Science.gov

Sample records for health work force

  1. Evaluating the Environmental Health Work Force. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This report contains all materials pertinent to an intensive evaluation of the environmental health work force conducted in 1986 and 1987. The materials relate to a workshop that was one of the key tools used in conducting the study to estimate environmental health personnel supply, demand, and need. The report begins with an overview and…

  2. The health work force, generalism, and the social contract.

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, G F

    1995-01-01

    Since 1990, society has been evolving through a period of significant transformation. In response to an increasingly information-rich and knowledge-based environment, the work force for most of society is becoming more specialized. Medicine is one of the few areas developing a work force which emphasizes generalism. For our current needs, the transitional work force has overproduced physicians. Because the overproduction has been uneven by specialty, it is deceptive to evaluate growth collectively rather than by individual subspecialty. Future shifts in age and types of illness combined with enhanced technology will transform the public's expectations of the American health care system. The type and number of physicians that will be needed in the future will be substantially different than in the past, so current patterns in physician education may not address the population's future demands. Images Figure 1. PMID:7677453

  3. [Investigating work, age, health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ebener, M; Hasselhorn, H M

    2015-04-01

    Working life in Germany is changing. The work force is ageing and the number of people available to the labour market will - from now on - shrink considerably. Prospectively, people will have to work longer; but still today, most people leave employment long before reaching official retirement age. What are the reasons for this? In this report, a conceptual framework and the German lidA Cohort Study are presented. The "lidA conceptual framework on work, age, health and work participation" visualises determinants of employment (11 "domains") in higher working age, e.?g., "work", "health", "social status" and "life style". The framework reveals 4 key characteristics of withdrawal from work: leaving working life is the result of an interplay of different domains (complexity); (early) retirement is a process with in part early determinants in the life course (processual character); retirement has a strong individual component (individuality); retirement is embedded in a strong structural frame (structure). On the basis of this framework, the "lidA Cohort Study on work, age, health and work participation" (www.lida-studie.de) investigates long-term effects of work on health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany. It is the only large study in Germany operationalising the concept of employability in a broad interdisciplinary approach. Employees subject to social security and born in 1959 or in 1965 will be interviewed (CAPI) every 3 years (N[wave 1]=6?585, N[wave 2]=4?244) and their data will be linked (where consented) with social security data covering employment history and with health insurance data. The study design ("Schaie's most efficient design") allows for a tri-factor model that isolates the impact of age, cohort and time. In 2014, the second wave was completed. In the coming years lidA will analyse the association of work, health and work participation, and identify age as well as generation differences. lidA will investigate the complexity of work participation and assess the benefit of broader conceptual and methodological research approaches in the field. PMID:25806501

  4. For the Health-Care Work Force, a Critical Prognosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Daniel W.; Wartman, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    The United States faces a looming shortage of many types of health-care professionals, including nurses, physicians, dentists, pharmacists, and allied-health and public-health workers. There may also be a shortage of faculty members in the health sciences. The results will be felt acutely within the next 10 years. Colleges and health-science…

  5. For the Health-Care Work Force, a Critical Prognosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Daniel W.; Wartman, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    The United States faces a looming shortage of many types of health-care professionals, including nurses, physicians, dentists, pharmacists, and allied-health and public-health workers. There may also be a shortage of faculty members in the health sciences. The results will be felt acutely within the next 10 years. Colleges and health-science…

  6. Association of work-related stress with mental health problems in a special police force unit

    PubMed Central

    Garbarino, Sergio; Cuomo, Giovanni; Chiorri, Carlo; Magnavita, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Law and order enforcement tasks may expose special force police officers to significant psychosocial risk factors. The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between job stress and the presence of mental health symptoms while controlling sociodemographical, occupational and personality variables in special force police officers. Method At different time points, 292 of 294 members of the ‘VI Reparto Mobile’, a special police force engaged exclusively in the enforcement of law and order, responded to our invitation to complete questionnaires for the assessment of personality traits, work-related stress (using the Demand–Control–Support (DCS) and the Effort–Reward–Imbalance (ERI) models) and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and burnout. Results Regression analyses showed that lower levels of support and reward and higher levels of effort and overcommitment were associated with higher levels of mental health symptoms. Psychological screening revealed 21 (7.3%) likely cases of mild depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI?10). Officers who had experienced a discrepancy between work effort and rewards showed a marked increase in the risk of depression (OR 7.89, 95% CI 2.32 to 26.82) when compared with their counterparts who did not perceive themselves to be in a condition of distress. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that work-related stress may play a role in the development of mental health problems in police officers. The prevalence of mental health symptoms in the cohort investigated here was low, but not negligible in the case of depression. Since special forces police officers have to perform sensitive tasks for which a healthy psychological functioning is needed, the results of this study suggest that steps should be taken to prevent distress and improve the mental well-being of these workers. PMID:23872288

  7. Community health workers: integral members of the health care work force.

    PubMed Central

    Witmer, A; Seifer, S D; Finocchio, L; Leslie, J; O'Neil, E H

    1995-01-01

    As the US health care system strives to function efficiently, encourage preventive and primary care, improve quality, and overcome nonfinancial barriers to care, the potential exists for community health workers to further these goals. Community health workers can increase access to care and facilitate appropriate use of health resources by providing outreach and cultural linkages between communities and delivery systems; reduce costs by providing health education, screening, detection, and basic emergency care; and improve quality by contributing to patient-provider communication, continuity of care, and consumer protection. Information sharing, program support, program evaluation, and continuing education are needed to expand the use of community health workers and better integrate them into the health care delivery system. PMID:7625495

  8. Magnetic Force and Work: An Accessible Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Despite their physics instructors' arguments to the contrary, introductory students can observe situations in which there seems to be compelling evidence for magnetic force doing work. The counterarguments are often highly technical and require physics knowledge beyond the experience of novice students, however. A simple example is presented…

  9. Does the electromotive force (always) represent work?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papachristou, C. J.; Magoulas, A. N.

    2015-03-01

    In the literature of Electromagnetism, the electromotive force of a "circuit" is often defined as work done on a unit charge during a complete tour of the latter around the circuit. We explain why this statement cannot be generally regarded as true, although it is indeed true in certain simple cases. Several examples are used to illustrate these points.

  10. Magnetic Force and Work: An Accessible Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Despite their physics instructors' arguments to the contrary, introductory students can observe situations in which there seems to be compelling evidence for magnetic force doing work. The counterarguments are often highly technical and require physics knowledge beyond the experience of novice students, however. A simple example is presented…

  11. Creative Work and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirowsky, John; Ross, Catherine E.

    2007-01-01

    Employees with greater control over their own activities have better health. People who are employed give up some control over their own activities for pay, yet employment is associated with better health. Perhaps paid jobs provide resources for productive self-expression that make up for the loss of autonomy. We find that paid employment is…

  12. Head Start Health Coordinators' Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    The Head Start Health Coordinator's Task Force (HCTF) was charged to study and make recommendations to strengthen Head Start's health component, which is a vital part of the child development program. Since its inception in 1965, Head Start has served over 12 million economically disadvantaged children. Through the health component, children have…

  13. Annual report on contractor work force restructuring, fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This report summarizes work force restructuring and community transition activities at all sites. It outlines work force restructuring activity for FY 1997, changing separation patterns, cost savings and separation costs, program assessment, activities to mitigate restructuring impacts, community transition activities, status of displaced workers, lessons learned, and emerging issues in worker and community transition. Work force restructuring and community transition activities for defense nuclear sites are summarized, as are work force restructuring activities at non-defense sites.

  14. 40 CFR 35.936-14 - Force account work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any...

  15. 40 CFR 35.936-14 - Force account work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any...

  16. 40 CFR 35.936-14 - Force account work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any...

  17. 40 CFR 35.936-14 - Force account work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any...

  18. 40 CFR 35.936-14 - Force account work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any...

  19. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith; Goodson, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses, and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered. PMID:26612237

  20. The Multicultural Work Force. Trends and Issues Alerts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankard, Bettina A.

    White males represent only 46 percent of the U.S. work force. Within a few years, 75 percent of those entering the labor force will be women and minorities, according to the U.S. Department of Labor. The work force is getting smaller as well as changing in nature. To attract and keep the most qualified and productive workers, businesses must make…

  1. Health Literacy and Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Kate

    Low health literacy is a societal problem, the significance of which has been increasingly recognized in recent years by the United States healthcare community and the federal government. However, its implications have thus far garnered little attention in the field of social work. This paper examines commonly accepted definitions of health…

  2. Interstate Migrant Education Task Force: Migrant Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Because ill-clothed, sick, or hungry migrant children learn poorly, the Task Force has emphasized the migrant health situation in 1979. Migrant workers have a 33% shorter life expectancy, a 25% higher infant mortality rate, and a 25% higher death rate from tuberculosis and other communicable diseases than the national average. Common among…

  3. Industrial Robots Join the Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gail M.

    1982-01-01

    Robots--powerful, versatile, and easily adapted to new operations--may usher in a new industrial age. Workers throughout the labor force could be affected, as well as the nature of the workplace, skill requirements of jobs, and concomitant shifts in vocational education. (SK)

  4. Work of gravediggers and health.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Fernando; Fischer, Frida Marina; Cobianchi, Claudio José

    2012-01-01

    Gravediggers have death as object of their work. Their activities are painful, physically and mental demanding, as well as unhealthy. Literature is scarce about this theme. The aim of this study is to evaluate gravediggers' work activities and health consequences. The methodological frame which guided this study was Dejours' psychic suffering and its association with the psychodynamic aspects of work. Data collection took place in April-May 2011 in one public and one private cemetery of São Paulo, Brazil. Four male workers, aged between 45 to 60 years old were interviewed. Their work activities were observed during a workday. Participants reported their life dreams, defense mechanisms and frustration. The discourse of gravediggers showed serious problems associated to physical and mental demands, public invisibility and/ or social devaluation of work. The most important physical symptom was body pain. In spite this is a preliminary study, it was possible to raise a number of work stressors and health outcomes of gravediggers, an "invisible" worker of our society. PMID:22317698

  5. Health Tip: Eating Well At Work

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154740.html Health Tip: Eating Well at Work Be prepared with ... Nutrition Occupational Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Nutrition Occupational Health About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  6. Experience proves forced fracture closure works

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Forced closure, or perhaps better-named ``reverse gravel packing,`` of fractures immediately following hydraulic fracturing with proppant and gelled fluids is a technique which, with rare exception, can be extremely beneficial to the success of almost every hydraulic fracture treatment. By proper planning of the rig-up to allow immediate flow-back, substantial quantities of polymer and load fluid can be removed while simultaneously negating undesirable proppant settling within fractures in the near wellbore area. Fracture smearing (dilution of proppant into an extending fracture) after shutdown can be negated. And in most cases, proppant production from the formation can be reduced. Discussions in the article explain why Ely and Associates has the confidence to make these claims after extensive hydraulic fracturing experience in many geographical areas.

  7. Working model of an atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonson, Kirsten; Headrick, Randall L.; Hammond, David; Hamblin, Michael

    2011-02-01

    To explain the principles of an atomic force microscope (AFM) at the level of introductory physics, we have created an inexpensive model of an AFM using a modified phonograph stylus in place of the AFM cantilever and tip. The sample is positioned under the stylus using a micrometer stage. A 10 mW laser diode is used to produce a beam, which reflects off a very small mirror glued to the end of the stylus. No electronic detection is used, and students measure the deflection of the tip directly from the movement of the laser beam on graph paper. The laser beam is deflected roughly 1 cm for each 10 ?m of stylus deflection, making it easy to collect data.

  8. Tips for Training a World-Class Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Geneva

    1990-01-01

    Examines trends in work force training needs and innovative approaches to meeting those needs (e.g., business incubators, small business development centers, 2+2 programs, and cooperative education programs). Suggests ways in which community colleges can become more involved in work force development. (DMM)

  9. The Changing Work Force. Trends and Issues Alerts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankard, Bettina A.

    Economic pressures, work force diversity, and advances in technology are changing the nature of work and organizational policy and management. A predicted decline in the annual growth in gross national product is expected to trigger a slowdown in the labor force, especially in occupations that employ workers with only a high school education.…

  10. 48 CFR 223.570 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....

  11. 48 CFR 223.570 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....

  12. 48 CFR 223.570 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....

  13. 48 CFR 223.570 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....

  14. 48 CFR 223.570 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....

  15. Individual and work factors related to perceived work ability and labor force outcomes.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L; Grosch, James W

    2015-03-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the United States, given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the job demands-resources model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress, and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using 3 independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers' job characteristics were from self-report and Occupational Information Network measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job and personal resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or 2 weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all 3 of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364

  16. Understanding and Motivating the Changing Work Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagliaferri, Louis E.

    1975-01-01

    To cope with the negative attitudes of workers and the public towards industry, industry should utilize a program that: (1) understands clearly worker beliefs and attitudes towards the work environment, (2) utilizes study results as a basis for an employee communications program, and (3) takes their message to the public. (BP)

  17. Investigation of applied forces in alphanumeric keyboard work.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, T J; Foulke, J A; Martin, B J; Gerson, J; Rempel, D M

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers one way that occupational health professionals can assess the force exerted by keyboard users and the possible relationship between that force and the key force-displacement relationship. First, three personal-computer keyboards with the standard QWERTY layouts were tested as described by the American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display workstations (ANSI/HFS 100-1988) to determine the peak forces, 0.47-0.89N; displacements prior to the "breakaway" force that acknowledges key registration, 2.0-2.5 mm; and total key travel, 3.3-4.3 mm. Second, keyboard reaction forces were recorded while 10 subjects typed 4 alphanumeric sentences on the keyboards. It was found that the peak forces corresponding to each keystroke were 2.5 to 3.9 times the required activation forces, indicating that the subjects consistently displaced the keys to their limits. The average of the peak forces for all keystrokes was lowest for the keyboard with the lowest required activation force. It was concluded that keyboard reaction forces can be used as an index of finger forces for keying tasks. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the relationship between keyboard reaction forces, fatigue, and chronic muscle, tendon, and nerve disorders. PMID:8116526

  18. Environmental education work force pipeline strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, S.U.; Jackson, E.R.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes an educational program designed to provide a pool of highly qualified administrative, technical, and managerial graduates that are familiar with the Hanford Site and business operations. The program is designed to provide work experience and mentoring to a culturally diverse student base which enhances affirmative employment goals. Short-term and long-term objectives of the program are outlined in the report, and current objectives are discussed in more detail. Goals to be completed by the year 2003 are aimed at defining the criteria necessary to establish partnerships between schools, community organizations, and human resources departments. Actions to be implemented includes providing instructors and equipment, enhancing skills of local teachers, and establishing collaboration with human resources organizations. Long-term goals of the program are to ensure a constant supply of qualified, trained workers to support industry missions. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Work and Family. Policies for a Changing Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferber, Marianne A., Ed.; And Others

    This book reviews changes in work and family structures and their effects on worker productivity and employer practices. The first two chapters introduce the topic and trace the history of family structure and composition in the United States, the changing nature of employment, and the central role of the employment relationship to the social…

  20. The Labor Force Participation of Older Women: Retired? Working? Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Elizabeth T.

    2002-01-01

    Noneconomic factors such as level of education, job flexibility in work hours, and physical stress appear to influence older women's labor force participation resulting in many retired women who are employed. Some women classified as retired work nearly as many hours as those employed, although many employed older women work part time. (Contains…

  1. Mobilizing the Work Force for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, M. Catherine; Marker, Jan Robey

    1991-01-01

    Industry and education need to build trusting relationships through communication, networking, and a sharing of resources. That will increase the likelihood that the United States will have an effective work force for the twenty-first century. (Author/JOW)

  2. 73. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) WORK FORCE ASSEMBLED BEHIND THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) WORK FORCE ASSEMBLED BEHIND THE HOIST HOUSE BETWEEN SHAFTS NO. 3 AND 4; MANY SITTING ATOP THE SNOWSHED OVER A TRAMROAD. C. 1875. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  3. Round ceiling detail, note tension wires working against outward forces ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Round ceiling detail, note tension wires working against outward forces on the vertical columns while restoration of collapsed roof takes place. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  4. Force generation, work, and coupling in molecular motors.

    PubMed Central

    Krupka, R M

    1996-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed for molecular motors in which force is generated by a protein conformational change driven by binding energy (in muscle, that of myosin with actin as well as with ATP, ADP, or Pi). Work, the product of the force generated by one myosin or kinesin molecule (F) and the distance over which it acts (d), is a function of a ratio of dissociation constants before and after the contractile step: F.d < RT ln(KAe/KAc). From published data the ratio is > 2 x 10(4), which can be explained by conversion of a surface complex to an enclosed, or partly enclosed, complex. Although the complex performing the work stroke is in unstrained conformation, the complex after the work stroke is much more stable, owing to binding forces; the latter, however, is destabilized by the load, which thereby opposes the contractile conformational change, countering the force-generating reaction. The connection between the free energy release and work is implicit in the mechanism, inasmuch as coupling, like force generation, depends on conformational changes driven by binding energy (internal rather than external work being involved in coupling). The principles apply whether ATP or an ion gradient drives the system. At high load, in muscle, the mechanism allows for a summation of the forces generated by several myosin molecules. PMID:8785346

  5. Report of the Task Force - Space for Health Sciences. Building Blocks. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    The Task Force on Space for Health Sciences is one of four task forces established by the Committee on Capital Financing of the Council of Ontario Universities to work toward the development of a capital formula that would define space needs and building costs for Ontario universities. Each task force has a particular assignment related to the…

  6. Imbalances in the health labour force: an assessment using data from three national health facility surveys.

    PubMed

    Barden-O'Fallon, Janine; Angeles, Gustavo; Tsui, Amy

    2006-03-01

    Accurate knowledge of the characteristics of the health labour force that can affect health care production is of critical importance to health planners and policymakers. This study uses health facility survey data to examine characteristics of the primary health care labour force in Nicaragua, Tanzania and Bangladesh. The characteristics examined are those that are likely to affect service provision, including urban/rural distribution, demographic characteristics, and experience and in-service training, for three types of providers (physicians, nurses and auxiliary nurses). The profiles suggest a pattern of urban/rural imbalances in Nicaragua and Tanzania. The Bangladesh facility survey did not include hospitals, thereby making concrete conclusions on the supply and distribution of providers difficult to make. Multivariate logistic regressions are used to assess the relationship between the urban/rural placement of providers by health need, population demand and facility characteristics. Health need, as measured by child mortality rates, does not have a significant association with the placement of providers in either country, unlike population size and annual growth rates. The mean number of years providers have worked at a facility is significantly associated with a decreased likelihood of rural placement for the three types of providers in Nicaragua. The mean age and percentage of female providers at each facility has a negative association with the placement of rural providers in Tanzania. The use of health facility data to profile the health care labour force is also discussed. PMID:16434424

  7. The future of health social work.

    PubMed

    Pecukonis, Edward V; Cornelius, Llewellyn; Parrish, Margarete

    2003-01-01

    The practice of social work in health care is at a critical juncture, and laces an uncertain future. The authors provide an overview of the challenges facing social work practice within the health care setting, as well as recommendations for enhancing social work practice and education. Challenges discussed include economic factors, demographic changes, and technological advances influencing the practice of social work in health care. The need for a proactive stance among social work professionals and educators is promoted. The proposed changes are intended to stimulate discussion and an exchange of ideas needed to maintain Social Work's relevance and integrity in the evolving health care delivery system. PMID:14526873

  8. Diversity in the Work Force. The Highlight Zone: Research @ Work No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentling, Rose Mary

    A literature review was conducted to identify critical work force diversity issues in today's changing workplace and identify ways organizations and career and technical education (CTE) practitioners can increase work force diversity. A broad, all-inclusive definition of diversity was developed that focuses on how diversity affects individuals and…

  9. The Culture-Work-Health Model and Work Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Michael; Wilson, John F.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the role of organizational culture in the etiology of workplace stress through the framework of the Culture-Work- Health model. A review of relevant business and health literature indicates that culture is an important component of work stress and may be a key to creating effective organizational stress interventions. (SM)

  10. [Ergonomy and mental health at work.].

    PubMed

    Dion-Hubert, C

    1985-01-01

    In the last ten years the concepts of health and mental health have been considerably modified and mental health at work is becoming an important interest of the in this field. However, it is difficult to establish with certainty the cause and effect between work and mental health problems since many other factors could possibly be responsible for the onset of those problems. Since work constitutes the principal activity of the human being it is reasonable that it could affect its mental equilibrium. Ergonomy deals with the person at work with the aim of better adapting the work to his needs, capacities and aspirations. PMID:17093510

  11. Delivering Alert Messages to Members of a Work Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftis, Julia; Nickens, Stephanie; Pell, Melissa; Pell, Vince

    2008-01-01

    Global Alert Resolution Network (GARNET) is a software system for delivering emergency alerts as well as less-urgent messages to members of the Goddard Space Flight Center work force via an intranet or the Internet, and can be adapted to similar use in other large organizations.

  12. [Health work in MERCOSUR: a Brazilian approach].

    PubMed

    Machado, Maria Helena; Paula, Aïda El-Khoury de; Aguiar Filho, Wilson

    2007-01-01

    MERCOSUR Member Countries (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela) have viewed the regional integration process and management of work and education in health as a concern for government, considering the health sector's specificities. Key issues are professional accreditation and harmonization of current legislation. This article discusses initiatives in the Permanent MERCOSUR Forum related to work in the health field. The Forum serves as a space for dialogue between various actors: Ministry of Health, health workers, and professional boards, with the aim of supporting the work by the Sub-Commission on Professional Development and Practice, under MERCOSUR Working Sub-Group 11, Health, aiding in the formulation of health management and education policies. The current challenge involves the creation of mechanisms for implementing joint actions to solve problems in the regulation of professional practice, especially in municipalities along the borders between MERCOSUR countries. PMID:17625655

  13. Improving the Health of Working Families: Research Connections Between Work and Health. NPA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Irene H.; Frank, John W.

    This document contains two papers on connections between work and health and policy options for improving the health of working families. "Foreword" (James A. Auerbach) places the two papers in the context of recent research on the connections between work, family, and health. Chapter 1's overview addresses the changing nature of work, the new…

  14. Tractional Forces, Work and Energy Densities in the Human TMJ

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, Jeffrey C.; Iwasaki, Laura R.; Gallo, Luigi M.; Palla, Sandro; Marx, David B.

