicated that women who worked full time in a…

  13. Development of a cardiovascular risk score for use in low- and middle-income countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summary measures of cardiovascular risk have long been used in public health, but few include nutritional predictors despite extensive evidence linking diet and heart disease. Study objectives were to develop and validate a novel risk score in a case-control study of myocardial infarction (MI) condu...

  14. The epidemiology of anal incontinence and symptom severity scoring

    PubMed Central

    Nevler, Avinoam

    2014-01-01

    For many patients, anal incontinence (AI) is a devastating condition that can lead to social isolation and loss of independence, contributing to a substantial economic health burden, not only for the individual but also for the allocation of healthcare resources. Its prevalence is underestimated because of poor patient reporting, with many unrecorded but symptomatic cases residing in nursing homes. Endosonography has improved our understanding of the incidence of post-obstetric sphincter tears that are potentially suitable for repair and those cases resulting from anorectal surgery, most notably after fistula and hemorrhoid operations. The clinical scoring systems assessing the severity of AI are discussed in this review, along with their limitations. Improvements in the standardization of these scales will advance our understanding of treatment response in an era where the therapeutic options have multiplied and will permit a better comparison between specific therapies. PMID:24759339

  15. Functional Independence Score in Haemophilia: a new performance-based instrument to measure disability.

    PubMed

    Poonnoose, P M; Manigandan, C; Thomas, R; Shyamkumar, N K; Kavitha, M L; Bhattacharji, S; Srivastava, A

    2005-11-01

    Morbidity in haemophilia has been described predominantly in terms of musculoskeletal dysfunction and assessed by the clinical and radiological joint scores. These scores document changes in a particular joint, but do not reflect the impact of these changes on the individual in terms of his overall musculoskeletal function. Several self-assessment instruments have been used to measure musculoskeletal function but none have been specifically validated for use in haemophilia. In order to objectively assess musculoskeletal function of patients with haemophilia, we developed Functional Independence Score in Hemophilia (FISH), a performance-based instrument. FISH measures the patient's independence in performing seven activities under three categories: self-care (grooming and eating, bathing and dressing), transfers (chair and floor) and mobility (walking and step climbing). Each function is graded from 1 to 4 depending on the amount of assistance needed in performing the function. We evaluated 35 patients who were over 10 years old and had had at least three major bleeds per year. All subjects were scored for clinical (World Federation of Hemophilia, WFH score) and radiological changes (Pettersson's score). Functional independence of the patient was assessed using the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and the FISH. Correlation of the FISH score was modest with both the WFH clinical score (r = -0.68) and the radiological score (r = -0.44). While there was good correlation between FISH and HAQ (r = -0.90), FISH had better internal consistency than HAQ (Cronbach's alpha 0.83 vs. 0.66). FISH appears to be a promising disease-specific instrument for assessing overall musculoskeletal function in haemophilia. It requires evaluation in different patient populations. PMID:16236109

  16. A simple risk score for identifying individuals with impaired fasting glucose in the Southern Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Tao; Qiu, Quan; Ding, Peng; He, Yan-Hui; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a simple risk score for detecting individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among the Southern Chinese population. A sample of participants aged ≥20 years and without known diabetes from the 2006-2007 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional survey was used to develop separate risk scores for men and women. The participants completed a self-administered structured questionnaire and underwent simple clinical measurements. The risk scores were developed by multiple logistic regression analysis. External validation was performed based on three other studies: the 2007 Zhuhai rural population-based study, the 2008-2010 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional study and the 2007 Tibet population-based study. Performance of the scores was measured with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and ROC c-statistic. Age, waist circumference, body mass index and family history of diabetes were included in the risk score for both men and women, with the additional factor of hypertension for men. The ROC c-statistic was 0.70 for both men and women in the derivation samples. Risk scores of ≥28 for men and ≥18 for women showed respective sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 56.6%, 71.7%, 13.0% and 96.0% for men and 68.7%, 60.2%, 11% and 96.0% for women in the derivation population. The scores performed comparably with the Zhuhai rural sample and the 2008-2010 Guangzhou urban samples but poorly in the Tibet sample. The performance of pre-existing USA, Shanghai, and Chengdu risk scores was poorer in our population than in their original study populations. The results suggest that the developed simple IFG risk scores can be generalized in Guangzhou city and nearby rural regions and may help primary health care workers to identify individuals with IFG in their practice. PMID:25625405

  17. Role of Survival Scores Before Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation: The New CHRiSS Compared to the HeartMate II Score.

    PubMed

    Scandroglio, Anna Mara; Pieri, Marina; Zangrillo, Alberto; Kaufmann, Friedrich; Falk, Volkmar; Potapov, Evgenij; Krabatsch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Risk stratification of patients are claimed to be useful before left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation and different scoring systems are available. The aim of the study was to validate the Cardiac Health Risk Stratification System (CHRiSS), based on Bayesian network analysis, and the HeartMate II score in our patient population. We retrospectively calculated the CHRiSS using a web-based application and the HeartMate II score of 105 adult patients who underwent consecutive HVAD (HeartWare International, Inc.) implantation as primary LVAD at our institution in a 12-month period (May 2014-April 2015). Survival was 83.8 % (3.6%) at 30 days, 77.8% (4.0%) at 90 days, and 72.8% (4.8%) at 6 months and 1 year. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for CHRiSS was 0.75 at 30 days, 0.66 at 90 days, and 0.65 at 6 months. The HeartMate II score had an AUC of 0.73 at 90 days. Comparison between the ROC curves of the two models calculated at 90 days showed no statistically significant difference (p = 0.48): CHRiSS presents a high positive predictive value (85 [80-91]), the opposite to the HeartMate II score, which has a high negative predictive value (91 [83.4-96.6]). In our population, application of the CHRiSS was valuable at 30 days, but the overall predictive value of both scores is not satisfactory. The CHRiSS model proved to be a promising tool, suggesting that, with greater sample size and a longer data collection period, it might potentially outperform the HeartMate II scoring system. PMID:27014790

  18. The unruptured intracranial aneurysm treatment score

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Robert D.; Beseoglu, Kerim; Juvela, Seppo; Raymond, Jean; Morita, Akio; Torner, James C.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Raabe, Andreas; Mocco, J.; Korja, Miikka; Abdulazim, Amr; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Barrow, Daniel L.; Bederson, Joshua; Bonafe, Alain; Dumont, Aaron S.; Fiorella, David J.; Gruber, Andreas; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hasan, David M.; Hoh, Brian L.; Jabbour, Pascal; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Kelly, Michael E.; Kirkpatrick, Peter J.; Knuckey, Neville; Koivisto, Timo; Krings, Timo; Lawton, Michael T.; Marotta, Thomas R.; Mayer, Stephan A.; Mee, Edward; Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Molyneux, Andrew; Morgan, Michael K.; Mori, Kentaro; Murayama, Yuichi; Nagahiro, Shinji; Nakayama, Naoki; Niemelä, Mika; Ogilvy, Christopher S.; Pierot, Laurent; Rabinstein, Alejandro A.; Roos, Yvo B.W.E.M.; Rinne, Jaakko; Rosenwasser, Robert H.; Ronkainen, Antti; Schaller, Karl; Seifert, Volker; Solomon, Robert A.; Spears, Julian; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Vergouwen, Mervyn D.I.; Wanke, Isabel; Wermer, Marieke J.H.; Wong, George K.C.; Wong, John H.; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Connolly, E. Sander; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Pasqualin, Alberto; Rüfenacht, Daniel; Vajkoczy, Peter; McDougall, Cameron; Hänggi, Daniel; LeRoux, Peter; Rinkel, Gabriel J.E.; Macdonald, R. Loch

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We endeavored to develop an unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) treatment score (UIATS) model that includes and quantifies key factors involved in clinical decision-making in the management of UIAs and to assess agreement for this model among specialists in UIA management and research. Methods: An international multidisciplinary (neurosurgery, neuroradiology, neurology, clinical epidemiology) group of 69 specialists was convened to develop and validate the UIATS model using a Delphi consensus. For internal (39 panel members involved in identification of relevant features) and external validation (30 independent external reviewers), 30 selected UIA cases were used to analyze agreement with UIATS management recommendations based on a 5-point Likert scale (5 indicating strong agreement). Interrater agreement (IRA) was assessed with standardized coefficients of dispersion (vr*) (vr* = 0 indicating excellent agreement and vr* = 1 indicating poor agreement). Results: The UIATS accounts for 29 key factors in UIA management. Agreement with UIATS (mean Likert scores) was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.1–4.3) per reviewer for both reviewer cohorts; agreement per case was 4.3 (95% CI 4.1–4.4) for panel members and 4.5 (95% CI 4.3–4.6) for external reviewers (p = 0.017). Mean Likert scores were 4.2 (95% CI 4.1–4.3) for interventional reviewers (n = 56) and 4.1 (95% CI 3.9–4.4) for noninterventional reviewers (n = 12) (p = 0.290). Overall IRA (vr*) for both cohorts was 0.026 (95% CI 0.019–0.033). Conclusions: This novel UIA decision guidance study captures an excellent consensus among highly informed individuals on UIA management, irrespective of their underlying specialty. Clinicians can use the UIATS as a comprehensive mechanism for indicating how a large group of specialists might manage an individual patient with a UIA. PMID:26276380

  19. Docking and scoring protein interactions: CAPRI 2009.

    PubMed

    Lensink, Marc F; Wodak, Shoshana J

    2010-11-15

    Protein docking algorithms are assessed by evaluating blind predictions performed during 2007-2009 in Rounds 13-19 of the community-wide experiment on critical assessment of predicted interactions (CAPRI). We evaluated the ability of these algorithms to sample docking poses and to single out specific association modes in 14 targets, representing 11 distinct protein complexes. These complexes play important biological roles in RNA maturation, G-protein signal processing, and enzyme inhibition and function. One target involved protein-RNA interactions not previously considered in CAPRI, several others were hetero-oligomers, or featured multiple interfaces between the same protein pair. For most targets, predictions started from the experimentally determined structures of the free (unbound) components, or from models built from known structures of related or similar proteins. To succeed they therefore needed to account for conformational changes and model inaccuracies. In total, 64 groups and 12 web-servers submitted docking predictions of which 4420 were evaluated. Overall our assessment reveals that 67% of the groups, more than ever before, produced acceptable models or better for at least one target, with many groups submitting multiple high- and medium-accuracy models for two to six targets. Forty-one groups including four web-servers participated in the scoring experiment with 1296 evaluated models. Scoring predictions also show signs of progress evidenced from the large proportion of correct models submitted. But singling out the best models remains a challenge, which also adversely affects the ability to correctly rank docking models. With the increased interest in translating abstract protein interaction networks into realistic models of protein assemblies, the growing CAPRI community is actively developing more efficient and reliable docking and scoring methods for everyone to use. PMID:20806235

  20. Analysis of five specific scores for cervical spondylogenic myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dalitz, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    The ability to compare various results that measure clinical deficits and outcome is a necessity for successful worldwide discussion about cervical spondylogenic myelopathy (CSM) and its treatment. There is hardly any information in literature how to value and compare outcome assessed by different scores. In a retrospective study we objectively evaluated the Nurick-score, Japanese-orthopaedic-association-score (JOA-Score), Cooper-myelopathy-scale (CMS), Prolo-score and European-myelopathy-score (EMS) using the data of 43 patients, all of whom showed clinical and morphological signs of CSM and underwent operative decompression. The scores were assessed pre- and postoperatively. The correlation between the score-results, anamnesis, clinical and diagnostic data was investigated. All the scores show a statistically significant correlation and measure postoperative improvement. With exception of the Prolo-score all scores reflect clinical deficits of CSM. The Prolo-score rates the severity of CSM on the state of the economic situation above clinical symptoms. The main differences of the scores are shown in the number of patients showing postoperative improvement, varying between 33% (Nurick-score) and 81% (JOA-score). The recovery-rates, as a measure of the cumulative improvement of all the symptoms, show less variation (23–37%). The differences of the recovery-rate were only statistically significant between JOA-score, Nurick-score and EMS (P < 0.05), whereas all the other scores showed no significant differences. To assess the postoperative successes, the evaluation of the recovery-rate is essential. There is no significant difference in the recovery-rate amongst the majority of the scores, which allows a good comparison of the results from different studies. Nevertheless, it is always important to differentiate the therapy results of CSM published worldwide. PMID:17922150

  1. Symposium Scores Misuse of Scientific Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, James H.

    1975-01-01

    Presents examples of misuse of scientific data in the areas of eutrophication, food advertising, and public health. Outlines various ways in which individual scientists can act to ensure the proper use of scientific data. (GS)

  2. Physics First: Impact on SAT Math Scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Craig E.

    Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has become a national priority and the call to modernize secondary science has been heard. A Physics First (PF) program with the curriculum sequence of physics, chemistry, and biology (PCB) driven by inquiry- and project-based learning offers a viable alternative to the traditional curricular sequence (BCP) and methods of teaching, but requires more empirical evidence. This study determined impact of a PF program (PF-PCB) on math achievement (SAT math scores) after the first two cohorts of students completed the PF-PCB program at Matteo Ricci High School (MRHS) and provided more quantitative data to inform the PF debate and advance secondary science education. Statistical analysis (ANCOVA) determined the influence of covariates and revealed that PF-PCB program had a significant (p < .05) impact on SAT math scores in the second cohort at MRHS. Statistically adjusted, the SAT math means for PF students were 21.4 points higher than their non-PF counterparts when controlling for prior math achievement (HSTP math), socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity/race.

  3. Association of a Dietary Score with Incident Type 2 Diabetes: The Dietary-Based Diabetes-Risk Score (DDS)

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Ligia J.; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Basterra-Gortari, Francisco Javier; Gea, Alfredo; Barbagallo, Mario; Martínez-González, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Strong evidence supports that dietary modifications may decrease incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Numerous diabetes risk models/scores have been developed, but most do not rely specifically on dietary variables or do not fully capture the overall dietary pattern. We prospectively assessed the association of a dietary-based diabetes-risk score (DDS), which integrates optimal food patterns, with the risk of developing T2DM in the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) longitudinal study. Methods We assessed 17,292 participants initially free of diabetes, followed-up for a mean of 9.2 years. A validated 136-item FFQ was administered at baseline. Taking into account previous literature, the DDS positively weighted vegetables, fruit, whole cereals, nuts, coffee, low-fat dairy, fiber, PUFA, and alcohol in moderate amounts; while it negatively weighted red meat, processed meats and sugar-sweetened beverages. Energy-adjusted quintiles of each item (with exception of moderate alcohol consumption that received either 0 or 5 points) were used to build the DDS (maximum: 60 points). Incident T2DM was confirmed through additional detailed questionnaires and review of medical records of participants. We used Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for socio-demographic and anthropometric parameters, health-related habits, and clinical variables to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of T2DM. Results We observed 143 T2DM confirmed cases during follow-up. Better baseline conformity with the DDS was associated with lower incidence of T2DM (multivariable-adjusted HR for intermediate (25–39 points) vs. low (11–24) category 0.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21, 0.89]; and for high (40–60) vs. low category 0.32 [95% CI: 0.14, 0.69]; p for linear trend: 0.019). Conclusions The DDS, a simple score exclusively based on dietary components, showed a strong inverse association with incident T2DM. This score may be applicable in clinical practice to improve

  4. Can APACHE II Score Predict Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Hyperglycemic Patients Presenting to Emergency Department?

