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Sample records for health service reforms

  1. Health services reforms in revolutionary Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, R M; Taboada, E

    1984-01-01

    Before the Nicaraguan revolution of 1979, access to health services was largely limited to the affluent sectors of the urban population and the minority of workers with social security coverage. Repeated attempts at reform by organized medicine were ineffective. Since the revolution, a tremendous expansion in health services has occurred. The national health system receives approximately one-third of its funds from the social security system. Steadily increasing equity in access is a result of the promotion of primary care, health campaigns involving up to 10 per cent of the general population as volunteers, the use of paramedical aides, and foreign assistance. Private practice nevertheless remains strong. In the coming years, several complex issues must be examined, including: a balance in the number of nurses and doctors trained, the role of private practice, and the relationship of the Ministry of Health to the social security system. Further progress in health reforms may be delayed by the defensive war which Nicaragua is fighting on its northern and southern borders. Despite emergent health problems in the war zones, most of the innovative aspects of the health system remain intact as of this writing. PMID:6476169

  2. Progressive segmented health insurance: Colombian health reform and access to health services.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Fernando; Amaya, Liliana; Venegas, Stella

    2007-01-01

    Equal access for poor populations to health services is a comprehensive objective for any health reform. The Colombian health reform addressed this issue through a segmented progressive social health insurance approach. The strategy was to assure universal coverage expanding the population covered through payroll linked insurance, and implementing a subsidized insurance program for the poorest populations, those not affiliated through formal employment. A prospective study was performed to follow-up health service utilization and out-of-pocket expenses using a cohort design. It was representative of four Colombian cities (Cendex Health Services Use and Expenditure Study, 2001). A four part econometric model was applied. The model related medical service utilization and medication with different socioeconomic, geographic, and risk associated variables. Results showed that subsidized health insurance improves health service utilization and reduces the financial burden for the poorest, as compared to those non-insured. Other social health insurance schemes preserved high utilization with variable out-of-pocket expenditures. Family and age conditions have significant effect on medical service utilization. Geographic variables play a significant role in hospital inpatient service utilization. Both, geographic and income variables also have significant impact on out-of-pocket expenses. Projected utilization rates and a simulation favor a dual policy for two-stage income segmented insurance to progress towards the universal insurance goal. PMID:16929487

  3. Genetics in the reformed health service. Changes for the better?

    PubMed

    Harris, R

    1992-10-01

    The practical value of medical genetics, in particular the development of molecular genetics complemented by clinical diagnosis and counselling, is widely recognised. There is strong independent support from government and patient organisations for augmenting genetics services in all health regions; this support gives much reason for optimism. But there appears to be a hiatus following the reform of the Health Service: no genetics centre has, as yet, adequate resources and there has been no increase in clinical genetic manpower in the last two years. Even worse, Wales and at least one English region have devolved genetic services to districts, which appears to be contrary to government policy for genetic services. These factors have inevitably limited the implementation of many opportunities for improved patient care and the prevention of genetic disease. However, medical geneticists, assisted by the Royal College of Physicians and others, want to respond positively to the changes in the Health Service. Recommendations are made for strategies which promise to maintain integrated regional clinical and laboratory services and to achieve well evaluated developments. PMID:1432886

  4. Delivering Health Care and Mental Health Care Services to Children in Family Foster Care after Welfare and Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Mark D.; Freundlich, Madelyn; Battistelli, Ellen S.; Kaufman, Neal D.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the essential features of a health care system that can meet the special needs of children in out-of-home care. Discusses some of the major recent changes brought about by welfare and health care reform. Notes that it remains to be seen whether the quality of services will improve as a result of these reforms. (Author)

  5. The Interface of School, Community, and Health Care Reform: Organizational Directions toward Effective Services for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoff, Howard M.

    1996-01-01

    Three areas of reform have been under national scrutiny: school reform, community services reform, and health-care reform. Few have discussed how these three areas interface and can be organized toward more effective services for children and youth. Describes organizational and planning methodology that coordinates these three reform areas into a…

  6. Change of government: one more big bang health care reform in England's National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Hunter, David J

    2011-01-01

    Once again the National Health Service (NHS) in England is undergoing major reform, following the election of a new coalition government keen to reduce the role of the state and cut back on big government. The NHS has been undergoing continuous reform since the 1980s. Yet, despite the significant transaction costs incurred, there is no evidence that the claimed benefits have been achieved. Many of the same problems endure. The reforms follow the direction of change laid down by the last Conservative government in the early 1990s, which the recent Labour government did not overturn despite a commitment to do so. Indeed, under Labour, the NHS was subjected to further market-style changes that have paved the way for the latest round of reform. The article considers the appeal of big bang reform, questions its purpose and value, and critically appraises the nature and extent of the proposed changes in this latest round of reform. It warns that the NHS in its current form may not survive the changes, as they open the way to privatization and a weakening of its public service ethos. PMID:21319727

  7. The national health service plan: further reform of British health care?

    PubMed

    Lewis, R; Gillam, S

    2001-01-01

    Less than three years after initiating a series of health service reforms, the Blair government has launched another plan for the U.K. National Health Service. This article considers the origins and contents of the plan. A major investment program is designed to bring health care spending up to European averages over the next five years. In return, the government seeks to challenge the existing settlement between organized medicine and the state through tighter regulatory control, altered contractual frameworks, and a new public-private concordat. The plan does not represent a radical change in government policy but rather reaffirms existing approaches to increasing access to health services, integrating health and social care, and empowering users. Notwithstanding arrangements to increase the autonomy of health service organizations, the plan increases central control through a range of new bodies and regulatory frameworks. It represents an incremental adjustment of the existing tax-funded system. Should this reinvigoration of the state monopoly fail, alternative sources of funding will no doubt have to be reconsidered. PMID:11271638

  8. Integrated specialty service readiness in health reform: connections in haemophilia comprehensive care.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, A M; Page, D

    2008-05-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified primary healthcare reform as a global priority whereby innovative practice changes are directed at improving health. This transformation to health reform in haemophilia service requires clarification of comprehensive care to reflect the WHO definition of health and key elements of primary healthcare reform. While comprehensive care supports effective healthcare delivery, comprehensive care must also be regarded beyond immediate patient management to reflect the broader system purpose in the care continuum with institutions, community agencies and government. Furthermore, health reform may be facilitated through integrated service delivery (ISD). ISD in specialty haemophilia care has the potential to reduce repetition of assessments, enhance care plan communication between providers and families, provide 24-h access to care, improve information availability regarding care quality and outcomes, consolidate access for multiple healthcare encounters and facilitate family self-efficacy and autonomy [1]. Three core aspects of ISD have been distinguished: clinical integration, information management and technology and vertical integration in local communities [2]. Selected examples taken from Canadian haemophilia comprehensive care illustrate how practice innovations are bridged with a broader system level approach and may support initiatives in other contexts. These innovations are thought to indicate readiness regarding ISD. Reflecting on the existing capacity of haemophilia comprehensive care teams will assist providers to connect and direct their existing strengths towards ISD and health reform. PMID:18331561

  9. The past and present of the Polish National Health Services. Reform project.

    PubMed

    Smoleń, M M

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a short historical outline of the national health service (NHS) system in Poland. Consecutive stages of the NHS system reform are described (up to October 1991), including the period of early 80's and the Round Table Conference. The general principles of the project of the Polish NHS system reform, which is intended to be implemented with support from the World Bank, are presented. These principles are related particularly to the scope of the questions assigned to the task forces established to solve the basic problems of the present system. Those include: 1. Health Promotion Task Force, 2. Primary Health Care Task Force, 3. Occupational Health Task Force, 4. Health Information System Task Force, 5. Cost Accounting Task Force, 6. Resource Allocation Task Force, 7. Pharmaceutical Monitoring and Drug Control Task Force, 8. Management Development Task Force, 9. Regional Health Services (Consortia) Task Force. PMID:1392648

  10. Ecuador's silent health reform.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Pierre; Echeverría Tapia, Ramiro; Aguilar Santacruz, Edison; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Health sector reform was implemented in many Latin American countries in the 1980s and 1990s, leading to reduced public expenditure on health, limitations on public provision for disease control, and a minimum package of services, with concomitant growth of the private sector. At first sight, Ecuador appeared to follow a different pattern: no formal reform was implemented, despite many plans to reform the Ministry of Health and social health insurance. The authors conducted an in-depth review and analysis of published and gray literature on the Ecuadorian health sector from 1990 onward. They found that although neoliberal reform of the health sector was not openly implemented, many of its typical elements are present: severe reduction of public budgets, "universal" health insurance with limited coverage for targeted groups, and contracting out to private providers. The health sector remains segmented and fragmented, explaining the population's poor health status. The leftist Correa government has prepared an excellent long-term plan to unite services of the Ministry of Health and social security, but implementation is extremely slow. In conclusion, the health sector in Ecuador suffered a "silent" neoliberal reform. President Correa's progressive government intends to reverse this, increasing public budgets for health, but hesitates to introduce needed radical changes. PMID:22611652

  11. Prospects for Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Theodore

    1992-01-01

    This editorial reviews areas of health care reform including managed health care, diagnosis-related groups, and the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale for physician services. Relevance of such reforms to people with developmental disabilities is considered. Much needed insurance reform is not thought to be likely, however. (DB)

  12. Greek mental health reform: views and perceptions of professionals and service users.

    PubMed

    Loukidou, E; Mastroyiannakis, A; Power, T; Craig, T; Thornicroft, G; Bouras, N

    2013-01-01

    The Greek mental health system has been undergoing radical reforms for over the past twenty years. In congruence with trends and practices in other European countries, Greek mental health reforms were designed to develop a community-based mental health service system. The implementation of an extensive transformation became possible through the "Psychargos" program, a national strategic and operational plan, which was developed by the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity. The Psychargos program was jointly funded by the European Union by 75% of the cost over a period of 5 years and the Greek State. After the period of 5 years, the entire cost of the new services became the responsibility of the Greek National Budget. Over the years the Psychargos program became almost synonymous with the deinstitutionalisation of long term psychiatric patients with the development of a wide range of community mental health services. The Psychargos program ended in December 2009. This article presents the views of service providers and service users as part an ex-post evaluation of the Psychargos program carried out in 2010. Data derived for this part of the evaluation are from the application of the qualitative method of focus groups. The outcomes of the study identified several positive and noteworthy achievements by the reforms of the Greek mental health system as well as weaknesses. There was considerable similarity of the views expressed by both focus groups. In addition the service users' focus group emphasized more issues related to improving their mental health wellbeing and living a satisfying, hopeful, and contributing life. PMID:23603267

  13. Reform of the health care service system in Israel 1995-2000.

    PubMed

    Hart, J

    2001-01-01

    In January, 1995, a national health insurance law was enacted which allowed for the registration of every resident with one of the four public health funds. These funds provide medical services directly to their insured members, or purchase them from public or private hospitals or other health service providers. A basket of medical services was defined which guaranteed readily available comprehensive health care throughout the country. As part of the reform, a number of personal participation charges were established: a nominal fee for medications, and a service charge for a limited number of medical services (visits to specialist doctors, periodic fee for mother and child clinics, participation in the cost of chronic nursing hospitalization). In spite of the Government's commitment to finance the basket of services, the budget is not sufficient to cover costs, and there is an inherent shortfall deliberately introduced into the system by the Ministry of Finance. Since the introduction of the Law the sources for financing the basket of services have been eroded by 16%. Complementary health insurance programs are being developed by the health funds as well as by private insurance companies. The national expenditure on health is some 8.4% of GDP, with an average annual expenditure of $1,384 per person. 72% of health expenditures are public and 28% private. Life expectancy is continually rising, and stood at 75.9 years for men and 80.1 years for women in 1999. Infant mortality is decreasing: in 1996 the rate was 6.3 per 1,000 live births. There is an ever increasing use of new technologies, even though at the same time there seems to be somewhat of a decrease in customer satisfaction. The achievements of the reform are considerable, but there is need for improvement in the areas of budgeting, return of the employer parallel tax, and in other areas if these achievements are not to be undone. PMID:11858011

  14. Privatization of Public Services: Organizational Reform Efforts in Public Education and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gollust, Sarah E.; Jacobson, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    The public health and the public education systems in the United States have encountered problems in quality of service, accountability, and availability of resources. Both systems are under pressure to adopt the general organizational reform of privatization. The debate over privatization in public education is contentious, but in public health, the shift of functions from the public to the private sector has been accepted with limited deliberation. We assess the benefits and concerns of privatization and suggest that shifting public health functions to the private sector raises questions about the values and mission of public health. Public health officials need to be more engaged in a public debate over the desirability of privatization as the future of public health. PMID:17008563

  15. Tax reform and physician services. American Medical Association Center for Health Policy Research.

    PubMed

    1997-04-01

    Reform of the federal income tax system that eliminated the current subsidies for health insurance purchases would likely alter both the magnitude and form of the demand for physician services. Although quantitative estimates of the effects are yet to be made, it is possible to make qualitative predictions using economic theory. Changes in the type of insurance purchased by consumers would likely lead to changes in the mix of services away from highly predictable, low cost services and toward less predictable, high cost services as well as more consultations. The physician specialty mix may well change in the long run, as will the size of the physician workforce relative to the population. Eventually, the financial attractiveness of medicine may not differ greatly from what it is now. PMID:9114672

  16. Urban health insurance reform and coverage in China using data from National Health Services Surveys in 1998 and 2003

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ling; Wang, Yan; Collins, Charles D; Tang, Shenglan

    2007-01-01

    Background In 1997 there was a major reform of the government run urban health insurance system in China. The principal aims of the reform were to widen coverage of health insurance for the urban employed and contain medical costs. Following this reform there has been a transition from the dual system of the Government Insurance Scheme (GIS) and Labour Insurance Scheme (LIS) to the new Urban Employee Basic Health Insurance Scheme (BHIS). Methods This paper uses data from the National Health Services Surveys of 1998 and 2003 to examine the impact of the reform on population coverage. Particular attention is paid to coverage in terms of gender, age, employment status, and income levels. Following a description of the data between the two years, the paper will discuss the relationship between the insurance reform and the growing inequities in population coverage. Results An examination of the data reveals a number of key points: a) The overall coverage of the newly established scheme has decreased from 1998 to 2003. b) The proportion of the urban population without any type of health insurance arrangement remained almost the same between 1998 and 2003 in spite of the aim of the 1997 reform to increase the population coverage. c) Higher levels of participation in mainstream insurance schemes (i.e. GIS-LIS and BHIS) were identified among older age groups, males and high income groups. In some cases, the inequities in the system are increasing. d) There has been an increase in coverage of the urban population by non-mainstream health insurance schemes, including non-commercial and commercial ones. The paper discusses three important issues in relation to urban insurance coverage: institutional diversity in the forms of insurance, labour force policy and the non-mainstream forms of commercial and non-commercial forms of insurance. Conclusion The paper concludes that the huge economic development and expansion has not resulted in a reduced disparity in health insurance

  17. Lessons from London: the British are reforming their national health service.

    PubMed

    Vall-Spinosa, A

    1991-12-01

    In an effort to keep abreast of the changing needs of a more affluent society and to ensure better value for money, the British are reforming their National Health Service. They are promoting competition and entrepreneurship, and directing funding to follow a patient rather than flowing directly to institutions. British physicians are resisting these changes. The United States, in the middle of a health care crisis of its own, can learn a great deal from Britain, especially in the area of controlling expenditures. The low cost of the National Health Service can be attributed to four major factors: (1) It is general practitioner driven and no patient accesses a specialist or hospital directly. (2) Hospitals, which employ all the specialists and supply most of the technology, operate on very tight, cash-limited budgets. (3) Administrative costs are very low. (4) The expense of malpractice is not (yet) a major concern. Changes occurring in both countries foretell a future wherein our health care systems may look very much alike. PMID:1746650

  18. Lessons from London: the British are reforming their national health service.

    PubMed Central

    Vall-Spinosa, A

    1991-01-01

    In an effort to keep abreast of the changing needs of a more affluent society and to ensure better value for money, the British are reforming their National Health Service. They are promoting competition and entrepreneurship, and directing funding to follow a patient rather than flowing directly to institutions. British physicians are resisting these changes. The United States, in the middle of a health care crisis of its own, can learn a great deal from Britain, especially in the area of controlling expenditures. The low cost of the National Health Service can be attributed to four major factors: (1) It is general practitioner driven and no patient accesses a specialist or hospital directly. (2) Hospitals, which employ all the specialists and supply most of the technology, operate on very tight, cash-limited budgets. (3) Administrative costs are very low. (4) The expense of malpractice is not (yet) a major concern. Changes occurring in both countries foretell a future wherein our health care systems may look very much alike. PMID:1746650

  19. Strengthening health systems by health sector reforms

    PubMed Central

    Senkubuge, Flavia; Modisenyane, Moeketsi; Bishaw, Tewabech

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising burden of disease and weak health systems are being compounded by the persistent economic downturn, re-emerging diseases, and violent conflicts. There is a growing recognition that the global health agenda needs to shift from an emphasis on disease-specific approaches to strengthening of health systems, including dealing with social, environmental, and economic determinants through multisectoral responses. Methods A review and analysis of data on strengthening health sector reform and health systems was conducted. Attention was paid to the goal of health and interactions between health sector reforms and the functions of health systems. Further, we explored how these interactions contribute toward delivery of health services, equity, financial protection, and improved health. Findings Health sector reforms cannot be developed from a single global or regional policy formula. Any reform will depend on the country's history, values and culture, and the population's expectations. Some of the emerging ingredients that need to be explored are infusion of a health systems agenda; development of a comprehensive policy package for health sector reforms; improving alignment of planning and coordination; use of reliable data; engaging ‘street level’ policy implementers; strengthening governance and leadership; and allowing a holistic and developmental approach to reforms. Conclusions The process of reform needs a fundamental rather than merely an incremental and evolutionary change. Without radical structural and systemic changes, existing governance structures and management systems will continue to fail to address the existing health problems. PMID:24560261

  20. Health services management manpower and educational needs with American health reform.

    PubMed

    Weil, T P

    1996-05-01

    This paper argues that our previous health services management (HSM) manpower projections may be overly optimistic as the health networks, managed care, capitated payment, and eventually global budgetary targets become the dominant themes to implement cost restraints, universal access, and social equity. HSM programs should, therefore, focus more on their educational pursuits to produce leaders for clinical management teams, who are able to allocate scarce clinical resources. A sensible strategy for HSM programs is to develop closer ties with the schools of medicine, public health, nursing, or allied health. These cooperative efforts would be particularly beneficial in teaching 'clinical-fiscal performance methodologies' to familiarize students with such concepts as clinical benchmarking, managing quality, resource management, and continuous quality improvement (CQI). PMID:10156915

  1. Managing Medical Costs by Reducing Demand for Services: The Missing Element in Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Edward K.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that higher education institutions can play a major role in health care reform by providing campus cultures that foster healthy lifestyle choices and in turn reduce medical costs. Specific issues discussed include elimination of unnecessary tests, focus on special high-risk populations, and use of advance directives. (MSE)

  2. Forensic mental health law reform in Japan: from criminal warehousing to broad-spectrum specialist services?

    PubMed

    Weisstub, David N; Carney, Terry

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1980s Japan has undergone a number of mental health law reforms culminating in the 2005 forensic law. This added to its enactments on involuntary commitment, long-term aged care and substitute decision making, bringing Japan into focus as an industrialized state now possessed of a full package of civil and forensic provisions. This article seeks to demonstrate that the new forensic law cannot achieve its own stated goals without seeking to put into place financial and administrative supports aimed to integrate the myriad of patient populations that will be inevitably affected by the new forensic system. In order to avoid the widespread syndrome that has already been experienced internationally of warehousing mentally ill offenders in jails, it is critical that the Japanese government develop effective and culturally sensitive techniques for dealing with low risk populations through a diversionary process. Furthermore, although the legislation addresses serious crimes, it is imperative that policies be put into place to avoid directing young offenders, violent patients from the general hospital system, the developmentally handicapped, already convicted persons found in hospital settings and problematic cases in the correctional system, to the new forensic units established by the legislation. It is only though contemplating unintended outcomes of the legislation that the Japanese government will be able to avoid the ongoing stigmatization and prolonged institutionalization of mentally ill populations. Despite apparent cultural differences internationally vetted human rights requirements must be properly protected, not only in the forensic context, but throughout the mental health system at large. The coordination of services and the development of specialty training are necessary conditions for the realization of improved and humane conditions for mentally ill persons in Japan. PMID:16448699

  3. Family planning, STD services fare well under Kennedy health reform proposal. But abortion debate yet to come.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    The US Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee has advanced a health care reform plan that includes stronger and more complete coverage of reproductive health care than any other major proposal. It is likely to spark debates over coverage of abortion services, however. The Labor and Human Resources' health care reform plan (the Kennedy plan) expands the definition of family planning services to include counseling and education and coverage of contraceptive drugs and devices. The lack of specificity of coverage of prescription drugs in the Clinton plan worried reproductive health advocates. The Kennedy plan addresses contraceptive drugs and devices under the category family planning services, which, in essence, does not make them subject to the separate deductible. It also exempts all family planning services from any deductibles or copayments. The Kennedy plan refers to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) rather than calling them fertility related infectious illnesses as the Clinton plan does. The Kennedy plan would include syphilis. Both plans cover annual exams for women at risk of STDs. The Kennedy plan covers pap smears or pelvic exam every two years, while the interval of the Clinton plan is three years. No one challenged any of the above provisions during the first round of committee markups. There is likely to be no challenges after the 1994 Memorial Day recess. One was surprised that no challenges materialized over the provision for school-related health education and services. The committee approved this provision by a vote of 17-0. Even the antiabortion supporter did not object to it. The major challenge awaiting the committee after the Memorial Day recess is abortion. The Kennedy plan does not specifically include abortion but is intimated under the category of services for pregnant women. Antiabortion amendments are expected. It is unlikely this committee or any other committee will reach a consensus over the overall shape of a reform plan. PMID

  4. Welfare Reform and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  5. Exploring Massachusetts Health Care Reform Impact on Fee-for-Service-Funded Substance Use Disorder Treatment Providers.

    PubMed

    Fields, Dail; Pruett, Jana; Roman, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is forecast to increase the demand for and utilization of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Massachusetts implemented health reforms similar to the ACA in 2006-2007 that included expanding coverage for SUD treatment. This study explored the impact of Massachusetts health reforms from 2007 to 2010 on SUD treatment providers in Massachusetts, who relied on fee-for-service billings for more than 50% of their revenue. The changes across treatment facilities located in Massachusetts were compared to changes in other similar fee-for-service-funded SUD treatment providers in Northeast states bordering Massachusetts and in all other states across the US. From 2007-2010, the percentage changes for Massachusetts based providers were significantly different from the changes among providers located in the rest of the US for admissions, outpatient census, average weeks of outpatient treatment, residential/in-patient census, detoxification census, length of average inpatient and outpatient stays, and provision of medication-assisted treatment. Contrary to previous studies of publicly funded treatment providers, the results of this exploratory study of providers dependent on fee-for-service revenues were consistent with some predictions for the overall effects of the ACA. PMID:26514378

  6. Health care reforms in Poland.

    PubMed

    Baginska, Ewa

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the shape of the recently reformed health care system in Poland. Until December 31,1998 everyone had access to free health care and the medical institutions were financed by the State. Since January 1, 1999, under the provisions of the Universal Health Insurance Act, hospitals became independent from the State budget and gained more financial resources for their activities. 17 regional health insurance funds contract for medical services with hospitals and individual practices. Most services provided to the insured are paid by the funds that receive premiums, but some are still financed from the State budget. The revised legislation on Medical Care Establishments intended to create a better management of health care institutions and administrative control over the quality of care. The system has been severely criticised: it is too bureaucratic, there are too many insurance funds, patients have experienced problems with access to health care, particularly to special treatment or to treatment available outside the area of the health insurance fund to which the patient belongs. The new Minister for Health suggested that the 17 funds should be replaced by 5 "health funds" that would finance health care and be closely connected to the local government answerable for their activities. This paper will deal with the scope of health care packages, the conditions of provision of health services, obligations of health care providers, patient rights, and the quality of health care. PMID:15685913

  7. Health insurance reform legislation.

    PubMed

    DiSimone, R L

    1997-01-01

    The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), enacted on August 21, 1996 (Public Law 104-19), provides for improved access and renewability with respect to employment-related group health plans, to health insurance coverage sold in connection with group plans, and to the individual market (by amending the Public Health Service Act). The Act's provisions include improvements in portability and continuity of health insurance coverage; combatting waste, fraud, and abuse in health insurance and health care delivery; promoting the use of medical savings accounts; improving access to long-term care services and insurance coverage; administrative simplification; and addressing duplication and coordination of Medicare benefits. PMID:9483710

  8. Let's make a deal: trading malpractice reform for health reform.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M; Hyman, David A

    2014-01-01

    Physician leadership is required to improve the efficiency and reliability of the US health care system, but many physicians remain lukewarm about the changes needed to attain these goals. Malpractice liability-a sore spot for decades-may exacerbate physician resistance. The politics of malpractice have become so lawyer-centric that recognizing the availability of broader gains from trade in tort reform is an important insight for health policy makers. To obtain relief from malpractice liability, physicians may be willing to accept other policy changes that more directly improve access to care and reduce costs. For example, the American Medical Association might broker an agreement between health reform proponents and physicians to enact federal legislation that limits malpractice liability and simultaneously restructures fee-for-service payment, heightens transparency regarding the quality and cost of health care services, and expands practice privileges for other health professionals. There are also reasons to believe that tort reform can make ongoing health care delivery reforms work better, in addition to buttressing health reform efforts that might otherwise fail politically. PMID:24395935

  9. Competition-based reform of the National Health Service in England: a one-way street?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lucy; Attaran, Amir; Hervey, Tamara; McKee, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Conservative-led government in the United Kingdom is embarking on massive changes to the National Health Service in England. These changes will create a competitive market in both purchasing and provision. Although the opposition Labour Party has stated its intention to repeal the legislation when it regains power, this may be difficult because of provisions of competition law derived from international treaties. Yet there is an alternative, illustrated by the decision of the devolved Scottish government to reject competitive markets in health care. PMID:22611651

  10. Mental Health under National Health Care Reform: The Empirical Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Christopher G.; DeVito, Jo Anne

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research pertinent to mental health services under health care reform proposals. Examines redistributional impact of inclusion of outpatient mental health benefits, optimal benefit packages, and findings that mental health services lower medical utilization costs. Argues that extending minimalist model of time-limited benefits to national…

  11. Academic Institutionalization of Community Health Services: Way Ahead in Medical Education Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raman

    2012-01-01

    Policy on medical education has a major bearing on the outcome of health care delivery system. Countries plan and execute development of human resource in health, based on the realistic assessments of health system needs. A closer observation of medical education and its impact on the delivery system in India reveals disturbing trends. Primary care forms backbone of any system for health care delivery. One of the major challenges in India has been chronic deficiency of trained human resource eager to work in primary care setting. Attracting talent and employing skilled workforce seems a distant dream. Talking specifically of the medical education, there are large regional variations, urban - rural divide and issues with financing of the infrastructure. The existing design of medical education is not compatible with the health care delivery system of India. Impact is visible at both qualitative as well as quantitative levels. Medical education and the delivery system are working independent of each other, leading outcomes which are inequitable and unjust. Decades of negligence of medical education regulatory mechanism has allowed cropping of multiple monopolies governed by complex set of conflict of interest. Primary care physicians, supposed to be the community based team leaders stand disfranchised academically and professionally. To undo the distorted trajectory, a paradigm shift is required. In this paper, we propose expansion of ownership in medical education with academic institutionalization of community health services. PMID:24478994

  12. Health reform: examining the alternatives.

    PubMed

    Custer, W

    1994-03-01

    This Issue Brief examines the major issues of the health reform debate. The issues that must be resolved before reform can be enacted include: allocation of health care resources, universal coverage versus universal access, composition of risk pools, employer and individual mandates, and distribution of health care services' costs. This report also contains short descriptions and analyses of the following proposals: McDermott-Wellstone, Clinton administration, Cooper-Breaux, Chafee-Thomas, Michel-Lott, Nickles-Stearns, and Gramm. Proposals without an individual mandate will not achieve universal coverage. An individual mandate raises significant enforcement issues. An employer mandate will not achieve universal coverage by itself. Depending on the number of hours an employee must work to be included in a mandate, an employer mandate could potentially extend health insurance coverage to as many as 85 percent of the currently uninsured. Each individual has a risk of needing health care services. Restructuring the health insurance market is accomplished by changing the way individuals and their risks are pooled. The composition of these risk pools will determine the costs of health insurance and the distribution of these costs. The theory behind medical saving accounts is that the market for health insurance currently leads to health care cost inflation because many events covered under most health insurance plans are not truly insurable. There are two issues involved in medical savings accounts--the impact on low-income individuals and individuals' ability to evaluate the quality of care they receive. The present market does not provide individuals with adequate information for assessing the quality or effectiveness of medical care. Among the critical issues in health reform is how to reduce the rate of health care cost inflation. The effect of proposals that impose explicit budget caps or price controls on health care cost inflation can be more easily estimated than

  13. The changing National Health Service: market-based reform and morality

    PubMed Central

    Frith, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    This commentary explores some of the issues raised by Gilbert et al. short communication, Morality and Markets in the NHS. The increasing role of market mechanisms and the changing types of healthcare providers together with the use of choice and competition to drive improvements in quality in the National Health Service (NHS), all have important ethical implications. In order for the NHS to continue providing the level of service quality that out performs many high-income countries, despite spending much less on healthcare, we need a re-think of creeping marketization and privatisation and a consolidation of the NHS as a publically owned resource run for the benefit of patients and the public, not commercial interests. PMID:25844389

  14. Enhanced Performance of Community Health Service Centers during Medical Reforms in Pudong New District of Shanghai, China: A Longitudinal Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Yanting; Liu, Shanshan; Lou, Jiquan; Ding, Ye; Liang, Hong; Gu, Jianjun; Jing, Yuan; Fu, Hua; Zhang, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Background The performance of community health service centers (CHSCs) has not been well monitored and analysed since China’s latest community health reforms in 2009. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the performing trends of the CHSCs and to analyze the main factors that could affect the performance in Pudong new district of Shanghai, China. Methods A regional performance assessment indicator system was applied to the evaluation of Pudong CHSCs’ performance from 2011 to 2013. All of the data were sorted out by a panel, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and a generalized estimating equation model. Results We found that the overall performance increased annually, with a growing number of CHSCs achieving high scores. Significant differences were observed in institutional management, public health services, basic medical services and comprehensive satisfaction during the period of three years. However, we found no differences in the service scores of Chinese traditional medicine (CTM). The investigation also demonstrated that the key factors affecting performance were the location, information system level, family GP program and medical association program rather than the size of the center. However, the medical association participation appeared to have a significant negative effect on performance. Conclusions It can be concluded from the three-year investigation that the overall performance was improved, but that it could have been further enhanced, especially in institutional management and basic medical service; therefore, it is imperative that CHSCs undertake approaches such as optimizing the resource allocation and utilization, reinforcing the establishment of the information system level, extending the family GP program to more local communities, and promoting the medical association initiative. PMID:25950172

  15. Health Insurance Coverage and Use of Family Planning Services among Current and Former Foster Youth: Implications of the Health Care Reform Law

    PubMed Central

    Dworsky, Amy; Ahrens, Kym; Courtney, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This research uses data from a longitudinal study to examine how two provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act could affect health insurance coverage among young women who have aged out of foster care. It also explores how allowing young people to remain in foster care until age twenty-one affects their health insurance coverage, use of family planning services, and information about birth control. We find that young women are more likely to have health insurance if they remain in foster care until their twenty-first birthday and that having health insurance is associated with an increase in the likelihood of receiving family planning services. Our results also suggest that many young women who would otherwise lack health insurance after aging out of foster care will be eligible for Medicaid under the health care reform law. Because having health insurance is associated with use of family planning services, this increase in Medicaid eligibility may result in fewer unintended pregnancies among this high-risk population. PMID:23262773

  16. Health insurance coverage and use of family planning services among current and former foster youth: implications of the health care reform law.

    PubMed

    Dworsky, Amy; Ahrens, Kym; Courtney, Mark

    2013-04-01

    This research uses data from a longitudinal study to examine how two provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act could affect health insurance coverage among young women who have aged out of foster care. It also explores how allowing young people to remain in foster care until age twenty-one affects their health insurance coverage, use of family planning services, and information about birth control. We find that young women are more likely to have health insurance if they remain in foster care until their twenty-first birthday and that having health insurance is associated with an increase in the likelihood of receiving family planning services. Our results also suggest that many young women who would otherwise lack health insurance after aging out of foster care will be eligible for Medicaid under the health care reform law. Because having health insurance is associated with use of family planning services, this increase in Medicaid eligibility may result in fewer unintended pregnancies among this high-risk population. PMID:23262773

  17. Health financing and insurance reform in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Kress, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The government of Morocco approved two reforms in 2005 to expand health insurance coverage. The first is a payroll-based mandatory health insurance plan for public- and formal private-sector employees to extend coverage from the current 16 percent of the population to 30 percent. The second creates a publicly financed fund to cover services for the poor. Both reforms aim to improve access to high-quality care and reduce disparities in access and financing between income groups and between rural and urban dwellers. In this paper we analyze these reforms: the pre-reform debate, benefits covered, financing, administration, and oversight. We also examine prospects and future challenges for implementing the reforms. PMID:17630444

  18. Health sector reform: lessons from China.

    PubMed

    Bloom, G; Xingyuan, G

    1997-08-01

    As a result of China's transition to a socialist market economy, its rural health services have undergone many of the changes commonly associated with health sector reform. These have included a decreased reliance on state funding, decentralisation of public health services, increased autonomy of health facilities, increased freedom of movement of health workers, and decreased political control. These changes have been associated with growing inequality in access to health services, increases in the cost of medical care, and the deterioration of preventive programmes in some poor areas. This paper argues that the government's strategy for addressing these problems has overemphasised the identification of new sources of revenue and has paid inadequate attention to factors that influence provider behaviour. The strategy also does not address contextual issues such as public sector employment practices and systems of local government finance. Other countries can learn from China's experience by taking a systematic approach to the formulation and implementation of strategies for health sector reform. PMID:9232730

  19. Reforming the mission of public dental services.

    PubMed

    Wright, F A C; List, P F

    2012-10-01

    Australia has a complex history of providing public dental services to its communities. From the early days of Colonial settlement, the provision of dental care to the Australian public has largely been driven and influenced by organized groups and associations of dentists. The Constitution of Australia, under Section 51 xxiii A, allows for the Commonwealth to provide for medical and dental services. Unlike the United Kingdom, however, dental services have not been embedded into a universal national health service agenda. In 1974, that the Australian Government through the Australian School Dental Program provided the first funding and national direction for public dental services - and that, limited to children. The Commonwealth Dental Health Program 1993-1997 was the second national endeavor to provide public dental services, this time to financially disadvantaged adults. Since that time, public dental service responsibility has been shuttled between States/Territories and the Commonwealth. A new paradigm for public dental services in Australia requires strong Commonwealth leadership, as well as the commitment of State and Territories and the organized dental profession. The National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission provided the most recent scenario for a radical change in mission. This paper canvases the competing roles of strategic, functional, and structural issues in relationship to social network and policy issues, which must be recognized if Australians truly seek to reform public dental services. PMID:22998313

  20. Academic Health Centers and Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Stephen H.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the role of academic health centers in health care reform efforts looks at the following issues: balancing academic objectivity and social advocacy; managing sometimes divergent interests of centers, faculty, and society; and the challenge to develop infrastructure support for reform. Academic health centers' participation in…

  1. Physician payments under health care reform.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Abe; Shapiro, Adam Hale

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of major health insurance reform on payments made in the health care sector. We study the prices of services paid to physicians in the privately insured market during the Massachusetts health care reform. The reform increased the number of insured individuals as well as introduced an online marketplace where insurers compete. We estimate that, over the reform period, physician payments increased at least 11 percentage points relative to control areas. Payment increases began around the time legislation passed the House and Senate-the period in which their was a high probability of the bill eventually becoming law. This result is consistent with fixed-duration payment contracts being negotiated in anticipation of future demand and competition. PMID:25497755

  2. Health Care Reform: Opportunities for Improving Adolescent Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Charles E., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    Health care reform represents a major step toward achieving the goal of improved preventive and primary care services for all Americans, including children and adolescents. Adolescence is a unique developmental age district from both childhood and adulthood with special vulnerabilities, health concerns, and barriers to accessing health care. It is…

  3. Flying beneath the Radar of Health Reform: The Community Living Assistance Services and Supports (CLASS) Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edward Alan

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act attempts to address prevailing deficiencies in long-term care (LTC) financing through the Community Living Assistance Services and Supports (CLASS) Act, a national voluntary LTC insurance program administered by the Federal government. The CLASS Act is intended to supplement rather than supplant…

  4. Flying beneath the radar of health reform: the community living assistance services and supports (CLASS) act.

    PubMed

    Miller, Edward Alan

    2011-04-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act attempts to address prevailing deficiencies in long-term care (LTC) financing through the Community Living Assistance Services and Supports (CLASS) Act, a national voluntary LTC insurance program administered by the Federal government. The CLASS Act is intended to supplement rather than supplant assistance received from other payers. Furthermore, its reliance on a cash benefit allocated by beneficiaries with the assistance of counseling services makes it consistent with the consumer-directed philosophy increasingly favored by the LTC advocacy community. Largely due to inadequate take-up, however, particularly among better than average risks, it is unlikely that implementation of the CLASS Act will fundamentally alter the current public-private partnership for LTC financing. Instead, voluntary enrollment combined with a lack of medical underwriting could lead to disproportionate numbers of high-cost enrollees. This could result in premium increases that further discourage participation on the part of the broader population. Barring making the program mandatory, there are a number of comparatively minor changes policymakers could make to strengthen the risk pool, though doing so will involve a trade-off between attracting better-off risks while eschewing those likely to need the benefit most. Thus, although the CLASS Act may provide a meaningful benefit for those who enroll, its impact on improving the affordability of LTC for most Americans will likely be limited. Most will continue to rely on substantial unpaid care, out-of-pocket payments when formal care is required, and Medicaid when all other money has run out. PMID:21208997

  5. Environmental Health: Health Care Reform's Missing Pieces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadope, Cece Modupe; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A series of articles that examine environmental health and discuss health care reform; connections between chlorine, chlorinated pesticides, and dioxins and reproductive disorders and cancers; the rise in asthma; connections between poverty and environmental health problems; and organizations for health care professionals who want to address…

  6. The potential impact of the World Trade Organization's general agreement on trade in services on health system reform and regulation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Skala, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Round of talks without achieving new health services liberalization presents an important opportunity to evaluate the wisdom of granting further concessions to international investors in the health sector. The continuing deterioration of the U.S. health system and the primacy of reform as an issue in the 2008 presidential campaign make clear the need for a full range of policy options for addressing the national health crisis. Yet few commentators or policymakers realize that existing WTO health care commitments may already significantly constrain domestic policy options. This article illustrates these constraints through an evaluation of the potential effects of current WTO law and jurisprudence on the implementation of a single-payer national health insurance system in the United States, proposed incremental national and state health system reforms, the privatization of Medicare, and other prominent health system issues. The author concludes with some recommendations to the U.S. Trade Representative to suspend existing liberalization commitments in the health sector and to interpret current and future international trade treaties in a manner consistent with civilized notions of health care as a universal human right. PMID:19492630

  7. Battling for national health reform.

    PubMed

    DiVenere, L; Davis, M C

    1993-03-01

    At stake are the futures of all health care providers, including those that provide home care and hospice care. Who in Washington holds the ammunition to wage a winning war? Here is your insider's guide to the health reform leaders and their likely strategies. Be assured only that their battles will be intense. PMID:10123976

  8. Health insurance reform: labor versus health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Walid; Awar, May

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Labor (MOL) has submitted to the Council of Ministers a social security reform plan. The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) considers that health financing should be dealt with as part of a more comprehensive health reform plan that falls under its prerogatives. While a virulent political discussion is taking place, major stakeholders' inputs are very limited and civil society is totally put away from the whole policy making process. The role of the media is restricted to reproducing political disputes, without meaningful substantive debate. This paper discusses health insurance reform from labor market as well as public health perspectives, and aims at launching a serious public debate on this crucial issue that touches the life of every citizen. PMID:22645894

  9. Congress enacts health care reform.

    PubMed

    2010-03-01

    Health care reform at last: After nearly a century of effort by Presidents from Theodore Roosevelt on down, the Congress finally agreed on and President Barack Obama signed into law a system that covers most Americans, regulates sharp insurance practices, and embraces a paradigm shift from acute institutionally focused care to chronic disease management based on home and community-based care. PMID:20465039

  10. Health sector reform in Pakistan: future directions.

    PubMed

    Islam, A

    2002-04-01

    The health care system in Pakistan is beset with numerous problems--structural fragmentation, gender insensitivity, resource scarcity, inefficiency and lack of functional specificity and accessibility. Faced with a precarious economic situation characterized by heavy external debt and faltering productivity, Pakistan's room to maneuver with health sector reform is quite limited. Although the recently announced Devolution Plan provides a window of opportunity, it must go beyond and introduce far-reaching changes in the health and social sectors. Regionalization of health care services in an integrated manner with functional specificity for each level of care is an essential step. Integration of current vertical programs within the framework of a need-based comprehensive primary health care system is another necessary step. Most importantly, fostering a public-private partnership to share the cost of basic primary health care and public health services must be an integral part of any reform. Pakistan must also make the health care system more gender sensitive through appropriate training programs for the service providers along with wide community participation in decision-making processes. Relevant WHO/World Bank/UNDP developed tools could be extremely useful in this respect. The article is based on a critical analysis of secondary data from the public domain as well as from various research projects undertaken by the Aga Khan University. It also draws from the experiences of health sector reform carried out in other countries, particularly those in the Asia-Pacific region. The purpose is to inform and hopefully influence, public policy as the country moves towards devolution. PMID:12174483

  11. [Perspectives of the Tunisian health system reform].

    PubMed

    Achouri, H

    2001-05-01

    Perspectives of development of the Tunisian health system are presented, in reference to the conceptual framework recommended by the World Health Organization, while a project of health insurance reform of the social security regimes is submitted to a dialogue with the different concerned parts. Recommended orientations articulate around five axes: 1. The promotion of care provision by improving the accessibility to services, notably in zones under served, by introducing new modes of dispensation, organization and management of care provision in the framework of a continuous quality assurance strategy. 2. The financing of health care, with the implementation of the health insurance reform, has to allow an improvement of the financial accessibility of the population to health care, while supervising the evolution of total health expenditures and by developing the system's management capacities. 3. Proposals relative to the mobilization of resources are advanced in areas of medicine, training of health professionals and research on the health system. 4. Adaptation of the health system governance to the new context is necessary and would have to be developed around evolving standards for the health system, on evaluation of its performances and on information and communication with its users. 5. The health system responsiveness, new motion whose contours are again blurred, would have to be analysed and adapted to the specific context of the country. PMID:11515474

  12. 75 FR 24470 - Health Care Reform Insurance Web Portal Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary 45 CFR Part 159 RIN 0991-AB63 Health Care Reform Insurance Web... that may be available to them in their State. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)...

  13. Health care reform: informing difficult choices.

    PubMed

    Maynard, A; Bloor, K

    1995-01-01

    During the last decade, policy makers in a large number of countries have attempted various reforms of their health care systems. Health care reform has been described as a 'global epidemic' (Klein, 1993). All health care reforms consist of very complex policy choices, some of which are examined in this article. After an introductory exploration of ideological issues, the objectives of health care reformers are considered. Three major policy objectives of health care reform are examined: cost containment; efficiency; and, equity. Three types of reform which have been advocated are also considered: public planning; market regulation; and provider-advocated reforms such as a 'basic package' with copayments and alternative means of finance. Finally, appropriate features of efficient health care reform are suggested, addressing explicit policy goals. PMID:10154305

  14. Health Reform and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Elwood, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    The era of the Obama Administration draws to a close at the end of 2016, leaving behind a signature achievement in the form of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) that became law in 2010. Beginning with that year, I have contributed an annual essay to the Journal of Allied Health describing various aspects of this legislation. The current essay initially will start down that same path, but then take a sharp detour to discuss related aspects of what is occurring in the broader health domain. PMID:27585611

  15. Health financing reform in sub-Saharan Africa: major constraints, goals, and strategies.

    PubMed

    Sekwat, Alex

    2003-01-01

    Health financing reform became a critical element of public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa during the past decade. Within the framework of health sector reform, this article reviews the major constraints, goals, and strategies for health financing reform in sub-Saharan Africa. It identifies shrinking budgetary resources, increasing demand for health services, and rising health care costs as the primary factors driving the sub-region's health financing reform agenda. In light of these constraints, the article defines the major goals and the strategies for health care financing reform employed by many sub-Saharan African countries. PMID:12635996

  16. Health Care Reform: A Values Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popko, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the crisis in health care, considering costs, lack of access, and system ineffectiveness. Reviews "Setting Relationships Right," the Catholic Health Association's proposal for health care reform. Advocates educators' awareness of children's health needs and health care reform issues and support for the Every Fifth Child Act of 1992. (DMM)

  17. [Health reform, equity and the right to health in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Mario

    2002-01-01

    The author develops a long-term perspective to assess advances in equity and the right to health in the Colombian health system reform. In a restricted political system, actors in the field of health in Colombia have chosen individualistic alternatives to legalize inequities in individual purchasing power for services. Despite the complex regulations established in the General System for Social Security in Health, there is a trend towards consolidating traditional inequities and to further restrict opportunities for achieving the right to health with full, equitable, universal guarantees. PMID:12118306

  18. Public Opinion and Health Care Reform for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bales, Susan Nall

    1993-01-01

    Recent polling data suggest that there is a growing consensus to pay special attention to children's needs in the health care reform debate. The public generally desires children to have greater access to health care services, even if this would mean higher taxes, but is unsure that government is the best vehicle to provide such services. (MDM)

  19. Health Card: a new reform plan.

    PubMed

    Seidman, L S

    1995-01-01

    Health Card is a new reform plan. Every household, regardless of employment of health status, would receive a government-issued health credit card to use at the doctor's office or hospital like MasterCard. Later, it would be billed a percentage of the provider's charge--a percentage scaled to its last income tax return; its annual burden would never exceed a designated percentage of its income. Health Card would simply and directly achieve universal coverage and equitable patient cost-sharing. Like MasterCard, government would pay bills, not regulate providers. Each household would choose its medical provider (fee-for-service or HMO), bearing a percentage of the charge. Provider competition for cost-sharing consumers would help contain health care costs. PMID:10144242

  20. Health Care Reform: Out Greatest Opportunity...Ever!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keigher, Sharon M.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses inevitability of health care reform in United States, considers the reform process itself, and explains the plan of the President's Task Force on National Health Care Reform. Also considers the prospects for Congressional response to reform proposals. (NB)

  1. Primary care and health reform.

    PubMed

    Calman, Neil S; Golub, Maxine; Shuman, Saskia

    2012-01-01

    Skyrocketing health care costs are burdening our people and our economy, yet health care indicators show how little we are achieving with the money we spend. Federal and state governments, along with public-health experts and policymakers, are proposing a host of new initiatives to find solutions. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is designed to address both the quality and accessibility of health care, while reducing its cost. This article provides an overview of models supported by the Affordable Care Act that address one or more goals of the "Triple Aim": better health care for individuals, better health outcomes in the community, and lower health care costs. The models described below rely on the core principles of primary care: comprehensive, coordinated and continuous primary care; preventive care; and the sophisticated implementation of health information technology designed to promote communication between health care providers, enhance coordination of care, minimize duplication of services, and permit reporting on quality. These models will support better health care and reduced costs for people who access health care services but will not address health outcomes in the community at large. Health care professionals, working in concert with community-based organizations and advocates, must also address conditions that influence health in the broadest sense to truly improve the health of our communities and reduce health care costs. PMID:22976358

  2. Unpacking "Health Reform" and "Policy Capacity"

    PubMed Central

    Legge, David; Gleeson, Deborah H

    2015-01-01

    Health reform is the outcome of dispersed policy initiatives in different sectors, at different levels and across time. Policy work which can drive coherent health reform needs to operate across the governance structures as well as the institutions that comprise healthcare systems. Building policy capacity to support health reform calls for clarity regarding the nature of such policy work and the elements of policy capacity involved; and for evidence regarding effective strategies for capacity building. PMID:26673185

  3. National Health Care Reform, Medicaid, and Children in Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfon, Neal; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Outlines access to health care for children in out-of-home care under current law, reviews how health care access for these children would be affected by President Clinton's health care reform initiative, and proposes additional measures that could be considered to improve access and service coordination for children in the child welfare system.…

  4. A fresh start for health reform?

    PubMed

    Kendall, D B

    1996-01-01

    Health reform isn't a popular subject in Washington these days, but problems of cost and access persist. The author, a senior health policy analyst for the Progressive Policy Institute, argues that in next year's debate of tax reform, a few modest changes could lead to a more effective and universal market for health care. PMID:10158552

  5. The English and Swedish health care reforms.

    PubMed

    Glennerster, H; Matsaganis, M

    1994-01-01

    England and Sweden have two of the most advanced systems of universal access to health care in the world. Both have begun major reforms based on similar principles. Universal access and finance from taxation are retained, but a measure of competition between providers of health care is introduced. The reforms therefore show a movement toward the kind of approach advocated by some in the United States. This article traces the origins and early results of the two countries' reform efforts. PMID:8034391

  6. Where dentistry stands in light of health care reform.

    PubMed

    Collignon, B H

    1994-01-01

    The hot topic from Capitol Hill in Washington to Capitol Hill in Jefferson City is health care reform. President Clinton started the ball rolling during the campaign in 1992 by including health care reform in his platform. He continued the effort after his election by appointing his wife, Hillary, to chair a task force to present an outline for federal legislation. Since the package was presented to Congress, there has been much discussion, lobbying, and rumoring about the implications of health care reform and what it could mean to all of us as dentists. On the home front, Governor Carnahan has introduced legislation in Missouri to reform the health care system. This effort is known as the Missouri Health Assurance Plan (H.B. 1622). Missouri Dental Association members are vitally concerned about the impact of health care reform on their practice, their taxes, their relationship with their patients and employees, and on their ability to seek out health care services since each member is also a consumer of health care. This article represents answers to some of the questions being asked by MDA members in order that they might be more aware of the activities by the MDA, the ADA, and other levels of organized dentistry relating to health care reform. PMID:9564299

  7. The Social Implications of Health Care Reform: Reducing Access Barriers to Health Care Services for Uninsured Hispanic and Latino Americans in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Mitchell A.; Inguanzo, Marian M.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. health care system is currently facing one of its most significant social challenges in decades in terms of its ability to provide access to primary care services to the millions of Americans who have lost their health insurance coverage in the recent economic recession. National statistics compiled by the U.S. Census Bureau for 2009…

  8. Health reform in Finland: current proposals and unresolved challenges.

    PubMed

    Saltman, Richard B; Teperi, Juha

    2016-07-01

    The Finnish health care system is widely respected for its pilot role in creating primary-care-led health systems. In the early 1990s, however, a severe economic downturn in Finland reduced public funding and weakened the Finnish system's deeply decentralized model of health care administration. Recent Bank of Finland projections forecasting several decades of slow economic growth, combined with the impact of an aging population, appear to make major reform of the existing public system inevitable. Over the last several years, political attention has focused mostly on administrative consolidation inside the public sector, particularly integration of health and social services. Current proposals call for a reformed health sector governance structure based on a new meso-level configuration of public administration. In addition, Finland's national government has proposed replacing the current multi-channel public funding structure (which includes health insurance subsidies for occupational health services) with a single-channel public funding structure. This commentary examines several key issues involved in reforming the delivery structure of the Finnish health care system. It also explores possible alternative strategies to reform current funding arrangements. The article concludes with a brief discussion of implications from this Finnish experience for the wider health reform debate. PMID:26865494

  9. An overview of changing agendas in health sector reforms.

    PubMed

    Standing, Hilary

    2002-11-01

    This paper discusses health sector reforms and what they have meant for sexual and reproductive health advocacy in low-income countries. Beginning in the late 1980s, it outlines the main macro-economic shifts and policy trends which affect countries dependent on external aid and the main health sector reforms taking place. It then considers the implications of successive macro-economic and reform agendas for reproductive and sexual health advocacy. International debate today is focused on the conditions necessary for socio-economic development and the role of governments in these, and how to improve the performance of health sector bureaucracies and delivery systems. A critical challenge is how to re-negotiate the policy and financial space for sexual and reproductive health services within national health systems and at international level. Advocacy for sexual and reproductive health has to tread the line between a vision of reproductive health for all and action on priority conditions, which means articulating an informed view on needs and priorities. In pressing for greater funding for reproductive health, advocates need to find an appropriate balance between concern with health systems strengthening and service delivery and programmes, and create alliances with progressive health sector reformers. PMID:12557639

  10. Health care reforms: the unfinished agenda.

    PubMed

    Defever, M

    1995-10-01

    A number of similar trends emerge in the development of major reform programs in all Western societies: (1) convergence and divergence: whether intentionally or not, the reform programs follow the proposed general directions across countries. This convergence is challenged by an opposite trend towards divergence through regionalization; (2) politics: the interference of the political process and of government coalitions is manifest in health policy making; (3) competition: the movement away from the public integrated model towards the public contract model is occurring in National Health Service type systems as well as in Health Insurance Systems; (4) privatization: the increase of the private sector is encouraged in all European countries by a variety of mechanisms such as opting-out and tax concessions; (5) inequity: gains in efficiency entail a decrease in availability and accessibility of high quality care among the different population groups; (6) management costs: cost-containment efforts lead to an increase in management costs especially of management information both in real money and human resources; (7) power shifts: there is a reorientation of the flux of money throughout the system with shifts in authority away from the traditional power groups; and (8) public deficits: concern about the reduction of public deficits prevails over cost-effectiveness, or macro-efficiency prevails over micro-efficiency. PMID:10151962

  11. Working on reform. How workers' compensation medical care is affected by health care reform.

    PubMed Central

    Himmelstein, J; Rest, K

    1996-01-01

    The medical component of workers' compensation programs-now costing over $24 billion annually-and the rest of the nation's medical care system are linked. They share the same patients and providers. They provide similar benefits and services. And they struggle over who should pay for what. Clearly, health care reform and restructuring will have a major impact on the operation and expenditures of the workers' compensation system. For a brief period, during the 1994 national health care reform debate, these two systems were part of the same federal policy development and legislative process. With comprehensive health care reform no longer on the horizon, states now are tackling both workers' compensation and medical system reforms on their own. This paper reviews the major issues federal and state policy makers face as they consider reforms affecting the relationship between workers' compensation and traditional health insurance. What is the relationship of the workers' compensation cost crisis to that in general health care? What strategies are being considered by states involved in reforming the medical component of workers compensation? What are the major policy implications of these strategies? Images p13-a p14-a p15-a p16-a p18-a p19-a p20-a p22-a p24-a PMID:8610187

  12. The implications of health sector reform for human resources development.

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Ala'; Hornby, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The authors argue that "health for all" is not achievable in most countries without health sector reform that incorporates a process of coordinated health and human resources development. They examine the situation in countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization. Though advances have been made, further progress is inhibited by the limited adaptation of traditional health service structures and processes in many of these countries. National reform strategies are needed. These require the active participation of health professional associations and academic training institutions as well as health service managers. The paper indicates some of the initiatives required and suggests that the starting point for many countries should be a rigorous appraisal of the current state of human resources development in health. PMID:11884974

  13. [Health system reforms in South America: an opportunity for UNASUR].