    2011-01-01

    The role of mechanics in degenerative joint disease of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is largely unknown. Objectives were to: 1) develop an empirical model to relate variables of cartilage mechanics and tractional forces; and 2) use the empirical model to estimate tractional forces for calculations of work done (mJ) and energy densities (mJ/mm3) in living human TMJs. Sixty-four porcine discs were statically, then dynamically loaded. Aspect ratios and velocities of stress-fields, compressive strains, and tractional forces were recorded and fit to a quadratic equation to derive the empirical model. Aspect ratios and velocities of stress-fields and cartilage thicknesses then were measured via dynamic stereometry in 15 humans with healthy TMJs and 11 with TMJ disc displacement. These data were used in the empirical model to estimate tractional forces for each TMJ, and then mechanical work done and energy densities were calculated. Mechanical work (mJ) was on average 20 times greater in TMJs with disc displacement than in healthy TMJs (P<0.02). TMJs with disc displacement showed 350% more mechanical work (mJ) and 180% higher energy densities in women compared to men (P<0.02). A power analysis (α=0.05, β=0.90) indicated that 40 women and 40 men would be required to detect a 50% difference in TMJ energy densities between genders. Mechanical work was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in TMJs with disc displacement compared to healthy TMJs, and mechanical work done and energy densities were significantly higher (P≤0.05) in TMJs with disc displacement in women compare to men. PMID:26549916

  15. [How to promote health competence at work].

    PubMed

    Eickholt, Clarissa; Hamacher, W; Lenartz, N

    2015-09-01

    Health competence is a key concept in occupational health and safety and workplace health promotion for maintaining and enhancing health resources. The effects of governmental or occupational measures to protect or improve health fall short of what is required with regard to the challenges of a changing workplace, e.g., due to the delimitation of work. To secure employability it is becoming more and more important to encourage the personal responsibility of employees. To offer new conclusions on how employers and employees can promote health competence, a survey is required of the research within the fields of health competence and competence development, and of the status quo in enterprises. In this context, a Delphi Study provides an important contribution, with a focus on small and medium-sized enterprises. The development of an extensive understanding of health competence is essential in a work-related context. Beyond knowledge-based health literacy, an action-oriented concept of competence implies the ability and willingness to act in a reasonable and creative manner in complex situations. The development of health competence requires learning embedded in working processes, which challenges competent behaviour. Enabling informal learning is a promising innovative approach and therefore coordinated operational activities are necessary. Ultimately, this is a matter of suitable organisational measures being implemented to meet the health competence needs of an enterprise. Even though the each individual employee bears his or her own health competence, the development potential lies largely within the prevailing working conditions. PMID:26159771

  16. A Safe and Healthful Work Environment

    PubMed Central

    McCullagh, Marjorie C.; Berry, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health nursing focuses on promotion and restoration of health, prevention of illness and injury, protection from work-related and environmental hazards, and corporate profitability. Quality education about the relationship between work and health is critical for nurses’ success regardless of work setting, and is consistent with Healthy People 2020 goals, but is lacking or limited in some programs. This report introduces an innovative occupational health nursing curriculum for students enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. The process of designing and pilot testing this novel curriculum, its alignment with nursing competencies, and its format and learning activities are described. Preparing professional nurses to understand the role of the occupational health nurse and the relationship between work and health is an essential curricular consideration for contemporary nursing education. PMID:26077879

  17. [Mental health and the nurse's work].

    PubMed

    Coimbra, Valéria Cristina Christello; da Silva, Emília Nalva Ferreira; Kantorski, Luciane Prado; Oliveira, Michele Mandagará

    2005-04-01

    The study aimed at knowing, with three nurses from a hospital in Pelotas, Brazil, how they perceive their mental health in relation to their work and which factors cause pleasure/suffering in their job. It relates to a descriptive, analytical research within a qualitative approach. The data were collected by means of a semi-structured interview. The results were presented through central themes such as: pleasure manifestations, suffering and the mental health upon working. Knowing the factors that propitiate mental health, pleasure, suffering at work opens up possibilities of changes for nursing activity, contributing to the struggle for more human and fair work labor issues. PMID:16130676

  18. Class position, work experience, and health.

    PubMed

    Schwalbe, M L; Staples, C L

    1986-01-01

    This paper develops a Marxist analysis of the relationships between class position, work experience, the psychological effects of this experience, and subsequent health outcomes. Specifically, it is argued that the structural imperatives of capitalist production make work for those in working-class positions subject to greater routinization and less control than work for those in other class positions. Routinization and control are argued, in turn, to predictably affect two key psychological variables, self-esteem and stress, which are further argued to affect health in predictable ways. Position in the capitalist labor process is thus linked to health via the psychological consequences of the immediate work experience it engenders. Survey data from workers, managers, supervisors, and semi-autonomous employees in five capitalist firms are used to test the descriptive adequacy of this model linking capitalism to ill health for those in working-class positions. PMID:3781716

  19. [Work as a promoter of health].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Claudia Osorio; Ramminger, Tatiana

    2014-12-01

    Studies on the relation between health and work tend to highlight the negative and pathological aspects, as if work produces only sickness and alienation. On the contrary, our proposal is to stress how work can also produce health. Based on Canguillem's concept of health, and from the contributions of the so-called "work clinics", we intend to analyze the purpose of work as a promoter of health. Canguilhem affirms that health is not adaptive, as such it does not involve adapting well to the world, but to the creation of tenets of life. For their part, the work clinics provide tools to approximate us to the know-how-to-do produced by workers in their daily work, namely not only how workers adapt to work, but how they create and recreate it permanently Thus, we can think work as a promoter of health where there is room for collective and personal creation, as well as recognition of workers in their activity. PMID:25388183

  20. Women's Safety and Health Issues at Work

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Balancing work and family tasks can put additional stress on women, who in many families still take primary responsibility ... Health Respiratory Diseases Serious Injury Work Structure and Stress Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Women at work: a visual essay. 2003. [Cited on ...

  1. Why do health labour market forces matter?

    PubMed

    McPake, Barbara; Maeda, Akiko; Araújo, Edson Correia; Lemiere, Christophe; El Maghraby, Atef; Cometto, Giorgio

    2013-11-01

    Human resources for health have been recognized as essential to the development of responsive and effective health systems. Low- and middle-income countries seeking to achieve universal health coverage face human resource constraints - whether in the form of health worker shortages, maldistribution of workers or poor worker performance - that seriously undermine their ability to achieve well-functioning health systems. Although much has been written about the human resource crisis in the health sector, labour economic frameworks have seldom been applied to analyse the situation and little is known or understood about the operation of labour markets in low- and middle-income countries. Traditional approaches to addressing human resource constraints have focused on workforce planning: estimating health workforce requirements based on a country's epidemiological and demographic profile and scaling up education and training capacities to narrow the gap between the "needed" number of health workers and the existing number. However, this approach neglects other important factors that influence human resource capacity, including labour market dynamics and the behavioural responses and preferences of the health workers themselves. This paper describes how labour market analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the factors behind human resource constraints in the health sector and to a more effective design of policies and interventions to address them. The premise is that a better understanding of the impact of health policies on health labour markets, and subsequently on the employment conditions of health workers, would be helpful in identifying an effective strategy towards the progressive attainment of universal health coverage. PMID:24347708

  2. Home Health Agency Work Environments and Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Linda; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An important goal of home health care is to assist patients to remain in community living arrangements. Yet home care often fails to prevent hospitalizations and to facilitate discharges to community living, thus putting patients at risk of additional health challenges and increasing care costs. Objectives: To determine the relationship between home health agency work environments and agency-level rates of acute hospitalization and discharges to community living. Methods and Design: Analysis of linked Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Home Health Compare data and nurse survey data from 118 home health agencies. Robust regression models were used to estimate the effect of work environment ratings on between-agency variation in rates of acute hospitalization and community discharge. Results: Home health agencies with good work environments had lower rates of acute hospitalizations and higher rates of patient discharges to community living arrangements compared with home health agencies with poor work environments. Conclusion: Improved work environments in home health agencies hold promise for optimizing patient outcomes and reducing use of expensive hospital and institutional care. PMID:25215647

  3. When the work force shrinks, so does safety

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    The blues that accompany an organizational reduction in force can lead to safety hazards. Last May, two much-read association publications ran feature stories on the suffering that can result from downsizing. {open_quotes}Casualties of downsizing{close_quotes} were lamented in Robert W. Lucky`s IEEE Spectrum column. {open_quotes}Downsizing: a new form of abandonment{close_quotes} moaned the cover of the APA Monitor, the American Psychological Association`s monthly. For a number of reasons, when employees suffer, the workplace becomes less safe. Safety means more than not stepping into maintenance holes. Persons who work for a government or nonprofit entity are twice as likely to be threatened on the job as are employees of a for-profit business. Government workers constituted 18 percent of the work force but they accounted for 30 percent of homicide victims. Non-fatal assaults in the workplace are most commonly perpetrated by a fellow employee, not a stranger or someone known from outside work. There are other morale-related challenges to safety besides a disgruntled, imbalanced employee bringing a semiautomatic weapon to work. Some of these safety issues are discussed.

  4. Enhanced oil recovery. Reservoir engineer suggests working with capillary forces

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, D.

    1981-04-01

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) production results have been disappointing not only because of the low domestic prices that used to prevail, but also because technology has not been good enough. An entirely new EOR technology based on working with rather than against the natural capillary forces within a reservoir must be developed. There is a natural tendency of hydrocarbon fluids to flow under the twin forces of gravity and capillary action back into empty or watered-out sections of reservoirs that have already been produced to their economic limits. Mathematical models of how surfactants or solvents could be used to speed up this normal gravity resegregation of fluids in given types of reservoirs are being developed. The theory is that if solvents or surfactants are pumped into wells and allowed to speed up natural processes, gravity and natural capillary action will draw the oil into already depleted reservoirs so it can be pumped out.

  5. Skip policy: road to Force Health Protection 2010.

    PubMed

    McMurry, Pat; Nolan, David L

    2003-09-01

    The 2010 Force Health Protection Capstone concept envisions a single level of theater hospitalization and a greater reliance on the strategic movement of casualties from the theater. A significant Force Health Protection implication is 100% of the combat zone patients leaving theater will not have a second stay at an echelon/level IV hospital. In 2000, the Army began moving toward the Force Health Protection concept by using a skip policy for determining 2007 medical force structure requirements. Implementing the skip policy avoids (eliminates) the second echelon/level IV hospital length of stay for a percentage of combat zone patients leaving theater. The Army's decision to implement a skip policy exposed the complexities associated with determining deployable medical force structure requirements and the inherent inter-relatedness of the services medical mission. PMID:14529242

  6. Health protection and promotion at work.

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, R S

    1989-01-01

    Official United Kingdom figures record annually 1400 deaths and 145,000 sufferers from chronic effects of occupational injury and disease. Evidence indicates that occupational disease directly due to work is underestimated. With more understanding of the multiple causes of disease, the concept of work related disorders has broadened to include four categories: work as a direct cause, a contributory cause, or an aggravating factor, and work offering easy access to potential dangers (alcohol). As an example, work factors that increase the risk of coronary heart disease are discussed. Evidence for work stress as a causal factor and the role of leadership are considered. Prevention depends on identifying risks, preferably before anyone is exposed, but more commonly through recognition of adverse effects on workers. The need for occupational health services to have health promotion programmes that include screening for disease and its precursors, counselling and education, is considered. The positive effects of work itself as a protector and promoter of health are discussed. Responsibility for improving health has to be shared by government, management, trade unions, health professionals, and the individual worker. PMID:2818956

  7. Human Health Effects, Task Force Assessment, Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronow, Wilbert S.; And Others

    Presented in this preliminary report is one of seven assessments conducted by a special task force of Project Clean Air, the Human Health Effects Task Force. The reports summarize assessments of the state of knowledge on various air pollution problems, particularly in California, and make tentative recommendations as to what the University of…

  8. Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group is a community of practice that recognizes the interconnections between the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and humans and meets to facilitate the exchange of ideas, data, and research opportunities. Membership includes the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Sea Life Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

  9. Working Children: The Health and Safety Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKechnie, Jim; Hobbs, Sandy; Lindsay, Sandra; Lynch, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Recent evidence has emerged that in Britain, like the United States, many children below minimum school-leaving age are working. Often, the work is illegal. Research in the United States suggests that many risk accidents and other hazards to health. Evidence from Britain is of a more fragmentary nature, but enough exists to suggest a need for…

  10. Bad Jobs, Bad Health? How Work and Working Conditions Contribute to Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Burgard, Sarah A.; Lin, Katherine Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we touch on a broad array of ways that work is linked to health and health disparities for individuals and societies. First focusing on the health of individuals, we discuss the health differences between those who do and do not work for pay, and review key positive and negative exposures that can generate health disparities among the employed. These include both psychosocial factors like the benefits of a high status job or the burden of perceived job insecurity, as well as physical exposures to dangerous working conditions like asbestos or rotating shift work. We also provide a discussion of the ways differential exposure to these aspects of work contributes to social disparities in health within and across generations. Analytic complexities in assessing the link between work and health for individuals, such as health selection, are also discussed. We then touch on several contextual level associations between work and the health of populations, discussing the importance of the occupational structure in a given society, the policy environment that prevails there, and the oscillations of the macroeconomy for generating societal disparities in health. We close with a discussion of four areas and associated recommendations that draw on this corpus of knowledge but would push the research on work, health and inequality toward even greater scholarly and policy relevance. PMID:24187340

  11. A German survey of the abdominal transplantation surgical work force.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael N; Nadalin, Silvio; Schemmer, Peter; Pascher, Andreas; Kaiser, Gernot M; Braun, Felix; Becker, Thomas; Nashan, Björn; Guba, Markus

    2015-07-01

    This manuscript reports the results of a nationwide survey of transplant surgeons in Germany, including the demographics, training, position, individual case loads, center volumes, program structure, professional practice, grade of specialization, workload, work hours, salary, and career expectations. We contacted all 32 German transplant centers that perform liver, kidney, and pancreas transplantation. Surgeons engaged in transplantation were asked to reply to the survey. Eighty-five surgeons responded, with a mean age of 44 ± 8 years, 13% of whom were female. The median transplant frequency per active transplant surgeon was relatively low, with 16 liver transplants, 15 kidney transplants, and three pancreas transplants. The median reported center volumes were 45 liver transplants, 90 kidney transplants, and five pancreas transplants per year. Most of the surgeons reported a primary focus on hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery, and only 10% of effective work time was actually dedicated to perform transplant surgeries. The majority of respondents estimated their weekly work hours to be between 55 and 66 h. When asked about their career satisfaction and expectations, most respondents characterized their salaries as inappropriately low and their career prospects as inadequate. This survey provides a first impression of the transplant surgery work force in Germany. PMID:25800065

  12. Maternal and Child Health Issues and Female Labor Force Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Dorothy C.; And Others

    Reviewing health related "costs" of female labor force participation, this paper examines four highly salient maternal and child health issues. Discussion of acute illness in day care settings begins with an overview of studies on day care and illness and focuses on hepatitis A, appropriate sanitation, and indications of research on respiratory…

  13. The effect of a severe health shock on work behavior: Evidence from different health care regimes.

    PubMed

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kleinjans, Kristin J; Larsen, Mona

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we use the policy variation of two different types of health insurance in the US and in Denmark - employer-provided and universal insurance combined with substantial differences in expected and actual medical out-of-pocket expenditures - to explore the effect of new severe health shocks on the labor force participation of older workers. Our results not only provide insight into how relative disease risk affects labor force participation at older ages, but also into how different types of health care and health insurance systems affect individual decisions of labor force participation. Although employer-tied health insurance and greater out-of-pocket medical expenditures give US Americans greater incentives to continue to work, we find only small differences in the work response between the two countries. We provide compelling evidence that our somewhat counterintuitive finding is the result of differential mortality and baseline health differences coupled with distinct treatment regimes under the respective health care systems. PMID:25982868

  14. Work, Obesity, and Occupational Safety and Health

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Paul A.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Ostry, Aleck; Blanciforti, Laura A.; Cutlip, Robert G.; Krajnak, Kristine M.; Luster, Michael; Munson, Albert E.; O’Callaghan, James P.; Parks, Christine G.; Simeonova, Petia P.; Miller, Diane B.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that obesity and overweight may be related, in part, to adverse work conditions. In particular, the risk of obesity may increase in high-demand, low-control work environments, and for those who work long hours. In addition, obesity may modify the risk for vibration-induced injury and certain occupational musculoskeletal disorders. We hypothesized that obesity may also be a co–risk factor for the development of occupational asthma and cardiovascular disease that and it may modify the worker’s response to occupational stress, immune response to chemical exposures, and risk of disease from occupational neurotoxins. We developed 5 conceptual models of the interrelationship of work, obesity, and occupational safety and health and highlighted the ethical, legal, and social issues related to fuller consideration of obesity’s role in occupational health and safety. PMID:17267711

  15. Unpaid work in health economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Krol, Marieke; Brouwer, Werner

    2015-11-01

    Given its societal importance, unpaid work should be included in economic evaluations of health care technology aiming to take a societal perspective. However, in practice this does not often appear to be the case. This paper provides an overview of the current place of unpaid work in economic evaluations in theory and in practice. It does so first by summarizing recommendations regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor reported in health economic textbooks and national guidelines for economic evaluations. In total, three prominent health economic text-books were studied and 28 national health economic guidelines. The paper, moreover, provides an overview of the instruments available to measure lost unpaid labor and reports on a review of the place of unpaid labor in applied economic evaluations in the area of rheumatoid arthritis. The review was conducted by examining methodology of evaluations published between 1 March 2008 and 1 March 2013. The results of this study show that little guidance is offered regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor in economic evaluations in textbooks and guidelines. The review identified five productivity costs instruments including questions about unpaid work and 33 economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis of which only one included unpaid work. The results indicate that unpaid work is rarely included in applied economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, despite this disease expecting to be associated with lost unpaid work. Given the strong effects of certain diseases and treatments on the ability to perform unpaid work, unpaid work currently receives less attention in economic evaluations than it deserves. PMID:26421997

  16. Designing Work, Family & Health Organizational Change Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie B; Kelly, Erin L; Moen, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    For decades, leaders and scholars have been advocating change efforts to improve work-life relationships. Yet most initiatives have lacked rigor and not been developed using scientific principles. This has created an evidence gap for employer support of work and personal life as a win-win for productivity and employees' well-being. This paper examines the approach used by the U.S. Work Family Health Network (WFRN) to develop an innovative workplace intervention to improve employee and family health. The change initiative was designed to reduce organizationally based work-family conflict in two contrasting contexts representative of major segments of today's U.S. workforce: health care employees and informational technology professionals. The WFRN Intervention (called STAR) had three theoretically based change elements. They were: 1) increase job control over work time and schedule; 2) increase supervisor social support for family and job effectiveness; and 3) improve organizational culture and job design processes to foster results orientation. Seven practical lessons for developing work-life interventions emerged from this groundbreaking endeavor. PMID:24683279

  17. Designing Work, Family & Health Organizational Change Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Executive Summary For decades, leaders and scholars have been advocating change efforts to improve work-life relationships. Yet most initiatives have lacked rigor and not been developed using scientific principles. This has created an evidence gap for employer support of work and personal life as a win–win for productivity and employees’ well-being. This paper examines the approach used by the U.S. Work Family Health Network (WFRN) to develop an innovative workplace intervention to improve employee and family health. The change initiative was designed to reduce organizationally based work-family conflict in two contrasting contexts representative of major segments of today’s U.S. workforce: health care employees and informational technology professionals. The WFRN Intervention (called STAR) had three theoretically based change elements. They were: 1) increase job control over work time and schedule; 2) increase supervisor social support for family and job effectiveness; and 3) improve organizational culture and job design processes to foster results orientation. Seven practical lessons for developing work-life interventions emerged from this groundbreaking endeavor. PMID:24683279

  18. The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center: enhancing the Military Health System's public health capabilities.

    PubMed

    DeFraites, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Since its establishment in February 2008, the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC) has embarked on a number of initiatives and projects in collaboration with a variety of agencies in the Department of Defense (DoD), other organizations within the federal government, and non-governmental partners. In 2009, the outbreak of pandemic H1N1 influenza attracted the major focus of the center, although notable advances were accomplished in other areas of interest, such as deployment health, mental health and traumatic brain injury surveillance. PMID:21388560

  19. The mental health of deployed UK maritime forces

    PubMed Central

    Whybrow, Dean; Jones, Norman; Evans, Charlotte; Minshall, Darren; Smith, Darren; Greenberg, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To establish the level of psychological symptoms and the risk factors for possible decreased mental health among deployed UK maritime forces. Methods A survey was completed by deployed Royal Navy (RN) personnel which measured the prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and potential alcohol misuse. Military and operational characteristics were also measured including exposure to potentially traumatic events, problems occurring at home during the deployment, unit cohesion, leadership and morale. Associations between variables of interest were identified using binary logistic regression to generate ORs and 95% CIs adjusted for a range of potential confounding variables. Results In total, 41.2% (n=572/1387) of respondents reported probable CMD, 7.8% (n=109/1389) probable PTSD and 17.4% (n=242/1387) potentially harmful alcohol use. Lower morale, cohesion, leadership and problems at home were associated with CMD; lower morale, leadership, problems at home and exposure to potentially traumatic events were associated with probable PTSD; working in ships with a smaller crew size was associated with potentially harmful alcohol use. Conclusions CMD and PTSD were more frequently reported in the maritime environment than during recent land-based deployments. Rates of potentially harmful alcohol use have reduced but remain higher than the wider military. Experiencing problems at home and exposure to potentially traumatic events were associated with experiencing poorer mental health; higher morale, cohesion and better leadership with fewer psychological symptoms. PMID:26265671

  20. Working together to safeguard animal health.

    PubMed

    Gibbens, Nigel

    2016-02-13

    Nigel Gibbens, the UK's Chief Veterinary Officer, gives an update on some of the areas of animal health and welfare of particular interest to government and considers how farmers, vets and government can work together to control and respond to animal disease. PMID:26868238

  1. Target: Alcohol Abuse in the Hard-to-Reach Work Force. Ideas and Resources for Responding to Problems of the Hard-to-Reach Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Informatics, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This guide is designed as a source of ideas and information for individuals and organizations interested in occupational alcoholism programs for the hard-to-reach work force. Following a brief overview of the problem and a report on progress in occupational alcoholism programming, a working definition of the hard-to-reach work force is offered;…

  2. Do work-site exercise and health programs work?

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1999-02-01

    Studies of high-profile work-site wellness programs suggest a number of important advantages for sponsoring corporations. Participants report greater wellness and enhanced productivity. Objective data suggest that programs (1) chiefly attract employees with a favorable attitude toward both work and health, (2) reduce absenteeism and employee turnover, (3) produce a small increase in productivity, and (4) reduce healthcare costs. Meta-analysis provides limited evidence of program-related changes in physical activity, aerobic fitness, and cardiac risk factors. The cumulative benefit has been estimated at $500 to $700 per worker per year, enough to cover the cost of a modest wellness program. The big challenge is to sustain long-term participation. PMID:20086697

  3. Health Effects of Vanpooling to Work.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Wendie A; Berman, Barbara A; Stone, Dawn S

    2015-12-01

    Shared commutes to work, such as vanpooling, benefit the environment and provide economic gain for riders in terms of fuel costs, parking fees, and personal vehicle wear and tear. Although ride sharing is commonly believed to promote health through stress reduction, published evidence on this topic is limited, and findings vary. This study explored the perceived health and well-being of vanpoolers using a qualitative, descriptive design. Five focus groups of vanpoolers and two individual interviews with drivers were conducted (N=40 participants). Stress, change in sleep patterns, and interpersonal relationships emerged as major themes. Employee insights about the impact of vanpooling on work productivity and how employer commitment to the vanpool program influences the vanpool experience also were important findings. PMID:26419542

  4. Working together for health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Sidel, V W

    2000-01-01

    The right to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being is being denied to vast numbers of people all over the world through increasing disparities in income and in wealth. In the name of economic development, a number of international and national policies have increased the grossly uneven distribution of income, with ever-growing numbers of people living in poverty as well as in increasing depths of poverty. Globalization, crippling levels of external debt, and the 'structural adjustment' policies of international agencies have expanded the numbers and the suffering of people living in poverty and have resulted in the neglect of government-funded social programs, of regulations protecting the environment, and of human development. Access to medical care, an essential element in the protection of health, is difficult for many, including the 44 million people in the United States who lack insurance coverage for the cost of medical care services. Working together for health and human rights also requires promotion of the right to peace. The right to life and health is threatened not only by the existence and active deployment of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and anti-personnel landmines, but also other weapons. The twentieth century has been the bloodiest in human history, with an estimated 250 wars, more than 110 million people killed, countless people wounded and at the least 50 million refugees. Health workers must work together with people in our communities for the promotion of health and human rights, which, in Sandwell and elsewhere, are inextricably intertwined. PMID:11130630

  5. 48 CFR 252.223-7004 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...