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Saeid; Rahmani, Farzad; Soleimanpour, Hassan; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Mehdizadeh Esfanjani, Robab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute and life-threatening complication in diabetic patients. The current diagnostic criteria of DKA are metabolic acidosis, blood glucose level greater than 250 mg/dL and the presence of ketones in serum or urine. DKA patients referring to the emergency department (ED) are usually ill. Objectives: The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring in predicting the critically illness in the hyperglycemic patients referring to the ED. Patients and Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study in an ED. One hundred eighty one patients older than 18 years with hyperglycemia were included in our study. Following the primary evaluation, the subjects were divided into DKA and non-DKA patients. APACHE II scores were calculated for all patients and then compared to each other. We determined predictive value, sensitivity, specificity and cut-off points of APACHE II score for DKA. Results: Sixty two patients had DKA. The comparison of APACHE II score among two groups of the patients did not show any significant difference (P = 0.597). There was no suitable cut-off point for APACHE II score to predict DKA. Conclusions: APACHE II score cannot be applied in the predicting of DKA in hyperglycemic patients admitted in ED. PMID:25599026

  5. 30-Day Mortality in Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Prognostic Value of Clinical Scores and Anamnestic Features

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Andreas Gunter; Taute, Bettina-Maria; Baasai, Nansalmaa; Wienke, Andreas; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Schramm, Dominik; Surov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Identification of high-risk patients with pulmonary embolism is vital. The aim of the present study was to examine clinical scores, their single items, and anamnestic features in their ability to predict 30-day mortality. Materials and Methods A retrospective, single-center study from 06/2005 to 01/2010 was performed. Inclusion criteria were presence of pulmonary embolism, availability of patient records and 30-day follow-up. The following clinical scores were calculated: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, original and simplified pulmonary embolism severity index, Glasgow Coma Scale, and euroSCORE II. Results In the study group of 365 patients 39 patients (10.7%) died within 30 days due to pulmonary embolism. From all examined scores and parameters the best predictor of 30-day mortality were the Glasgow Coma scale (≤ 10) and parameters of the circulatory system including presence of mechanical ventilation, arterial pH (< 7.335), and systolic blood pressure (< 99 mm Hg). Conclusions Easy to ascertain circulatory parameters have the same or higher prognostic value than the clinical scores that were applied in this study. From all clinical scores studied the Glasgow Coma Scale was the most time- and cost-efficient one. PMID:26866472

  6. Propensity score matching: a conceptual review for radiology researchers.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seunghee; Park, Seong Ho; Won, Eugene; Park, Yu Rang; Kim, Hwa Jung

    2015-01-01

    The propensity score is defined as the probability of each individual study subject being assigned to a group of interest for comparison purposes. Propensity score adjustment is a method of ensuring an even distribution of confounders between groups, thereby increasing between group comparability. Propensity score analysis is therefore an increasingly applied statistical method in observational studies. The purpose of this article was to provide a step-by-step nonmathematical conceptual guide to propensity score analysis with particular emphasis on propensity score matching. A software program code used for propensity score matching was also presented. PMID:25741190

  7. Prediction of true test scores from observed item scores and ancillary data.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Shelby J; Yao, Lili; Sinharay, Sandip

    2015-05-01

    In many educational tests which involve constructed responses, a traditional test score is obtained by adding together item scores obtained through holistic scoring by trained human raters. For example, this practice was used until 2008 in the case of GRE(®) General Analytical Writing and until 2009 in the case of TOEFL(®) iBT Writing. With use of natural language processing, it is possible to obtain additional information concerning item responses from computer programs such as e-rater(®). In addition, available information relevant to examinee performance may include scores on related tests. We suggest application of standard results from classical test theory to the available data to obtain best linear predictors of true traditional test scores. In performing such analysis, we require estimation of variances and covariances of measurement errors, a task which can be quite difficult in the case of tests with limited numbers of items and with multiple measurements per item. As a consequence, a new estimation method is suggested based on samples of examinees who have taken an assessment more than once. Such samples are typically not random samples of the general population of examinees, so that we apply statistical adjustment methods to obtain the needed estimated variances and covariances of measurement errors. To examine practical implications of the suggested methods of analysis, applications are made to GRE General Analytical Writing and TOEFL iBT Writing. Results obtained indicate that substantial improvements are possible both in terms of reliability of scoring and in terms of assessment reliability. PMID:25773314

  8. Nonstandard work schedules and developmentally generative parenting practices: An application of propensity score techniques

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Tucker, Jenna; Walls, Jill; Leerkes, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Data from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care (Phase I) and propensity score techniques were used to determine if working fulltime in a nonstandard schedule job during the child’s first year predicted parenting practices over 3 years. Results indicated that women who worked fulltime in a nonstandard schedule job during the first year had poorer maternal sensitivity at 24 and 36 months. Modest differences in HOME scores were also observed at 36 months. The results provide strong evidence that fulltime maternal employment in nonstandard schedule jobs may interfere with the creation and maintenance of developmentally generative parenting practices. PMID:21532922

  9. Use of modified Magee equations and histologic criteria to predict the Oncotype DX recurrence score.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bradley M; Skinner, Kristin A; Tang, Ping; Jackson, Mary C; Soukiazian, Nyrie; Shayne, Michelle; Huston, Alissa; Ling, Marilyn; Hicks, David G

    2015-07-01

    Oncotype DX (Genomic Health, Redwood City, CA, USA, current list price $4,350.00) is a multigene quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based assay that estimates the risk of distant recurrence and predicts chemotherapy benefit for patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers. Studies have suggested that standard histologic variables can provide similar information. Klein and Dabbs et al have shown that Oncotype DX recurrence scores can be estimated by incorporating standard histologic variables into equations (Magee equations). Using a simple modification of the Magee equation, we predict the Oncotype DX recurrence score in an independent set of 283 cases. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) for the Oncotype DX and average modified Magee recurrence scores was 0.6644 (n=283; P<0.0001). 100% of cases with an average modified Magee recurrence score>30 (n=8) or an average modified Magee recurrence score<9 (with an available Ki-67, n=5) would have been correctly predicted to have a high or low Oncotype DX recurrence score, respectively. 86% (38/44) of cases with an average modified Magee recurrence score≤12, and 89% (34/38) of low grade tumors (NS<6) with an ER and PR≥150, and a Ki-67<10%, would have been correctly predicted to have a low Oncotype DX recurrence score. Using an algorithmic approach to eliminate high and low risk cases, between 5% and 23% of cases would potentially not have been sent by our institution for Oncotype DX testing, creating a potential cost savings between $56,550.00 and $282,750.00. The modified Magee recurrence score along with histologic criteria may be a cost-effective alternative to the Oncotype DX in risk stratifying certain breast cancer patients. The information needed is already generated by many pathology laboratories during the initial assessment of primary breast cancer, and the equations are free. PMID:25932962

  10. Personality and oral health

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Broadbent, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses examined their association with oral health. Those reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts had higher Negative Emotionality scores (and lower Constraint and Positive Emotionality MPQ superfactor scores) than those who did not. After controlling for gender, clinical status, and the other two MPQ superfactors, those scoring higher on Negative Emotionality had a greater risk of reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts, as well as 3+ OHIP-14 impacts and worse-than-average oral health. They also had a greater risk of having lost at least one tooth from caries and of having 3+ decayed surfaces. Personality characteristics appear to shape self-reports of oral health. Personality is also a risk factor for clinical disease status, at least with respect to dental caries and its sequelae. Because the attitudes and values tapped into by personality tests can be altered by brief cognitive interventions, those might be useful in preventive dentistry. PMID:21896053

  11. Assessing calibration of prognostic risk scores.

    PubMed

    Crowson, Cynthia S; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Therneau, Terry M

    2016-08-01

    Current methods used to assess calibration are limited, particularly in the assessment of prognostic models. Methods for testing and visualizing calibration (e.g. the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and calibration slope) have been well thought out in the binary regression setting. However, extension of these methods to Cox models is less well known and could be improved. We describe a model-based framework for the assessment of calibration in the binary setting that provides natural extensions to the survival data setting. We show that Poisson regression models can be used to easily assess calibration in prognostic models. In addition, we show that a calibration test suggested for use in survival data has poor performance. Finally, we apply these methods to the problem of external validation of a risk score developed for the general population when assessed in a special patient population (i.e. patients with particular comorbidities, such as rheumatoid arthritis). PMID:23907781

  12. Scoring functions--the first 100 years.

    PubMed

    Tame, Jeremy R H

    2005-06-01

    The use of simple linear mathematical models to estimate chemical properties is not a new idea. Albert Einstein used very simple 'gravity-like' forces to explain the capillarity of different liquids in 1900-1901. Today such models are used in more complicated situations, and a great many have been developed to analyse interactions between proteins and their ligands. This is not surprising, since proteins are too complicated to model accurately without lengthy numerical analysis, and simple models often do at least as good a job in predicting binding constants as much more computationally expensive methods. One hundred years after Einstein's 'miraculous year' in which he transformed physics, it is instructive to recall some of his even earlier work. As approximations, 'scoring functions' are excellent, but it is dangerous to read too much into them. A few cautionary tales are presented for the beginner to the field of ligand affinity prediction by linear models. PMID:16231202

  13. Evolution of music score watermarking algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Christoph; Nesi, Paolo; Schmucker, Martin; Spinu, Marius B.

    2002-04-01

    Content protection for multimedia data is widely recognized especially for data types that are frequently distributed, sold or shared using the Internet. Particularly music industry dealing with audio files realized the necessity for content protection. Distribution of music sheets will face the same problems. Digital watermarking techniques provide a certain level of protection for these music sheets. But classical raster-oriented watermarking algorithms for images suffer several drawbacks when directly applied to image representations of music sheets. Therefore new solutions have been developed which are designed regarding the content of the music sheets. In Comparison to other media types the development for watermarking of music scores is a rather young art. The paper reviews the evolution of the early approaches and describes the current state of the art in the field.

  14. Team 393 robot scores in FIRST competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Bee Bots team (393) robot, named Dr. Beevil, scores by gathering balls. The team is composed of students from Morristown Jr. and Sr. high schools in Morristown, Ind., and is co-sponsored by NASA Kennedy Space Center and IPT Inc. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  15. DLQI and POSAS Scores in Keloid Patients.

    PubMed

    Poetschke, Julian; Reinholz, Markus; Schwaiger, Hannah; Epple, Andreas; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-06-01

    The treatment of keloids remains complex and challenging. A multitude of different treatment options exists. While current guidelines frequently promote the combination of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) and cryotherapy as a first-line therapy for keloids, its efficacy has mainly been proven clinically and objective evaluation is widely missing. Here, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of TAC and cryotherapy for the improvement of keloids by employing two well-recognized questionnaires for the evaluation of scar appearance and patient's quality of life. Twenty keloid patients from our outpatient scar clinic were treated with individual doses of TAC and cryotherapy in four consecutive sessions. Retrospectively, Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire data from those patients were analyzed to evaluate changes over five visits (one baseline, four after treatment). Both overall patient and observer scores of the POSAS significantly decreased (41.10 ± 9.771 to 29.85 ± 11.42 [p < 0.001] and 33.75 ± 6.231 to 22.70 ± 5.992 [p < 0.001], respectively), while DLQI scores significantly declined over the time period studied, indicating significant improvements in scar appearance. Objective evaluation confirmed the clinically demonstrated improvements of scar appearance and symptoms after treatments with TAC and cryotherapy which was associated with significant improvements in quality of life as indicated by DLQI measures. Standardized questionnaires help in objectifying clinical improvements; however, more detailed options for scar documentation, such as objective imaging, may be additionally required for an in-depth analysis of treatment progress. PMID:27248027

  16. Applying polygenic risk scores to postpartum depression

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Enda M; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Penninx, Brenda WJH; Sallis, Hannah M; Viktorin, Alexander; Chapman, Brett; Henders, Anjali K; Pergadia, Michele L; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela AF; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Boschloo, Lynn; van Grootheest, Gerard; McMahon, George; Lawlor, Debbie A; Landén, Mikael; Lichtenstein, Paul; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Evans, David M; Montgomery, Grant W; Boomsma, Dorret I; Martin, Nicholas G; Wray, Naomi R

    2015-01-01

    Objective The etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is likely to be heterogeneous, but postpartum depression (PPD) is hypothesized to represent a more homogenous subset of MDD. We use genome-wide SNP data to explore this hypothesis. Method We assembled a total cohort of 1,420 self-report cases of PPD and 9,473 controls with genome-wide genotypes from Australia, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom. We estimated the total variance attributable to genotyped variants. We used association results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortia (PGC) of Bipolar Disorder (BPD) and MDD to create polygenic scores in PPD and related MDD data sets to estimate the genetic overlap between the disorders. Results We estimated that the percentage of variance on the liability scale explained by common genetic variants to be 0.22 with a standard error of 0.12, p = 0.02. The R2 from a logistic regression of PPD case-control status in all four cohorts on a SNP profile score weighted by PGC-BPD association results was small (0.1%) but significant (p= 0.004) indicating a genetic overlap between BPD and PPD. The results were highly significant in the Australian and Dutch cohorts (R2 > 1.1%, p < 0.008), where the majority of cases met criteria for MDD. The genetic overlap between BPD and MDD was not significant in larger Australian and Dutch MDD case-control cohorts after excluding PPD cases (R2 =0.06%, p= 0.08), despite the larger MDD group affording more power. Conclusions Our results suggest empirical genetic evidence for a more important shared genetic etiology between BPD and PPD, than between BPD and MDD. PMID:25037970

  17. Scoring docking conformations using predicted protein interfaces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since proteins function by interacting with other molecules, analysis of protein-protein interactions is essential for comprehending biological processes. Whereas understanding of atomic interactions within a complex is especially useful for drug design, limitations of experimental techniques have restricted their practical use. Despite progress in docking predictions, there is still room for improvement. In this study, we contribute to this topic by proposing T-PioDock, a framework for detection of a native-like docked complex 3D structure. T-PioDock supports the identification of near-native conformations from 3D models that docking software produced by scoring those models using binding interfaces predicted by the interface predictor, Template based Protein Interface Prediction (T-PIP). Results First, exhaustive evaluation of interface predictors demonstrates that T-PIP, whose predictions are customised to target complexity, is a state-of-the-art method. Second, comparative study between T-PioDock and other state-of-the-art scoring methods establishes T-PioDock as the best performing approach. Moreover, there is good correlation between T-PioDock performance and quality of docking models, which suggests that progress in docking will lead to even better results at recognising near-native conformations. Conclusion Accurate identification of near-native conformations remains a challenging task. Although availability of 3D complexes will benefit from template-based methods such as T-PioDock, we have identified specific limitations which need to be addressed. First, docking software are still not able to produce native like models for every target. Second, current interface predictors do not explicitly consider pairwise residue interactions between proteins and their interacting partners which leaves ambiguity when assessing quality of complex conformations. PMID:24906633

  18. ITC Guidelines on Quality Control in Scoring, Test Analysis, and Reporting of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allalouf, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing…

  19. Standard-setting methodology: Establishing performance standards and setting cut-scores to assist score interpretation.