    PubMed

    Gomes-Temporão, José; Faria, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Health systems in South America still support segmentation, privatization and fragmentation. Health reforms of the structural adjustment programs in the 1980s and 1990s in South America followed different purposes and strategies ranging from privatization, commodification and state intervention for the implementation of a national public health service with universal access as a right of the citizens. Since the 2000s, many countries have expanded social policies, reduced poverty and social inequalities, and improved access to healthcare. This article proposes to discuss the health systems in South America from historical and political backgrounds, and the progress from the reforms in the last three decades. It also presents the three paradigmatic models of reform and their evolution, as well as the contrasts between universal coverage and universal systems. Finally, it presents current strengths and weaknesses of the twelve South American health systems as well as current opportunities and challenges in health for UNASUR. PMID:25597728

  14. Health reform requires policy capacity

    PubMed Central

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D.; Helms, David

    2015-01-01

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. PMID:25905476

  15. Health reform requires policy capacity.

    PubMed

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D; Helms, David

    2015-05-01

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. PMID:25905476

  16. A reforming accountability: GPs and health reform in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, K

    1997-01-01

    Over the last ten years or so, many countries have undertaken public sector reforms. As a result of these changes, accounting has come to play a more important role. However, many of the studies have only discussed the reforms at a conceptual level and have failed to study how the reforms have been implemented and operated in practice. Based on the work of Lipsky (1980) and Gorz (1989), it can be argued that those affected by the reforms have a strong incentive to subvert the reforms. This prediction is explored via a case study of general practitioner (GP) response to the New Zealand health reforms. The creation of Independent Practice Associations (IPAs) allowed the State to impose contractual-accountability and to cap their budget exposure for subsidies. From the GP's perspective, the IPAs absorbed the changes initiated by the State, and managed the contracting, accounting and budgetary administration responsibilities that were created. This allowed individual GPs to continue practising as before and provided some collective protection against the threat of state intrusion into GP autonomy. The creation of IPAs also provided a new way to manage the professional/financial tension, the contradiction between the professional motivation noted by Gorz (1989) and the need to earn a living. PMID:10175302

  17. Evaluation of health care system reform in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-02-01

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the "Result Chain" logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally. PMID:24566052

  18. Health sector reform and reproductive health in Latin America and the Caribbean: strengthening the links.

    PubMed Central

    Langer, A.; Nigenda, G.; Catino, J.

    2000-01-01

    Many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are currently reforming their national health sectors and also implementing a comprehensive approach to reproductive health care. Three regional workshops to explore how health sector reform could improve reproductive health services have revealed the inherently complex, competing, and political nature of health sector reform and reproductive health. The objectives of reproductive health care can run parallel to those of health sector reform in that both are concerned with promoting equitable access to high quality care by means of integrated approaches to primary health care, and by the involvement of the public in setting health sector priorities. However, there is a serious risk that health reforms will be driven mainly by financial and/or political considerations and not by the need to improve the quality of health services as a basic human right. With only limited changes to the health systems in many Latin American and Caribbean countries and a handful of examples of positive progress resulting from reforms, the gap between rhetoric and practice remains wide. PMID:10859860

  19. Massachusetts health care reform: is it working?

    PubMed

    McAdoo, Joshua; Irving, Julian; Deslich, Stacie; Coustasse, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Before 2006, Massachusetts had more than 500 000 residents who lacked health insurance. Governor Mitt Romney enacted landmark legislation requiring all residents to obtain health insurance. Also, the legislation established a health insurance exchange for the purpose of broadening the choices of insurance plans made available to individuals in the state. The purpose of this research was to assess the Massachusetts health care reform in terms of access, cost, and sustainability. The methodology used was a literature review from 2006 to 2013; a total of 43 references were used. Health reform resulted in additional overall state spending of $2.42 billion on Medicaid for Massachusetts. Since the 2006 reform, 401 000 additional residents have obtained insurance. The number of Massachusetts residents who had access to health care increased substantially after the health care reform was enacted, to 98.1% of residents. The Massachusetts health care reform has not saved money for the state; its funding has been covered by Federal spending. However, reform has been sustained over time because of the high percentage of state residents who have supported the state mandate to obtain health care coverage. PMID:24168866

  20. The recent health reform in Croatia: true reforms or just a fundraising exercise?

    PubMed

    Svaljek, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Croatia's most recent reform of the healthcare system was implemented in 2008. The aim of the reform was to enhance financial stability of the system by introducing additional sources of financing, as well as increase the efficiency of the system by reducing sick pay transfers to households, rationalising spending on pharmaceuticals, restructuring hospitals etc. This paper attempts to assess the success of the 2008 healthcare system reform in reaching financial stability and sustainability, and to evaluate the effects of the reform on equity in funding the system. It takes into account the fact that the reform coincided with a severe economic crisis and decline in the overall living standard of Croatian citizens. The paper shows that the reform ended up being expansionary and thus impaired the necessary fiscal adjustment. Finally, it is argued that in circumstances of declining disposable incomes, increased co-payments aimed at the financial stabilisation of the health system made health services less affordable and could have had detrimental effects on equity in the utilisation of health care. PMID:24138731

  1. Health care reform and the new economy.

    PubMed

    Starr, P

    2000-01-01

    The objectives and assumptions of health care reform have changed repeatedly during the past century and may now be entering a new historical phase as a result of the "new economy" rooted in information technology. In a high-growth context, proponents of reform may no longer feel obliged to bundle expanded coverage with tighter cost containment. At the same time, the new digital environment may facilitate innovations intended to inform and expand consumer choice and to improve quality. The new environment elevates "transparency" to a guiding principle. Health informatics has long been peripheral to reform and must now become more central. PMID:11192407

  2. The Mental Health Recovery Movement and Family Therapy, Part I: Consumer-Led Reform of Services to Persons Diagnosed with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehart, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued a consensus statement on mental health recovery based on the New Freedom Commission's recommendation that public mental health organizations adopt a "recovery" approach to severe and persistent mental illness, including services to those dually diagnosed with mental health and…

  3. Going beyond triage in Tajikistan. Health reform in the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Alidina, S; Annett, H

    2000-01-01

    Tajikistan is among the few countries where life expectancy diminished during the 1990's. To rebuild a health system fractured by economic collapse, political disintegration and civil war, the Essential Hospital Services Project was initiated to restore essential hospital services, encourage structural reform and build the health system's capacity to sustain itself. The article provides an overview of these reform efforts, outlines some of the challenges of health reform in Tajikistan and illustrates the benefits global partnerships can achieve when sharing creative new approaches to health reform. PMID:11214986

  4. Health Care Reform: Recommendations and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewit, Eugene M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Health care reform needs to assure coverage to all children regardless of income level or illnesses; address benefits, financing, administration, and delivery systems; provide substantial subsidies to low-income families; be equitable for all people; provide better monitoring of child health; protect and strengthen health providers who assist…

  5. Using accountability for mental health to drive reform.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Sebastian P; Hickie, Ian B; McGorry, Patrick D; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Burns, Jane; Christensen, Helen; Mendoza, John; Rosen, Alan; Russell, Lesley M; Sinclair, Sally

    2015-10-19

    Greatly enhanced accountability can drive mental health reform. As extant approaches are ineffective, we propose a new approach. Australia spends around $7.6 billion on mental health services annually, but is anybody getting better? Effective accountability for mental health can reduce variation in care and increase effective service provision. Despite 20 years of rhetoric, Australia's approach to accountability in mental health is overly focused on fulfilling governmental reporting requirements rather than using data to drive reform. The existing system is both fragmented and outcome blind. Australia has failed to develop useful local and regional approaches to benchmarking in mental health. New approaches must address this gap and better reflect the experience of care felt by consumers and carers, as well as by service providers. There are important social priorities in mental health that must be assessed. We provide a brief overview of the existing system and propose a new, modest but achievable set of indicators by which to monitor the progress of national mental health reform. These indicators should form part of a new, system-wide process of continuous quality improvement in mental health care and suicide prevention. PMID:26465695

  6. Oncology payment reform to achieve real health care reform.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Mark B; Thoumi, Andrea I

    2015-05-01

    Cancer care is transforming, moving toward increasingly personalized treatment with the potential to save and improve many more lives. Many oncologists and policymakers view current fee-for-service payments as an obstacle to providing more efficient, high-quality cancer care. However, payment reforms create new uncertainties for oncologists and may be challenging to implement. In this article, we illustrate how accountable care payment reforms that directly align payments with quality and cost measures are being implemented and the opportunities and challenges they present. These payment models provide more flexibility to oncologists and other providers to give patients the personalized care they need, along with more accountability for demonstrating quality improvements and overall cost or cost growth reductions. Such payment reforms increase the importance of person-level quality and cost measures as well as data analysis to improve measured performance. We describe key features of quality and cost measures needed to support accountable care payment reforms in oncology. Finally, we propose policy recommendations to move incrementally but fundamentally to payment systems that support higher-value care in oncology. PMID:25901049

  7. Health Care System Reforms in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a critical but non-systematic review of recent health care system reforms in developing countries. The literature reports mixed results as to whether reforms improve the financial protection of the poor or not. We discuss the reasons for these differences by comparing three representative countries: Mexico, Vietnam, and China. First, the design of the health care system reform, as well as the summary of its evaluation, is briefly described for each country. Then, the discussion is developed along two lines: policy design and evaluation methodology. The review suggests that i) background differences, such as social development, poverty level, and population health should be considered when taking other countries as a model; ii) although demand-side reforms can be improved, more attention should be paid to supply-side reforms; and iii) the findings of empirical evaluation might be biased due to the evaluation design, the choice of outcome, data quality, and evaluation methodology, which should be borne in mind when designing health care system reforms. PMID:25170464

  8. Health care system reforms in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei

    2012-12-28

    This article proposes a critical but non-systematic review of recent health care system reforms in developing countries. The literature reports mixed results as to whether reforms improve the financial protection of the poor or not. We discuss the reasons for these differences by comparing three representative countries: Mexico, Vietnam, and China. First, the design of the health care system reform, as well as the summary of its evaluation, is briefly described for each country. Then, the discussion is developed along two lines: policy design and evaluation methodology. The review suggests that i) background differences, such as social development, poverty level, and population health should be considered when taking other countries as a model; ii) although demand-side reforms can be improved, more attention should be paid to supply-side reforms; and iii) the findings of empirical evaluation might be biased due to the evaluation design, the choice of outcome, data quality, and evaluation methodology, which should be borne in mind when designing health care system reforms. PMID:25170464

  9. Health reform: setting the agenda for long term care.

    PubMed

    Hatch, O G; Wofford, H; Willging, P R; Pomeroy, E

    1993-06-01

    The White House Task Force on National Health Care Reform, headed by First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, is expected to release its prescription for health care reform this month. From the outset, Clinton's mandate was clear: to provide universal coverage while reining in costs for delivering quality health care. Before President Clinton was even sworn into office, he had outlined the major principles that would shape the health reform debate. Global budgeting would establish limits on all health care expenditures, thereby containing health costs. Under a system of managed competition, employers would form health alliances for consumers to negotiate for cost-effective health care at the community level. So far, a basic approach to health care reform has emerged. A key element is universal coverage--with an emphasis on acute, preventive, and mental health care. Other likely pieces are employer-employee contributions to health care plans, laws that guarantee continued coverage if an individual changes jobs or becomes ill, and health insurance alliances that would help assure individual access to low-cost health care. What still is not clear is the extent to which long term care will be included in the basic benefits package. A confidential report circulated by the task force last month includes four options for long term care: incremental Medicaid reform; a new federal/state program to replace Medicaid; a social insurance program for home and community-based services; or full social insurance for long term care. Some work group members have identified an additional option: prefunded long term care insurance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10126659

  10. Introducing a complex health innovation--primary health care reforms in Estonia (multimethods evaluation).

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance

  11. Reforming health care financing in Bulgaria: the population perspective.

    PubMed

    Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin

    2004-02-01

    Health financing reform in Bulgaria has been characterised by lack of political consensus on reform direction, economic shocks, and, since 1998, steps towards social insurance. As in other eastern European countries, the reform has been driven by an imperative to embrace new ideas modelled on systems elsewhere, but with little attention to whether these reflect popular values. This study explores underlying values, such as views on the role of the state and solidarity, attitudes to, and understanding of compulsory and voluntary insurance, and co-payments. The study identifies general principles (equity, transparency) considered important by the population and practical aspects of implementation of reform. Data were obtained from a representative survey (n=1547) and from 58 in-depth interviews and 6 focus groups with users and health professionals, conducted in 1997 before the actual reform of the health financing system in Bulgaria. A majority supports significant state involvement in health care financing, ranging from providing safety net for the poor, through co-subsidising or regulating the social insurance system, to providing state-financed universal free care (half of all respondents). Collectivist values in Bulgaria remain strong, with support for free access to services regardless of income, age, or health status and progressive funding. There is strong support (especially among the well off) for a social insurance system based on the principle of solidarity and accountability rather than the former tax-based model. The preferred health insurance fund was autonomous, state regulated, financing only health care, and offering optional membership. Voluntary insurance and, less so, co-payments were acceptable if limited to selected services and better off groups. In conclusion, a health financing system under public control that fits well with values and population preferences is likely to improve compliance and be more sustainable. Universal health insurance

  12. Why Is Health Reform So Difficult?

    PubMed Central

    Brady, David W.; Kessler, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the possibilities for health care reform in the 111th Congress. It uses a simple model of policy making to analyze the failure of Congress to pass the Clinton health plan in 1993 – 1994. It concludes that the factors that created gridlock in the 103rd Congress are likely to have a similar impact in the present. PMID:20388865

  13. Health Care Reform and the Academic Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmey, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of the implications of health care reform for academic health centers (a complex of institutions which educate health professionals) looks at problems in the current system, the role of academic health centers in the current system, financial pressures, revenue sources other than patient care, impact on health research, and human…

  14. Estimating Health Services Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, H. M.

    1985-01-01

    In computer program NOROCA populations statistics from National Center for Health Statistics used with computational procedure to estimate health service utilization rates, physician demands (by specialty) and hospital bed demands (by type of service). Computational procedure applicable to health service area of any size and even used to estimate statewide demands for health services.

  15. Innovation in Medicare and Medicaid will be central to health reform's success.

    PubMed

    Guterman, Stuart; Davis, Karen; Stremikis, Kristof; Drake, Heather

    2010-06-01

    The health reform legislation signed into law by President Barack Obama contains numerous payment reform provisions designed to fundamentally transform the nation's health care system. Perhaps the most noteworthy of these is the establishment of a Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation within the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. This paper presents recommendations that would maximize the new center's effectiveness in promoting reforms that can improve the quality and value of care in Medicare, Medicaid, and the Children's Health Insurance Program, while helping achieve health reform's goals of more efficient, coordinated, and effective care. PMID:20530353

  16. The Legacy of the U. S. Public Health Services Study of Untreated Syphilis in African American Men at Tuskegee on the Affordable Care Act and Health Care Reform Fifteen Years After President Clinton’s Apology

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.

    2013-01-01

    This special issue addresses the legacy of the United States Public Health Service Syphilis Study on health reform, particularly the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The 12 manuscripts cover the history and current practices of ethical abuses affecting American Indians, Latinos, Asian Americans and African Americans in the United States and in one case, internationally. Commentaries and essays include the voice of a daughter of one of the study participants in which we learn of the stigma and maltreatment some of the families experienced and how the study has impacted generations within the families. Consideration is given in one essay to utilizing narrative storytelling with the families to help promote healing. This article provides the reader a roadmap to the themes that emerged from the collection of articles. These themes include population versus individual consent issues, need for better government oversight in research and health care, the need for overhauling our bioethics training to develop a population level, culturally driven approach to research bioethics. The articles challenge and inform us that some of our assumptions about how the consent process best works to protect racial/ethnic minorities may be merely assumptions and not proven facts. Articles challenge the belief that low participation rates seen in biomedical studies have resulted from the legacy of the USPHS Syphilis Study rather than a confluence of factors rooted in racism, bias and negative treatment. Articles in this special issue challenge the “cultural paranoia” of mistrust and provide insights into how the distrust may serve to lengthen rather than shorten the lives of racial/ethnic minorities who have been used as guinea pigs on more than one occasion. We hope that the guidance offered on the importance of developing a new framework to bioethics can be integrated into the foundation of health care reform. PMID:23630410

  17. The Legacy of the U. S. Public Health Services Study of Untreated Syphilis in African American Men at Tuskegee on the Affordable Care Act and Health Care Reform Fifteen Years After President Clinton's Apology.

    PubMed

    Mays, Vickie M

    2012-11-01

    This special issue addresses the legacy of the United States Public Health Service Syphilis Study on health reform, particularly the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The 12 manuscripts cover the history and current practices of ethical abuses affecting American Indians, Latinos, Asian Americans and African Americans in the United States and in one case, internationally. Commentaries and essays include the voice of a daughter of one of the study participants in which we learn of the stigma and maltreatment some of the families experienced and how the study has impacted generations within the families. Consideration is given in one essay to utilizing narrative storytelling with the families to help promote healing. This article provides the reader a roadmap to the themes that emerged from the collection of articles. These themes include population versus individual consent issues, need for better government oversight in research and health care, the need for overhauling our bioethics training to develop a population level, culturally driven approach to research bioethics. The articles challenge and inform us that some of our assumptions about how the consent process best works to protect racial/ethnic minorities may be merely assumptions and not proven facts. Articles challenge the belief that low participation rates seen in biomedical studies have resulted from the legacy of the USPHS Syphilis Study rather than a confluence of factors rooted in racism, bias and negative treatment. Articles in this special issue challenge the "cultural paranoia" of mistrust and provide insights into how the distrust may serve to lengthen rather than shorten the lives of racial/ethnic minorities who have been used as guinea pigs on more than one occasion. We hope that the guidance offered on the importance of developing a new framework to bioethics can be integrated into the foundation of health care reform. PMID:23630410

  18. Issue ads and the health reform debate.

    PubMed

    Bergan, Daniel; Risner, Genevieve

    2012-06-01

    The public debate over health care reform in 2009 was carried out partly through issue advertisements aired online and on television. Did these advertisements alter the course of the debate over health care reform? While millions of dollars are spent each year on issue ads, little is known about their effects. Results from a naturalistic online experiment on the effects of issue ads suggest that they can influence the perceived importance of an issue and perceptions of politicians associated with the featured policy while influencing policy support only among those low in political awareness. PMID:22323237

  19. Health sector reforms and human resources for health in Uganda and Bangladesh: mechanisms of effect

    PubMed Central

    Ssengooba, Freddie; Rahman, Syed Azizur; Hongoro, Charles; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Mustafa, Ahmed; Kielmann, Tara; McPake, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    that encourage positive responses among health workers b) the role of context has been underestimated and it is necessary to address broader systemic problems before initiating reform processes, c) reform programs need to incorporate active implementation research systems to learn the contextual dynamics and responses as well as have inbuilt program capacity for corrective measures d) health workers are key stakeholders in any reform process and should participate at all stages and e) some effects of reforms on the health workforce operate indirectly through levels of satisfaction voiced by communities utilising the services. PMID:17270042

  20. The Impact of State Behavioral Health Reform on Native American Individuals, Families, and Communities

    PubMed Central

    Willging, Cathleen E.; Goodkind, Jessica; Lamphere, Louise; Saul, Gwendolyn; Fluder, Shannon; Seanez, Paula

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the State of New Mexico undertook a sweeping transformation of all publicly funded behavioral health services. The reform was intended to enhance the cultural responsiveness and appropriateness of these services. To examine achievement of this objective, we conducted a qualitative study of the involvement of Native Americans in reform efforts and the subsequent impacts of reform on services for Native Americans. We found that the reform was relatively unsuccessful at creating mechanisms for genuine community input or improving behavioral health care for this population. These shortcomings were related to limited understandings of administrators concerning how tribal governments and health care systems operate, and the structural limitations of a managed care system that does not allow flexibility for culturally appropriate utilization review, screening, or treatment. However, interaction between the State and tribes increased, and we conclude that aspects of the reform could be strengthened to achieve more meaningful involvement and service improvements. PMID:22427455

  1. [Impact of health care reform on human resources and employment management].

    PubMed

    Brito Quintana, P E

    2000-01-01

    According to those in charge of health sector reform, human resources are the key component of health sector reform processes and offer health services their greatest competitive advantage. With the help of the Observatory for Human Resources within Health Sector Reform promoted by the Pan American Health Organization and other groups, countries of the Region of the Americas have now begun to gather, in a methodical fashion, tangible evidence of the decisive importance of human resources within health sector reform initiatives and particularly of the impact of these initiatives on health personnel. This mutual influence is the main theme of this article, which explores the most disturbing aspects of health sector reform from a human resources perspective, including job instability and conflicting interests of employers and employees. PMID:11026774

  2. A case study of health sector reform in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The impact of conflict on population health and health infrastructure has been well documented; however the efforts of the international community to rebuild health systems in post-conflict periods have not been systematically examined. Based on a review of relevant literature, this paper develops a framework for analyzing health reform in post-conflict settings, and applies this framework to the case study of health system reform in post-conflict Kosovo. The paper examines two questions: first, the selection of health reform measures; and second, the outcome of the reform process. It measures the success of reforms by the extent to which reform achieved its objectives. Through an examination of primary documents and interviews with key stakeholders, the paper demonstrates that the external nature of the reform process, the compressed time period for reform, and weak state capacity undermined the ability of the success of the reform program. PMID:20398389

  3. Health Reform Redux: Learning From Experience and Politics

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 presidential campaign season featured health care reform proposals. I discuss 3 approaches to health care reform and the tools for bringing about reform, such as insurance market reforms, tax credits, subsidies, individual and employer mandates, and public program expansions. I also discuss the politics of past and current health care reform efforts. Market-based reforms and mandates have been less successful than public program expansions at expanding coverage and controlling costs. New divisions among special interest groups increase the likelihood that reform efforts will succeed. Federal support for state efforts may be necessary to achieve national health care reform. History suggests that state-level success precedes national reform. History also suggests that an organized social movement for reform is necessary to overcome opposition from special interest groups. PMID:19299668

  4. [Health reform in Ecuador: never again the right to health as a privilege].

    PubMed

    Malo-Serrano, Miguel; Malo-Corral, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    The process of the health reform being experienced by Ecuador has had significant achievements because it occurs within the framework of a new Constitution of the Republic, which allowed the incorporation of historical social demands that arose from the criticism of neoliberalism in the restructure and modernization of the state. The backbone of the reform consists of three components: organization of a National Health System that overcomes the previous fragmentation and constitutes the Integral Public Health Network; development of policies to strengthen primary health care, articulating actions on the determinants of health, and finally, increasing funding to consolidate these changes. We conclude that challenges to the reform are related to the sustainability of the processes, financial sustainability of the system, greater activation of participatory mechanisms that enable citizen assessment of services and citizen empowerment regarding their right to health. PMID:25597730

  5. Bending the curve through health reform implementation.

    PubMed

    Antos, Joseph; Bertko, John; Chernew, Michael; Cutler, David; de Brantes, Francois; Goldman, Dana; Kocher, Bob; McClellan, Mark; McGlynn, Elizabeth; Pauly, Mark; Shortell, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    In September 2009, we released a set of concrete, feasible steps that could achieve the goal of significantly slowing spending growth while improving the quality of care. We stand by these recommendations, but they need to be updated in light of the new Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Reducing healthcare spending growth remains an urgent and unresolved issue, especially as the ACA expands insurance coverage to 32 million more Americans. Some of our reform recommendations were addressed completely or partially in ACA, and others were not. While more should be done legislatively, the current reform legislation includes important opportunities that will require decisive steps in regulation and execution to fulfill their potential for curbing spending growth. Executing these steps will not be automatic or easy. Yet doing so can achieve a healthcare system based on evidence, meaningful choice, balance between regulation and market forces, and collaboration that will benefit patients and the economy (see Appendix A for a description of these key themes). We focus on three concrete objectives to be reached within the next five years to achieve savings while improving quality across the health system: 1. Speed payment reforms away from traditional volume-based payment systems so that most health payments in this country align better with quality and efficiency. 2. Implement health insurance exchanges and other insurance reforms in ways that assure most Americans are rewarded with substantial savings when they choose plans that offer higher quality care at lower premiums. 3. Reform coverage so that most Americans can save money and obtain other meaningful benefits when they make decisions that improve their health and reduce costs. We believe these are feasible objectives with much progress possible even without further legislation (see Appendix B for a listing of recommendations). However, additional legislation is still needed to support consumers

  6. Equity in health care access to: assessing the urban health insurance reform in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gordon G; Zhao, Zhongyun; Cai, Renhua; Yamada, Tetsuji; Yamada, Tadashi

    2002-11-01

    This study evaluates changes in access to health care in response to the pilot experiment of urban health insurance reform in China. The pilot reform began in Zhenjiang and Jiujiang cities in 1994, followed by an expansion to 57 other cities in 1996, and finally to a nationwide campaign in the end of 1998. Specifically, this study examines the pre- and post-reform changes in the likelihood of obtaining various health care services across sub-population groups with different socioeconomic status and health conditions, in an attempt to shed light on the impact of reform on both vertical and horizontal equity measures in health care utilization. Empirical estimates were obtained in an econometric model using data from the annual surveys conducted in Zhenjiang City from 1994 through 1996. The main findings are as follows. Before the insurance reform, the likelihood of obtaining basic care at outpatient setting was much higher for those with higher income, education, and job status at work, indicating a significant measure of horizontal inequity against the lower socioeconomic groups. On the other hand, there was no evidence suggesting vertical inequity against people of chronic disease conditions in access to care at various settings. After the reform, the new insurance plan led to a significant increase in outpatient care utilization by the lower socioeconomic groups, making a great contribution to achieving horizontal equity in access to basic care. The new plan also has maintained the measure of vertical equity in the use of all types of care. Despite reform, people with poor socioeconomic status continue to be disadvantaged in accessing expensive and advanced diagnostic technologies. In conclusion, the reform model has demonstrated promising advantages over pre-reform insurance programs in many aspects, especially in the improvement of equity in access to basic care provided at outpatient settings. It also appears to be more efficient overall in allocating health

  7. Health system reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, John E

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider. PMID:24596894

  8. Reviewing and reforming policy in health enterprise information security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sostrom, Kristen; Collmann, Jeff R.

    2001-08-01

    Health information management policies usually address the use of paper records with little or no mention of electronic health records. Information Technology (IT) policies often ignore the health care business needs and operational use of the information stored in its systems. Representatives from the Telemedicine & Advanced Technology Research Center, TRICARE and Offices of the Surgeon General of each Military Service, collectively referred to as the Policies, Procedures and Practices Work Group (P3WG), examined military policies and regulations relating to computer-based information systems and medical records management. Using a system of templates and matrices created for the purpose, P3WG identified gaps and discrepancies in DoD and service compliance with the proposed Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Standard. P3WG represents an unprecedented attempt to coordinate policy review and revision across all military health services and the Office of Health Affairs. This method of policy reform can identify where changes need to be made to integrate health management policy and IT policy in to an organizational policy that will enable compliance with HIPAA standards. The process models how large enterprises may coordinate policy revision and reform across broad organizational and work domains.

  9. Welfare Reform and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Baltagi, Badi H; Yen, Yin-Fang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of the Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) program on children's health outcomes using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation over the period 1994 to 2005. The TANF policies have been credited with increased employment for single mothers and a dramatic drop in welfare caseload. Our results show that these policies also had a significant effect on various measures of children's medical utilization among low-income families. These health measures include a rating of the child's health status reported by the parents, the number of times that parents consulted a doctor, and the number of nights that the child stayed in a hospital. We compare the overall changes of health status and medical utilization for children with working and nonworking mothers. We find that the child's health status as reported by the parents is affected by the maternal employment status. PMID:25533889

  10. Health sector reform in Brazil: a case study of inequity.

    PubMed

    Almeida, C; Travassos, C; Porto, S; Labra, M E

    2000-01-01

    Health sector reform in Brazil built the Unified Health System according to a dense body of administrative instruments for organizing decentralized service networks and institutionalizing a complex decision-making arena. This article focuses on the equity in health care services. Equity is defined as a principle governing distributive functions designed to reduce or offset socially unjust inequalities, and it is applied to evaluate the distribution of financial resources and the use of health services. Even though in the Constitution the term "equity" refers to equal opportunity of access for equal needs, the implemented policies have not guaranteed these rights. Underfunding, fiscal stress, and lack of priorities for the sector have contributed to a progressive deterioration of health care services, with continuing regressive tax collection and unequal distribution of financial resources among regions. The data suggest that despite regulatory measures to increase efficiency and reduce inequalities, delivery of health care services remains extremely unequal across the country. People in lower income groups experience more difficulties in getting access to health services. Utilization rates vary greatly by type of service among income groups, positions in the labor market, and levels of education. PMID:10707303

  11. Moving towards universal health coverage: health insurance reforms in nine developing countries in Africa and Asia.

    PubMed

    Lagomarsino, Gina; Garabrant, Alice; Adyas, Atikah; Muga, Richard; Otoo, Nathaniel

    2012-09-01

    We analyse nine low-income and lower-middle-income countries in Africa and Asia that have implemented national health insurance reforms designed to move towards universal health coverage. Using the functions-of-health-systems framework, we describe these countries' approaches to raising prepaid revenues, pooling risk, and purchasing services. Then, using the coverage-box framework, we assess their progress across three dimensions of coverage: who, what services, and what proportion of health costs are covered. We identify some patterns in the structure of these countries' reforms, such as use of tax revenues to subsidise target populations, steps towards broader risk pools, and emphasis on purchasing services through demand-side financing mechanisms. However, none of the reforms purely conform to common health-system archetypes, nor are they identical to each other. We report some trends in these countries' progress towards universal coverage, such as increasing enrolment in government health insurance, a movement towards expanded benefits packages, and decreasing out-of-pocket spending accompanied by increasing government share of spending on health. Common, comparable indicators of progress towards universal coverage are needed to enable countries undergoing reforms to assess outcomes and make midcourse corrections in policy and implementation. PMID:22959390

  12. The readiness of addiction treatment agencies for health care reform.

    PubMed

    Molfenter, Todd; Capoccia, Victor A; Boyle, Michael G; Sherbeck, Carol K

    2012-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) aims to provide affordable health insurance and expanded health care coverage for some 32 million Americans. The PPACA makes provisions for using technology, evidence-based treatments, and integrated, patient-centered care to modernize the delivery of health care services. These changes are designed to ensure effectiveness, efficiency, and cost-savings within the health care system.To gauge the addiction treatment field's readiness for health reform, the authors developed a Health Reform Readiness Index (HRRI) survey for addiction treatment agencies. Addiction treatment administrators and providers from around the United States completed the survey located on the http://www.niatx.net website. Respondents self-assessed their agencies based on 13 conditions pertinent to health reform readiness, and received a confidential score and instant feedback.On a scale of "Needs to Begin," "Early Stages," "On the Way," and "Advanced," the mean scores for respondents (n = 276) ranked in the Early Stages of health reform preparation for 11 of 13 conditions. Of greater concern was that organizations with budgets of < $5 million (n = 193) were less likely than those with budgets > $5 million to have information technology (patient records, patient health technology, and administrative information technology), evidence-based treatments, quality management systems, a continuum of care, or a board of directors informed about PPACA.The findings of the HRRI indicate that the addiction field, and in particular smaller organizations, have much to do to prepare for a future environment that has greater expectations for information technology use, a credentialed workforce, accountability for patient care, and an integrated continuum of care. PMID:22551101

  13. The impact of health reform on health system spending.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Davis, Karen; Stremikis, Kristof

    2010-05-01

    The health reform legislation passed in March 2010 will introduce a range of payment and delivery system changes designed to achieve a significant slowing of health care cost growth. Most assessments of the new reform law have focused only on the federal budgetary impact. This updated analysis projects the effect of national reform on total national health expenditures and the insurance premiums that American families would likely pay. We estimate that, on net, the combination of provisions in the new law will reduce health care spending by $590 billion over 2010-2019 and lower premiums by nearly $2,000 per family. Moreover, the annual growth rate in national health expenditures could be slowed from 6.3 percent to 5.7 percent. PMID:20491172

  14. The informatics of health care reform.

    PubMed

    Masys, D R

    1996-01-01

    Health care in the United States has entered a period of economic upheaval. Episodic, fee-for-service care financed by indemnity insurance is being replaced by managed care financed by fixed-price, capitated health plans. The resulting focus on reducing costs, especially in areas where there is competition fueled by oversupply of health services providers and facilities, poses new threats to the livelihood of medical libraries and medical librarians but also offers new opportunities. Internet services, consumer health education, and health services research will grow in importance, and organizational mergers will provide librarians with opportunities to assume new roles within their organizations. PMID:8938325

  15. Health care in China: improvement, challenges, and reform.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Rao, Keqin; Wu, Sinan; Liu, Qian

    2013-02-01

    Over the past 2 decades, significant progress has been made in improving the health-care system and people's health conditions in China. Following rapid economic growth and social development, China's health-care system is facing new challenges, such as increased health-care demands and expenditure, inefficient use of health-care resources, unsatisfying implementation of disease management guidelines, and inadequate health-care insurance. Facing these challenges, the Chinese government carried out a national health-care reform in 2009. A series of policies were developed and implemented to improve the health-care insurance system, the medical care system, the public health service system, the pharmaceutical supply system, and the health-care institution management system in China. Although these measures have shown promising results, further efforts are needed to achieve the ultimate goal of providing affordable and high-quality care for both urban and rural residents in China. This article not only covers the improvement, challenges, and reform of health care in general in China, but also highlights the status of respiratory medicine-related issues. PMID:23381317

  16. Health reform in New Zealand: short-term gain but long-term pain?

    PubMed

    Ashton, Toni; Tenbensel, Tim

    2012-10-01

    Following a period of quite radical structural reform during the 1990s, health reform in New Zealand is now more incremental and often 'under the radar' of public scrutiny and debate. However, many changes have been made to the roles and functions of key agencies and this could have a profound effect on the direction and performance of the public health system. In particular, the objective of reform at the national level has shifted away from improving population health and reducing health disparities towards improving the performance of service providers. This article describes some of the reforms that have been introduced in recent years and discusses some implications of these changes. We argue that policy settings that are concerned only with getting the right services to the right people at the right time are inherently short-sighted if they fail to tackle the long-term causes of increasing demand for future health services. PMID:23186398

  17. 45 CFR 147.130 - Coverage of preventive health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage of preventive health services. 147.130 Section 147.130 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETS § 147.130 Coverage of preventive...

  18. 45 CFR 147.130 - Coverage of preventive health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage of preventive health services. 147.130 Section 147.130 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE...

  19. Standardizing the home?: Women reformers and domestic service in New Deal New York.

    PubMed

    May, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    In response to the poor working conditions suffered by domestics struggling to survive the Depression, middle-class women's organizations initiated various legislative reforms aimed at tackling the problems they believed plagued the occupation. Throughout these years, organized women debated three key pieces of reform related to domestic service: efforts to suppress street-corner markets, health requirements for prospective domestics, and state-level wage and hour reform. These reforms were united by the rhetoric of privacy, which clubwomen used both to oppose wage and hour reform and to support requirements that domestics have physicals before applying for work. This article examines the fine distinction that middle-class women's organizations drew between public and private in the appropriate application of government power and the resulting conflict between progressive women's gender ideology and their most deeply-held reform ideals. In doing so, it reveals organized women's struggle to reconcile their humane ideals with the reality in their kitchens. PMID:21966705

  20. Draft Clinton health reform proposal is circulated as alternatives surface.

    PubMed

    1993-09-20

    A brief summary is provided of the Clinton draft health reform proposal (a 240-page draft outline) that predated the presidential address before Congress on September 22, 1993, and the complete health reform plan. Hillary Rodham Clinton will present a statement before the Senate Finance Committee and the Labor and Human Resources Committee on September 28, as the chairperson of the President's Task Force on Health Care Reform. Top policy aide Ira Magaziner believes that a coalition of moderate Republicans, liberal Democrats, and moderate Democrats will be to pass the bill. Observers see the battle as one of the most difficult for the Clinton administration. The outlined plan would require employers to pay about 80% of health insurance coverage for their employees, including part-time workers and their dependents. Families would pay the remaining 20%. All individuals would be covered, and special subsidies would be available for those under a specified income threshold. Regional health alliances would mediate between consumer and health plans. Premiums would be paid to the alliances, which would have a discrete geographic territory. Alliances would negotiate with health insurance companies for the best care at the lowest prices. Preexisting medical conditions would not prevent coverage. A standard benefit package would be provided and there would be comparability across plans. For instance, covered care would include hospital care, physician and health professional services, clinical preventive services, mental health and substance abuse, family planning services, pregnancy-related services, and drugs. Prevention coverage would include prenatal and well-baby care and routine physical examinations, and reproductive health service procedures such as mammogram and pelvic examinations. Family planning and pregnancy-related services were not defined, and although contraceptive pills would be covered as prescriptions, it is unclear whether diaphragms or IUDs would be

  1. Health care reform: a short summary.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay

    2010-09-01

    The Health Care Reform legislation has many provisions of importance to the nuclear medicine community. This article is not a complete summary of the thousands of pages in the legislation, but emphasizes some relevant aspects of the bills. When the plan is fully implemented, about 32 million more Americans will have health insurance. Pre-existing medical conditions will no longer result in insurance denials. There are many initiatives to slow the growth of spending on health care in various ways, such as by setting up the new Medicare Advisory Board. There are also new fees, taxes, penalties, subsidies, and tax deduction changes. PMID:20706044

  2. Mandate-based health reform and the labor market: Evidence from the Massachusetts reform.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, Jonathan T; Kowalski, Amanda E

    2016-05-01

    We model the labor market impact of the key provisions of the national and Massachusetts "mandate-based" health reforms: individual mandates, employer mandates, and subsidies. We characterize the compensating differential for employer-sponsored health insurance (ESHI) and the welfare impact of reform in terms of "sufficient statistics." We compare welfare under mandate-based reform to welfare in a counterfactual world where individuals do not value ESHI. Relying on the Massachusetts reform, we find that jobs with ESHI pay $2812 less annually, somewhat less than the cost of ESHI to employers. Accordingly, the deadweight loss of mandate-based health reform was approximately 8 percent of its potential size. PMID:27037897

  3. Measuring the quality of care: reforming the health care system.

    PubMed

    Longo, D R; Daugird, A J

    1994-01-01

    Elements of meaningful health care reform must include the ability of patients, providers, and payers to select services offering quality care at an affordable price. To achieve this goal, an appropriate definition of quality needs to be articulated and adopted; data capturing the definition needs to be collected; and appropriate measures need to be selected to analyze that data. Results need to be publically available to assist in making informed choices. The health professions need to fulfill their social contract. And, government needs to ensure that public safety and accountability are maintained and preserved. While the goals and strategies of the different players in the health care arena may be different, there is one thing in common--the needs of citizens must be met through the provision of available, accessible, quality, equitable, and cost-effective health care. These values need to be incorporated into a reform plan. Currently, our ability to comprehensively, consistently, and uniformly perform these tasks is severely limited. While many diverse factors, such as the limitation of financial support and the lack of uniform information systems, contribute to this situation, we believe it is possible through the implementation of a series of recommendations to achieve these goals. This paper outlines the current situation, reviews insights derived from the literature and past and current experiences. Recommendations are made that apply equally to health reform efforts at the state and/or federal levels. PMID:7950482

  4. [Colombia: what has happened with its health reform?].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Arias, Rubén Darío; Nieto, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The health reform adopted in Colombia in 1993 was promoted by different agencies as the model to follow in matters of health policy. Following the guidelines of the Washington Consensus and the World Bank, the Government of Colombia, with the support of national political and economic elites, reorganized the management of health services based on market principles, dismantled the state system, increased finances of the sector, assigned the management of the system to the private sector, segmented the provision of services, and promoted interaction of actors in a competitive scheme of low regulation. After 20 years of implementation, the Colombian model shows serious flaws and is an object of controversy. The Government has weakened as the governing entity for health; private groups that manage the resources were established as strong centers of economic and political power; and violations of the right to health increased. Additionally, corruption and service cost overruns have put a strain on the sustainability of the system, and the state network is in danger of closing. Despite its loss of prestige at the internal level, various actors within and outside the country tend to keep the model based on contextual reforms. PMID:25597727

  5. Reforming the Israeli health care market.

    PubMed

    Chinitz, D P

    1994-11-01

    Israel's experience in attempting to implement a health system reform based in large measure on managed competition should provide important data to other countries considering reliance on competitive mechanisms for third-party purchase of health care. In this paper, current proposals for reform of the Israeli market for third-party purchase of health care are examined in light of ideal market structures, particularly the theory of managed competition. The relationship between the theory, the notion of a 'purchaser-provider split' and the Israeli case are explored. The current Israeli health care market, which features enrollment of 96% of the population in competing sick funds, is presented. The changes necessary to base third-party purchase of health-care on managed competition are discussed. Special conditions of the Israeli health care system likely to influence implementation of a managed competition strategy are considered. Beyond a 'purchaser-provider' split, the proposals call for other restructurings, such as a split between finance and insurance functions, which the standard theory of managed competition does not take into account. The implications of these proposals for smooth functioning of the health care market must be weighed against political and ethical considerations unique to the Israeli environment. PMID:7863357

  6. Health reform: getting the essentials right.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Victor R

    2009-01-01

    As the ninety-year history and failure of health care reform illustrates, it is easy for policymakers to disagree about the details of any new plan. In this Perspective, the author suggests trying a new approach this time: enacting a plan that encompasses four essential principles and then making midcourse adjustments later to get the details right. He defines the essentials as the Four Cs: coverage, cost control, coordinated care, and choice. PMID:19151005

  7. Reform of health care in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Jeremy W.

    1991-01-01

    For the past 45 years Germany has had two health care systems: one in the former Federal Republic of Germany and one in the former German Democratic Republic. The system in the Federal Republic was undergoing some important reforms when German reunification took place in October 1990. Now the system in eastern Germany is undergoing a major transformation to bring it more into line with that in western Germany. PMID:10110879

  8. Practice paper of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: principles of productivity in food and nutrition services: applications in the 21st century health care reform era.