  6. 48 CFR 252.223-7004 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...

  7. 48 CFR 252.223-7004 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...

  8. 48 CFR 252.223-7004 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...

  9. 48 CFR 252.223-7004 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...

  10. New market forces are special challenge to academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Golembesky, H E

    1995-10-01

    New market forces--insurer integration into the provider business, "mega-mergers, price and premium reductions, a scramble to create specialty carve-out networks, and the like--have emerged that are placing significant pressure on academic medical centers. All of these forces are accelerating the pace of managed care market maturation. In order to effectively compete in this new marketplace, academic health centers have substantial barriers to overcome. To do so will require the creation of a system to manage the health care of populations while minimizing system costs and maximizing quality. This will require the establishment of a unified medical center approach to markets and value management. Academic health centers will by necessity develop strategies to include strong primary care-based network affiliations in order to accomplish these tasks. PMID:10152203

  11. Exposure assessment and the health of deployed forces.

    PubMed

    Still, Kenneth R; Jederberg, Warren W; Ritchie, Glenn D; Rossi, John

    2002-11-01

    The risk assessment process is a critical function for military Deployment Toxicology research objectives, emphasizing improved health protection of deployed forces. Reliable risk assessment methodology is essential for decision making related to risk reduction procedures during combat deployment, as well as during routine occupational activities. Such decision making must be based upon quality science that both guides sound judgments in risk characterization and management, and provides necessary health protection tools. The health and fitness of deployed forces must be considered for both acute and long-term issues. Exposure assessment specifies populations that might be exposed to injurious agents, identifies routes of exposure, and estimates the magnitude, duration, and timing of the doses that personnel may receive as a result of their exposure. Acute or short-term catastrophic risks for deployed forces are of immediate concern and must be addressed on a risk prioritization basis using Operational Risk Management (ORM) procedures. However, long-term effects of exposure to the same agents must be considered as part of the overall health concerns for deployed forces. In response to these needs, a number of military, federal government, academic and private sector organizations are currently developing new classes of biologically-based biosensors with the programmed capacity to detect the presence of virtually any environmental chemical or biological stressor with the capacity to induce health consequences in deployed personnel. A major objective of this engineering effort is development of biosensor systems that detect novel (previously unresearched) chemical or biological agents that might be used during international combat or terrorist attacks to induce acute or long-term health effects on military or civilian populations. A large portion of the discussion in this paper is devoted to describing the development, testing, and implementation of tissue-based biosensors (TBBs) that utilize small samples of living tissue from laboratory small animals for a wide range of human risk assessment applications. PMID:12378949

  12. The changing face of health information and health information work: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, J

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the changes in health information and health information work using a conceptual framework and to consider the implication of these changes for health sciences librarians. The notion of what constitutes information depends heavily on the perspective of those defining the term. In the health care domain, numerous established concepts of information exist, many clustering around disciplines and professions. Various information professions-for example, health sciences librarians, information-systems managers, and medical-records administrators--have differing core concepts of information. Although these established concepts of information may seem immutable, they are cultural facts and can and do change. Global networking and changes in health care delivery are just two of many environmental forces that are changing the way the health domain views health information and the way it values the patterns and practices traditionally associated with established types of information and information professions. As new concepts of information arise, the possibility for new expert work surrounding information also arises. Andrew Abbott's systems theory of professions, adapted to the health domain, suggests that some forms of established expert information work may diminish while new types may arise and that both established and new information professions will struggle with each other for official sanction, or jurisdiction, to perform new expert work. This competitive struggle is likely to produce a new balance of information work and roles among the information professions. The specialty areas of library and information science, the heartland of our knowledge base, are as relevant in the electronic environment as in the print environment. Our profession's challenge now is to redefine and communicate our jurisdictional place in the emerging health information environment. PMID:8938324

  13. Masked Symptoms: Mid-Life Women, Health, and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Zelda

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Labour Force Survey (1997) reveal that relatively few mid-life women offer ill health as a reason for leaving their job or downshifting to part-time employment, implying that the role of ill health may be inconsequential in effecting changing patterns in mid-life women's labour force activity. In contrast, interviews with 30…

  14. Multicultural Group Work: A Force for Developing and Healing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Multicultural group work represents a powerful tool for helping and healing in the context of human diversity. This article summarizes multicultural group work, including task, psychoeducational, counseling, and psychotherapy groups, and describes a group work model for multicultural assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning. Group work…

  15. Developing a Culturally Competent Work Force: An Opportunity for Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mary Elaine; Bond, Mary Lou; Mancini, Mary E.

    1998-01-01

    To meet the health-care needs of a growing Hispanic population in Dallas, a nursing school used two strategies: short-term cultural immersion (language and cultural experiences in Mexico) and a nurse exchange program with a Mexican hospital. The importance of cultural-competence training for health-care personnel was affirmed. (SK)

  16. Reduction-in-Force: Working Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.

    The reduction-in-force (RIF) policies presented here are intended to represent the variety of approaches currently being used throughout the nation. They were obtained through inquiries to personnel in more than 100 U.S. school districts. They are presented to give principals and assistant principals information to allow them to play an…

  17. Educating the Military Work Force: A Worldwide Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Donald W.; Saltman, Lenore E.

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Defense, in cooperation with a number of colleges and universities, offers a variety of higher education opportunities to military personnel: the Community College of the Air Force, the Army and Navy's Servicemembers Opportunity Colleges, and Defense Activity for Nontraditional Education Support (DANTES). (SK)

  18. Health status of air force veterans occupationally exposed to herbicides in Vietnam: I. Physical health

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.H.; Michalek, J.E.; Miner, J.C. ); Rahe, A. ); Silva, J. ); Thomas, W.F.; Lustik, M.B.; Grubbs, W.D.; Roegner, R.H. ); Karrison, T.G. ); Williams, D.E. )

    1990-10-10

    The Air Force Health Study is a 20-year comprehensive assessment of the health of Air Force veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam. The study compares the health and noncombat mortality of Ranch Hand veterans with a comparison group of Air Force veterans primarily involved with cargo missions in Southeast Asia but who were not exposed to herbicides. This report summarizes the health of these veterans as determined at the third in a series of physical examinations. Nine hundred ninety-five Ranch Hands and 1,299 comparison subjects attended the second follow-up examination in 1987. The two groups were similar in reported health problems, diagnosed skin conditions, and hepatic, cardiovascular, and immune profiles. Ranch Hands have experienced significantly more basal cell carcinomas than comparison subjects. The two groups were not different with respect to melanoma and systemic cancer.

  19. Workplace-based health and wellness programs: the intersection of aging, work, and health.

    PubMed

    Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; James, Jacquelyn Boone; Matz-Costa, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Workplace-based health and wellness programs (HWPs) may be an obvious yet under-utilized strategy for promoting positive health-related behaviors among older workers and for increasing their ability to continue to work. Given the unprecedented number of older adults who extend their labor force attachment beyond traditional retirement ages, a new vision of older adults' economic security and overall quality-of-life should take into account the intersections of aging, work, and health. The purpose of this article is to: (a) discuss the workplace as an increasingly important setting that can expand the reach and effectiveness of health promotion efforts; (b) examine current knowledge of barriers and facilitators that can affect older workers' participation in workplace-based HWPs; and (c) suggest new incentive structures that may increase older workers' engagement in these programs. We develop a rationale for our proposition that sustained participation in HWPs may improve the health status of older workers and reduce health care costs. It is our conclusion that there is significant potential for workplace-based HWPs to support older adults who want to or need to work. PMID:26035602

  20. 14 CFR 151.51 - Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Performance of construction work: Sponsor... Development Projects § 151.51 Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account. (a) Before undertaking any force account construction work, the sponsor (or any public agency acting as agent for the...

  1. 14 CFR 151.51 - Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance of construction work: Sponsor... Development Projects § 151.51 Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account. (a) Before undertaking any force account construction work, the sponsor (or any public agency acting as agent for the...

  2. 14 CFR 151.51 - Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance of construction work: Sponsor... Development Projects § 151.51 Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account. (a) Before undertaking any force account construction work, the sponsor (or any public agency acting as agent for the...

  3. 14 CFR 151.51 - Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Performance of construction work: Sponsor... Development Projects § 151.51 Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account. (a) Before undertaking any force account construction work, the sponsor (or any public agency acting as agent for the...

  4. Characteristics of the part-time work force. Analysis of the March 1993 Current Population Survey.

    PubMed

    Saltford, N; Snider, S

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this Issue Brief is to present a comprehensive description of part-time work and part-time workers. The report describes trends in part-time employment; characteristics of part-time workers; health, pension, and other benefits available to part-time workers; and the advantages and disadvantages of part-time work to employers and employees. The report also identifies public policy issues stemming from the increase in the number of part-time workers. The number of part-time workers increased from 10.8 million to 20.7 million between 1969 and 1993, an increase of 91.7 percent, representing 24.6 percent of the growth in the work force. Full-time employment rose 51.4 percent, from 59.2 million to 89.6 million, representing 75.4 percent of new entrants. While the part-time work force increased 91.7 percent between 1969 and 1993, growth as a proportion of the total work force has been minimal, rising from 15.5 percent in 1969 to 18.8 percent in 1993, a 3.3 percentage point increase over this 24-year period. Voluntary part-time workers represented 70.6 percent of all part-time workers in 1993, compared with the 29.4 percent classifying themselves as involuntary part-time workers. Between 1969 and 1993, the voluntary part-time work force grew from 9.0 million to 14.6 million, an average annual increase of 2.0 percent. The involuntary part-time work force increased from 1.8 million to 6.1 million, an average annual increase of 5.2 percent. Of the 28.9 million part-time workers in 1992, 71 percent received health insurance from one or more private sources. More than one-half (52 percent) received coverage through an employment-based plan, and 19 percent through another private source. By comparison, 81 percent of full-time workers received coverage from a private source: 73 percent through an employment-based plan and 8 percent from another private source. Just over one in five, or 21 percent, of part-time workers were uninsured; 16 percent of full-time workers were without health insurance. While the likelihood of a part-time worker being uninsured is 5 percentage points higher than for full-time workers, there are more full-time workers uninsured (16.4 million full-time workers were uninsured in 1992, compared with 5.9 million part-time workers).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:10134348

  5. Blueprint for Business. Reaching a New Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Lyn A.; Erden, James Van; Mower, Eleanor; Patel, Apurva; Mitchell, Steve

    This guide is designed to help U.S. businesses successfully hire and retain individuals moving from welfare to work. Section 1 discusses the different circumstances created by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 and how those changes affect business. Section 2 reviews bottom-line benefits realized by…

  6. Work-Family Spillover and Daily Reports of Work and Family Stress in the Adult Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Almeida, David M.; McDonald, Daniel A.

    2002-01-01

    Data from two affiliated national surveys were used to examine distribution of work-family spillover among working adults. Analyses testing family life course hypotheses indicated self-reported negative and positive spillover between work and family were not randomly distributed within the labor force. Age was found to have a persistent…

  7. Women and Work: Women's Occupational Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Phyllis Kernoff

    1982-01-01

    The need for an occupational health education curriculum that informs women about job-related health hazards is discussed. Specific dangers of the workplace for women are pointed out, as is the need for reducing job-related stress. (PP)

  8. The Prediction of the Work of Friction Force on the Arbitrary Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matehkolaee, Mehdi Jafari; Majidian, Kourosh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have calculated the work of friction force on the arbitrary path. In our method didn't use from energy conservative conceptions any way. The distinction of this procedure is that at least do decrease measurement on the path once. Thus we can forecast the amount of work of friction force without information about speed of…

  9. Forced migration: health and human rights issues among refugee populations.

    PubMed

    Lori, Jody R; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2015-01-01

    Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that is manifest in diverse contexts. In this article, we examine the situations that precipitate the movement of large numbers of people across several African countries, producing a unique type of undocumented migrant--the refugee. These refugee movements impact already fragile African health care systems and often involve human rights violations that are of particular concern, such as gender-based violence and child soldiers. We use examples from several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current research, and our personal international experiences, we provide an overview of forced migration and discuss implications and opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice, and policy related to refugee health. PMID:25645484

  10. NCCN Task Force Report: Bone Health in Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Gralow, Julie R.; Biermann, J. Sybil; Farooki, Azeez; Fornier, Monica N.; Gagel, Robert F.; Kumar, Rashmi N.; Shapiro, Charles L.; Shields, Andrew; Smith, Matthew R.; Srinivas, Sandy; Van Poznak, Catherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Bone health and maintenance of bone integrity are important components of comprehensive cancer care in both early and late stages of disease. Risk factors for osteoporosis are increased in patients with cancer, including women with chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure, those treated with aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer, men receiving androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer, and patients undergoing glucocorticoid therapy. The skeleton is a common site of metastatic cancer recurrence, and skeletal-related events are the cause of significant morbidity. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) convened a multidisciplinary task force on Bone Health in Cancer Care to discuss the progress made in identifying effective screening and therapeutic options for management of treatment-related bone loss; understanding the factors that result in bone metastases; managing skeletal metastases; and evolving strategies to reduce bone recurrences. This report summarizes presentations made at the meeting. PMID:19555589

  11. Armed Forces VIEW (Vital Information for Education and Work).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Walter H.; Zerface, W. A., Ed.

    Armed Services VIEW (Vital Information for Education and Work) is described as a cooperative program with the Department of Defense which (1) introduces career opportunities and training available through volunteer service enlistment, (2) will be provided to senior high schools at no cost, and (3) presents materials in both printed and microfilm…

  12. Work and Health among Latina Mothers in Farmworker Families

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Ip, Edward H.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Work organization is important for the health of vulnerable workers, particularly women. This analysis describes work organization for Latinas in farmworker families and delineates the associations of work organization with health indicators. Methods 220 Latino women in farmworker families completed interviews from October 2012 - July 2013. Interviews addressed job structure, job demand, job control, and job support. Health measures included stress, depressive symptoms, physical activity, family conflict, and family economic security. Results Three-fifths of the women were employed. Several work organization dimensions, including shift, psychological demand, work safety climate, and benefits, were associated with participant health as expected, based on the work organization and job demands-control-support models. Conclusions Research should address women's health and specific work responsibilities. Occupational safety policy must consider the importance of work organization in the health of vulnerable workers. PMID:25742536

  13. A Statistical Portrait of Working at Home in the U.K.: Evidence from the Labour Force Survey. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick; Phizacklea, Annie; Walters, Sally

    The patterns, extent, and problems of working at home in the United Kingdom were examined through a multivariate analysis of data from the Labour Force Survey, which has questioned respondents about the location of their workplace since 1992. The numbers of people working "mainly" at home increased from 345,920 (1.5%) in 1981 to 680,612 (2.5%) in…

  14. WORKING AND CARING: THE SIMULTANEOUS DECISION OF LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND INFORMAL ELDERLY AND CHILD SUPPORT ACT IVITIES IN MEXICO*

    PubMed Central

    van Gameren, Edwin; Velandia Naranjo, Durfari

    2016-01-01

    We analyze factors determining women’s decisions to participate in the labor market and provide elderly care and nonfinancial support to their (grand)children. We use data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, a survey of people aged 50 and over, applying a three-equation, reduced-form SUR model. Results suggest that care needs are the driving force behind caregiving activities. Traditional roles also appear to be relevant in the labor force participation decision: women with a closer labor market connection when they were young are more likely to work. Simulations of demographic changes illustrate potential effects for future caregiving and participation rates. PMID:26924883

  15. Women's Health. Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health Issues. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report identifies a broad spectrum of issues affecting women's health and is divided into four sections: (1) social factors affecting women's health; (2) women's physical health and well-being; (3) health concerns of older women; and (4) issues related to alcohol, drug use and abuse, and the mental health of women. The Public Health Service…

  16. Effect of force and acoustic feedback on object-insertion work by teleoperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhenglie; Matsunaga, Katsuya; Shidoji, Kazunori

    2004-05-01

    The operating efficiency of teleoperation under stereoscopic video images has been reported to be inferior to that of using the naked eye at a real working environment. A human operator working at an actual work location is aided by force, tactile, and acoustic senses in addition to vision. Conventional teleoperated robots lack sense information, except vision, which may explain operators" inefficient cognition of the working space. Therefore, using stereoscopic video images, we intend to clarify effects of force and acoustic feedback information on the performance of the teleoperation work. Experiment 1 produces a system that can acquire touch-information by the site of the master robot; it elucidates the influence of force and acoustic feedback information in work. Human operators are required to pick up a cylindrical object and insert it into a hole. The experiment shows that feedback of simple touch-information by force and acoustic feedback was not effective to shorten the completion-time. Experiment 2, in force feedback conditions, directs a user to search a hole by sliding a cylindrical object on its surface. Experimental results indicate that the working efficiency was improved by force information using a sliding sense. Experiment 3 investigated effects of sound when the cylindrical object was oriented such that it could be inserted in a hole and the hole was approached in a state of contact. Experimental results demonstrate that working efficiency was not improved by presentation of acoustic information.

  17. Health complaints and working conditions experienced in relation to work and age.

    PubMed Central

    Broersen, J P; de Zwart, B C; van Dijk, F J; Meijman, T F; van Veldhoven, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The main objective is to describe the potential health and work problems of the aging employees in the Dutch working population. In this way, we can identify groups at extra risk of specific health problems. METHODS--In The Netherlands, occupational health services gather questionnaire data about work and health as part of periodical occupational health surveys (POHSs). These data from the POHSs of complaints about health and working conditions, aggregated into occupational groups and age categories, are used to provide indications for groups at extra risk of specific health problems. These problems are assessed by overviews of the relation between age and complaints about health and working conditions. RESULTS--Almost all of the health questions show an increase in health complaints with increasing age. White collar workers, especially the high grade white collar workers, usually have lower complaint percentages on health questions than blue collar workers. Female employees have relatively high complaint percentages on the health questions. Differences between occupational groups in the complaints about work and working conditions reflect the differences in work demands and exposure. The relation between age and work complaints is generally inconsistent and weak. The complaint percentages on work questions of female employees tend to be equal to or lower than those of the male employees. CONCLUSIONS--The absence of a clear increase of work complaints with advancing age in the presence of a decrease in health and working capacity may be explained by a selective turnover in the working population, especially in demanding occupations. To enhance the work participation of older employees it may be necessary to reduce the work demands and to increase decision latitude. PMID:8563858

  18. Work, Family, and Mental Health: Testing Different Models of Work-Family Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Bass, Brenda L.

    2003-01-01

    Using family resilience theory, this study examined the effects of work-family conflict and work-family facilitation on mental health among working adults to gain a better understanding of work-family fit. Results suggest that family to work facilitation is a family protective factor that offsets and buffers the deleterious effects of work-family…

  19. Labor Force Status and Other Characteristics of Persons with a Work Disability: 1981 to 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennefield, Robert L.; McNeil, John M.