    PubMed

    Zumbo, Bruno D

    2016-06-01

    A critical step in the development and use of tests of physical fitness for employment purposes (e.g., fitness for duty) is to establish 1 or more cut points, dividing the test score range into 2 or more ordered categories reflecting, for example, fail/pass decisions. Over the last 3 decades elaborated theories and methods have evolved focusing on the process of establishing 1 or more cut-scores on a test. This elaborated process is widely referred to as "standard-setting". As such, the validity of the test score interpretation hinges on the standard-setting, which embodies the purpose and rules according to which the test results are interpreted. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of standard-setting methodology. The essential features, key definitions and concepts, and various novel methods of informing standard-setting will be described. The focus is on foundational issues with an eye toward informing best practices with new methodology. Throughout, a case is made that in terms of best practices, establishing a test standard involves, in good part, setting a cut-score and can be conceptualized as evidence/data-based policy making that is essentially tied to test validity and an evidential trail. PMID:27277569

  20. Recalibration of the SCORE risk chart for the Russian population.

    PubMed

    Jdanov, Dmitri A; Deev, Alexander D; Jasilionis, Domantas; Shalnova, Svetlana A; Shkolnikova, Maria A; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M

    2014-09-01

    Persisting high levels of cardiovascular mortality in Russia present a specific case among developed countries. Application of cardiovascular risk prediction models holds great potential for primary prevention in this country. Using a unique set of cohort follow-up data from Moscow and Saint Petersburg, this study aims to test and recalibrate the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) methods for predicting CVD mortality risks in the general population. The study is based on pooled epidemiological cohort data covering the period 1975-2001. The algorithms from the SCORE project were used for the calibration of the SCORE equation for the Moscow and St. Petersburg populations (SCORE-MoSP). Age-specific 10-year cumulative cardiovascular mortality rates were estimated according to the original SCORE-High and SCORE-Low equations and compared to the estimates based on the recalibrated SCORE-MoSP model and observed CVD mortality rates. Ten-year risk prediction charts for CVD mortality were derived and compared using conventional SCORE-High and recalibrated SCORE-MoSP methods. The original SCORE-High model tends to substantially under-estimate 10-year cardiovascular mortality risk for females. The SCORE-MoSP model provided better results which were closer to the observed rates. For males, both the SCORE-High and SCORE-MoSP provided similar estimates which tend to under-estimate CVD mortality risk at younger ages. These differences are also reflected in the risk prediction charts. Using non-calibrated scoring models for Russia may lead to substantial under-estimation of cardiovascular mortality risk in some groups of individuals. Although the SCORE-MoSP provide better results for females, more complex scoring methods involving a wider range of risk factors are needed. PMID:25179794

  1. Quality indicators for pharmaceutical care: a comprehensive set with national scores for Dutch community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Teichert, Martina; Schoenmakers, Tim; Kylstra, Nico; Mosk, Berend; Bouvy, Marcel L; van de Vaart, Frans; De Smet, Peter A G M; Wensing, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Background The quality of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in the Netherlands has been assessed annually since 2008. The initial set has been further developed with pharmacists and patient organizations, the healthcare inspectorate, the government and health insurance companies. The set over 2012 was the first set of quality indicators for community pharmacies which was validated and supported by all major stakeholders. The aims of this study were to describe the validated set of quality indicators for community pharmacies and to report their scores over 2012. In subanalyses the score development over 5 years was described for those indicators, that have been surveyed before and remained unchanged. Methods Community pharmacists in the Netherlands were invited in 2013 to provide information for the set of 2012. Quality indicators were mapped by categories relevant for pharmaceutical care and defined for structures, processes and dispensing outcomes. Scores for categorically-measured quality indicators were presented as the percentage of pharmacies reporting the presence of a quality aspect. For numerical quality indicators, the mean of all reported scores was expressed. In subanalyses for those indicators that had been questioned previously, scores were collected from earlier measurements for pharmacies providing their scores in 2012. Multilevel analysis was used to assess the consistency of scores within one pharmacy over time by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Results For the set in 2012, 1739 Dutch community pharmacies (88 % of the total) provided information for 66 quality indicators in 10 categories. Indicator scores on the presence of quality structures showed relatively high quality levels. Scores for processes and dispensing outcomes were lower. Subanalyses showed that overall indicators scores improved within pharmacies, but this development differed between pharmacies. Conclusions A set of validated quality indicators provided

  2. Anti-inflammatory Dietary Inflammatory Index scores are associated with healthier scores on other dietary indices.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R; Shivappa, Nitin; Hand, Gregory A; Hurley, Thomas G; Drenowatz, Clemens; McMahon, Daria; Shook, Robin P; Blair, Steven N

    2016-03-01

    Dietary components are important determinants of systemic inflammation, a risk factor for most chronic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was developed to assess dietary inflammatory potential. It was hypothesized that anti-inflammatory DII scores would be associated with "healthier" scores on other dietary indices. The Energy Balance Study is an observational study focusing on energy intake and expenditure in young adults; only baseline data were used for this analysis (n=430). The DII, as well as the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Index (DASH) were calculated based on one to three 24-hour dietary recalls. General linear models were used to estimate least square means of the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH according to DII quartiles. Those with higher (ie, more proinflammatory) DII scores were more likely to be males, have less than a completed college education, and be younger. In addition, those with higher scores for cognitive restraint for eating or drive for thinness had lower (ie, anti-inflammatory) DII scores. Linear regression analyses indicated that as the DII increased, the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH dietary indices decreased (ie, became more unhealthy, all P<.01). The DII is a novel tool that characterizes the inflammatory potential of diet and is grounded in the peer-reviewed literature on diet and inflammation. Findings from the Energy Balance Study indicate that the DII is associated with other dietary indices, but has the added advantage of specifically measuring dietary inflammatory potential, a risk factor for chronic disease. PMID:26923507

  3. Multidimensional Scoring of Abilities: The Ordered Polytomous Response Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Recent work has shown that multidimensionally scoring responses from different tests can provide better ability estimates. For educational assessment data, applications of this approach have been limited to binary scores. Of the different variants, the de la Torre and Patz model is considered more general because implementing the scoring procedure…

  4. Money Improves Test Scores--Even State-Level SATs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1996-01-01

    Three former secretaries of education--William Bennett, Lauro Cavazos, and Terrel Bell--have touted state-level SAT scores as proof that educational financing does not matter. Recently, Brian Powell and Lala Carr Steelman adjusted scores for participation rate and detected a very strong relationship between expenditures and SAT scores. Bigger…

  5. 24 CFR 902.64 - PHAS scoring and audit reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Adjustments to PHAS score. (1) Adjustments to the score may be made after a PHA's audit report for the fiscal... for the next fiscal year and select the audit firm that will perform the audit in question. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false PHAS scoring and audit reviews....

  6. 24 CFR 902.64 - PHAS scoring and audit reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Adjustments to PHAS score. (1) Adjustments to the score may be made after a PHA's audit report for the fiscal... for the next fiscal year and select the audit firm that will perform the audit in question. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false PHAS scoring and audit reviews....

  7. 24 CFR 902.64 - PHAS scoring and audit reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Adjustments to PHAS score. (1) Adjustments to the score may be made after a PHA's audit report for the fiscal... for the next fiscal year and select the audit firm that will perform the audit in question. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false PHAS scoring and audit reviews....

  8. 48 CFR 1515.305-70 - Scoring plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scoring plans. 1515.305-70... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 1515.305-70 Scoring plans. When... performance shall be accomplished using the following scoring plan or one specifically developed for...

  9. 48 CFR 1515.305-70 - Scoring plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scoring plans. 1515.305-70... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 1515.305-70 Scoring plans. When... performance shall be accomplished using the following scoring plan or one specifically developed for...

  10. Effectiveness of Automated Chinese Sentence Scoring with Latent Semantic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Pai, Kai-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Automated scoring by means of Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) has been introduced lately to improve the traditional human scoring system. The purposes of the present study were to develop a LSA-based assessment system to evaluate children's Chinese sentence construction skills and to examine the effectiveness of LSA-based automated scoring function…

  11. A Framework for Evaluation and Use of Automated Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David M.; Xi, Xiaoming; Breyer, F. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A framework for evaluation and use of automated scoring of constructed-response tasks is provided that entails both evaluation of automated scoring as well as guidelines for implementation and maintenance in the context of constantly evolving technologies. Consideration of validity issues and challenges associated with automated scoring are…

  12. Personality and Examination Score Correlates of Abnormal Psychology Course Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauker, Jerome D.

    The relationship between the ratings students assigned to an evening undergraduate abnormal psychology class and their scores on objective personality tests and course examinations was investigated. Students (N=70) completed the MMPI and made global ratings of the course; these scores were correlated separately by sex with the T scores of 13 MMPI…

  13. Demystifying the GMAT: Where Do Scale Scores Comes from?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test) scaled scores convey the same level of ability over time, and GMAT percentiles convey the competitiveness of scores relative to today's GMAT test takers. In an earlier column, the author discussed the role of the GMAT scaled scores and percentiles. Here, he gets more technical and discusses how GMAT scaled…

  14. Automated Tools for Subject Matter Expert Evaluation of Automated Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David M.; Bejar, Isaac I.; Sax, Anne

    2004-01-01

    As automated scoring of complex constructed-response examinations reaches operational status, the process of evaluating the quality of resultant scores, particularly in contrast to scores of expert human graders, becomes as complex as the data itself. Using a vignette from the Architectural Registration Examination (ARE), this article explores the…

  15. 24 CFR 902.45 - Management operations scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Management operations scoring and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Management Operations Indicator § 902.45 Management operations scoring and thresholds. (a) Scoring. Under the management operations indicator, HUD will...

  16. 24 CFR 902.45 - Management operations scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Management operations scoring and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Management Operations Indicator § 902.45 Management operations scoring and thresholds. (a) Scoring. Under the management operations indicator, HUD will...

  17. 24 CFR 902.45 - Management operations scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Management operations scoring and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Management Operations Indicator § 902.45 Management operations scoring and thresholds. (a) Scoring. Under the management operations indicator, HUD will...

  18. Regression Discontinuity Designs with Multiple Rating-Score Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Robinson, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of a randomized control trial, regression discontinuity (RD) designs can produce plausible estimates of the treatment effect on an outcome for individuals near a cutoff score. In the standard RD design, individuals with rating scores higher than some exogenously determined cutoff score are assigned to one treatment condition; those…

  19. The Effects of Using Different Procedures to Score Maze Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Rebecca L.; McMaster, Kristen L.; Deno, Stanley L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how different scoring procedures affect interpretation of maze curriculum-based measurements. Fall and spring data were collected from 199 students receiving supplemental reading instruction. Maze probes were scored first by counting all correct maze choices, followed by four scoring variations designed to…

  20. Teachers with High Licensing Scores Found More Effective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2006-01-01

    Students whose teachers score high on state licensing exams learn more mathematics over the course of a school year than peers taught by teachers with low scores, according to a new study that draws on 10 years of test-score data on North Carolina schoolchildren. Coming at a time when experts and policymakers are divided over what makes a "highly…

  1. Performance of a Generic Approach in Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Bridgeman, Brent; Trapani, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    A generic approach in automated essay scoring produces scores that have the same meaning across all prompts, existing or new, of a writing assessment. This is accomplished by using a single set of linguistic indicators (or features), a consistent way of combining and weighting these features into essay scores, and a focus on features that are not…

  2. Overestimation Bias in Self-Reported SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Stull, Andrew T.; Campbell, Julie; Almeroth, Kevin; Bimber, Bruce; Chun, Dorothy; Knight, Allan

    2007-01-01

    The authors analyzed self-reported SAT scores and actual SAT scores for five different samples of college students (N = 650). Students overestimated their actual SAT scores by an average of 25 points (SD = 81, d = 0.31), with 10% under-reporting, 51% reporting accurately, and 39% over-reporting, indicating a systematic bias towards over-reporting.…

  3. Confidence Scoring of Speaking Performance: How Does Fuzziness become Exact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Tan; Mak, Barley; Zhou, Pei

    2012-01-01

    The fuzziness of assessing second language speaking performance raises two difficulties in scoring speaking performance: "indistinction between adjacent levels" and "overlap between scales". To address these two problems, this article proposes a new approach, "confidence scoring", to deal with such fuzziness, leading to "confidence" scores between…

  4. A Review of Scoring Algorithms for Ability and Aptitude Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Shirley A.

    In conventional practice, most educators and educational researchers score cognitive tests using a dichotomous right-wrong scoring system. Although simple and straightforward, this method does not take into consideration other factors, such as partial knowledge or guessing tendencies and abilities. This paper discusses alternative scoring models:…

  5. Score Study Practices of Texas High School Choir Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie; Herring, Michelle; Moore, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Score study combines the task of what music educators do to prepare for class everyday with many of the components that are taught in collegiate theory classes. While non-research articles have cited the practical application of score study techniques, there is a need for research on score study to describe the ways choral educators pragmatically…

  6. 49 CFR 383.135 - Minimum passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... score on such knowledge test. (b) To achieve a passing score on the skills test, the driver applicant must demonstrate that he/she can successfully perform all of the skills listed in § 383.113. (c) If the... automatically fail the test. (d) The scoring of the basic knowledge and skills tests shall be adjusted...