    PubMed

    Gregoire, Mary B; Theis, Monica L

    2015-07-01

    Food and nutrition services, along with the health care organizations they serve, are becoming increasingly complex. These complexities are driven by sometimes conflicting (if not polarizing) human, department, organization, and environment factors and will require that managers shift how they think about and approach productivity in the context of the greater good of the organization and, perhaps, even society. Traditional, single-factor approaches to productivity measurements, while still valuable in the context of departmental trend analysis, are of limited value when assessing departmental performance in the context of an organization's goals and values. As health care continues to change and new models of care are introduced, food and nutrition services managers will need to consider innovative approaches to improve productivity that are consistent with their individual health care organization's vision and mission. Use of process improvement tools such as Lean and Six Sigma as strategies for evaluating and improving food and nutrition services efficiency should be considered. PMID:26115561

  9. The aftermath of health sector reform in the Republic of Georgia: effects on people's health.

    PubMed

    Collins, Téa

    2003-04-01

    After the collapse of the Former Soviet Union a health reform process was undertaken in Georgia beginning in 1994. This process was intended to encompass all aspects of the health-care sector and to transform the Soviet-style health system into one that was directed towards quality of care, improved access, efficiency, and a strengthened focus on Primary Health Care (PHC). Health sector reform fundamentally changed the ways health care is financed in Georgia. There has been a transition to program-based financing, and payroll-tax-based social insurance schemes have been introduced. Despite these measures, the performance of the health system is still disappointing. All health programs are severely under-funded, and when the majority of the population is unemployed or self-employed, collection of taxes seems impossible. Overall, Georgian consumers are uninformed about the basic principles of health reforms and their entitlements and therefore do not support them. The analysis introduced in this paper of the current situation in Georgia establishes that the rush to insurance-based medicine was more a rush from the previous system than a well-thought-out policy direction. After 70 years of a Soviet rule, the country had no institutional capacity to provide insurance-based health care. To achieve universal coverage, or at least ensure that the majority of the population has access to basic health services, government intervention is essential. In addition, educating the public on reforms would allow the reform initiators to fundamentally change the nature of the reform process from a "top-down" centralized process to one that is demand-driven and collaborative. PMID:12705312

  10. Trade in health services.

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

  11. Community Participation in New Mexico's Behavioral Health Care Reform

    PubMed Central

    Kano, Miria; Willging, Cathleen E.; Rylko-Bauer, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, New Mexico implemented a unique reform in managed behavioral health services that seeks to ensure delivery of consumer-driven, recovery-oriented care to low-income individuals. Distinguishing features of the reform are the Local Collaboratives (LCs), regionally based community organizations designed by state government to represent behavioral health concerns of New Mexico's diverse cultural populations. We examine community response to the LCs, focusing on two broad sets of themes derived from 18 months of ethnographic fieldwork. The first set—structure and function—encompasses several issues: predominance of provider versus consumer voice; insufficient resources to support internal operations; imposition of state administrative demands; and perceived lack of state response to LC efforts. The second set—participation and collaboration—reveals how problems of information flow and other logistical factors impact involvement in LCs and how the construction of “community” introduced under this initiative exacerbates tensions across localities with varied histories and populations. PMID:19764315

  12. What have health care reforms achieved in Turkey? An appraisal of the "Health Transformation Programme".

    PubMed

    Ökem, Zeynep Güldem; Çakar, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    Poor health status indicators, low quality care, inequity in the access to health services and inefficiency due to fragmented health financing and provision have long been problems in Turkey's health system. To address these problems a radical reform process known as the Health Transformation Programme (HTP) was initiated in 2003. The health sector reforms in Turkey are considered to have been among the most successful of middle-income countries undergoing reform. Numerous articles have been published that review these reforms in terms of, variously, financial sustainability, efficiency, equity and quality. Evidence suggests that Turkey has indeed made significant progress, yet these achievements are uneven among its regions, and their long-term financial sustainability is unresolved due to structural problems in employment. As yet, there is no comprehensive evidence-based analysis of how far the stated reform objectives have been achieved. This article reviews the empirical evidence regarding the outcomes of the HTP during 10 years of its implementation. Strengthening the strategic purchasing function of the Social Security Institution (SSI) should be a priority. Overall performance can be improved by linking resource allocation to provider performance. More emphasis on prevention rather than treatment, with an effective referral chain, can also bring better outcomes, greater efficiency gains and contribute to sustainability. PMID:26183890

  13. Memphis Business Group on Health: a model for health care reform and cost containment.

    PubMed

    Miller, D

    1994-01-01

    A market-driven, community-based, competitive health care model has effectively assisted Memphis employers to achieve their cost containment and health care reform objectives. Members of the Memphis Business Group on Health joined forces and successfully implemented a variety of programs and services that resulted in dramatic cost savings and reform of health care delivery systems. Programs included development of a purchasing alliance for negotiating contracts for hospital, medical, workers' compensation, psychiatric, and substance abuse care and other service and product options. Utilization management programs focused on appropriate consumption of resources and intensive management of critical cases. While increases in per employee costs averaged 14.7 percent per year for five years nationally, members of the Memphis Business Group on Health held their increases to an average of 6 percent per year. PMID:10132786

  14. Practice Makes Perfect and Other Myths about Mental Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickman, Leonard

    1999-01-01

    Examines forces motivating reform in mental health services, suggesting that mental health practitioners and researchers have relied on traditional and apparently unsuccessful methods (with little or no scientific support) to ensure service quality and effectiveness; debunking six myths about mental health services; and suggesting that…

  15. Health care reform: motivation for discrimination?

    PubMed

    Navin, J C; Pettit, M A

    1995-01-01

    One of the major issues in the health care reform debate is the requirement that employers pay a portion of their employees' health insurance premiums. This paper examines the method for calculating the employer share of the health care premiums, as specified in the President's health care reform proposal. The calculation of the firm's cost of providing employee health care benefits is a function of marital status as well as the incidence of two-income earner households. This paper demonstrates that this method provides for lower than average premiums for married employees with no dependents in communities in which there is at least one married couple where both individuals participate in the labor market. This raises the non-wage labor costs of employing single individuals relative to individuals which are identical in every respect except their marital status. This paper explores the economic implications for hiring, as well as profits, for firms located in a perfectly-competitive industry. The results of the theoretical model presented here are clear. Under this proposed version of health care reform, ceteris paribus, firms have a clear preference for two-earner households. This paper also demonstrates that the incentive to discriminate is related to the size of the firm and to the size of the average wage of full-time employees for firms which employ fewer than fifty individuals. While this paper examines the specifics of President Clinton's original proposal, the conclusions reached here would apply to any form of employer-mandated coverage in which the premiums are a function of family status and the incidence of two-earner households. PMID:7613598

  16. Payment system reform for health care providers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soonman

    2003-03-01

    Since its introduction in 1977, the national health insurance programme in Korea has paid health care providers on a fee-for-service basis. Regulated fee-for-service payment has resulted in an increased volume and intensity of medical care. It has also distorted the input mix of treatment because physicians have substituted more profitable and uninsured (no coverage) medical services for those with lower margins, as is evidenced by the sharp increase in the caesarean delivery rate. This paper examines two recent supply-side reforms in Korea: Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) and Resource-based Relative Value (RBRV). Since 1997, through a pilot programme covering a selected group of diseases for voluntarily participating health care institutions, the DRG-based prospective payment system has proven to be effective in containing cost with little negative effect on quality. RBRV-based payment was implemented in 2001, but led to an almost uniform increase in fees for physician services without a mechanism to control the volume and expenditure. Challenges and future issues in the reform of the payment system in Korea include the expansion of benefit coverage, quality monitoring and improvement, strategic plans to overcome the strong opposition of providers and the introduction of global budgeting. PMID:12582111

  17. Health care reform and changes: the Malaysian experience.

    PubMed

    Merican, Mohd Ismail; bin Yon, Rohaizat

    2002-01-01

    Health care reform is an intentional, sustained and systematic process of structural change to one or more health subsystems to improve efficiency, effectiveness, patient choices and equity. Health care all over the world is continuously reforming with time. Health care reform has become an increasingly important agenda for policy change in both developed and developing countries including Malaysia. This paper provides an overview of the Malaysian health care system, its achievements, and issues and challenges leading to ongoing reform towards a more efficient and equitable health care system that possess a better quality of life for the population. PMID:12597513

  18. What Health Care Reform Means for Immigrants: Comparing the Affordable Care Act and Massachusetts Health Reforms.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Tiffany D

    2016-02-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was passed to provide more affordable health coverage to Americans beginning in 2014. Modeled after the 2006 Massachusetts health care reform, the ACA includes an individual mandate, Medicaid expansion, and health exchanges through which middle-income individuals can purchase coverage from private insurance companies. However, while the ACA provisions exclude all undocumented and some documented immigrants, Massachusetts uses state and hospital funds to extend coverage to these groups. This article examines the ACA reform using the Massachusetts reform as a comparative case study to outline how citizenship status influences individuals' coverage options under both policies. The article then briefly discusses other states that provide coverage to ACA-ineligible immigrants and the implications of uneven ACA implementation for immigrants and citizens nationwide. PMID:26567382

  19. Health-system reform and universal health coverage in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat; de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Almeida, Gisele; Cotlear, Daniel; Dmytraczenko, T; Frenz, Patricia; Garcia, Patrícia; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia M; Muntaner, Carles; de Paula, Juliana Braga; Rígoli, Felix; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Wagstaff, Adam

    2015-03-28

    Starting in the late 1980s, many Latin American countries began social sector reforms to alleviate poverty, reduce socioeconomic inequalities, improve health outcomes, and provide financial risk protection. In particular, starting in the 1990s, reforms aimed at strengthening health systems to reduce inequalities in health access and outcomes focused on expansion of universal health coverage, especially for poor citizens. In Latin America, health-system reforms have produced a distinct approach to universal health coverage, underpinned by the principles of equity, solidarity, and collective action to overcome social inequalities. In most of the countries studied, government financing enabled the introduction of supply-side interventions to expand insurance coverage for uninsured citizens--with defined and enlarged benefits packages--and to scale up delivery of health services. Countries such as Brazil and Cuba introduced tax-financed universal health systems. These changes were combined with demand-side interventions aimed at alleviating poverty (targeting many social determinants of health) and improving access of the most disadvantaged populations. Hence, the distinguishing features of health-system strengthening for universal health coverage and lessons from the Latin American experience are relevant for countries advancing universal health coverage. PMID:25458725

  20. Health sector reforms in Argentina and the performance of the health financing system.

    PubMed

    Cavagnero, Eleonora

    2008-10-01

    In Argentina, health sector reforms put particular emphasis on decentralization and self-management of the tax-funded health sector, and the restructuring of the social health insurance during the 1990s. Unlike other countries in the region, there was no comprehensive plan to reform and unify the sector. In order to assess the effects of the reforms on the performance of the health financing system, this study looks at impacts on the three inter-related functions of revenue collection, pooling, and purchasing/provision of health services. Data from various sources are used to illustrate the findings. It was found that the introduction of cost recovery by self-managed hospitals increased their budgets only marginally and competition among social health insurance funds did not reduce fragmentation as expected. Although reforming the Solidarity Redistribution Fund and implementing a single basic package for the insured was an important step towards equity and transparency, the extent of risk pooling is still very limited. This study also provides recommendations regarding strengthening reimbursement mechanisms for public hospitals, and regulating the private sector as approaches to improving the fairness of the health financing system and protecting people from financial hardship as a result of illness. PMID:18378350

  1. Evaluating the Labour Government's English NHS health system reforms: the 2008 Darzi reforms.

    PubMed

    Mays, Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    Starting in 2002, the UK Labour Government of 1997-2010 introduced a series of changes to the National Health Service (NHS) in England designed to increase patients' choices of the place of elective hospital care and encourage competition among public and private providers of elective hospital services for NHS-funded patients. In 2006, the Department of Health initiated the Health Reform Evaluation Programme (HREP) to assess the impact of the changes. In June 2008, the White Paper, High quality care for all, was published. It represented the government's desire to focus the next phase of health care system reform in England as much on the quality of care as on improving its responsiveness and efficiency. The 2008 White Paper led to the commissioning of a further wave of evaluative research under the auspices of HREP, as follows: an evaluation of the implementation and outcomes of care planning for people with long-term conditions; an evaluation of the personal health budget pilots; an evaluation of the implementation and outcomes of the Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUIN) framework; and an evaluation of cultural and behavioural change in the NHS focused on ensuring high quality care for all. This Supplement includes papers from each project. The evaluations present a mixed picture of the impact and success of the 2008 reforms. All the studies identify some limitations of the policies in the White Paper. The introduction of personal health budgets appears to have been the least problematic and, depending on assumptions, likely to be cost-effective for the sorts of patients involved in the pilot. For the rest of the changes, impacts ranged from little or none (CQUIN and care planning for people with chronic conditions) to patchy and highly variable (instilling a culture of quality in acute hospitals) in the three years following the publication of the White Paper. On the other hand, each of the studies identifies important insights relevant to modifying

  2. [Mental health services in Australia].

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio

  3. Lessons learned from health sector reform: a four-country comparison.

    PubMed

    Talukder, Md Noorunnabi; Rob, Ubaidur; Mahabub-Ul-Anwar, Md

    Various reforms have been undertaken to improve the functioning of health systems in developing countries, but there is limited comparative analysis of reform initiatives. This article discusses health sector reform experiences of four developing countries and identifies the lessons learned. The article is based on the review of background papers on Bangladesh, Pakistan, Indonesia, and Tanzania prepared as part of a multi-country study on health sector reform. Findings suggest that decentralization works effectively while implementing primary and secondary health programs. Decentralization of power and authority to local authorities requires strengthening and supporting these units. Along with the public sector, the private sector plays an effective role in institutional and human resources development as well as in improving service delivery. Community participation facilitates recruitment and development of field workers, facility improvement, and service delivery. For providing financial protection to the poor, there is a need to review user fees and develop affordable health insurance with an exemption mechanism. There is no uniform health sector reform approach; therefore, the experiences of other countries will help countries undertake appropriate reforms. Here, it is important to examine the context and determine the reform measures that constitute the best means in terms of equity, efficiency, and sustainability. PMID:19131306

  4. College Health: Health Services and Common Health Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health College Health: Health Services and Common Health Problems Posted under Health Guides . ... March 2015. +Related Content What are student health services? The student health services (sometimes called the student ...

  5. Health reform and the quality assurance imperative.

    PubMed

    Webber, A

    The administration's blueprint for healthcare reform contains a number of positive features, including a national healthcare information database, quality "report cards," and state-based patient complaint offices. Missing from the plan, however, is "an active quality monitoring system that holds health plans and providers publicly accountable for improved performance," says Andrew Webber, Executive Vice President of the American Medical Peer Review Association, the national association of Peer Review Organizations (PROs). His antidote includes the creation of an independent, state-based network to coordinate quality assurance activities; a program to monitor compliance with practice guidelines; and a quality foundation to measure, manage, improve, and oversee quality. PMID:10131335

  6. Selected Health Service Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Arthur D.

    Prepared by an occupational analyst of the Utah Department of Employment Security, this manual provides job guides for 39 health service occupations concerned mainly with doctors, nurses, and related hospital-medical-health consultants and services. Classified according to "The Dictionary of Occupational Titles," each occupational description…

  7. School Readiness Goal Begins with Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Nick

    1992-01-01

    Currently 59 bills are awaiting Congressional action. Meanwhile, a national coalition of economists and medical specialists (the National Leadership Coalition for Health Care Reform) are circulating a sensible consensus health reform plan proposing national practice guidelines; universal health care access; and efficient cost control, delivery,…

  8. The use of dental services for children: implications of the 2010 dental reform in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri; Machnes, Yaffa; Gal, Assaf

    2015-02-01

    Routine dental examinations for children are important for early diagnosis and treatment of dental problems. The level of dental morbidity among Israeli children is higher than the global average. A July 2010 reform of Israel's National Health Insurance Law gradually offers free dental services for children up to age 12. The study examines the use of dental services for children and the factors affecting mothers' decision to take their children for routine checkups. In addition, the study examines the impact of the reform on dental checkups for children in various populations groups. A national representative sample comprising 618 mothers of children aged 5-18 was surveyed by telephone. The survey integrated the principles of the health beliefs model and socio-demographic characteristics. The results show that mothers' decision to take their children for dental checkups is affected by their socio-demographic status and by their health beliefs with respect to dental health. After the reform, the frequency of children's dental checkups significantly increased among vulnerable populations. Therefore, the reform has helped reduce gaps in Israeli society regarding children's dental health. Raising families' awareness of the reform and of the importance of dental health care together with expanding national distribution of approved dental clinics can increase the frequency of dental checkups among children in Israel. PMID:25465981

  9. Commentary: Medicaid reform issues affecting the Indian health care system.

    PubMed

    Wellever, A; Hill, G; Casey, M

    1998-02-01

    Substantial numbers of Indian people rely on Medicaid for their primary health insurance coverage. When state Medicaid programs enroll Indians in managed care programs, several unintended consequences may ensue. This paper identifies some of the perverse consequences of Medicaid reform for Indians and the Indian health care system and suggests strategies for overcoming them. It discusses the desire of Indian people to receive culturally appropriate services, the need to maintain or improve Indian health care system funding, and the duty of state governments to respect tribal sovereignty. Because of their relatively small numbers, Indians may be treated differently under Medicaid managed care systems without significantly endangering anticipated program savings. Failure of Medicaid programs to recognize the uniqueness of Indian people, however, may severely weaken the Indian health care system. PMID:9491006

  10. Financing reforms for the Thai health card scheme.

    PubMed

    Pannarunothai, S; Srithamrongsawat, S; Kongpan, M; Thumvanna, P

    2000-09-01

    The Thai health card scheme originated from a pilot study on community financing and primary health care in maternal and child health in 1983. The scheme later changed to one of voluntary health insurance and finally received a matching subsidy from the government. The coverage of the scheme is described by a U-curve, i.e. it started with 5% of the total population in 1987, declined to 3% in 1992, with an upturn to 14% in 1997. The upturn has been the result of concerns about universal coverage policy, together with reforms of fund management. The provincial fund is responsible for basic health, basic medical, referral, and accident and emergency services. The central fund takes 2.5% of the total fund to manage cross-boundary services and high cost care (a reinsurance policy). On average, the utilization rate of the voluntary health card was higher than that of the compulsory (social security) scheme. And amongst three variants of health cards, the voluntary health card holders used health services twice to three times more than the community and health volunteer card holders. Cost recovery was low, especially in the provinces with low coverage. In the province with highest coverage, cost recovery was as high as 90% of the non-labour recurrent cost. Only 10% of the budgeted fund for reinsurance was disbursed, implying considerable management inefficiency. The management information system as well as the management capacity of the Health Insurance Office should be strengthened. After comparing the health card with other insurance schemes in terms of coverage, cost recovery, utilization and management cost, it is recommended that this voluntary health insurance should be modified to be a compulsory insurance, with some other means of premium collection and minimal co-payment at the point of delivery. PMID:11012405

  11. Primary care and reform of health systems: a framework for the analysis of Latin American experiences.

    PubMed

    Frenk, J; González-Block, M A

    1992-03-01

    The article first proposes a framework within which to assess the potential of health sector reforms in Latin America for primary health care (PHC). Two dimensions are recognized: the scope of the reforms, content, and the means of participation that are put into play. This framework is then complemented through a critique of the often-sought but little-analyzed PHC reform strategies of decentralization and health sector integration. The analytical framework is next directed to the financing of health services, a chief aspect of any reform aiming toward PHC. Two facets of health service finance are first distinguished: its formal aspect as a means for economic subsistence and growth, and its substantive aspect as a means to promote the rational use of services and thus improvement of health. Once finance is understood in this microeconomic perspective, the focus shifts to the analysis of health care reforms at the macro, health policy level. The article concludes by positing that PHC is in essence a new health care paradigm, oriented by the values of universality, redistribution, integration, plurality, quality, and efficiency. PMID:10118440

  12. Dementia in Ontario: Prevalence and Health Services Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tranmer, J. E.; Croxford, R.; Coyte, P. C.

    2003-01-01

    To understand the impact of ongoing reform of mental health and dementia care in Ontario, an examination of prevalence and health services utilization rates is needed. However, there exists a gap in current prevalence and health services research specific to dementia care in Ontario. The objective of this study was to address these concerns using…

  13. Generalism and the need for health professional educational reform.

    PubMed

    Bulger, R J

    1995-01-01

    Powerful forces are intensifying change in health care delivery: population-based thinking about health care, especially emphasis on prevention; the reemergence of the biopsychosocial mode of thinking in health care; the need to increase capacity for health services research; and the knowledge that reductions may be needed in the use of high-priced physicians, the number of acute-care hospital beds, and the duplication of expensive equipment. Academic health centers are being forced to adjust their educational offerings to these realities of the service sector. Yet, institutional obstacles stand in the way of needed education reform: fragmentation of the sense of community in health professions schools, turf-related forces that separate various health professions, inflexible institutional structures that prevent adequate responses to a changing environment, an increasingly acute shortage of money to support education, and the devalued status of teaching within our institutions. Universities must develop centers to determine regional and local workforce needs and subsequently establish regionally based educational networks of academic and community health centers. Further, academic centers must demonstrate a real commitment to multiprofessional, interdisciplinary team approaches to a patient-centered system. In parallel, the institution must create a student-centered value system. PMID:7826454

  14. Nursing leadership and health sector reform.

    PubMed

    Borthwick, C; Galbally, R

    2001-06-01

    The political, technological and economic changes that have occurred over the past decade are increasingly difficult to manage within the traditional framework of health-care, and the organisation of health-care is seen to need radical reform to sweep away many of the internal barriers that now divide one form of health-care, and one profession, from another. Nursing must equip itself with skills in advocacy and political action to influence the direction the system will take. Nursing currently suffers from a weakness in self-concept that goes hand in hand with a weakness in political status, and nursing leadership must build the foundations for both advocacy for others and self-advocacy for the nursing movement. The profession faces tensions between different conceptions of its role and status, its relationship to medicine, and its relationship to health. Health indices are tightly linked to status, and to trust, hope, and control of one's own life. Can nurses help empower others when they are not particularly good at empowering themselves? What will the role of the nurse be in creating the information flows that will guide people toward health? Nursing's long history of adaptation to an unsettled and negotiated status may mean that it is better fitted to make this adaptation than other more confident disciplines. PMID:11882205

  15. Regulatory reform proposals and the public health.

    PubMed Central

    Buffler, P A; Kyle, A D

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Congress is considering legislation that would change policy for environmental health in important ways. Current approaches have been criticized for addressing the wrong set of priorities and consuming too many resources. The legislation requires additional analyses and sets new decision criteria to be applied to federal agency actions taken to protect the environment and public health. Close review of the legislation suggests that though it is intended to address identified problems, it is unlikely to lead to an improved basis for public policy and is likely to paralyze the regulatory process. Reform proposals that reduce rather than increase fragmentation of decision-making and that address problems comprehensively rather than selectively are needed. PMID:8732938

  16. State mental health policy: It's never too late to do it right: lessons from behavioral health reform in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Willging, Cathleen E; Semansky, Rafael M

    2010-07-01

    This column describes an initiative to reform the public behavioral health system in New Mexico, which has placed publicly funded services under the management of a single for-profit private corporation. The authors discuss problems that they attribute to the state's "top-down model of planning and implementation": complex documentation requirements that increase administrative burden on providers, unrealistically high expectations for a comprehensive information technology system, inadequate monitoring that hampers assessment of reform, and insufficient attention to the rural safety net. They call on other states to better incorporate experiences of those delivering and receiving services into the design and timing of reform initiatives. PMID:20591994

  17. Improving Coordination of Addiction Health Services Organizations with Mental Health and Public Health Services.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Erick G; Andrews, Christina; Harris, Lesley; Padwa, Howard; Kong, Yinfei; M S W, Karissa Fenwick

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-method study, we examined coordination of mental health and public health services in addiction health services (AHS) in low-income racial and ethnic minority communities in 2011 and 2013. Data from surveys and semistructured interviews were used to evaluate the extent to which environmental and organizational characteristics influenced the likelihood of high coordination with mental health and public health providers among outpatient AHS programs. Coordination was defined and measured as the frequency of interorganizational contact among AHS programs and mental health and public health providers. The analytic sample consisted of 112 programs at time 1 (T1) and 122 programs at time 2 (T2), with 61 programs included in both periods of data collection. Forty-three percent of AHS programs reported high frequency of coordination with mental health providers at T1 compared to 66% at T2. Thirty-one percent of programs reported high frequency of coordination with public health services at T1 compared with 54% at T2. Programs with culturally responsive resources and community linkages were more likely to report high coordination with both services. Qualitative analysis highlighted the role of leadership in leveraging funding and developing creative solutions to deliver coordinated care. Overall, our findings suggest that AHS program funding, leadership, and cultural competence may be important drivers of program capacity to improve coordination with health service providers to serve minorities in an era of health care reform. PMID:26350114

  18. 75 FR 69374 - Supplement to Universal Service Reform Mobility Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ...This document is a supplement to the Universal Service Reform Mobility Fund, published November 1, 2010. In this document, the Federal Communication Commission proposes the creation of a new Mobility Fund to make available one-time support to significantly improve coverage of current-generation or better mobile voice and Internet service for consumers in areas where such coverage is currently......

  19. Leadership Dynamics Promoting Systemic Reform for Inclusive Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a multicase study of two systems of schools striving to reform service delivery systems for students with special needs. Considering these systems as institutional actors, the study examines what promotes the understanding and implementation of special education service delivery within a system of schools in a manner that…

  20. Health Education: What Can It Look Like after Health Care Reform? 1993 SOPHE Presidential Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Cynthia M.

    1994-01-01

    In plans for health care reform, the role of health education in reducing risk behaviors associated with leading causes of death must be recognized. Reform offers new opportunities for prevention programs in schools, worksites, and communities. (SK)

  1. [Universal coverage of health services in Mexico].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    The reforms made in recent years to the Mexican Health System have reduced inequities in the health care of the population, but have been insufficient to solve all the problems of the MHS. In order to make the right to health protection established in the Constitution a reality for every citizen, Mexico must warrant effective universal access to health services. This paper outlines a long-term reform for the consolidation of a health system that is akin to international standards and which may establish the structural conditions to reduce coverage inequity. This reform is based on a "structured pluralism" intended to avoid both a monopoly exercised within the public sector and fragmentation in the private sector, and to prevent falling into the extremes of authoritarian procedures or an absence of regulation. This involves the replacement of the present vertical integration and segregation of social groups by a horizontal organization with separation of duties. This also entails legal and fiscal reforms, the reinforcement of the MHS, the reorganization of health institutions, and the formulation of regulatory, technical and financial instruments to operationalize the proposed scheme with the objective of rendering the human right to health fully effective for the Mexican people. PMID:24570037

  2. Health reform: the good, the bad, and the bottom line.

    PubMed

    Hadley, J; Zuckerman, S

    1994-01-01

    The Health Security Act is a pragmatic plan for achieving universal health insurance coverage for a broad package of benefits at reasonable cost. It proposes necessary and reasonable changes in insurance market practices and administrative structure. It finances the reformed system with a credible combination of achievable cost savings, mandatory private-sector payments, and limited "sin" taxes. Political constraints-the inability to tax openly or redistribute tax subsidies-result in weak incentives for consumers to choose low-cost plans and an inefficient scheme for providing subsidies to the poor. The act also unnecessarily restricts and regulates fee-for-service plans and the training of health workers. We propose changes to correct the act's weaknesses without compromising its basic objectives. PMID:8188131

  3. The Potential Impact of Health Care Reform on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reace, Diana

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 522 colleges and universities investigated the impact of health care reform proposals. Results provide an overview of typical current medical plan design, including coverage for part- and full-time employees, and give insight into attitudes toward the idea of regional health alliances, a potentially useful reform approach. (MSE)

  4. Physicians' Plan for a healthy Minnesota. The MMA proposal for health care reform. The report of the Minnesota Medical Association Health Care Reform Task Force.

    PubMed

    2005-03-01

    The health care system in the United States, according to some, is on the verge of imploding. The rapidly rising cost of services is causing more and more Minnesotans to forego needed care. At the same time, the increasing costs are placing additional pressure on families, businesses, and state and local government budgets. The Minnesota Medical Association's (MMA) Health Care Reform Task Force has proposed a bold new approach that seeks to ensure affordable health care for all Minnesotans. The proposal is a roadmap to provide all Minnesotans with affordable insurance for essential health care services. In creating this plan, the task force strove to achieve three common reform goals: expand access to care, improve quality, and control costs. To achieve those ends, it has proposed a model built on four key features: (1) A strong public health system, (2) A reformed insurance market that delivers universal coverage, (3) A reformed health care delivery market that creates incentives for increasing value, (4) Systems that fully support the delivery of high-quality care. The task force believes that these elements will provide the foundation for a system that serves everyone and allows Minnesotans to purchase better health care at a relatively lower price. Why health care reform again? The average annual cost of health care for an average Minnesota household is about 11,000 dollars--an amount that's projected to double by 2010, if current trends continue. Real wages are not growing fast enough to absorb such cost increases. If unabated, these trends portend a reduction in access to and quality of care, and a heavier economic burden on individuals, employers, and the government. Furthermore, Minnesota and the United States are not getting the best value for their health care dollars. The United States spends 50 percent more per capita than any other country on health care but lags far behind other countries in the health measures of its population. PMID:15853031

  5. Consumer subjectivity and U.S. health care reform.

    PubMed

    West, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Health care consumerism is an important frame in U.S. health care policy, especially in recent media and policy discourse about federal health care reform. This article reports on qualitative fieldwork with health care users to find out how people interpret and make sense of the identity of "health care consumer." It proposes that while the term consumer is normally understood as a descriptive label for users who purchase health care and insurance services, it should actually be understood as a metaphor, carrying with it a host of associations that shape U.S. health care policy debates in particular ways. Based on interviews with 36 people, patient was the dominant term people used to describe themselves, but consumer was the second most popular. Informants interpreted the health care consumer as being informed, proactive, and having choices, but there were also "semiotic traps," or difficult-to-resolve tensions for this identity. The discourse of consumerism functions in part as code for individual responsibility, and therefore as a classed moral discourse, with implications for U.S. health care policy. PMID:23631595

  6. Mental health services--the user's view.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, P

    1993-01-01

    The needs of people with serious mental illnesses have dominated much of the debate on reforming community care. In this article Peter Campbell, who has used mental health services many times in the past, explains how the reforms could affect people like him. He welcomes the thinking behind the changes, particularly the idea that people who use community care should take part in planning services, but he warns that implementing the new philosophy might prove very difficult. Mr Campbell is secretary of a voluntary organisation for users of mental health services called Survivors Speak Out. The views he expresses here are his own, and do not necessarily reflect those of Survivors Speak Out. Images p849-a p850-a PMID:8490382

  7. Payment reform and changes in health care in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chen; Xu, Fei; Liu, Gordon G

    2014-06-01

    This paper is intended to assess the primary effects on cost, utilization and quality of care from payment reform of capitation and open enrollment in Changde city, Hunan Province of China. Open enrollment policy was introduced to deal with possible cream skimming associated with capitation. Based on the longitudinal Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) Household Survey, this study analyses the URBMI data through a set of regression models. The original data included over five thousand inpatient admissions during the study period between 2008 and 2010. The study finds the payment reform to reduce its inpatient out-of-pocket cost by 19.7%, out-of-pocket ratio by 9.5%, and length of stay by 17.7%. However, the total inpatient cost, drug cost ratio, treatment effect, and patient satisfaction showed little difference between Fee-For-Service and capitation models. We conclude that the payment reform in Changde did not reduce overall inpatient expenditure, but it decreased the financial risk and length of stay of inpatient patients without compromising quality of care. The findings would contribute to the health care payment literatures from developing countries and open further research tracks on the ability of open enrollment to compensate for capitation drawbacks. PMID:24735721

  8. Patients' rights to care under Clinton's Health Security Act: the structure of reform.

    PubMed Central

    Mariner, W K

    1994-01-01

    Like most reform proposals, President Clinton's proposed Health Security Act offers universal access to care but does not significantly alter the nature of patients' legal rights to services. The act would create a system of delegated federal regulation in which the states would act like federal administrative agencies to carry out reform. To achieve uniform, universal coverage, the act would establish a form of mandatory health insurance, with federal law controlling the minimum services to which everyone would be entitled. Because there is no constitutionally protected right to health care and no independent constitutional standard for judging what insurance benefits are appropriate, the federal government would retain considerable freedom to decide what services would and would not be covered. If specific benefits are necessary for patients, they will have to be stated in the legislation that produces reform. PMID:8059899

  9. Patients' rights to care under Clinton's Health Security Act: the structure of reform.

    PubMed

    Mariner, W K

    1994-08-01

    Like most reform proposals, President Clinton's proposed Health Security Act offers universal access to care but does not significantly alter the nature of patients' legal rights to services. The act would create a system of delegated federal regulation in which the states would act like federal administrative agencies to carry out reform. To achieve uniform, universal coverage, the act would establish a form of mandatory health insurance, with federal law controlling the minimum services to which everyone would be entitled. Because there is no constitutionally protected right to health care and no independent constitutional standard for judging what insurance benefits are appropriate, the federal government would retain considerable freedom to decide what services would and would not be covered. If specific benefits are necessary for patients, they will have to be stated in the legislation that produces reform. PMID:8059899

  10. Telemental health: responding to mandates for reform in primary healthcare.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kathleen M; Lieberman, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Telemental health (TMH) has established a niche as a feasible, acceptable, and effective service model to improve the mental healthcare and outcomes for individuals who cannot access traditional mental health services. The Accountability Care Act has mandated reforms in the structure, functioning, and financing of primary care that provide an opportunity for TMH to move into the mainstream healthcare system. By partnering with the Integrated Behavioral Healthcare Model, TMH offers a spectrum of tools to unite primary care physicians and mental health specialist in a mind-body view of patients' healthcare needs and to activate patients in their own care. TMH tools include video-teleconferencing to telecommute mental health specialists to the primary care setting to collaborate with a team in caring for patients' mental healthcare needs and to provide direct services to patients who are not progressing optimally with this collaborative model. Asynchronous tools include online therapies that offer an efficient first step to treatment for selected disorders such as depression and anxiety. Patients activate themselves in their care through portals that provide access to their healthcare information and Web sites that offer on-demand information and communication with a healthcare team. These synchronous and asynchronous TMH tools may move the site of mental healthcare from the clinic to the home. The evolving role of social media in facilitating communication among patients or with their healthcare team deserves further consideration as a tool to activate patients and provide more personalized care. PMID:23611641

  11. Welfare reform, substance use, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Jayakody, R; Danziger, S; Pollack, H

    2000-08-01

    Reform has transformed traditional entitlement to cash welfare under Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) into a transitional program known as Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF). Because of the new work requirements and the time-limited nature of assistance, policy makers are increasingly confronted with what to do when welfare recipients do not effectively make the transition from welfare to work. Increasingly, the language of public health is being used to determine who is "employable" and who is not. Thus renewed attention is being focused on the individual characteristics of participants themselves, particularly specific diagnoses that might reduce employability. This article focuses on substance abuse and mental health problems among single mothers and examines their relationship to welfare receipt. We analyze data from the 1994 and 1995 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse (NHSDA) and find that 19 percent of welfare recipients meet the criteria for a DSM-III-R (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition revised) psychiatric diagnosis. About the same percentage have used illicit drugs during the previous year. Logistic regression results indicate that mental and behavioral health problems that are significant barriers to self-sufficiency are increasingly important in this era of time-limited benefits. PMID:10979515

  12. Where does the insurance industry stand on health reform today?

    PubMed

    Bodaken, Bruce G

    2008-01-01

    With another national health care debate on the horizon, many assume that health plans will present a major source of opposition to universal coverage and other reforms. But a closer look reveals signs of change. Some plans continue their reflexive opposition to increasing government's role in health care; other plans have stepped forward to advocate meaningful reform. Experience in Massachusetts, California, Minnesota, and elsewhere suggests a clear lesson for policymakers. Sensible proposals and a genuine commitment to cooperation can not only neutralize opposition from a potentially powerful opponent, but can actually bring health plans on board to support coverage mandates, guaranteed issue, and other reforms. PMID:18474954

  13. Colombia and Cuba, contrasting models in Latin America's health sector reform.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Pol; De Ceukelaire, Wim; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    Latin American national health systems were drastically overhauled by the health sector reforms the 1990s. Governments were urged by donors and by the international financial institutions to make major institutional changes, including the separation of purchaser and provider functions and privatization. This article first analyses a striking paradox of the far-reaching reform measures: contrary to what is imposed on public health services, after privatization purchaser and provider functions are reunited. Then we compare two contrasting examples: Colombia, which is internationally promoted as a successful--and radical--example of 'market-oriented' health care reform, and Cuba, which followed a highly 'conservative' path to adapt its public system to the new conditions since the 1990s, going against the model of the international institutions. The Colombian reform has not been able to materialize its promises of universality, improved equity, efficiency and better quality, while Cuban health care remains free, accessible for everybody and of good quality. Finally, we argue that the basic premises of the ongoing health sector reforms in Latin America are not based on the people's needs, but are strongly influenced by the needs of foreign--especially North American--corporations. However, an alternative model of health sector reform, such as the Cuban one, can probably not be pursued without fundamental changes in the economic and political foundations of Latin American societies. PMID:17002735

  14. Policy Capacity for Health Reform: Necessary but Insufficient: Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Adams, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Forest and colleagues have persuasively made the case that policy capacity is a fundamental prerequisite to health reform. They offer a comprehensive life-cycle definition of policy capacity and stress that it involves much more than problem identification and option development. I would like to offer a Canadian perspective. If we define health reform as re-orienting the health system from acute care to prevention and chronic disease management the consensus is that Canada has been unsuccessful in achieving a major transformation of our 14 health systems (one for each province and territory plus the federal government). I argue that 3 additional things are essential to build health policy capacity in a healthcare federation such as Canada: (a) A means of "policy governance" that would promote an approach to cooperative federalism in the health arena; (b) The ability to overcome the "policy inertia" resulting from how Canadian Medicare was implemented and subsequently interpreted; and (c) The ability to entertain a long-range thinking and planning horizon. My assessment indicates that Canada falls short on each of these items, and the prospects for achieving them are not bright. However, hope springs eternal and it will be interesting to see if the July, 2015 report of the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation manages to galvanize national attention and stimulate concerted action. PMID:26673650

  15. Primary care and the maelstrom of health care reform in the United States of America.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, P

    1995-01-01

    Recent reform in the National Health Service has moved general practice towards a more intense market and competition structure. Meanwhile in the United States of America there has been an attempt to modify the free enterprise approach to medical care towards a more socially responsive system. This discussion paper provides a family doctor's perspective of primary care and the maelstrom of health care reform in the USA. The cultural, economic and organizational issues underlying the need for reform are considered in turn, and the current situation with regard to health care provision, medical research, medical education and primary care are outlined. General practitioners in the United Kingdom would do well to pay attention to the effects of market reform occurring in general practice among their American counterparts. PMID:7576850

  16. Consumer Health: Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Jessie Helen

    This book presents a general overview of consumer health, its products and services. Consumer health is defined as those topics dealing with a wise selection of health products and services, agencies concerned with the control of these products and services, evaluation of quackery and health misconceptions, health careers, and health insurance.…

  17. Financing of health care in four Caribbean territories: a comparison with reforms in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rutten, F; Lapré, R; Antonius, R; Dokoui, S; Haqq, E; Roberts, R; Mills, A

    2002-10-01

    This paper considers health care finance in four Caribbean territories and plans for reform in comparison with developments in European countries, to which these territories are historically linked. European health care reforms are aimed at making resource allocation in health care more efficient and more responsive to consumers' demands and preferences. These reforms in Europe have been continuing without appearing to have influenced the developments in the Caribbean very much, except in Martinique. In Trinidad and Tobago current reform entails delegation of responsibility for providing services to four regional health authorities and no purchaser/provider split at the regional or facility level as in the UK has been implemented. In the Bahamas, managed care arrangements are likely to emerge given the proximity of the United States. Recent universal coverage reform in Martinique was aimed at harmonisation of finance by bringing social security and social aid functions together under one management structure and may provide more opportunities for contracting and other initiatives towards greater efficiency. The first priority in Suriname is to restore proper functioning of the current system. Reforms in the four Caribbean territories have a largely administrative character and affect the organisation of the third party role in health care rather than fundamentally changing the relationship between this third party and the various other parties in health care. PMID:12151137

  18. Health sector reforms for 21(st) century healthcare.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Darshan

    2015-01-01

    The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India's health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India's Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21(st) century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India's public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own. PMID:25878456

  19. Health sector reforms for 21st century healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Darshan

    2015-01-01

    The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India's health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India's Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40–70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21st century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India's public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of “integrative healthcare” because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own. PMID:25878456

  20. [Patient-Proposed Health Services].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-01

    The Patient-Proposed Health Services(PPHS)was launched in April 2016. PPHS was proposed by the Council for Regulatory Reform, which was established in January 2013 under the Second Abe Administration. After discussion within the council, PPHS was published in the Japan Revitalization Strategy(2014 revised edition), which was endorsed by the Cabinet on June 24, 2014. PPHS was proposed therein as a new mechanism within the mixed billing system to apply for a combination of treatment not covered by the public health insurance with treatment covered by the insurance. Subsequently, PPHS was submitted for diet deliberations in April and May 2015 and inserted into article 63 of the health insurance act in accordance with "a law for making partial amendments to the National Health Insurance Act, etc., in order to create a sustainable medical insurance system", which was promulgated on May 29, 2015. In this paper I will review the background of the birth of PPHS and discuss its overview. PMID:27306801

  1. Welfare Reform and Health Insurance of Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Neeraj; Kaestner, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) on the health insurance coverage of foreign- and U.S.-born families headed by low-educated women. Data Source Secondary data from the March series of the Current Population Surveys for 1994–2001. Study Design Multivariate regression methods and a pre- and post-test with comparison group research design (difference-in-differences) are used to estimate the effect of welfare reform on the health insurance coverage of low-educated, foreign- and U.S.-born unmarried women and their children. Heterogenous responses by states to create substitute Temporary Aid to Needy Families or Medicaid programs for newly arrived immigrants are used to investigate whether the estimated effect of PRWORA on newly arrived immigrants is related to the actual provisions of the law, or the result of fears engendered by the law. Principal Findings PRWORA increased the proportion of uninsured among low-educated, foreign-born, unmarried women by 9.9–10.7 percentage points. In contrast, the effect of PRWORA on the health insurance coverage of similar U.S.-born women is negligible. PRWORA also increased the proportion of uninsured among foreign-born children living with low-educated, single mothers by 13.5 percentage points. Again, the policy had little effect on the health insurance coverage of the children of U.S.-born, low-educated single mothers. There is some evidence that the fear and uncertainty engendered by the law had an effect on immigrant health insurance coverage. Conclusions This research demonstrates that PRWORA adversely affected the health insurance of low-educated, unmarried, immigrant women and their children. In the case of unmarried women, it may be partly because the jobs that they obtained in response to PRWORA were less likely to provide health insurance. The research also suggests that PRWORA may have engendered fear among immigrants and dampened their

  2. Online Simulation of Health Care Reform: Helping Health Educators Learn and Participate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecklin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Young and healthy undergraduates in health education were not predisposed to learn the complex sprawl of topics in a required course on U.S. Health Care. An online simulation of health care reform was used to encourage student learning about health care and participating in health care reform. Students applied their understanding of high costs,…

  3. Welfare Recipients' Involvement with Child Protective Services after Welfare Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Yunju; Meezan, William; Danziger, Sandra K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study identifies factors associated with child protective services (CPS) involvement among current and former welfare recipients after welfare reform legislation was passed in the US in 1996. Method: Data come from the Women's Employment Study, a longitudinal study of randomly selected welfare recipients living in a Michigan city…

  4. Stakeholder learning for health sector reform in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Simone; Pholsena, Soulivanh; Gao, Jun; Oliveira Cruz, Valeria

    2016-09-01

    Development organizations and academic institutions have expressed the need for increased research to guide the development and implementation of policies to strengthen health systems in low- and middle-income countries. The extent to which evidence-based policies alone can produce changes in health systems remains a point of debate; other factors, such as a country's political climate and the level of actor engagement, have been identified as influential variables in effective policy development and implementation. In response to this debate, this article contends that the success of health sector reform depends largely on policy learning-the degree to which research recommendations saturate a given political environment in order to successfully inform the ideas, opinions and perceived interests of relevant actors. Using a stakeholder analysis approach to analyze the case of health sector reform in Lao PDR, we examine the ways that actors' understanding and interests affect the success of reform-and how attitudes towards reform can be shaped by exposure to policy research and international health policy priorities. The stakeholder analysis was conducted by the WHO during the early stages of health sector reform in Lao PDR, with the purpose of providing the Ministry of Health with concrete recommendations for increasing actor involvement and strengthening stakeholder support. We found that dissemination of research findings to a broad array of actors and the inclusion of diverse stakeholder groups in policy design and implementation increases the probability of a sustainable and successful health sector reform. PMID:27008856

  5. Mental health policy and development in Egypt - integrating mental health into health sector reforms 2001-9

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Following a situation appraisal in 2001, a six year mental health reform programme (Egymen) 2002-7 was initiated by an Egyptian-Finnish bilateral aid project at the request of a former Egyptian minister of health, and the work was incorporated directly into the Ministry of Health and Population from 2007 onwards. This paper describes the aims, methodology and implementation of the mental health reforms and mental health policy in Egypt 2002-2009. Methods A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme which combined situation appraisal to inform planning; establishment of a health sector system for coordination, supervision and training of each level (national, governorate, district and primary care); development workshops; production of toolkits, development of guidelines and standards; encouragement of intersectoral liaison at each level; integration of mental health into health management systems; and dedicated efforts to improve forensic services, rehabilitation services, and child psychiatry services. Results The project has achieved detailed situation appraisal, epidemiological needs assessment, inclusion of mental health into the health sector reform plans, and into the National Package of Essential Health Interventions, mental health masterplan (policy guidelines) to accompany the general health policy, updated Egyptian mental health legislation, Code of Practice, adaptation of the WHO primary care guidelines, primary care training, construction of a quality system of roles and responsibilities, availability of medicines at primary care level, public education about mental health, and a research programme to inform future developments. Intersectoral liaison with education, social welfare, police and prisons at national level is underway, but has not yet been established for governorate and district levels, nor mental health training for police, prison staff and teachers. Conclusions The bilateral collaboration programme initiated a reform programme

  6. Rents From the Essential Health Benefits Mandate of Health Insurance Reform.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2015-01-01

    The essential health benefits mandate constitutes one of the most controversial health care reforms introduced under the U.S. Affordable Care Act of 2010. It bears important theoretical and practical implications for health care risk and insurance management. These essential health benefits are examined in this study from a rent-seeking perspective, particularly in terms of three interrelated questions: Is there an economic rationale for standardized, minimum health care coverage? How is the scope of essential health services and treatments determined? What are the attendant and incidental costs and benefits of such determination/s? Rents offer ample incentives to business interests to expend considerable resources for health care marketing, particularly when policy processes are open to contestation. Welfare losses inevitably arise from these incentives. We rely on five case studies to illustrate why and how rents are created, assigned, extracted, and dissipated in equilibrium. We also demonstrate why rents depend on persuasive marketing and the bargained decisions of regulators and rentiers, as conditioned by the Tullock paradox. Insights on the intertwining issues of consumer choice, health care marketing, and insurance reform are offered by way of conclusion. PMID:26075546

  7. [Regional initiative on health care reform in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Crocco, P; Schroeder, P; Villen, M T; Yen, E

    2000-01-01

    Many countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean are introducing reforms that can profoundly influence how health services are provided and who receives them. Governments in the region identified the need for a network to support health reform by building capacity in analysis and training, both at the Summit of the Americas in 1994 and at the Special Meeting on Health Sector Reform, which was convened in 1995 by an interagency committee of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, and other multilateral and bilateral agencies. In response, in 1997 the Pan American Health Organization and the United States Agency for the International Development launched the Latin America and Caribbean Regional Health Sector Reform Initiative. The Initiative has approximately US$ 10 million in funding through the year 2002 to support activities in Bolivia, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru. Now in its third year of implementation, the Initiative supports regional activities seeking to promote more equitable and effective delivery of basic health services. PMID:11026784

  8. Health reform in Mexico: the promotion of inequality.

    PubMed

    Laurell, A C

    2001-01-01

    The Mexican health reform can be understood only in the context of neoliberal structural adjustment, and it reveals some of the basic characteristics of similar reforms in the Latin American region. The strategy to transform the predominantly public health care system into a market-driven system has been a complex process with a hidden agenda to avoid political resistance. The compulsory social security system is the key sector in opening health care to private insurance companies, health maintenance organizations, and hospital enterprises mainly from abroad. Despite the government's commitment to universal coverage, equity, efficiency, and quality, the empirical data analyzed in this article do not confirm compliance with these objectives. Although an alternative health policy that gradually grants the constitutional right to health would be feasible, the new democratically elected government will continue the previous regressive health reform. PMID:11407172

  9. [The French health care system and its reform].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, S; Motohashi, Y

    1998-10-01

    The French health care system is characterized by its social insurance scheme with universal coverage, freedom of prescription and of location by the doctor, fee-for-service payment by patients, and free choice of doctor by patients, which essentially tends to inflate its health expenditures. Thus, the health expenditures of France has been increasing over the average expenditures of other European countries. Under the principle of autonomy of the social insurance fund, the increase in medical expenditures has been absorbed by a decrease in the reimbursement rate and an increase in the contribution rate of the insured. However, it is no longer possible to cope with this financial crisis by these traditional measures because of the worsening of the unemployment problem. Nowadays, the increase in the contribution rate is regarded as one of the important reasons for the economic stagnation of the French society. In order to cope with this difficult situation, the French government has changed its health policy from the demand side strategy to the supply side strategy. The concrete plan of this policy was presented by Prime Minister Alain Juppé (the Juppé plan). The plan consists of; 1) unification of the medical insurance scheme, 2) establishment of a ceiling on medical expenditures, 3) regionalization of health policy, 4) disclosure of medical information, 5) introduction of medical references, 6) creation of a social protection scheme for the dependent elderly, 7) introduction of an object tax for the social security fund, etc. These subjects have been materializing step by step after many twists and turn. The most important principles of the plan are the transparency of the medical information and the responsibility of each actor within the health system. The French government has conducted a lot of international comparable studies of health systems. According to the results of a series of active and profound discussions, the French government has conducted

  10. 29 CFR 1425.3 - Functions of the Service under title VII of the Civil Service Reform Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Functions of the Service under title VII of the Civil Service Reform Act. 1425.3 Section 1425.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... Service under title VII of the Civil Service Reform Act. (a) The service may provide its assistance in...