    1989-01-01

    This document examines 8-year trends in the labor force status and other characteristics (including age and years of school completed) of persons with a work force disability, using March supplements to the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS). (Disabled persons are considered to be individuals 16 to 64 years old with a disability…

  20. Exploring Work and Development Options to Reduce Early Labour Force Exit of Mature Aged Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Early labour force exit is a significant challenge associated with the ageing workforce in Australia and many other developed countries. A reduction and increased flexibility of work hours has been suggested to improve labour force participation of the mature aged cohort. However, little is known about mature aged workers' aspirations for…

  1. Extrinsic Motivation as Correlates of Work Attitude of the Nigerian Police Force: Implications for Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igun, Sylvester Nosakhare

    2008-01-01

    The study examined Extrinsic motivation as correlates of work attitude of the Nigeria Police Force and its implications for counselling. 300 Police personnel were selected by random sampling technique from six departments that make up police force Headquarters, Abuja. The personnel were selected from each department using simple sampling…

  2. Lifelong Learning NCES Task Force: Final Report, Volume I. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkley, Marilyn; Hudson, Lisa; Knepper, Paula; Kolstad, Andy; Stowe, Peter; Wirt, John

    In September 1998, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) established a 1-year task force to review the NCES's role concerning lifelong learning. The eight-member task force established a working definition of lifelong learning ("a process or system through which individuals are able and willing to learn at all stages of life, from…

  3. Thailand’s Work and Health Transition

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Matthew; Strazdins, Lyndall; Dellora, Tarie; Khamman, Suwanee; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2011-01-01

    Thailand has experienced a rapid economic transition from agriculture to industry and services, and from informal to formal employment. It has much less state regulation and worker representation relative to developed nations, who underwent these transitions more slowly and sequentially, decades earlier. We examine the strengthening of Thai government policy and legislation affecting worker’s health, responding to international norms, a new democratic constitution, fear of foreign importer embargos and several fatal workplace disasters. We identify key challenges remaining for Thai policy makers, including legislation enforcement and the measurement of impacts on worker’s mental and physical health. PMID:22318916

  4. African American church health programs: what works?

    PubMed

    Timmons, Shirley M

    2010-01-01

    The church is a community resource that can help address areas of health disparity for African Americans by offering programs focused on primary prevention. Use of a logic model as a program evaluation tool highlights church priorities and program linkages (problems, goals, objectives, activities, outputs, and outcomes), providing clear evidence about meeting program expectations. Faith community nurses can lead program development, easily incorporating logic models within programming efforts. Church-based programs that document positive outcomes enhance program usefulness and value as a community health resource. PMID:20364523

  5. Poultry Processing Work and Respiratory Health of Latino Men and Women in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Chatterjee, Arjun B.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Mora, Dana C.; Blocker, Jill N.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Chen, Haiying; Marín, Antonio J.; Schulz, Mark R.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate associations between poultry processing work and respiratory health among working Latino men and women in North Carolina. Methods Between May 2009 and November 2010, 402 poultry processing workers and 339 workers in a comparison population completed interviewer-administered questionnaires. Of these participants, 279 poultry processing workers and 222 workers in the comparison population also completed spirometry testing to provide measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity. Results Nine percent of poultry processing workers and 10% of workers in the comparison population reported current asthma. Relative to the comparison population, adjusted mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were lower in the poultry processing population, particularly among men who reported sanitation job activities. Conclusions Despite the low prevalence of respiratory symptoms reported, poultry processing work may affect lung function. PMID:22237034

  6. Operational Stress and Correlates of Mental Health Among Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; De La Rosa, Gabriel M; Schmitz, Kimberly J; Vishnyak, Elizabeth J; Raducha, Stephanie C; Roesch, Scott C; Johnston, Scott L

    2015-12-01

    Military personnel deployed to Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay (JTF-GTMO) faced numerous occupational stressors. As part of a program evaluation, personnel working at JTF-GTMO completed several validated self-report measures. Personnel were at the beginning, middle, or end of their deployment phase. This study presents data regarding symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse, depression, and resilience among 498 U.S. military personnel deployed to JTF-GTMO in 2009. We also investigated individual and organizational correlates of mental health among these personnel. Findings indicated that tenure at JTF-GTMO was positively related to adverse mental health outcomes. Regression models including these variables had R2 values ranging from .02 to .11. Occupation at JTF-GTMO also related to mental health such that guards reported poorer mental health than medical staff. Reluctance to seek out mental health care was also related to mental health outcomes. Those who reported being most reluctant to seek out care tended to report poorer mental health than those who were more willing to seek out care. Results suggested that the JTF-GTMO deployment was associated with significant psychological stress, and that both job-related and attitude-related variables were important to understanding mental health symptoms in this sample. PMID:26595460

  7. Changes in kinematics, metabolic cost and external work during walking with a forward assistive force.

    PubMed

    Zirker, Christopher A; Bennett, Bradford C; Abel, Mark F

    2013-08-01

    We examined how the application of a forward horizontal force applied at the waist alters the metabolic cost, kinematics, and external work of gait. Horizontal assist forces of 4%, 8% and 12% of a subject's body weight were applied via our testing apparatus while subjects walked at comfortable walking speed on a level treadmill. Kinematic and metabolic parameters were measured using motion capture and ergospirometry respectively on a group of 10 healthy male subjects. Changes in kinematic and metabolic parameters were quantified and found similar to walking downhill at varying grades. A horizontal assist force of 8% resulted in the greatest reduction of metabolic cost. Changes in recovery factor, external work, and center of mass (COM) movement did not correlate with changes in metabolic rate and therefore were not driving the observed reductions in cost. The assist force may have performed external work by providing propulsion as well as raising the COM as it pivots over the stance leg. Assist forces may decrease metabolic cost by reducing the concentric work required for propulsion while increasing the eccentric work of braking. These findings on the effects of assist forces suggest novel mobility aids for individuals with gait disorders and training strategies for athletes. PMID:23183216

  8. Joint Task Force Andrew: the 44th Medical Brigade mental health staff officer's after action review.

    PubMed

    Holsenbeck, L S

    1994-03-01

    The massive Department of Defense deployment in support of Hurricane Andrew relief cast the military medical departments in a new role. Military medical personnel were challenged to apply the traditional principles of combat medicine to a noncombat environment, within the continental United States, within an existing health care infrastructure, in a role subordinate to local civilian health care agencies. As a medical "subject matter expert" assigned to the Joint Task Force Andrew Surgeon's staff, the author worked at the civil-military interface. The lessons learned in his role as a special staff officer should benefit any health care provider involved in disaster relief. They focus on problem areas peculiar to the disaster relief scenario. PMID:8041460

  9. Community Health Workers and Their Value to Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Michael S.; Gunter, Kathryn E.; Palmisano, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) play a vital and unique role in linking diverse and underserved populations to health and social service systems. Despite their effectiveness, as documented by empirical studies across various disciplines including public health, nursing, and biomedicine, the value and potential role of CHWs in the social work…

  10. Work-school conflict and health outcomes: beneficial resources for working college students.

    PubMed

    Park, Youngah; Sprung, Justin M

    2013-10-01

    This study extends prior college student employment research by examining health as an outcome variable. Using 2-wave data from a sample of 216 student workers, this study examined work-school conflict as a predictor of psychological and physical health among working college students. Additionally, 3 resource-providing variables--work-school facilitation, supervisor work-school support, and personal fulfillment at work--were tested for buffering effects in the relation between work-school conflict and health. Results demonstrated that work-school conflict was a significant predictor of psychological health but not physical health. All 3 resource-providing variables ameliorated the negative relation between work-school conflict and psychological health, whereas only personal fulfillment weakened the positive relation between work-school conflict and physical symptoms. These findings suggest the benefits of work-school facilitation, supervisor work-school support, and personal fulfillment in minimizing the detrimental effects of work-school conflict on health outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications for researchers, educational institutions, and organizations are discussed. PMID:24099158

  11. The Implicit Contract: Implications for Health Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoyd, Judith L. M.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying common patient dynamics is useful for developing social work practice sensitivity in health social work. This article draws on findings from a study of women who terminated desired pregnancies because of fetal anomalies and identifies dynamics that may be applicable to many health settings. Data suggest that women have expectations…

  12. Shift work and employee fatigue: implications for occupational health nursing.

    PubMed

    Yumang-Ross, Doreen J; Burns, Candace

    2014-06-01

    Long work hours and irregular shifts are part of the nation's 24-hour society and contribute to employee fatigue. Factors affecting employee fatigue are circadian rhythm, sleep quality and quantity, individual health, the environment, and work tasks. Employee fatigue contributes to accidents and injuries, and affects occupational performance, safety, and health. These findings should be used by occupational health nurses to address fatigue management and develop comprehensive fatigue management programs. PMID:24971821

  13. Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Reed

    1989-01-01

    Discusses pupil misconceptions concerning forces. Summarizes some of Assessment of Performance Unit's findings on meaning of (1) force, (2) force and motion in one dimension and two dimensions, and (3) Newton's second law. (YP)

  14. Research in the Service of Mental Health: Report of the Research Task Force of the National Institute of Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Julius, Ed.; And Others

    Presented is a detailed account of the findings and recommendations of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Task Force on Research in the Service of Mental Health. Included are 15 chapters with the following titles: "Purpose and Organization of the Research Task Force", "An Organizational History of the NIMH Research Programs", "NIMH…

  15. After the Baby: Work-Family Conflict and Working Mothers' Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nancy L.; Tracy, Allison J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines work and family characteristics and depressive symptomatology among over 700 working mothers of infants. Working mothers in poorer quality jobs, as well as working mothers who were single or whose infant's health was poorer than that of other infants, reported greater depressive symptomatology. The effect of job quality on…

  16. After the Baby: Work-Family Conflict and Working Mothers' Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nancy L.; Tracy, Allison J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines work and family characteristics and depressive symptomatology among over 700 working mothers of infants. Working mothers in poorer quality jobs, as well as working mothers who were single or whose infant's health was poorer than that of other infants, reported greater depressive symptomatology. The effect of job quality on…

  17. How to Work With Your Health Insurance Plan

    Cancer.gov

    Work closely with your doctor. Ask your doctor if there is someone on his or her staff who can help work with your health plan. This person might be a financial counselor or research coordinator. Or, this person might work in the hospital's patient finance department.

  18. Association of Returning to Work With Better Health in Working-Aged Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Lori; Wilson, Mike; Mustard, Cameron; Rourke, Sean B.; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Raboud, Janet; Lavis, John

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We systematically reviewed the literature on the impact of returning to work on health among working-aged adults. Methods. We searched 6 electronic databases in 2005. We selected longitudinal studies that documented a transition from unemployment to employment and included a comparison group. Two reviewers independently appraised the retrieved literature for potential relevance and methodological quality. Results. Eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria, including 1 randomized controlled trial. Fifteen studies revealed a beneficial effect of returning to work on health, either demonstrating a significant improvement in health after reemployment or a significant decline in health attributed to continued unemployment. We also found evidence for health selection, suggesting that poor health interferes with people’s ability to go back to work. Some evidence suggested that earlier reemployment may be associated with better health. Conclusions. Beneficial health effects of returning to work have been documented in a variety of populations, times, and settings. Return-to-work programs may improve not only financial situations but also health. PMID:22390520

  19. Selected aspects of absence at work and work-related health problems in Polish enterprises

    PubMed Central

    Pęciłło, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Workers’ working conditions, work-related health problems and sickness absence are interdependent factors. Both workers’ health problems and their absence are adverse events which generate significant costs for both Poland's Social Insurance Institution (ZUS) and employers. Despite the related burdens, it is difficult to assess the number of workers who experience work-related health problems, to indicate the share of those workers who have been unfit for work owing to such disorders and to indicate the types of workers’ disorders which are caused by factors the workers are exposed to in the working environment. This article presents the findings of surveys carried out in selected production and service-providing companies, assessing the scale and nature of work-related health problems and their links with workers’ sickness absence. PMID:26647948

  20. Muscle force, work and cost: a novel technique to revisit the Fenn effect.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Justus O; Lindstedt, Stan L; Nelson, Frank E; Jubrias, Sharon A; Kushmerick, Martin J; Conley, Kevin E

    2015-07-01

    Muscle produces force by forming cross-bridges, using energy released from ATP. While the magnitude and duration of force production primarily determine the energy requirement, nearly a century ago Fenn observed that muscle shortening or lengthening influenced energetic cost of contraction. When work is done by the muscle, the energy cost is increased and when work is done on the muscle the energy cost is reduced. However, the magnitude of the 'Fenn effect' and its mirror ('negative Fenn effect') have not been quantitatively resolved. We describe a new technique coupling magnetic resonance spectroscopy with an in vivo force clamp that can directly quantify the Fenn effect [E=I+W, energy liberated (E) equals the energy cost of isometric force production (I) plus the work done (W)] and the negative Fenn effect (E=I-W) for one muscle, the first dorsal interosseous (FDI). ATP cost was measured during a series of contractions, each of which occurred at a constant force and for a constant duration, thus constant force-time integral (FTI). In all subjects, as the FTI increased with load, there was a proportional linear increase in energy cost. In addition, the cost of producing force greatly increased when the muscle shortened, and was slightly reduced during lengthening contraction. These results, though limited to a single muscle, contraction velocity and muscle length change, do quantitatively support the Fenn effect. We speculate that they also suggest that an elastic element within the FDI muscle functions to preserve the force generated within the cross-bridges. PMID:25964423

  1. HHS announces Text4Health task force recommendations

    Cancer.gov

    Today, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) announced new recommendations to support health text messaging and mobile health (mHealth) programs. The department has been actively exploring means to capitalize on the rapid proliferation of

  2. Changing work, changing health: can real work-time flexibility promote health behaviors and well-being?

    PubMed

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L; Tranby, Eric; Huang, Qinlei

    2011-12-01

    This article investigates a change in the structuring of work time, using a natural experiment to test whether participation in a corporate initiative (Results Only Work Environment; ROWE) predicts corresponding changes in health-related outcomes. Drawing on job strain and stress process models, we theorize greater schedule control and reduced work-family conflict as key mechanisms linking this initiative with health outcomes. Longitudinal survey data from 659 employees at a corporate headquarters shows that ROWE predicts changes in health-related behaviors, including almost an extra hour of sleep on work nights. Increasing employees' schedule control and reducing their work-family conflict are key mechanisms linking the ROWE innovation with changes in employees' health behaviors; they also predict changes in well-being measures, providing indirect links between ROWE and well-being. This study demonstrates that organizational changes in the structuring of time can promote employee wellness, particularly in terms of prevention behaviors. PMID:22144731

  3. Changing Work, Changing Health: Can Real Work-Time Flexibility Promote Health Behaviors and Well-Being?

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L.; Tranby, Eric; Huang, Qinlei

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates a change in the structuring of work time, using a natural experiment to test whether participation in a corporate initiative (Results Only Work Environment; ROWE) predicts corresponding changes in health-related outcomes. Drawing on job strain and stress process models, we theorize greater schedule control and reduced work-family conflict as key mechanisms linking this initiative with health outcomes. Longitudinal survey data from 659 employees at a corporate headquarters shows that ROWE predicts changes in health-related behaviors, including almost an extra hour of sleep on work nights. Increasing employees’ schedule control and reducing their work-family conflict are key mechanisms linking the ROWE innovation with changes in employees’ health behaviors; they also predict changes in well-being measures, providing indirect links between ROWE and well-being. This study demonstrates that organizational changes in the structuring of time can promote employee wellness, particularly in terms of prevention behaviors. PMID:22144731

  4. Health Coverage Instability for Mothers in Working Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Steven G.; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors examined the health insurance coverage stability of 1,667 women in working families over a three-year period (1995-1997). Findings revealed that coverage instability is common. Nearly one-half of low-income women experienced health coverage instability over the three-year study…

  5. Incorporating Integrative Health Services in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gant, Larry; Benn, Rita; Gioia, Deborah; Seabury, Brett

    2009-01-01

    More than one third of Americans practice complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Social workers continue to provide most first-line health, mental health, and psychological referral and direct practice services in the United States, despite a lack of systematic education and training opportunities in CAM. Schools of social work are…

  6. Incorporating Integrative Health Services in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gant, Larry; Benn, Rita; Gioia, Deborah; Seabury, Brett

    2009-01-01

    More than one third of Americans practice complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Social workers continue to provide most first-line health, mental health, and psychological referral and direct practice services in the United States, despite a lack of systematic education and training opportunities in CAM. Schools of social work are…

  7. Surveillance of health, working environment and industrial hygiene

    SciTech Connect

    Ulven, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    A method for systematic surveying of health and working environment has been developed by Statoil. The method meets relevant Norwegian acts and regulations. The survey is done in one organizational unit at a time and is performed by health and working environment personnel with extensive involvement of the managers and employees of the department. The method ensures that the findings are followed up by actions.

  8. Women, Work and Health Hazards: A Fact Sheet and Cosmetologists: Health Risks at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.

    The first part of this document is a fact sheet that provides information on health hazards faced by employed women. It covers the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), job-related diseases suffered by workers in female-dominated occupations, employer responsibilities under OSHA, and the lack of statistical reporting on job-related disease.…

  9. Work function of few layer graphene covered nickel thin films measured with Kelvin probe force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eren, B.; Gysin, U.; Marot, L.; Glatzel, Th.; Steiner, R.; Meyer, E.

    2016-01-01

    Few layer graphene and graphite are simultaneously grown on a ˜100 nm thick polycrystalline nickel film. The work function of few layer graphene/Ni is found to be 4.15 eV with a variation of 50 meV by local measurements with Kelvin probe force microscopy. This value is lower than the work function of free standing graphene due to peculiar electronic structure resulting from metal 3d-carbon 2p(?) hybridization.

  10. For Work-Force Training, a Plan to Give College Credit Where It's Due

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    After nearly three years of planning, Ohio's higher-education officials are finalizing an ambitious program to grant college credit for some technical courses offered at the state's adult-education centers. The program, called the Career-Technical Credit Transfer, is the latest in a string of state efforts to more closely link work-force training…

  11. My Family's Work: United States Air Force Child Care Program Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Matthiessen, Priscilla; Brant, Linda

    This child care program activity guide is designed to help teachers and caregivers in Air Force preschools and child care centers plan activities for increasing young children's understanding and appreciation of their parents' work in military and defense related occupations. Recommended teaching methods, concepts, group activities, and activity…

  12. Profile of a Rural Area Work Force: The Wyoming Uranium Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Thomas L.; Kiner, Phil E.

    1974-01-01

    Designed to provide insights into policies relative to human resource investments and employment information channels, the study's objectives were to: (1) relate types of employment in Wyoming's uranium mines and mills to work force participants; (2) determine employee earnings and relate those earnings to employment categories and…

  13. Preparing for an Aging Work Force: A Practical Guide for Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AARP, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is intended for human resource managers, provides practical guidance regarding preparing for an aging work force. Chapter 1 concerns the relationship between business practices and age neutrality and offers checklists that human resource managers can use to assess their company's general policy development, training,…

  14. Building a World-Class Work Force: A Vision for a New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Marvin

    As society turns increasingly to education to provide remedies for economic and social ills and to prepare citizens for life and work in a rapidly changing world, the community college is emerging as a major force in U.S. education. Recent trends indicate that U.S. productivity is lagging behind that of other countries, most notably Japan. Japan's…

  15. 3 CFR - White House Task Force on Middle-Class Working Families

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... that can be of special importance to middle-class working families. The functions of the Task Force are... decade ending in 2007, middle-income workers saw their real incomes fall. The current economic situation... Economic Council; (7) the Domestic Policy Council; (8) the Council of Economic Advisers; and (9) such...

  16. Developing the Nation's Work Force: Yearbook 5 of the American Vocational Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Merle E., Ed.

    Focusing on major issues related to the preparation of the nation's work force, the yearbook considers all sectors of manpower preparation--public and private schools, industry, military, and other agencies. Thirty contributing authors represent the broad fields of manpower and research. Section 1, The Opportunity for Leadership, contains chapters…

  17. For Work-Force Training, a Plan to Give College Credit Where It's Due

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    After nearly three years of planning, Ohio's higher-education officials are finalizing an ambitious program to grant college credit for some technical courses offered at the state's adult-education centers. The program, called the Career-Technical Credit Transfer, is the latest in a string of state efforts to more closely link work-force training…

  18. Astronomy Resources for Intercurricular Elementary Science (ARIES): Exploring Motion and Forces. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "ARIES: Exploring Motion and Forces" is a physical science curriculum for students in grades 5-8 that employs 18 inquiry-centered, hands-on lessons called "explorations." The curriculum draws upon students' curiosity to explore phenomena, allowing for a discovery-based learning process. Group-centered lab work is designed to help students build an…

  19. Making Child Care Work. Report to the 1987 Minnesota Legislature by the Child Care Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sheila; And Others

    This report makes recommendations to the 1987 Minnesota Legislature on some actions that can be taken to improve Minnesota's child care system and make it work more effectively. The first section of the report documents the growing need for child care, emphasizing the number of children in Minnesota, the number of women in the labor force, changes…

  20. A new occupational health agenda for a new work environment.

    PubMed

    Benach, Joan; Muntaner, Carles; Benavides, Fernando G; Amable, Marcelo; Jodar, Pere

    2002-06-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, the emergence of new forms of work organization are transforming what had become standard types of work arrangements in industrialized countries. In this new labor market environment, new firms, types of workers, and risk factors are powerfully emerging. Contrary to common belief, emergent occupational health hazards should not be approached only as "technical" or "economic" value-free problems. Instead, many of the challenges faced by occupational health policy makers are predominantly related to professional values and to the political ideologies and economic interests of key stakeholders in the decision-making process. In this paper some of the key principles leading to efficient and equitable occupational health policies in the new work environment are discussed. An alternative is also proposed for dealing with the conditions and settings needed to meet the new challenges related to establishing an effective occupational health policy. PMID:12109559

  1. Working-Class Jobs and New Parents' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Goldberg, Abbie E.; Logan, Jade

    2011-01-01

    Little research has explored linkages between work conditions and mental health in working-class employed parents. The current study aims to address this gap, employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how levels of and changes in job autonomy, job urgency, supervisor support, and coworker support predicted parents' depressive…

  2. Working-Class Jobs and New Parents' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Goldberg, Abbie E.; Logan, Jade

    2011-01-01

    Little research has explored linkages between work conditions and mental health in working-class employed parents. The current study aims to address this gap, employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how levels of and changes in job autonomy, job urgency, supervisor support, and coworker support predicted parents' depressive…

  3. Critically Reflective Work Behavior of Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Esther; Jaarsma, Debbie; Endedijk, Maaike; Mainhard, Tim; Lam, Ineke; Simons, Robert-Jan; van Beukelen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Better understanding of critically reflective work behavior (CRWB), an approach for work-related informal learning, is important in order to gain more profound insight in the continuing development of health care professionals. Methods: A survey, developed to measure CRWB and its predictors, was distributed to veterinary…

  4. Recreation and Health Agencies: Working Together to Promote Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipp, JoAnn; Dusenbury, Linda J.

    1994-01-01

    The Colorado Department of Health formed the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Prevention Coalition to address Colorado's problem with CVD. The article describes the work of the Coalition's Physical Activity Subcommittee, the Subcommittee's Exer-Deck tool to promote increased physical activity, and the training of professionals to work collaboratively…

  5. Elastic ankle exoskeletons reduce soleus muscle force but not work in human hopping.

    PubMed

    Farris, Dominic James; Robertson, Benjamin D; Sawicki, Gregory S

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by elastic energy storage and return in tendons of human leg muscle-tendon units (MTU), exoskeletons often place a spring in parallel with an MTU to assist the MTU. However, this might perturb the normally efficient MTU mechanics and actually increase active muscle mechanical work. This study tested the effects of elastic parallel assistance on MTU mechanics. Participants hopped with and without spring-loaded ankle exoskeletons that assisted plantar flexion. An inverse dynamics analysis, combined with in vivo ultrasound imaging of soleus fascicles and surface electromyography, was used to determine muscle-tendon mechanics and activations. Whole body net metabolic power was obtained from indirect calorimetry. When hopping with spring-loaded exoskeletons, soleus activation was reduced (30-70%) and so was the magnitude of soleus force (peak force reduced by 30%) and the average rate of soleus force generation (by 50%). Although forces were lower, average positive fascicle power remained unchanged, owing to increased fascicle excursion (+4-5 mm). Net metabolic power was reduced with exoskeleton assistance (19%). These findings highlighted that parallel assistance to a muscle with appreciable series elasticity may have some negative consequences, and that the metabolic cost associated with generating force may be more pronounced than the cost of doing work for these muscles. PMID:23788578

  6. Barriers to Partnership Working in Public Health: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, David Carlton; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Orton, Lois; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. Methodology/Principal Findings 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. Conclusions The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions. PMID:22238619

  7. Work-Related Violence, Lifestyle, and Health among Special Education Teachers Working in Finnish Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimaki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Salmi, Venla; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have reported higher levels of absenteeism due to illness among special education teachers compared to other teachers, but it is not known which factors might contribute to this difference. We examined whether health, health behaviors, and exposure to violence at work differed between special education and general education…

  8. Health and Nutritional Status of Working and Non-Working Mothers in Poverty Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Daphne A.; Eickwort, Kathleen R.