  7. Examining Guidelines for Developing Accurate Proficiency Level Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercikan, Kadriye

    2006-01-01

    One attempt to make scores from large-scale assessments more interpretable has been to provide proficiency level scores to describe the meaning of student performance on tests. This study has examined the accuracy of Ercikan and Julian's (2002) guidelines for developing proficiency level scores and the classification accuracy of proficiency level…

  8. Statistical Assessment of Estimated Transformations in Observed-Score Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberg, Marie; González, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Equating methods make use of an appropriate transformation function to map the scores of one test form into the scale of another so that scores are comparable and can be used interchangeably. The equating literature shows that the ways of judging the success of an equating (i.e., the score transformation) might differ depending on the adopted…

  9. The Impact of Anonymization for Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Lottridge, Sue; Mayfield, Elijah

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of anonymizing text on predicted scores made by two kinds of automated scoring engines: one that incorporates elements of natural language processing (NLP) and one that does not. Eight data sets (N = 22,029) were used to form both training and test sets in which the scoring engines had access to both text and…

  10. Understanding and Using Factor Scores: Considerations for the Applied Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Zhu, Min; Mindrila, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Following an exploratory factor analysis, factor scores may be computed and used in subsequent analyses. Factor scores are composite variables which provide information about an individual's placement on the factor(s). This article discusses popular methods to create factor scores under two different classes: refined and non-refined. Strengths and…

  11. Analytic versus Holistic Scoring of Science Performance Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; Stecher, Brian M.; Shavelson, Richard J.; McCaffrey, Daniel; Ormseth, Tor; Bell, Robert M.; Comfort, Kathy; Othman, Abdul R.

    1998-01-01

    Two studies involving 368 elementary and high school students and 29 readers were conducted to investigate reader consistency, score reliability, and reader time requirements of three hands-on science performance tasks. Holistic scores were as reliable as analytic scores, and there was a high correlation between them after they were disattenuated…

  12. Testing Intelligently Includes Double-Checking Wechsler IQ Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuentzel, Jeffrey G.; Hetterscheidt, Lesley A.; Barnett, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The rigors of standardized testing make for numerous opportunities for examiner error, including simple computational mistakes in scoring. Although experts recommend that test scoring be double-checked, the extent to which independent double-checking would reduce scoring errors is not known. A double-checking procedure was established at a…

  13. An Analysis of the Robustness of Composition Scoring Schemes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Kyle

    Various claims have been made about the efficiency of different composition scoring schemes. This paper reports the results of a systematic analysis of the robustness of holistic scoring, analytical scoring, and an obective diagnostic test, Davidson's "Test of the Ability to Subordinate." Compositions from an advanced English as a Second Language…

  14. Reliability of Total Test Scores When Considered as Ordinal Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Ajoy Kumar

    2006-01-01

    This article studies the ordinal reliability of (total) test scores. This study is based on a classical-type linear model of observed score (X), true score (T), and random error (E). Based on the idea of Kendall's tau-a coefficient, a measure of ordinal reliability for small-examinee populations is developed. This measure is extended to large…

  15. Applying the WHO recommendations on health-sector response to violence against women to assess the Spanish health system. A mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Goicolea, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Minvielle, Fauhn; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Ohman, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This methodological note describes the development and application of a mixed-methods protocol to assess the responsiveness of Spanish health systems to violence against women in Spain, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Five areas for exploration were identified based on the WHO recommendations: policy environment, protocols, training, accountability/monitoring, and prevention/promotion. Two data collection instruments were developed to assess the situation of 17 Spanish regional health systems (RHS) with respect to these areas: 1) a set of indicators to guide a systematic review of secondary sources, and 2) an interview guide to be used with 26 key informants at the regional and national levels. We found differences between RHSs in the five areas assessed. The progress of RHSs on the WHO recommendations was notable at the level of policies, moderate in terms of health service delivery, and very limited in terms of preventive actions. Using a mixed-methods approach was useful for triangulation and complementarity during instrument design, data collection and interpretation. PMID:24440120

  16. In Search of a Gold Standard Scoring System for the Subjective Evaluation of Cosmetic Outcomes Following Breast-Conserving Therapy.

    PubMed

    Racz, Jennifer M; Hong, Nicole Look; Latosinsky, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The absence of a widely accepted method for aesthetic evaluation following breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer limits the ability to evaluate cosmetic outcomes. In this study, two different panel scoring approaches were compared in an attempt to identify a gold standard scoring system for subjectively assessing cosmetic outcomes following breast-conserving therapy. Standardized photographs of each participant were evaluated independently by twelve health care professionals involved in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment using the Danoff four-point scale. Individual Danoff scores were combined using two methods, a random sample "three-panel" score and an iterative "Delphi-panel" score, in order to create a final cosmetic score for each patient. Agreement between these two aggregative approaches was assessed with a weighted kappa (wk) statistic. Patient and professional recruitment occurred at two separate tertiary care multi-disciplinary breast health centers. Women with unilateral breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving therapy (segmental mastectomy or lumpectomy and radiotherapy) and were at least 2 years after radiotherapy were asked to participate. Ninety-seven women were evaluated. The Delphi approach required three rounds of evaluation to obtain greater than 50% agreement in all photographs. The wk statistic between scores generated from the "three-panel" and "Delphi-panel" approaches was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.71-0.89), thus demonstrating substantial agreement. Evaluation of cosmetic outcomes following breast-conserving therapy using a "three-panel" and "Delphi-panel" score provide similar results, confirming the reliability of either approach for subjective evaluation. Simplicity of use and interpretation favors the "three-panel" score. Future work should concentrate on the integration of the three-panel score with objective and patient-reported scales to generate a comprehensive cosmetic evaluation platform. PMID:25940058

  17. A Risk Score to Predict Hypertension in Primary Care Settings in Rural India.

    PubMed

    Sathish, Thirunavukkarasu; Kannan, Srinivasan; Sarma, P Sankara; Razum, Oliver; Thrift, Amanda Gay; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman

    2016-01-01

    We used the data of 297 participants (15-64 years old) from a cohort study (2003-2010) who were free from hypertension at baseline, to develop a risk score to predict hypertension by primary health care workers in rural India. Age ≥35 years, current smoking, prehypertension, and central obesity were significantly associated with incident hypertension. The optimal cutoff value of ≥3 had a sensitivity of 78.6%, specificity of 65.2%, positive predictive value of 41.1%, and negative predictive value of 90.8%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the risk score was 0.802 (95% confidence interval = 0.748-0.856). This simple and easy to administer risk score could be used to predict hypertension in primary care settings in rural India. PMID:26354334

  18. NIH peer review percentile scores are poorly predictive of grant productivity

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Peer review is widely used to assess grant applications so that the highest ranked applications can be funded. A number of studies have questioned the ability of peer review panels to predict the productivity of applications, but a recent analysis of grants funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the US found that the percentile scores awarded by peer review panels correlated with productivity as measured by citations of grant-supported publications. Here, based on a re-analysis of these data for the 102,740 funded grants with percentile scores of 20 or better, we report that these percentile scores are a poor discriminator of productivity. This underscores the limitations of peer review as a means of assessing grant applications in an era when typical success rates are often as low as about 10%. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13323.001 PMID:26880623

  19. NIH peer review percentile scores are poorly predictive of grant productivity.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ferric C; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Peer review is widely used to assess grant applications so that the highest ranked applications can be funded. A number of studies have questioned the ability of peer review panels to predict the productivity of applications, but a recent analysis of grants funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the US found that the percentile scores awarded by peer review panels correlated with productivity as measured by citations of grant-supported publications. Here, based on a re-analysis of these data for the 102,740 funded grants with percentile scores of 20 or better, we report that these percentile scores are a poor discriminator of productivity. This underscores the limitations of peer review as a means of assessing grant applications in an era when typical success rates are often as low as about 10%. PMID:26880623

  20. Trabecular bone score in healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Bazzocchi, A; Ponti, F; Diano, D; Amadori, M; Albisinni, U; Battista, G

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this work was to report on trabecular bone score (TBS) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of healthy Italian subjects to be used as a reference standard for future study in clinical and research settings. The secondary aim was to investigate the link between TBS and conventional parameters of bone and body composition by DXA. Methods: 250 individuals of 5 age bands (spanning from 18 to 70 years of age, equally distributed for both age and sex) were prospectively recruited. A lumbar spine (LS) DXA scan (Lunar iDXA™; GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) was acquired for each subject and then analysed with the latest version of TBS iNsight v. 2.1 (Med-Imaps, Pessac, France) software. LS bone mineral density (LS BMD), Z-score, T-score and TBS values were collected. Pearson's test was used to investigate the correlations between TBS and LS BMD and the influence of age, body mass index (BMI) and body composition on these parameters. Results: A significant decrease of TBS and LS BMD was observed with ageing in both males (TBS mean values from 1.486 to 1.374; LS BMD mean values from 1.219 to 1.187) and females (TBS mean values from 1.464 to 1.306; LS BMD mean values from 1.154 to 1.116). No statistically significant difference was achieved among males and females of the same age group for both TBS and LS BMD, with the exception of the fifth age group. A significant correlation was found between LS BMD and TBS values in both sexes (r  = 0.555–0.655, p < 0.0001). BMI influenced LS BMD but not TBS. TBS values were inversely correlated with some fat mass parameters, in particular with visceral adipose tissue (in males: r = −0.332, p < 0.001; in females: r = −0.348, p < 0.0001). No significant correlation was found between TBS and total lean mass, opposite to LS BMD (in males: r = 0.418; p < 0.0001; in females: r = −0.235; p < 0.001). Conclusion: This report is an attempt to start building a database for

  1. A scoring scheme for evaluating magnetofossil identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, R. E.; Kirschvink, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    In many Quaternary lacustrine and marine settings, fossil magnetotactic bacteria are a major contributor to sedimentary magnetization [1]. Magnetite particles produced by magnetotactic bacteria have traits, shaped by natural selection, that increase the efficiency with which the bacteria utilize iron and also facilitate the recognition of the particles' biological origin. In particular, magnetotactic bacteria generally produce particles with characteristic shapes and narrow size and shape distributions that lie within the single domain stability field. The particles have effective positive magnetic anisotropy, produced by alignment in chains and frequently by particle elongation. In addition, the crystals are often nearly stochiometric and have few crystallographic defects. Yet, despite these distinctive traits, there are few identified magnetofossils that predate the Quaternary, and many putative identifications are highly controversial. We propose a six-criteria scoring scheme for evaluating identifications based on the quality of the geological, magnetic, and electron microscopic evidence. Our criteria are: (1) whether the geological context is well-constrained stratigraphically, and whether paleomagnetic evidence suggests a primary magnetization; (2) whether magnetic or microscopic evidence support the presence of significant single-domain magnetite; (3) whether magnetic or ferromagnetic resonance evidence indicates narrow size and shape distributions, and whether microscopic evidence reveals single-domain particles with truncated edges, elongate single-domain particles, and/or narrow size and shape distributions; (4) whether ferromagnetic resonance, low-temperature magnetic, or electron microscopic evidence reveals the presence of chains; (5) whether low-temperature magnetometry, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, or other techniques demonstrate the near-stochiometry of the particles; and (6) whether high-resolution TEM indicates the near- absence of

  2. Skill Scores for Probabilistic Climate and Weather Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, T.; Suckling, E. B.; Smith, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    A wide variety of skill scores are in use for the evaluation of probability forecasts. While the importance of using proper scores is well recognised, researchers often face requests to present results under a variety of different scores. Is there any sense in which considering many "different" skill scores makes a case more (or less) persuasive? Which set of scores makes the most persuasive case? A number of scores are considered, and their strengths and weaknesses contrasted, including the most commonly used metrics such as the proper linear score, continous ranked probability score and logartithmic score, amongst others. The role of moving from ensembles of point forecasts to continuous probability distributions is discussed. Illustrations with meteorological forecasts are considered, as are mathematical experiments where the size of the forecast-outcome archive can be made arbitrarily large. The aim is to restrict the number of skill scores considered, reduce the use of misleading scores, identify independent evidence and ensure that the set of scores published are specified before the results are in. I J Good's logarithmic score is known to be the only local, proper score for continuous variables. Proposed criticisms of locality are considered and rejected and it is argued that proper, non-local scores tend to include a term that is independent of the probability mass associated with the outcome. Thus they reward the forecast for some other property of the distribution function itself, having for example a particular shape; it is conjectured that this may be a general result. This is depricated, except in cases where the forecaster is being rewarded for something other than the relation between the forecast and reality, or whose distribution functions are unavoidably constrained by some particular structure. Remaining challenges to the evaluation of probability forecasts are noted. In partucular the effect of small samples and the implications of uncertinaty

  3. A Study of the Predictability of Praxis I Examination Scores from ACT Scores and Teacher Education Program Prerequisite Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Allen R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between student enrollment in certain college courses and Praxis I scores. Specifically, the study examined the predictive nature of the relationships between students' grades in college algebra, their freshman English course of choice, their ACT scores, and their Praxis I scores. The subjects…

  4. Strategies in Comparison of Methods for Scoring Patient Management Problems: Use of External Criteria to Validate Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, G. D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Whether alternative scoring strategies result in improved measurement properties of patient management problems (PMPs) was studied. Nine scoring systems (proficiency, efficiency, select, omit, data gathering, therapy, absolute, goal-oriented, and empiric expert score) were applied to 16 PMPs used in a certifying examination taken by 4,590…

  5. Essays on probability elicitation scoring rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmino, Paulo Renato A.; dos Santos Neto, Ademir B.

    2012-10-01

    In probability elicitation exercises it has been usual to considerer scoring rules (SRs) to measure the performance of experts when inferring about a given unknown, Θ, for which the true value, θ*, is (or will shortly be) known to the experimenter. Mathematically, SRs quantify the discrepancy between f(θ) (the distribution reflecting the expert's uncertainty about Θ) and d(θ), a zero-one indicator function of the observation θ*. Thus, a remarkable characteristic of SRs is to contrast expert's beliefs with the observation θ*. The present work aims at extending SRs concepts and formulas for the cases where Θ is aleatory, highlighting advantages of goodness-of-fit and entropy-like measures. Conceptually, it is argued that besides of evaluating the personal performance of the expert, SRs may also play a role when comparing the elicitation processes adopted to obtain f(θ). Mathematically, it is proposed to replace d(θ) by g(θ), the distribution that model the randomness of Θ, and do also considerer goodness-of-fit and entropylike metrics, leading to SRs that measure the adherence of f(θ) to g(θ). The implications of this alternative perspective are discussed and illustrated by means of case studies based on the simulation of controlled experiments. The usefulness of the proposed approach for evaluating the performance of experts and elicitation processes is investigated.

  6. Examining the reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores.

    PubMed

    Grochowalski, Joseph H; Liu, Ying; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and examine ways to improve the reliability of change scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Cognitive Subtest (ADAS-Cog). The sample, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, included individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 153) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 352). All participants were administered the ADAS-Cog at baseline and 1 year, and change scores were calculated as the difference in scores over the 1-year period. Three types of change score reliabilities were estimated using multivariate generalizability. Two methods to increase change score reliability were evaluated: reweighting the subtests of the scale and adding more subtests. Reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores over 1 year was low for both the AD sample (ranging from .53 to .64) and the MCI sample (.39 to .61). Reweighting the change scores from the AD sample improved reliability (.68 to .76), but lengthening provided no useful improvement for either sample. The MCI change scores had low reliability, even with reweighting and adding additional subtests. The ADAS-Cog scores had low reliability for measuring change. Researchers using the ADAS-Cog should estimate and report reliability for their use of the change scores. The ADAS-Cog change scores are not recommended for assessment of meaningful clinical change. PMID:26708116

  7. An innovative simplified MCH score for assessing the ideal babies in well baby shows of postpartum outreach programme.