  11. Healthcare financing reform in Latvia: switching from social health insurance to NHS and back?

    PubMed

    Mitenbergs, Uldis; Brigis, Girts; Quentin, Wilm

    2014-11-01

    In the 1990s, Latvia aimed at introducing Social Health Insurance (SHI) but later changed to a National Health Service (NHS) type system. The NHS is financed from general taxation, provides coverage to the entire population, and pays for a basic service package purchased from independent public and private providers. In November 2013, the Cabinet of Ministers passed a draft Healthcare Financing Law, aiming at increasing public expenditures on health by introducing Compulsory Health Insurance (CHI) and linking entitlement to health services to the payment of income tax. Opponents of the reform argue that linking entitlement to health services to the payment of income tax does not have the potential to increase public expenditures on health but that it can contribute to compromising universal coverage and access to health services of certain population groups. In view of strong opposition, it is unlikely that the law will be adopted before parliamentary elections in October 2014. Nevertheless, the discussion around the law is interesting because of three main reasons: (1) it can illustrate why the concept of SHI remains attractive - not only for Latvia but also for other countries, (2) it shows that a change from NHS to SHI does not imply major institutional reforms, and (3) it demonstrates the potential problems of introducing SHI, i.e. of linking entitlement to health services to the payment of contributions. PMID:25445111

  12. The Chilean health system: 20 years of reforms.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Annick

    2002-01-01

    The Chilean health care system has been intensively reformed in the past 20 years. Reforms under the Pinochet government (1973-1990) aimed mainly at the decentralization of the system and the development of a private sector. Decentralization involved both a deconcentration process and the devolution of primary health care to municipalities. The democratic governments after 1990 chose to preserve the core organization but introduced reforms intended to correct the system's failures and to increase both efficiency and equity. The present article briefly explains the current organization of the Chilean health care system. It also reviews the different reforms introduced in the past 20 years, from the Pinochet regime to the democratic governments. Finally, a brief discussion describes the strengths and weaknesses of the system, as well as the challenges it currently faces. PMID:11910721

  13. Health Care Reform: How Will It Impact You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaszewski, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the impact of health care reform on child-care centers and child-care employees. Topics covered include requirements to provide health insurance for all employees; subsidies for businesses with fewer than 50 employees; subsidies for low income employees; family coverage; health are costs for 2 working parents; and costs to day-care…

  14. Universalizing health services in India: the techno-managerial fix.

    PubMed

    Nayar, K R

    2013-01-01

    The non-universal nature of health services in India can also be the result of many reforms and milestones the health services had passed through since independence. The reform era during the post-nineties is replete with many new trends in organizational strategies which could have led to crises in health services. The salient crises need to be dissected from a larger societal crisis and the specific crises in the health services system. It is evident that non-accessibility and non-availability and the sub-optimal functioning of the primary health centers are perennial issues which could not be addressed by indigenous, imposed or cocktail reforms (such as National Rural Health Mission) and by targeting as these only tinker with the health services. Needless to reiterate that there is a need to address the social dimensions which fall outside the technical sphere of health services. This paper based on an analytical review of relevant literature concludes that any efforts to universalize health and health-care can not only focus on technical components but need to address the larger social determinants and especially the societal crisis, which engender ill-health. PMID:24351387

  15. Mental health reform, economic globalization and the practice of citizenship.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Marina

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on research conducted in British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec it is argued that tension exists between mental health reforms born out of concern for the well-being and care of people and those that are being driven by cost-containment and efficiency. Contributing to this tension are competing discourses about mental health and mental illness. It is argued that progressive change requires the meaningful engagement of mental health care recipients in policy decision-making processes and ongoing analysis about the interconnections between economic globalization, social welfare state restructuring and mental health reform. PMID:16138645

  16. The influence of health sector reform and external assistance in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bodart, C; Servais, G; Mohamed, Y L; Schmidt-Ehry, B

    2001-03-01

    Despite health reform and increasing public investment in the health sector, utilization of curative health services, immunization coverage and patient satisfaction with the public health care system are steadily decreasing in Burkina Faso. It seems that the health care system itself is "ill". This paper examines the major symptoms associated with this illness. The central thesis suggests that any further improvement of health care performance in Burkina Faso will be subject to profound central reform in the area of human resources and financial management of the sector. Such a broad reform package cannot be achieved through the current project approach, but a sector-wide approach (SWAp) does not seem to be realistic at the present time. Policy discussions at a level higher than the Ministry of Health could be beneficial for achieving better donor coordination and increasing the commitment of the Ministry of Health to a sector-wide approach. Health sector reform issues and priorities and the role of international cooperation are reviewed and discussed. PMID:11238434

  17. The reorientation of market-oriented reforms in Swedish health-care.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M I; Calltorp, J

    2000-01-01

    Sweden was an important pioneer of market-oriented reform in publicly funded health-care systems. Yet by the mid-1990s the county councils, which fund and manage most health-care, had substantially scaled back reforms based on provider competition while continuing to constrain health budgets. As policy makers faced new issues, they turned increasingly to longer-term and more cooperative contracts to define relations between hospitals and the county councils. Growing regionalization of government and hospital mergers further reconfigured acute care and limited opportunities for competition between hospitals. We seek to explain this reorientation of market-oriented reforms between 1989 and 1996 in terms of shifts in the positions taken by powerful policy actors, and in particular by county council politicians. During this period, elections moved liberal and conservative politicians, who were the most enthusiastic supporters of market-oriented reform, in and out of control of most county governments. Meanwhile many Social Democratic politicians gradually turned from initial support of competitive reform toward opposition. Politicians and county administrators from all parties were particularly concerned about controlling health expenditures during a period of recession. In addition, the public, politicians in the counties and municipalities, and health professionals resisted steps that threatened health sector employment and would have allowed market mechanisms, rather than governments, to determine the prices and distribution of health services. During the years under study Sweden's market-oriented reforms followed a course of development similar to that taken by other management and policy fashions (Abrahamson E. Management fashion, Academy of Management Review 1996;21: 254-85). At first the reforms enjoyed uncritical support by a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Gradually participants in the reform process recognized inherent tensions among the goals of the reform

  18. Health reform in Canada: Enabling perspectives for health leadership.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Graham

    2016-03-01

    Canadian healthcare leaders are experiencing unprecedented change. In Canada and worldwide, efforts are being made to create patient-centred service delivery models. In order to participate fully in that transformation, leaders must embrace the new leadership responsibilities vital to patient-centred change. To fail to do so will marginalize their role or render them irrelevant. This article reviews literature in the past 5 years to outline the change context for leaders and what they can do to enhance their effectiveness. Leaders are encouraged to redouble their efforts to develop their leadership capacity, engage physicians as partners, embrace complexity, engage the patient and public in reform efforts, and embrace appropriate technological trends within the consumer community. To reinvent leadership supportive of patient-centred change, healthcare leaders need to act individually to grow their own capacity and collectively to take control of the leadership needed in order to fulfill their role in change. PMID:26872798

  19. Health Occupations Education. Health Services Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    Twenty-four units on health service careers are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are organized into four sections as follow: Section A--Orientation (health careers, career success, Health Occupations Students of America); Section B--Health and First Aid (personal health, community health, and first aid); Section C--Body Structure and…

  20. (Re)form with substance? Restructuring and governance in the Australian health system 2004/05.

    PubMed

    Rix, Mark; Owen, Alan; Eagar, Kathy

    2005-08-24

    The Australian health system has been the subject of multiple reviews and reorganisations over the last twenty years or more. The year 2004-2005 was no different. This paper reviews the reforms, (re)structures and governance arrangements in place at both the national and state/territory levels in the last year. At the national level some progress has been made in 2004/05 through the Australian Health Ministers' Council and there is now a national health reform agenda, albeit not a comprehensive one, endorsed by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) in June 2005. Quality and safety was an increasing focus in 2004-2005 at both the national and jurisdictional levels, as was the need for workforce reform. Although renewed policy attention was given to the need to better integrate and coordinate health care, there is little evidence of any real progress this last year. More progress was made on a national approach to workforce reform. At the jurisdictional level, the usual rounds of reviews and restructuring occurred in several jurisdictions and, in 2005, they are organisationally very different from each other. The structure and effectiveness of jurisdictional health authorities are now more important. All health authorities are being expected to drive an ambitious set of national and local reforms. At the same time, most have now blurred the boundary between policy and service delivery and are devoting significant resources to centrally 'crisis managing' their service systems. These same reasons led to decentralisation in previous restructuring cycles. While there were many changes in 2004-2005, and a new national report to COAG on health reform is expected at the end of 2005, based on current evidence there is little room for optimism about the prospects for real progress. PMID:16120207

  1. The Impacts of State Health Reform Initiatives on Adults in New York and Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Long, Sharon K; Stockley, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effects of health reform efforts in two large states—New York and Massachusetts. Data Sources/Study Setting National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data from 1999 to 2008. Study Design We take advantage of the “natural experiments” that occurred in New York and Massachusetts to compare health insurance coverage and health care access and use for adults before and after the implementation of the health policy changes. To control for underlying trends not related to the reform initiatives, we subtract changes in the outcomes over the same time period for comparison groups of adults who were not affected by the policy changes using a differences-in-differences framework. The analyses are conducted using multiple comparison groups and different time periods as a check on the robustness of the findings. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Nonelderly adults ages 19–64 in the NHIS. Principal Findings We find evidence of the success of the initiatives in New York and Massachusetts at expanding insurance coverage, with the greatest gains reported by the initiative that was broadest in scope—the Massachusetts push toward universal coverage. There is no evidence of improvements in access to care in New York, reflecting the small gains in coverage under that state's reform effort and the narrow focus of the initiative. In contrast, there were significant gains in access to care in Massachusetts, where the impact on insurance coverage was greater and a more comprehensive set of reforms were implemented to improve access to a full array of health care services. The estimated gains in coverage and access to care reported here for Massachusetts were achieved in the early period under health reform, before the state's reform initiative was fully implemented. Conclusions Comprehensive reform initiatives are more successful at addressing gaps in coverage and access to care than are narrower efforts, highlighting the potential gains under national

  2. Reforming sanitary-epidemiological service in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Public health services in the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe were delivered through centrally planned and managed networks of sanitary-epidemiological (san-epid) facilities. Many countries sought to reform this service following the political transition in the 1990s. In this paper we describe the major themes within these reforms. Methods A review of literature was conducted. A conceptual framework was developed to guide the review, which focused on the two traditional core public health functions of the san-epid system: communicable disease surveillance, prevention and control and environmental health. The review included twenty-two former communist countries in the former Soviet Union (fSU) and in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Results The countries studied fall into two broad groups. Reforms were more extensive in the CEE countries than in the fSU. The CEE countries have moved away from the former centrally managed san-epid system, adopting a variety of models of decentralization. The reformed systems remain mainly funded centrally level, but in some countries there are contributions by local government. In almost all countries, epidemiological surveillance and environmental monitoring remained together under a single organizational umbrella but in a few responsibilities for environmental health have been divided among different ministries. Conclusions Progress in reform of public health services has varied considerably. There is considerable scope to learn from the differing experiences but also a need for rigorous evaluation of how public health functions are provided. PMID:20663198

  3. Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2003-01-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:12511390

  4. Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2008-01-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:18687625

  5. Final report of the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission: will we get the health care governance reform we need?

    PubMed

    Stoelwinder, Johannes U

    2009-10-01

    The National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission (NHHRC) has recommended that Australia develop a "single health system", governed by the federal government. Steps to achieving this include: a "Healthy Australia Accord" to agree on the reform framework; the progressive takeover of funding of public hospitals by the federal government; and the possible implementation of a consumer-choice health funding model, called "Medicare Select". These proposals face significant implementation issues, and the final solution needs to deal with both financial and political sustainability. If the federal and state governments cannot agree on a reform plan, the Prime Minister may need to go to the electorate for a mandate, which may be shaped by other economic issues such as tax reform and intergenerational challenges. PMID:19807630

  6. Implementing Family Health Nursing in Tajikistan: from policy to practice in primary health care reform.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, Barbara Ann; Cornish, Flora

    2007-10-01

    The health systems of former Soviet Union countries are undergoing reform away from the highly centralised, resource-intensive, specialised and hierarchical Soviet system, towards a more generalist, efficient health service with greater focus on primary health care. Family Health Nursing is a new model designed by WHO Europe in which skilled generalist community nurses deliver primary health care to local communities. This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of the implementation of Family Health Nursing in Tajikistan. Using Stufflebeam's 'Context, Input, Process, and Product' model, the paper aims to evaluate the progress of this reform, and to understand the factors that help or hinder its implementation. A four-phase research design investigates the development of the Family Health Nurse role over time. In 5 rural areas, 6 focus groups and 18 interviews with Family Health Nurses, 4 observations of their practice, 7 interviews with families and 9 interviews with physicians were carried out. Data were analysed according to the components of Stufflebeam's model. Although the legacy of the Soviet health system did not set a precedent for a nurse who is capable of decision-making and who works in partnership with the physician, Family Health Nurses were successfully implementing new practices. Crucial to their ability to do so were the co-operation of physicians and families. Physicians were impressed by the nurses' development of knowledge, and families were impressed that the nurses could offer real solutions to their problems. However, failure to pay the nurses regular salaries had led to serious attrition of the workforce. We conclude that the success of the Family Health Nurse role in other countries will depend upon its position in relation to the historical health care system. PMID:17651876

  7. Implications of health reform for retiree health benefits.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This Issue Brief examines how current health reform legislation being debated in Congress will impact the future of retiree health benefits. In general, the proposals' provisions will have a mixed impact on retiree health benefits: In the short term, the reinsurance provisions would help shore up early retiree coverage and Medicare Part D coverage would become more valuable to retirees. In the longer term, insurance reform combined with new subsidies for individuals enrolling for coverage through insurance exchanges, the maintenance-of-effort provision affecting early retiree benefits, increases to the cost of providing drug benefits to retirees, and enhanced Medicare Part D coverage, would all create significant incentives for employers to drop coverage for early retirees and drug coverage for Medicare-eligible retirees. REINSURANCE PROGRAM FOR EARLY RETIREES: Proposed legislation includes a provision to create a temporary reinsurance program for employers providing health benefits to retirees over age 55 and not yet eligible for Medicare. Given the temporary nature of the program, it is intended to provide employers an incentive to maintain benefits until the health insurance exchange is fully operational. At that point, employers will have less incentive to provide health benefits to early retirees, and retirees will have less need for former employers to maintain a program. MEDICARE DRUG BENEFITS: The House-passed bill would initially reduce the coverage gap (the so-called "doughnut hole") for individuals in the Medicare Part D program by $500 and eliminate it altogether by 2019. The bill currently before the Senate would also reduce the coverage gap by $500, but does not call for eliminating it. Both would also provide a 50 percent discount to brand-name drug coverage in the coverage gap. These provisions increase the value of the Medicare Part D drug program to Medicare-eligible beneficiaries relative to drug benefits provided by employers. TAX TREATMENT OF

  8. Regulatory system reform of occupational health and safety in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fenghong; Chi, Yan

    2015-01-01

    With the explosive economic growth and social development, China's regulatory system of occupational health and safety now faces more and more challenges. This article reviews the history of regulatory system of occupational health and safety in China, as well as the current reform of this regulatory system in the country. Comprehensive, a range of laws, regulations and standards that promulgated by Chinese government, duties and responsibilities of the regulatory departments are described. Problems of current regulatory system, the ongoing adjustments and changes for modifying and improving regulatory system are discussed. The aim of reform and the incentives to drive forward more health and safety conditions in workplaces are also outlined. PMID:25843565

  9. Health system reform and the role of field sites based upon demographic and health surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Tollman, S. M.; Zwi, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    Field sites for demographic and health surveillance have made well-recognized contributions to the evaluation of new or untested interventions, largely through efficacy trials involving new technologies or the delivery of selected services, e.g. vaccines, oral rehydration therapy and alternative contraceptive methods. Their role in health system reform, whether national or international, has, however, proved considerably more limited. The present article explores the characteristics and defining features of such field sites in low-income and middle-income countries and argues that many currently active sites have a largely untapped potential for contributing substantially to national and subnational health development. Since the populations covered by these sites often correspond with the boundaries of districts or subdistricts, the strategic use of information generated by demographic surveillance can inform the decentralization efforts of national and provincial health authorities. Among the areas of particular importance are the following: making population-based information available and providing an information resource; evaluating programmes and interventions; and developing applications to policy and practice. The question is posed as to whether their potential contribution to health system reform justifies arguing for adaptations to these field sites and expanded investment in them. PMID:10686747

  10. Strategic service quality management for health care.

    PubMed

    Anderson, E A; Zwelling, L A

    1996-01-01

    Quality management has become one of the most important and most debated topics within the service sector. This is especially true for health care, as the controversy rages on how the existing American system should be restructured. Health care reform aimed at reducing costs and ensuring access to all Americans cannot be allowed to jeopardize the quality of care. As such, total quality management (TQM) has become a vital ingredient to strategic planning within the health care domain. At the heart of any such quality improvement effort is the issue of measurement. TQM cannot be effectively utilized as a competitive weapon unless quality can be accurately defined, measured, evaluated, and monitored over time. Through such analysis a hospital can elect how to expend its limited resources toward those quality improvement projects which will impact customer perceptions of service quality the most. Thus, the purpose of this report is to establish a framework by which to approach the issue of quality measurement, delineate the various components of quality that exist in health care, and explore how these elements affect one another. We propose that the issue of quality measurement in health care be approached as an integration of service quality attributes common to other service organizations and technical quality attributes unique to health care. We hope that this research will serve as a first step toward the synthesis of the various quality attributes inherent in the health care domain and encourage other researchers to address the interactions of the various quality attributes. PMID:8763215

  11. Report on Children's Mental Health Reform in Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petr, Christopher G.; Pierpont, John

    This study, which collected data through interviews and document review, was designed to identify strengths and weaknesses of Minnesota's Comprehensive Children's Mental Health Act (CCMHA) of 1989 and its implementation through December 1990. Three criteria for mental health reform were established for the study, including: care should be…

  12. Health Care Reform: Designing the Standard Benefits Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Frank B.

    1994-01-01

    Considerations in designing a standard health care benefits package as a part of national health care reform are discussed. Specific features examined include deductibles, employer contributions, regional variations, cost management techniques such as managed care and higher copayments, annual out-of-pocket maximums, and lifetime benefit maximums.…

  13. Benefits for Infants and Toddlers in Health Care Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Routine health care can spell the difference between a strong beginning and a fragile start. After much public and Congressional debate, President Obama signed into law landmark health care reform legislation. Although many provisions will not go into effect this year, several important changes could benefit children within a few months. The…

  14. Reform, change, and continuity in Finnish health care.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Unto; Lehto, Juhani

    2005-01-01

    This article describes some essential aspects of the Finnish political and governmental system and the evolution of the basic institutional elements of the health care system. We examine the developments that gave rise to a series of health care reforms and reform proposals in the late 1980s and early 1990s and relate them to changes in health care expenditure, structure, and performance. Finally, we discuss the relationship between policy changes, reforms, and health system changes and the strength of neo-institutional theory in explaining both continuity and change. Much of the change in Finnish health care can be explained by institutional path dependency. The tradition of strong but small local authorities and the lack of legitimate democratic regional authorities as well as the coexistence of a dominant Beveridge-style health system with a marginal Bismarckian element explain the specific path of Finnish health care reform. Public responsibility for health care has been decentralized to smaller local authorities (known as municipalities) more than in any other country. Even an exceptionally deep economic recession in the early 1990s did not lead to systems change; rather, the economic imperative was met by the traditional centralized policy pattern. Some of the developments of the 1990s are, however, difficult to explain by institutional theory. Thus, there is a need for testing alternative theories as well. PMID:15943388

  15. Health-care reforms in the People's Republic of China--strategies and social implications.

    PubMed

    Wong, V C; Chiu, S W

    1998-01-01

    Analyses the features, strategies and characteristics of health-care reforms in the People's Republic of China. Since the 14th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party held in 1992, an emphasis has been placed on reform strategies such as cost recovery, profit making, diversification of services, and development of alternative financing strategies in respect of health-care services provided in the public sector. Argues that the reform strategies employed have created new problems before solving the old ones. Inflation of medical cost has been elevated very rapidly. The de-linkage of state finance bureau and health service providers has also contributed to the transfer of tension from the state to the enterprises. There is no sign that quasi-public health-care insurance is able to resolve these problems. Finally, cooperative medicine in the rural areas has been largely dismantled, though this direction is going against the will of the state. Argues that a new balance of responsibility has to be developed as a top social priority between the state, enterprises and service users in China in order to meet the health-care needs of the people. PMID:10351255

  16. Costs and coverage. Pressures toward health care reform.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, P R; Soffel, D; Luft, H S

    1992-01-01

    Signs of discontent with the health care system are growing. Calls for health care reform are largely motivated by the continued increase in health care costs and the large number of people without adequate health insurance. For the past 20 years, health care spending has risen at rates higher than the gross national product. As many as 35 million people are without health insurance. As proposals for health care reform are developed, it is useful to understand the roots of the cost problem. Causes of spiraling health care costs include "market failure" in the health care market, expansion in technology, excessive administrative costs, unnecessary care and defensive medicine, increased patient complexity, excess capacity within the health care system, and low productivity. Attempts to control costs, by the federal government for the Medicare program and then by the private sector, have to date been mostly unsuccessful. New proposals for health care reform are proliferating, and important changes in the health care system are likely. PMID:1441510

  17. Experiences and Lessons from Urban Health Insurance Reform in China.

    PubMed

    Xin, Haichang

    2016-08-01

    Health care systems often face competing goals and priorities, which make reforms challenging. This study analyzed factors influencing the success of a health care system based on urban health insurance reform evolution in China, and offers recommendations for improvement. Findings based on health insurance reform strategies and mechanisms that did or did not work can effectively inform improvement of health insurance system design and practice, and overall health care system performance, including equity, efficiency, effectiveness, cost, finance, access, and coverage, both in China and other countries. This study is the first to use historical comparison to examine the success and failure of China's health care system over time before and after the economic reform in the 1980s. This study is also among the first to analyze the determinants of Chinese health system effectiveness by relating its performance to both technical reasons within the health system and underlying nontechnical characteristics outside the health system, including socioeconomics, politics, culture, values, and beliefs. In conclusion, a health insurance system is successful when it fits its social environment, economic framework, and cultural context, which translates to congruent health care policies, strategies, organization, and delivery. No health system can survive without its deeply rooted socioeconomic environment and cultural context. That is why one society should be cautious not to radically switch from a successful model to an entirely different one over time. There is no perfect health system model suitable for every population-only appropriate ones for specific nations and specific populations at the right place and right time. (Population Health Management 2016;19:291-297). PMID:26565614

  18. Economic crisis and counter-reform of universal health care systems: Spanish case.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Paulo Antônio de Carvalho; Carvalho, Regina Ribeiro Parizi; Louvison, Marília Cristina Prado

    2015-01-01

    The economic crisis that has been affecting Europe in the 21st century has modified social protection systems in the countries that adopted, in the 20th century, universal health care system models, such as Spain. This communication presents some recent transformations, which were caused by changes in Spanish law. Those changes relate to the access to health care services, mainly in regards to the provision of care to foreigners, to financial contribution from users for health care services, and to pharmaceutical assistance. In crisis situations, reforms are observed to follow a trend which restricts rights and deepens social inequalities. PMID:26083942

  19. Economic crisis and counter-reform of universal health care systems: Spanish case

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, Paulo Antônio de Carvalho; Carvalho, Regina Ribeiro Parizi; Louvison, Marília Cristina Prado

    2015-01-01

    The economic crisis that has been affecting Europe in the 21st century has modified social protection systems in the countries that adopted, in the 20th century, universal health care system models, such as Spain. This communication presents some recent transformations, which were caused by changes in Spanish law. Those changes relate to the access to health care services, mainly in regards to the provision of care to foreigners, to financial contribution from users for health care services, and to pharmaceutical assistance. In crisis situations, reforms are observed to follow a trend which restricts rights and deepens social inequalities. PMID:26083942

  20. Stepwise expansion of evidence-based care is needed for mental health reform.

    PubMed

    McGorry, Patrick D; Hamilton, Matthew P

    2016-05-16

    Mortality from mental illnesses is increasing and, because they frequently occur early in the life cycle, they are the largest source of disability and reduced economic productivity of all non-communicable diseases. Successful mental health reform can reduce the mortality, morbidity, growing welfare costs and losses in economic productivity caused by mental illness. The government has largely adopted the recommendations of the National Mental Health Commission focusing on early intervention and stepwise care and will implement a reform plan that involves devolving commissioning of federally funded mental health services to primary health networks, along with a greater emphasis on e-mental health. Stepwise expanded investment in and structural support (data collection, evaluation, model fidelity, workforce training) for evidence-based care that rectifies high levels of undertreatment are essential for these reforms to succeed. However, the reforms are currently constrained by a cost-containment policy framework that envisages no additional funding. The early intervention reform aim requires financing for the next stage of development of Australia's youth mental health system, rather than redirecting funds from existing evidence-based programs. People with complex, enduring mental disorders need more comprehensive care. In the context of the National Disability Insurance Scheme, there is a risk that these already seriously underserved patients may paradoxically receive a reduction in coverage. E-health has a key role to play at all stages of illness but must be integrated in a complementary way, rather than as a barrier to access. Research and evaluation are the keys to cost-effective, sustainable reform. PMID:27169969

  1. Diffusion of complex health innovations--implementation of primary health care reforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat A; Kyratsis, Ioannis; Jelic, Gordan; Rados-Malicbegovic, Drazenka; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek

    2007-01-01

    H, policies or the innovation are not simply disseminated, but rather assimilated into the health system. The assimilation and implementation of the new PHC model relied on the consensus of a diverse group of adopters; the changes brought by the reforms were aligned with the expectations of the adopters: this created a 'receptive context' for adoption and diffusion of the innovation. The new family-medicine-centred PHC service model had a major impact on professional identity, inter-professional relationships and organizational routines. The post-conflict context was perceived as an opportunity to introduce the new model and implement transformational change, while the complex government structure meant the process of diffusion was as important as the innovation itself. In BiH, a holistic approach-comprising multifaceted and simultaneous interventions at multiple levels of the health system-reduced 'policy resistance' and enhanced the adoption and diffusion of the PHC reforms. PMID:17237492

  2. New Zealand's mental health legislation needs reform to avoid discrimination.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sarah E; O'Brien, Anthony

    2014-09-26

    New Zealand's Mental Health (Compulsory Assessment and Treatment) Act (the Act) is now over 20 years old. As has occurred historically our conceptualisation of humane treatment of people with mental illness has altered significantly over the period in which the Act has been in force. The emergence of the philosophy of recovery, and its subsequent policy endorsement, has seen a significant shift in mental health service delivery towards a greater emphasis on autonomy. Human rights developments such as New Zealand's ratification of the 2006 United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities have resulted in compulsory treatment, where it is justified in whole or part by a person's mental illness, now being considered antithetical to best practice, and discriminatory. However the number of people subject to the Act is increasing, especially in community settings, and it is questionable how effective the mechanisms for challenging compulsion are in practice. Moreover, monitoring of the situation at the systemic level lacks critical analysis. Complacency, including no indication that review and reform of this now antiquated legislation is nigh, continues a pattern of old where the situation of people with experience of mental illness is largely ignored and neglected. PMID:25290499

  3. Agents of Change for Health Care Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Larry M.

    2007-01-01

    It is widely recognized throughout the health care industry that the United States leads the world in health care spending per capita. However, the chilling dose of reality for American health care consumers is that for all of their spending, the World Health Organization ranks the country's health care system 37th in overall performance--right…

  4. Health Care Reform Tracking Project: Tracking State Health Care Reforms as They Affect Children and Adolescents with Emotional Disorders and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Sheila A.; Stroul, Beth A.

    The Health Care Reform Tracking Project is a 5-year national project to track and analyze state health care reform initiatives as they affect children and adolescents with emotional/behavioral disorders and their families. The study's first phase was a baseline survey of all 50 states to describe current state reforms as of 1995. Among findings of…

  5. [The basic network of health services: physicians and their representation regarding the service].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, M de S; Campos, G W; Merhy, E E

    1992-02-01

    This article aims to analyse the representations of doctors of public sector in Campinas, SP, Brazil, taking as reference the process of decentralization which the health reform being undertaken in Brazil is undergoing. It is assumed that the success of this reform will depend largely on the attitude that these doctors show towards its various aspects. The following subjects were then focused on: the policies and management of the health services, the health-disease process, the doctor-patient relationship and labour process as it affects the health team. PMID:1307419

  6. Reforms in Pakistan: Decisive Times for Improving Maternal and Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Mazhar, Arslan; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan is a struggling economy with poor maternal and child health indicators that have affected attainment of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 (under-five child and maternal mortality). Recent health reforms have abolished the federal Ministry of Health and devolved administrative and financial powers to the provinces. Ideally, devolution tends to simplify a healthcare system's management structure and ensure more efficient delivery of health services to underserved populations, in this case women and children. In this time of transition, it is appropriate to outline prerequisites for the efficient management of maternal and child health (MCH) services. This paper examines the six building blocks of health systems in order to improve the utilization of MCH services in rural Pakistan. The targeted outcomes of recent reforms are devolved participatory decision-making regarding distribution of MCH-related services, improved deployment of the healthcare workforce, prioritization of pro-poor strategies for health financing and integration of various health information systems. Given this window of opportunity, the provinces need to guarantee fairness and equity through their stewardship of the healthcare system so as to protect vulnerable mothers and their children, especially in rural, remote and disadvantaged areas of Pakistan. PMID:23968601

  7. The Implementation of the Full Service School Reform Model and Its Impact on Middle School Climate and Student Achievement: An Investigative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joseph Hamilton

    2012-01-01

    The Full Service Schools (FSS) reform model is an inter-agency collaboration between the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS), Choices, Inc., Insights Education Group and the DC Department of Mental Health. This comprehensive school reform model is based in the Response to Intervention paradigm and is designed to mitigate student academic…

  8. Attitudes of Washington State physicians toward health care reform.

    PubMed Central

    Malter, A D; Emerson, L L; Krieger, J W

    1994-01-01

    Attitudes of Washington State physicians about health care reform and about specific elements of managed competition and single-payer proposals were evaluated. Opinions about President Clinton's reform plan were also assessed. Washington physicians (n = 1,000) were surveyed from October to November 1993, and responses were collected through January 1994; responses were anonymous. The response rate was 80%. Practice characteristics of respondents did not differ from other physicians in the state. Of physicians responding, 80% favored substantial change in the current system, 43% favored managed competition, and 40% preferred a single-payer system. Of physicians responding, 64% thought President Clinton's proposal would not adequately address current problems. Reduced administrative burden, a central element of single-payer plans, was identified by 89% of respondents as likely to improve the current system. Other elements of reform plans enjoyed less support. More procedure-oriented specialists than primary care physicians favored leaving the current system unchanged (28% versus 8%, P < .001). While physicians favor health care reform, there is no consensus on any single plan. It seems unlikely that physicians will be able to speak with a single voice during the current debates on health care reform. PMID:7941503

  9. Exploring limits to market-based reform: managed competition and rehabilitation home care services in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Randall, Glen E; Williams, A Paul

    2006-04-01

    The rise of neo-liberalism, which suggests that only markets can deliver maximum economic efficiency, has been a driving force behind the trend towards using market-based solutions to correct health care problems. However, the broad application of market-based reforms has tended to assume the presence of fully functioning markets. When there are barriers to markets functioning effectively, such as the absence of adequate competition, recourse to market-based solutions can be expected to produce less than satisfactory, if not paradoxical results. One such case is rehabilitation homecare in Ontario, Canada. In 1996, a "managed competition" model was introduced as part of a province-wide reform of home care in an attempt to encourage high quality at competitive prices. However, in the case of rehabilitation home care services, significant obstacles to achieving effective competition existed. Notably, there were few private provider agencies to bid on contracts due to the low volume and specialized nature of services. There were also structural barriers such as the presence of unionized employees and obstacles to the entry of new providers. This paper evaluates the impact of Ontario's managed competition reform on community-based rehabilitation services. It draws on data obtained through 49 in-depth key informant interviews and a telephone survey of home care coordinating agencies and private rehabilitation provider agencies. Instead of reducing costs and improving quality, as the political rhetoric promised, the analysis suggests that providing rehabilitation homecare services under managed competition resulted in higher per-visit costs and reduced access to services. These findings support the contention that there are limits to market-based reforms. PMID:16198035

  10. Addressing the epidemiologic transition in the former Soviet Union: strategies for health system and public health reform in Russia.

    PubMed Central

    Tulchinsky, T H; Varavikova, E A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This paper reviews Russia's health crisis, financing, and organization and public health reform needs. METHODS. The structure, policy, supply of services, and health status indicators of Russia's health system are examined. RESULTS. Longevity is declining; mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases and trauma are high and rising; maternal and infant mortality are high. Vaccine-preventable diseases have reappeared in epidemic form. Nutrition status is problematic. CONCLUSIONS. The crisis relates to Russia's economic transition, but it also goes deep into the former Soviet health system. The epidemiologic transition from a predominance of infectious to noninfectious diseases was addressed by increasing the quantity of services. The health system lacked mechanisms for epidemiologic or economic analysis and accountability to the public. Policy and funding favored hospitals over ambulatory care and individual routine checkups over community-oriented preventive approaches. Reform since 1991 has centered on national health insurance and decentralized management of services. A national health strategy to address fundamental public health problems is recommended. PMID:8604754

  11. Primary Care Reform and Service Use by People with Serious Mental Illness in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Leah S.; Durbin, Anna; Lin, Elizabeth; Charles Victor, J.; Klein-Geltink, Julie; Glazier, Richard H.; Zagorski, Brandon; Kopp, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine service use by adults with serious mental illness (SMI) rostered in new primary care models: enhanced fee-for-service (FFS), blended-capitation (CAP) and team-based capitation (TBC) models with and without mental health workers (MHW) in Ontario. Methods: This cross-sectional study used administrative health service databases to compare use of mental health and general health services among persons with SMI enrolled in new models (n = 125,233). Results: Relative to persons rostered in enhanced FFS, those in CAP and TBC had fewer mental health primary care visits (adjusted rate ratios and 95% confidence limits: CAP: 0.77 [0.74, 0.81]; TBC with MHW: 0.72 [0.68, 0.76]; TBC with no MHW: 0.81 [0.72, 0.93]). Compared to patients in enhanced FFS, those in TBC models also had more mental health hospital admissions (TBC with MHW: 1.12 [1.05, 1.20]; TBC with no MHW: 1.22 [1.05, 1.41]). Patterns of use of general services were similar. Conclusion: Further attention to financial incentives in capitation that influence care of persons with SMI is necessary to determine if they are aligned with aims of primary care reform. PMID:25410694

  12. HealthPathways: creating a pathway for health systems reform.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Suzanne; Varhol, Richard; Bell, Colin; Quirk, Frances; Durrington, Learne

    2015-02-01

    Inefficiencies in the co-ordination and integration of primary and secondary care services in Australia, have led to increases in waiting times, unnecessary presentations to emergency departments and issues around poor discharge of patients. HealthPathways is a program developed in Canterbury, New Zealand, that builds relationships between General Practitioners and Specialists and uses information technology so that efficiency is maximised and the right patient is given the right care at the right time. Healthpathways is being implemented by a number of Medicare Locals across Australia however, little is known about the impact HealthPathways may have in Australia. This article provides a short description of HealthPathways and considers what it may offer in the Australian context and some of the barriers and facilitators to implementation. PMID:25433515

  13. The financial crisis and health care systems in Europe: universal care under threat? Trends in health sector reforms in Germany, the United Kingdom, and Spain.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, Lígia; Stegmüller, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    The paper analyzes trends in contemporary health sector reforms in three European countries with Bismarckian and Beveridgean models of national health systems within the context of strong financial pressure resulting from the economic crisis (2008-date), and proceeds to discuss the implications for universal care. The authors examine recent health system reforms in Spain, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Health systems are described using a matrix to compare state intervention in financing, regulation, organization, and services delivery. The reforms' impacts on universal care are examined in three dimensions: breadth of population coverage, depth of the services package, and height of coverage by public financing. Models of health protection, institutionality, stakeholder constellations, and differing positions in the European economy are factors that condition the repercussions of restrictive policies that have undermined universality to different degrees in the three dimensions specified above and have extended policies for regulated competition as well as commercialization in health care systems. PMID:25493982

  14. Do health sector reforms have their intended impacts? The World Bank's Health VIII project in Gansu province, China.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Adam; Yu, Shengchao

    2007-05-01

    This paper combines differences-in-differences with propensity score matching to estimate the impacts of a health reform project in China that combined supply-side interventions aimed at improving the effectiveness and quality of care with demand-side measures aimed at expanding health insurance and providing financial support to the very poor. Data from household, village and facility surveys suggest the project reduced out-of-pocket spending, and the incidence of catastrophic spending and impoverishment through health expenses. Little impact is detected on the use of services, and while the evidence points to the project reducing sickness days, the evidence on health outcomes is mixed. PMID:17112613

  15. [Intercultural aspects of the health system reform in Bolivia].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Hita, Susana

    2014-01-01

    This article is a reflection on how interculturality, understood as the way to improve the health of the Bolivian population and coupled with the concept of living well, is not contributing to improving the quality of life and health of the most vulnerable populations in the country. The discourse is coupled with the intention of saving lives in its broadest sense; however, for this it is necessary to make decisions about environmental health and extractivist policies that are not taken into account in the health issues affecting indigenous communities, a population targeted by the intercultural aspects of the health reform. PMID:25597731

  16. [The cardiology community and health reform. Some reflections to open a debate].

    PubMed

    Schweiger, C

    2000-01-01

    A recently introduced health care reform in Italy will modify substantially the scenario in which all physicians and also the cardiac specialists working in and out of the hospitals will operate. Therefore it is important that the cardiological community, who manages a large proportion of human and financial resources of the Italian National Health Service, knows the reform and interacts with the national and local authorities for the best implementation of the basic principles on which the reform has been founded. These principles are the following: the Italian health service will guarantee all citizens the so-called "essential levels of care" identified in accordance with four distinctive features. They must: 1) safeguard real needs of care (i.e. cosmetic surgery is not considered), 2) be evidence based, 3) be appropriate for individual patients, 4) be cost-effective. In a context of scarce resources and rapidly increasing demand of care this basic strategy seems to be the only one suitable for a National Health Service, but the application of this principle in the real world of care seems a very difficult task, and the role of medical associations is obviously crucial for a good outcome. This report illustrates some articles of the law that deal with the medical profession: guidelines and appropriateness of the criteria; accreditation, clinical competence and quality control; continuing medical education. PMID:10832116

  17. Health Care Reform and Its Implications for the Administrative Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolassa, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that the discipline of pharmacoeconomics has much to offer the pharmacy field during a period of health care reform but that these specialists must let their colleagues in related fields know how they can assist in facilitating change. (MSE)

  18. Health Care Reform and Medical Education: Forces toward Generalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Edward H.; Seifer, Sarena D.

    1995-01-01

    Health care reforms will dramatically change the culture of medical schools in areas of patient care, research, and education programs. Academic medical centers must construct mutually beneficial partnerships that will position them to take advantage of the opportunities rather than leave them without the diversity of resources needed to make…

  19. Revisiting the Issues: Children and National Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Sara

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes principal features of 6 bills on health care reform introduced in the 103rd Congress as they relate to children. Proposals are compared on 11 major issues, highlighting the degree to which each bill would achieve universal coverage, access to care, equity of treatment, and quality of comprehensive care. (SLD)

  20. Pharmacy Education in an Era of Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benet, Leslie Z.

    1994-01-01

    The president of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy outlines the association's position on national policy concerning health care reform, then looks at some related controversial issues, including changes in the dispensing of prescriptions, pharmacist-managed medication review, adequacy of pharmacy training, and the role of research.…

  1. Steering without navigation equipment: the lamentable state of Australian health policy reform

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Commentary on health policy reform in Australia often commences with an unstated logical error: Australians' health is good, therefore the Australian Health System is good. This possibly explains the disconnect between the options discussed, the areas needing reform and the generally self-congratulatory tone of the discussion: a good system needs (relatively) minor improvement. Results This paper comments on some issues of particular concern to Australian health policy makers and some areas needing urgent reform. The two sets of issues do not overlap. It is suggested that there are two fundamental reasons for this. The first is the failure to develop governance structures which promote the identification and resolution of problems according to their importance. The second and related failure is the failure to equip the health services industry with satisfactory navigation equipment - independent research capacity, independent reporting and evaluation - on a scale commensurate with the needs of the country's largest industry. These two failures together deprive the health system - as a system - of the chief driver of progress in every successful industry in the 20th Century. Conclusion Concluding comment is made on the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission (NHHRC). This continued the tradition of largely evidence free argument and decision making. It failed to identify and properly analyse major system failures, the reasons for them and the form of governance which would maximise the likelihood of future error leaning. The NHHRC itself failed to error learn from past policy failures, a key lesson from which is that a major - and possibly the major - obstacle to reform, is government itself. The Commission virtually ignored the issue of governance. The endorsement of a monopolised system, driven by benevolent managers will miss the major lesson of history which is illustrated by Australia's own failures. PMID:19948044

  2. Changing emphases in public health and medical education in health care reform.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Walter K; Cadman, Edwin C

    2002-01-01

    Globalisation of economies, diseases and disasters with poverty, emerging infectious diseases, ageing and chronic conditions, violence and terrorism has begun to change the face of public health and medical education. Escalating costs of care and increasing poverty have brought urgency to professional training to improve efficiency, cut costs and maintain gains in life expectancy and morbidity reduction. Technology, genetics research and designer drugs have dramatically changed medical practice. Creatively, educational institutions have adopted the use of: (1) New educational and communication technologies: internet and health informatics; (2) Problem based learning approaches; Integrated Practice and Theory Curricula; Research and Problem Solving methodologies and (3) Partnership and networking of institutions to synergise new trends (e.g. core competencies). Less desirably, changes are inadequate in key areas, e.g., Health Economics, Poverty and Health Development, Disaster Management & Bioterrorism and Ethics. Institutions have begun to adjust and develop new programs of study to meet challenges of emerging diseases, design methodologies to better understand complex social and economic determinants of disease, assess the effects of violence and address cost containment strategies in health. Besides redesigning instruction, professional schools need to conduct research to assess the impact of health reform. Such studies will serve as sentinels for the public's health, and provide key indicators for improvements in training, service provision and policy. PMID:12597516

  3. Health sector reform in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT): targeting the forest or the trees?

    PubMed Central

    GIACAMAN, RITA; ABDUL-RAHIM, HANAN F; WICK, LAURA

    2006-01-01

    Since the signing of the Oslo Peace Accords and the establishment of the Palestinian Authority in 1994, reform activities have targeted various spheres, including the health sector. Several international aid and UN organizations have been involved, as well as local and international non-governmental organizations, with considerable financial and technical investments. Although important achievements have been made, it is not evident that the quality of care has improved or that the most pressing health needs have been addressed, even before the second Palestinian Uprising that began in September 2000. The crisis of the Israeli re-invasion of Palestinian-controlled towns and villages since April 2002 and the attendant collapse of state structures and services have raised the problems to critical levels. This paper attempts to analyze some of the obstacles that have faced reform efforts. In our assessment, those include: ongoing conflict, frail Palestinian quasi-state structures and institutions, multiple and at times inappropriate donor policies and practices in the health sector, and a policy vacuum characterized by the absence of internal Palestinian debate on the type and direction of reform the country needs to take. In the face of all these considerations, it is important that reform efforts be flexible and consider realistically the political and economic contexts of the health system, rather than focus on mere narrow technical, managerial and financial solutions imported from the outside. PMID:12582108

  4. Universal health care, American style: a single fund approach to health care reform.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, D E

    1992-06-01

    With increasing momentum for health care reform, attention is shifting to finance reform that will provide for direct methods for controlling health care spending. This article outlines the two principal paths to direct cost control and outlines a national plan that retains our multiple sources of payment, yet also contains a powerful direct cost control technique: a single fund to finance all health care. PMID:10119318

  5. School-Based Health Centers in an Era of Health Care Reform: Building on History

    PubMed Central

    Keeton, Victoria; Soleimanpour, Samira; Brindis, Claire D.

    2013-01-01

    School-based health centers (SBHCs) provide a variety of health care services to youth in a convenient and accessible environment. Over the past 40 years, the growth of SBHCs evolved from various public health needs to the development of a specific collaborative model of care that is sensitive to the unique needs of children and youth, as well as to vulnerable populations facing significant barriers to access. The SBHC model of health care comprises of on-school site health care delivery by an interdisciplinary team of health professionals, which can include primary care and mental health clinicians. Research has demonstrated the SBHCs’ impacts on delivering preventive care, such as immunizations; managing chronic illnesses, such as asthma, obesity, and mental health conditions; providing reproductive health services for adolescents; and even improving youths’ academic performance. Although evaluation of the SBHC model of care has been complicated, results have thus far demonstrated increased access to care, improved health and education outcomes, and high levels of satisfaction. Despite their proven success, SBHCs have consistently faced challenges in securing adequate funding for operations and developing effective financial systems for billing and reimbursement. Implementation of health care reform (The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act [P.L. 111-148]) will profoundly affect the health care access and outcomes of children and youth, particularly vulnerable populations. The inclusion of funding for SBHCs in this legislation is momentous, as there continues to be increased demand and limited funding for affordable services. To better understand how this model of care has and could further help promote the health of our nation’s youth, a review is presented of the history and growth of SBHCs and the literature demonstrating their impacts. It may not be feasible for SBHCs to be established in every school campus in the country. However, the lessons

  6. Health care's service fanatics.

    PubMed

    Merlino, James I; Raman, Ananth

    2013-05-01

    The Cleveland Clinic has long had a reputation for medical excellence. But in 2009 the CEO acknowledged that patients did not think much of their experience there and decided to act. Since then the Clinic has leaped to the top tier of patient-satisfaction surveys, and it now draws hospital executives from around the world who want to study its practices. The Clinic's journey also holds Lessons for organizations outside health care that must suddenly compete by creating a superior customer experience. The authors, one of whom was critical to steering the hospital's transformation, detail the processes that allowed the Clinic to excel at patient satisfaction without jeopardizing its traditional strengths. Hospital leaders: Publicized the problem internally. Seeing the hospital's dismal service scores shocked employees into recognizing that serious flaws existed. Worked to understand patients' needs. Management commissioned studies to get at the root causes of dissatisfaction. Made everyone a caregiver. An enterprisewide program trained everyone, from physicians to janitors, to put the patient first. Increased employee engagement. The Clinic instituted a "caregiver celebration" program and redoubled other motivational efforts. Established new processes. For example, any patient, for any reason, can now make a same-day appointment with a single call. Set patients' expectations. Printed and online materials educate patients about their stays--before they're admitted. Operating a truly patient-centered organization, the authors conclude, isn't a program; it's a way of life. PMID:23898737

  7. Rising to the challenge of health care reform with entrepreneurial and intrapreneurial nursing initiatives.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Anne; Whitaker, Nancy; Whitford, Deirdre

    2012-05-01

    Health reform worldwide is required due to the largely aging population, increase in chronic diseases, and rising costs. To meet these needs, nurses are being encouraged to practice to the full extent of their skills and take significant leadership roles in health policy, planning, and provision. This can involve entrepreneurial or intrapreneurial roles. Although nurses form the largest group of health professionals, they are frequently restricted in their scope of practice. Nurses can help to improve health services in a cost effective way, but to do so, they must be seen as equal partners in health service provision. This article provides a global perspective on evolving nursing roles for innovation in health care. A historical overview of entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship is offered. Included also is discussion of a social entrepreneurship approach for nursing, settings for nurse entre/intrapreneurship, and implications for research and practice. PMID:22686113

  8. Health care reforms on the European scene: evolution, revolution or seesaw?

    PubMed

    Vienonen, M A; Wlodarczyk, W C

    1993-01-01

    In rough terms a tripartite picture characterized the European health care delivery map until the late 1980s. The Beveridge model has its roots in the British National Health Service, the Bismarck model for sickness insurance arose in Germany, and the centrally controlled Semashko model was developed in the USSR All three modes are undergoing reforms with similar aims expressed in similar language. Differences in the content and speed of reforms stem from the different circumstances and models of health care organization and financing in the countries. Practically all of the CCEE/NIS have declared their determination to change their health services financing from a centrally run system into a health insurance based structure, meaning a switch from the Semashko to the Bismarck models. Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and some other CCEE have already passed and implemented health insurance legislation, but considerable problems have arisen in the form of budget deficit, which has had to be filled by state budgets. The NIS are following behind, but no practical change has so far has come in sight. Going beyond the popular slogans of privatization and market economy is difficult during a situation of political instability, when the real transition will inevitably mean readjustment in the form of cuts and constraints, and painful reorganization in the priorities of health services. PMID:8017073

  9. Situational analysis of the health insurance market and related educational needs in the era of health care reform in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sriratanaban, J; Supapong, S; Kamolratanakul, P; Tatiyakawee, K; Srithamrongsawat, S

    2000-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore the situation of health insurance in Thailand, to compare public and private perspectives and to identify related educational needs. Between March and April of 1998, the study employed in-depth interviews of 12 public and private major stakeholders of the health insurance systems, including policy makers, providers and insurers. Additional inputs were gathered in a brainstorming session with 41 participants from organizations with important roles in regulating, monitoring, paying, or providing health care services, as well as research and education. The findings indicated the health insurance market was expanding. But there was no national policy on health insurance. Insurance-related law was outdated. Public and private schemes overlapped, and were generally characterized by inadequate risk diversification, overutilization of services, lack of effective cost containment, inconsistent service quality, and poor understanding of health insurance principles. There were needs for more education and training in various aspects of health services management and health-insurance related functions. Consequently, continuing education and training related to health insurance services for policy makers, system administrators, managers, providers and insurers are strongly recommended during the health-care reform process. PMID:11253889

  10. [Coverage of health services].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Narváez, G

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the concepts and criteria related to health coverage are discussed in the context of the organization of national health systems. The main international agreements based on WHO/PAHO proposals are also described. The relationship between primary health care and health coverage is analyzed and the evolution of the programs for the extension of health coverage in Mexico are discussed, with emphasis on the problems of overlap and definition of the universe in the several institutions of the health sector. Finally, the author reviews the problems to measure coverage in order to guarantee social and operative efficiency of the Mexican health system. PMID:1411776

  11. [Managed care in Latin America: transnationalization of the health sector in the context of reform].