    The aim of this study was to examine the health and nutritional status of low-income women in Upstate New York and to identify problems that interfere with their employment. Questionnaires on health and work, complete medical and employment histories, physical examination, laboratory tests, dental examination and diet recalls were obtained for 469…

  9. New systems of work organization and workers' health.

    PubMed

    Kompier, Michiel A J

    2006-12-01

    This paper aims at identifying major changes in and around work organizations, their effects upon job characteristics and the health and well-being of today's employees, and related research challenges. Increased internationalization and competition, increased utilization of information and communication technology, the changing workforce configuration, and flexibility and new organizational practices are considered. As work has changed from physical to mental in nature, job characteristics have changed significantly. Meanwhile work and family life have blended. New systems of work organization have become more prevalent, but they do not represent a radical change across the whole economy. New practices may have an adverse impact upon job characteristics, but their effects depend on their design, implementation, and management. Research recommendations include improved monitoring of changes in work organization and studies into their health and safety consequences, intervention studies, studies into the motivating potential of modern work practices, studies of marginalized workers and workers in less developed countries, and "mechanism studies". PMID:17173199

  10. Working on Sundays–effects on safety, health, and work-life balance.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Anna; Nachreiner, Friedhelm; Rolfes, Katharina

    2011-05-01

    Several attributes of the work schedule can increase the risk of occupational injuries and accidents, health impairments, and reduced social participation. Although previous studies mainly focused on the effects of shiftwork and long working hours on employee health and safety, there is little evidence of a potential negative impact of working Sundays on the incidence of occupational accidents, health impairments, and work-life balance. A representative sample of employed workers in 31 member and associated states of the European Union (n?=?23,934) served as the database for a cross-sectional analysis. The sample was collected via face-to-face interviews in the year 2005. The association of the risks of occupational accidents, health impairments, and decreases in work-life balance with working Sundays was calculated using logistic regression models, controlling for potential confounders, such as shiftwork, workload, and demographic characteristics. The results indicated that working one or more Sundays/month was associated with increase both in the risk of reporting one or more health impairments (odds ratio [OR]: 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.29) and poorer work-life balance (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.02-1.28). These effects remained after controlling for potentially confounding factors, such as other work schedule attributes, intensity of physical and mental workload, and individual characteristics. Furthermore, working Sundays was also related to increased risk of occupational accidents within the last year (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.73). Controlling again for individual, workload, and working-time characteristics, a significant association with accident risk, however, remained only in work sectors with low a priori risk of occupational accidents (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.02-1.91), although the increased risk could be observed for both medium and high a priori risk sectors working Sundays (without controlling for additional confounders). The results thus indicate that the detrimental effects of working Sundays on safety, health, and social well-being should be taken into account when designing work schedules. The potential hazards to employees' safety, health, and work-life balance, in particular, should be considered in discussions concerning extending work on Sundays in certain sectors, e.g., retail. PMID:21539428

  11. Changing Work and Work-Family Conflict: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Network*

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis; Oakes, J. Michael; Fan, Wen; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Davis, Kelly D.; Hammer, Leslie; Kossek, Ellen; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Hanson, Ginger; Mierzwa, Frank; Casper, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life are work resources that may help employees manage the work-family interface. However, existing data and designs have made it difficult to conclusively identify the effects of these work resources. This analysis utilizes a group-randomized trial in which some units in an information technology workplace were randomly assigned to participate in an initiative, called STAR, that targeted work practices, interactions, and expectations by (a) training supervisors on the value of demonstrating support for employees’ personal lives and (b) prompting employees to reconsider when and where they work. We find statistically significant, though modest, improvements in employees’ work-family conflict and family time adequacy and larger changes in schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life. We find no evidence that this intervention increased work hours or perceived job demands, as might have happened with increased permeability of work across time and space. Subgroup analyses suggest the intervention brings greater benefits to employees more vulnerable to work-family conflict. This study advances our understanding of the impact of social structures on individual lives by investigating deliberate organizational changes and their effects on work resources and the work-family interface with a rigorous design. PMID:25349460

  12. Changing Work and Work-Family Conflict: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Network*

    PubMed

    Kelly, Erin L; Moen, Phyllis; Oakes, J Michael; Fan, Wen; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Davis, Kelly D; Hammer, Leslie; Kossek, Ellen; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Hanson, Ginger; Mierzwa, Frank; Casper, Lynne

    2014-06-01

    Schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life are work resources that may help employees manage the work-family interface. However, existing data and designs have made it difficult to conclusively identify the effects of these work resources. This analysis utilizes a group-randomized trial in which some units in an information technology workplace were randomly assigned to participate in an initiative, called STAR, that targeted work practices, interactions, and expectations by (a) training supervisors on the value of demonstrating support for employees' personal lives and (b) prompting employees to reconsider when and where they work. We find statistically significant, though modest, improvements in employees' work-family conflict and family time adequacy and larger changes in schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life. We find no evidence that this intervention increased work hours or perceived job demands, as might have happened with increased permeability of work across time and space. Subgroup analyses suggest the intervention brings greater benefits to employees more vulnerable to work-family conflict. This study advances our understanding of the impact of social structures on individual lives by investigating deliberate organizational changes and their effects on work resources and the work-family interface with a rigorous design. PMID:25349460

  13. e-Labs and Work Objects: Towards Digital Health Economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainsworth, John D.; Buchan, Iain E.

    The optimal provision of healthcare and public health services requires the synthesis of evidence from multiple disciplines. It is necessary to understand the genetic, environmental, behavioural and social determinants of disease and health-related states; to balance the effectiveness of interventions with their costs; to ensure the maximum safety and acceptability of interventions; and to provide fair access to care services for given populations. Ever expanding databases of knowledge and local health information, and the ability to employ computationally expensive methods, promises much for decisions to be both supported by best evidence and locally relevant. This promise will, however, not be realised without providing health professionals with the tools to make sense of this information rich environment and to collaborate across disciplines. We propose, as a solution to this problem, the e-Lab and Work Objects model as a sense-making platform for digital health economies - bringing together data, methods and people for timely health intelligence.

  14. Task Force Report on HIV/AIDS and Health Services Administration Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Nancy Cross

    In November 1987, a task force met to review the major organizational, structural, and policy-related issues for health care administration professionals related to the growing impact of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) on the health care delivery system and to make recommendations on the training needs of persons within the health care…

  15. Health visitors' child protection work: exploratory study of risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Selbie, Jean

    2009-05-01

    This paper outlines a small-scale research project that utilised a modified grounded theory approach in order to explore the role of risk assessment in health visitors' child protection work. A review of the literature investigated the role of risk assessment in current health and social care policy. Structured focus group and interview work enabled the opinions of health visitors to be collected about the factors that enable them to identify, analyse and manage issues of risk to children.Transcripts were analysed with reference to the literature review. The health visitors considered aspects of their relationship with clients to influence the identification, analysis and management of risk to children. The results suggest that health visitors are not convinced that the Common Assessment Framework or health assessment tools assist in their management of risk to children. The findings of this study are based on data collected from a small sample of health visitors, and conclusions are therefore tentative, but aim to contribute to wider professional debate about risk management in child protection work. PMID:19480117

  16. We can be a global force for good health.

    PubMed

    2015-11-25

    Nurses have a lot on their plate just now so tackling climate change might feel like someone else's problem. But the World Health Organization has identified climate change as the greatest threat to public health, so it's an issue that we must all engage with if we want to pass a planet fit to live on to our children and grandchildren. PMID:26602634

  17. Work organization and the health of bank employees.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juliana Lemos; Navarro, Vera Lucia

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian banking sector has undergone an intense restructuring process and taken a leading position in the incorporation of new technologies and organizational innovations. Computerization in the industry, in association with forms of work organization, has resulted in changes that reflect on the workers' health. Based on the theoretical and methodological frameworks of historical and dialectical materialism, this qualitative study investigates the work conditions of bank employees in order to identify the extent to which changes in work organization interfere with these workers' health. Data were collected through interviews held with 11 bank employees. In addition to physical sickening due to occupational diseases directly related to work intensification, the results also show an increased incidence of mental suffering and a feeling of loss of professional identity. Work-related frustration, instability and concerns related to psychological pressure resulting from the need to achieve goals predominated in the reports. PMID:22699722

  18. [Health status of women at work: work risks and living conditions].

    PubMed

    Esposito, A; Ferrucci, R; Romano, L; Nigro, E; Lettieri, M; Barile, A

    2007-01-01

    The increase of women at work calls for a new attention to a full health protection, besides the fertility and reproduction. Health Surveillance in workplaces can give much information about health state of women and men, when the evaluation takes into account physiological and social differences between the sexes. The study reports the health data from a working population, 675 women and 7991 men, employed in different work activities. The results showed no significant difference of health state between women and men, except a greater prevalence of the respiratory pathologies in men and psychosomatic disorders in women. Prevalence of muscle-skeletal diseases, psychosomatic disorders and recurring headache have been higher in married than in unmarried women. among married women, prevalence of pathologies have been related to number of children. No difference have been found between unmarried and married men, except a greater prevalence of psychic disorders in youngest. Results confirm the interaction between domestic and working load on health state of women. Under the same work conditions, women are subjected to a higher physical and mental load that reduces the endurance of strain and stress and increases the prevalence of some pathologies, as musculoskeletal chronic degenerative diseases and psychological disorders. PMID:18409739

  19. The changing organization of work and the safety and health of working people: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Landsbergis, Paul A

    2003-01-01

    Recent trends in the organization of work may affect worker health through a variety of pathways--by increasing the risk of stress-related illnesses, such as cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, and psychological disorders, by increasing exposure to hazardous substances and violence on the job, or by affecting occupational health services and training programs. Much remains to be learned about the nature of changes in work organization, and how they affect worker health and safety. While available evidence is limited, such evidence suggests that recent trends in work organization may be increasing the risk of occupational illnesses. In a groundbreaking publication, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has provided a concise summary of available knowledge and a detailed agenda for research and development. PMID:12553180

  20. [THE INFLUENCE OF SHIFT WORK ON WORKER'S HEALTH STATUS (REVIEW)].

    PubMed

    Chernikova, E F

    2015-01-01

    The article provides an overview of domestic and foreign works on the impact of the replaceable labor on the efficiency, general state of health, the health and the dream of workers. Many hours shifts and overtime work were found to disturb likely familiar rhythms (sleep, wakefulness, performance), change the metabolic and hormonal metabolisms, reducing the recovery period between duties, contribute to more rapid development of fatigue. The consequence of circadian dyschrony may be the development of diseases of the cardiovascular system and cancer incidence. Studies have shown that sleep disorders are associated with metabolic changes, and particularly, obesity. In persons working in shifts, there are more often registered as individual features of the metabolic syndrome and the whole syndrome. It is noted that persons forming this group are at higher risk of developing diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, the problem of shift work is presented to be very important. Knowledge of ways and mechanisms that explain the impact of shift work on health is necessary to evaluate the professional risk. In the system of health measures the attention should be given to the rationalization of work and rest regimens, prevention of fatigue, struggle with sleep disorders and obesity. PMID:26302558

  1. Forces Pushing Prescription Psychotropic Drugs in College Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Leighton C.

    2007-01-01

    A complex of forceful influences is greatly accelerating the use of what are usually referred to as "psychiatric drugs," although most prescribing is not done by psychiatrists. Many other clinicians, including other kinds of physicians, and recently psychologists, prescribe these medications. The influences contributing to this dramatic surge…

  2. Process Evaluation of an Integrated Health Promotion/Occupational Health Model in WellWorks-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Mary Kay; Lederman, Ruth; Stoddard, Anne M.; LaMontagne, Anthony D.; McLellan, Deborah; Combe, Candace; Barbeau, Elizabeth; Sorensen, Glorian

    2005-01-01

    Disparities in chronic disease risk by occupation call for new approaches to health promotion. WellWorks-2 was a randomized, controlled study comparing the effectiveness of a health promotion/occupational health program (HP/OHS) with a standard intervention (HP). Interventions in both studies were based on the same theoretical foundations. Results…

  3. Return to work, economic hardship, and women's postpartum health.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jenna N; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Leng, Iris; Clinch, C Randall; Arcury, Thomas A

    2010-10-01

    This study followed a sample of 217 new mothers in a North Carolina county as they returned to work full-time, measuring their mental and physical health-related quality of life through 16 months postpartum. In general, working mothers of infants had mental health scores that were comparable to the general population of U.S. women, and physical health that was slightly better than women in general. Using ANCOVA and controlling for important demographic characteristics, health-related quality of life was compared between mothers experiencing low and high levels of economic hardship. Across the study period, women with high economic hardship, who constituted 30.7% of the sample, had levels of mental and physical health below those of women with low economic hardship. Mothers with high economic hardship also had less stable health trajectories than mothers with low economic hardship. The findings highlight the importance of reconsidering the traditionally accepted postpartum recovery period of six weeks and extending benefits, such as paid maternity and sick leave, as well as stable yet flexible work schedules. PMID:21104566

  4. A Safe and Healthful Work Environment: Development and Testing of an Undergraduate Occupational Health Nursing Curriculum.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, Marjorie C; Berry, Peggy

    2015-08-01

    Occupational health nursing focuses on promotion and restoration of health, prevention of illness and injury, protection from work-related and environmental hazards, and corporate profitability. Quality education about the relationship between work and health is critical for nurses' success regardless of work setting, and is consistent with Healthy People 2020 goals, but is lacking or limited in some programs. This report introduces an innovative occupational health nursing curriculum for students enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. The process of designing and pilot testing this novel curriculum, its alignment with nursing competencies, and its format and learning activities are described. Preparing professional nurses to understand the role of the occupational health nurse and the relationship between work and health is an essential curricular consideration for contemporary nursing education. PMID:26077879

  5. Managing professional work: three models of control for health organizations.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, W R

    1982-01-01

    Three arrangements for structuring the work of professional participants in professional organizations are described, contrasted and evaluated. Arguments are illustrated by application to the organization of physicians within hospitals. The primary rationale, the support structures that have fostered its development, the key structural features and the advantages and disadvantages of each arrangement are described. The effect on these arrangements of structures and forces external to any particular professional organization is emphasized. PMID:6749761

  6. Health problems of Nepalese migrants working in three Gulf countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nepal is one of the largest suppliers of labour to countries where there is a demand for cheap and low skilled workers. In the recent years the Gulf countries have collectively become the main destinations for international migration. This paper aims to explore the health problems and accidents experienced by a sample of Nepalese migrant in three Gulf countries. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 408 Nepalese migrants who had at least one period of work experience of at least six months in any of three Gulf countries: Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE). Face to face questionnaire interviews were conducted applying a convenience technique to select the study participants. Results Nepalese migrants in these Gulf countries were generally young men between 26-35 years of age. Unskilled construction jobs including labourer, scaffolder, plumber and carpenter were the most common jobs. Health problems were widespread and one quarter of study participants reported experiencing injuries or accidents at work within the last 12 months. The rates of health problems and accidents reported were very similar in the three countries. Only one third of the respondents were provided with insurance for health services by their employer. Lack of leave for illness, cost and fear of losing their job were the barriers to accessing health care services. The study found that construction and agricultural workers were more likely to experience accidents at their workplace and health problems than other workers. Conclusion The findings suggest important messages for the migration policy makers in Nepal. There is a lack of adequate information for the migrants making them aware of their health risks and rights in relation to health services in the destination countries and we suggest that the government of Nepal should be responsible for providing this information. Employers should provide orientation on possible health risks and appropriate training for preventive measures and all necessary access to health care services to all their workers. PMID:21443802

  7. [Gender, paid work, domestic chores and health in Spain].

    PubMed

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Cortès, Imma

    2004-01-01

    The present study reviews gender-related differences and inequalities in paid work and domestic chores in Spain. The impact of both types of work on health are analyzed and the main policies of the European Union (EU) and Spain to achieve gender equality at work are described. In Spain, fewer women are in paid work than in other EU countries. The labor market displays horizontal segregation (men and women work in different sectors), as well as vertical segregation (men hold more senior positions), leading to gender-related differences in employment conditions and exposure to occupational hazards. The precariousness of work is significantly higher in women (19% unemployment in women versus 9% in men) and women are more likely than men to have temporary contracts. Men are more frequently exposed to physical risks and suffer a greater number of occupational accidents; women, especially manual workers, are more frequently exposed to psychosocial risks. Most domestic chores continue to be performed by women, even by working women, which negatively affects their health. The EU has made an increase in female employment a priority, which means that from 2000-2010 Spain should create 3 million jobs for women and implement work/family policies. Achieving gender equality at work requires employment policies that would guarantee equal opportunities for both sexes, as well as shared responsibility for domestic chores between men and women. In Spain, moreover, there is an urgent need to significantly increase public childcare facilities and resources for the care of other dependent individuals. PMID:15171842

  8. Initial Report of the Task Force on Cultural Competence Education in the Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings and recommendations of the Task Force on Cultural Competence Education and represents the distillation of the Task Force's efforts to fulfill its legislative charge. The report is intended to facilitate a statewide conversation about the health services provided to New Mexico's multicultural citizenry. It…

  9. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' legislative activities and the Joint Medical Library Association/Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Legislative Task Force

    PubMed Central

    Zenan, Joan S.

    2003-01-01

    The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' (AAHSL's) involvement in national legislative activities and other advocacy initiatives has evolved and matured over the last twenty-five years. Some activities conducted by the Medical Library Association's (MLA's) Legislative Committee from 1976 to 1984 are highlighted to show the evolution of MLA's and AAHSL's interests in collaborating on national legislative issues, which resulted in an agreement to form a joint legislative task force. The history, work, challenges, and accomplishments of the Joint MLA/AAHSL Legislative Task Force, formed in 1985, are discussed. PMID:12883581

  10. Work engagement, work commitment and their association with well-being in health care.

    PubMed

    Kanste, Outi

    2011-12-01

    The aim was to examine whether work engagement and work commitment can be empirically discriminated and how they are associated with well-being. The terminology used in literature and in practice is confused by the interchangeable use of these terms. Only few studies, like Hallberg and Schaufeli's study, have examined the relationships between work engagement and work commitment systematically by using empirical data. In this study, the data were gathered via self-reported questionnaire from the healthcare staff working in 14 health centres and four hospitals in Finland. The data consisted of 435 responses. The material was analysed by using structural equation modelling (SEM) and correlations. The items of work engagement and work commitment dimensions (identification with organization, willingness to exert in organization's favour, occupational commitment and job involvement) loaded on their own latent variables in SEM analysis, so the data supported this five-factor model. Work engagement and work commitment dimensions were positively related, sharing between 2 and 33% of their variances. These constructs also displayed different correlations with some indicators of well-being measured as personal accomplishment, psychological well-being, mental resources, internal work motivation and willingness to stay on at work. Work engagement had moderate positive correlation to personal accomplishment (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). Identification with organization (r = 0.40, p < 0.001), willingness to exert in organization's favour (r =0.44, p < 0.001) and occupational commitment (r =0.37, p < 0.001) had low correlations to personal accomplishment. The results support the notion that work engagement can be empirically discriminated from work commitment. They are distinct, yet related constructs that complement each other, describing different aspects of positive attitudes towards work. The results can be utilized in interventions aimed at quality of working life in health care as well as in studies investigating discriminant and construct validity. PMID:21564150

  11. The health care work environment and adverse health and safety consequences for nurses.

    PubMed

    Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Lipscomb, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Nurses' working conditions are inextricably linked to the quality of care that is provided to patients and patients' safety. These same working conditions are associated with health and safety outcomes for nurses and other health care providers. This chapter describes aspects of the nursing work environment that have been linked to hazards and adverse exposures for nurses, as well as the most common health and safety outcomes of nursing work. We include studies from 2000 to the present by nurse researchers, studies of nurses as subjects, and studies of workers under similar working conditions that could translate to nurses' work environment. We explore a number of work organization factors including shift work and extended work hours, safety climate and culture, teamwork, and communication. We also describe environmental hazards, including chemical hazards (e.g., waste anesthetics, hazardous drugs, cleaning compounds) and airborne and bloodborne pathogen exposure. Nurses' health and safety outcomes include physical (e.g., musculoskeletal disorders, gastrointestinal, slips, trips and falls, physical assault) and psychosocial outcomes (e.g., burnout, work-family conflict). Finally, we present recommendations for future research to further protect nurses and all health care workers from a range of hazardous working conditions. PMID:21639028

  12. Labor Market Work and Home Care's Unpaid Caregivers: A Systematic Review of Labor Force Participation Rates, Predictors of Labor Market Withdrawal, and Hours of Work

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for “intensive” caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers. PMID:18070333

  13. The Social Determinants of Health in Military Forces of Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Sanaeinasab, Hormoz; Ghanei, Mostafa; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali; Ravangard, Ramin; Karamali, Mazyar

    2015-01-01

    Providing effective health interventions and achieving equity in health need to apply the community-based approaches such as social determinants of health. In the military organizations, these determinants have received less attention from the military health researchers and policymakers. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and explain the social determinants affecting the health of military forces in Iran. This was a qualitative study which was conducted in 2014. The required data were collected through semistructured interviews and analyzed through Conventional Content Analysis. The studied sample consisted of 22 military health experts, policymakers, and senior managers selected using purposeful sampling method with maximum variation sampling. MAXQDA.2007 was used to analyze the collected data. After analyzing the collected data, two main contents, that is, “general social determinants of health” and “military social determinants of health,” with 22 themes and 90 subthemes were identified as the social determinants of military forces' health. Main themes were religious rule, spirituality promotion policies, international military factors, military command, and so forth. Given the role and importance of social factors determining the military forces' health, it can be recommended that the military organizations should pay more attention to these determinants in making policies and creating social, economic, and cultural structures for their forces. PMID:26379716

  14. Justice at Work, Job Stress, and Employee Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Heaney, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    A small but growing literature has documented an association between justice at work and employee health. However, the pathways and mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. This article proposes a conceptual framework that bridges the organizational justice, occupational stress, and occupational epidemiology literatures.…

  15. Justice at Work, Job Stress, and Employee Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Heaney, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    A small but growing literature has documented an association between justice at work and employee health. However, the pathways and mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. This article proposes a conceptual framework that bridges the organizational justice, occupational stress, and occupational epidemiology literatures.…

  16. Occupational health hazards resulting from elevated work rate situations.

    PubMed

    Ohara, H; Nakagiri, S; Itani, T; Wake, K; Aoyama, H

    1976-12-01

    Some occupational health hazards resulting from an elevated rate of work due to recent mechanization and automatization are discussed on the basis of results of health examinations. A rapid increase of a cervicobrachial disorder among young cash register and packing machine operators has been observed. Switching to the use of electronic cash registers has been shown to have only limited efficacy due to increased operation speed, and high-speed complex finger and hand movements of packer operators have also proven to be as hazardous as key-board operations. The high incidence of low-back pain, in particular gradually developing pain, among workers in electric power supply work has been suggested to be the result of quick and intensified work to meet increasing supply demand. Likewise, the workload of electric locomotive and bullet train drivers has increased in accordance with increased train speeds, and has been shown to have had significant effects on their health particularly in regards to neural strain, intra-cab environment such as air pressure change, vibration, and noise, and rotation on irregular shifts. New steps seem required therefore to meet the new health problems arising from a combination of modern technological changes and elevated working speeds. PMID:143492

  17. A Nontraditional Work/Training Program for Community Health Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorak, Sandra A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses Project SCOPE (Seniors' Community Outreach Programs and Education) which provided an enriched on-the-job training program in community health work. Activities were directed toward developing skills in conducting a needs assessment, networking, care planning, resource utilization and community development. Discusses project's…

  18. Private and Public Initiatives: Working Together for Health and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaag, Jacques van der

    The World Bank helps countries to arrive at whatever combination of public and private control is best for their particular economic circumstances. This booklet describes that work and summarizes examples of private-sector involvement in health and education provision in the developing world today. The examples also illustrate what the World Bank…

  19. Gender, Work, and Health for Trans Health Providers: A Focus on Transmen

    PubMed Central

    MacDonnell, Judith A.; Grigorovich, Alisa

    2012-01-01

    Well-documented health research points to trans people's vulnerability to health inequities that are linked to deeply embedded structural and social determinants of health. Gender and work, as social determinants of health for trans people, both shape and are shaped by multiple factors such as support networks, social environments, income and social status, shelter, and personal health practices. There is a gap in the nursing literature in regards to research on work and health for diverse trans people and a virtual silence on the particular issues of trans-identified health providers. This qualitative study used comparative life history methodology and purposeful sampling to examine links among work, career, and health for transmen who are health providers. Semistructured interviews were completed with four Canadian transmen involved in health care professional and/or practice contexts with diverse professions, age, work, and transitioning experiences. Critical gender analysis showed that unique and gender-related critical events and influences shape continuities and discontinuities in their careerlives. This strength-based approach foregrounds how resilience and growth emerged through participants' articulation with everyday gender dynamics. These findings have implications for nursing research, education, and practice that include an understanding of how trans providers “do transgender work” and supporting them in that process. PMID:23316387

  20. [Preventing work-related health problems: the work of the ergonomist].