    PubMed

    Anandalakshmy, P N; Mittal, S

    1995-01-01

    In India, a simple scoring method was used to select winners at 18 well-baby shows over the last five years in low-income areas of Kotla Mubarakpur and Gautam Nagar, in the Rajeev Gandhi Resettlement Colony, in jhuggi jhopri clusters around the All Institute of Medical Sciences (AAIMS) in New Delhi, and in the Bangladeshi refugee colony (Kidwai Nagar). The parameters used to select ideal babies were parents' age at marriage and educational status, mother's age at first birth, number of living children in relation to marriage duration, immunization status of living children, birth interval, contraceptive use, and routine criteria on general health and hygiene. Winners were chosen among infants, toddlers (1-2 years), and preschool children (2-5). Health promotional activities, maternal and child health (MCH) services, and family planning (FP) services were featured at the health camps where the well-baby shows occurred. 60-90 children and 100-2000 couples participated in the well-baby shows. Health workers explained to parents of children with a poor score why their children had a poor score. At the health camps, parents adopted FP methods and had their children immunized, regardless of score, so as to improve their score for the next show and to win prizes. The well-baby scores improved over time (24.64-31.2 for Kotla Mubarakpur, 19-24.6 for Gautam Nagar, 20.9-22.4 for Rajeev Gandhi, 20.6-23.6 for AIIMS jhuggi, and 13.6-21.4 for Kidwai Nagar). A weekly clinic operating in Kotla Mubarakpur accounted for the high initial mean score. Gautam Nagar had only periodic health services. A weekly mobile health van provided services in the Rajeev Gandhi colony. Door to door contacts were conducted in the jhuggi jhopri clusters to promote MCH/FP services. The scoring method reinforced integration of MCH/FP services. It allowed local health workers to make rapid analyses and MCH decision making. It also served as a tool to monitor the efficacy of local MCH/FP services. PMID

  8. Comparison of three acute care pediatric early warning scoring tools.

    PubMed

    Robson, Mary-Ann J; Cooper, Carole L; Medicus, Lori A; Quintero, Mary J; Zuniga, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric Early Warning (PEW) scoring tools effectively identify hospitalized children at risk for clinical deterioration. The study compared the predictability of three previously validated PEW scoring tools. A retrospective case-control design was used that identified the PEW System Score (H. Duncan, J. Hutchison, & C. Parshuram, 2006) as a stronger predictor of cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) than either the PEW Tool (C. Haines, M. Perrott, & P. Weir, 2006) or the Bedside PEW System Score (C. Parshuram, J. Hutchison, & K. Middaugh, 2009). The PEW System Score (H. Duncan, J. Hutchison, & C. Parshuram, 2006) demonstrated a greater sensitivity (86.6%) and specificity (72.9%) at a score of five. The PEW System Score (H. Duncan, J. Hutchison, & C. Parshuram, 2006) could benefit healthcare providers in potentially averting CPA. PMID:23276507

  9. Comparison of Risk Scoring Systems to Predict the Outcome in ASA-PS V Patients Undergoing Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yurtlu, Derya Arslan; Aksun, Murat; Ayvat, Pınar; Karahan, Nagihan; Koroglu, Lale; Aran, Gülcin Önder

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Operative decision in American Society of Anesthesiology Physical Status (ASA-PS) V patient is difficult as this group of patients expected to have high mortality rate. Another risk scoring system in this ASA-PS V subset of patients can aid to ease this decision. Data of ASA-PS V classified patients between 2011 and 2013 years in a single hospital were analyzed in this study. Predicted mortality of these patients was determined with acute physiology and chronic health evaluations (APACHE) II, simplified acute physiology score (SAPS II), Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), Porthsmouth physiological and operative severity score for enumeration of mortality and morbidity (P-POSSUM), Surgical apgar score (SAS), and Goldman cardiac risk index (GCRI) scores. Observed and predicted mortality rates according to the risk indexes in these patients were compared at survivor and nonsurvivor group of patients. Risk stratification was made with receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Data of 89 patients were included in the analyses. Predicted mortality rates generated by APACHE II and SAPS II scoring systems were significantly different between survivor and nonsurvivor group of patients. Risk stratification with ROC analysis revealed that area under curve was 0.784 and 0.681 for SAPS II and APACHE II scoring systems, respectively. Highest sensitivity (77.3) is reached with SAPS II score. APACHE II and SAPS II are better predictive tools of mortality in ASA-PS V classified subset of patients. Discrimination power of SAPS II score is the best among the compared risk stratification scores. SAPS II can be suggested as an additional risk scoring system for ASA-PS V patients. PMID:27043696

  10. Performance Assessment of the SOFA, APACHE II Scoring System, and SAPS II in Intensive Care Unit Organophosphate Poisoned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Hwan; Yeo, Jung Hoon; Kang, Mun Ju; Cho, Kwang Won; Hwang, SeongYoun; Hong, Chong Kun; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Yang Weon

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology, Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring systems, as well as the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II method to predict group mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were poisoned with organophosphate. The medical records of 149 organophosphate poisoned patients admitted to the ICU from September 2006 to December 2012 were retrospectively examined. The SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II were calculated based on initial laboratory data in the Emergency Department, and during the first 24 hr of ICU admission. The probability of death was calculated for each patient based on the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II equations. The ability to predict group mortality by the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II method was assessed using two by two decision matrices and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A total of 131 patients (mean age, 61 yr) were enrolled. The sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies were 86.2%, 82.4%, and 83.2% for the SOFA score, respectively; 65.5%, 68.6%, and 67.9% for the APACHE II scoring system, respectively; and 86.2%, 77.5%, and 79.4% for the SAPS II, respectively. The areas under the curve in the ROC curve analysis for the SOFA score, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II were 0.896, 0.716, and 0.852, respectively. In conclusion, the SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II have different capability to discriminate and estimate early in-hospital mortality of organophosphate poisoned patients. The SOFA score is more useful in predicting mortality, and easier and simpler than the APACHE II and SAPS II. PMID:24339715

  11. Validation of walk score for estimating neighborhood walkability: an analysis of four US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Dustin T; Aldstadt, Jared; Whalen, John; Melly, Steven J; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2011-11-01

    Neighborhood walkability can influence physical activity. We evaluated the validity of Walk Score(®) for assessing neighborhood walkability based on GIS (objective) indicators of neighborhood walkability with addresses from four US metropolitan areas with several street network buffer distances (i.e., 400-, 800-, and 1,600-meters). Address data come from the YMCA-Harvard After School Food and Fitness Project, an obesity prevention intervention involving children aged 5-11 years and their families participating in YMCA-administered, after-school programs located in four geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the US (n = 733). GIS data were used to measure multiple objective indicators of neighborhood walkability. Walk Scores were also obtained for the participant's residential addresses. Spearman correlations between Walk Scores and the GIS neighborhood walkability indicators were calculated as well as Spearman correlations accounting for spatial autocorrelation. There were many significant moderate correlations between Walk Scores and the GIS neighborhood walkability indicators such as density of retail destinations and intersection density (p < 0.05). The magnitude varied by the GIS indicator of neighborhood walkability. Correlations generally became stronger with a larger spatial scale, and there were some geographic differences. Walk Score(®) is free and publicly available for public health researchers and practitioners. Results from our study suggest that Walk Score(®) is a valid measure of estimating certain aspects of neighborhood walkability, particularly at the 1600-meter buffer. As such, our study confirms and extends the generalizability of previous findings demonstrating that Walk Score is a valid measure of estimating neighborhood walkability in multiple geographic locations and at multiple spatial scales. PMID:22163200

  12. The association of reproductive and lifestyle factors with a score of multiple endogenous hormones

    PubMed Central

    Shafrir, Amy L.; Zhang, Xuehong; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Tworoger, Shelley S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We recently reported that high levels of multiple sex and growth hormones were associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Limited research has explored the relationship between reproductive, anthropometric, and lifestyle factors and levels of multiple hormones simultaneously. Methods This cross-sectional analysis included 738 postmenopausal Nurses' Health Study participants who were controls in a breast cancer nested case-control study and had measured levels of estrone, estradiol, estrone sulfate, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, prolactin and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). A score was created by summing the number of hormones a woman had above (below for SHBG) each hormone's age-adjusted geometric mean. The association between lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive exposures and the score was assessed using generalized linear models. Results The hormone score ranged from 0 to 8 with a mean of 4.0 (standard deviation=2.2). Body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption at blood draw were positively associated with the hormone score: a 5 unit increase in BMI was associated with a 0.79 (95%CI: 0.63, 0.95) unit increase in the score (p<0.0001) and each 15 grams/day increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a 0.41 (95%CI: 0.18, 0.63) unit increase in the score (p=0.0004). Family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, and physical activity were not associated with the score. Conclusions Reproductive breast cancer risk factors were not associated with elevated levels of multiple endogenous hormones, whereas anthropometric and lifestyle factors, particularly BMI and alcohol consumption, tended to be associated with higher levels of multiple hormones. PMID:25048255

  13. Apgar-score in children prenatally exposed to antiepileptic drugs: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Jakob; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Vestergaard, Mogens; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Pedersen, Lars Henning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives It is unknown if prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increases the risk of low Apgar score in offspring. Setting Population-based study using health registers in Denmark. Participants We identified all 677 021 singletons born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008 and linked the Apgar score from the Medical Birth Register with information on the women's prescriptions for AEDs during pregnancy from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. We used the Danish National Hospital Registry to identify mothers diagnosed with epilepsy before birth of the child. Results were adjusted for smoking and maternal age. Results Among 2906 children exposed to AEDs, 55 (1.9%) were born with an Apgar score ≤7 as compared with 8797 (1.3%) children among 674 115 pregnancies unexposed to AEDs (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=1.41 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.85). When analyses were restricted to the 2215 children born of mothers with epilepsy, the aRR of having a low Apgar score associated with AED exposure was 1.34 (95% CI 0.90 to 2.01) When assessing individual AEDs, we found increased, unadjusted RR for exposure to carbamazepine (RR=1.86 (95% CI 1.01 to 3.42)), valproic acid (RR=1.85 (95% CI 1.04 to 3.30)) and topiramate (RR=2.97 (95% CI 1.26 to 7.01)) when compared to unexposed children. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to AEDs was associated with increased risk of being born with a low Apgar score, but the absolute risk of a low Apgar score was <2%. Risk associated with individual AEDs indicate that the increased risk is not a class effect, but that there may be particularly high risks of a low Apgar score associated with certain AEDs. PMID:26359281

  14. Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties (MSQ-Job): definition of the cut-off score.

    PubMed

    Schiavolin, Silvia; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Leonardi, Matilde; Brenna, Greta; Brambilla, Laura; Confalonieri, Paolo; Frangiamore, Rita; Mantegazza, Renato; Moscatelli, Marco; Clerici, Valentina Torri; Cortese, Francesca; Covelli, Venusia; Ponzio, Michela; Zaratin, Paola; Raggi, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) mainly affects people of working age. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties (MSQ-Job) was designed to measure difficulties in work-related tasks. Our aim is to define cut-off score of MSQ-Job to identify potential critical situations that might require specific attention. A sample of patients with MS completed the MSQ-Job, WHODAS 2.0 and MSQOL-54 respectively for work difficulties, disability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) evaluation. K-means Cluster Analysis was used to divide the sample in three groups on the basis of HRQoL and disability. ANOVA test was performed to compare the response pattern between these groups. The cut-off score was defined using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses for MSQ-Job total and count of MSQ-Job items scores ≥3: a score value corresponding to the maximum of the sensitivity-to-specificity ratio was chosen as the cut-off. Out of 180 patients enrolled, twenty were clustered in the higher severity group. The area under the ROC curve was 0.845 for the MSQ-Job total and 0.859 for the count of MSQ-Job items scores ≥3 while the cut-off score was 15.8 for MSQ-Job total and 8 for count of items scored ≥3. We recommend the use of MSQ-Job with this calculation as cut-off for identifying critical situations, e.g. in vocational rehabilitation services, where work-related difficulties have a significant impact in terms of lower quality of life and higher disability. PMID:26842465

  15. Physiologic Dysfunction Scores and Cognitive Function Test Performance in United States Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kobrosly, Roni W; Seplaki, Christopher L; Jones, Courtney M; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between a measure of cumulative physiologic dysfunction and specific domains of cognitive function. Methods We examined a summary score measuring physiological dysfunction, a multisystem measure of the body’s ability to effectively adapt to physical and psychological demands, in relation to cognitive function deficits in a population of 4511 adults aged 20 to 59 who participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Measures of cognitive function comprised three domains: working memory, visuomotor speed, and perceptual-motor speed. ‘Physiologic dysfunction’ scores summarizing measures of cardiovascular, immunologic, kidney, and liver function were explored. We used multiple linear regression models to estimate associations between cognitive function measures and physiological dysfunction scores, adjusting for socioeconomic factors, test conditions, and self-reported health factors. Results We noted a dose-response relationship between physiologic dysfunction and working memory (coefficient = 0.207, 95% CI = (0.066, 0.348), p < 0.0001) that persisted after adjustment for all covariates (p = 0.03). We did not observe any significant relationships between dysfunction scores and visuomotor (p = 0.37) or perceptual-motor ability (p = 0.33). Conclusions Our findings suggest that multisystem physiologic dysfunction is associated with working memory. Future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms and explore the persistency of this association into later life. We suggest that such studies should incorporate physiologic data, neuroendocrine parameters, and a wide range of specific cognitive domains. PMID:22155941

  16. Validity and reliability of the SPORTS score for shoulder instability

    PubMed Central

    BLONNA, DAVIDE; BELLATO, ENRICO; CARANZANO, FRANCESCO; BONASIA, DAVIDE E.; MARMOTTI, ANTONGIULIO; ROSSI, ROBERTO; CASTOLDI, FILIPPO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose athletes affected by shoulder instability cannot be judged solely according to the criteria used for non-athletes. In order to improve the assessment of shoulder instability surgery outcomes, the SPORTS score was tested in a cohort of athletes. Methods ninety-eight athletes at an average follow-up of 4.6 years (range 1–9.2) after open or arthroscopic surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability were included in this study. The patients were asked to complete the SPORTS score questionnaire twice, with an interval of 2–3 weeks between the two assessments. The Bland-Altman method and the intra-class correlation coefficient were used to measure reliability. Criterion validity was assessed by calculating the Spearman correlation coefficient between the SPORTS score and the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) score, the Rowe score, the Oxford Shoulder Instability Score (OSIS), and the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV). Results the SPORTS score showed excellent test-retest reliability. The systematic error between the first and the second assessment was 0.3 points (95% upper limit of agreement = 2.3 points). The criterion validity was found to be strong for the SPORTS score, which correlated best with the SSV and the “sport, recreation, and work” component of the WOSI score. The SPORTS score had an acceptable floor effect (8%). The ceiling effect was 46%, which was better than the ceiling effects seen with the Rowe, OSIS and WOSI scores. Conclusions this study suggests that the SPORTS score is a valid score in the assessment of athletes after surgery for shoulder instability and that it adds important information to the currently available scores. Level of evidence Level III, diagnostic study of nonconsecutive patients. PMID:25606544