    PubMed

    Iriart, C; Merhy, E E; Waitzkin, H

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the results of the comparative research project "Managed Care in Latin America: Its Role in Health Reform". The project was conducted by teams in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and the United States. The study's objective was to analyze the process by which managed care is exported, especially from the United States, and how managed care is adopted in Latin American countries. Our research methods included qualitative and quantitative techniques. Adoption of managed care reflects transnationalization of the health sector. Our findings demonstrate the entrance of large multinational financial capital into the private insurance and health services sectors and their intention of participating in the administration of government institutions and medical/social security funds. We conclude that this basic change involving the slow adoption of managed care is facilitated by ideological changes with discourses accepting the inexorable nature of public sector reform. PMID:10738154

  12. Risk avoidance and missed opportunities in mental health reform: the case of Israel.

    PubMed

    Aviram, Uri; Guy, Dalia; Sykes, Israel

    2007-01-01

    Passage of the National Health Insurance Law (NHI) [National Health Insurance Law (NHI) (1994). Israel Law Code, 1469, 156 (Hebrew).] provided a window of opportunity for mental health reform in Israel. The reform called for transfer, within a period of 3 years, of responsibility for psychiatric services formerly provided mostly by the Ministry of Health, to Israel's four major healthcare providers. Planners of mental health reform in Israel saw in the NHI Law an opportunity to bring about far-reaching structural changes in mental health policy and service provision, shifting the locus of care from psychiatric hospitals to the community. This paper reports results of a case study assessing factors that hindered or promoted the planned reform. The theoretical and conceptual framework of the study was derived from public policy theories and in particular on those related to public agenda and agenda setting processes. The study was also informed by organizational and interorganizational theories and exchange theory. Data was gathered from documents and interviews of key informants. Sources of data included official reports, proceedings of Knesset's Labor and Social Affairs (LSA) Committee, Ministry of Health documents, healthcare providers' reports, budget documents, newspaper analysis, and about 60 interviews with persons who played important roles in the process of the negotiations regarding the reform efforts. Analysis identified the major stakeholders and their concerns, distinguishing between the key stakeholders involved directly in the negotiations and secondary or additional stakeholders outside the main circle, some of whom were very involved and influential in the process. The study identified the major issues and the problems that emerged during the process of negotiations. Analysis of the failure of the attempt to implement the reform reveals a combination of obstacles emanating from the process of negotiation, on the one hand, and from the larger

  13. Regulatory system reform of occupational health and safety in China

    PubMed Central

    WU, Fenghong; CHI, Yan

    2015-01-01

    With the explosive economic growth and social development, China’s regulatory system of occupational health and safety now faces more and more challenges. This article reviews the history of regulatory system of occupational health and safety in China, as well as the current reform of this regulatory system in the country. Comprehensive, a range of laws, regulations and standards that promulgated by Chinese government, duties and responsibilities of the regulatory departments are described. Problems of current regulatory system, the ongoing adjustments and changes for modifying and improving regulatory system are discussed. The aim of reform and the incentives to drive forward more health and safety conditions in workplaces are also outlined. PMID:25843565

  14. In health care reform, who cares for the community?

    PubMed

    Sigmond, R; Seay, J D

    1994-01-01

    Health care reform has again focused the issues of ownership and mission of organizations in the health care field. Some believe that universal entitlement will eventually make both charitable patient care and the nonprofit form of organization obsolete. Others believe that special treatment of nonprofit organizations does not depend on charity at all; rather that the nonprofit form has social value in and of itself. The authors reflect a different point of view. They suggest that with reform, community benefit as the modern expression of a charitable mission will become ever more important in achieving the nation's health care goals. They believe that nonprofit organizations will continue to be entitled to special treatment only if their missions and programs extend beyond care of patients and entitled populations to focus also on care of communities. Any health organization's investment in disciplined community initiatives encompasses all the people in targeted communities, including those served by competing organizations. Without tax exemption, an organization committed to community care initiatives will be at a competitive disadvantage under the proposed community rated capitation payment system. Rather than abandoning the community benefit standard for tax exemption, health care reform calls for more systematic management of community care initiatives by nonprofit organizations and also of tax-exemption eligibility by the IRS. PMID:10135183

  15. National Public Opinion on School Health Education: Implications for the Health Care Reform Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R.; Crowe, James W.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated national public opinion on school health education and the implications for health-care reform initiatives. Telephone surveys of 1,005 adults nationwide indicated that the public at large believes in the importance of health education to reduce health problems among children, considering it the responsibility of parents and…

  16. The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Smoking, Education, Tax Reform, Crime Control, Welfare Reform, Health Care Reform. Report No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

    The sixth annual survey conducted by the Rural Services Institute examined the opinions of Pennsylvania residents on crime control, welfare reform, smoking, and education reform proposals. Sixty percent of respondents believed that the most urgent issue facing Pennsylvania was violent crime and strongly supported measures to reduce the…

  17. The Health Care System Under French National Health Insurance: Lessons for Health Reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rodwin, Victor G.

    2003-01-01

    The French health system combines universal coverage with a public–private mix of hospital and ambulatory care and a higher volume of service provision than in the United States. Although the system is far from perfect, its indicators of health status and consumer satisfaction are high; its expenditures, as a share of gross domestic product, are far lower than in the United States; and patients have an extraordinary degree of choice among providers. Lessons for the United States include the importance of government’s role in providing a statutory framework for universal health insurance; recognition that piecemeal reform can broaden a partial program (like Medicare) to cover, eventually, the entire population; and understanding that universal coverage can be achieved without excluding private insurers from the supplementary insurance market. PMID:12511380

  18. Health insurance reform: modifications to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) electronic transaction standards. Proposed rule.

    PubMed

    2008-08-22

    This rule proposes to adopt updated versions of the standards for electronic transactions originally adopted in the regulations entitled, "Health Insurance Reform: Standards for Electronic Transactions," published in the Federal Register on August 17, 2000, which implemented some of the requirements of the Administrative Simplification subtitle of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). These standards were modified in our rule entitled, "Health Insurance Reform: Modifications to Electronic Data Transaction Standards and Code Sets," published in the Federal Register on February 20, 2003. This rule also proposes the adoption of a transaction standard for Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation. In addition, this rule proposes to adopt two standards for billing retail pharmacy supplies and professional services, and to clarify who the "senders" and "receivers" are in the descriptions of certain transactions. PMID:18958949

  19. Mental health reform under policy mainstreaming: needed, but uncertain.

    PubMed

    Hogan, M

    2014-03-01

    October 2013 marks the 50th anniversary of President John F. Kennedy's message to the US Congress on the need to reform mental healthcare. Much has changed in that time. In 2006, Frank and Glied summarized these changes and the forces behind them, finding that the well-being of people with mental illness was 'better but not well.' They also conclude that most improvements have been due to 'mainstreaming,' the inclusion of those with mental illness in broad reforms such as Medicare, Medicaid and Social Security. With the gradual assimilation of mental health concerns, leadership and resources into mainstream programmes and agencies, future improvements will require that these programmes are accessible and oriented to people with mental illness. The passage of broad health reform legislation in 2010 (the Affordable Care Act) reinforces this change; several of its provisions attempt to make healthcare more relevant to the population with mental illness. In this editorial, I discuss a set of challenges which remain for the population with mental illness in the healthcare system, and the prospects for change. These challenges include: (1) improving basic mental healthcare in primary care, (2) improving mental healthcare for children, (3) earlier detection and treatment of psychotic illness, (4) disability and unemployment and (5) the challenge of sustaining an adequate, speciality public mental healthcare system under conditions of mainstreaming. In general, I conclude that the prospects for successful reform are uncertain. Establishing mental healthcare specialization in mainstream systems has not been notably successful to date. PMID:24229608

  20. Private sector health reform in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van Den Heever, A M

    1998-06-01

    This paper discusses some of the trends, debates and policy proposals in relation to the financing of the private health sector in South Africa. The public and private sectors in South Africa are of equivalent size in terms of overall expenditure, but cover substantially different population sizes. Within this context the government has reached the unavoidable conclusion that the private sector has to play some role in ensuring that equity, access and efficiency objectives are achieved for the health system as a whole. However, the private sector is some way off from taking on this responsibility. Substantial increases in per capita costs over the past 15 years, coupled with a degree of deregulation by the former government, have resulted in increasing instability and volatility. The development of a very competitive medical scheme (health insurance) market reinforced by intermediaries with commercial interests has accelerated trends toward excluding high health risks from cover. The approach taken by the government has been to define a new environment which leaves the market open for extensive competition, but removes from schemes the ability to compete by discriminating against high health risks. The only alternatives left to the private market, policy makers hope, will be to go out of business, or to survive through productivity improvements. PMID:9683089

  1. School Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Charles C., Ed.

    A comprehensive guide for health procedures in small and large school systems, this volume emphasizes the need for coordination of school efforts with those of parents, departments of health, private practitioners of medicine and dentistry, and community health agencies. Particular attention is given to the role of the teacher in school health…

  2. Stuck in the middle?: A perspective on ongoing pro-competitive reforms in Dutch mental health care.

    PubMed

    Westra, Daan; Wilbers, Gloria; Angeli, Federica

    2016-04-01

    Pro-competitive reforms have been implemented in many Western healthcare systems, of which the Netherlands is a prominent example. While the pro-competitive reforms in the Dutch specialized care sector have drawn considerable academic attention, mental health care is often excluded. However, in line with other segments of specialized care, pro-competitive legislation has formed the core of mental health care reforms, albeit with several notable differences. Ever since mental health services were included in the Health Insurance Act in 2008, the Dutch mental healthcare sector has been in an ongoing state of reform. Numerous major and minor adaptations have continuously altered the services covered by the basic insurance package, the actors responsible for providing and contracting care, and definitions and measurements of quality. Most notably, insurers and municipalities, which are responsible for selectively contracting those providers that offer high value-for-money, seem insensitive to quality aspects. The question whether the Dutch mental health sector has inherited the best or the worst of a competitive and non-competitive system lingers and international policy makers contemplating reforming their mental health sector should take note. PMID:26994866

  3. Guidelines for School Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Sarah; And Others

    This publication was designed to assist chief school administrators, school nurses, school physicians, staff, and other school health personnel in developing, implementing, and evaluating sound school health programs for New Jersey public school students. Section I delineates responsibility for school health services, discussing the role of…

  4. Liking Health Reform But Turned Off By Toxic Politics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Lawrence R; Mettler, Suzanne

    2016-05-01

    Six years after the Affordable Care Act (ACA) became law, the number of nonelderly Americans with health insurance has expanded by twenty million, and the uninsurance rate has declined nearly 9 percentage points. Nevertheless, public opinion about the law remains deeply divided. We investigated how individuals may be experiencing and responding to health reform implementation by analyzing three waves of a panel study we conducted in 2010, 2012, and 2014. While public opinion about the ACA remains split (45.6 percent unfavorable and 36.2 percent favorable), there have been several detectable shifts. The share of respondents believing that reform had little or no impact on access to health insurance or medical care diminished by 18 percentage points from 2010 to 2014, while those considering reform to have some or a great impact increased by 19 percentage points. Among individuals who held unfavorable views toward the law in 2010, the percentage who supported repeal-while still high, at 72 percent-shrank by 9 percentage points from 2010 to 2014. We found that party affiliation and distrust in government were influential factors in explaining the continuing divide over the law. The ACA has delivered discernible benefits, and some Americans are increasingly recognizing that it is improving access to health insurance and medical care. PMID:27076227

  5. Toward a 21st-century health care system: recommendations for health care reform.

    PubMed

    Arrow, Kenneth; Auerbach, Alan; Bertko, John; Brownlee, Shannon; Casalino, Lawrence P; Cooper, Jim; Crosson, Francis J; Enthoven, Alain; Falcone, Elizabeth; Feldman, Robert C; Fuchs, Victor R; Garber, Alan M; Gold, Marthe R; Goldman, Dana; Hadfield, Gillian K; Hall, Mark A; Horwitz, Ralph I; Hooven, Michael; Jacobson, Peter D; Jost, Timothy Stoltzfus; Kotlikoff, Lawrence J; Levin, Jonathan; Levine, Sharon; Levy, Richard; Linscott, Karen; Luft, Harold S; Mashal, Robert; McFadden, Daniel; Mechanic, David; Meltzer, David; Newhouse, Joseph P; Noll, Roger G; Pietzsch, Jan B; Pizzo, Philip; Reischauer, Robert D; Rosenbaum, Sara; Sage, William; Schaeffer, Leonard D; Sheen, Edward; Silber, B Michael; Skinner, Jonathan; Shortell, Stephen M; Thier, Samuel O; Tunis, Sean; Wulsin, Lucien; Yock, Paul; Nun, Gabi Bin; Bryan, Stirling; Luxenburg, Osnat; van de Ven, Wynand P M M

    2009-04-01

    The coverage, cost, and quality problems of the U.S. health care system are evident. Sustainable health care reform must go beyond financing expanded access to care to substantially changing the organization and delivery of care. The FRESH-Thinking Project (www.fresh-thinking.org) held a series of workshops during which physicians, health policy experts, health insurance executives, business leaders, hospital administrators, economists, and others who represent diverse perspectives came together. This group agreed that the following 8 recommendations are fundamental to successful reform: 1. Replace the current fee-for-service payment system with a payment system that encourages and rewards innovation in the efficient delivery of quality care. The new payment system should invest in the development of outcome measures to guide payment. 2. Establish a securely funded, independent agency to sponsor and evaluate research on the comparative effectiveness of drugs, devices, and other medical interventions. 3. Simplify and rationalize federal and state laws and regulations to facilitate organizational innovation, support care coordination, and streamline financial and administrative functions. 4. Develop a health information technology infrastructure with national standards of interoperability to promote data exchange. 5. Create a national health database with the participation of all payers, delivery systems, and others who own health care data. Agree on methods to make de-identified information from this database on clinical interventions, patient outcomes, and costs available to researchers. 6. Identify revenue sources, including a cap on the tax exclusion of employer-based health insurance, to subsidize health care coverage with the goal of insuring all Americans. 7. Create state or regional insurance exchanges to pool risk, so that Americans without access to employer-based or other group insurance could obtain a standard benefits package through these exchanges

  6. Behavioral Health and Health Care Reform Models: Patient-Centered Medical Home, Health Home, and Accountable Care Organization

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P.; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2012-01-01

    Discussions of health care delivery and payment reforms have largely been silent about how behavioral health could be incorporated into reform initiatives. This paper draws attention to four patient populations defined by the severity of their behavioral health conditions and insurance status. It discusses the potentials and limitations of three prominent models promoted by the Affordable Care Act to serve populations with behavioral health conditions: the Patient Centered Medical Home, the Health Home initiative within Medicaid, and the Accountable Care Organization. To incorporate behavioral health into health reform, policymakers and practitioners may consider embedding in the reform efforts explicit tools – accountability measures and payment designs – to improve access to and quality of care for patients with behavioral health needs. PMID:23188486

  7. The new institutionalist approaches to health care reform: lessons from reform experiences in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Sitek, Michał

    2010-08-01

    This article discusses the applicability of the new institutionalism to the politics of health care reform in postcommunist Central Europe. The transition to a market economy and democracy after the fall of communism has apparently strengthened the institutional approaches. The differences in performance of transition economies have been critical to the growing understanding of the importance of institutions that foster democracy, provide security of property rights, help enforce contracts, and stimulate entrepreneurship. From a theoretical perspective, however, applying the new institutionalist approaches has been problematic. The transitional health care reform exposes very well some inherent weaknesses of existing analytic frameworks for explaining the nature and mechanisms of institutional change. The postcommunist era in Central Europe has been marked by spectacular and unprecedented radical changes, in which the capitalist system was rebuilt in a short span of time and the institutions of democracy became consolidated. Broad changes to welfare state programs were instituted as well. However, the actual results of the reform processes represent a mix of change and continuity, which is a challenge for the theories of institutional change. PMID:21057098

  8. Is health care a right or a commodity? Implementing mental health reform in a recession.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Rowe, Michael; Sernyak, Michael A

    2010-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, signed into law by President Obama in March 2010, contains elements of two seemingly contradictory positions: health care as a commodity and as a right. The commodity argument posits that the marketplace should govern demand, supply, and costs of care. The law's establishment of state insurance exchanges reflects this position. The argument that health care is a right posits that it is a need, not a choice, and that government should regulate care standards that may be compromised as insurers attempt to minimize costs. The law's requirement for coverage of mental and substance use disorders reflects this position. This Open Forum examines these arguments in light of current state fiscal crises and impending reforms. Despite the federal government's interest in expanding prevention and treatment of mental illness, states may demonstrate varying levels of commitment, based in part on their perception of health care as a right or a commodity. The federal government should outline clear performance standards, with minimum services specified to maximize state commitments to services. PMID:21041355

  9. Health policy thoughtleaders' views of the health workforce in an era of health reform.

    PubMed

    Donelan, Karen; Buerhaus, Peter I; DesRoches, Catherine; Burke, Sheila P

    2010-01-01

    Although registered nurses rank similarly with physicians in the public's esteem, physicians are more visible than nurses in media coverage, public policy, and political spheres. Thus, nursing workforce issues are overshadowed by those of other health priorities, including Medicare and health reform. The purpose of this research was to understand the visibility and salience of the health workforce in general, gain an understanding about the effectiveness of messages concerning the nursing workforce in particular, and to understand why nursing workforce issues do not appear to have gained more traction in national health care policymaking. The National Survey of Thoughtleaders about the Health Workforce was administered via mail, telephone and online to health workforce and policy thoughtleaders from August 2009-October 2009. Of 301 thoughtleaders contacted, 123 completed questionnaires for a response rate of 41%. Thoughtleaders agree that nurses are critical to the quality and safety of our healthcare system, that there are current nursing shortages, and that nursing shortages will be intensified by health reform. Thoughtleaders reported that while they do hear about nursing issues frequently, they do not view most sources of information as proposing effective policy solutions. This study highlights a critical gap in effective policy advocacy and leadership to advance nurse workforce issues higher on the national health agenda. PMID:20637930

  10. Consumer-directed health care: understanding its value in health care reform.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kristina L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the importance of consumer-directed health care as the essential strategy needed to lower health care costs and support its widespread adoption for making significant strides in health care reform. The pros and cons of health care consumerism are discussed. The intent is to show that the viability of the US health care system depends on the application of appropriate consumer-directed health care strategies. PMID:20145464

  11. Health Care Reform: Lessons From Canada

    PubMed Central

    Deber, Raisa Berlin

    2003-01-01

    Although Canadian health care seems to be perennially in crisis, access, quality, and satisfaction in Canada are relatively high, and spending is relatively well controlled. The Canadian model is built on a recognition of the limits of markets in distributing medically necessary care. Current issues in financing and delivering health care in Canada deserve attention. Key dilemmas include intergovernmental disputes between the federal and provincial levels of government and determining how to organize care, what to pay for (comprehensiveness), and what incentive structures to put in place for payment. Lessons for the United States include the importance of universal coverage, the advantages of a single payer, and the fact that systems can be organized on a subnational basis. PMID:12511378

  12. Welfare reform, time limits, and infant health.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Jonathan; Mas, Alexandre

    2008-12-01

    This paper offers evidence that welfare time limits contributed to a deterioration of infant health. We use the fact that the dates at which TANF recipients were first subject to timing out varied by state. We show that by 2000 there was a marked difference in TANF duration spells depending on whether the state employed the 60-month Federally imposed time limit, or a shorter limit, differences that were not present under AFDC. There were significant increases in infant mortality when time limits became binding in a state. These increases occurred primarily among mothers who could have plausibly timed-out of TANF: poorly educated and unmarried women with at least one previous live-birth. There is some evidence that the population of mothers affected by time limits were less likely to seek prenatal care in the first trimester, suggesting a possible role for reduced medical care in explaining the deterioration in infant health. PMID:18947892

  13. Future Directions for Public Health Education Reforms in India

    PubMed Central

    Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Negandhi, Himanshu; Yeravdekar, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Health systems globally are experiencing a shortage of competent public health professionals. Public health education across developing countries is stretched by capacity generation and maintaining an adequate ‘standard’ and ‘quality’ of their graduate product. We analyzed the Indian public health education scenario using the institutional and instructional reforms framework advanced by the Lancet Commission report on Education of Health Professionals. The emergence of a new century necessitates a re-visit on the institutional and instructional challenges surrounding public health education. Currently, there is neither an accreditation council nor a formal structure or system of collaboration between academic stakeholders. Health systems have little say in health professional training with limited dialogue between health systems and public health education institutions. Despite a recognized shortfall of public health professionals, there are limited job opportunities for public health graduates within the health system and absence of a structured career pathway for them. Public health institutions need to evolve strategies to prevent faculty attrition. A structured development program in teaching–learning methods and pedagogy is the need of the hour. PMID:25295242

  14. Mobile Health (mHealth) Services and Online Health Educators

    PubMed Central

    Anshari, Muhammad; Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technology enables health-care organizations to extend health-care services by providing a suitable environment to achieve mobile health (mHealth) goals, making some health-care services accessible anywhere and anytime. Introducing mHealth could change the business processes in delivering services to patients. mHealth could empower patients as it becomes necessary for them to become involved in the health-care processes related to them. This includes the ability for patients to manage their personal information and interact with health-care staff as well as among patients themselves. The study proposes a new position to supervise mHealth services: the online health educator (OHE). The OHE should be occupied by special health-care staffs who are trained in managing online services. A survey was conducted in Brunei and Indonesia to discover the roles of OHE in managing mHealth services, followed by a focus group discussion with participants who interacted with OHE in a real online health scenario. Data analysis showed that OHE could improve patients’ confidence and satisfaction in health-care services. PMID:27257387

  15. Using economic levers to change behaviour: the case of Thailand's universal coverage health care reforms.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David; Leethongdee, Songkramchai; Osiri, Sunantha

    2010-02-01

    Thailand's universal coverage health care policy has been presented as a knowledge-based reform involving substantial pre-planning, including expert economic analysis of the financing mechanism. This paper describes the new financing system introduced from 2001 in which the Ministry of Public Health allocated monies to local Contracted Units for Primary Care (CUPs) on the basis of population. It discusses the policy intention to use capitation funding to change incentive structures and engineer a transfer of professional staff from over-served urban areas to under-served rural areas. The paper utilises qualitative data from national policy makers and health service staff in three north-eastern provinces to tell the story of the reforms. We found that over time government moved away from the original capitation funding model as the result of (a) a macro-allocation problem arising from system disturbance and professional opposition, and (b) a micro-allocation problem that emerged when local budgets were not shared equitably. In many CUPs, the hospital directors controlling resource allocation channelled funds more towards curative services than community facilities. Taken together the macro and micro problems led to the dilution of capitation funding and reduced the re-distributive effects of the reforms. This strand of policy foundered in the face of structural and institutional barriers to change. PMID:19914757

  16. Health Care Reform and the Federal Transformation Initiatives: Capitalizing on the Potential of Advanced Practice Psychiatric Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Nancy P.; Delaney, Kathleen; Merwin, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade the US federal government proposed a transformation vision of mental health service delivery; patient-centered, evidence-based and recovery oriented treatment models. Health care reform brings additional expectations for innovation in mental/substance use service delivery, particularly the idea of creating systems where physical health, mental health and substance use treatment is fully integrated. Psychiatric nurses, as one of the four core US mental health professions, have the potential to play a significant role in the both the transformation initiative and health care reform vision. However, psychiatric nurses, particularly advanced practice psychiatric nurses, are an untapped resource due in part to significant state regulatory barriers that limit their scope of practice in many states. The purpose of this paper is to document what is currently known about advanced practice psychiatric nurses and discuss policy implications for tapping into the strengths of this workforce. Strategies for facilitating utilization of advanced practice psychiatric nurses discussed. PMID:21233135

  17. Health sector reforms in Kenya: an examination of district level planning.

    PubMed

    Oyaya, Charles O; Rifkin, Susan B

    2003-04-01

    The paper examines health sector reforms in Kenya at the district level based on the Government of Kenya's Health Policy Framework of 1994. The authors present the context of and historical perspective to health sector reforms in Kenya and discuss the major reform policies including decentralization to the district level. The authors then review intended policy outcomes, investigating assumptions on which the implementation and effectiveness of the reform agenda at the local level are based. The authors argue that emphasis on outcomes rather than process has not supported sustainable reforms or achieved the government's goal of improving health and ensuring equity for the citizens of the country. PMID:12644333

  18. Reforms and Challenges of Post-conflict Kosovo Health System

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Mybera; Berisha, Merita; Lenjani, Basri

    2014-01-01

    Before its collapse, Kosovo's healthcare system was an integrated part of the Former Yugoslav Republics System (known as relatively well advanced for its time). Standstill had begun in the last decade of the twentieth century as the result of political disintegration of the former state. The enthusiasm of the healthcare professionals and the people of Kosovo that at the end of the conflict healthcare services will consolidate did not prove just right. Although we can claim that reorganization of Kosovo healthcare was a serious push (especially in the first years after the conflict), the intensity of development begun to fall at the latter stages. Although the basic legislation for the operation of the Healthcare System today in Kosovo does exist, the largest cause for the reform stagnation is where the law is not implemented properly and measures are not set as to a meaningful system of accountability. Twelve years have passed by since the 1999 war-conflict and, although, Kosovo has made progress in many other spheres, it has not yet reached to consolidate a health system comparable to those of other European countries. Intending to get out of difficult situation, several healthcare strategic plans have been developed in the past decade in Kosovo, but attempts in this direction have not been particularly fruitful. This script describes the actual Healthcare complexity of a situation in Kosovo 12 years after the end of the 1999 war-conflict. Interconnection and historical background is also looked upon and is described in the flow of events. Finally, the description of transfer competencies from international administrators to the local authorities as well as the flow of strategic planning that took place since 1999 has also been analyzed. PMID:24944539

  19. Reforms and Challenges of Post-conflict Kosovo Health System.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Mybera; Berisha, Merita; Lenjani, Basri

    2014-04-01

    Before its collapse, Kosovo's healthcare system was an integrated part of the Former Yugoslav Republics System (known as relatively well advanced for its time). Standstill had begun in the last decade of the twentieth century as the result of political disintegration of the former state. The enthusiasm of the healthcare professionals and the people of Kosovo that at the end of the conflict healthcare services will consolidate did not prove just right. Although we can claim that reorganization of Kosovo healthcare was a serious push (especially in the first years after the conflict), the intensity of development begun to fall at the latter stages. Although the basic legislation for the operation of the Healthcare System today in Kosovo does exist, the largest cause for the reform stagnation is where the law is not implemented properly and measures are not set as to a meaningful system of accountability. Twelve years have passed by since the 1999 war-conflict and, although, Kosovo has made progress in many other spheres, it has not yet reached to consolidate a health system comparable to those of other European countries. Intending to get out of difficult situation, several healthcare strategic plans have been developed in the past decade in Kosovo, but attempts in this direction have not been particularly fruitful. This script describes the actual Healthcare complexity of a situation in Kosovo 12 years after the end of the 1999 war-conflict. Interconnection and historical background is also looked upon and is described in the flow of events. Finally, the description of transfer competencies from international administrators to the local authorities as well as the flow of strategic planning that took place since 1999 has also been analyzed. PMID:24944539

  20. Benefits and Systems of Care for Maternal and Child Health under Health Care Reform: Workshop Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Cynthia H., Ed.

    This report discusses the health care needs of and benefits for women, children, and adolescents in light of national health care reform proposals put forth in 1994, and is based on presentations and discussions at an invitational workshop on maternal and child health. The report asserts that since women and children are disproportionately…

  1. Physician payment disclosure under health care reform: will the sun shine?

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical marketing has become a mainstay in U.S. health care delivery and traditionally has been directed toward physicians. In an attempt to address potential undue influence of industry and conflicts of interest that arise, states and the recently upheld health care reform act have passed transparency, or "sunshine," laws requiring disclosure of industry payments to physicians. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services recently announced the final rule for the Sunshine Provisions as part of the reform act. However, the future effectiveness of these provisions are questionable and may be limited given the changing landscape of pharmaceutical marketing away from physician detailing to other forms of promotion. To address this changing paradigm, more proactive policy solutions will be necessary to ensure adequate and ethical regulation of pharmaceutical promotion. PMID:23657702

  2. The interface between health sector reform and human resources in health

    PubMed Central

    Rigoli, Felix; Dussault, Gilles

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between health sector reform and the human resources issues raised in that process has been highlighted in several studies. These studies have focused on how the new processes have modified the ways in which health workers interact with their workplace, but few of them have paid enough attention to the ways in which the workers have influenced the reforms. The impact of health sector reform has modified critical aspects of the health workforce, including labor conditions, degree of decentralization of management, required skills and the entire system of wages and incentives. Human resources in health, crucial as they are in implementing changes in the delivery system, have had their voice heard in many subtle and open ways – reacting to transformations, supporting, blocking and distorting the proposed ways of action. This work intends to review the evidence on how the individual or collective actions of human resources are shaping the reforms, by spotlighting the reform process, the workforce reactions and the factors determining successful human resources participation. It attempts to provide a more powerful way of predicting the effects and interactions in which different "technical designs" operate when they interact with the human resources they affect. The article describes the dialectic nature of the relationship between the objectives and strategies of the reforms and the objectives and strategies of those who must implement them. PMID:14613523

  3. Health Services and Collective Bargaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrence, William D.

    1974-01-01

    A rationale is suggested for designing and developing education and training programs in labor relations for hospital managements. Also, federal work stoppage data are identified as they relate to medical and other health services. (AG)

  4. [Health maintenance organizations: starting point of a market economical reform of health care].

    PubMed

    Hauser, H

    1981-05-01

    The present work was based on the observations that, as regards health care costs, the major problem in most present systems is that those who are responsible for the treatment decision (physician and patient) do not bear a direct financial responsibility for it, and that the overall system is very fragmented, which leads to numerous externalities. In accordance with this diagnosis, a reform strategy should particularly aim at creating units which are responsible for the provision and the financial coverage of comprehensive health services to a given population. Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) are a private economy oriented solution in this direction. They have proved to be a real possibility in the USA over years, at least for part of the population, and show interesting performances as regards costs. They were able to develop and evolve in the largely open US institutional framework. In Switzerland, we have more strongly structured systems, which appear to stand in relative contradiction to the HMO solution. A potential adaptation of the concept to our country would therefore require a preliminary in depth discussion about the meaning of the present collective (insurance) contract structure, the position of hospitals in a private economy health care system as well as about the conditions of the sought for competition in the HMO model. PMID:7303928

  5. Policy Capacity for Health Reform: Necessary but Insufficient

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Forest and colleagues have persuasively made the case that policy capacity is a fundamental prerequisite to health reform. They offer a comprehensive life-cycle definition of policy capacity and stress that it involves much more than problem identification and option development. I would like to offer a Canadian perspective. If we define health reform as re-orienting the health system from acute care to prevention and chronic disease management the consensus is that Canada has been unsuccessful in achieving a major transformation of our 14 health systems (one for each province and territory plus the federal government). I argue that 3 additional things are essential to build health policy capacity in a healthcare federation such as Canada: (a) A means of "policy governance" that would promote an approach to cooperative federalism in the health arena; (b) The ability to overcome the "policy inertia" resulting from how Canadian Medicare was implemented and subsequently interpreted; and (c) The ability to entertain a long-range thinking and planning horizon. My assessment indicates that Canada falls short on each of these items, and the prospects for achieving them are not bright. However, hope springs eternal and it will be interesting to see if the July, 2015 report of the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation manages to galvanize national attention and stimulate concerted action. PMID:26673650

  6. Health care in China: a rural-urban comparison after the socioeconomic reforms.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, L.

    1993-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the current Chinese health care system with particular emphasis on rural-urban differences. China's post-1978 economic reforms, although they improved general living standards, created some unintended consequences, as evidenced by the disintegration of the rural cooperative medical system and the sharp reduction in the number of "barefoot doctors", both of which were essential elements in the improvement of health status in rural China. The increase in the elderly population and their lack of health insurance and pensions will also place enormous pressure on services for their care. These changes have disproportionately affected the rural health care system, leaving the urban system basically intact, and have contributed to the rural-urban disparity in health care. Based on recent data the article compares current rural-urban differences in health care policy, systems, resources, and outcomes, and proposes potential solutions to reduce them. PMID:8313490

  7. Leveraging the military health system as a laboratory for health care reform.

    PubMed

    Dorrance, Kevin A; Ramchandani, Suneil; Neil, Nancy; Fisher, Harry

    2013-02-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act recently passed into law is poised to profoundly affect the provision of medical care in the United States. In today's environment, the foundation for most ongoing comparative effectiveness research is financial claims data. However, there is an alternative that possesses much richer data. That alternative, uniquely positioned to serve as a test system for national health reform efforts, is the Department of Defense Military Health System. This article describes how to leverage the Military Health System and provide effective solutions to current health care reform challenges in the United States. PMID:23495458

  8. Basing care reforms on evidence: The Kenya health sector costing model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Government of the Republic of Kenya is in the process of implementing health care reforms. However, poor knowledge about costs of health care services is perceived as a major obstacle towards evidence-based, effective and efficient health care reforms. Against this background, the Ministry of Health of Kenya in cooperation with its development partners conducted a comprehensive costing exercise and subsequently developed the Kenya Health Sector Costing Model in order to fill this data gap. Methods Based on standard methodology of costing of health care services in developing countries, standard questionnaires and analyses were employed in 207 health care facilities representing different trustees (e.g. Government, Faith Based/Nongovernmental, private-for-profit organisations), levels of care and regions (urban, rural). In addition, a total of 1369 patients were randomly selected and asked about their demand-sided costs. A standard step-down costing methodology was applied to calculate the costs per service unit and per diagnosis of the financial year 2006/2007. Results The total costs of essential health care services in Kenya were calculated as 690 million Euros or 18.65 Euro per capita. 54% were incurred by public sector facilities, 17% by Faith Based and other Nongovernmental facilities and 23% in the private sector. Some 6% of the total cost is due to the overall administration provided directly by the Ministry and its decentralised organs. Around 37% of this cost is absorbed by salaries and 22% by drugs and medical supplies. Generally, costs of lower levels of care are lower than of higher levels, but health centres are an exemption. They have higher costs per service unit than district hospitals. Conclusions The results of this study signify that the costs of health care services are quite high compared with the Kenyan domestic product, but a major share are fixed costs so that an increasing coverage does not necessarily increase the health

  9. Enhancing School-Based Mental Health Services with a Preventive and Promotive Approach to Universal Screening for Complete Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Erin; Furlong, Michael; Raines, Tara C.; Bovery, Bibliana; Kauffman, Beth; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Dever, Bridget V.; Price, Martin; Murdock, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Universal screening for complete mental health is proposed as a key step in service delivery reform to move school-based psychological services from the back of the service delivery system to the front, which will increase emphasis on prevention, early intervention, and promotion. A sample of 2,240 high school students participated in a schoolwide…

  10. Health care reform in Croatia: for better or for worse?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, M S; Mastilica, M

    1998-01-01

    Along with the rest of Central and Eastern Europe, Croatia has begun to dismantle its long-standing socialist health care system and to replace it with a market-based approach. Marketization's advocates maintain that the market will bring efficiency and quality to the Croatian health care system. Nevertheless, data from consumer surveys and official statistics reflect the reform's hidden costs: limited access to care, heightened costs, growing inequality, and the deemphasis of preventive and proactive care in favor of costly therapeutic medicine. PMID:9702140

  11. Health services in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kosen, S; Gunawan, S

    In Indonesia, rapid economic development has led to a reduction in poverty among the 195 million inhabitants. While population increased more than 50% from 1971 to 1990, the annual growth rate, crude birth rate, and total fertility rates have declined rapidly. Life expectancy has increased from 45.7 years in 1971 to 62.7 in 1994 as crude death rates and infant and child mortality rates have declined. Causes of death have shifted from infectious to chronic diseases, but in 1992 major causes of death in children under 5 years old were preventable, and the maternal mortality rate was 425/100,000. Policies which guide the development of health care call for improvements in quality of life, adherence to humanitarian principles, use of scientifically approved traditional medicine, and provision of public health through a three-tiered system. Health care is financed by the government and the community, and managed care has been encouraged. Foreign aid has bolstered development in the health sector. Adequate sanitation has been achieved for 35% of the population, and 65% of urban and 35% of rural residents have reasonable access to clean water. Improvements in health indicators include 55% contraceptive prevalence, reduction in prevalence of anemia during pregnancy, 55.8% of pregnant women receiving prenatal care, a decrease in protein-energy malnutrition among children under five, and high vaccination coverage. Remaining public health problems include malaria, tuberculosis, dengue hemorrhagic fever, an increase in HIV/AIDS, iodine-deficiency, an increasing number of traffic fatalities, and an increasing number of smokers. New health policies have been instituted to meet these challenges as Indonesia's need for a productive and competitive labor force increases. PMID:8985447

  12. Effect of health system reforms in Turkey on user satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Jonathan; Gurol–Urganci, Ipek; Hone, Thomas; Atun, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, the Turkish government introduced major health system changes, the Health Transformation Programme (HTP), to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). The HTP leveraged changes in all parts of the health system, organization, financing, resource management and service delivery, with a new family medicine model introducing primary care at the heart of the system. This article examines the effect of these health system changes on user satisfaction, a key goal of a responsive health system. Utilizing the results of a nationally representative yearly survey introduced at the baseline of the health system transformation, multivariate logistic regression analysis is used to examine the yearly effect on satisfaction with health services. During the 9–year period analyzed (2004–2012), there was a nearly 20% rise in reported health service use, coinciding with increased access, measured by insurance coverage. Controlling for factors known to contribute to user satisfaction in the literature, there is a significant (P < 0.001) increase in user satisfaction with health services in almost every year (bar 2006) from the baseline measure, with the odds of being satisfied with health services in 2012, 2.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) of 2.01–3.24) times that in 2004, having peaked at 3.58 (95% CI 2.82–4.55) times the baseline odds in 2011. Additionally, those who used public primary care services were slightly, but significantly (P < 0.05) more satisfied than those who used any other services, and increasingly patients are choosing primary care services rather than secondary care services as the provider of first contact. A number of quality indicators can probably help account for the increased satisfaction with public primary care services, and the increase in seeking first–contact with these providers. The implementation of primary care focused UHC as part of the HTP has improved user satisfaction in Turkey. PMID:26528391

  13. Home Care and Health Reform: Changes in Home Care Utilization in One Canadian Province, 1990-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Margaret J.; Brackley, Moyra E.; Allan, Diane E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines population-based trends in home care service utilization, alone and in conjunction with hospitalizations, during a period of health reform in Canada. It focuses on the extent to which observed trends suggest enhanced community-based care relative to three competing hypotheses: cost-cutting, medicalization, and…

  14. EPIDEMIOLOGY and Health Care Reform The National Health Survey of 1935-1936

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The National Health Survey undertaken in 1935 and 1936 was the largest morbidity survey until that time. It was also the first national survey to focus on chronic disease and disability. The decision to conduct a survey of this magnitude was part of the larger strategy to reform health care in the United States. The focus on morbidity allowed reformers to argue that the health status of Americans was poor, despite falling mortality rates that suggested the opposite. The focus on chronic disease morbidity proved to be an especially effective way of demonstrating the poor health of the population and the strong links between poverty and illness. The survey, undertaken by a small group of reform-minded epidemiologists led by Edgar Sydenstricker, was made possible by the close interaction during the Depression of agencies and actors in the public health and social welfare sectors, a collaboration which produced new ways of thinking about disease burdens. PMID:21233434

  15. Governance, transparency and alignment in the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) 2011 National Health Reform Agreement.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Gianluca; Harley, Kirsten; Dugdale, Paul; Short, Stephanie D

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE This article provides a policy analysis of the Australian government's National Health Reform Agreement (NHRA) by bringing to the foreground the governance arrangements underpinning the two arms of the national reforms, to primary health care and hospital services. METHODS The article analyses the NHRA document and mandate, and contextualises the changes introduced vis-à-vis the complex characteristics of the Australian health care system. Specifically, it discusses the coherence of the agreement and its underlying objectives, and the consistency and logic of the governance arrangements introduced. RESULTS The policy analysis highlights the rationalisation of the responsibilities between the Commonwealth and states and territories, the commitment towards a funding arrangement based on uniform measures of performance and the troubled emergence of a more decentralised nation-wide homogenisation of governance arrangements, plus efforts to improve transparency, accountability and statutory support to increase the standards of quality of care and safety. CONCLUSIONS It is suggested that the NHRA falls short of adequately supporting integration between primary, secondary and tertiary health care provision and facilitating greater integration in chronic disease management in primary care. Successfully addressing this will unlock further value from the reforms. PMID:24807128

  16. Health sector reform in central and eastern Europe: the professional dimension.

    PubMed

    Healy, J; Mckee, M

    1997-12-01

    The success or failure of health sector reform in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe depends, to a large extent, on their health care staff. Commentators have focused on the structures to be put in place, such as mechanisms of financing or changes in ownership of facilities, but less attention has been paid to the role and status of the different groups working in health care services. This paper draws on a study of trends in staffing and working conditions throughout the region. It identifies several key issues including the traditionally lower status and pay of health sector workers compared to the West, the credibility crisis of trade unions, and the under-developed roles of professional associations. In order to implement health sector reforms and to address the deteriorating health status of the population, the health sector workforce has to be restructured and training programmes reoriented towards primary care. Finally, the paper identifies emerging issues such as the erosion of 'workplace welfare' and its adverse effects upon a predominantly female health care workforce. PMID:10176264

  17. Tuberculosis diagnosis: primary health care or emergency medical services?

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Rubia Laine de Paula; Scatolin, Beatriz Estuque; Wysocki, Anneliese Domingues; Beraldo, Aline Ale; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Scatena, Lúcia Marina; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess primary health care and emergency medical services performance for tuberculosis diagnosis. METHODS Cross-sectional study were conducted with 90 health professionals from primary health care and 68 from emergency medical services, in Ribeirao Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2009. A structured questionnaire based on an instrument of tuberculosis care assessment was used. The association between health service and the variables of structure and process for tuberculosis diagnosis was assessed by Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test (both with 5% of statistical significance) and multiple correspondence analysis. RESULTS Primary health care was associated with the adequate provision of inputs and human resources, as well as with the sputum test request. Emergencial medical services were associated with the availability of X-ray equipment, work overload, human resources turnover, insufficient availability of health professionals, unavailability of sputum collection pots and do not request sputum test. In both services, tuberculosis diagnosis remained as a physician's responsibility. CONCLUSIONS Emergencial medical services presented weaknesses in its structure to identify tuberculosis suspects. Gaps on the process were identified in both primary health care and emergencial medical services. This situation highlights the need for qualification of health services that are the main gateway to health system to meet sector reforms that prioritize the timely diagnosis of tuberculosis and its control. PMID:24626553

  18. A retrospective content analysis of studies on factors constraining the implementation of health sector reform in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sakyi, E Kojo

    2008-01-01

    Ghana has undertaken many public service management reforms in the past two decades. But the implementation of the reforms has been constrained by many factors. This paper undertakes a retrospective study of research works on the challenges to the implementation of reforms in the public health sector. It points out that most of the studies identified: (1) centralised, weak and fragmented management system; (2) poor implementation strategy; (3) lack of motivation; (4) weak institutional framework; (5) lack of financial and human resources and (6) staff attitude and behaviour as the major causes of ineffective reform implementation. The analysis further revealed that quite a number of crucial factors obstructing reform implementation which are particularly internal to the health system have either not been thoroughly studied or overlooked. The analysis identified lack of leadership; weak communication and consultation; lack of stakeholder participation, corruption and unethical professional behaviour as some of the missing variables in the literature. The study, therefore, indicated that there are gaps in the literature that needed to be filled through rigorous reform evaluation based on empirical research particularly at district, sub-district and community levels. It further suggested that future research should be concerned with the effects of both systems and structures and behavioural factors on reform implementation. PMID:18536006

  19. Electronic Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Mounir M; Jones, Ray

    2007-01-01

    Information and communication technologies have made dramatic changes in our lives. Healthcare communities also made use of these technologies. Using computerized medical knowledge, electronic patients’ information and telecommunications a lot of applications are now established throughout the world. These include better ways of information management, remote education, telemedicine and public services. Yet, a lot of people don't know about these technologies and their applications. Understanding the concepts and ideologies behind these terms, knowing how they will be implemented, what is it like to use them and what benefit will be gained, are basic knowledge steps approaching these technologies. Difficulties using these services, especially in developing countries should not be neglected or underestimated. PMID:21503245

  20. [The main directions of public health reforms in the Republic of Uzbekistan].

    PubMed

    Ibragimov, A Iu; Asadov, D A; Menlikulov, P R

    2012-01-01

    The article covers the directive documents regulating the development of public health. The main directions of reforms of public health system of the Republic of Uzbekistan are covered too. The statistical data reflecting the structural changes in public health is presented. The purpose and tasks of reformation of the key public health issues in the Republic of Uzbekistan are explained. PMID:23373349

  1. 34 CFR 303.16 - Health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Health services. 303.16 Section 303.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.16 Health services. (a) Health services mean services..., the changing of dressings or colostomy collection bags, and other health services; and...

  2. 34 CFR 303.16 - Health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Health services. 303.16 Section 303.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.16 Health services. (a) Health services mean services..., the changing of dressings or colostomy collection bags, and other health services; and...

  3. 34 CFR 303.16 - Health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Health services. 303.16 Section 303.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.16 Health services. (a) Health services mean services..., the changing of dressings or colostomy collection bags, and other health services; and...

  4. Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage.

    PubMed

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Ir, Por; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Mukti, Ali Ghufron; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Banzon, Eduardo; Huong, Dang Boi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Mills, Anne

    2011-03-01

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for nationwide expansion. For Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, social health insurance financed by payroll tax is commonly used for formal sector employees (excluding Malaysia), with varying outcomes in terms of financial protection. Alternative payment methods have different implications for provider behaviour and financial protection. Two alternative approaches for financial protection of the non-poor outside the formal sector have emerged-contributory arrangements and tax-financed schemes-with different abilities to achieve high population coverage rapidly. Fiscal space and mobilisation of payroll contributions are both important in accelerating financial protection. Expanding coverage of good-quality services and ensuring adequate human resources are also important to achieve universal coverage. As health-financing reform is complex, institutional capacity to generate evidence and inform policy is essential and should be strengthened. PMID:21269682

  5. Health reform and the constitutionality of the individual mandate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeffrey J; Kelly, Deena; McHugh, Matthew D

    2011-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 is landmark legislation designed to expand access to health care for virtually all legal U.S. residents. A vital but controversial provision of the ACA requires individuals to maintain health insurance coverage or face a tax penalty-the individual mandate. We examine the constitutionality of the individual mandate by analyzing relevant court decisions. A critical issue has been defining the "activities" Congress is authorized to regulate. Some judges determined that the mandate was constitutional because the decision to go without health insurance, that is, to self-insure, is an activity with substantial economic effects within the overall scheme of the ACA. Opponents suggest that Congress overstepped its authority by regulating "inactivity," that is, compelling people to purchase insurance when they otherwise would not. The U.S. Supreme Court is set to review the issues and the final ruling will shape the effectiveness of health reform. PMID:22454219

  6. Arkansas: a leading laboratory for health care payment and delivery system reform.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, Deborah; du Pont, Lammot; Lipson, Mindy

    2014-08-01

    As states' Medicaid programs continue to evolve from traditional fee-for-service to value-based health care delivery, there is growing recognition that systemwide multipayer approaches provide the market power needed to address the triple aim of improved patient care, improved health of populations, and reduced costs. Federal initiatives, such as the State Innovation Model grant program, make significant funds available for states seeking to transform their health care systems. In crafting their reform strategies, states can learn from early innovators. This issue brief focuses on one such state: Arkansas. Insights and lessons from the Arkansas Health Care Payment Improvement Initiative (AHCPII) suggest that progress is best gained through an inclusive, deliberative process facilitated by committed leadership, a shared agreement on root problems and opportunities for improvement, and a strategy grounded in the state's particular health care landscape. PMID:25204031

  7. Relief, restoration and reform: economic upturn yields modest and uneven health returns.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Robert; Katz, Aaron; Felland, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity of state budgets to economic cycles contributes to fluctuations in health coverage, eligibility, benefits and provider payment levels in public programs, as well as support for safety net hospitals and community health centers (CHCs). The aftershocks of the 2001 recession on state budgets were felt well into 2004. More recently, the economic recovery allowed many states to restore cuts and, in some cases, expand health services for low-income people, according to findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) 2007 site visits to 12 nationally representative metropolitan communities. Along with bolstering support of safety net providers and raising Medicaid payments for private physicians, some states advanced even more ambitious health reform proposals. Yet across communities, safety net systems face mounting challenges of caring for more uninsured patients, and these pressures will likely increase given the current economic downturn. PMID:18396571

  8. Management of health system reform: a view of changes within New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, D

    1998-08-01

    This paper reports on the context and process of health system reform in New Zealand. The study is based on interviews conducted with 31 managers from three Crown Health Enterprises (publicly funded hospital-based health care organizations). A number of countries with publicly funded health services (e.g., UK, Australia and New Zealand) have sought to shift from the traditional 'passive' health management style (using transactional management skills to balance historically-based expenditure budgets) to 'active' transformational leadership styles that reflect a stronger 'private sector' orientation (requiring active management of resources--including a return on 'capital' investment, identification of costs and returns on 'product lines', 'marketing' a 'product mix', reducing non-core activities and overhead costs, and a closer relationship with 'shareholders', suppliers and customers/clients). Evidence of activities and processes associated with transformational leadership are identified. Success of the New Zealand health reforms will be determined by the approach the new managers adopt to improve their organization's performance. Transformational leadership has been frequently linked to the successful implementation of significant organizational change in other settings (Kurz et al., 1988; Dunphy and Stace, 1990) but it is too early to assess whether this is applicable in a health care context. PMID:10181886

  9. The Largely Untold Story of Welfare Reform and the Human Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovitz, Mimi

    2005-01-01

    Welfare reform has placed the lives of clients, the jobs of social workers, and the mission of agencies in jeopardy. Based on interviews with senior staff at 107 nonprofit human services agencies, this article documents the largely untold story of how nonprofit agencies' workers responded to the impact of welfare reform on their clients, their…

  10. Financing Services for Young Children and Their Families: Meeting the Challenges of Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Cheryl D.