    PubMed

    Benoît, Damien

    2014-05-14

    Preventing work-related health problems is an important aspect when considering clinical symptoms. Analysing a person's professional activity is a complex task. The ergonomist intervenes to understand the details of the organisational, environmental and cognitive structures that influence health. The case of a pre-school educator with back pain is presented here as an example of how such a situation is studied and concrete solutions instated. Health preservation strategies, facilitating factors and barriers were identified, which led to a reduction in straining, improved organisation of tasks and achievement of educational goals. PMID:24930153

  1. High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy for Studying the Dynamic Behavior of Protein Molecules at Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Toshio; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Kodera, Noriyuki; Miyagi, Atsushi; Nakakita, Ryo; Yamashita, Hayato; Sakashita, Mitsuru

    2006-03-01

    In the quest for the mechanism of protein functions, various key techniques and instruments have been developed. This is an era when scrutinizing a certain protein from various angles is becoming possible through combined knowledge of its structure and function. However, it is necessary to link these different aspects of a protein along a time axis, but no technology is available for tracing a protein in action, at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Atomic force microscopy made it possible for the first time to view a nanometer-scale world in an aqueous environment. In 2001, we developed the first-generation high-speed atomic force microscope (AFM) that could capture moving protein molecules on video at 80 ms/frame. Since then, we have been carrying out various efforts to increase its scan rate as well as to substantially reduce tip-sample interaction force. The reduction in this force is a key to making the high-speed AFM practically useful in life sciences. Various new techniques and devices developed in the past four years have brought the AFM to its second-generation stage. It can now capture weakly interacting protein molecules successively without disturbing their physiological function. Here, we report our efforts made over the past four years, the present capacity of the high-speed AFM, and our preliminary work on the next generation of the instrument.

  2. Health Care Reform and Medical Education: Forces toward Generalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Edward H.; Seifer, Sarena D.

    1995-01-01

    Health care reforms will dramatically change the culture of medical schools in areas of patient care, research, and education programs. Academic medical centers must construct mutually beneficial partnerships that will position them to take advantage of the opportunities rather than leave them without the diversity of resources needed to make…

  3. Work engagement: a practical measure for workplace health promotion?

    PubMed

    Torp, S; Grimsmo, A; Hagen, S; Duran, A; Gudbergsson, S B

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate whether psychological job demands, personal control and social support affect the negative health measure of depression differently than the positive measure of work engagement and to investigate whether work engagement mediates the effects of job demands and resources on the level of depression. We discuss the implications of using engagement as an outcome measure in workplace health promotion. We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study among a general working population in Norway (n = 605). In the multivariate analysis, high psychological job demands as well as high control and social support correlated significantly with high work engagement. High demands as well as low control and social support correlated significantly with high levels of depression. When we included engagement as an independent variable together with demands, control and social support in the multivariate analysis, the positive correlation between demands and depression remained as well as the significant correlations between the level of depression and control and social support became non-significant. This indicates that engagement mediates the effects of control and social support on the level of depression. Encouraging enterprises to improve engagement in addition to focusing on preventing diseases may be worthwhile in workplace health promotion. Promoting engagement may have more positive organizational effects than a more traditional disease prevention focus, because engagement is contagious and closely related to good work performance and motivation. PMID:22692482

  4. 75 FR 4051 - Defense Health Board; DoD Task Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... of the Secretary Defense Health Board; DoD Task Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces; Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice of meeting. ] SUMMARY...)(2) of Public Law, the DoD Task Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed...

  5. Black & Minority Health. Report of the Secretary's Task Force. Volume 1: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    This volume presents major findings and recommendations of the Department of Health and Human Service's (DHHS) Task Force on Black and Minority Health. The recommendations, which are based on data collected from a number of sources, are intended to guide DHHS in developing programs and policies that address the continuing disparity in the burden…

  6. Fitness for work: the SIMLII Health Surveillance Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Soleo, L; Romano, C; Apostoli, P

    2006-01-01

    Italian legislation on prevention in occupational hygiene and safety, which is based largely on European Union Directives, requires health surveillance when risk assessment has identified a risk for workers' health. Health surveillance must be carried out by the occupational physician and concludes with the issue of a fitness for work certificate for the specific job. The guidelines produced by the "Italian Society of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene" (SIMLII), through the "Consortium for Accreditation and Updating in Occupational Medicine" founded by the "S. Maugeri Foundation of Pavia", Italy, focus firstly on the definition of judgment of fitness for a specific job. They outline the theoretical basis of the medico-legal terminology for fitness for work, which is founded on the concepts of suitability, fitness, capacity, ability, representing successive degrees of qualification and specific potential that the worker may attain during accomplishment of the tasks involved in the job. To assess fitness for a specific job, the occupational physician must consider whether the worker possesses the psycho-physical requisites normally needed to do the job, not the top levels of such requisites. The intrinsic characteristics of any judgment of fitness for work, namely its individual, probabilistic and time-dependent nature, are illustrated. The operative methodological model for making a judgment must include: assessment of the job and work environment, assessment of the worker through health surveillance, comparison and correlation of the two terms of the equation: human subject-work environment, the judgment thus made and the choice of any necessary measures and/or intervention. The methods for conducting the assessment process culminating in a judgement are presented, as stipulated in the pertinent legislation, and include the following conclusions: fitness, partial or total unfitness, temporary unfitness, fitness provided suitable prescriptions are observed,fitness provided some conditions are met. These definitions are analyzed in greater depth, especially the possible confusion between partial unfitness and fitness provided suitable prescriptions are observed. The employer or worker may lodge an appeal with the local health service inspection service against certain judgments of unfitness for work. Finally, as health surveillance is governed by different legal norms, the contents of which appear to be to some extent contradictory, even though aimed at safeguarding the dignity and freedom of the worker, the reasons why the occupational physician should take into account diseases apart from those of the organs exposed to specific risk are discussed. These should be borne in mind when issuing the specific fitness for work certificate at the end of preventive and periodical medical examinations. PMID:17009686

  7. Work-Related Health Complaints and Injuries, and Health and Safety Perceptions of Latino Day Laborers.

    PubMed

    Burgel, Barbara J; Nelson, Ronald W; White, Mary C

    2015-08-01

    This study describes socio-demographic, health, and work factors as well as health and safety perceptions of day laborers who reported work-related health complaints and injuries. The researchers completed a secondary data analysis of 217 interviews conducted in 2009 with day laborers in a large city. The participants reported 83 health complaints or injuries (38%) that had occurred during the prior 12 months, with 57 of these complaints or injuries resulting in lost work time. Pain and soreness of the back were the most prevalent health complaints or injuries; 66% of participants did not report their injuries, 62% reported no health and safety training, 96% reported they needed personal protective equipment (PPE), and 63% were provided with PPE. Latino day laborers reported a high 12-month prevalence of work-related health complaints and injuries. Ongoing policy work is needed to encourage injury reporting by day laborers and the provision of health and safety training and PPE to this group of workers. PMID:26240118

  8. Migration and mental health in Europe (the state of the mental health in Europe working group: appendix 1)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background This paper is a part of the work of the group that carried out the report "The state of the mental health in Europe" (European Commission, DG Health and Consumer Protection, 2004) and deals with the mental health issues related to the migration in Europe. Methods The paper tries to describe the social, demographical and political context of the emigration in Europe and tries to indicate the needs and (mental) health problems of immigrants. A review of the literature concerning mental health risk in immigrant is also carried out. The work also faces the problem of the health policy toward immigrants and the access to health care services in Europe. Results Migration during the 1990s has been high and characterised by new migrations. Some countries in Europe, that have been traditionally exporters of migrants have shifted to become importers. Migration has been a key force in the demographic changes of the European population. The policy of closed borders do not stop migration, but rather seems to set up a new underclass of so-called "illegals" who are suppressed and highly exploited. In 2000 there were also 392.200 asylum applications. The reviewed literature among mental health risk in some immigrant groups in Europe concerns: 1) highest rate of schizophrenia; suicide; alcohol and drug abuse; access of psychiatric facilities; risk of anxiety and depression; mental health of EU immigrants once they returned to their country; early EU immigrants in today disadvantaged countries; refugees and mental health Due to the different condition of migration concerning variables as: motivation to migrations (e.g. settler, refugees, gastarbeiters); distance for the host culture; ability to develop mediating structures; legal residential status it is impossible to consider "migrants" as a homogeneous group concerning the risk for mental illness. In this sense, psychosocial studies should be undertaken to identify those factors which may under given conditions, imply an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and influence seeking for psychiatric care. Comments and Remarks Despite in the migrants some vulnerable groups were identified with respect to health problems, in many European countries there are migrants who fall outside the existing health and social services, something which is particularly true for asylum seekers and undocumented immigrants. In order to address these deficiencies, it is necessary to provide with an adequate financing and a continuity of the grants for research into the multicultural health demand. Finally, there is to highlight the importance of adopting an integrated approach to mental health care that moves away from psychiatric care only. PMID:16135246

  9. The integration of two health systems: social stratification, work and health in East and West Germany.

    PubMed

    Lüschen, G; Niemann, S; Apelt, P

    1997-03-01

    This is an analysis of system integration, social stratification and work for health status and health care in East and West Germany. It is based on aggregate data and representative survey data of random samples of 2554 adults in both subsystems. Findings show that there were marked differences in life-expectancy prior to unification. The integration of the two systems, which occurred almost totally with regard to terms of West German health care organization, shows adjustment problems in the East for the public Health-Care-Funds and few if any for ambulatory care. The work situation has an impact on health, but there are no significant differences for East versus West. Social stratification variables show an influence on subjective health status for education (East) and for income, social status (West), while physician utilization (despite a preference of specialists by those with higher status) is not significantly determined by stratification variables in either East or West Germany. Beyond the central focus on work and stratification determinants a major finding pertains to a comparatively worse health situation for the aged and for women in what was the former East Germany. System models of Capitalism versus Socialism fit the results and recent history of the two systems to only a limited degree, as the West German corporate health system shows clear limits in following free market principles. The East German system, regardless of its centralized organization and move towards a socialist system, never fully abandoned the traditional model of German health care. Unlike the East German health system, that of West Germany, with its general expansion to 92% of the population, shows an increasing effect for social redistribution. The latter may be a reason why standard indicators of social stratification show less of an impact on health and health care than expected, while conditions at work clearly determine the health of people-the latter being the case in both the former East and West Germany. PMID:9080569

  10. Work distribution function for a Brownian particle driven by a nonconservative force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Bappa; Mukherji, Sutapa

    2015-06-01

    We derive the distribution function of work performed by a harmonic force acting on a uniformly dragged Brownian particle subjected to a rotational torque. Following the Onsager and Machlup's functional integral approach, we obtain the transition probability of finding the Brownian particle at a particular position at time t given that it started the journey from a specific location at an earlier time. The difference between the forward and the time-reversed form of the generalized Onsager-Machlup's Lagrangian is identified as the rate of medium entropy production which further helps us develop the stochastic thermodynamics formalism for our model. The probability distribution for the work done by the harmonic trap is evaluated for an equilibrium initial condition. Although this distribution has a Gaussian form, it is found that the distribution does not satisfy the conventional work fluctuation theorem.

  11. Work environment characteristics of high-quality home health agencies.

    PubMed

    Tullai-McGuinness, Susan; Riggs, Jennifer S; Farag, Amany A

    2011-10-01

    This concurrent mixed-method study examines the nurse work environment of high-quality Medicare-certified home health agencies. High-quality (n=6) and low-quality (n=6) home health agencies were recruited using agency-level publicly reported patient outcomes. Direct care registered nurses (RNs) from each agency participated in a focus group and completed the Practice Environment Scale of the Nurse Work Index (PES-NWI). No significant differences were found in the PES-NWI results between nurses working in high- and low-quality agencies, though nurses in high-quality agencies scored higher on all subscales. Nurses working in all the high-quality agencies identified themes of adequate staffing, supportive managers, and team work. These themes were not consistently identified in low-quality agencies. Themes of supportive managers and team work are reflective of effective leadership at the manager level. Agencies struggling to improve quality of care might consider developing their managers' leadership skills. PMID:20935216

  12. Future trends in health and health care: implications for social work practice in an aging society.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, William J; Davidson, Kay W

    2013-01-01

    Major economic, political, demographic, social, and operational system factors are prompting evolutionary changes in health care delivery. Of particular significance, the "graying of America" promises new challenges and opportunities for health care social work. At the same time, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, evolution of Accountable Care Organizations, and an emphasis on integrated, transdisciplinary, person-centered care represent fundamental shifts in service delivery with implications for social work practice and education. This article identifies the aging shift in American demography, its impact on health policy legislation, factors influencing fundamentally new service delivery paradigms, and opportunities of the profession to address the health disparities and care needs of an aging population. It underscores the importance of social work inclusion in integrated health care delivery and offers recommendations for practice education. PMID:24255978

  13. Health among hospital employees in Europe: a cross-national study of the impact of work stress and work control.

    PubMed

    Pisljar, Tjasa; van der Lippe, Tanja; den Dulk, Laura

    2011-03-01

    This article analyses the effect of working conditions on the health of hospital employees across Europe. Hospital employees often have demanding jobs that increase their stress levels and, consequently, their risk of health problems. Work control - typified by employee autonomy and working time flexibility - helps them cope with high levels of work stress. Researchers have traditionally studied the relationship between working conditions, coping strategies and occupational health from an individual perspective. We argue that the individual work-health relationship is closely connected with the social and institutional context. This study explores how work stress and work control influence the health of hospital employees and aims to understand cross-country differences in this respect. Using data on over 1500 hospital employees who participated in the study 'Quality of work and life in a changing Europe' (2007) in eight European countries, we used ordinal regression analyses to test a range of hypotheses. The results show that work stress has a negative effect on the health of hospital employees, while work control is not found to have any effect on their health. Comparative analyses reveal that the effects of working conditions on health vary across European countries. While working overtime is more closely related to poorer health in Eastern European countries, we found evidence of a positive relationship between job autonomy and health in Western Europe only, indicating that circumstances in the working environment have differing effects on employee health in Eastern and Western Europe. PMID:21330025

  14. Presenteeism according to healthy behaviors, physical health, and work environment.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Pope, James E; Anderson, David R; Coberley, Carter R; Whitmer, R William

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the contribution that selected demographic characteristics, health behaviors, physical health outcomes, and workplace environmental factors have on presenteeism (on-the-job productivity loss attributed to poor health and other personal issues). Analyses are based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 3 geographically diverse US companies in 2010. Work-related factors had the greatest influence on presenteeism (eg, too much to do but not enough time to do it, insufficient technological support/resources). Personal problems and financial stress/concerns also contributed substantially to presenteeism. Factors with less contribution to presenteeism included physical limitations, depression or anxiety, inadequate job training, and problems with supervisors and coworkers. Presenteeism was greatest for those ages 30-49, women, separated/divorced/widowed employees, and those with a high school degree or some college. Clerical/office workers and service workers had higher presenteeism. Managers and professionals had the highest level of presenteeism related to having too much to do but too little time to do it, and transportation workers had the greatest presenteeism because of physical health limitations. Lowering presenteeism will require that employers have realistic expectations of workers, help workers prioritize, and provide sufficient technological support. Financial stress and concerns may warrant financial planning services. Health promotion interventions aimed at improving nutrition and physical and mental health also may contribute to reducing presenteeism. PMID:22856386

  15. Audit of work force restructuring at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-23

    The Department of Energy (Department) restructured its work force at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (Fernald Project) to reduce staffing levels and to modify the mix of workers` skills in response to budget cuts, facility closures, and changes in the Fernald Project`s mission. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the work force restructurings were effective in reducing staffing levels and in changing the mix of workers` skills. As of September 30, 1995, the restructurings were not effective in reducing staffing levels or in improving the mix of workers` skills. The Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) spent $2.9 million to separate 255 employees in October 1993. However, by September 30, 1994, all but 14 of the employees separated were either rehired or replaced by new employees with similar skills. The second restructuring began in October 1994 and is not expected to be completed until May 1996. The Department expects the second restructuring to reduce FERMCO`s work force by 476 employees at a cost of $12.9 million. However, since the second restructuring began, FERMCO has hired 265 new employees and at September 30, 1995, had open job announcements seeking 82 additional employees. Many of these new employees have essentially the same skills as employees who separated under the two restructurings. The Department`s objectives were not met because the Fernald Area Office did not (1) require FERMCO to perform the skills analysis necessary to identify which employees were needed to perform the Fernald Project`s current mission, and (2) effectively monitor FERMCO`s restructuring efforts to ensure that the Department`s objectives were met.

  16. The impact of organizational changes on work stress, sleep, recovery and health.

    PubMed

    Greubel, Jana; Kecklund, Göran

    2011-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate the impact of different kinds of organizational changes, as well as anticipation of such changes, on work-related stress, sleep, recovery and health. It was hypothesized that impaired sleep and recovery increase the adverse health consequences of organizational changes. The data consisted of cross sectional questionnaire data from a random sample of 1,523 employees in the Swedish police force. It could be shown that extensive organizational changes including downsizing or a change in job tasks were associated with a small increase in work stress, disturbed sleep, incomplete recovery and health complaints. However, less extensive organizational changes like relocation did not affect these outcome variables. Anticipation of extensive organizational changes had almost the same effect as actual changes. Furthermore a moderating effect of sleep and work stress on gastrointestinal complaints and depressive symptoms was found. Thus, like former studies already suggested, extensive organizational changes resulted in increased stress levels, poorer health and impaired sleep and recovery. Furthermore, organizational instability due to anticipation of changes was as negative as actual changes. There was also some evidence that disturbed sleep increased these adverse health effects, in particular with respect to anticipation of organizational changes. PMID:21372437

  17. [Health problems in the working occupation of young people in handicraft factories].

    PubMed

    Arcangeli, G; Mucci, N

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of the work activity of young people (younger and apprentices) evolved in Italy - as in the others industrialized countries - in the last century. In the 1967 was promulgated the Law 977 (Protection of children and adolescent at work), still in force. To start the work activity, young people must be older than fifteen years and need to have ended the compulsory school. The most recent laws extend to the student the worker's rights. Many studies are conducted on the populations of apprentices - a sort of "virgin" subjects respect to work hazards - with the aim of early identify the subjects susceptible to develop, in future, illness related to work. In particular, many studies show an increased percentage in sensitization to high weight proteins, present in many working process, during the apprenticeship period. The practical stage activity, mainly necessary in the technical schools, can hide various hazards for the health of young students. The student must be followed by two different tutors, tightly collaborating together, one of the school and the other of the company where the work activity is done. The health status of the student could be evaluated before starting an hazardous work. PMID:19943447

  18. Medical downgrading, self?perception of health, and psychological symptoms in the British Armed Forces

    PubMed Central

    Rona, R J; Hooper, R; Greenberg, N; Jones, M; Wessely, S

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the contribution of psychological symptoms to limited employability for medical reasons in the British Armed Forces. Methods A sample of 4500 military personnel was randomly selected to receive either a full or an abridged questionnaire. The questionnaires asked whether the participant was medically downgraded and if yes, the reason for it. The full questionnaire included the General Health Questionnaire?12 (GHQ?12), the post?traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist, 15 symptoms to assess somatisation, and selected items of the quality of life SF?36 questionnaire. The abridged questionnaire included the GHQ?4, a 14 item PTSD checklist, five symptoms, and the item on self?perception of health from the SF?36. Subjects above a threshold score for GHQ, PTSD, and symptoms were considered to have psychological symptoms. Results 12.4% of the participants were medically downgraded. The majority (70.4%) had social or work limitations. Medically downgraded personnel had higher odds ratios in comparison to non?downgraded personnel for psychological distress 1.84 (95% CI 1.43 to 2.37), PTSD 3.06 (95% CI 1.82 to 5.15), and number of symptoms 2.37 (95% CI 2.37 1.62 to 3.47). GHQ, PTSD, and symptoms scores were mainly, but not exclusively, related to chronic physical injury. Conclusions Psychological symptoms are common among medically downgraded personnel. Although the mechanisms involved are unclear, tackling issues of psychological symptoms among these subjects could contribute to faster restitution to full employability in the Armed Forces. PMID:16556744

  19. New Forces at Work in Mining: Industry View of Critical Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D. J.; LaTourrette, Tom; Bartis, James T.

    2007-04-01

    RAND has just published a report entitled, "New Forces at Work in Mining: Industry Views of Critical Technologies," by D. J. Peterson, Tom LaTourrette, and James T. Bartis. The report presents the results of a series of in-depth discussions with leading mining industry representatives selected for their prominent position and their ability to think broadly about technology trends. The discussions highlighted the importance of collaborative technology research, development, and implementation strategies and the increasingly critical role of mine personnel in the utilization of new technologies.