  17. Evolution of the COPD Assessment Test score during chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: Determinants and prognostic value

    PubMed Central

    Feliz-Rodriguez, Darwin; Zudaire, Santiago; Carpio, Carlos; Martínez, Elizabet; Gómez-Mendieta, Antonia; Santiago, Ana; Alvarez-Sala, Rodolfo; García-Río, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An adequate evaluation of exacerbations is a primary objective in managing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: To define the profile of health status recovery during severe exacerbations of COPD using the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) questionnaire and to evaluate its prognostic value. METHODS: Forty-five patients with previous COPD diagnoses who were hospitalized due to severe exacerbation(s) were included in the study. These patients were treated by their respective physicians following current recommendations; health status was assessed daily using the CAT questionnaire. The CAT score, spirometry and recurrent hospitalizations were recorded one and three months after hospital discharge. RESULTS: Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage was an independent determinant for increased CAT score during the first days of exacerbation with respect to postexacerbation values. From hospitalization day 5, the CAT score was similar to that obtained in the stable phase. Body mass index, GOLD stage and education level were related to health status recovery pattern. CAT score increase and the area under the curve of CAT recovery were inversely related to the forced expiratory volume in 1 s achieved three months after discharge (r= −0.606; P<0.001 and r= −0.532; P<0.001, respectively). Patients with recurrent hospitalizations showed higher CAT score increases and slower recovery. CONCLUSIONS: The CAT detects early health status improvement during severe COPD exacerbations. Its initial worsening and recovery pattern are related to lung function and recurrent hospitalizations. PMID:24093119

  18. Immigration, Generational Status and Health Literacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Edward; Omariba, D. Walter R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Immigrants, a fast-growing population in Canada, score below the national average in health literacy, but the reasons behind the low scores are largely unknown. Also, there is a need to understand the long-term impact of immigration by examining health literacy by generational status. Objective: To examine health literacy differentials…

  19. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score

    PubMed Central

    Monteagudo, Celia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Rivas, Ana; Lorenzo-Tovar, María Luisa; Tur, Josep A.; Olea-Serrano, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD) adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors. Methods and Results The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS) is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%). The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69) and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals. Conclusions The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations. PMID:26035442

  20. Gambling score in earthquake prediction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchan, G.; Romashkova, L.

    2011-03-01

    The number of successes and the space-time alarm rate are commonly used to characterize the strength of an earthquake prediction method and the significance of prediction results. It has been recently suggested to use a new characteristic to evaluate the forecaster's skill, the gambling score (GS), which incorporates the difficulty of guessing each target event by using different weights for different alarms. We expand parametrization of the GS and use the M8 prediction algorithm to illustrate difficulties of the new approach in the analysis of the prediction significance. We show that the level of significance strongly depends (1) on the choice of alarm weights, (2) on the partitioning of the entire alarm volume into component parts and (3) on the accuracy of the spatial rate measure of target events. These tools are at the disposal of the researcher and can affect the significance estimate. Formally, all reasonable GSs discussed here corroborate that the M8 method is non-trivial in the prediction of 8.0 ≤M < 8.5 events because the point estimates of the significance are in the range 0.5-5 per cent. However, the conservative estimate 3.7 per cent based on the number of successes seems preferable owing to two circumstances: (1) it is based on relative values of the spatial rate and hence is more stable and (2) the statistic of successes enables us to construct analytically an upper estimate of the significance taking into account the uncertainty of the spatial rate measure.

  1. Trainee Occupational Therapists Scoring the Barthel ADL.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elizabeth; Nugent, Chris; Bond, Raymond; Martin, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    Within medical applications there are two main types of information design; paper-based and digital information [1]. As technology is constantly changing, information within healthcare management and delivery is continually being transitioned from traditional paper documents to digital and online resources. Activity of Daily Living (ADL) charts are still predominantly paper based and are therefore prone to "human error" [2]. In light of this, an investigation has taken place into the design for reducing the amount of human error, between a paper based ADL, specifically the Barthel Index, and the same ADL created digitally. The digital ADL was developed as an online platform as this offers the best method of data capture for a large group of participants all together [3]. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usability of the Barthel Index ADL in paper format and then reproduce the same ADL digitally. This paper presents the findings of a study involving 26 participants who were familiar with ADL charts, and used three scenarios requiring them to complete both a paper ADL and a digital ADL. An evaluation was undertaken to ascertain if there were any 'human errors' in completing the paper ADL and also to find similarities/differences through using the digital ADL. The results from the study indicated that 22/26 participants agreed that the digital ADL was better, if not the same as a paper based ADL. Further results indicated that participants rate highly the added benefit of the digital ADL being easy to use and also that calculation of assessment scores were performed automatically. Statistically the digital BI offered a 100 % correction rate in the total calculation, in comparison to the paper based BI where it is more common for users to make mathematical calculation errors. Therefore in order to minimise handwriting and calculation errors, the digital BI proved superior than the traditional paper based method. PMID:26250757

  2. Computer scoring of the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale.

    PubMed

    Barchard, Kimberly A; Bajgar, Jane; Leaf, Duncan Ermini; Lane, Richard D

    2010-05-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS; Lane, Quinlan, Schwartz, Walker, & Zeitlan, 1990) is the most commonly used measure of differentiation and complexity in the use of emotion words and is associated with important clinical outcomes. Hand scoring the LEAS is time consuming. Existing programs for scoring open-ended responses cannot mimic LEAS hand scoring. Therefore, Leaf and Barchard (2006) developed the Program for Open-Ended Scoring (POES) to score the LEAS. In this article, we report a study in which the reliability and validity of POES scoring were examined. In the study, we used three participant types (adult community members, university students, children), three LEAS versions (paper based, computer based, and the LEAS for children), and a diverse set of criterion variables. Across this variety of conditions, the four POES scoring methods had internal consistencies and validities that were comparable to hand scoring, indicating that POES scoring can be used in clinical practice and other applied settings in which hand scoring is impractical. PMID:20479190

  3. Combining event scores to estimate the ability of competitors.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, W G; Green, J R

    1995-04-01

    Simulation was used to investigate the validities of nine measures of ability derived from scores of two or more competitive events. The measures were: raw means and least-squares means of raw scores, z scores, and normal scores; two measures derived from ranked scores; and the "personal-best" raw score. Simulations were performed for different numbers of competitors, events, and event entries, each for a range of validity of performance in a single event. A complete set of simulations was repeated for each of the following conditions: normal distribution of competitors' ability; skewed distribution of ability; event validity related to ability; validity, ability, and spread of scores differing between events; and events differing in difficulty. The raw mean of raw scores was generally the most valid measure. The personal best was comparable to the mean only when the number of entries approached one per competitor. The least-squares mean of raw scores had highest validity when events differed substantially in difficulty; it should therefore be used when events differ in length, or when event scores are affected by environmental conditions, judging bias, or by uneven matching of competitors in match-play sports. PMID:7791592

  4. Stability of cooperation under image scoring in group interactions.

    PubMed

    Nax, Heinrich H; Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Image scoring sustains cooperation in the repeated two-player prisoner's dilemma through indirect reciprocity, even though defection is the uniquely dominant selfish behaviour in the one-shot game. Many real-world dilemma situations, however, firstly, take place in groups and, secondly, lack the necessary transparency to inform subjects reliably of others' individual past actions. Instead, there is revelation of information regarding groups, which allows for 'group scoring' but not for image scoring. Here, we study how sensitive the positive results related to image scoring are to information based on group scoring. We combine analytic results and computer simulations to specify the conditions for the emergence of cooperation. We show that under pure group scoring, that is, under the complete absence of image-scoring information, cooperation is unsustainable. Away from this extreme case, however, the necessary degree of image scoring relative to group scoring depends on the population size and is generally very small. We thus conclude that the positive results based on image scoring apply to a much broader range of informational settings that are relevant in the real world than previously assumed. PMID:26177466

  5. The AFC Score: Validation of a 4-Item Predicting Score of Postoperative Mortality After Colorectal Resection for Cancer or Diverticulitis

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Arnaud; Panis, Yves; Mantion, Georges; Slim, Karem; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Vicaut, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present prospective study was to validate externally a 4-item predictive score of mortality after colorectal surgery (the AFC score) by testing its generalizability on a new population. Summary Background Data: We have recently reported, in a French prospective multicenter study, that age older than 70 years, neurologic comorbidity, underweight (body weight loss >10% in <6 months), and emergency surgery significantly increased postoperative mortality after resection for cancer or diverticulitis. Patients and Methods: From June to September 2004, 1049 consecutive patients (548 men and 499 women) with a mean age of 67 ± 14 years, undergoing open or laparoscopic colorectal resection, were prospectively included. The AFC score was validated in this population. We assessed also the predictive value of other scores, such as the “Glasgow” score and the ASA score. To express and compare the predictive value of the different scores, a receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated. Results: Postoperative mortality rate was 4.6%. Variables already identified as predictors of mortality and used in the AFC score were also found to be associated with a high odds ratio in this study: emergency surgery, body weight loss >10%, neurologic comorbidity, and age older than 70 years in a multivariate logistic model. The validity of the AFC score in this population was found very high based both on the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test (P = 0.37) and on the area under the ROC curve (0.89). We also found that discriminatory capacity was higher than other currently used risk scoring systems such as the Glasgow or ASA score. Conclusion: The present prospective study validated the AFC score as a pertinent predictive score of postoperative mortality after colorectal surgery. Because it is based on only 4 risk factors, the AFC score can be used in daily practice. PMID:17592296

  6. Do medical students’ scores using different assessment instruments predict their scores in clinical reasoning using a computer-based simulation?

    PubMed Central

    Fida, Mariam; Kassab, Salah Eldin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The development of clinical problem-solving skills evolves over time and requires structured training and background knowledge. Computer-based case simulations (CCS) have been used for teaching and assessment of clinical reasoning skills. However, previous studies examining the psychometric properties of CCS as an assessment tool have been controversial. Furthermore, studies reporting the integration of CCS into problem-based medical curricula have been limited. Methods This study examined the psychometric properties of using CCS software (DxR Clinician) for assessment of medical students (n=130) studying in a problem-based, integrated multisystem module (Unit IX) during the academic year 2011–2012. Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha statistics. The relationships between students’ scores in CCS components (clinical reasoning, diagnostic performance, and patient management) and their scores in other examination tools at the end of the unit including multiple-choice questions, short-answer questions, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), and real patient encounters were analyzed using stepwise hierarchical linear regression. Results Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was high (α=0.862). Inter-item correlations between students’ scores in different CCS components and their scores in CCS and other test items were statistically significant. Regression analysis indicated that OSCE scores predicted 32.7% and 35.1% of the variance in clinical reasoning and patient management scores, respectively (P<0.01). Multiple-choice question scores, however, predicted only 15.4% of the variance in diagnostic performance scores (P<0.01), while students’ scores in real patient encounters did not predict any of the CCS scores. Conclusion Students’ scores in OSCE are the most important predictors of their scores in clinical reasoning and patient management using CCS. However, real patient

  7. Scoring Systems for Outcome Prediction of Patients with Perforation Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Litake, Manjusha Madhusudhan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peritonitis continues to be one of the major infectious problems confronting a surgeon. Mannheim Peritonitis Index (MPI), Physiological and Operative Severity Score for en Umeration of Mortality (POSSUM) and Morbidity and sepsis score of Stoner and Elebute have been devised for risk assessment and for prediction of postoperative outcome. Aim The aim of this study was to find the accuracy of these scores in predicting outcome in terms of mortality in patients undergoing exploratory laprotomy for perforation peritonitis. Materials and Methods The prospective study was carried out in 100 diagnosed cases of perforation at our centre in a single unit over a period of 21 months from December 2012 to August 2014. Study was conducted on all cases of peritonitis albeit primary, tertiary, iatrogenic and those with age less than 12 years were excluded from the study. All the relevant data were collected and three scores were computed from one set of data from the patient. The main outcome measure was survival of the patient. The Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) curves were obtained for the three scores. Area Under the Curves (AUC) was calculated. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated at a cut off point obtained from the ROC curves. Results POSSUM had an AUC of 0.99, sepsis score had an AUC of 0.98 and MPI had an AUC of 0.95. The cut off point score of 51 for POSSUM had an accuracy of 93.8 and positive predictive value of 70.5, the score of 29 for MPI had an accuracy of 82.8 and positive predictive value of 46 and the score of 22 for sepsis score had an accuracy of 95.9 and positive predictive value of 86.67. Conclusion POSSUM score was found to be superior in prediction of mortality as compared to sepsis score of Stoner and Elebute and MPI. POSSUM and MPI over predicted mortality in some cases. None of these scores are strictly preoperative. PMID:27134924

  8. Tumor budding score based on 10 high-power fields is a promising basis for a standardized prognostic scoring system in stage II colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Horcic, Milo; Koelzer, Viktor H; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Terracciano, Luigi; Puppa, Giacomo; Zlobec, Inti; Lugli, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    Tumor budding is recognized by the World Health Organization as an additional prognostic factor in colorectal cancer but remains unreported in diagnostic work due to the absence of a standardized scoring method. This study aims to assess the most prognostic and reproducible scoring systems for tumor budding in colorectal cancer. Tumor budding on pancytokeratin-stained whole tissue sections from 105 well-characterized stage II patients was scored by 3 observers using 7 methods: Hase, Nakamura, Ueno, Wang (conventional and rapid method), densest high-power field, and 10 densest high-power fields. The predictive value for clinicopathologic features, the prognostic significance, and interobserver variability of each scoring method was analyzed. Pancytokeratin staining allowed accurate evaluation of tumor buds. Interobserver agreement for 3 observers was excellent for densest high-power field (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.83) and 10 densest high-power fields (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.91). Agreement was moderate to substantial for the conventional Wang method (κ = 0.46-0.62) and moderate for the rapid method (κ = 0.46-0.58). For Nakamura, moderate agreement (κ = 0.41-0.52) was reached, whereas concordance was fair to moderate for Ueno (κ = 0.39-0.56) and Hase (κ = 0.29-0.51). The Hase, Ueno, densest high-power field, and 10 densest high-power field methods identified a significant association of tumor budding with tumor border configuration. In multivariate analysis, only tumor budding as evaluated in densest high-power field and 10 densest high-power fields had significant prognostic effects on patient survival (P < .01), with high prognostic accuracy over the full 10-year follow-up. Scoring tumor buds in 10 densest high-power fields is a promising method to identify stage II patients at high risk for recurrence in daily diagnostics; it is highly reproducible, accounts for heterogeneity, and has a strong predictive value for adverse outcome