    This paper examines strategies for state and local leaders to finance supports and services for young children and their families in the wake of welfare reform. It focuses on strategies for revenue reform and for creating public/private partnerships to provide decision makers with current and relevant information on a variety of effective tools…

  11. Efficiency and Counter-Revolution: Connecting University and Civil Service Reform in the 1850s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Historians have often recognised important links between the processes of university and civil service reform in mid-nineteenth-century England. Yet such connections are usually seen as forming part of a wider project of modernising reform with any conservative or counter-revolutionary aims largely discounted. However, as this article suggests,…

  12. Britain's Education Officers Look at Reform, the Education Service, and Their Own Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Thomas E.; Howson, John

    1992-01-01

    Questionnaires sent to all 119 local chief education officers in England, and returned by 73, asked their opinions about Education Reform Act of 1988. All changes, except National Curriculum, are not supported by majority of respondents. They state that reforms are causing upheaval and turmoil in provision of education services, and they lack…

  13. The Implications of Selected School Reform Approaches for School Library Media Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartzell, Gary N.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the implications of selected school reforms for library media services. Topics include school-based management; school choice; home schooling; inclusion of special education students; at-risk elementary students; adolescents and middle schools; secondary school issues, including school-to-work transition, curriculum reform, distance…

  14. Creating incentives to move upstream: developing a diversified portfolio of population health measures within payment and health care reform.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, John

    2015-03-01

    I examined the feasibility of developing a balanced portfolio of population health measures that would be useful within the current deliberations about health care and payment reform. My commentary acknowledges that an obstacle to the selection of population health metrics is the differing definitions of population health. Rather than choosing between these definitions, I identified five categories of indicators, ranging from traditional clinical care prevention interventions to those that measure investment in community-level nonclinical services, that in various combinations might yield the most promising results. I offer concrete examples of markers in each of the categories and show that there is a growing number of individuals eager to receive concrete recommendations and implement population health pilot programs. PMID:25602896

  15. Health Behaviors, Mental Health, and Health Care Utilization Among Single Mothers After Welfare Reforms in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanjay; Rehkopf, David H; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Glymour, M Maria; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-03-15

    We studied the health of low-income US women affected by the largest social policy change in recent US history: the 1996 welfare reforms. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1993-2012), we performed 2 types of analysis. First, we used difference-in-difference-in-differences analyses to estimate associations between welfare reforms and health outcomes among the most affected women (single mothers aged 18-64 years in 1997; n = 219,469) compared with less affected women (married mothers, single nonmothers, and married nonmothers of the same age range in 1997; n = 2,422,265). We also used a synthetic control approach in which we constructed a more ideal control group for single mothers by weighting outcomes among the less affected groups to match pre-reform outcomes among single mothers. In both specifications, the group most affected by welfare reforms (single mothers) experienced worse health outcomes than comparison groups less affected by the reforms. For example, the reforms were associated with at least a 4.0-percentage-point increase in binge drinking (95% confidence interval: 0.9, 7.0) and a 2.4-percentage-point decrease in the probability of being able to afford medical care (95% confidence interval: 0.1, 4.8) after controlling for age, educational level, and health care insurance status. Although the reforms were applauded for reducing welfare dependency, they may have adversely affected health. PMID:26946395

  16. Positioning advanced practice registered nurses for health care reform: consensus on APRN regulation.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Joan M; Werner, Kathryn E; Apple, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) have positioned themselves to serve an integral role in national health care reform. This article addresses both the policy and the process to develop this policy that has placed them in a strategic position. A successful transformation of the nation's health system will require utilization of all clinicians, particularly primary care providers, to the full extent of their education and scope of practice. APRNs are highly qualified clinicians who provide cost-effective, accessible, patient-centered care and have the education to provide the range of services at the heart of the reform movement, including care coordination, chronic care management, and wellness and preventive care. The APRN community faces many challenges amidst the opportunities of health reform. However, the APRN community's triumph in reaching consensus on APRN regulation signifies a cohesive approach to overcoming the obstacles. The consensus model for APRN regulation, endorsed by 44 national nursing organizations, will serve as a beacon for nursing, as well as a guidepost for consumers and policymakers, on titling, education, certification, accreditation, and licensing for all four APRN roles. PMID:19942200

  17. Rates of Insurance for Injured Patients Before and After Health Care Reform in Massachusetts: A Possible Case of Double Jeopardy

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Courtney E.; Wiseman, Jason T.; Psoinos, Charles M.; Flahive, Julie M.; Kiefe, Catarina I.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined how preinjury insurance status and injury-related outcomes among able-bodied, community-dwelling adults treated at a Level I Trauma Center in central Massachusetts changed after health care reform. Methods. We compared insurance status at time of injury among non-Medicare-eligible adult Massachusetts residents before (2004–2005) and after (2009–2010) health care reform, adjusted for demographic and injury covariates, and modeled associations between insurance status and trauma outcomes. Results. Among 2148 patients before health care reform and 2477 patients after health care reform, insurance rates increased from 77% to 84% (P < .001). Younger patients, men, minorities, and penetrating trauma victims were less likely to be insured irrespective of time period. Uninsured patients were more likely to be discharged home without services (adjusted odds ratio = 3.46; 95% confidence interval = 2.65, 4.52) compared with insured patients. Conclusions. Preinjury insurance rates increased for trauma patients after health care reform but remained lower than in the general population. Certain Americans may be in “double jeopardy” of both higher injury incidence and worse outcomes because socioeconomic factors placing them at risk for injury also present barriers to compliance with an individual insurance mandate. PMID:24825208

  18. New systems of care for substance use disorders: treatment, finance, and technology under health care reform.

    PubMed

    Pating, David R; Miller, Michael M; Goplerud, Eric; Martin, Judith; Ziedonis, Douglas M

    2012-06-01

    This article outlined ways in which persons with addiction are currently underserved by our current health care system. However, with the coming broad scale reforms to our health care system, the access to and availability of high-quality care for substance use disorders will increase. Addiction treatments will continue to be offered through traditional substance abuse care systems, but these will be more integrated with primary care, and less separated as treatment facilities leverage opportunities to blend services, financing mechanisms, and health information systems under federally driven incentive programs. To further these reforms, vigilance will be needed by consumers, clinicians, and policy makers to assure that the unmet treatment needs of individuals with addiction are addressed. Embedded in this article are essential recommendations to facilitate the improvement of care for substance use disorders under health care reform. Ultimately, as addiction care acquires more of the “look and feel” of mainstream medicine, it is important to be mindful of preexisting trends in health care delivery overall that are reflected in recent health reform legislation. Within the world of addiction care, clinicians must move beyond their self-imposed “stigmatization” and sequestration of specialty addiction treatment. The problem for addiction care, as it becomes more “mainstream,” is to not comfortably feel that general slogans like “Treatment Works,” as promoted by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s Center for Substance Abuse Treatment during its annual Recovery Month celebrations, will meet the expectations of stakeholders outside the specialty addiction treatment community. Rather, the problem is to show exactly how addiction treatment works, and to what extent it works-there have to be metrics showing changes in symptom level or functional outcome, changes in health care utilization, improvements in workplace attendance and

  19. The ways and means of national health care reform, 1974 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Wainess, F J

    1999-04-01

    Little attention has been paid in the health policy and welfare state literature to the politics of health care reform in the 1970s. Drawing on newspaper accounts and archival material collected from the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and the National Archives, I outline the political history of health care reform in the 93rd Congress. In doing so, I highlight critical institutional, environmental, and strategic lessons that today's reformers can learn from the experience of 1974. PMID:10321359

  20. Evidence-based medicine in health care reform.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Gordon B

    2011-10-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 mandates a national comparative outcomes research project agenda. Comparative effectiveness research includes both clinical trials and observational studies and is facilitated by electronic health records. A national network of electronic health records will create a vast electronic data "warehouse" with exponential growth of observational data. High-quality associations will identify research topics for pragmatic clinical trials, and systematic reviews of clinical trials will provide optimal evidence-based medicine. Evidence-based medicine is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. Thus, health care reform will provide a robust environment for comparative effectiveness research, systematic reviews, and evidence-based medicine, and implementation of evidence-based medicine should lead to improved quality of care. PMID:21860057

  1. The political challenges that may undermine health reform.

    PubMed

    Skocpol, Theda

    2010-07-01

    As with all major social legislation, years of decisions and disputes over implementation lie ahead for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Opponents at the state and national levels may seek the law's judicial overturn or repeal. However, a far more serious effort to undermine the law will come about through challenges to various administrative arrangements, taxes, and subsidies to fund expansions of coverage. The redistributive aspects of health reform will be especially at risk, as business interests and groups of more-privileged citizens press for lower taxes, looser regulations, and reduced subsidies for low-income people. PMID:20606175

  2. The Role of Informatics in Health Care Reform

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yueyi I.

    2012-01-01

    Improving healthcare quality while simultaneously reducing cost has become a high priority of healthcare reform. Informatics is crucial in tackling this challenge. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 mandates adaptation and “meaningful use (MU)” of health information technology. In this review, we will highlight several areas in which informatics can make significant contributions, with a focus on radiology. We also discuss informatics related to the increasing imperatives of state and local regulations (such as radiation dose tracking) and quality initiatives. PMID:22771052

  3. Malaria control reinvented: health sector reform and strategy development in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Axel; Ordoñez-Gonzalez, José; Aviña, Ana Isabel

    2002-05-01

    The consequences of health sector reforms on control of malaria were analysed using Colombia as an example. One of the most complex health sector reform programmes in Latin America took place in the 1990s; it included transferring the vertical vector-borne disease control (VBDC) programme into health systems at state and district levels. A series of studies was undertaken in 1998-2000 at the national level (Ministry of Health Study), at the state level (Departamento Study) and at the health district level (District Study) using formal and informal interviews among control staff and document analysis as data collection tools. A government-financed national training programme for VBDC staff - which included direct observation of control operations - was also used to analyse health workers' performance in the postreform period (longitudinal study). The results showed that some shortcomings of the old vertical system, such as the negative aspects of trade union activity, have not been overcome while some positive aspects of the old system, such as capacity building, operational planning and supervision have been lost. This has contributed to a decrease in control activity which, in turn, has been associated with more malaria cases. Malaria control had to be reinvented at a much larger scale than anticipated by the reformers caused by a whole series of problems: complex financing of public health interventions in the new system, massive staff reductions, the difficulty of gaining access to district and state budgets, redefining entire organizations and - in addition to the reforms - introducing alternative strategies based on insecticide-treated materials and the growth of areas of general insecurity in many parts of Colombia itself. However, positive signs in the transformed system include: the strengthening of central control staff (albeit insufficient in numbers) when transferred from the Ministry of Health to the National Institute of Health, the opportunities

  4. Federal health services grants, 1985.

    PubMed

    Zwick, D I

    1986-01-01

    Federal health services grants amounted to about $1.8 billion in fiscal year 1985. The total amount was about $100 million less, about 6 percent, than in 1980. Reductions in the health planning program accounted for most of the decline in absolute dollars. The four formula grants to State agencies amounted to about $1.0 billion in 1985, about 60 percent of the total. The largest formula grants were for maternal and child health services and for alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health services. Project grants to selected State and local agencies amounted to about $.8 billion. There was 12 such grants in 1985 (compared with 34 in 1980). The largest, for community health services, equaled almost half the total. In real, inflation-adjusted dollars, the decline in Federal funds for these programs exceeded a third during the 5-year period. The overall dollar total in real terms in 1985 approximated the 1970 level. The ratio of formula grants to project grants in 1985 was similar to that in 1965. Studies of the impact of changes in Federal grants have found that while the development of health programs has been seriously constrained in most cases, their nature has not been substantially altered. In some cases broader program approaches and allocations have been favored. Established modes of operations and administration have generally been strengthened. Some efficiencies but few savings in administration have been identified. Replacement of reduced Federal funding by the States has been modest but has increased over time, especially for direct service activities. These changes reflect the important influence of professionalism in the health fields and the varying strengths of political interest and influence among program supporters. The long-term impact on program innovation is not yet clear. PMID:3094081

  5. Medical Student Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Medical school is a stressful and challenging time in the academic career of physicians. Because of the psychological pressure inherent to this process, all medical schools should have easily accessible medical student mental health services. Some schools of medicine provide these services through departments of psychiatry or other associated training programs. Since this stressful lifestyle often continues through residency training and life as a physician, this is a critical period in which to develop and utilize functional and effective coping strategies. When psychiatrists provide the mental health treatment to medical students, it is important to consider transference and countertransference issues, over intellectualization, and instances of strong idealization and identification. PMID:19724734

  6. 75 FR 62684 - Health Insurance Reform; Announcement of Maintenance Changes to Electronic Data Transaction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... Register (65 FR 50312) entitled ``Health Insurance Reform: Standards for Electronic Transactions... the Federal Register (73 FR 49742) entitled ``Health Insurance Reform: Modifications to Electronic... January 16, 2009, we published a final rule in the Federal Register (74 FR 3296) entitled Health...

  7. The politics of paying for health reform: zombies, payroll taxes, and the holy grail.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the politics of paying for health care reform. It surveys the political strengths and weaknesses of major options to fund universal coverage and explores obstacles to changing how the United States finances health care. Finding a politically viable means to finance universal coverage remains a central barrier to enacting health reform. PMID:18940835

  8. Public service or commodity goods? Electricity reforms, access, and the politics of development in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanadan, Rebecca Hansing

    Since the 1990s, power sector reforms have become paramount in energy policy, catalyzing a debate in Africa about market-based service provision and the effects of reforms on access. My research seeks to move beyond the conceptual divide by grounding attention not in abstract 'market forces' but rather in how development institutions shape energy services and actually practice policy on the ground. Using the case of Tanzania, a country known for having instituted some of the most extensive reforms and a 'success story' in Africa, I find that reforms are creating large burdens and barriers for access and use of services, including: increasing costs, enforcement pressures, and measures to impose 'market' discipline. However, I also find that many of the most significant outcomes are not found in direct 'market' changes, but rather how reforms are selective, partial, and shaped by the wider needs and claims of the institutions driving reforms, so that questions of how reforms are implemented, how they are measured, and who tells the story become as important as the policies themselves. Using a multiple-arenas framework, including (i) a household and community level study of urban energy conditions, (ii) a study of service and management conditions at the national electric utility, (iii) an examination of the international policy process, and (iv) a study of the history of electricity services across colonial, post-independence, and reform periods, I show that African energy reforms are a technical and political project connecting energy to international investments, donor aid programs, and elite interests within national governments. Energy reforms also involve fundamental service changes that are reorganizing how the costs and benefits of energy systems are distributed, allocated, and managed. The effects of reform extend beyond formal services to have wide-reaching repercussions within natural resources, and uneven social dynamics on the ground. These features point

  9. Comprehensive health care reform in Vermont: a conversation with Governor Jim Douglas. Interview by James Maxwell.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Jim

    2007-01-01

    In this conversation, Vermont's Republican governor, Jim Douglas, discusses his role in and views on the state's comprehensive health reforms adopted in 2006. The reforms are designed to provide universal access to coverage, improve the quality and performance of the health care system, and promote health and wellness across the lifespan. He describes the specific features of the reforms, the plan for their financing, and the difficult compromises that had to be reached with the Democratically controlled legislature. He talks about his need, as governor, to balance the goals of health reform against other state priorities such as education and economic development. PMID:17940086

  10. Gender-planned health services.

    PubMed

    Raikes, A; Shoo, R; Brabin, L

    1992-08-01

    Gender-planned health services are planned on the basis that women and men play different roles in society and have different medical needs. The feminist movement has provided a broad charter of rights for women, reflecting women's needs, but these have yet to be translated into operational programmes. National programmes for women would allow co-ordination of broad-based programmes to improve women's health and social position. To change social norms discriminating against women will require changing male attitudes. Health programmes for males have received little attention, except from family planning organizations, although in most countries, males have a high rate of accidents, infections and parasitic disease. Controlled studies are required to evaluate the benefits of gender-planned health services. PMID:1489242

  11. Health Reform and Academic Health Centers: Commentary on an Evolving Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Wartman, Steven A; Zhou, Yingying; Knettel, Anthony J

    2015-12-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), both directly and indirectly, has had a demonstrable impact on academic health centers. Given the highly cross-subsidized nature of institutional funds flows, the impact of health reform is not limited to the clinical care mission but also extends to the research and education missions of these institutions. This Commentary discusses how public policy and market-based health reforms have played out relative to expectations. The authors identify six formidable challenges facing academic health centers in the post-ACA environment: finding the best mission balance; preparing for the era of no open-ended funding; developing an integrated, interprofessional vision; broadening the institutional perspective; addressing health beyond clinical care; and finding the right leadership for the times. Academic health centers will be well positioned for success if they can focus on 21st-century realities, reengineer their business models, and find transformational leaders to change institutional culture and behavior. PMID:26422592

  12. Does Australia have the appropriate health reform agenda to close the gap in Indigenous health?

    PubMed

    Donato, Ronald; Segal, Leonie

    2013-05-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the national Indigenous reform strategy - known as Closing the Gap - in the context of broader health system reforms underway to assess whether current attempts at addressing Indigenous disadvantage are likely to be successful. Drawing upon economic theory and empirical evidence, the paper analyses key structural features necessary for securing system performance gains capable of reducing health disparities. Conceptual and empirical attention is given to the features of comprehensive primary healthcare, which encompasses the social determinants impacting on Indigenous health. An important structural prerequisite for securing genuine improvements in health outcomes is the unifying of all funding and policy responsibilities for comprehensive primary healthcare for Indigenous Australians within a single jurisdictional framework. This would provide the basis for implementing several key mutually reinforcing components necessary for enhancing primary healthcare system performance. The announcement to introduce a long-term health equality plan in partnership with Aboriginal people represents a promising development and may provide the window of opportunity needed for implementing structural reforms to primary healthcare. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? Notwithstanding the intention of previous policies, considerable health disparity exists between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Australia has now embarked on its most ambitious national Indigenous health reform strategy, but there has been little academic analysis of whether such reforms are capable of eliminating health disadvantage for Aboriginal people.WHAT DOES THE PAPER ADD? This paper provides a critical analysis of Indigenous health reforms to assess whether such policy initiatives are likely to be successful and outlines key structural changes to primary healthcare system arrangements that are necessary to secure genuine system performance gains and improve health

  13. A literature review of the regional implementation of the central Swedish government's health care reforms on choice and privatization.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Björn; Wilkens, Jens

    2015-12-01

    The introduction in 2010 of the Freedom of Choice Act represents one of the most far-reaching reforms of the Swedish health system. While it is mandatory for the regional counties to introduce choice plans for primary care it is voluntary for ambulatory specialist services. The voluntary nature of the regulations for the latter types of care generates a potential gap between the central government's reform attempts and the regional implementation of the plans. We review the regional implementation of this reform with respect to specialist services from a political economy perspective. Data on the scope of implementation show that counties of the same political ideology as the central government have introduced the most choice plans for specialist care. In particular, counties ruled by right-wing majorities have introduced the Choice Act to a considerably larger extent than left-wing counties. This creates a highly uneven situation across the various parts of the country, possibly at odds with the basic premises of the country's health law of equal access to care. The introduction of choice plans forms part of a decidedly contentious set of issues that are high on the political agenda of Sweden. The nature and impacts of these reforms are also a concern to the general public and the broader industry. Considerably more rigorous analyses will be needed to assess the impact on key policy parameters such as overall system efficiency and equitable access to services as a result of these changes to the health care markets. PMID:26650814

  14. Changing trends in mental health legislation: anatomy of reforming a civil commitment law.

    PubMed

    Aviram, U; Weyer, R A

    1996-01-01

    In this article, we discuss changing trends of mental health legislation in the United States using a case study of the process of reforming the civil commitment law in New Jersey. That state's new commitment law, commonly called the "screening law," was enacted after a thirteen-year legislative process. Changes in the orientation of the proposed legislation and the dynamics of the process of reforming the commitment law in the state exemplify changing national trends in civil commitment legislation. We consider how the proposed legislation shifted in emphasis from a strong civil libertarian orientation to a social service approach. We assess the role of various interest groups, their negotiations, and the compromises that emerged. Our analysis of the process shows that changes in the social and political environment were the decisive factors that stimulated the process of reforming the civil commitment laws. Many of these changes occurred outside the mental health system and could be neither anticipated nor controlled by the various parties. Our examination of the process and the final outcome of this legislation reveals how organizations and interest groups, in their efforts to adapt to changing conditions, shaped the legislative outcome according to their interests. PMID:8892006

  15. Effecting Successful Community Re-Entry: Systems of Care Community Based Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Rebecca I.; Fette, Claudette; Scaffa, Marjorie E.

    2005-01-01

    The need for system reform for child and adolescent mental health services, long recognized as a vital issue, continues to challenge mental health professionals. While past legislation has not adequately addressed the issues, the 2003 President's New Freedom Commission may begin to reorient mental health systems toward recovery. Supported by this…

  16. Market reforms in health care and sustainability of the welfare state: lessons from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Diderichsen, F

    1995-01-01

    Reforming health care systems which are predominantly publicly provided and financed has usually been motivated as a way of increasing efficiency even if it seldom is explicit whether it is in the official sense related to individual utility or in the unofficial sense related to health outcomes. In the case of Sweden the welfare state has been made politically sustainable through a construction where cash benefits and service provision are tailored to satisfy not only the basic needs but even the more discriminating needs of the middle classes. Their loyalty with the taxes is politically crucial and therefore their evaluation of the services in the welfarist sense equally important. That loyalty was however threatened in a situation where cost-containment policies were applied while equity principles were still a strong priority. Health care utilization was increasing among the very old and chronically ill while it was decreasing for other groups. The reforms introduced in some counties during the 1990s have been focussing on a purchaser-provider split and fee-for-service payment of providers. They have increased productivity sharply, increased utilization even among the groups that previously were 'pressed out' and reduced waiting lists. Increased efficiency however, threatens equity in some specific aspects. Fee-for-service payment means increased production and so far even increased costs. If they are to be met with increased private financing, rather than with present tax financing, it will bring the risk of inequities. Payment of hospitals through DRG systems means payment to providers for medical interventions with no incentives to deal with social consequences of illness. Inequities in health care can be related to the way health care deals with inequalities in health due to inequalities in living conditions or inequalities in living conditions due to ill health. In the short perspective the reforms may threaten equity in the second aspect, in the longer

  17. Opportunities in Reform: Bioethics and Mental Health Ethics.

    PubMed

    Williams, Arthur Robin

    2016-05-01

    Last year marks the first year of implementation for both the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act in the United States. As a result, healthcare reform is moving in the direction of integrating care for physical and mental illness, nudging clinicians to consider medical and psychiatric comorbidity as the expectation rather than the exception. Understanding the intersections of physical and mental illness with autonomy and self-determination in a system realigning its values so fundamentally therefore becomes a top priority for clinicians. Yet Bioethics has missed opportunities to help guide clinicians through one of medicine's most ethically rich and challenging fields. Bioethics' distancing from mental illness is perhaps best explained by two overarching themes: 1) An intrinsic opposition between approaches to personhood rooted in Bioethics' early efforts to protect the competent individual from abuses in the research setting; and 2) Structural forces, such as deinstitutionalization, the Patient Rights Movement, and managed care. These two themes help explain Bioethics' relationship to mental health ethics and may also guide opportunities for rapprochement. The potential role for Bioethics may have the greatest implications for international human rights if bioethicists can re-energize an understanding of autonomy as not only free from abusive intrusions but also with rights to treatment and other fundamental necessities for restoring freedom of choice and self-determination. Bioethics thus has a great opportunity amid healthcare reform to strengthen the important role of the virtuous and humanistic care provider. PMID:26424211

  18. OPPORTUNITIES IN REFORM: BIOETHICS AND MENTAL HEALTH ETHICS

    PubMed Central

    WILLIAMS, ARTHUR ROBINSON

    2015-01-01

    This year marks the first year of implementation for both the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act in the United States. Resultantly healthcare reform is moving in the direction of integrating care for physical and mental illness, nudging clinicians to consider medical and psychiatric comorbidity as the expectation rather than the exception. Understanding the intersections of physical and mental illness with autonomy and self-determination in a system realigning its values so fundamentally therefore becomes a top priority for clinicians. Yet Bioethics has missed opportunities to help guide clinicians through one of medicine’s most ethically rich and challenging fields. Bioethics’ distancing from mental illness is perhaps best explained by two overarching themes: 1) an intrinsic opposition between approaches to personhood rooted in Bioethics’ early efforts to protect the competent individual from abuses in the research setting; and 2) structural forces, such as deinstitutionalization, the Patient Rights Movement, and managed care. These two themes help explain Bioethics’ relationship to mental health ethics and may also guide opportunities for rapprochement. The potential role for Bioethics may have the greatest implications for international human rights if bioethicists can re-energize an understanding of autonomy as not only free from abusive intrusions but also with rights to treatment and other fundamental necessities for restoring freedom of choice and self-determination. Bioethics thus has a great opportunity amid healthcare reform to strengthen the important role of the virtuous and humanistic care provider. PMID:26424211

  19. "Diagnosing" Saudi health reforms: is NHIS the right "prescription"?

    PubMed

    Al-Sharqi, Omar Zayan; Abdullah, Muhammad Tanweer

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines the health context of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). It reviews health systems development in the KSA from 1925 through to contemporary New Health Insurance System (NHIS). It also examines the consistency of NHIS in view of the emerging challenges. This paper identifies the determinants and scope of contextual consistency. First, it indicates the need to evolve an indigenous, integrated, and comprehensive insurance system. Second, it highlights the access and equity gaps in service delivery across the rural and remote regions and suggests how to bring these under insurance coverage. Third, it suggests how inputs from both the public and private sectors should be harmonized - the "quality" of services in the private healthcare industry to be regulated by the state and international standards, its scope to be determined primarily by open-market dynamics and the public sector welfare-model to ensure "access" of all to essential health services. Fourth, it states the need to implement an evidence-based public health policy and bridge inherent gaps in policy design and personal-level lifestyles. Fifth, it points out the need to produce a viable infrastructure for health insurance. Because social research and critical reviews in the KSA health scenario are rare, this paper offers insights into the mainstream challenges of NHIS implementation and identifies the inherent weaknesses that need attention. It guides health policy makers, economists, planners, healthcare service managers, and even the insurance businesses, and points to key directions for similar research in future. PMID:23047768

  20. [Smart cards in health services].

    PubMed

    Rienhoff, O

    2001-10-01

    Since the early 1980-ties it has been tried to utilise smart cards in health care. All industrialised countries participated in those efforts. The most sustainable analyses took place in Europe--specifically in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. The first systems installed (the service access cards in F and G, the Health Professional Card in F) are already conceptionally outdated today. The senior understanding of the great importance of smart cards for security of electronic communication in health care does contrast to a hesitating behaviour of the key players in health care and health politics in Germany. There are clear hints that this may relate to the low informatics knowledge of current senior management. PMID:11688229

  1. Key findings from HSC's 2010 site visits: health care markets weather economic downturn, brace for health reform.

    PubMed

    Felland, Laurie E; Grossman, Joy M; Tu, Ha T

    2011-05-01

    Lingering fallout--loss of jobs and employer coverage--from the great recession slowed demand for health care services but did little to slow aggressive competition by dominant hospital systems for well-insured patients, according to key findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) 2010 site visits to 12 nationally representative metropolitan communities. Hospitals with significant market clout continued to command high payment rate increases from private insurers, and tighter hospital-physician alignment heightened concerns about growing provider market power. High and rising premiums led to increasing employer adoption of consumer-driven health plans and continued increases in patient cost sharing, but the broader movement to educate and engage consumers in care decisions did not keep pace. State and local budget deficits led to some funding cuts for safety net providers, but an influx of federal stimulus funds increased support to community health centers and shored up Medicaid programs, allowing many people who lost private insurance because of job losses to remain covered. Hospitals, physicians and insurers generally viewed health reform coverage expansions favorably, but all worried about protecting revenues as reform requirements phase in. PMID:21614861

  2. Birth of a health service.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G

    On April 18th, independent Zimbabwe celebrated its 3rd birthday. In 1980, within days after taking power, Robert Mugabe's government announced that health care was to be free to everyone earning less then Z150 (60 British pounds) a month--the vast majority of the population. Although the free services are a good public relations policy, more important was the decision to expand the health services at grassroots level and to shift emphasis from an urban based curative system to rural based preventive care. Zimbabwe desperately needs doctors. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the country has some 1400 registered doctors, roughly 1 for every 6000 people. Yet, of the 1400, under 300 work in the government health services and many of those are based in Harare, the capital. Of Zimbabwe's 28 district hospitals, only 14 have a full-time doctor. In some rural areas, there is 1 doctor/100,000 or more people. The nature of the country's health problems, coupled with the government's severe shortage of cash, shows why nursing is so crucial to Zimbabwe's development. If the rural communities, which make up 85% of the population, were to have easy access to a qualified nurse, or even a nursing assistant, the quality of life would double. The only thing that is more important is a clean water supply. Possibly the most important role for nurses in Zimbabwe is that of education. Nurses can spread awareness of basic hygiene, raise the skill of local people in dealing with minor health problems independently, carry out immunization programs, offer contraceptive advice, give guidance on breastfeeding and infant nutrition, and work with practitioners of traditional African medicines to make sure they possess basic scientific knowledge. Rebuilding after the war was not a major problem for the Mugabe health ministry, for in many areas there was simply nothing to rebuild. There were never any health services. A far greater problem has been the top heavy structure of the

  3. A gendered users' perspective on decentralized primary health services in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Masanyiwa, Zacharia S; Niehof, Anke; Termeer, Catrien J A M

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Tanzania has been implementing health sector reforms including decentralization of primary healthcare services to districts and users. The impact of the reforms on the access, quality and appropriateness of primary healthcare services from the viewpoint of users is, however, not clearly documented. This article draws on a gendered users' perspective to address the question of whether the delivery of gender-sensitive primary health services has improved after the reforms. The article is based on empirical data collected through a household survey, interviews, focus group discussions, case studies and analysis of secondary data in two rural districts in Tanzania. The analysis shows that the reforms have generated mixed effects: they have contributed to improving the availability of health facilities in some villages but have also reinforced inter-village inequalities. Men and women hold similar views on the perceived changes and appropriateness to women on a number of services. Gender inequalities are, however, reflected in the significantly low membership of female-headed households in the community health fund and their inability to pay the user fees and in the fact that women's reproductive and maternal health needs are as yet insufficiently addressed. Although over half of users are satisfied with the services, more women than men are dissatisfied. The reforms appear to have put much emphasis on building health infrastructure and less on quality issues as perceived by users. PMID:24285278

  4. Developing School Health Services in Massachusetts: A Public Health Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheetz, Anne H.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993 the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) began defining essential components of school health service programs, consistent with the public health model. The MDPH designed and funded the Enhanced School Health Service Programs to develop 4 core components of local school health services: (a) strengthening the administrative…

  5. An Implication of Health Sector Reform for Disadvantaged Women's Struggle for Birth Control: A Case of Kurdish Rural-Urban Migrant Women in Van, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Him, Miki Suzuki; Hoşgör, Ayşe Gündüz

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we examine how socioeconomically disadvantaged women are affected by health sector reform and family planning policy changes in Turkey through a case study of Kurdish women's struggles for birth control. In Turkey, a family planning program became relatively marginalized in primary health care services as a result of health sector reform as well as a shift of population policy toward a moderately pronatal approach. We argue that an emerging health care system would leave disadvantaged women unable to benefit from contraceptives and would perpetuate reproductive health inequalities between women in the country. PMID:24134209

  6. Health care reform, behavioral health, and the criminal justice population.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Alison Evans; Cheema, Jehanzeb

    2014-10-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has a number of important features for individuals who are involved with the criminal justice system. Among the most important changes is the expansion of Medicaid to more adults. The current study estimates that 10% of the total Medicaid expansion could include individuals who have experienced recent incarceration. The ACA also emphasizes the importance of mental health and substance abuse benefits, potentially changing the landscape of behavioral health treatment providers willing to serve criminal justice populations. Finally, it seeks to promote coordinated care delivery. New care delivery and appropriate funding models are needed to address the behavioral health and other chronic conditions experienced by those in criminal justice and to coordinate care within the complex structure of the justice system itself. PMID:24807645

  7. [Reflections on health planning and on health reform in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lana, F C; Gomes, E L

    1996-01-01

    The authors considered carefully the brazilian social policies at the regimes of populism and militarism as well as at the democratic transition following the presupposition that the social planning in Latin America emerged as an instrument for social policies formulation. The authors also considered some tendencies of the Latin America Planning, emphasizing the Strategic Focus of the Health Program formulated by the Public Health School of Medellin; the Strategic Thought elaborated by Mario Testa; and the Strategic Situational Planning developed by Carlos Matus. PMID:8807976

  8. Viewpoint: Prevention is missing: is China's health reform reform for health?

    PubMed

    Yang, Le; Zhang, Xiaoli; Tan, Tengfei; Cheng, Jingmin

    2015-02-01

    Ancient China emphasized disease prevention. As a Chinese saying goes, 'it is more important to prevent the disease than to cure it'. Traditional Chinese medicine posits that diseases can be understood, thus, prevented. In today's China, the state of people's health seems worse than in the past. Thus the Chinese government undertook the creation of a new health system. Alas, we believe the results are not very satisfactory. The government seems to have overlooked rational allocation between resources for treatment and prevention. Public investment has been gradually limited to the domain of treatment. We respond to this trend, highlighting the importance of prevention and call for government and policymakers to adjust health policy and work out a solution suitable for improving the health of China's people. PMID:25274124

  9. Abortion health services in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Wendy V.; Guilbert, Edith R.; Okpaleke, Christopher; Hayden, Althea S.; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; White, Katharine O’Connell; Jones, Heidi E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the location of Canadian abortion services relative to where reproductive-age women reside, and the characteristics of abortion facilities and providers. Design An international survey was adapted for Canadian relevance. Public sources and professional networks were used to identify facilities. The bilingual survey was distributed by mail and e-mail from July to November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures The number and location of services were compared with the distribution of reproductive-age women by location of residence. Results We identified 94 Canadian facilities providing abortion in 2012, with 48.9% in Quebec. The response rate was 83.0% (78 of 94). Facilities in every jurisdiction with services responded. In Quebec and British Columbia abortion services are nearly equally present in large urban centres and rural locations throughout the provinces; in other Canadian provinces services are chiefly located in large urban areas. No abortion services were identified in Prince Edward Island. Respondents reported provision of 75 650 abortions in 2012 (including 4.0% by medical abortion). Canadian facilities reported minimal or no harassment, in stark contrast to American facilities that responded to the same survey. Conclusion Access to abortion services varies by region across Canada. Services are not equitably distributed in relation to the regions where reproductive-age women reside. British Columbia and Quebec have demonstrated effective strategies to address disparities. Health policy and service improvements have the potential to address current abortion access inequity in Canada. These measures include improved access to mifepristone for medical abortion; provincial policies to support abortion services; routine abortion training within family medicine residency programs; and increasing the scope of practice for nurses and midwives to include abortion

  10. Turkish health system reform from the people’s perspective: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since 2003, Turkey has implemented major health care reforms to develop easily accessible, high-quality, efficient, and effective healthcare services for the population. The purpose of this study was to bring out opinions of the Turkish people on health system reform process, focusing on several aspects of health system and assessing whether the public prefer the current health system or that provided a decade ago. Methods A cross sectional survey study was carried out in Turkey to collect data on people’s opinions on the healthcare reforms. Data was collected via self administered household’s structured questionnaire. A five-point Likert-type scale was used to score the closed comparative statements. Each statement had response categories ranging from (1) “strongly agree” to (5) “strongly disagree.” A total of 482 heads of households (response rate: 71.7%) with the mean age of (46.60 years) were selected using a multi stage sampling technique from seven geographical regions in Turkey from October 2011 to January 2012. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to identify significant contributing factors in this study. Results Employing descriptive statistics it is observed that among the respondents, more than two third of the population believes that the changes have had positive effects on the health system. A vast majority of respondents (82.0%) believed that there was an increase in accessibility, 73.7% thought more availability of health resources, 72.6% alleged improved quality of care, and 72.6% believed better attitude of politician/mass media due to the changes in the last 10 years. Indeed, the majority of respondents (77.6%) prefer the current health care system than the past. In multivariate analysis, there was a statistically significant relationship between characteristics and opinions of the respondents. The elderly, married females, perceived themselves healthy and those who believe that people are happier now than 10 years

  11. Rating maternal and neonatal health services in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Bulatao, Rodolfo A.; Ross, John A.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess maternal and neonatal health services in 49 developing countries. METHODS: The services were rated on a scale of 0 to 100 by 10 - 25 experts in each country. The ratings covered emergency and routine services, including family planning, at health centres and district hospitals, access to these services for both rural and urban women, the likelihood that women would receive particular forms of antenatal and delivery care, and supporting elements of programmes such as policy, resources, monitoring, health promotion and training. FINDINGS: The average rating was only 56, but countries varied widely, especially in access to services in rural areas. Comparatively good ratings were reported for immunization services, aspects of antenatal care and counselling on breast feeding. Ratings were particularly weak for emergency obstetric care in rural areas, safe abortion and HIV counselling. CONCLUSION: Maternal health programme effort in developing countries is seriously deficient, particularly in rural areas. Rural women are disadvantaged in many respects, but especially regarding the treatment of emergency obstetric conditions. Both rural and urban women receive inadequate HIV counselling and testing and have quite limited access to safe abortion. Improving services requires moving beyond policy reform to strengthening implementation of services and to better staff training and health promotion. Increased financing is only part of the solution. PMID:12378290

  12. Comparison of health care financing in Egypt and Cuba: lessons for health reform in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gericke, C A

    2005-01-01

    Egypt and Cuba are both lower-middle income countries with a history of socialist rule, which have embarked on economic liberalization since the 1990s. Cuba has achieved exemplary health status whereas health status in Egypt is lower than could be expected for its level of income. In this article, health care financing mechanisms in both countries are analysed on their effectiveness, efficiency, and equity, with the objective of identifying the determinants of success in the Cuban health system from which valuable lessons for current health reforms in Egypt may be derived. PMID:16761679

  13. Cultures for mental health care of young people: an Australian blueprint for reform.

    PubMed

    McGorry, Patrick D; Goldstone, Sherilyn D; Parker, Alexandra G; Rickwood, Debra J; Hickie, Ian B

    2014-12-01

    Mental ill health is now the most important health issue facing young people worldwide. It is the leading cause of disability in people aged 10-24 years, contributing 45% of the overall burden of disease in this age group. Despite their manifest need, young people have the lowest rates of access to mental health care, largely as a result of poor awareness and help-seeking, structural and cultural flaws within the existing care systems, and the failure of society to recognise the importance of this issue and invest in youth mental health. We outline the case for a specific youth mental health stream and describe the innovative service reforms in youth mental health in Australia, using them as an example of the processes that can guide the development and implementation of such a service stream. Early intervention with focus on the developmental period of greatest need and capacity to benefit, emerging adulthood, has the potential to greatly improve the mental health, wellbeing, productivity, and fulfilment of young people, and our wider society. PMID:26361315

  14. 34 CFR 303.13 - Health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health services. 303.13 Section 303.13 Education... DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.13 Health services. (a) As used in this part, health services means services necessary to enable a child to benefit from the...

  15. 34 CFR 303.13 - Health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health services. 303.13 Section 303.13 Education... DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.13 Health services. (a) As used in this part, health services means services necessary to enable a child to benefit from the...

  16. Why is health care reform faltering? Delaware's experience.

    PubMed

    Frelick, R W

    1996-02-01

    Many managed care plans propose short-term economics, without stressing quality, assuring universal access, supporting research, or caring for the poor. None provide much in the way of preventive services. In the absence of any major national changes to assure universal access to health services, local health care providers and state regulatory agencies need to be freed from many restrictive federal laws and regulations. Relief is needed from well-intended federal controls which have usually made the health care system more expensive 1) by applying federal anti-trust regulations to prevent physicians from self-regulation and working to improve the health care system, 2) by making it difficult for physicians to do office laboratory work for their patients' convenience, 3) by making "safe" drugs expensive because of FDA regulations, 4) by sequentially spawning PRO, PSRO, and now the Health Care Quality Improvement Program (HCQIP) to "assure quality control" (they probably have not paid for themselves), 5) by not using the RBRVS system (accepted by HCFA as a way to relate a physician's fees to the resources required to perform a service) to stimulate physicians to enter primary care practice, 6) by giving tax breaks for insurance costs to big corporations but not to small businesses, and 7) by protecting self-insured businesses from state regulations. States should be allowed to obtain waivers from ERISA (which incidentally would improve competition) so states could regulate health insurers, try such proposals as a single payer system, or at least restore community rating and equity. This should improve access to technological advances in prevention and health care for all. More commissions and studies and federal laws are not the answer. Health care providers should be able to work together freely to deliver efficient, cost-effective health care. States should be able to assure preventive services, clinical research, public health support, professional education and

  17. More Promises To Keep: Sustaining Arizona's Capacity for Welfare and Health Reform (December 1, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe. Morrison Inst. for Public Policy.

    This publication presents the views expressed by the major speakers at "More Promises to Keep: Sustaining Arizona's Capacity for Welfare and Health Reform," concluding a 3-year study of welfare and health reform in the state. The publication also summarizes the discussions of three special interest sessions. The speakers' op-ed-style pieces and…

  18. A healthier future for all Australians: an overview of the final report of the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Christine C

    2009-10-01

    After extensive community and health industry consultation, the final report of the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission, A healthier future for all Australians, was presented to the Australian Government on 30 June 2009. The reform agenda aims to tackle major access and equity issues that affect health outcomes for people now; redesign our health system so that it is better positioned to respond to emerging challenges; and create an agile, responsive and self-improving health system for long-term sustainability. The 123 recommendations are grouped in four themes: Taking responsibility: supporting greater individual and collective action to build good health and wellbeing. Connecting care: delivering comprehensive care for people over their lifetime, by strengthening primary health care, reshaping hospitals, improving subacute care, and opening up greater consumer choice and competition in aged care services. Facing inequities: taking action to tackle the causes and impact of health inequities, focusing on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, people in rural and remote areas, and access to mental health and dental services. Driving quality performance: having leadership and systems to achieve the best use of people, resources and knowledge, including "one health system" with national leadership and local delivery, revised funding arrangements, and changes to health workforce education, training and practice. PMID:19807629

  19. Health care agreements as a tool for coordinating health and social services

    PubMed Central

    Rudkjøbing, Andreas; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Vrangbaek, Karsten; Andersen, John Sahl; Krasnik, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In 2007, a substantial reform changed the administrative boundaries of the Danish health care system and introduced health care agreements to be signed between municipal and regional authorities. To assess the health care agreements as a tool for coordinating health and social services, a survey was conducted before (2005–2006) and after the reform (2011). Theory and methods The study was designed on the basis of a modified version of Alter and Hage's framework for conceptualising coordination. Both surveys addressed all municipal level units (n = 271/98) and a random sample of general practitioners (n = 700/853). Results The health care agreements were considered more useful for coordinating care than the previous health plans. The power relationship between the regional and municipal authorities in drawing up the agreements was described as more equal. Familiarity with the agreements among general practitioners was higher, as was the perceived influence of the health care agreements on their work. Discussion Health care agreements with specific content and with regular follow-up and systematic mechanisms for organising feedback between collaborative partners exemplify a useful tool for the coordination of health and social services. Conclusion There are substantial improvements with the new health agreements in terms of formalising a better coordination of the health care system. PMID:25550691

  20. Health Reform and the Constitutionality of the Individual Mandate

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeffrey J.; Kelly, Deena; McHugh, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 is landmark legislation designed to expand access to health care for virtually all legal U.S. residents. A vital but controversial provision of the ACA requires individuals to maintain health insurance coverage or face a tax penalty—the individual mandate. We examine the constitutionality of the individual mandate by analyzing relevant court decisions. A critical issue has been defining the “activities” Congress is authorized to regulate. Some judges determined that the mandate was constitutional because the decision to go without health insurance, that is, to self-insure, is an activity with substantial economic effects within the overall scheme of the ACA. Opponents suggest that Congress overstepped its authority by regulating “inactivity,” that is, compelling people to purchase insurance when they otherwise would not. The U.S. Supreme Court is set to review the issues and the final ruling will shape the effectiveness of health reform. PMID:22454219

  1. Restructuring the primary health care services and changing profile of family physicians in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, F; Sarp, N

    1998-12-01

    A new health-reform process has been initiated by Ministry of Health in Turkey. The aim of that reform is to improve the health status of the Turkish population and to provide health care to all citizens in an efficient and equitable manner. The restructuring of the current health system will allow more funds to be allocated to primary and preventive care and will create a managed market for secondary and tertiary care. In this article, we review the current and proposed primary care services models and the role of family physicians therein. PMID:10078801

  2. Client Centeredness and Health Reform: Key Issues for Occupational Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mroz, Tracy M; Pitonyak, Jennifer S; Fogelberg, Donald; Leland, Natalie E

    2015-01-01

    Health reform promotes the delivery of patient-centered care. Occupational therapy's rich history of client-centered theory and practice provides an opportunity for the profession to participate in the evolving discussion about how best to provide care that is truly patient centered. However, the growing emphasis on patient-centered care also poses challenges to occupational therapy's perspectives on client-centered care. We compare the conceptualizations of client-centered and patient-centered care and describe the current state of measurement of client-centered and patient-centered care. We then discuss implications for occupational therapy's research agenda, practice, and education within the context of patient-centered care, and propose next steps for the profession. PMID:26356651

  3. Health care reform: what history doesn't teach.

    PubMed

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2005-01-01

    The paper begins by tracing the historical development of American medicine as practice, profession, and industry from the eighteenth century to the present. This historical outline emphasizes shifting conceptions of physicians and physician ethics. It lays the basis for showing, in the second section, how contemporary controversies about the physician's role in managed care take root in medicine's past. In the final two sections, I revisit both the historical analysis and its application to contemporary debates. I argue that historical narratives can function as "master narratives" that suppress or leave out historical facts. I bring to the surface what is covered up by the master narrative approach, and show its relevance to contemporary ethical debates. I conclude by proposing that preserving the integrity of medicine will require modifying the master narratives we tell about physicians. The integrity of medicine also offers new perspectives for thinking about managed care and the broader topic of health care reform. PMID:16180111

  4. Health in China. From Mao to market reform.

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, T.; Wei, X. Z.

    1997-01-01

    After the Liberation by Mao Ze Dong's Communist army in 1949, China experienced massive social and economic change. The dramatic reductions in mortality and morbidity of the next two decades were brought about through improvements in socioeconomic conditions, an emphasis on prevention, and almost universal access to basic health care. The economic mismanagement of the Great Leap Forward brought about a temporary reversal in these positive trends. During the Cultural Revolution there was a sustained attack on the privileged position of the medical profession. Most city doctors were sent to work in the countryside, where they trained over a million barefoot doctors. Deng Xiao Ping's radical economic reforms of the late 1970s replaced the socialist system with a market economy. Although average incomes have increased, the gap between rich and poor has widened. PMID:9183206

  5. Client Centeredness and Health Reform: Key Issues for Occupational Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pitonyak, Jennifer S.; Fogelberg, Donald; Leland, Natalie E.

    2015-01-01

    Health reform promotes the delivery of patient-centered care. Occupational therapy’s rich history of client-centered theory and practice provides an opportunity for the profession to participate in the evolving discussion about how best to provide care that is truly patient centered. However, the growing emphasis on patient-centered care also poses challenges to occupational therapy’s perspectives on client-centered care. We compare the conceptualizations of client-centered and patient-centered care and describe the current state of measurement of client-centered and patient-centered care. We then discuss implications for occupational therapy’s research agenda, practice, and education within the context of patient-centered care, and propose next steps for the profession. PMID:26356651

  6. The Genesis, Implementation and Impact of the Better Access Mental Health Initiative Introducing Medicare-Funded Psychology Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Lyn; Giese, Jill

    2008-01-01

    The Australian Government's Better Access to Mental Health Care initiative introduced mental health reforms that included the availability of Medicare-funded psychology services. The mental health initiative has resulted in a huge uptake of these services, demonstrating the strong community demand for psychological treatment. The initiative has…

  7. [Impact of the public health reform law on research and education].