  20. Social Norms about a Health Issue in Work Group Networks

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance theorizing about how small groups understand health issues through the use of social network analysis. To achieve this goal, an adapted cognitive social structure examines group social norms around a specific health issue, H1N1 flu prevention. As predicted, individual’s attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived social norms were each positively associated with behavioral intentions for at least one of the H1N1 health behaviors studied. Moreover, collective norms of the whole group were also associated with behavioral intentions, even after controlling for how individual group members perceive those norms. For members of work groups in which pairs were perceived to agree in their support for H1N1 vaccination, the effect of individually perceived group norms on behavioral intentions was stronger than for groups with less agreement. PMID:26389934

  1. Social Norms about a Health Issue in Work Group Networks.

    PubMed

    Frank, Lauren B

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance theorizing about how small groups understand health issues through the use of social network analysis. To achieve this goal, an adapted cognitive social structure examines group social norms around a specific health issue, H1N1 flu prevention. As predicted, individual's attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived social norms were each positively associated with behavioral intentions for at least one of the H1N1 health behaviors studied. Moreover, collective norms of the whole group were also associated with behavioral intentions, even after controlling for how individual group members perceive those norms. For members of work groups in which pairs were perceived to agree in their support for H1N1 vaccination, the effect of individually perceived group norms on behavioral intentions was stronger than for groups with less agreement. PMID:26389934

  2. The airport atmospheric environment: respiratory health at work.

    PubMed

    Touri, Léa; Marchetti, Hélène; Sari-Minodier, Irène; Molinari, Nicolas; Chanez, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Air traffic is increasing, raising concern about local pollution and its adverse health effects on the people living in the vicinity of large airports. However, the highest risk is probably occupational exposure due to proximity. Jet exhaust is one of the main concerns at an airport and may have a health impact, particularly on the respiratory tract. Current studies are neither numerous enough nor strong enough to prove this kind of association. Yet, more and more people work in airports, and occupational exposure to jet exhaust is a fact. The aim of this review was to evaluate the existing knowledge regarding the impact of airport pollution on respiratory health. We conducted systematic literature searches to examine workplace exposures. PMID:23728866

  3. [Global changes and trends in work safety and health].

    PubMed

    Pinnagoda, C

    1996-01-01

    A description is given of the occupational health and safety problems which are common to workers all over the world, where these must be tackled with a view to achieving coherent and ongoing occupational safety for workers in their jobs. Occupational safety and health will continue to be priorities in international collaboration. Although the nature of the problems and solutions vary as a function of real priorities and needs, it is necessary to place greater emphasis on the application of overall activities concerning safety and health so that measures can be made and policies taken whose development is sustainable. International standards must be turned into actions on a national and company level with the active participation of social workers. The tripartite consensus will continue to be necessary for drawing up plans of action adapted to local situations, with a view to introducing improvements in work centres. PMID:8998697

  4. Physiological responses to low-force work and psychosocial stress in women with chronic trapezius myalgia

    PubMed Central

    Sjörs, Anna; Larsson, Britt; Dahlman, Joakim; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Gerdle, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Background Repetitive and stressful work tasks have been linked to the development of pain in the trapezius muscle, although the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. In earlier studies, it has been hypothesized that chronic muscle pain conditions are associated with imbalance in the autonomic nervous system, predominantly expressed as an increased sympathetic activity. This study investigates whether women with chronic trapezius myalgia show higher muscle activity and increased sympathetic tone at baseline and during repetitive low-force work and psychosocial stress, compared with pain-free controls. Methods Eighteen women with chronic trapezius myalgia (MYA) and 30 healthy female controls (CON) were studied during baseline rest, 100 min of repetitive low-force work, 20 min of psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST), and 80 min recovery. The subjects rated their pain intensity, stress and energy level every 20 min throughout the experiment. Muscle activity was measured by surface electromyography in the trapezius muscle (EMGtrap) and deltoid muscle (EMGdelt). Autonomic reactivity was measured through heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SCL), blood pressure (MAP) and respiration rate (Resp). Results At baseline, EMGtrap, stress ratings, and HR were higher in MYA than in CON. Energy ratings, EMGdelt, SCL, MAP and Resp were, however, similar in the two groups. Significant main group effects were found for pain intensity, stress ratings and EMGtrap. Deltoid muscle activity and autonomic responses were almost identical in MYA and CON during work, stress and recovery. In MYA only, pain intensity and stress ratings increased towards the end of the repetitive work. Conclusion We found increased muscle activity during uninstructed rest in the painful muscle of a group of women with trapezius myalgia. The present study could not confirm the hypothesis that chronic trapezius myalgia is associated with increased sympathetic activity. The suggestion of autonomic imbalance in patients with chronic local or regional musculoskeletal pain needs to be further investigated. PMID:19500420

  5. [NIGHT SHIFT WORK AND HEALTH DISORDER RISK IN FEMALE WORKERS].

    PubMed

    Kukhtina, E G; Solionova, L G; Fedichkina, T P; Zykova, I E

    2015-01-01

    There was evaluated the risk to health in females employed in shift work, including night shifts. According to the data of periodical medical examinations health indices of 403 females employed in shift work, including night shifts, were compared with indices of 205 females--workers of administrative units of the same enterprise. Overall relative risk (RR) for the health disorder associated with the night shift was 1.2 (95%; confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.28). A statistically significant increase in risk was observed in relation to uterine fibroids (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.06-1.54), mastopathy (OR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), inorganic sleep disorders (OR 8.8; 95% CI 2.6-29.8). At the boundary of the statistical significance there was the increase in the risk for obesity (OR 1.2; 95% C: 0.97-1.39), hypertension (OR 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9-1.5) and endometriosis (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 0.98-2.16). There was revealed an adverse effect of night shifts on the gestation course: ectopic pregnancy in the experimental group occurred 6.6 times more frequently than in the control group (95% CI: 0.87-50.2), and spontaneous abortion--1.7 times (95% CI: 0.95-3.22). The performed study has once again confirmed the negative impact of smoking on women's reproductive health: smoking women in the experimental group compared with the control group smokers had 2.7 times increased risk of uterine fibroids (within 1.06-7.0), the risk in non-smokers was significantly lower--1.2 (0.98-1.4). The findings suggest about a wide range of health problems related to employment on shift work, including night shifts, which indicates to the need for adoption of regulatory and preventive measures aimed to this professional group. PMID:26625625

  6. The importance of work organization on workload and musculoskeletal health - Grocery store work as a model.

    PubMed

    Balogh, I; Ohlsson, K; Nordander, C; Björk, J; Hansson, G-Å

    2016-03-01

    We have evaluated the consequences of work organization on musculoskeletal health. Using a postal questionnaire, answered by 1600 female grocery store workers, their main work tasks were identified and four work groups were defined (cashier, picking, and delicatessen work, and a mixed group, who performed a mix of these tasks). The crude odds ratios (ORs) for neck/shoulder complaints were 1.5 (95% CI 1.0-2.2), 1.1 (0.7-1.5) and 1.6 (1.1-2.3), respectively, compared to mixed work. Adjusting for individual and psychosocial factors had no effect on these ORs. For elbows/hands, no significant differences were found. Technical measurements of the workload showed large differences between the work groups. Picking work was the most strenuous, while cashier work showed low loads. Quantitative measures of variation revealed for mixed work high between minutes variation and the highest between/within minutes variation. Combining work tasks with different physical exposure levels increases the variation and may reduce the risk of musculoskeletal complaints. PMID:26464034

  7. Discrimination, work and health in immigrant populations in Spain.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Gil-González, Diana; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria; Paramio-Pérez, Gema; García, Ana M; Garí, Aitana

    2009-05-01

    One of the most important social phenomena in the global context is the flow of immigration from developing countries, motivated by economic and employment related issues. Discrimination can be approached as a health risk factor within the immigrant population's working environment, especially for those immigrants at greater risk from social exclusion and marginalisation. The aim of this study is to research perceptions of discrimination and the specific relationship between discrimination in the workplace and health among Spain's immigrant population. A qualitative study was performed by means of 84 interviews and 12 focus groups held with immigrant workers in five cities in Spain receiving a large influx of immigrants (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Alicante and Huelva), covering representative immigrant communities in Spain (Romanians, Moroccans, Ecuadorians, Colombians and Sub-Saharan Africans). Discourse narrative content analysis was performed using pre-established categories and gradually incorporating other emerging categories from the immigrant interviewees themselves. The participants reported instances of discrimination in their community and working life, characterised by experiences of racism, mistreatment and precarious working conditions in comparison to the Spanish-born population. They also talked about limitations in terms of accessible occupations (mainly construction, the hotel and restaurant trade, domestic service and agriculture), and described major difficulties accessing other types of work (for example public administration). They also identified political and legal structural barriers related with social institutions. Experiences of discrimination can affect their mental health and are decisive factors regarding access to healthcare services. Our results suggest the need to adopt integration policies in both the countries of origin and the host country, to acknowledge labour and social rights, and to conduct further research into individual and social factors that affect the health of the immigrant populations. PMID:19328608

  8. Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    MacQueen, D H

    2007-02-21

    On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: {sm_bullet} reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors, {sm_bullet} minimize the levels of, and potential for, expos exposure to beryllium, and {sm_bullet} establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease.

  9. Improving housing, improving health: the need for collaborative working.

    PubMed

    Allen, Terry

    2006-04-01

    The impact of poor housing on health was recognized 150 years ago, and doing something about it was the first real public health initiative. Today, standards in much of the older housing stock continue to fall and, exacerbated by the current free market boom in fuel costs, many people cannot afford to heat or maintain their homes. In response to this crisis, there is an increasing amount of housing help available which would directly improve the health of patients but, apart from pockets of exemplary practice, most health practitioners seem to do little about it. Yet housing issues feature prominently in nurse training, as well as receiving increasing emphasis through the current national and regional fuel poverty initiatives. In exploring this paradox the author examines the mixed fortunes of an innovative project which tried to stimulate collaborative working between professions by providing a successful combined health and housing intervention. Drawing on his evaluation of this project over five years, he considers what some of the barriers to collaboration might be, how they arise and what needs to be done to overcome them. PMID:16723906

  10. An America that Works: The Life-Cycle Approach to a Competitive Work Force. A Statement by the Research and Policy Committee of the Committee for Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, New York, NY. Research and Policy Committee.

    A comprehensive life-cycle framework is offered for examining demographic changes and the world of work. This document establishes connections among the social and economic issues that relate to demographic change and priorities. The document also identifies the changes taking place in the work force, the problems of poor basic education and work…

  11. Aviation safety. Serious problems concerning the Air Traffic Control work force

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    This report provides the results of an extensive study of the air traffic control work force and includes conclusions and recommendations. The report shows that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not met its goals for fully qualified (FPL) controllers at many major facilities, and that the growth in air traffic activity as caused controller work load to reach a point where controllers are stretched too thin. Controllers and their supervisors have expressed serious concerns about their ability to continue to maintain the proper margin of safety. We recommend that FAA impose restrictions on air traffic until both the number of FPL controllers and overtime requirements meet FAA's goals. Problems relating to both the number of FPLs and overtime are most acute at the air route traffic control centers and FAA must recognize this in deciding what restrictions to impose.

  12. [Man and work: a compatible system? Problems of health and disease associated with work].

    PubMed

    Cesana, G

    1998-01-01

    Man and work: a compatible system? Problems of health and disease associated with work. Here, a short review of the main characteristics of the modern work organisation and of its influences on worker's health is reported. In spite of the great improvement that has occurred in the environment and in the relationships between employers and employees, many conflicts and tensions are still present, about ecological, insurance and economical problems, often on an international ground. In addition work organisation is mostly perceived as unable to satisfy personal needs, attitudes and values. That is true even in industrialised countries, where 60-70% of active population is engaged in office job. While the expansion of tertiary sector has greatly contributed to the decrease of occupational diseases, sick leave, due to non-specific symptoms and complaints related to prevalent chronic degenerative diseases, has increased. The frequently observed relationship between such disorders, mostly with a strong phycophysiological component, has produced the designation of "job related diseases". Tackling these together with the traditional occupational health problems implies a revision of methods and contents of occupational medicine and its connection with related preventive and clinical disciplines. The international debate on the issue may offer useful suggestions for the Italian situation. PMID:9788057

  13. “Whistle While You Work”: A Historical Account of Some Associations Among Music, Work, and Health

    PubMed Central

    le Roux, Gordon Marc

    2005-01-01

    Music has long been a uniting force among workers. Music can improve team spirit and provide an enjoyable diversion, but it is most useful in expressing the true feelings of a sometimes desperate community. Over time, a variety of musical media have emerged to match the prevailing conditions at work: the folk songs of 19th-century handloom weavers, the songs of industrial Britain’s trade union members, the workers’ radio programs of the 1940s. Associations have arisen to encourage and coordinate musical activities among workers, and public awareness of the hazards of some occupations has been promoted through music. PMID:15961754

  14. [Preventing mental health problems linked to work: a new public health challenge].

    PubMed

    Vézina, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the workplace environment has undergone profound changes that have been shown to be related to the development of mental health problems. Theoretical models have been developed and validated in order to identify specific psychosocial dimensions of the work environment which represent an occupational health risk. They are the "demand-autonomy-support" model and the "effort-reward imbalance" model. In addition to reducing the complexity of the psychosocial reality of work to a set of significant elements in terms of health risks, these models facilitate the development and implementation of effective organisational interventions in the workplace setting. Four theory-grounded and empirically supported adverse psychosocial occupational risk factors have been identified: high psychological demands, low scope for decision-making, low social support, and low reward. From a public health perspective, the implementation of preventive measures and reduction of psychosocial risk factors at work have been shown to be feasible and effective interventions. PMID:18773836

  15. Maternity rights, work, and health in France and Italy.

    PubMed

    Romito, Patrizia; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on the principles and the implementation of maternity rights (MR) in France and Italy. Results show that MR are well established in both countries, where about 80% of women employed during pregnancy were back to work 1 year after childbirth. Nevertheless, social inequalities were found. Less-educated women and those who had manual jobs or worked in small firms in the private sector or off-the-books were less likely to take an extended leave and to return to work. Despite differences in child care provisions, quality and accessibility of child care were common concerns for both French and Italian mothers. Employment was not related to any health problem in Italy 1 year after birth; in France, unemployed new mothers had high rates of psychological distress. Financial worries and marital problems were associated with several health problems in both countries. In conclusion, combining work and motherhood is possible in these 2 countries without too many costs for women, at least for the more privileged among them. However, this relative ease could vanish if social and economic conditions changed for the worse. PMID:11905492

  16. [Work-site health promotion in Germany. Results of the IAB--establishment panel 2002 and 2004].

    PubMed

    Hollederer, A

    2007-02-01

    According to the answers of employers to the representative IAB establishment panel 2004, one-fifth of the companies in Germany voluntarily carried out or financially supported measures for the protection or promotion of the health and well-being of their work force. The proportion of health-promoting companies was above average in all East German federal states as well as in Bavaria, in Saarland and in Lower Saxony. North Rhine-Westphalia was precisely average. In East Germany, almost one-fourth and in West Germany just under one-fifth of all companies surveyed carry out health-promoting measures.Work-site health promotion varies considerably depending on the corresponding federal states, industrial branches and company sizes. Work-site health promotion has ,up to now, been concentrated in big companies and groups. An under-representation of work-site health promotion is observed above all in small and very small companies and particularly in the catering trade. Work-site health promotion was principally determined by analyses of sickness leaves and surveys on health protection in the work place which were mentioned in about 9% and 8% of the companies interviewed. 6% of the companies provided courses on health-relevant ways of behaviour. About 4% of the companies maintain health circles and 5% realised other health promoting measures. Further correlation analyses reveal that in companies with a workers council/staff council, work-site health promotion was significantly much more common. This correlation is especially strong in small and medium-size companies. The longitudinal analysis of the IAB establishment panel 2002 and 2004 reveals much dynamism in work-site health promotion. On the one hand, half of the companies involved in work-site health promotion in 2002 had stopped their commitment to work-site health promotion by 2004. Sustainability remains one of the biggest challenges in work-site health promotion. On the other hand, a bit more than one tenth of the repeatedly interviewed companies started health-promoting activities in 2004. According to the longitudinal data set, altogether 29% of the companies were reached by work-site health promotion measures (for the years 2002 and 2004). PMID:17405078

  17. Work-Related Health Disorders among Saudi Computer Users

    PubMed Central

    Jomoah, Ibrahim M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and eye and vision complaints among the computer users of King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabian Airlines (SAUDIA), and Saudi Telecom Company (STC). Stratified random samples of the work stations and operators at each of the studied institutions were selected and the ergonomics of the work stations were assessed and the operators' health complaints were investigated. The average ergonomic score of the studied work station at STC, KAU, and SAUDIA was 81.5%, 73.3%, and 70.3, respectively. Most of the examined operators use computers daily for ? 7 hours, yet they had some average incidences of general complaints (e.g., headache, body fatigue, and lack of concentration) and relatively high level of incidences of eye and vision complaints and musculoskeletal complaints. The incidences of the complaints have been found to increase with the (a) decrease in work station ergonomic score, (b) progress of age and duration of employment, (c) smoking, (d) use of computers, (e) lack of work satisfaction, and (f) history of operators' previous ailments. It has been recommended to improve the ergonomics of the work stations, set up training programs, and conduct preplacement and periodical examinations for operators. PMID:25383379

  18. Combining quantitative and qualitative approaches in occupational health for a better understanding of the impact of work-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Mergler, D

    1999-01-01

    Over the past years, the work situation has experienced important transformations, notably, the technological revolution and globalization, the influx of women into the labor market, an increased dependence on chemical substances, and a transfer of production and many hazardous procedures from North to South. These changes have important repercussions on the nature and type of occupational exposures, as well as on the labor force, affecting the relation between work and health. While quantitative studies have dominated occupational health research over the past half century, qualitative methods can serve to ground quantitative data with regard to defining the research questions, providing further information on the impact of work conditions on health and well-being, and reducing errors in exposure and health outcomes. Combining qualitative and quantitative methods in a complementary fashion can lead to a better understanding of the rapidly changing work environment and labor situation and a means for developing appropriate strategies for preventive intervention. PMID:10628442

  19. Personal and workgroup incivility: impact on work and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sandy; Cortina, Lilia M; Magley, Vicki J

    2008-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical model of the impact of workplace incivility on employees' occupational and psychological well-being. In Study 1, the authors tested the model on 1,158 employees, finding that satisfaction with work and supervisors, as well as mental health, partially mediated effects of personal incivility on turnover intentions and physical health; this process did not vary by gender. Study 2 cross-validated and extended these results on an independent sample of 271 employees, showing negative effects of workgroup incivility that emerged over and above the impact of personal incivility. In both studies, all results held while controlling for general job stress. Implications for organizational science and practice are discussed. PMID:18211138

  20. The underdevelopment of health of working America: causes, consequences and possible solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, V

    1976-01-01

    This article presents the health conditions of working America, and provides an analysis of the causes of that situation. It is postulated that the main health problems in the U.S. are due not to prevalent life styles-as the behavioralists indicate-but to the dramatic maldistribution of economic and political power in our society, with the absence of control by the majority of the U.S. population-the working and lower-middle classes-over the work process with which they are involved, the economic wealth that they produce, and the political institutions that they pay for. The production of goods and wealth as well as the political institutions of the United States are dominated and controlled by a minority of our population-the corporate and upper-middle classes. Empirical information is presented to support this postulate. In light of this explanation, it is asserted that a major public health task is to deliberately and actively contribute to the political mobilization of forces aimed at bringing about profound changes in the pattern of control of our working insitutions and of the distribution of wealth and political power, changes which seek to shift that control from the few to the many. PMID:937599

  1. Working in Australia's heat: health promotion concerns for health and productivity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhvir; Hanna, Elizabeth G; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2015-06-01

    This exploratory study describes the experiences arising from exposure to extreme summer heat, and the related health protection and promotion issues for working people in Australia. Twenty key informants representing different industry types and occupational groups or activities in Australia provided semi-structured interviews concerning: (i) perceptions of workplace heat exposure in the industry they represented, (ii) reported impacts on health and productivity, as well as (iii) actions taken to reduce exposure or effects of environmental heat exposure. All interviewees reported that excessive heat exposure presents a significant challenge for their industry or activity. People working in physically demanding jobs in temperatures>35°C frequently develop symptoms, and working beyond heat tolerance is common. To avoid potentially dangerous health impacts they must either slow down or change their work habits. Such health-preserving actions result in lost work capacity. Approximately one-third of baseline work productivity can be lost in physically demanding jobs when working at 40°C. Employers and workers consider that heat exposure is a 'natural hazard' in Australia that cannot easily be avoided and so must be accommodated or managed. Among participants in this study, the locus of responsibility for coping with heat lay with the individual, rather than the employer. Heat exposure during Australian summers commonly results in adverse health effects and productivity losses, although quantification studies are lacking. Lack of understanding of the hazardous nature of heat exposure exacerbates the serious risk of heat stress, as entrenched attitudinal barriers hamper amelioration or effective management of this increasing occupational health threat. Educational programmes and workplace heat guidelines are required. Without intervention, climate change in hot countries, such as Australia, can be expected to further exacerbate heat-related burden of disease and loss of productivity in many jobs. In light of projected continued global warming, and associated increase in heat waves, more attention needs to be given to environmental heat as a human health hazard in the Occupational Health and Safety arena. Without adoption of effective heat protective strategies economic output and fitness levels will diminish. Health protection and promotion activities should include strategies to reduce heat exposure, limit exposure duration, ensure access to hydration, and promote acclimatization and fitness programmes, and reorientate attitudes towards working in the heat. PMID:23690144

  2. Spanning the Chasm: Corporate and Academic Cooperation To Improve Work-Force Preparation. Task Force on High-Performance Work and Workers: The Academic Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business-Higher Education Forum, Washington, DC.

    This study, conducted by a task force that interviewed corporate and campus officials at 10 corporations and 12 universities and colleges during 1994-96, examined how well undergraduate, graduate, and professional students in the United States are being prepared to meet the demands of the modern high-performance workplace. The study found…

  3. Uranium mining and milling work force characteristics in the western US

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, D.A.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the socioeconomic characteristics associated with 11 uranium mine and mill operations in 5 Western States. Comparisons are made with the socioeconomic characteristics of construction and operating crews for coal mines and utility plants in eight Western States. Worker productivity also is compared with that in similar types of coal and uranium mining operations. We found that there existed no significant differences between the socioeconomic characteristics of construction and operating crews and the secondary employment impacts associated with uranium mines and mills when compared with those associated with coal mines and utility plants requiring similar skills at comparable locations. In addition, our survey includes a comparison of several characteristics associated with the households of basic and nonbasic work forces and concludes that significant changes have occurred in the last 5 yr. Accordingly, we recommend additional monitoring and updating of data used in several economic forecasting models to avoid unwarranted delays in achieving national energy goals.