  9. The Use of the Addiction Severity Index Psychiatric Composite Scores to Predict Psychiatric Inpatient Admissions.

    PubMed

    Drymalski, Walter M; Nunley, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence of co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders indicates a need for integrated behavioral health treatment that addresses both types of disorder simultaneously. One component of this integrated treatment is the use of an assessment process that can concurrently identify the presence of each class of disorder. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) has been extensively used and researched in the field of substance use disorders for over 30 years. The ASI has seven sections, including a section on substance use disorders and a section on psychiatric symptoms, making it a potential candidate for a co-occurring screen during intake. The following study utilized a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to determine an optimal cutoff score on the ASI psychiatric composite score to identify which individuals seeking substance use disorder treatment were admitted to the Milwaukee County Behavioral Health Division's psychiatric hospital in the year subsequent to their ASI administration. Of the 19,320 individuals who completed an initial ASI in our system, 343 had an inpatient admission. The receiver operating characteristic curve was statistically significant, with an area under the curve of 0.75. A cutoff of 0.27 had a sensitivity of 0.77 and a specificity of 0.61, such that over 60% (11,963/19,320) of the sample was excluded. These results suggest that the ASI psychiatric composite score may be a useful initial screen to identify those with potential mental health problems/needs in a behavioral health system attempting to integrate addiction and mental health services. PMID:27580192

  10. On variance estimate for covariate adjustment by propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Baiming; Zou, Fei; Shuster, Jonathan J; Tighe, Patrick J; Koch, Gary G; Zhou, Haibo

    2016-09-10

    Propensity score (PS) methods have been used extensively to adjust for confounding factors in the statistical analysis of observational data in comparative effectiveness research. There are four major PS-based adjustment approaches: PS matching, PS stratification, covariate adjustment by PS, and PS-based inverse probability weighting. Though covariate adjustment by PS is one of the most frequently used PS-based methods in clinical research, the conventional variance estimation of the treatment effects estimate under covariate adjustment by PS is biased. As Stampf et al. have shown, this bias in variance estimation is likely to lead to invalid statistical inference and could result in erroneous public health conclusions (e.g., food and drug safety and adverse events surveillance). To address this issue, we propose a two-stage analytic procedure to develop a valid variance estimator for the covariate adjustment by PS analysis strategy. We also carry out a simple empirical bootstrap resampling scheme. Both proposed procedures are implemented in an R function for public use. Extensive simulation results demonstrate the bias in the conventional variance estimator and show that both proposed variance estimators offer valid estimates for the true variance, and they are robust to complex confounding structures. The proposed methods are illustrated for a post-surgery pain study. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26999553

  11. Assessing and managing body condition score for the prevention of metabolic disease in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roche, John R; Kay, Jane K; Friggens, Nic C; Loor, Juan J; Berry, Donagh P

    2013-07-01

    Body condition score (BCS) is an assessment of a cow's body fat (and muscle) reserves, with low values reflecting emaciation and high values equating to obesity. The intercalving profile of BCS is a mirror image of the milk lactation profile. The BCS at which a cow calves, her nadir BCS, and the amount of BCS lost after calving are associated with milk production, reproduction, and health. Genetics, peripartum nutrition, and management are factors that likely interact with BCS to determine the risk of health disorders. PMID:23809894

  12. Middle School Health. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort Worth Independent School District, TX.

    The purpose of this curriculum guide is to define a portion of the common core of knowledge and skills that middle school students should know or be able to do to promote health and well-being. It identifies an appropriate score and sequence, and offers suggestions for teaching and learning. It is also intended as a tool for coordinating and…

  13. Influences on nurses' scoring of children's post-operative pain.

    PubMed

    Simons, Joan; Moseley, Laurence

    2009-06-01

    There is a lack of clarity as to why some nurses are not delivering optimal pain management to children post-operatively. This retrospective chart review study examined nurses' pain scoring on 175 children during the first 24 hours post-operatively. Data were analysed on the amount of assessments made, assessment scores recorded, as well as the age, gender and type of surgery performed. One-quarter of children had no assessment record of their pain in the first 24 hours post-operatively. When the pain tool was part of an observation chart, nurses recorded more pain scores. Nurses' scoring of children's pain is influenced positively by children under five years of age and those who undergo abdominal surgery. Nurses who had access to one document for recording vital signs as well as pain scores were more likely to assess and record a child's pain score than nurses who had to use a separate chart. PMID:19458166

  14. Automated sleep scoring and sleep apnea detection in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraglia, David P.; Berryman, Matthew J.; Coussens, Scott W.; Pamula, Yvonne; Kennedy, Declan; Martin, A. James; Abbott, Derek

    2005-12-01

    This paper investigates the automated detection of a patient's breathing rate and heart rate from their skin conductivity as well as sleep stage scoring and breathing event detection from their EEG. The software developed for these tasks is tested on data sets obtained from the sleep disorders unit at the Adelaide Women's and Children's Hospital. The sleep scoring and breathing event detection tasks used neural networks to achieve signal classification. The Fourier transform and the Higuchi fractal dimension were used to extract features for input to the neural network. The filtered skin conductivity appeared visually to bear a similarity to the breathing and heart rate signal, but a more detailed evaluation showed the relation was not consistent. Sleep stage classification was achieved with and accuracy of around 65% with some stages being accurately scored and others poorly scored. The two breathing events hypopnea and apnea were scored with varying degrees of accuracy with the highest scores being around 75% and 30%.

  15. Age, Creatinine and Ejection Fraction Score in Brazil: Comparison with InsCor and the EuroSCORE

    PubMed Central

    Mejía, Omar Asdrúbal Vilca; Matrangolo, Bruna La Regina; Titinger, David Provenzale; de Faria, Leandro Batisti; Dallan, Luís Roberto Palma; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa; Lisboa, Luiz Augusto Ferreira; Dallan, Luís Alberto Oliveira; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2015-01-01

    Background Risk scores for cardiac surgery cannot continue to be neglected. Objective To assess the performance of “Age, Creatinine and Ejection Fraction Score” (ACEF Score) to predict mortality in patients submitted to elective coronary artery bypass graft and/or heart valve surgery, and to compare it to other scores. Methods A prospective cohort study was carried out with the database of a Brazilian tertiary care center. A total of 2,565 patients submitted to elective surgeries between May 2007 and July 2009 were assessed. For a more detailed analysis, the ACEF Score performance was compared to the InsCor’s and EuroSCORE’s performance through correlation, calibration and discrimination tests. Results Patients were stratified into mild, moderate and severe for all models. Calibration was inadequate for ACEF Score (p = 0.046) and adequate for InsCor (p = 0.460) and EuroSCORE (p = 0.750). As for discrimination, the area under the ROC curve was questionable for the ACEF Score (0.625) and adequate for InsCor (0.744) and EuroSCORE (0.763). Conclusion Although simple to use and practical, the ACEF Score, unlike InsCor and EuroSCORE, was not accurate for predicting mortality in patients submitted to elective coronary artery bypass graft and/or heart valve surgery in a Brazilian tertiary care center. PMID:26312550

  16. Heritability and epidemiology of canine hip-dysplasia score and its components in Labrador retrievers in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Wood, J L N; Lakhani, K H; Rogers, K

    2002-09-30

    Hip-dysplasia (malformation of the coxofemoral joint) in dogs is a major health problem. Under the British Veterinary Association/Kennel Club's voluntary hip-dysplasia scheme, dog-owners/breeders submit radiographs from animals >1-year-old, to ensure adequate skeletal maturity. An overall hip score quantifies the degree of malformation in the hip joints of these animals, by summing the scores for nine components of the radiographs of both the left and right joints. The hip score data for 29,610 Labrador retrievers (registered with The Kennel Club, UK) were merged with the Kennel Club pedigree database for 472,435 Labrador retrievers. The merged data included the animal's identity, date of birth, sex and hip score and similar records for the dog's relatives, including the hip score if the relative had been tested. In recent years, breeding had been increasingly from tested parents. The mean hip score for male Labradors was significantly higher than that for females. Regression modelling showed a significant, positive dependence of the hip score of the offspring upon the hip scores of its sire, dam and grandparents. Genetic heritability (using data from 13,382 Labrador retrievers comprising 718 litters) was highly significant: 0.34 from the two parents, 0.41 from sire alone and 0.30 from dam alone. Using components data from 2038 offspring Labrador retrievers comprising 1248 litters, three similar estimates of heritability were significant for three major components (Norberg angle, cranial acetabular edge and subluxation); for other components, heritability was significant from the sire but not from the dam. Offspring hip score could be reduced substantially by using only parents with zero hip score. PMID:12350314

  17. Apgar scores at 10 min and outcomes at 6–7 years following hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Girija; Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R; Pappas, Athina; Bann, Carla M; McDonald, Scott A; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D; Hintz, Susan R; Vohr, Betty R

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and 6–7-year outcomes in children with perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network (NICHD NRN) whole body cooling randomised controlled trial (RCT). Methods Evaluations at 6–7 years included the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV and Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale. Primary outcome was death/moderate or severe disability. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and outcomes after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, outborn status, hypothermia treatment and centre. Results In the study cohort (n=174), 64/85 (75%) of those with 10 min Apgar score of 0–3 had death/disability compared with 40/89 (45%) of those with scores >3. Each point increase in 10 min Apgar scores was associated with a significantly lower adjusted risk of death/disability, death, death/IQ <70, death/cerebral palsy (CP) and disability, IQ<70 and CP among survivors (all p<0.05). Among the 24 children with a 10 min Apgar score of 0, five (20.8%) survived without disability. The risk-adjusted probabilities of death/disability were significantly lower in cooled infants with Apgar scores of 0–3; there was no significant interaction between cooling and Apgar scores (p=0.26). Conclusions Among children with perinatal HIE enrolled in the NICHD cooling RCT, 10 min Apgar scores were significantly associated with school-age outcomes. A fifth of infants with 10 min Apgar score of 0 survived without disability to school age, suggesting the need for caution in limiting resuscitation to a specified duration. PMID:23896791

  18. Extended score interval in the assessment of basic surgical skills

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Stefan; Sevonius, Dan; Beckman, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Basic Surgical Skills course uses an assessment score interval of 0–3. An extended score interval, 1–6, was proposed by the Swedish steering committee of the course. The aim of this study was to analyze the trainee scores in the current 0–3 scored version compared to a proposed 1–6 scored version. Methods Sixteen participants, seven females and nine males, were evaluated in the current and proposed assessment forms by instructors, observers, and learners themselves during the first and second day. In each assessment form, 17 tasks were assessed. The inter-rater reliability between the current and the proposed score sheets were evaluated with intraclass correlation (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The distribution of scores for ‘knot tying’ at the last time point and ‘bowel anastomosis side to side’ given by the instructors in the current assessment form showed that the highest score was given in 31 and 62%, respectively. No ceiling effects were found in the proposed assessment form. The overall ICC between the current and proposed score sheets after assessment by the instructors increased from 0.38 (95% CI 0.77–0.78) on Day 1 to 0.83 (95% CI 0.51–0.94) on Day 2. Discussion A clear ceiling effect of scores was demonstrated in the current assessment form, questioning its validity. The proposed score sheet provides more accurate scores and seems to be a better feedback instrument for learning technical surgical skills in the Basic Surgical Skills course. PMID:25636607

  19. Stability of cooperation under image scoring in group interactions

    PubMed Central

    Nax, Heinrich H.; Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Image scoring sustains cooperation in the repeated two-player prisoner’s dilemma through indirect reciprocity, even though defection is the uniquely dominant selfish behaviour in the one-shot game. Many real-world dilemma situations, however, firstly, take place in groups and, secondly, lack the necessary transparency to inform subjects reliably of others’ individual past actions. Instead, there is revelation of information regarding groups, which allows for ‘group scoring’ but not for image scoring. Here, we study how sensitive the positive results related to image scoring are to information based on group scoring. We combine analytic results and computer simulations to specify the conditions for the emergence of cooperation. We show that under pure group scoring, that is, under the complete absence of image-scoring information, cooperation is unsustainable. Away from this extreme case, however, the necessary degree of image scoring relative to group scoring depends on the population size and is generally very small. We thus conclude that the positive results based on image scoring apply to a much broader range of informational settings that are relevant in the real world than previously assumed. PMID:26177466

  20. Utilizing signature-score to identify oncogenic pathways of cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Tzu-Hung; Chen, Hung-I Harry; Lu, Jo-Yang; Lin, Pei-Ying; Keller, Charles; Comerford, Sarah; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Chen, Yidong

    2013-01-01

    Extracting maximal information from gene signature sets (GSSs) via microarray-based transcriptional profiling involves assigning function to up and down regulated genes. Here we present a novel sample scoring method called Signature-score (S-score) which can be used to quantify the expression pattern of tumor samples from previously identified gene signature sets. A simulation result demonstrated an improved accuracy and robustness by S-score method comparing with other scoring methods. By applying the S-score method to cholangiocarcinoma (CAC), an aggressive hepatic cancer that arises from bile ducts cells, we identified enriched oncogenic pathways in two large CAC data sets. Thirteen pathways were enriched in CAC compared with normal liver and bile duct. Moreover, using S-score, we were able to dissect correlations between CAC-associated oncogenic pathways and Gene Ontology function. Two major oncogenic clusters and associated functions were identified. Cluster 1, which included beta-catenin and Ras, showed a positive correlation with the cell cycle, while cluster 2, which included TGF-beta, cytokeratin 19 and EpCAM was inversely correlated with immune function. We also used S-score to identify pathways that are differentially expressed in CAC and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the more common subtype of liver cancer. Our results demonstrate the utility and effectiveness of S-score in assigning functional roles to tumor-associated gene signature sets and in identifying potential therapeutic targets for specific liver cancer subtypes. PMID:23905013

  1. Dietary scores at midlife and healthy ageing in a French prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Verger, Eric O; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Although nutrition has been advocated as a major determinant of healthy ageing (HA), studies investigating the link between dietary quality and HA are scarce. We investigated the association between adherence to French food-based and nutrient-based guidelines at midlife, as assessed by three dietary scores, and HA. HA was assessed in 2007-2009, among 2329 participants of the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study aged 45-60 years at baseline (1994-1995) and initially free of diabetes, CVD and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health and no function-limiting pain. Data from repeated 24-h dietary records provided at baseline permitted the computation of the modified French Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (mPNNS-GS), the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake Dietary Score (PANDiet) and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Associations of these scores with HA were assessed by logistic regression. In 2007-2009, 42 % of men and 36 % of women met our criteria of HA. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher scores of the mPNNS-GS (ORquartile 4 v. quartile 1 1·44; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·87; P trend=0·006) and the PANDiet (1·28; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·64; P trend=0·03) were associated with higher odds of HA. We observed no association between DQI-I and HA. In conclusion, this study suggests a beneficial long-term role of high adherence to both food-based and nutrient-based French dietary guidelines for a HA process. PMID:27301412