    PubMed

    Strehl, R

    1995-01-01

    The statutory health insurance reform law of 1993 had a serious impact on the management of university hospitals. Firstly, the phase of strict budget caps, new in and out patient services could only be introduced when compensated with the elimination of other services. Most universities have mastered this challenge. In the second phase, an entirely new system of hospital fees will be introduced. This will lead to a high degree of uncertainty on the financial situation of the university hospitals. The new regulation on hospital fees only insufficiently takes into consideration tertiary care hospitals. A severe loss of income has to be reckoned with. The funding of current subsidies for medical research, training, construction projects and big-ticket equipment is threatened by the fiscal budget crisis due to the current recession and the heavy financial burdens of the German reunification. Therefore fundamental reforms with regard to the statutory form, the form of ownership, the responsibilities of the university hospital, the organization of management and decision processes, the public service law and investment financing are all unavoidable. PMID:7676746

  8. Public Service Reform in Education: Why Is Progress so Slow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines why public-sector reform in education often fails to deliver expected performance gains. Longitudinal evidence from a secondary comprehensive located in a former coalfield is used to identify constraints that frustrate government policies. Although the head and senior staff at Norcross School adopted transformational,…

  9. Income-related inequality in perceived oral health among adult Finns before and after a major dental subsidization reform.

    PubMed

    Raittio, Eero; Aromaa, Arpo; Kiiskinen, Urpo; Helminen, Sari; Suominen, Anna Liisa

    2016-07-01

    Objectives In Finland, a dental subsidization reform, implemented in 2001-2002, abolished age restrictions on subsidized dental care. The aim of this study was to investigate income-related inequality in the perceived oral health and its determinants among adult Finns before and after the reform. Materials and methods Three identical cross-sectional nationally representative postal surveys, concerning perceived oral health and the use of dental services among people born before 1971, were conducted in 2001 (n = 2157), in 2004 (n = 1814) and in 2007 (n = 1671). Three measures of perceived oral health were used: toothache or oral discomfort during the past 12 months, current need for dental care and self-reported oral health status. Concentration index was used to analyse the income-related inequalities. Its decomposition was used to study factors related to the inequalities. Results The proportion of respondents reporting need for dental care decreased from 2001 to 2007, while no changes were seen in reports of toothache or self-reported oral health status. Income-related inequalities in reports of toothache and perceived need for care widened, while the inequality in self-reported oral health remained stable. Most of the inequalities were related to income itself, perceived general health and the time since the last visit to dental care. Conclusions It seems that the income-related inequalities in perceived oral health remained or even widened after the reform. PMID:26980421

  10. The Clintons stump for health care reform plan as details slowly emerge.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    In September 1993, in the US, Hillary Rodham Clinton, testified before 5 key congressional committees on President Clinton's plan to reform health care. Most of the money needed to finance the plan would come from elimination of waste in the current system. The administration has not yet formally sent the proposal to Congress. Family planning services are part of the proposed mandated benefit package, but the draft document does not provide details on family planning coverage while it discusses other mandated services in detail. Further, the draft document mentions neither family planning supplies (e.g., pills, IUDs, or diaphragms) nor whether family planning services will be considered preventive care, thereby exempting them from copayments or deductibles. It specifies prenatal care, periodic examinations, and screening test for children and adults (e.g., well-baby care and immunizations) as preventive services. The plan covers pregnancy-related care, but, other than exclusion of in vitro fertilization, this is not defined. The plan has a conscientious exemption option, but it is not clear as to whether the administration plans to continue the standing policy granting conscientious exemption to individuals and medical facilities or to expand it to include entire health plans. The administration emphasizes that, even though the plan covers abortion. The Health Insurance Association of America opposes the plan while the American Medical Association (AMA) neither supports nor opposes it. The AMA does object, however, to the plans provisions on malpractice and limits on annual premium increases. Families USA strongly favors the plan. The Congressional Caucus on Women's Issues asks the President to include all reproductive health services. The National Black Women's Health Project appreciates the Administration's commitment and the plan's coverage of preventive care and reproductive health, but stresses that it must improve access to poor women, most of whom are black

  11. A democratic responsiveness approach to real reform: an exploration of health care systems' resilience.

    PubMed

    Grignon, Michel

    2012-08-01

    Real reforms attempt to change how health care is financed and how it is rationed. Three main explanations have been offered to explain why such reforms are so difficult: institutional gridlock, path dependency, and societal preferences. The latter posits that choices made regarding the health care system in a given country reflect the broader societal set of values in that country and that as a result public resistance to real reform may more accurately reflect citizens' personal convictions, self-interest, or even active social choices. "Conscientious objectors" may do more to derail reform than previously recognized. PMID:22466049

  12. The Impact of Health Care Reform on Hospital and Preventive Care: Evidence from Massachusetts☆

    PubMed Central

    Kolstad, Jonathan T.; Kowalski, Amanda E.

    2012-01-01

    In April 2006, Massachusetts passed legislation aimed at achieving near-universal health insurance coverage. The key features of this legislation were a model for national health reform, passed in March 2010. The reform gives us a novel opportunity to examine the impact of expansion to near-universal coverage state-wide. Among hospital discharges in Massachusetts, we find that the reform decreased uninsurance by 36% relative to its initial level and to other states. Reform affected utilization by decreasing length of stay, the number of inpatient admissions originating from the emergency room, and preventable admissions. At the same time, hospital cost growth did not increase. PMID:23180894

  13. Winning Policy Change to Promote Community Health Workers: Lessons From Massachusetts in The Health Reform Era

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Terry; Wilkinson, Geoffrey W.; Nannini, Angela; Martin, Cindy Marti; Fox, Durrell J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a national movement among community health workers (CHWs) to improve compensation, working conditions, and recognition for the workforce through organizing for policy change. As some of the key advocates involved, we describe the development in Massachusetts of an authentic collaboration between strong CHW leaders of a growing statewide CHW association and their public health allies. Collaborators worked toward CHW workforce and public health objectives through alliance building and organizing, legislative advocacy, and education in the context of opportunities afforded by health care reform. This narrative of the path to policy achievements can inform other collaborative efforts attempting to promote a policy agenda for the CHW workforce across the nation. PMID:22021281

  14. An Assessment of State-Led Reform of Long-Term Services and Supports.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Mary D; Kurtzman, Ellen T; Miller, Edward Alan; Nadash, Pamela; Fitzgerald, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Health care in the United States is fragmented, inefficient, and rife with quality concerns. These shortcomings have particularly serious implications for adults with disabilities and functionally impaired older adults in need of long-term services and supports (LTSS). Three strategies have been commonly pursued by state governments to improve LTSS: expanding noninstitutional care, integrating payment and care delivery, and realigning incentives through market-based reforms. These strategies were analyzed using an evaluation framework consisting of the following dimensions: ease of access; choice of setting/provider; quality of care/life; support for family caregivers; effective transitions among multiple providers and across settings; reductions in racial/ethnic disparities; cost-effectiveness; political feasibility; and implementability. Although the analysis highlights potential benefits and drawbacks associated with each strategy, the limited breadth of the evidentiary base precludes an assessment of impact across all nine dimensions. More importantly, the analysis exposes the interdependent, complex system of care within which LTSS is situated, suggesting that policy makers will require a holistic and long-term perspective to achieve needed changes. Addressing the nation's LTSS needs will require a multipronged strategy incorporating a range of health and social services to meet the complex care needs of a diverse population in a variety of settings. PMID:25700376

  15. Preparing for a Public Sector Mental Health Reform in New Mexico: The Experience of Agencies Serving Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Semansky, Rafael M.; Hodgkin, Dominic; Willging, Cathleen E.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, New Mexico began a comprehensive reform of state-funded mental health care. This paper reports on differences in characteristics, infrastructure, financial status, and available services across mental health agencies. We administered a telephone survey to senior leadership to assess agency status prior to and during the first year of reform. Non-profit/public agencies were more likely than others to report reductions or no changes in administrative staff. CMHCs were more likely to report a decline in their financial situation. Findings demonstrated that CMHCs, non-profit/public agencies and rural agencies were more likely to offer critical services to adults with serious mental illness in the first year of reform. The comprehensiveness of services offered by these types of agencies may be an advantage as the state moves to a core service agency approach. PMID:21688132

  16. [Vulnerability and National Health Service].

    PubMed

    Lima, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Safegarding health has been an objective of every learned civilization, ancient and modern. In modern times, at least in the western world, the increase in longevity associated with social isolation has created further vu1nerability for the older individua1. Today, healthcare is a social burden of extremely high cost. Among us this service is provided by the National Health Service in accordance to the Constituição da República Portuguesa (Constitution of the Portuguese Republic). Despite the constitutional guarantees of equa1ity in health there are obvious discrepancies in access to health care and the conditions that promote health such as education and wealth. In a poor country, even with limited resources, inequa1ity can be minimized via policies and practical measures founded in equa1ity and social responsibility, not only the principles of economic efficiency. Only in this way can we guarantee equa1 access to health and the distribution of available resources in accordance to health care necessities. Yet, the investment in high technology among us seems out of fase with the investment in the area concerning functional recovery from high morta1ity illness, such as stroke. In Portugal the problem is extremely bad. Life expectancy has been extended but qua1ity of life is still very low. Victims of the social order, the elderly live alone without family who can care for them; on the other hand, the lack of investment in recovery and social integration of individua1s with disabling scars, Turns the ends of their life's into a nightmare for themselves and their kin. It follows stating the necessity to analyse and define the criteria to be used when allocating resources in order to guarantee equality in health and relief from suffering and also to stop discrimination of vu1nerable populations in access to healthcare. Whatever the criteria, it must be pre-defined and its principles widely discussed, reiterating, only that longevity cannot be an acceptable criteria

  17. Federalist flirtations: the politics and execution of health services decentralization for the uninsured population in Mexico, 1985-1995.

    PubMed

    Birn, A E

    1999-01-01

    Around the world health services delivery systems are undergoing decentralization, responding to pressure to increase equity, efficiency, participation, intersectoral collaboration and accountability. This study examines the Mexican health decentralization efforts of the past decade to discern the motivations for the reform, the context for its implementation, the politics of its downfall, and the reform's impact at subnational levels of government. Sparked by economic crisis and pressure from international creditors for fiscal reform; demands for greater democracy, equity, and quality; and technocratic impulses to rationalize health services delivery, the decentralization reform could not overcome the authoritarian centralism of the federal government and its corporatist clients. In the end, even in the most technically capable states, the reform was unable to overcome political obstacles to decentralizing fiscal power, redistributing resources in an equitable fashion, and eliminating the inefficiencies of separate but unequal health systems for social security recipients and the uninsured population. PMID:10874399

  18. Values and health care: the Confucian dimension in health care reform.

    PubMed

    Lim, Meng-Kin

    2012-12-01

    Are values and social priorities universal, or do they vary across geography, culture, and time? This question is very relevant to Asia's emerging economies that are increasingly looking at Western models for answers to their own outmoded health care systems that are in dire need of reform. But is it safe for them to do so without sufficient regard to their own social, political, and philosophical moorings? This article argues that historical and cultural legacies influence prevailing social values with regard to health care financing and resource allocation, and that the Confucian dimension provides a helpful entry point for a deeper understanding of ongoing health care reforms in East Asia--as exemplified by the unique case of Singapore. PMID:23175795

  19. Department of Health and Human Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... content HHS .gov Search U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Search Close A-Z Index About HHS ... Start Standards The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services announced new standards to further strengthen the ...

  20. Medicaid and State Health Care Reform: Process, Programs, and Policy Options

    PubMed Central

    Rotwein, Suzanne; Boulmetis, Maria; Boben, Paul J.; Fingold, Helaine I.; Hadley, James P.; Rama, Kathy L.; Van Hoven, Debbie

    1995-01-01

    Health care reform is a continuously evolving process. The States and the Federal Government have struggled with policy issues to combat escalating Medicaid expenditures while ensuring access and quality of care to an ever-expanding population. In the absence of national health care reform, States are increasingly relying on Federal waivers to develop innovative approaches to address a myriad of issues associated with the present health care delivery system. This article provides a summary of State health care reform efforts that have been initiated under Federal waiver authority. PMID:10142572

  1. [Global lessons of the Mexican health reform: empowerment through the use of evidence].

    PubMed

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio

    2010-09-01

    This paper illustrates, using as an example the recent reform of the Mexican health system, the potential of knowledge in the design and implementation of public policies. In the first part the relationship between knowledge and health is described. In part two, the efforts in Mexico to generate evidence that would eventually nourish the design and implementation of health policies are discussed. In the following sections the content and the guiding concept of the reform, the democratization of health, are analyzed. The paper concludes with the discussion of the main global lessons of this reform experience. PMID:21152734

  2. 42 CFR 136.24 - Authorization for contract health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorization for contract health services. 136.24 Section 136.24 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Contract Health Services §...

  3. Changes in Equity in Out-of-pocket Payments during the Period of Health Care Reforms: Evidence from Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background At the beginning of 2007, health care reforms were implemented in Hungary in order to decrease public expenditure on health care. Reforms involved the increase of co-payments for pharmaceuticals and the introduction of co-payments for health care services. Objective The objective of this paper is to examine the progressivity of household expenditure on health care during the reform period, separately for expenditures on pharmaceuticals and medical devices, as well as for formal and informal patient payments for health care services. Methods We use data on household expenditure from the Household Budget Survey carried out by the Central Statistical Office of Hungary. We present household expenditure as a percentage of household income across different income quintiles and calculate Kakwani indexes as a measure of progressivity for a four years period (2005–2008): before, during and after the implementation of the health care reforms. Results We find that out-of-pocket payments on health care are highly regressive in Hungary with a Kakwani index of −0.22. In particular, households from the lowest income quintile spend an about three times larger share of their income on out-of-pocket payments (6–7 %) compared to households in the highest income quintile (2 %). Expenditures on pharmaceuticals and medical devices are the most regressive types of expenditure (Kakwani index −0.23/-0.24), and at the same time they represent a major part of the total household expenditure on health care (78–85 %). Informal payments are also regressive while expenditures on formal payments for services are the most proportional to income. We find that expenditures on formal payments became regressive after the introduction of user fees (Kakwani index −0.1). At the same time, we observe that expenditures on informal payments became less regressive during the reform period (Kakwani index increases from −0.20/-0.18 to −0.12.) Conclusions More attention should

  4. The Affordable Care Act and integrated behavioral health programs in community health centers to promote utilization of mental health services among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Susan; Fong, Susana; Duong, Thomas; Quach, Thu

    2016-06-01

    The Affordable Care Act has greatly expanded health care coverage and recognizes mental health as a major priority. However, individuals suffering from mental health disorders still face layered barriers to receiving health care, especially Asian Americans. Integration of behavioral health services within primary care is a viable way of addressing underutilization of mental health services. This paper provides insight into a comprehensive care approach integrating behavioral health services into primary care to address underutilization of mental health services in the Asian American population. True integration of behavioral health services into primary care will require financial support and payment reform to address multi-disciplinary care needs and optimize care coordination, as well as training and workforce development early in medical and mental health training programs to develop the skills that aid prevention, early identification, and intervention. Funding research on evidence-based practice oriented to the Asian American population needs to continue. PMID:27188196

  5. Which moral hazard? Health care reform under the Affordable Care Act of 2010.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - Moral hazard is a concept that is central to risk and insurance management. It refers to change in economic behavior when individuals are protected or insured against certain risks and losses whose costs are borne by another party. It asserts that the presence of an insurance contract increases the probability of a claim and the size of a claim. Through the US Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010, this study seeks to examine the validity and relevance of moral hazard in health care reform and determine how welfare losses or inefficiencies could be mitigated. Design/methodology/approach - This study is divided into three sections. The first contrasts conventional moral hazard from an emerging or alternative theory. The second analyzes moral hazard in terms of the evolution, organization, management, and marketing of health insurance in the USA. The third explains why and how salient reform measures under the ACA might induce health care consumption and production in ways that could either promote or restrict personal health and safety as well as social welfare maximization. Findings - Insurance generally induces health care (over) consumption. However, not every additional consumption, with or without adverse selection, can be considered wasteful or risky, even if it might cost insurers more in the short run. Moral hazard can generate welfare and equity gains. These gains might vary depending on which ACA provisions, insured population, covered illnesses, treatments, and services, as well as health outcomes are taken into account, and because of the relative ambiguities surrounding definitions of "health." Actuarial risk models can nonetheless benefit from incorporating welfare and equity gains into their basic assumptions and estimations. Originality/value - This is the first study which examines the ACA in the context of the new or alternative theory of moral hazard. It suggests that containing inefficient moral hazard, and encouraging its desirable

  6. 45 CFR 96.45 - Preventive health and health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preventive health and health services. 96.45 Section 96.45 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.45 Preventive health and health...

  7. 45 CFR 96.45 - Preventive health and health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preventive health and health services. 96.45 Section 96.45 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.45 Preventive health and health...

  8. 45 CFR 96.45 - Preventive health and health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preventive health and health services. 96.45 Section 96.45 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.45 Preventive health and health...

  9. 45 CFR 96.45 - Preventive health and health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preventive health and health services. 96.45 Section 96.45 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.45 Preventive health and health...

  10. 45 CFR 96.45 - Preventive health and health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preventive health and health services. 96.45 Section 96.45 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.45 Preventive health and health...

  11. Health complaints and regulatory reform: Implications for vulnerable populations?

    PubMed

    Carney, Terry; Beaupert, Fleur; Chiarella, Mary; Bennett, Belinda; Walton, Merrilyn; Kelly, Patrick J; Satchell, Claudette S

    2016-03-01

    Complaints and disciplinary processes play a significant role in health professional regulation. Many countries are transitioning from models of self-regulation to greater external oversight through systems including meta-regulation, responsive (risk-based) regulation, and "networked governance". Such systems harness, in differing ways, public, private, professional and non-governmental bodies to exert influence over the conduct of health professionals and services. Interesting literature is emerging regarding complainants' motivations and experiences, the impact of complaints processes on health professionals, and identification of features such as complainant and health professional profiles, types of complaints and outcomes. This article concentrates on studies identifying vulnerable groups and their participation in health care regulatory systems. PMID:27323641

  12. Privatizing the welfarist state: health care reforms in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khoon, Chan Chee

    2003-01-01

    In Malaysia, the shifting balance between market and state has many nuances. Never a significant welfare state in the usual mold, the Malaysian state nonetheless has been a dominant social and economic presence dictated by its affirmative action-type policies, which eventually metamorphosed into state-led indigenous capitalism. Privatisation is also intimately linked with emergence of an indigenous bourgeoisie with favored access to the vast accumulation of state assets and prerogatives. Internationally, it is conditioned by the fluid relationships of converging alliances and contested compromise with international capital, including transnational health services industries. As part of its vision of a maturing, diversified economy, the Malaysian government is fostering a private-sector advanced health care industry to cater to local demand and also aimed at regional and international patrons. The assumption is that, as disposable incomes increase, a market for such services is emerging and citizens can increasingly shoulder their own health care costs. The government would remain the provider for the indigent. But the key assumption remains: the growth trajectory will see the emergence of markets for an increasingly affluent middle class. Importantly, the health care and social services market would be dramatically expanded as the downsizing of public-sector health care proceeds amid a general retreat of government from its provider and financing roles. PMID:17208722

  13. Experiences with primary healthcare in Fuzhou, urban China, in the context of health sector reform: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Rosalind; Chen, Lieping; ChenXiang, Tang; Liu, Xiaoyun; Starfield, Barbara; Jinhuan, Zheng; Tolhurst, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    China has recently placed increased emphasis on the provision of primary healthcare services through health sector reform, in response to inequitably distributed health services. With increasing funding for community level facilities, now is an opportune time to assess the quality of primary care delivery and identify areas in need of further improvement. A mixed methodology approach was adopted for this study. Quantitative data were collected using the Primary Care Assessment Tool-Chinese version (C-PCAT), a questionnaire previously adapted for use in China to assess the quality of care at each health facility, based on clients' experiences. In addition, qualitative data were gathered through eight semi-structured interviews exploring perceptions of primary care with health directors and a policy maker to place this issue in the context of health sector reform. The study found that patients attending community health and sub-community health centres are more likely to report better experiences with primary care attributes than patients attending hospital facilities. Generally low scores for community orientation, family centredness and coordination in all types of health facility indicate an urgent need for improvement in these areas. Healthcare directors and policy makers perceived the need for greater coordination between levels of health providers, better financial reimbursement, more formal government contracts and recognition/higher status for staff at the community level and more appropriate undergraduate and postgraduate training. PMID:23576191

  14. The group employed model as a foundation for health care delivery reform.

    PubMed

    Minott, Jenny; Helms, David; Luft, Harold; Guterman, Stuart; Weil, Henry

    2010-04-01

    With a focus on delivering low-cost, high-quality care, several organizations using the group employed model (GEM)-with physician groups whose primary and specialty care physicians are salaried or under contract-have been recognized for creating a culture of patient-centeredness and accountability, even in a toxic fee-for-service environment. The elements that leaders of such organizations identify as key to their success are physician leadership that promotes trust in the organization, integration that promotes teamwork and coordination, governance and strategy that drive results, transparency and health information technology that drive continual quality improvement, and a culture of accountability that focuses providers on patient needs and responsibility for effective care and efficient use of resources. These organizations provide important lessons for health care delivery system reform. PMID:20411624

  15. A Tentative Study on the Evaluation of Community Health Service Quality*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhi-qiang; Zhu, Yong-yue

    Community health service is the key point of health reform in China. Based on pertinent studies, this paper constructed an indicator system for the community health service quality evaluation from such five perspectives as visible image, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and sympathy, according to service quality evaluation scale designed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry. A multilevel fuzzy synthetical evaluation model was constructed to evaluate community health service by fuzzy mathematics theory. The applicability and maneuverability of the evaluation indicator system and evaluation model were verified by empirical analysis.

  16. Student Health Services at Orchard Ridge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Don D.

    This paper provides a synoptic review of student health services at the community college level while giving a more detailed description of the nature of health services at Orchard Ridge, a campus of Oakland Community College. The present College Health Service program provides for a part-time (24 hrs./wk.) nurse at Orchard Ridge. A variety of…

  17. Human resources: the Cinderella of health sector reform in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Human resources are the most important assets of any health system, and health workforce problems have for decades limited the efficiency and quality of Latin America health systems. World Bank-led reforms aimed at increasing equity, efficiency, quality of care and user satisfaction did not attempt to resolve the human resources problems that had been identified in multiple health sector assessments. However, the two most important reform policies – decentralization and privatization – have had a negative impact on the conditions of employment and prompted opposition from organized professionals and unions. In several countries of the region, the workforce became the most important obstacle to successful reform. This article is based on fieldwork and a review of the literature. It discusses the reasons that led health workers to oppose reform; the institutional and legal constraints to implementing reform as originally designed; the mismatch between the types of personnel needed for reform and the availability of professionals; the deficiencies of the reform implementation process; and the regulatory weaknesses of the region. The discussion presents workforce strategies that the reforms could have included to achieve the intended goals, and the need to take into account the values and political realities of the countries. The authors suggest that autochthonous solutions are more likely to succeed than solutions imported from the outside. PMID:15659241

  18. Reproductive health and health sector reform in developing countries: establishing a framework for dialogue.

    PubMed Central

    Lubben, Marianne; Mayhew, Susannah H.; Collins, Charles; Green, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    It is not clear how policy-making in the field of reproductive health relates to changes associated with programmes for the reform of the health sector in developing countries. There has been little communication between these two areas, yet policy on reproductive health has to be implemented in the context of structural change. This paper examines factors that limit dialogue between the two areas and proposes the following framework for encouraging it: the identification of policy groups and the development of bases for collaborative links between them; the introduction of a common understanding around relevant policy contexts; reaching agreement on compatible aims relating to reproductive health and health sector change; developing causal links between policy content in reproductive health and health sector change as a basis for evidence-based policy-making; and strengthening policy-making structures, systems, skills, and values. PMID:12219159

  19. Reform of financing for health coverage: what can reinsurance accomplish?

    PubMed

    Bovbjerg, R R

    1992-01-01

    Reinsurance is one way that insurance companies pool risk, in this case, across insurance companies. Under conventional private practice, primary health insurers, including self-insured groups and HMOs, voluntarily contract with reinsurers to share some risk and some premiums. Because the primary carrier mainly wants to protect its solvency against unpredictable variation in claims experience, it normally reinsures only the "high end" of claims risk. This retrospective coverage of unusually high losses helps primary insurers take on more risk than they otherwise could. But it does not help secure affordable coverage for people with prospectively known high risks. Some plans for reforming private health insurance also invoke reinsurance-like mechanisms, especially in the markets for individual and small group coverage. There, reinsurance serves as part of a strategy for requiring that primary insurance be made available to all applicants, regardless of risk. Reinsurance or similar rules for allocating the burden of unusually high risks can help keep any one private insurer from having to bear a disproportionate share of high risks, and thus extend the reach of private insurance markets through regulation. But reinsurance alone does not reduce the underlying high cost of providing such primary coverage. Nor can reinsurance alone provide the resources to cover the uninsured, ensure that insurers will want to cover them, or make them voluntarily buy private coverage. Only some combination of new subsidies and mandates can do that. PMID:1612717

  20. Support for National Health Insurance Seven Years Into Massachusetts Healthcare Reform: Views of Populations Targeted by the Reform.

    PubMed

    Saluja, Sonali; Zallman, Leah; Nardin, Rachel; Bor, David; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U; McCormick, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Before the Affordable Care Act (ACA), many surveys showed majority support for national health insurance (NHI), also known as single payer; however, little is currently known about views of the ACA's targeted population. Massachusetts residents have had seven years of experience with state health care reform that became the model for the ACA. We surveyed 1,151 adults visiting safety-net emergency departments in Massachusetts in late 2013 on their preference for NHI or the Massachusetts reform and on their experiences with insurance. Most of the patients surveyed were low-income and non-white. The majority of patients (72.0%) preferred NHI to the Massachusetts reform. Support for NHI among those with public insurance, commercial insurance, and no insurance was 68.9%, 70.3%, and 86.3%, respectively (p < .001). Support for NHI was higher among patients dissatisfied with their insurance plan (83.3% vs. 68.9%, p = .014), who delayed medical care (81.2% vs. 69.6%, p < .001) or avoided purchasing medications due to cost (87.3% vs. 71.4%; p = .01). Majority support for NHI was observed in every demographic subgroup. Given the strong support for NHI among disadvantaged Massachusetts patients seven years after state health reform, a reappraisal of the ACA's ability to meet the needs of underserved patients is warranted. PMID:26536912

  1. [Health services research--from the Health Research Council's perspective].

    PubMed

    Adler, Guido

    2006-01-01

    As early as 1994, the Health Research Council of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research started activities to outline a strategic concept for health services research in Germany. The Health Research Council set the stage for the initiation of a common funding program on health services research of the statutory health insurance funds, the Federal Ministry for Education and Research and the Federal Ministry of Health. This funding program has provided an important stimulus to health services research in Germany. Moreover, it has promoted the involvement and responsibility of the statutory health insurance funds in health services research. In future the funding program will be continued and additionally involve pension insurance funds as well as private health insurance funds. In addition to this special funding program there is a need for a coordinated approach to the further development of health services research in Germany--a common task for both research and funding organizations in health research. PMID:17175754

  2. Health Service Delivery in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benyoussef, Amor

    1977-01-01

    Reviews recent work dealing with methodological and technical issues in health and development; presents examples of the application of social sciences, including health demography and economics, in questions of health services delivery; and analyzes delivery of health services to rural and nomadic populations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.…

  3. Guidelines for Health Services for Migrant Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strazicich, Mirko, Ed.

    This publication provides a standard by which California migrant education health staff can plan, implement, and evaluate a health program for students in grades K-12. Following sections which describe current state legislation, the need for health services, and California's objectives and activities regarding health services for migrant students…

  4. Health Services Manual. Hicksville Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1987

    This procedure manual describes the uniform procedures used by the Hicksville, New York School District's Health Services Program. Its objectives are to establish a uniform set of health services guidelines and procedures, to update all health forms, to maintain an awareness of the current changes in health laws that govern school districts, and…

  5. Health services in urban India.

    PubMed

    Mittal, S K; Ramji, S

    1989-01-01

    At the time of independence 340 million lived in urban areas in India, and currently 200 million of an estimated population of 800 million live in 3000 cities and towns with inhabitants over 10.000. There are 90.000 government-employed doctors in urban areas: 1 doctor per 2200 residents. Another 180.000 are practicing in such areas providing a ratio of 1 doctor for every 800 urban people. In Delhi in 1986 there were 63 allopathic hospitals with 15.000 beds and 561 dispensaries. Government employees receive preferential treatment, while the public waits long hours. In frustration the poor often turn to private practitioners even if their qualifications are dubious. Despite 35 years of socialistic planning, only 10-15% of children living in a Delhi colony received adequate vaccination. To rectify this inequality a system is recommended guaranteeing public access to dispensaries on the same fee-basis as that accorded to government employees. A health card could prevent misuse, and it would ensure optimal utilization of existing health facilities. Future development of 50-100 bed hospitals within 2-3 km of clients' homes and the attachment of 5-10 of them to a large hospital or medical school is proposed. A central health board could oversee and coordinate area-based health services. PMID:2638675

  6. Leveraging health information technology to achieve the “triple aim” of healthcare reform

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Harpreet S; Bates, David W

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate experiences with leveraging health information technology (HIT) to improve patient care and population health, and reduce healthcare expenditures. Materials and methods In-depth qualitative interviews with federal government employees, health policy, HIT and medico-legal experts, health providers, physicians, purchasers, payers, patient advocates, and vendors from across the United States. Results The authors undertook 47 interviews. There was a widely shared belief that Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) had catalyzed the creation of a digital infrastructure, which was being used in innovative ways to improve quality of care and curtail costs. There were however major concerns about the poor usability of electronic health records (EHRs), their limited ability to support multi-disciplinary care, and major difficulties with health information exchange, which undermined efforts to deliver integrated patient-centered care. Proposed strategies for enhancing the benefits of HIT included federal stimulation of competition by mandating vendors to open-up their application program interfaces, incenting development of low-cost consumer informatics tools, and promoting Congressional review of the The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) to optimize the balance between data privacy and reuse. Many underscored the need to “kick the legs from underneath the fee-for-service model” and replace it with a data-driven reimbursement system that rewards high quality care. Conclusions The HITECH Act has stimulated unprecedented, multi-stakeholder interest in HIT. Early experiences indicate that the resulting digital infrastructure is being used to improve quality of care and curtail costs. Reform efforts are however severely limited by problems with usability, limited interoperability and the persistence of the fee-for-service paradigm—addressing these issues therefore needs to be the federal

  7. [A reform proposal to strengthen public health care].

    PubMed

    Vergara I, Marcos

    2015-02-01

    Currently, there is no discussion on the need to improve and strengthen the institutional health care modality of FONASA (MAI), the health care system used by the public services net and by most of the population, despite the widely known and long lasting problems such as waiting lists, hospital debt with suppliers, lack of specialists and increasing services purchase transference to the private sector, etc. In a dichotomous sectorial context, such as the one of health’s social security in Chile (the state on one side and the market on the other), points of view are polarized and stances tend to seek refuge within themselves. As a consequence, to protect the public solution is commonly associated with protecting the “status quo”, creating an environment that is reluctant to change. The author proposes a solution based on three basic core ideas, which, if proven effective, can strengthen each other if combined properly. These are: network financing management, governance of health care services in MAI and investments and human resources in networked self-managed institutions. The proposal of these core ideas was done introducing a reality testing that minimizes the politic complexity of their implementation. PMID:25860366

  8. Structured pluralism: towards an innovative model for health system reform in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Londoño, J L; Frenk, J

    1997-07-01

    groups. In this model, modulation would become the central mission of the ministry of health, which would move out of the direct provision of personal health services. Financing would be the main function of social security institutes, which would be gradually extended to protect the entire population. The articulation function would be made explicit by fostering the establishment of 'organizations for health services articulation', which would perform a series of crucial activities, including the competitive enrollment of populations into health plans in exchange for a risk-adjusted capitation, the specification of explicit packages of benefits or interventions, the organization of networks of providers so as to structure consumer choices, the design and implementation of incentives to providers through payment mechanisms, and the management of quality of care. Finally, the delivery function would be open to pluralism that would be adapted to differential needs of urban and rural populations. After examining the convergence of various reform initiatives towards elements of the structured pluralism model, the paper reviews both the technical instruments and the political strategies for implementing changes. The worldwide health reform movement needs to sustain a systematic sharing of the unique learning opportunity that each reform experience represents. PMID:10169060

  9. 42 CFR 136a.13 - Authorization for contract health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorization for contract health services. 136a.13 Section 136a.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH What Services Are Available and Who...

  10. 42 CFR 136a.15 - Health Service Delivery Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health Service Delivery Areas. 136a.15 Section 136a.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH What Services Are Available and Who Is Eligible...

  11. 42 CFR 136a.15 - Health Service Delivery Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health Service Delivery Areas. 136a.15 Section 136a.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH What Services Are Available and Who Is Eligible...

  12. 42 CFR 136a.15 - Health Service Delivery Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health Service Delivery Areas. 136a.15 Section 136a.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH What Services Are Available and Who Is Eligible...

  13. 42 CFR 136a.15 - Health Service Delivery Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health Service Delivery Areas. 136a.15 Section 136a.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH What Services Are Available and Who Is Eligible...

  14. 42 CFR 136a.15 - Health Service Delivery Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health Service Delivery Areas. 136a.15 Section 136a.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH What Services Are Available and Who Is Eligible...

  15. Economic growth and health progress in Italy: 30 years of National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Vannelli, Alberto; Buongiorno, Massimo; Zanardo, Michele; Basilico, Valerio; Capriata, Giulio; Rossi, Fabrizio; Pruiti, Vincenzo; Battaglia, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    On December 23 of 1978, during first Italian recession since the end of World War II, Parliament voted for Law 833 that gives birth to the Italian National Public Health Services (SSN) as the new and alternative model of health care system. It was the beginning of the match of Italian health care with the world class level of the public health care. Each crisis requires solidarity and actions. Maintaining levels of health and other social expenditures is critical to protect life and livelihood and to boost productivity. The purpose of the present study is to establish an alternative point of view to demonstrate that Gross Domestic Product, is a function of health care expenditure. The chronology of the events was created by using the laws published on "Gazzetta Ufficiale" (GU). In order to analyze the corporate effectiveness and efficiency, we have divided the SSN into its three main components, namely resources (input), services (output) and performances (outcome). Health services have certainly been pioneers and are still today standard-bearers of a challenge which has borne its fruits. According to the "Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development", SSN ranks second in the world classification of the return on the health care services in 2000. The World Health Organization has published in 2005 the same result: SSN ranks second in the world for ability and quality of the health care in relationship to the resources invested The continuous reforms of health care system introduced stability to the Italian system more than others countries. Success of SSN function rooted in the ability of system to adapt assuring mechanism of positive feed-back correction. In the future SSN, will required new set of reforms, such as redefinition of structures and mechanisms of governance, strategic plans, clinical administrations. PMID:23223322

  16. Price elasticities in the German Statutory Health Insurance market before and after the health care reform of 2009.

    PubMed

    Pendzialek, Jonas B; Danner, Marion; Simic, Dusan; Stock, Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates the change in price elasticity of health insurance choice in Germany after a reform of health insurance contributions. Using a comprehensive data set of all sickness funds between 2004 and 2013, price elasticities are calculated both before and after the reform for the entire market. The general price elasticity is found to be increased more than 4-fold from -0.81 prior to the reform to -3.53 after the reform. By introducing a new kind of health insurance contribution the reform seemingly increased the price elasticity of insured individuals to a more appropriate level under the given market parameters. However, further unintended consequences of the new contribution scheme were massive losses of market share for the more expensive sickness funds and therefore an undivided focus on pricing as the primary competitive element to the detriment of quality. PMID:25670009

  17. A long and winding road: federally qualified health centers, community variation and prospects under reform.

    PubMed

    Katz, Aaron B; Felland, Laurie E; Hill, Ian; Stark, Lucy B

    2011-11-01

    Community health centers have evolved from fringe providers to mainstays of many local health care systems. Those designated as federally qualified health centers (FQHCs), in particular, have largely established themselves as key providers of comprehensive, efficient, high-quality primary care services to low-income people, especially Medicaid and uninsured patients. The Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC's) site visits to 12 nationally representative metropolitan communities since 1996 document substantial growth in FQHC capacity, based on growing numbers of Medicaid enrollees and uninsured people, increased federal support, and improved managerial acumen. At the same time, FQHC development has varied considerably across communities because of several important factors, including local health system characteristics and financial and political support at federal, state and local levels. Some communities--Boston; Syracuse, N.Y.; Miami; and Seattle--have relatively extensive FQHC capacity for their Medicaid and uninsured populations, while other communities--Lansing, Mich.; northern New Jersey; Indianapolis; and Greenville, S.C.--fall in the middle. FQHC growth in Phoenix; Little Rock, Ark.; Cleveland; and Orange County, Calif.; has lagged in comparison. Today, FQHCs seem poised to play a key role in federal health care reform, including coverage expansions and the emphasis on primary care and medical homes. PMID:23155547

  18. Mental Health Service Delivery Systems and Perceived Qualifications of Mental Health Service Providers in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Decia Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…

  19. Australian Curriculum Reform II: Health and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    It is implied by governing organizations that Australia is presently experiencing its first national curriculum reform, when as the title suggests it is the second. However, until now Australian states and territories have been responsible for the education curriculum delivered within schools. The present national curriculum reform promises one…

  20. Public health infrastructure and equity in the utilization of outpatient health care services in Peru.

    PubMed

    Valdivia, Martín

    2002-12-01

    This article analyzes the magnitude and nature of socioeconomic differences in the utilization of outpatient health care services in Peru. In particular, it explores the potential equity-enhancing effect of the expansion and improvements in the network of health centres during the 1990s. The Peruvian health reform made relatively little progress in terms of the reform agenda promoted internationally during the 1990s. Nevertheless, the expansion of the public network of health centres and the improvements in their equipment has been noteworthy during the same period. Using the 1997 survey of the Peruvian Living Standards Measurement Study (PLSMS), we find large differences in the utilization of outpatient health care services. The richest to poorest quintile ratio is 1.9, and even larger in rural areas. Estimating a probit model with random effects at the district level to control for the systematic geographic bias associated with the optimal public allocation of such infrastructure, we find the income effect to be very large, even after controlling for other socioeconomic characteristics. Finally, we also find that the expansion of the public network of health centres has indeed an equity-enhancing effect, but this is rather small. These results indicate that although the expansion of the public network of health facilities may be necessary, it is not sufficient to promote equity in the utilization of health care services by Peruvian adults, especially in rural areas. It is important to look deeper into the costs of consultations and drugs as economic barriers to the utilization of health services by the poor. In particular, the expansion of health insurance mechanisms for the poor should be carefully monitored and evaluated. PMID:12477737

  1. Health care reform: understanding individuals' attitudes and information sources.

    PubMed

    Shue, Carolyn K; McGeary, Kerry Anne; Reid, Ian; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Fan, Maoyong

    2014-01-01

    Since passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law by President Barrack Obama, little is known about state-level perceptions of residents on the ACA. Perceptions about the act could potentially affect implementation of the law to the fullest extent. This 3-year survey study explored attitudes about the ACA, the types of information sources that individuals rely on when creating those attitudes, and the predictors of these attitudes among state of Indiana residents. The respondents were split between favorable and unfavorable views of the ACA, yet the majority of respondents strongly supported individual components of the act. National TV news, websites, family members, and individuals' own reading of the ACA legislation were identified as the most influential information sources. After controlling for potential confounders, the respondent's political affiliation, age, sex, and obtaining ACA information from watching national television news were the most important predictors of attitudes about the ACA and its components. These results mirror national-level findings. Implications for implementing health care reform at the state-level are discussed. PMID:25045705

  2. Health Care Reform: Ethical Foundations, Policy, and Law

    PubMed Central

    Sade, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Health care system reform has enormous implications for the future of American society and economic life. Since the early days of the republic, 2 world views have vied for determination of this country’s political system: the view of the individual as sovereign vs government as sovereign. As they developed the foundations of our nation’s governance, the founders were heavily influenced by the Enlightenment philosophy of the late 17th and 18th centuries—the US Constitution sharply limited the power of central government to specific narrowly defined functions, and the economic system was largely laissez faire, that is, economic exchange was mostly free of government regulation and securing individual liberty was a high priority. This situation has slowly reversed—the federal government originally was narrowly limited, but now it dominates states and individuals. The economic system has followed, lagging by several decades, so although it still retains some features of laissez faire capitalism, federal and state regulation have produced a decidedly mixed economy. PMID:22626914

  3. Health Care Reform: Understanding Individuals' Attitudes and Information Sources

    PubMed Central

    Shue, Carolyn K.; McGeary, Kerry Anne; Reid, Ian; Fan, Maoyong

    2014-01-01

    Since passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law by President Barrack Obama, little is known about state-level perceptions of residents on the ACA. Perceptions about the act could potentially affect implementation of the law to the fullest extent. This 3-year survey study explored attitudes about the ACA, the types of information sources that individuals rely on when creating those attitudes, and the predictors of these attitudes among state of Indiana residents. The respondents were split between favorable and unfavorable views of the ACA, yet the majority of respondents strongly supported individual components of the act. National TV news, websites, family members, and individuals' own reading of the ACA legislation were identified as the most influential information sources. After controlling for potential confounders, the respondent's political affiliation, age, sex, and obtaining ACA information from watching national television news were the most important predictors of attitudes about the ACA and its components. These results mirror national-level findings. Implications for implementing health care reform at the state-level are discussed. PMID:25045705

  4. Capacity for Delivering Culturally Competent Mental Health Services in New Mexico: Results of a Statewide Agency Survey

    PubMed Central

    Semansky, Rafael M.; Altschul, Deborah; Sommerfeld, David; Hough, Richard; Willging, Cathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    The Federal government has promoted National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) to reduce mental health disparities among Hispanic and Native American populations. In 2005, the State of New Mexico embarked upon a comprehensive reform of its behavioral health system with an emphasis on improving cultural competency. Using survey methods, we examine which language access services (i.e., capacity for bilingual care, interpretation, and translated written materials) and organizational supports (i.e., training, self-assessments of cultural competency, and collection of cultural data) mental health agencies in New Mexico had at the onset of a public sector mental health reform (Office of Minority Health, 2001). PMID:19370410

  5. Shifting from Categories to Services: Comprehensive School-Based Mental Health for Children with Emotional Disturbance and Social Maladjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heathfield, Lora Tuesday; Clark, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    To meet the present and future educational and mental health needs of our nation's youth, current models of mental health service delivery need to be reformed. Any more time spent arguing the differences between categories such as Emotional Disturbance (ED) and Social Maladjustment (SM) will only delay much needed services and deplete our already…

  6. Global trade, public health, and health services: stakeholders' constructions of the key issues.

    PubMed

    Waitzkin, Howard; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca; Landwehr, Angela; Mountain, Carolyn

    2005-09-01

    Focusing mainly on the United States and Latin America, we aimed to identify the constructions of social reality held by the major stakeholders participating in policy debates about global trade, public health, and health services. In a multi-method, qualitative design, we used three sources of data: research and archival literature, 1980-2004; interviews with key informants who represented major organizations participating in these debates, 2002-2004; and organizational reports, 1980-2004. We targeted several types of organizations: government agencies, international financial institutions (IFIs) and trade organizations, international health organizations, multinational corporations, and advocacy groups. Many governments in Latin America define health as a right and health services as a public good. Thus, the government bears responsibility for that right. In contrast, the US government's philosophy of free trade and promoting a market economy assumes that by expanding the private sector, improved economic conditions will improve overall health with a minimum government provision of health care. US government agencies also view promotion of global health as a means to serve US interests. IFIs have emphasized reforms that include reduction and privatization of public sector services. International health organizations have tended to adopt the policy perspectives of IFIs and trade organizations. Advocacy groups have emphasized the deleterious effects of international trade agreements on public health and health services. Organizational stakeholders hold widely divergent constructions of reality regarding trade, public health, and health services. Social constructions concerning trade and health reflect broad ideologies concerning the impacts of market processes. Such constructions manifest features of "creed," regarding the role of the market in advancing human purposes and meeting human needs. Differences in constructions of trade and health constrain policies to

  7. Regional health library service in northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Crawford, D S

    1990-10-01

    The regional medical library service provided to physicians, hospitals, nurses, social workers, and health care administrators throughout Northern Ireland by the Queen's University of Belfast is described. A brief outline of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom is given, and the library service is described in terms of collections, cataloging, interlibrary loan, and reference. PMID:2224299

  8. Regional health library service in northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, D S

    1990-01-01

    The regional medical library service provided to physicians, hospitals, nurses, social workers, and health care administrators throughout Northern Ireland by the Queen's University of Belfast is described. A brief outline of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom is given, and the library service is described in terms of collections, cataloging, interlibrary loan, and reference. PMID:2224299

  9. Children and Their Families in Big Cities: Strategies for Service Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Alfred J., Ed.; Kamerman, Sheila B., Ed.

    Papers in this collection result from an 18-month exploration of ways to reform services for children and families in big cities, a so-called "rolling seminar" searching for ways to provide supportive and nourishing communities for city children. Contributions to this collection include: (1) "Themes and Viewpoints" (Editors); (2)…

  10. Reculturing for Equity through Integrated Services: A Case Study of One District's Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dentith, Audrey; Frattura, Elise; Kaylor, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the early stages of an urban district's special education reform effort in which the entire district moved from a programme model to an integrated services delivery approach. We studied teacher and building administrator's responses garnered through focus group, individual interviews and…

  11. Performance-based financing: just a donor fad or a catalyst towards comprehensive health-care reform?

    PubMed

    Meessen, Bruno; Soucat, Agnès; Sekabaraga, Claude

    2011-02-01

    Performance-based financing is generating a heated debate. Some suggest that it may be a donor fad with limited potential to improve service delivery. Most of its critics view it solely as a provider payment mechanism. Our experience is that performance-based financing can catalyse comprehensive reforms and help address structural problems of public health services, such as low responsiveness, inefficiency and inequity. The emergence of a performance-based financing movement in Africa suggests that it may contribute to profoundly transforming the public sectors of low-income countries. PMID:21346927

  12. Health system strengthening in Myanmar during political reforms: perspectives from international agencies.

    PubMed

    Risso-Gill, Isabelle; McKee, Martin; Coker, Richard; Piot, Peter; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2014-07-01

    Myanmar has undergone a remarkable political transformation in the last 2 years, with its leadership voluntarily transitioning from an isolated military regime to a quasi-civilian government intent on re-engaging with the international community. Decades of underinvestment have left the country underdeveloped with a fragile health system and poor health outcomes. International aid agencies have found engagement with the Myanmar government difficult but this is changing rapidly and it is opportune to consider how Myanmar can engage with the global health system strengthening (HSS) agenda. Nineteen semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with representatives from international agencies working in Myanmar to capture their perspectives on HSS following political reform. They explored their perceptions of HSS and the opportunities for implementation. Participants reported challenges in engaging with government, reflecting the disharmony between actors, economic sanctions and barriers to service delivery due to health system weaknesses and bureaucracy. Weaknesses included human resources, data and medical products/infrastructure and logistical challenges. Agencies had mixed views of health system finance and governance, identifying problems and also some positive aspects. There is little consensus on how HSS should be approached in Myanmar, but much interest in collaborating to achieve it. Despite myriad challenges and concerns, participants were generally positive about the recent political changes, and remain optimistic as they engage in HSS activities with the government. PMID:23749651

  13. HIPAA and the military health system: organizing technological and organizational reform in large enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collmann, Jeff R.

    2001-08-01

    The global scale, multiple units, diverse operating scenarios and complex authority structure of the Department of Defense Military Health System (MHS) create social boundaries that tend to reduce communication and collaboration about data security. Under auspices of the Defense Health Information Assurance Program (DHIAP), the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC) is contributing to the MHS's efforts to prepare for and comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 through organizational and technological innovations that bridge such boundaries. Building interdisciplinary (clinical, administrative and information technology) medical information security readiness teams (MISRT) at each military treatment facility (MTF) constitutes the heart of this process. DHIAP is equipping and training MISRTs to use new tools including 'OCTAVE', a self-directed risk assessment instrument and 'RIMR', a web-enabled Risk Information Management Resource. DHIAP sponsors an interdisciplinary, triservice workgroup for review and revision of relevant DoD and service policies and participates in formal DoD health information assurance activities. These activities help promote a community of proponents across the MHS supportive of improved health information assurance. The MHS HIPAA-compliance effort teaches important general lessons about organizational reform in large civilian or military enterprises.