  2. A probability score for preoperative prediction of type 2 diabetes remission following RYGB surgery

    PubMed Central

    Still, Christopher D.; Wood, G. Craig; Benotti, Peter; Petrick, Anthony T.; Gabrielsen, Jon; Strodel, William E.; Ibele, Anna; Seiler, Jamie; Irving, Brian A.; Celaya, Melisa P.; Blackstone, Robin; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Argyropoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease with significant medical complications. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is one of the few interventions that remit T2D in ~60% of patients. However, there is no accurate method for predicting preoperatively the probability for T2D remission. METHODS A retrospective cohort of 2,300 RYGB patients at Geisinger Clinic was used to identify 690 patients with T2D and complete electronic data. Two additional T2D cohorts (N=276, and N=113) were used for replication at 14 months following RYGB. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used in the primary cohort to create survival curves until remission. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratios on T2D remission. FINDINGS Using 259 preoperative clinical variables, four (use of insulin, age, HbA1c, and type of antidiabetic medication) were sufficient to develop an algorithm that produces a type 2 diabetes remission (DiaRem) score over five years. The DiaRem score spans from 0 to 22 and was divided into five groups corresponding to five probability-ranges for T2D remission: 0–2 (88%–99%), 3–7 (64%–88%), 8–12 (23%–49%), 13–17 (11%–33%), 18–22 (2%–16%). The DiaRem scores in the replication cohorts, as well as under various definitions of diabetes remission, conformed to the DiaRem score of the primary cohort. INTERPRETATION The DiaRem score is a novel preoperative method for predicting the probability (from 2% to 99%) for T2D remission following RYGB surgery. FUNDING This research was supported by the Geisinger Health System and the National Institutes of Health. PMID:24579062

  3. Methamphetamine Users Have Increased Dental Disease: A Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shetty, V; Harrell, L; Clague, J; Murphy, D A; Dye, B A; Belin, T R

    2016-07-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) users are assumed to have a high burden of tooth decay. Less clear is how the distribution and severity of dental caries in MA users differ from the general population. Using a covariate-balancing propensity score strategy, we investigated the differential effects of MA use on dental caries by comparing the patterns of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in a community sample of 571 MA users with a subset of 2,755 demographically similar control individuals selected from a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cohort. Recruited over a 2-y period with a stratified sampling protocol, the MA users underwent comprehensive dental examinations by 3 trained and calibrated dentists using NHANES protocols. Propensity scores were estimated with logistic regression based on background characteristics, and a subset of closely matched subjects was stratified into quintiles for comparisons. MA users were twice as likely to have untreated caries (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.55 to 2.78) and 4 times more likely to have caries experience (OR = 4.06; 95% CI: 2.24 to 7.34) than the control group of NHANES participants. Additionally, MA users were twice as likely to have 2 more decayed, missing, or filled teeth (OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.29 to 2.79) than the NHANES participants. The differential involvement of the teeth surfaces in MA users was quite distinctive, with carious surface involvement being highest for the maxillary central incisors, followed by maxillary posterior premolars and molars. Users injecting MA had significantly higher rates of tooth decay compared with noninjectors (P = 0.04). Although MA users experienced decayed and missing dental surfaces more frequently than NHANES participants, NHANES participants had more restored surfaces, especially on molars. The high rates and distinctive patterns of dental caries observed could be used 1) to alert dentists to covert MA use in their patients and 2) as

  4. Comparison of Human and Machine Scoring of Essays: Differences by Gender, Ethnicity, and Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Trapani, Catherine; Attali, Yigal

    2012-01-01

    Essay scores generated by machine and by human raters are generally comparable; that is, they can produce scores with similar means and standard deviations, and machine scores generally correlate as highly with human scores as scores from one human correlate with scores from another human. Although human and machine essay scores are highly related…

  5. Relationship between HIV stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score at a Kenyan sub-county hospital

    PubMed Central

    Thigiti, Joseph M.; Gakinya, Benson N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is associated with cognitive impairment which affects psychomotor speed. Psychomotor slowing is a predictor of dementia and death in people living with HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between HIV disease stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score which will add to the body of knowledge required to manage patients with HIV and AIDS. Objective To determine the relationship between psychomotor speed neurocognitive score and the HIV disease stage in adults at initiation of care. Setting This study was conducted at Kangundo Sub-county hospital comprehensive care centre. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. All HIV seropositive patients aged 18 to 50 years recently initiated into care were studied. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data. The World Health Organization (WHO) stage was used during data collection to classify study participants into asymptomatic and symptomatic groups. The grooved pegboard test was used to obtain psychomotor speed neurocognitive scores. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise data. Mann–Whitney U test, Spearman’s rho and multiple linear regression were employed in the analysis; p-value of 0.05 was considered significant. Results The WHO stage did not have a significant effect on the psychomotor speed neurocognitive score (p ≥ 0.05). The CD4 count had a significant effect on psychomotor speed neurocognitive score (p = 0.001). Conclusions There was a significant correlation between CD4 counts and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score. Efforts should be made to ensure that the CD4 counts of people living with HIV and AIDS do not continue to fall after initiation into care in order to preserve psychomotor function. PMID:27608675

  6. Evaluation of a Comprehensive Delivery Room Neonatal Resuscitation and Adaptation Score (NRAS) Compared to the Apgar Score

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Archana; Sima, Adam P.; Hendricks Muñoz, Karen D.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the interrater reliability and perceived importance of components of a developed neonatal adaption score, Neonatal Resuscitation Adaptation Score (NRAS), for evaluation of resuscitation need in the delivery room for extremely premature to term infants. Similar to the Apgar, the NRAS highest score was 10, but greater weight was given to respiratory and cardiovascular parameters. Evaluation of provider (N = 17) perception and scoring pattern was recorded for 5 clinical scenarios of gestational ages 23 to 40 weeks at 1 and 5 minutes and documenting NRAS and Apgar score. Providers assessed the tool twice within a 1-month interval. NRAS showed superior interrater reliability (P < .001) and respiratory component reliability (P < .001) for all gestational ages compared to the Apgar score. These findings identify an objective tool in resuscitation assessment of infants, especially those of smaller gestation age, allowing for greater discrimination of postbirth transition in the delivery room.

  7. Higher Perceived Stress Scale scores are associated with higher pain intensity and pain interference levels in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    White, Robert S.; Jiang, Julie; Hall, Charles B.; Katz, Mindy J.; Zimmerman, Molly E.; Sliwinski, Martin; Lipton, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of bodily pain measures (pain intensity and pain interference) in elderly people and their relationship with perceived stress scale (PSS) scores. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Community. Participants A representative community sample of 578 subjects aged 70 and older. Measurements The prevalence of pain intensity and pain interference and their relationship with perceived stress scale scores, demographic factors, past medical history, and neuropsychological testing scores were examined. Pain intensity and pain interference were measured by the SF-36 bodily pain questions. Results The study sample of 578 participants has a mean age of 78.8 years and is 63% female. Bivariate analysis for pain measures showed that higher scores on the perceived stress scale, lower neuropsychological test scores, and medical histories were associated with both pain intensity and interference. Logistic regression showed that higher scores on the perceived stress scale were significantly associated with increased odds of having moderate/severe pain intensity and moderate/severe pain interference (with and without the inclusion of for pain intensity in the models). Conclusion Higher PSS scores are associated with higher levels of pain intensity and pain interference. In this cross-sectional analysis, directionality cannot be determined. As both perceived stress and pain are potentially modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline and other poor health outcomes, future research should address temporality and the benefits of treatment. PMID:25516031

  8. External validation of the HIT Expert Probability (HEP) score.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Lee; Gomes, Marcelo P V; Al Solaiman, Firas; St John, Julie; Ozaki, Asuka; Raju, Manjunath; Dhariwal, Manoj; Kim, Esther S H

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) can be challenging. The HIT Expert Probability (HEP) Score has recently been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of HIT. We sought to externally and prospectively validate the HEP score. We prospectively assessed pre-test probability of HIT for 51 consecutive patients referred to our Consultative Service for evaluation of possible HIT between August 1, 2012 and February 1, 2013. Two Vascular Medicine fellows independently applied the 4T and HEP scores for each patient. Two independent HIT expert adjudicators rendered a diagnosis of HIT likely or unlikely. The median (interquartile range) of 4T and HEP scores were 4.5 (3.0, 6.0) and 5 (3.0, 8.5), respectively. There were no significant differences between area under receiver-operating characteristic curves of 4T and HEP scores against the gold standard, confirmed HIT [defined as positive serotonin release assay and positive anti-PF4/heparin ELISA] (0.74 vs 0.73, p = 0.97). HEP score ≥ 2 was 100 % sensitive and 16 % specific for determining the presence of confirmed HIT while a 4T score > 3 was 93 % sensitive and 35 % specific. In conclusion, the HEP and 4T scores are excellent screening pre-test probability models for HIT, however, in this prospective validation study, test characteristics for the diagnosis of HIT based on confirmatory laboratory testing and expert opinion are similar. Given the complexity of the HEP scoring model compared to that of the 4T score, further validation of the HEP score is warranted prior to widespread clinical acceptance. PMID:25588983

  9. Self-Evaluation Scores of Hearing Difficulties and Quality of Life Components among Retired Workers with Noise-Related Hearing Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MIYAKITA, T.; UEDA, A.; ZUSHO, H.; KUDOH, Y.

    2002-02-01

    This study is intended to clarify the relationships between hearing loss caused both by noise exposure and aging and self-rated scores of hearing disabilities and to elucidate the structure of the quality of life (QOL) determinants and their moderating conditions among retired workers with noise-related hearing loss. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: background questions, the hearing disabilities and handicap scale (HDHS), and questions regarding QOL covering five areas, self-rated health, personal health practice, social support network, life satisfaction, and life events. Two hundred ten retired workers aged 56-65 years old (60·6±1·6) with noise-related hearing loss responded to our questionnaire. All were previously engaged in noise exposed work such as shipbuilding, steel and woodwork. According to the hearing disability score (DIS score), subjects were divided into three groups and comparisons were made of the hearing handicap score (HD score) among those groups. Although groups with a higher DIS score showed a higher HD score, a large individual difference in HD score was observed in each of the three groups with the same DIS score level. The results of multiple regression analysis including two variables (life satisfaction and HD score) as the dependent variables and seven variables as the independent variables showed that the strongest explanatory variable for life satisfaction was social support network, followed by handicaps caused by hearing disabilities, self-rated health and personal health practice. It was demonstrated that hearing disabilities and handicap measured by the Japanese version of the HDHS were directly associated with the deterioration in QOL. Measures of the social support network, life satisfaction, and hearing disabilities and handicaps may assist in the detection of workers who can be targeted for a variety of interventions, such as audiological rehabilitation or the creation of a barrier-free community that is supportive

  10. An Empirical Comparison of Factor, Image, Component, and Scale Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fava, Joseph L.; Velicer, Wayne F.

    1992-01-01

    Principal component, image component, three types of factor score estimates, and one scale score method were compared over different levels of variables, saturations, sample sizes, variable to component ratios, and pattern rotations. There were virtually no overall differences among methods, with the average correlation between matched scores…

  11. A Comparison of Decision Theoretic Approaches to Adjusting Cut Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druva-Roush, Cynthia Ann; And Others

    Methods of adjusting cut scores used in placement decisions are examined empirically. Admission and performance variables are used to study alternate methods of adjusting cut scores for placement in standard and accelerated rhetoric courses in a large university setting, with the predicted variable being success or failure as measured by…

  12. 24 CFR 902.35 - Financial condition scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... project under 24 CFR 990.280 and 990.285. The financial condition score for PHAs will be based on a unit... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Financial condition scoring and thresholds. 902.35 Section 902.35 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND...

  13. Comparison of Program Effects: The Use of Mastery Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Jennie P.; Moy, Raymond

    The setting of a cut-off score on a mastery test usually involves a consideration of one or more of the following elements: (1) the distribution of observed test scores; (2) the type of mastery criterion used; (3) the level of acceptable risks of mis-classification; (4) the loss of functions of mis-classifications; and (5) the distribution of true…

  14. "New Balls, Please!"--The Prosody of Tennis Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swerts, Marc; van Wijk, Carel

    2010-01-01

    Tennis scores represent a natural language domain that offers the unique opportunity to study the effects of discourse constraints on prosody with strict control over syntactic and lexical variation. This study analyzed a set of tennis scores, such as "30-15," from live recordings of several Wimbledon and Davis Cup matches. The objective was to…

  15. The Generalizability of Motivation Filtering in Improving Test Score Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Vicki L.; Wise, Steven L.; Bhola, Dennison S.

    2006-01-01

    Accountability for educational quality is a priority at all levels of education. Low-stakes testing is one way to measure the quality of education that students receive and make inferences about what students know and can do. Aggregate test scores from low-stakes testing programs are suspect, however, to the degree that these scores are influenced…

  16. Checklist for Evaluating SREB-SCORE Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This checklist is based on "Evaluation Criteria for SREB-SCORE Learning Objects" and is designed to help schools and colleges determine the quality and effectiveness of learning objects. It is suggested that each learning object be rated to the extent to which it meets the criteria and the SREB-SCORE definition of a learning object. A learning…

  17. Examining Exam Reviews: A Comparison of Exam Scores and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackathorn, Jana; Cornell, Kathryn; Garczynski, Amy M.; Solomon, Erin D.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn E.; Tennial, Rachel E.

    2012-01-01

    Instructors commonly use exam reviews to help students prepare for exams and to increase student success. The current study compared the effects of traditional, trivia, and practice test-based exam reviews on actual exam scores, as well as students' attitudes toward each review. Findings suggested that students' exam scores were significantly…

  18. 24 CFR 902.25 - Physical condition scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... calculated for individual projects, as well as for the overall condition of a PHA's public housing portfolio. (b) Overall PHA physical condition indicator score. The overall physical condition indicator score is... total number of units in the PHA's portfolio to derive the overall physical condition indicator...

  19. 24 CFR 902.25 - Physical condition scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... calculated for individual projects, as well as for the overall condition of a PHA's public housing portfolio. (b) Overall PHA physical condition indicator score. The overall physical condition indicator score is... total number of units in the PHA's portfolio to derive the overall physical condition indicator...

  20. 24 CFR 902.25 - Physical condition scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... calculated for individual projects, as well as for the overall condition of a PHA's public housing portfolio. (b) Overall PHA physical condition indicator score. The overall physical condition indicator score is... total number of units in the PHA's portfolio to derive the overall physical condition indicator...