  14. Health care reformers hear from pro-choice colleagues, Catholic bishops.

    PubMed

    1994-07-22

    On July 13, more than 6 dozen House members signed their names to a letter sent to Speaker Thomas Foley (D-WA) indicating that they would not support a health care reform measure if it did not include abortion coverage. Drafted by Representatives Patricia Schroeder (D-CO) and Peter DeFazio (D-OR), the letter stated that "...any health care reform package that comes before the House must contain coverage for contraceptive and abortion services if it is to gain our support." Speaking at a news conference releasing the letter, Representative Don Edwards (D-CA) said, "I resent that certain religious groups are entering this political fight in Congress." Rep. Edwards was referring to a National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) campaign to oppose "any health care bill that requires coverage of abortion" announced on the same day. The NCCB represents the top leaders in the nation's Roman Catholic church, which has 25,000 parishes across the country. In a letter sent to 30 Congressional leaders, the NCCB reaffirmed its support for universal coverage in a national health plan, but only if abortion is not included. Although not well publicized, an additional component of the NCCB campaign is the push to have Congress allow employers to opt out of coverage for contraception. The Bishops claim to have garnered 5 million cards from people who say they have told their lawmakers of their opposition to any coverage for abortion. The NCCB strategy calls for further grassroots action--including lobbying legislators, a telegram-writing campaign, and town meetings--and a national advertising campaign. In Cleveland, Ohio, the Catholic Diocese's Pro-Life Office announced on July 14 that it would start urging pastors and parishioners to speak out against abortion coverage. PMID:12287948

  15. Health Reform in Ceará: the process of decentralisation in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to offer an overview of the health reform in Ceará focusing on the decentralisation process in the 1990s. The driving factor behind the Brazilian health reform movement was the necessity to reorganise the national health system and overcome inequalities. For the reformists, decentralisation, and together with it the idea of popular participation, is seen as essential to guarantee the fulfilment of the people’s needs and to incorporate their voice in the decision-making processes of the health system. In the state of Ceará, after the 1986 elections, health reform movement members took control over the management of the state Health Secretariat. This is the main cause of the acceleration of the decentralisation process with the transference of responsibility over the management of health care delivery to municipalities. PMID:25729333

  16. Hispanics and Culturally Sensitive Mental Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hispanic Research Center Research Bulletin, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The objective of improving mental health care for Hispanics has been reviewed, most often, as dependent upon the provision of culturally sensitive mental health services. "Cultural sensitivity," however, is an imprecise term, especially when efforts are made to put it into operation when providing mental health services to Hispanic clients.…

  17. Children's Health Services Manual. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia.

    This manual for South Carolina's child health personnel covers program planning, evaluation, monitoring, and administration, and provides standards, procedures, policies, and regulations concerning health services for children in the state. An initial section on children's health services covers eligibility; the Women, Infants and Children…

  18. Health Services Assistant. Revised. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This color-coded curriculum guide was developed to help health services educators prepare students for health services occupations. The curriculum is organized in 20 units that cover the following topics: interpersonal relationships and the health care team; communication and observation skills; safety considerations; microbiology; the body as a…

  19. Mental health services commissioning and provision: Lessons from the UK?

    PubMed

    Ikkos, G; Sugarman, Ph; Bouras, N

    2015-01-01

    The commissioning and provision of healthcare, including mental health services, must be consistent with ethical principles - which can be summarised as being "fair", irrespective of the method chosen to deliver care. They must also provide value to both patients and society in general. Value may be defined as the ratio of patient health outcomes to the cost of service across the whole care pathway. Particularly in difficult times, it is essential to keep an open mind as to how this might be best achieved. National and regional policies will necessarily vary as they reflect diverse local histories, cultures, needs and preferences. As systems of commissioning and delivering mental health care vary from country to country, there is the opportunity to learn from others. In the future international comparisons may help identify policies and systems that can work across nations and regions. However a persistent problem is the lack of clear evidence over cost and quality delivered by different local or national models. The best informed economists, when asked about the international evidence do not provide clear answers, stating that it depends how you measure cost and quality, the national governance model and the level of resources. The UK has a centrally managed system funded by general taxation, known as the National Health Service (NHS). Since 2010, the UK's new Coalition* government has responded by further reforming the system of purchasing and providing NHS services - aiming to strengthen choice and competition between providers on the basis of quality and outcomes as well as price. Although the present coalition government's intention is to maintain a tax-funded system, free at the point of delivery, introducing market-style purchasing and provider-side reforms to encompass all of these bring new risks, whilst not pursuing reforms of a system in crisis is also seen to carry risks. Competition might bring efficiency, but may weaken cooperation between providers

  20. Policy Capacity Meets Politics: Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Fafard, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    It is difficult to disagree with the general argument that successful health reform requires a significant degree of policy capacity or that all players in the policy game need to move beyond self-interested advocacy. However, an overly broad definition of policy capacity is a problem. More important perhaps, health reform inevitably requires not just policy capacity but political leadership and compromise. PMID:26673186

  1. Health Reform and the Obama Administration: Reflections in Mid-2010

    PubMed Central

    Marmor, Theodore R.

    2010-01-01

    The reforms that finally emerged from the Obama administration's initiative were the result of a year of nasty, demagogic and misleading claims in the US public forum, coupled with the complexities of crafting legislation that stood a chance of passing both the House of Representatives and the Senate. The resulting “hybrid” approach to healthcare reform produced a conservative strategy that ignores the experience of other wealthy democracies. More significantly, its long period of implementation, given a possible change of administration in 2012, increases uncertainty regarding whether and how reforms will be rolled out by 2014 and after. PMID:21804835

  2. Preventive Health Services Utilization Among Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongmo; Casado, Banghwa Lee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the use of preventive health services among Korean American adults. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey of 212 Korean Americans in the Chicago, Illinois, metropolitan area. Guided by the Andersen's behavioral model, the authors examined whether predisposing (age, gender, marital status, household size, education), enabling (income, health insurance, English proficiency, citizenship, social network), and need (health status) factors are predictive of Korean Americans' preventive health services utilization. A binomial logistic regression showed that younger age, male, noncitizen, low income, no insurance, a larger family network, and better perceived health were associated with decreased odds of using preventive health services. PMID:27171558

  3. Mental health services development in Latin America and the Caribbean: achievements, barriers and facilitating factors.

    PubMed

    Caldas de Almeida, J M

    2013-03-01

    Mental health services reforms in Latin America and the Caribbean in the last 20 years have led to a significant improvement of mental health services. They also contributed to the development of new evidence that may help the implementation of future reforms. These advances, however, were clearly insufficient to respond to the huge challenges countries of Latin American and the Caribbean face to improve mental health services. Insufficient funding, one of the most important barriers to mental health services development found in most countries, was related to the absence of a strong consensus among all stakeholders and the weakness of user and family associations. Other barriers were the lack of technical capacity of the coordination unit responsible for development of services in the ministries of health, resistance from professionals towards changing to new models of care and lack of human resources. Transition to democracy in some countries and natural disasters proved to be windows of opportunity for mental health services reform. Facilitating factors included alliance with the human rights defence movement, development of research capacity in Latin American and the Caribbean countries, and international cooperation. PMID:24029840

  4. Reform the Postal Service for the 21st Century Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Connolly, Gerald E. [D-VA-11

    2011-03-30

    04/01/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Psychotherapy services outside the National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Kroll, U

    1976-02-01

    With the help of an Upjohn Travelling Fellowship, I visited 15 units providing services for people under stress. There were nine residential units and six non-residential units, all were Christian charitable organisations and in all there was close co-operation with the medical profession.All these organisations accept referrals from general practitioners and deserve to be more widely known. PMID:1255548

  6. Role of development partners in Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) programming in post-reform times: a qualitative study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Pervaiz, Farrah; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Mazhar, Arslan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite certain reforms undertaken in Pakistan to reorient its health system, the health-related millennium goals lagged behind many neighbouring and regional countries. This study was conducted to understand the implications of government reforms including the devolution on the National Maternal Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) programme; and to determine donors’ and development partners’ current and prospective role in the post-reform scenario. Setting The donor agencies based in the federal capital Islamabad, as well as the federal and provincial government offices involved in the financing, design, oversight and implementation of various MNCH initiatives in Pakistan, were included in the sample. Participants A descriptive qualitative study based on individual in-depth interviews with representatives from donor agencies and government offices (8 each) involved in programmes directly related to the MNCH sector. Results The reforms are denounced as deficient in terms of detailed planning and operationalisation of the vertical programmes including that for MNCH. The government had to face coordination challenges with the provinces, which has affected donor engagement and funding mechanisms to a great deal. Investment in MNCH, population and nutrition has been the topmost priority of development partners in Pakistan. Their contributions towards health systems also include assistance in developing and implementing provincial health sector strategies, establishment of Health Sector Reform Units and investments in service delivery, research and advocacy. Conclusions Any health sector reform must be complemented by a roll-out strategy, including robust support to the provincial health systems and to their capacity building. Development partners must align and coordinate their strategies with provinces to stabilise the MNCH programme in Pakistan. More coordination between the different tiers of the government and the donors could streamline MNCH partnership

  7. Health services research: why and how?

    PubMed

    Hjort, P F

    1976-01-01

    It is useful to divide medical research into three areas: biomedical, clinical, and health services research. The areas partly overlap, and health services research is also related to social services research. Research is carried out to solve problems and is an instrument for change. Health services research has developed over the last ten years in response to increasing problems in many health services. Superficially, these problems are caused by insufficient resources, but no service can hope to pay its way out of them. Some may be fairly accurately investigated, like need, demand, and utilization of care. Others are more complicated, e.g. evaluation of care, defining standards, and cost--benefit analyses. A few deal with fundamental values, like quality of life and responsibility of individuals and societies. So far, health services research has led to greater emphasis on primary care, but it is fair to say that it has not managed to infiltrate the service and influence people's attitudes and ambitions. In the future, one must bring health services research inside the service and involve the professionals more deeply. One must support prevention studies, attack the ethical and clinical problems related to quality of life, study the potential of non-professional support in the community, and promote rational attitudes among professions, patients, people and politicians. The task is never-ending and health services research, therefore, must be part of the programme of all medical schools. PMID:829768

  8. Health Care Reform: America's Dilemma. Report on the National Meeting (Boston, Massachusetts, November 28-29, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labor/Higher Education Council, Washington, DC.

    Health care reform's direct effect on higher education and labor is the subject of this conference report. Individual, panel, and interactive work group presentations addressing the values and options on health care issues are included. Following an introduction, three papers discuss the U.S. health care system: (1) "National Health Care Reform:…

  9. Modifying clinical practice: two initiatives in the English National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Forster, D P; Frost, C E; Morris, D

    1990-01-01

    Two information systems in the English National Health Service (NHS) are described and discussed. The performance indicator scheme enables service inputs and activity to be readily compared between district health authorities (DHAs) or hospitals. Quality of care is not measured directly by performance indicators but in certain circumstances a limited assessment may be inferred from the health service input and activity data. Experiments in management budgeting and resource management are reported in which the NHS accounting system is being changed to one which is more patient-based and from which costs can be identified for clinically meaningful groups of patients. Variation in service activity, derived from the performance indicator system, has been used by the government with other evidence to make the case for NHS reform. Realistic implementation of the proposed NHS reforms will depend on the success of the budgeting experiments. PMID:2332494

  10. A regional approach to health care reform: the Texas border.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Jose Luis Manzanares; Zuniga, Genny Carrillo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze health insurance disparities related to labor environment factors in the Texas-Mexico border region. A logistic regression model was performed using microdata from the 2010 American Community Survey to estimate the probability of having employer-based insurance, controlling labor environment factors such as hours worked, occupation industry, and the choice of private, nonprofit or public sector jobs. Industries primarily employing the Mexican American population are less likely to offer employer-based health insurance. These industries have the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 770 construction, including cleaning, and NAICS code 8680, restaurants and other food services. Although it was found that working in public sector industries such as code 9470, administration of justice, public order, and safety, or NAICS code 7860, elementary and secondary schools, improved by 60% the probability of the Mexican American population having employer-based health insurance, these occupations ranked at the bottom of the main occupation list for Mexican Americans. These findings provide evidence that the labor environment plays an important role in understanding current health insurance access limitations within the Mexican American community under 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provisions, which are directed to small business and lower-income individuals. PMID:25627854

  11. Health care reform: will quality remodeling affect obstetrician-gynecologists in addition to patients?

    PubMed

    von Gruenigen, Vivian E; Deveny, T Clifford

    2011-05-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a federal statute that attempts to address many fundamental problems with the current health care system including the uninsured, rising health care costs, and quality care. Quality metrics have been in development for years (by private and governmental sectors), and momentum is growing. The purpose of this commentary is to explore quality changes in the way practicing obstetricians and gynecologists will be held accountable for quality service. Two new options being explored for health care, both focusing on improving quality and physician metrics, include value-based purchasing and accountable-care organizations. Both will likely consist of universal clinical algorithms and cost monitoring as measures. For obstetrics this will probably include physician's rates of cesarean deliveries and elective inductions. For gynecology this may comprise of indications for hysterectomy with documented failed medical management, minor surgical management, or both medical and minor surgical management. It is anticipated patients will no longer be able to request obstetric testing, pregnancy induction, or hysterectomy. It is imperative we, as obstetrician-gynecologists, are involved in health care reform that inevitably involves the care of women. The expectation is that the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) will further develop evidenced-based opinions and guidelines, as medical communities embrace ACOG documents and reference these in hospital policies and peer review. PMID:21508757

  12. Health Services and Women's Oral Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mullane, Denis; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Data on the relative levels of men's and women's dental health are scarce, but the available data do indicate differences in tooth loss and health-related behavior patterns. Better methods for recording and reporting this information are recommended. (MSE)

  13. Systemization of leadership for the systemization health care of health care: the unaddressed issue in health care reform.

    PubMed

    Degeling, Pieter; Carr, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    The case literature strongly suggests that both in England and in Australia health care reforms have had very little impact in terms of "improved performance". It is in the context of a perceived failure in the implementation of the reforms that an interest has arisen in leadership at the level of individual clinical units (e.g an orthopaedics unit or birth unit), as the possible "fix" for bridging the promise-performance gap. Drawing upon extensive case studies that highlight the problem and context for appropriate forms of leadership, this paper argues that the appropriate discourse, in terms of leadership in health reform, needs to focus upon the issue of authorization. In making this argument, addresses the current conceptions of leadership that have been advanced in the discourse before offering some case study material that is suggestive of why attention should be focused on the issue of authorization. Illustrates how and why the processes of leading, central to implementing reform, cannot be construed as socially disembodied processes. Rather, leading and following are partial and partisan processes whose potential is circumscribed by participants' position-takings and what is authorized in the institutional settings in which they are located Argues that the "following" that clinical unit managers could command was shaped by the sub-cultures and "regulatory ideals" with which staff of each profession are involved In the interests of reform, policy players in health should not be focusing attention solely upon the performative qualities and potential leadership abilities of middle level management, but also on their own performance. They should consider how their actions affect what is authorized institutionally and which sets the scope and limits of the leadership-followership dialectic in clinical settings. PMID:15588011

  14. Beyond therapy: bringing social work back to human services reform.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, W B

    2001-01-01

    Based on field interviews in a Chicago community development corporation and settlement houses in New York City and St. Louis, as well as interviews with leading social services innovators and social work educators, this article explores the intersection of current social work practice and human services innovation. The article offers a rationale and a blueprint for a reorientation of social work's "helping relationship," reviews a number of promising innovations and strategies that may help the profession make this reorientation operational, and explores forces restraining as well as driving such change. PMID:11217494

  15. [Maternal and infant health services and the public health clinic].

    PubMed

    Urasaki, S

    1986-11-01

    The public health clinic under the jurisdiction of prefectural government should continue to play a major role in maternal-child health services. Ministry of Health's revision plan for Maternal-child Health Law, according to which maternal-child health services are to be transferred totally to municipal (city-town-village) government, is strongly opposed by public health nurses and others. The plan goes against the current movement and effort to revitalize public health clinics, where more 50% of services rendered are maternal-child health related. Secondly, municipal health centers would have much more difficulty providing quality services than prefectural public health clinics which receive annual federal aid for their operation. Federal funding for maternal-child health care, regardless of jurisdictions, is currently 1/3 of standard unit cost. Extreme financial strain on municipal governments would result in regional differences in the quality of services and/or eventual financial burden on the patients. While the national government is trying to emphasize administrative aspects of the public health clinic, it is ordinary citizens' day to day health problems that people expect the clinic to deal with, individually, via check-ups, health counseling, home visits, public health education and telephone health hot line. PMID:3642046

  16. From Wall Street to Main Street: how will the economic meltdown impact health care reform?

    PubMed

    Gardner, Deborah B

    2008-01-01

    What will happen to health care in the wake of the financial market crisis? Many health policy and economic experts are asking whether it is possible for any of the promises for health care reform to be realized. We could find ourselves in a catastrophic collision between national security priorities and domestic policy goals. Nurses must be vocal regarding the need to reform health care or it may be sidestepped if budgeting continues to prioritize the war abroad and not the crisis at home. PMID:19330976

  17. Indian Health Trends and Services, 1974 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Washington, DC. Div. of Indian Health.

    The American Indian Health Service (AIHS), subsidiary of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, is dedicated to elevating the health status of Indian and Alaskan Native peoples by: developing modern health facilities; encouraging Indian acquaintance with and participation in existing programs; being responsive to the concept of…

  18. Mandates for Collaboration: Health Care and Child Welfare Policy and Practice Reforms Create the Platform for Improved Health for Children in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik, Sarah; Wilson, Leigh; Scribano, Philip; Wood, Joanne N; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Improving the health of children in foster care requires close collaboration between pediatrics and the child welfare system. Propelled by recent health care and child welfare policy reforms, there is a strong foundation for more accountable, collaborative models of care. Over the last 2 decades health care reforms have driven greater accountability in outcomes, access to care, and integrated services for children in foster care. Concurrently, changes in child welfare legislation have expanded the responsibility of child welfare agencies in ensuring child health. Bolstered by federal legislation, numerous jurisdictions are developing innovative cross-system workforce and payment strategies to improve health care delivery and health care outcomes for children in foster care, including: (1) hiring child welfare medical directors, (2) embedding nurses in child welfare agencies, (3) establishing specialized health care clinics, and (4) developing tailored child welfare managed care organizations. As pediatricians engage in cross-system efforts, they should keep in mind the following common elements to enhance their impact: embed staff with health expertise within child welfare settings, identify long-term sustainable funding mechanisms, and implement models for effective information sharing. Now is an opportune time for pediatricians to help strengthen health care provision for children involved with child welfare. PMID:26403650

  19. Health Care Reform in Massachusetts: Implementation of Coverage Expansions and a Health Insurance Mandate

    PubMed Central

    Doonan, Michael T; Tull, Katharine R

    2010-01-01

    Context: Much can be learned from Massachusetts's experience implementing health insurance coverage expansions and an individual health insurance mandate. While achieving political consensus on reform is difficult, implementation can be equally or even more challenging. Methods: The data in this article are based on a case study of Massachusetts, including interviews with key stakeholders, state government, and Commonwealth Health Insurance Connector Authority officials during the first three years of the program and a detailed analysis of primary and secondary documents. Findings: Coverage expansion and an individual mandate led Massachusetts to define affordability standards, establish a minimum level of insurance coverage, adopt insurance market reforms, and institute incentives and penalties to encourage coverage. Implementation entailed trade-offs between the comprehensiveness of benefits and premium costs, the subsidy levels and affordability, and among the level of mandate penalties, public support, and coverage gains. Conclusions: National lessons from the Massachusetts experience come not only from the specific decisions made but also from the process of decision making, the need to keep stakeholders engaged, the relationship of decisions to existing programs and regulations, and the interactions among program components. PMID:20377758

  20. Reforms are needed to increase public funding and curb demand for private care in Israel's health system.

    PubMed

    Chernichovsky, Dov

    2013-04-01

    Historically, the Israeli health care system has been considered a high-performance system, providing universal, affordable, high-quality care to all residents. However, a decline in the ratio of physicians to population that reached a modern low in 2006, an approximate ten-percentage-point decline in the share of publicly financed health care between 1995 and 2009, and legislative mandates that favored private insurance have altered Israel's health care system for the worse. Many Israelis now purchase private health insurance to supplement the state-sponsored universal care coverage, and they end up spending more out of pocket even for services covered by the entitlement. Additionally, many publicly paid physicians moonlight at private facilities to earn more money. In this article I recommend that Israel increase public funding for health care and adopt reforms to address the rising demand for privately funded care and the problem of publicly paid physicians who moonlight at private facilities. PMID:23569052

  1. [Constructing knowledge about solid waste in health services in the education of health professionals].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Luciara Bilhalva; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Santos, Silvana Sidney Costa

    2008-12-01

    The need to implement policies to manage solid residues in health services (SRHS) in different health institutions is unquestionable, considering the risks they pose to public health and the environmental degradation caused by them. In order to find out how knowledge about SRHS has been constructed in the education of the health professional, data were collected with semistructured interviews with students, professors and coordinators in four schools (Nursing and Obstetrics, Odontology, Veterinary Sciences, and Medicine) at a Higher Education Institution located in the south of Brazil. The data content and document analysis identified based on the Complexity Theory ideas, show the need for a teaching reform which should include new concepts, such as integrality, articulation, dialog, and problematization, in the Teaching Projects developed by those courses, so that future health professionals can construct their knowledge about solid residues with responsibility and commitment. PMID:19320342

  2. Massachusetts Health Reform was Cost Saving for Individuals with New Venous Thromboembolism: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Alok; Shaffer, Nicholas; Hanchate, Amresh; Roberts, Mark; Smith, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) require access to comprehensive physician and pharmacy benefits to prevent recurrence and hemorrhage. Prior to 2006, Massachusetts provided these benefits through a program restricted to safety net hospitals called Free Care. Providing portable health insurance through Massachusetts health reform could improve outcomes for uninsured with VTE but its cost-effectiveness is unknown. Methods and Results We constructed a Markov decision analysis model comparing our conceptualization of the Massachusetts health reform (“health reform strategy”) to no health reform strategy for a patient beginning warfarin for new episode of VTE. In the model, a patient may develop recurrent VTE or develop hemorrhage or stop warfarin after 6 months if no event occurs. To measure effectiveness, we analyzed laboratory data from Boston Medical Center, the largest safety net hospital in Massachusetts. Specifically, we measured the probability of having a subtherapeutic warfarin level for patients newly insured compared to those on Free Care pre-reform adjusting for secular trends. To calculate inpatient costs, we used the Health Care Utilization Project (HCUP). We then calculated the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) for the health reform strategy adjusted to 2014 USD per quality adjusted life year (QALY) and performed sensitivity analyses. The health reform strategy cost less and gained more QALYS than the no health reform strategy. Our result was most sensitive to the odds that Health Reform protected against a subtherapeutic warfarin level, the cost of Health Reform, and the percentage of total health care costs attributable to VTE in Massachusetts. Conclusions The health reform strategy cost less and was more effective than the no health reform strategy for patients with VTE. PMID:26908086

  3. Use of intensive care services and associated hospital mortality after Massachusetts healthcare reform

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Sarah M.; Wunsch, Hannah; Asch, David A.; Carr, Brendan G.; Kahn, Jeremy M.; Cooke, Colin R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To use the natural experiment of health insurance reform in Massachusetts to study the impact of increased insurance coverage on ICU utilization and mortality Design Population based cohort study Setting Massachusetts and 4 states (New York, Washington, Nebraska, and North Carolina) that did not enact reform Participants All non-pregnant, non-elderly adults (age 18–64), admitted to non-federal, acute-care hospitals in one of the five states of interest were eligible, excluding patients who were not residents of a respective state at the time of admission. Measurements We used a difference-in-differences approach to compare trends in ICU admissions and outcomes of in-hospital mortality and discharge destination for ICU patients. Main Result Healthcare reform in Massachusetts was associated with a decrease in ICU patients without insurance from 9.3% to 5.1%. There were no significant changes in adjusted ICU admission rates, mortality, or discharge destination. In a sensitivity analysis excluding a state that enacted Medicaid reform prior to the study period, our difference-in differences analysis demonstrated a significant increase in mortality of 0.38% per year (95% CI 0.12 – 0.64%) in Massachusetts, attributable to a greater per-year decrease in mortality post-reform in comparison states (−0.37%, 95% CI −0.52 – −0.21%) compared to Massachusetts (0.01%, 95% CI −0.20% – 0.11%). Conclusion Massachusetts healthcare reform increased the number of ICU patients with insurance but was not associated with significant changes in ICU use or discharge destination among ICU patients. Reform was also not associated with changed in-hospital mortality for ICU patients; however, this association was dependent upon the comparison states chosen in the analysis. PMID:24275512

  4. [Governance and health: the rise of the managerialism in public sector reform].

    PubMed

    Denis, Jean L; Lamothe, Lise; Langley, Ann; Stéphane, Guérard

    2010-01-01

    The article examines various healthcare systems reform projects in Canada and some Canadian provinces and reveals some tendencies in governance renewal. The analisis is based on the hypothesis that reform is an exercise aiming at the renewal of governance conception and practices. In renewing governance, reform leaders hope to use adequate and effective levers to attain announced reform objectives. The article shows that the conceptions and operational modalities of governance have changed over time and that they reveal tensions inherent to the transformation and legitimation process of public healthcare systems. The first section discusses the relationships between reform and change. The second section defines the conception of gouvernance used for the analisis. Based on a content analisis of the various reform reports, the third section reveals the evolution of the conception of governance in healthcare systems in Canada. In order to expose the new tendencies, ideologies and operational principles at the heart of the reform projects are analysed. Five ideologies are identified: the democratic ideology, the "population health" ideology, the business ideology, the managerial ideology and the ideology of equity and humanism. This leads to a discussion on the dominant influence of the managerial ideology in the current reform projects. PMID:20963305

  5. Health reform in the US: what will shape the future debate?

    PubMed

    Helms, Robert B

    2006-12-01

    The question has been asked about what kind of health reform will occur in the US. Will it be a radical transformation or muddling through? Muddling through in health policy is clearly the approach that is more consistent with American history and political traditions than radical reform. But how, and how fast, we muddle through is itself an interesting question. This paper explores the market and public policy forces that are likely to affect the future of health policy in the US. Will the US follow the example of the European countries by expanding public financing and control, or will it take a different approach based more on consumer choice and provider competition? As background, the paper reviews some important events that shaped the US healthcare system and explains why our current market situation complicates our ability to achieve efficient reform. It also discusses why the future of reform will be strongly influenced by how the market for health insurance develops over the next decade. If the new forms of high deductible, catastrophic plans combined with personal savings accounts meet the market test and are considered successful, this will give policy makers new options for expanding coverage to the uninsured and reforming Medicare and Medicaid. But, as we know from the history of other markets, much can go wrong. Some predictions about the future course of reform are offered. PMID:23389484

  6. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  7. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  8. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  9. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  10. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  11. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A,; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to increase service use. This paper examines associations of school resources with past-year mental health service use among students with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. Method Data come from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescent mental health that included 4,445 adolescent-parent pairs in 227 schools in which principals and mental health coordinators completed surveys about school resources-policies for addressing student emotional problems. Adolescents and parents completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and reported mental health service use across multiple sectors. Multilevel multivariate regression was used to examine associations of school mental health resources and individual-level service use. Results Roughly half (45.3%) of adolescents with a 12-month DSM-IV disorder received past-year mental health services. Substantial variation existed in school resources. Increased school engagement in early identification was significantly associated with mental health service use for adolescents with mild/moderate mental and behavior disorders. The ratio of students-to-mental health providers was not associated with overall service use, but was associated with sector of service use. Conclusions School mental health resources, particularly those related to early identification, may facilitate mental health service use and influence sector of service use for youths with DSM disorders. PMID:23622851

  12. Primary Care Reform: Can Quebec's Family Medicine Group Model Benefit from the Experience of Ontario's Family Health Teams?

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Mylaine; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Pineault, Raynald; Hogg, William

    2011-01-01

    Canadian politicians, decision-makers, clinicians and researchers have come to agree that reforming primary care services is a key strategy for improving healthcare system performance. However, it is only more recently that real transformative initiatives have been undertaken in different Canadian provinces. One model that offers promise for improving primary care service delivery is the family medicine group (FMG) model developed in Quebec. A FMG is a group of physicians working closely with nurses in the provision of services to enrolled patients on a non-geographic basis. The objectives of this paper are to analyze the FMG's potential as a lever for improving healthcare system performance and to discuss how it could be improved. First, we briefly review the history of primary care in Quebec. Then we present the FMG model in relation to the four key healthcare system functions identified by the World Health Organization: (a) funding, (b) generating human and technological resources, (c) providing services to individuals and communities and (d) governance. Next, we discuss possible ways of advancing primary care reform, looking particularly at the family health team (FHT) model implemented in the province of Ontario. We conclude with recommendations to inspire other initiatives aimed at transforming primary care. PMID:23115575

  13. National health insurance proposals: their effect on family planning and other preventive health services.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D

    1974-01-01

    The Nixon Administration Comprehensive Health Insurance Act of 1974 (H.R.12684, S.2970), Kennedy-Griffiths Health Security Act of 1973, (H.R.22, S.3), the Long-Ribicoff-Waggonner Catastrophic Health Insurance and Medical Reform Act (H.R. 14079, S.2513) and the Mills-Kennedy Comprehensive National Health Insurance Act of 1974 (H.R. 13870, 3286) are compared with respect to general concept, coverage of population, benefit structure, financing, cost sharing, administration, provider standards and the effect on existing programs. Family planning services and well-child care are not included in the group of services which are regarded as essential under the Mills-Kennedy or administration proposals. Both bills exempt these services from a general provision which limits coverage to curative care and services. The Long-Ribicoff bill mandates the provision of family planning counseling, services and supplies for the low income population as defined in the bill but limits coverage to other persons to catastrophe-related care. The "model policy" of the bill does not mention family planning or well-child services. PMID:4618208

  14. Funding Early Childhood Mental Health Services & Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishmann, Amy; Kates, Donald; Kaufmann, Roxane

    This paper is the first of a two-part series on financing early childhood mental health services. It discusses the need for a systemic approach to financing early childhood mental health services and supports and presents a matrix to assist states and communities in the design of comprehensive financing systems. The vertical axis of the matrix…

  15. Acceptance of Swedish e-health services

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Mary-Louise; Loria, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate older people’s acceptance of e-health services, in order to identify determinants of, and barriers to, their intention to use e-health. Method: Based on one of the best-established models of technology acceptance, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), in-depth exploratory interviews with twelve individuals over 45 years of age and of varying backgrounds are conducted. Results: This investigation could find support for the importance of usefulness and perceived ease of use of the e-health service offered as the main determinants of people’s intention to use the service. Additional factors critical to the acceptance of e-health are identified, such as the importance of the compatibility of the services with citizens’ needs and trust in the service provider. Most interviewees expressed positive attitudes towards using e-health and find these services useful, convenient, and easy to use. Conclusion: E-health services are perceived as a good complement to traditional health care service delivery, even among older people. These people, however, need to become aware of the e-health alternatives that are offered to them and the benefits they provide. PMID:21289860

  16. Communication Access to Health and Social Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Susie; Pound, Carole; Hewitt, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of a group of people in the United Kingdom at Connect-the communication disability network-to make health and social services more communicatively accessible to people with aphasia. The project involved listening to people with aphasia talk about their experiences with health and social care services and working…

  17. National health insurance or incremental reform: aim high, or at our feet?

    PubMed

    Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2003-01-01

    Single-payer national health insurance could cover the uninsured and upgrade coverage for most Americans without increasing costs; savings on insurance overhead and other bureaucracy would fully offset the costs of improved care. In contrast, proposed incremental reforms are projected to cover a fraction of the uninsured, at great cost. Moreover, even these projections are suspect; reforms of the past quarter century have not stemmed the erosion of coverage. Despite incrementalists' claims of pragmatism, they have proven unable to shepherd meaningful reform through the political system. While national health insurance is often dismissed as ultra left by the policy community, it is dead center in public opinion. Polls have consistently shown that at least 40%, and perhaps 60%, of Americans favor such reform. PMID:12511395

  18. [Health care reform in the Obama administration: difficulties of reaching a similar agreement in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Belmartino, Susana

    2014-04-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of the processes leading to health care reform in Argentina and in the USA. The core of the analysis centers on the ideological references utilized by advocates of the reform and the decision-making processes that support or undercut such proposals. The analysis begins with a historical summary of the issue in each country. The political process that led to the sanction of the Obama reform is then described. The text defends a hypothesis aiming to show that deficiencies in the institutional capacities of Argentina's decision-making bodies are a severe obstacle to attaining substantial changes in this area within the country. PMID:24823603

  19. [Commodification of health care services for development: the case of Colombia].

    PubMed

    Echeverri, Oscar

    2008-09-01

    This is a succinct analysis of the circular relationship between health and development and the changes occurring over recent decades regarding health care services production and delivery that have resulted in a new paradigm. From the late 1970s through the 1980s, three major, worldwide shifts occurred that changed health care services in Colombia and in other Latin American countries: the privatization of government entities, the commodification of health care services, and the failure of the Soviet model. Health care system reform in Colombia, considered by some experts to be a model, is an example of health care commodification that, 15 years later, has not achieved the coverage, nor the equity, nor the efficiency, nor the quality, that it should have. More so than the market, the problem has been with the market entities that seek disproportionate profits. A solution for this situation is to appeal to nonprofit organizations for the purchase and sale of health care services. PMID:19115549

  20. Private equity investment in health care services.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Catherine J; Rudsenske, Todd; Vaughan, James S

    2008-01-01

    Sophisticated private equity investors in health services provide venture capital for early-stage companies, growth capital for mid-stage companies, and equity capital for buyouts of mid-stage and mature companies. They pursue opportunities in provider sectors that are large and have a stable reimbursement environment, such as acute care services; sectors with room to execute consolidation strategies, such as labs; alternative-site sectors, such as "storefront" medicine; and clinical services, such as behavioral health, that are subject to profitably increasing quality and lowering costs. The innovations created through private equity investments could challenge established health services organizations. PMID:18780929

  1. Has solidarity survived? A comparative analysis of the effect of social health insurance reform in four European countries.

    PubMed

    Maarse, Hans; Paulus, Aggie

    2003-08-01

    Social health insurance reform has evolved as an important public policy issue in several European countries. Some of the most important reform programs have been the introduction of managed competition, a shift from full retrospective reimbursement of health insurers to prospective reimbursement, an increase of private payments, and a change in the health benefits of social health insurance. The article investigates the widespread assumption that reform programs have adverse effects on solidarity in social health insurance by looking at the concrete experience of four European countries (Belgium, Germany, The Netherlands, and Switzerland) over the past decade. A distinction is made between risk solidarity and income solidarity, and the scope of solidarity is shown to have two dimensions: entitlements and membership. The analysis consists of three parts: description of the structure of health insurance of each of the four countries in the early 1990s; discussion of health insurance reform; determination of the impact on each dimension of solidarity. The findings are mixed. There are indeed some examples of solidarity having declined as the result of health insurance reform. But, more important, many examples also were found of an increase in solidarity due to health insurance reform. In some cases, reform was explicitly intended to improve solidarity. If a reform program had a negative impact on solidarity (e.g., an increase in private payments), accompanying measures often were taken to keep solidarity intact as much as possible. Thus the assumption of a negative impact as a result of health insurance reform is not confirmed. PMID:12956517

  2. 76 FR 16481 - Lifeline and Link Up Reform and Modernization; Federal-State Joint Board on Universal Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission) puts forward a set of proposals to reform and modernize Lifeline/Link Up, including recommendations of the Federal-State Joint Board on Universal Service, Government Accountability Office, and the National Broadband Plan. The reforms proposed will significantly bolster protections against waste, fraud, and abuse; control the......

  3. Exploring Who We Are in the Context of Global Reforms in Education: The Second Level Support Service in Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Kevin; Henchy, Deirdre; Meade, Della; Golden, Kieran

    2007-01-01

    How will the Second Level Support Service (SLSS), established to support curriculum reform and the professional development of teachers, sustain its own professional development and identity in a climate of change and uncertainty? How will the SLSS maintain its vision of continuous professional development in the midst of educational reform? This…

  4. Health and health services in Central America.

    PubMed

    Garfield, R M; Rodriguez, P F

    1985-08-16

    Despite rapid economic growth since World War II, health conditions improved only slowly in most of Central America. This is a result of poor medical, social, and economic infrastructure, income maldistribution, and the poor utilization of health investments. The economic crisis of the 1980s and civil strife have further endangered health in the region. Life expectancy has fallen among men in El Salvador and civil strife has become the most common cause of death in Guatemala, Nicaragua, and El Salvador. Large-scale US assistance has done little to improve conditions, and refugees continue to pour into North America. It is estimated that there are more than a million refugees within Central America, while a million have fled to the United States. Costa Rica and Nicaragua are partial exceptions to this dismal health picture. An effective approach to the many health problems in Central America will require joint planning and cooperation among all countries in the region. PMID:4021026

  5. Local Government Health Services in Interwar England:

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Summary This article provides a critical discussion of recent work on local government health care and health services in interwar England. A literature review examines case study approaches and comparative quantitative surveys, highlighting conventional and revisionist interpretations. Noting the differing selection criteria evident in some works, it argues that studies based upon a limited number of personal health services provide an insufficient basis for assessing local health activity and policy. There follows a regional study demonstrating various discrepancies between health financing data in local sources and those in nationally collated returns. These in turn give rise to various problems of assessment and interpretation in works relying on the latter, particularly with respect to services for schoolchildren and long-stay patients. The case study points to the importance of integrating poor law medical services in evaluations, and of learning more about the role of government subsidy in supporting expanding services. PMID:22080797

  6. Designing online health services for patients.

    PubMed

    Crotty, Bradley H; Slack, Warner V

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly interacting with their healthcare system through online health services, such as patient portals and telehealth programs. Recently, Shabrabani and Mizrachi provided data outlining factors that are most important for users or potential users of these online services. The authors conclude convincingly that while online health services have great potential to be helpful to their users, they could be better designed. As patients and their families play an increasingly active role in their health care, online health services should be made easier for them to use and better suited to their health-related needs. Further, the online services should be more welcoming to people of all literacy levels and from all socioeconomic backgrounds. PMID:27307985

  7. Pharmaceuticals--strategic considerations in health reforms in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania

    2006-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals are critical to the functioning of healthcare systems which require a sustainable supply of quality, efficacious, and safe essential medicines. With this as a context, the Gateway Paper in its capacity as a suggested roadmap for health reforms within Pakistan stressed on the need for a pharmaceutical policy to be directed towards improving people's access to medicines; within this framework a number of issues have been highlighted. Weaknesses in the current legislation on drugs, in particular gaps, which have emerged contemporaneously with reference to the post WTO situation and the technology boom, have been discussed and the incongruity between the drug policies and policies in the other sectors addressed. The Gateway Paper makes a strong case to establish a statutory semi-autonomous drug regulatory authority in order to ensure stricter implementation of the Drug Law, which needs to be amended to bridge the current gaps. The paper lays emphasis on a formal quality assurance mechanism and the need to build capacity to implement regulation in this regard. Lack of clarity in the current pricing formula has been flagged as a key issue and the need highlighted to develop a pricing formula that is predictable, transparent and acceptable to the stakeholders, yet one that does not create access and affordability issues for the poor and disadvantaged. The paper addresses gaps in the process of drug registration in Pakistan and stresses on the need to redefine its scope and ensure its stricter enforcement. Unethical market practices and irrational use of drugs have been discussed and the need for transparently implementing standard operating procedures for drug selecting, procurement, storage, dispensing and rational prescribing and the introduction of appropriate evidence based education, managerial and regulatory interventions in this regard, highlighted. The myriad of reasons which lead to the shortage of drugs and to the mushrooming of spurious

  8. Youth reproductive health services in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mashamba, Alethea; Robson, Elsbeth

    2002-12-01

    This study examines young people's access to reproductive healthcare services via an urban youth advisory centre in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. The aim is to explain why teenagers do not always use existing health services. Data from exit questionnaires with users and focus groups with non-users are analysed to evaluate service accessibility. Analysis suggests that even where clinics are spatially accessible, barriers to access include temporal factors, lack of factual knowledge and stigmatisation. The paper concludes that spatial accessibility is not the only factor necessary to ensure equal access to health services. Recommendations are made towards tackling young people's unmet needs for reproductive healthcare services. PMID:12399216

  9. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: reforming the health care reform for the new decade.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Caraway, David L; Parr, Allan T; Fellows, Bert; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2011-01-01

    accounted for, we will be facing a significant increase in deficits rather than a reduction. When posed as a global question, polls suggest that public opinion continues to be against the health insurance reform. The newly elected Republican congress is poised to pass a bill aimed at repealing health care reform. However, advocates of the repeal of health care reform have been criticized for not providing a meaningful alternative approach. Those criticisms make clear that it is not sufficient to provide vague arguments against the ACA without addressing core issues embedded in health care reform. It is the opinion of the authors that while some parts of the ACA may be reformed, it is unlikely to be repealed. Indeed, the ACA already is growing roots. Consequently, it will be extremely difficult to repeal. In this manuscript, we look at reducing the regulatory burden on the public and providers and elimination of IPAB and PCORI. The major solution lies in controlling the drug and durable medical supply costs with appropriate negotiating capacity for Medicare, and consequently for other insurers. PMID:21267047

  10. Designing HIGH-COST medicine: hospital surveys, health planning, and the paradox of progressive reform.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Barbara Bridgman

    2010-02-01

    Inspired by social medicine, some progressive US health reforms have paradoxically reinforced a business model of high-cost medical delivery that does not match social needs. In analyzing the financial status of their areas' hospitals, for example, city-wide hospital surveys of the 1910s through 1930s sought to direct capital investments and, in so doing, control competition and markets. The 2 national health planning programs that ran from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s continued similar strategies of economic organization and management, as did the so-called market reforms that followed. Consequently, these reforms promoted large, extremely specialized, capital-intensive institutions and systems at the expense of less complex (and less costly) primary and chronic care. The current capital crisis may expose the lack of sustainability of such a model and open up new ideas and new ways to build health care designed to meet people's health needs. PMID:20019312

  11. Designing HIGH-COST Medicine Hospital Surveys, Health Planning, and the Paradox of Progressive Reform

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by social medicine, some progressive US health reforms have paradoxically reinforced a business model of high-cost medical delivery that does not match social needs. In analyzing the financial status of their areas’ hospitals, for example, city-wide hospital surveys of the 1910s through 1930s sought to direct capital investments and, in so doing, control competition and markets. The 2 national health planning programs that ran from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s continued similar strategies of economic organization and management, as did the so-called market reforms that followed. Consequently, these reforms promoted large, extremely specialized, capital-intensive institutions and systems at the expense of less complex (and less costly) primary and chronic care. The current capital crisis may expose the lack of sustainability of such a model and open up new ideas and new ways to build health care designed to meet people's health needs. PMID:20019312

  12. State Perspectives on Health Care Reform: Oregon, Hawaii, Tennessee, and Rhode Island

    PubMed Central

    Thome, Jean I.; Bianchi, Barbara; Bonnyman, Gordon; Greene, Clark; Leddy, Tricia

    1995-01-01

    The general consensus among States which have had their section 1115 demonstration projects approved is that there is no one best way to implement State health care reform. The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), however, wished to discern how States were accomplishing the task of implementing the demonstrations, and solicited responses from State representatives whose section 1115 demonstration waivers had been approved. The resulting article gives an overview of this implementation process from four State perspectives. Written by representatives from Oregon, Hawaii, Tennessee, and Rhode Island, the ideas presented here are indicative of the complex undertaking of State health care reform. PMID:10142573

  13. Opportunities and Threats for College Women's Health: Health Care Reform and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakaboski, Tamara; Hunter, Liz; Manning-Ouellette, Amber

    2014-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) of 2010 (P.L. 118-148) has already changed college students' health care options and has a larger impact on women as they outnumber men in college enrollment and require unique services. Through a feminist policy framework, we discuss how the PPACA impacts college women's health and…

  14. Health, welfare reform, and narratives of uncertainty among Cambodian refugees.

    PubMed

    Becker, G; Beyene, Y; Ken, P

    2000-06-01

    Massive disruptions to a way of life, such as those brought on by widespread violence, terror, and genocide, disorder the body as well as the social order. When they flee their homelands, refugees bring their experiences of violence and terror with them. Drawing on an ethnographic study of 40 Cambodian refugees between the ages of 50 and 79 who suffered from one or more chronic illnesses, we explore how refugees who live with chronic illnesses and are dependent on government support were affected by the threat of welfare reform. When welfare reform threatened to cut Cambodian refugees' income, it posed a new crisis for those who were chronically in limbo and placed further constraints on their lives. Through their narratives, Cambodian refugees enacted their bodily distress and resisted the threat of welfare reform. The story of threatened welfare reform in the U.S. and its possible consequences for refugees is a story of quixotic U.S. politics, policies and antidotes for refugeeism gone awry. PMID:10885785

  15. Mental health services in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Orotaloa, Paul; Blignault, Ilse

    2012-06-01

    The Solomon Islands comprise an archipelago of nearly 1,000 islands and coral atolls and have an estimated population of 549,574 people. Formal mental health services date back to 1950 when an asylum was established. Since then the process of mental health service development has been largely one of incremental change, with a major boost to community services in the last two decades. During the 1990s a mental health outpatient clinic was established in Honiara, together with attempts to recruit nursing staff as psychiatric coordinators in the provinces. In 1996, the Ministry commenced sending registered nurses for psychiatric training in Papua New Guinea. By 2010, there were 13 psychiatric nurses and one psychiatrist, with a second psychiatrist in training. A National Mental Health Policy was drafted in 2009 but is yet to be endorsed by Cabinet. A significant portion of the population still turns to traditional healers or church leaders for purposes of healing, seeking help from Western medicine only after all other alternatives in the community have been exhausted. There is still a long way to go before mental health services are available, affordable and accessible to the whole population, including people living in geographically remote areas. Realization of this vision requires increased resourcing for mental health services; improved communication and collaboration between the centrally-based, national mental health services and the provincial health services; and closer, ongoing relationships between all stakeholders and partners, both locally and internationally. PMID:26767360

  16. Welfare dynamics, support services, mothers' earnings, and child cognitive development: implications for contemporary welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, H

    1999-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY; N = 614), addresses the gap in the research literature regarding the effects of welfare reform on children. Key questions addressed include whether welfare dynamics and support services relevant to welfare reform, both measured across the first 5 years of life, are associated with mothers' earnings in the 6th year and three child cognitive outcomes in the 7th and 8th years: Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) math and reading scores, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). Welfare dynamics are represented by total time on welfare, degree of cycling on and off welfare, and degree to which welfare and work are combined. Support services measured include three forms of child care (relative, babysitter, and center-based), as well as three forms of human capital supports (child support, job training, and education). Controlling for a range of background factors and for different patterns of welfare use across the first 5 years, small positive associations with mother's earnings were found for child support, education, and job training. Small positive associations also were found between child support and both math and reading scores. Finally positive associations of medium effect size were found between center care and both mothers' earnings and child PPVT scores. Although effect sizes are generally small, the results suggest the potential value of welfare reform approaches that emphasize long-term human capital development. Interactions between welfare dynamics and support services suggest subgroup differences. Specifically, positive effects of support services on earnings are strongest among mothers with higher levels of human capital (higher levels of work while on welfare, lower total time on welfare). Babysitter care appears to have negative effects on both reading and math scores of children whose mothers report low levels of work while on welfare

  17. Health maintenance organizations: critical issues raised by restructuring delivery for health systems reform.

    PubMed

    Gold, M

    1993-10-01

    In sum, the potential that managed care will grow under health systems reform creates an opportunity for the HMO industry but also serves as a challenge and a threat. Faced with greater scrutiny and growing demands, HMOs increasingly are being forced to demonstrate their potential and live up to their expectation. At the same time, the changing nature of the health care system creates a challenge for HMOs. Cost pressures create needs to review the entire delivery system, including the ambulatory component, with a focus on enhancing cost-effectiveness. Greater visibility also creates demands; growing market penetration argues for the creation of a new paradigm to define an appropriate structure for public accountability and management. Finally, the transformation of an HMO industry into a managed care industry is not without its risks as HMO performance becomes evaluated not only against itself but as part of the performance of the broader managed care industry in which HMOs have become embedded. PMID:10128419

  18. Mental Health Care in a High School Based Health Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepson, Lisa; Juszczak, Linda; Fisher, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Describes the mental-health and medical services provided at a high-school-based service center. Five years after the center's inception mental health visits had quadrupled. One third of students utilizing the center reported substance abuse within their family. Other reasons for center use included pregnancy, suicidal ideation, obesity,…

  19. Health Services for Migrant Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bove, Beverly A.

    Intended as a resource for administrators, teachers, nurses, paraprofessionals, health coordinators, and community action personnel who are interested in meeting the health needs of migrant children, this handbook offers suggestions for organizing community resources in providing health care to migrant children. Poor nutrition, the lack of dental…

  20. Evidence is good for your health system: policy reform to remedy catastrophic and impoverishing health spending in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Méndez-Carniado, Oscar; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Barofsky, Jeremy; Maguire, Rachel; Miranda, Martha; Sesma, Sergio

    2006-11-18

    Absence of financial protection in health is a recently diagnosed "disease" of health systems. The most obvious symptom is that families face economic ruin and poverty as a consequence of financing their health care. Mexico was one of the first countries to diagnose the problem, attribute it to lack of financial protection, and propose systemic therapy through health reform. In this article we assess how Mexico turned evidence on catastrophic and impoverishing health spending into a catalyst for institutional renovation through the reform that created Seguro Popular (Popular Health Insurance). We present 15-year trends on the evolution of catastrophic and impoverishing health spending, including evidence on how the situation is improving. The results of the Mexican experience suggest an important role for the organisation and financing of the health system in reducing impoverishment and protecting households during periods of individual and collective financial crisis. PMID:17113432