  4. Health and sexual outcomes of women who have experienced forced or coercive sex.

    PubMed

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has linked women's history of experiencing sexual assault with negative health outcomes; however, much of this research is over a decade old. Furthermore, little research has examined the relationship between sexual assault and women's sexuality. In the current study the authors aimed to assess the relation of experiencing sexual assault to women's health and sexuality and the relation of repeat victimization by multiple different perpetrators to such outcomes. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 2,915 women using an online questionnaire. Nearly half (n = 1,394, 47.8%) indicated having experienced forced or coercive sex. Women who had experienced forced or coercive sex were more likely to report negative health outcomes (Adj. OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.35-1.82, p < .001) and some negative sexual outcomes compared to women without a history of forced or coercive sex. Similarly, women who experienced repeat victimizations by multiple different perpetrators were even more likely to report negative health outcomes (Adj. OR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.28-1.59, p < .001) as well as some negative sexual outcomes. Healthcare providers should be aware of the relation of sexual assault to health and sexuality and continue to address health and sexuality issues associated with sexual assault for their patients. PMID:22458288

  5. Do stigma and other perceived barriers to mental health care differ across Armed Forces?

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Matthew; Adler, Amy; Zamorski, Mark; Castro, Carl; Hanily, Natalie; Steele, Nicole; Kearney, Steve; Greenberg, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objectives Military organizations are keen to address barriers to mental health care yet stigma and barriers to care remain little understood, especially potential cultural differences between Armed Forces. The aim of this study was to compare data collected by the US, UK, Australian, New Zealand and Canadian militaries using Hoge et al.'s perceived stigma and barriers to care measure (Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems and barriers to care. New Engl J Med 2004;351:13–22). Design Each member country identified data sources that had enquired about Hoge et al.'s perceived stigma and perceived barriers to care items in the re-deployment or immediate post-deployment period. Five relevant statements were included in the study. Setting US, UK Australian, New Zealand and Canadian Armed Forces. Results Concerns about stigma and barriers to care tended to be more prominent among personnel who met criteria for a mental health problem. The pattern of reported stigma and barriers to care was similar across the Armed Forces of all five nations. Conclusions Barriers to care continue to be a major issue for service personnel within Western military forces. Although there are policy, procedural and cultural differences between Armed Forces, the nations studied appear to share some similarities in terms of perceived stigma and barriers to psychological care. Further research to understand patterns of reporting and subgroup differences is required. PMID:20382906

  6. Promoting Positive Emotional Health of Children of Transient Armed Forces Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eodanable, Miranda; Lauchlan, Fraser

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this research was to promote emotional health in a small primary school (n = 180), with a highly transient pupil population of armed forces children (Service children). Negative effects of pupil mobility have been found to relate to academic attainment (Dobson, Henthorne, & Lynas, 2000; Mott, 2002), but its effect on social and…

  7. Promoting Positive Emotional Health of Children of Transient Armed Forces Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eodanable, Miranda; Lauchlan, Fraser

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this research was to promote emotional health in a small primary school (n = 180), with a highly transient pupil population of armed forces children (Service children). Negative effects of pupil mobility have been found to relate to academic attainment (Dobson, Henthorne, & Lynas, 2000; Mott, 2002), but its effect on social and…

  8. Health status of Air Force veterans occupationally exposed to herbicides in Vietnam: II. Mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Michalek, J.E.; Wolfe, W.H.; Miner, J.C. )

    1990-10-10

    The Air Force Health Study is a 20-year comprehensive assessment of the current health of Air Force veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam. This report compares the noncombat mortality of 1261 Ranch Hand veterans to that of a comparison population of 19,101 other Air Force veterans primarily involved in cargo missions in Southeast Asia but who were not exposed to herbicides. The indirectly standardized all-cause death rate among Ranch Hands is 2.5 deaths per 1,000 person-years, the same as that among comparison subjects. After adjustment for age, rank, and occupation, the all-cause standardized mortality ratio was 1.0. In adjusted cause-specific analyses, the authors found no significant group differences regarding accidental, malignant neoplasm, and circulatory deaths. These data are not supportive to a hypothesis of increases mortality among Ranch Hands.

  9. [Burden of COPD on health profiles in different work activities].

    PubMed

    Boggia, B; Napolano, F; Cavaliere, L; Farina, A; Ferrucci, R; Visciglio, L; Carbone, U

    2007-01-01

    According to WHO, COPD will be the 5th cause of disability and the 3rd cause of mortality by 2020. Even cigarette smoking represents the main cause of COPD recent studies demonstrated positive association with occupational exposure. In Europe costs of COPD were estimated at about 38,8 billion Euros in 2000; its burden is also expected to increase. Aim of the study is to evaluate the burden of COPD on health profiles in a sample of workers of Campania region. Prevalences were calculated in a sample of 908 male workers, employed in industrial (479) and tertiary (429) sectors. Results were compared with population data of ISTAT database. Higher prevalence of COPD was found in industrial workers (23.4%) than general population (3.5%) and tertiary workers (2.1%). Analysing smoking habits, higher prevalence of smokers in the industrial sector (75.9%) than tertiary (66.4%) was found, but this difference cannot explain the big difference of COPD prevalence between the two groups and suggest a positive interaction between smoking and occupational exposure. In conclusion, the results analysis underlines the burden of COPD on workers' health status, particularly in some work activities. Specific health promotion programs are necessary in these activities. PMID:18409988

  10. In search of the 'problem family': public health and social work in England and Wales 1940-70.

    PubMed

    Welshman, J

    1996-12-01

    Recent attempts to explain the decline of public health in England and Wales after 1948 have suggested that services had developed steadily but haphazardly in the interwar period, and that the lack of an underlying philosophy left Medical Officers of Health and their empires vulnerable to a range of forces that included the decline of infectious disease, the rise of hospital medicine, the growth of general practice, and the increasing professionalism of social work. Yet the argument that public health practitioners lagged behind contemporary thinking on social work in the 1950s deserves closer examination, and this article uses the rise and decline of the concept of the 'problem family' to examine the changing relationship between the two professional groups. It traces the emergence of the concept of the 'social problem group' in the 1930s, and considers why and how Medical Officers of Health and the Eugenics Society took up the idea of the 'problem family' after the Second world War. It charts how the Ministry of Health encouraged local authorities to use home helps and health visitors to tackle the 'problem family', and contrasts this medical approach with the casework methods developed by voluntary organizations and subsequently adopted by the social work profession. The article concludes that in revealing how Medical Officers of Health were out of touch with contemporary research and practice in social work, the issue of the 'problem family' helps to explain the decline of public health under the early National Health Service. PMID:11618731

  11. Mental Health of Elementary Schoolteachers in Southern Brazil: Working Conditions and Health Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz

    2015-01-01

    The mental health of educators is a growing problem in many countries. This study sought to identify self-reported stressful working conditions of elementary schoolteachers and the biopsychosocial consequences of those working conditions and then identify working conditions that promote well-being for teachers in the workplace. Exploratory study was done with 37 teachers. Data collection was performed using a structured interview with a questionnaire. Results show that stressful working conditions are related to inadequate salary, an excessive number of activities, and having to take work home. Biopsychosocial consequences include anxiety, stress, and sleep disorders. There was a statistically significant association between inadequate salary and anxiety (p = 0.01) and between an excessive number of activities and stress (p = 0.01). Teachers reported that a good relationship among colleagues is a working condition that promotes well-being in the workplace. The identification of stressful working conditions for teachers, the biopsychosocial consequences, and working conditions that promote well-being in the workplace are relevant to determining actions that improve the work environment and, consequently, the health of teachers. PMID:26366433

  12. Partnerships for better mental health worldwide: WPA recommendations on best practices in working with service users and family carers.

    PubMed

    Wallcraft, Jan; Amering, Michaela; Freidin, Julian; Davar, Bhargavi; Froggatt, Diane; Jafri, Hussain; Javed, Afzal; Katontoka, Sylvester; Raja, Shoba; Rataemane, Solomon; Steffen, Sigrid; Tyano, Sam; Underhill, Christopher; Wahlberg, Henrik; Warner, Richard; Herrman, Helen

    2011-10-01

    WPA President M. Maj established the Task Force on Best Practice in Working with Service Users and Carers in 2008, chaired by H. Herrman. The Task Force had the remit to create recommendations for the international mental health community on how to develop successful partnership working. The work began with a review of literature on service user and carer involvement and partnership. This set out a range of considerations for good practice, including choice of appropriate terminology, clarifying the partnership process and identifying and reducing barriers to partnership working. Based on the literature review and on the shared knowledge in the Task Force, a set of ten recommendations for good practice was developed. These recommendations were the basis for a worldwide consultation of stakeholders with expertise as service users, families and carers, and the WPA Board and Council. The results showed a strong consensus across the international mental health community on the ten recommendations, with the strongest agreement coming from service users and carers. This general consensus gives a basis for Task Force plans to seek support for activities to promote shared work worldwide to identify best practice examples and create a resource to assist others to begin successful collaboration. PMID:21991284

  13. Partnerships for better mental health worldwide: WPA recommendations on best practices in working with service users and family carers

    PubMed Central

    WALLCRAFT, JAN; AMERING, MICHAELA; FREIDIN, JULIAN; DAVAR, BHARGAVI; FROGGATT, DIANE; JAFRI, HUSSAIN; JAVED, AFZAL; KATONTOKA, SYLVESTER; RAJA, SHOBA; RATAEMANE, SOLOMON; STEFFEN, SIGRID; TYANO, SAM; UNDERHILL, CHRISTPHER; WAHLBERG, HENRIK; WARNER, RICHARD; HERRMAN, HELEN

    2011-01-01

    WPA President M. Maj established the Task Force on Best Practice in Working with Service Users and Carers in 2008, chaired by H. Herrman. The Task Force had the remit to create recommendations for the international mental health community on how to develop successful partnership working. The work began with a review of literature on service user and carer involvement and partnership. This set out a range of considerations for good practice, including choice of appropriate terminology, clarifying the partnership process and identifying and reducing barriers to partnership working. Based on the literature review and on the shared knowledge in the Task Force, a set of ten recommendations for good practice was developed. These recommendations were the basis for a worldwide consultation of stakeholders with expertise as service users, families and carers, and the WPA Board and Council. The results showed a strong consensus across the international mental health community on the ten recommendations, with the strongest agreement coming from service users and carers. This general consensus gives a basis for Task Force plans to seek support for activities to promote shared work worldwide to identify best practice examples and create a resource to assist others to begin successful collaboration. PMID:21991284

  14. Health and Turnover of Working Mothers After Childbirth Via the Work–Family Interface: An Analysis Across Time

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Dawn S.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Ferguson, Merideth; Hunter, Emily M.; Clinch, C. Randall; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined organizational levers that impact work–family experiences, participant health, and subsequent turnover. Using a sample of 179 women returning to full-time work 4 months after childbirth, we examined the associations of 3 job resources (job security, skill discretion, and schedule control) with work-to-family enrichment and the associations of 2 job demands (psychological requirements and nonstandard work schedules) with work-to-family conflict. Further, we considered subsequent impact of work-to-family conflict and enrichment on women’s health (physical and mental health) 8 months after women returned to work and the impact of health on voluntary turnover 12 months after women returned to work. Having a nonstandard work schedule was directly and positively related to conflict, whereas schedule control buffered the effect of psychological requirements on conflict. Skill discretion and job security, both job resources, directly and positively related to enrichment. Work-to-family conflict was negatively related to both physical and mental health, but work-to-family enrichment positively predicted only physical health. Physical health and mental health both negatively influenced turnover. We discuss implications and opportunities for future research. PMID:21604833

  15. From task force to statute: establishing health sciences libraries in state law as a component of the health care system.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, M C

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes how Montana librarians successfully incorporated health sciences libraries into the statewide health care resource management plan being developed under 1993 state law. First, a broad-based Montana Task Force for Biomedical Information was formed with funds from the National Network of Libraries of Medicine/Pacific Northwest Region and the Montana Area Health Education Center. The resulting report reviewed findings from national studies and trends to current state developments and deficiencies. The report was presented to the governor and state legislators in the context of cost-containment measures being considered in the state's health care reform bill. Now Montana law provides that "it is further the policy of the state of Montana that the health care system should ... facilitate universal access to current health sciences information," and "The management plan must include ... identification of the current supply and distribution of ... health sciences library resources and services." This experience highlights the need for health sciences librarians to develop skills in advocacy, lobbying, and networking with other components of the health care industry. PMID:8547901

  16. Exploring core competencies for mental health and addictions work within a Family Health Team setting.

    PubMed

    Rush, Brian; McPherson-Doe, Catherine; Behrooz, Reneé C; Cudmore, Alan

    2013-06-01

    Approximately 200 Family Health Teams (FHTs) have been implemented in Ontario to improve access to primary healthcare, including mental health and addiction. The objectives of this project were to examine, through a focus group and qualitative methodology with three FHTs, the profile of patients' mental health and addiction-related needs and to identify the implications for the development of core competencies in these innovative organisations. A spectrum of needs and service trajectories was identified, as well as the importance of a wide range of clinical skills and knowledge. The results indicate that 'core' competencies for mental health work in the context of an FHT go well beyond those required for an embedded mental health 'programme' or specialised mental health counsellors, but rather they relate to the core and discipline-specific competencies of members of the entire team. In addition to specific knowledge and skills, competencies include common attitudes and values relating to teamwork, good communication and collaboration. Challenges were noted with regard to working with some community service providers, especially addiction services. Implications for core competencies at the individual and organisational level were identified. PMID:24427175

  17. Do body weight and gender shape the work force? The case of Iceland.

    PubMed

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey

    2011-03-01

    Most studies of the relationship between body weight - as well as its corollary, beauty - and labor-market outcomes have indicated that it is a function of a gender bias, the negative relationship between excess weight or obesity and labor-market outcomes being greater for women than for men. Iceland offers an exceptional opportunity to examine this hypothesis, given that it scores relatively well on an index of gender equality comprising economic, political, educational, labor-market, and health-based criteria. Equipped with an advanced level of educational attainment, on average, women are well represented in Iceland's labor force. When it comes to women's presence in the political sphere, Iceland is out of the ordinary as well; that Icelanders were the first in the world to elect a woman to be president may suggest a relatively gender-blind assessment in the labor market. In the current study, survey data collected by Gallup Iceland in 2002 are used to examine the relationship between weight and employment within this political and social setting. Point estimates indicate that, despite apparently lesser gender discrimination in Iceland than elsewhere, the bias against excess weight and obesity remains gender-based, showing a slightly negative relationship between weight and the employment rate of women, whereas a slightly positive relationship was found for men. PMID:21196135

  18. Health status of people with work-related musculoskeletal disorders in return to work programs: a Malaysian study.

    PubMed

    Murad, Mohd Suleiman; O'Brien, Lisa; Farnworth, Louise; Chien, Chi-Wen

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the health status of injured workers with musculoskeletal disorders enrolled in the Malaysian Return to Work (RTW) program. The 102 participants were categorized into three RTW groups: Off-work (n = 30, 29.4%), Re-entry (n = 44, 43.1%), and Maintenance (n = 28, 27.5%). Overall health status, as measured by the SF-36 version 2, of the workers exhibited below average compared to the internationally established normative population, with their physical health component summary rated lower than mental health. Across the different groups, significant differences were found in role-physical, vitality, bodily pain, general health, and mental health. However, the mean values of these variables were higher in the Maintenance group and were found significant. The current health status of injured workers at Off-work and Re-entry phases was significantly low and warranted to be improved by involving other health professionals such as occupational therapists, ergonomists, and psychologists. PMID:23855610

  19. ‘The dangers attending these conditions are evident’: Public Health and the Working Environment of Lancashire Textile Communities, c.1870–1939

    PubMed Central

    Greenlees, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the position of the working environment within public health priorities and as a contributor to the health of a community. Using two Lancashire textile towns (Burnley and Blackburn) as case studies and drawing on a variety of sources, it highlights how, while legislation set the industry parameters for legal enforcement of working conditions, local public health priorities were pivotal in setting codes of practice. The complexities entwined with identifying the working environment as a cause of ill health and with improving it were entangled within the local community health context. In addition, the multiple understandings of Medical Officers of Health surrounding the remit of their responsibilities impacted the local health context. These did not always parallel national regulations. Indeed, it was these local, community specific forces that set the public health agenda, determined its path and the place of the working environment within this. PMID:24771979

  20. The health and cost implications of high body mass index in Australian defence force personnel

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Frequent illness and injury among workers with high body mass index (BMI) can raise the costs of employee healthcare and reduce workforce maintenance and productivity. These issues are particularly important in vocational settings such as the military, which require good physical health, regular attendance and teamwork to operate efficiently. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of injury and illness, absenteeism, productivity, healthcare usage and administrative outcomes among Australian Defence Force personnel with varying BMI. Methods Personnel were grouped into cohorts according to the following ranges for (BMI): normal (18.5???24.9?kg/m2; n?=?197), overweight (25–29.9?kg/m2; n?=?154) and obese (?30?kg/m2) with restricted body fat (?28% for females, ?24% for males) (n?=?148) and with no restriction on body fat (n?=?180). Medical records for each individual were audited retrospectively to record the incidence of injury and illness, absenteeism, productivity, healthcare usage (i.e., consultation with medical specialists, hospital stays, medical investigations, prescriptions) and administrative outcomes (e.g., discharge from service) over one year. These data were then grouped and compared between the cohorts. Results The prevalence of injury and illness, cost of medical specialist consultations and cost of medical scans were all higher (p?work days were also higher (p?work days, the rate of re-classification of Medical Employment Classification and the rate of discharge from service were similar between all four cohorts. Conclusions High BMI in the military increases healthcare usage, but does not disrupt workforce maintenance. The greater prevalence of injury and illness, greater healthcare usage and lower productivity in obese Australian Defence Force personnel is not related to higher levels of body fat. PMID:22716068

  1. Workgroup Report: Developing Environmental Health Indicators for European Children: World Health Organization Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Pond, Kathy; Kim, Rokho; Carroquino, Maria-Jose; Pirard, Philippe; Gore, Fiona; Cucu, Alexandra; Nemer, Leda; MacKay, Morag; Smedje, Greta; Georgellis, Antonis; Dalbokova, Dafina; Krzyzanowski, Michal

    2007-01-01

    A working group coordinated by the World Health Organization developed a set of indicators to protect children’s health from environmental risks and to support current and future European policy needs. On the basis of identified policy needs, the group developed a core set of 29 indicators for implementation plus an extended set of eight additional indicators for future development, focusing on exposure, health effects, and action. As far as possible, the indicators were designed to use existing information and are flexible enough to be developed further to meet the needs of policy makers and changing health priorities. These indicators cover most of the priority topic areas specified in the Children’s Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE) as adopted in the Fourth Ministerial Conference on Health and Environment in 2004, and will be used to monitor the implementation of CEHAPE. This effort can be viewed as an integral part of the Global Initiative on Children’s Environmental Health Indicators, launched at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002. PMID:17805431

  2. [Work and health--new challenges for public health research and practice].

    PubMed

    Theorell, T

    1995-03-01

    In a period of transition from industrial to post-industrial society with its focus on the service and information sector the nature of work is changing as well as the impact of work on human health. This paper describes leading concepts which were developed in social sciences to better account for this impact, especially so the so called job strain model. Moreover, it gives a selective, but representative review of recent empirical findings based on these concepts with coronary risk and disease as main outcome criteria. Finally, the paper discusses practical implications with regard to public health: preventive measures which aim at structural rather than individual intervention. The main focus of these measures is on work organisation and manpower policy. PMID:7756760

  3. Health Services Management in the Health Administration Curriculum. Report by the Curriculum Task Force on Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Univ. Programs in Health Administration, Washington, DC.

    Critical decisions that need to be made by faculties of health administration education programs when developing and assessing the health services management portion of the curriculum are identified. Decisions should draw from the information available concerning professional target roles of graduates, graduate behavior expected, resources for…

  4. Work Readiness: A New Promise in Minnesota's Education. Report of the Commissioner's Task Force on Education for Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

    This report contains the recommendations made by Minnesota's Task Force on Education for Employment, which was established in 1986 to evaluate how well that state's K-12 educational system is preparing all students for work and whether students have equal access to work-related learning experiences. The following recommendations are made: (1) the…

  5. Cohort profile: The lidA Cohort Study—a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation

    PubMed Central

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-01-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). PMID:24618186

  6. Characterization of the 1986 coal-mining work force. Information Circular/1988

    SciTech Connect

    Butani, S.J.; Bartholomew, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986, the Bureau of Mines conducted a probability sample survey, Mining Industry Population Survey, to measure such employee characteristics as occupation; principal equipment operated; work location at the mine; present job, present company, and total mining experience; job-related training during the last 2 years; age; sex; race; and education. The population estimates are necessary to properly analyze the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) injury (includes illness and fatality data) statistics; that is, to compare and contrast injury rates for various subpopulations in order to identify those groups that are exhibiting higher than average injury rates. The report uses the survey's results to characterize the U.S. coal mining workforce from March through September 1986.

  7. Perception of Weight and Health Status among Women Working at Health Centres of Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Dorosty, Ahmad Reza; Mehdikhani, Sepideh; Rahimi, Abbas; Koohdani, Fariba; Tehrani, Parastoo

    2014-01-01

    Perception of body-weight status is an important determinant of weight-related behaviours and may affect the burden of weight disturbances as a public-health problem. No study has assessed self-perception of the weight status regarding body-fat distribution among health workers to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the perception of weight and health status among 542 women working at health centres of Tehran. We assessed their perceived body-weight and health status and measured waist- and hip-circumference, weight, and height to calculate waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) as a measure of fat distribution and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2). Women reported their sociodemographic information, and the perceived weight and health status were compared with their actual fatness status, defined based on WHR and BMI, to determine misperception of weight status. Multivariate logistic regression models were performed to assess the predictive effects of various sociodemographic factors and actual fatness on the perception of weight and health status. The results showed that more than 40% of women with normal BMI overestimated their body-weight status while only 15.8% of these women had central obesity. BMI was the most important variable associated with misperceived weight status as normal-weight women had significantly more misperception (OR 8.16, 95% CI 4.82-13.82) than overweight/obese women. WHR did not show any significant relationships with perceived weight status. In addition, perception of health status was not associated with actual fatness indices. It is concluded, BMI was the main predictor of the perception of weight status in female employees. The importance of using body-fat distribution in the perceptions of weight and health status should be emphasized. PMID:24847594

  8. Periodic health examination, 1996 update: 2. Screening for chlamydial infections. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, H D; Wang, E E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update the 1984 recommendations of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination on the routine screening of asymptomatic patients for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. OPTIONS: Screening, with the use of culture or nonculture tests, of the general population, of certain high-risk groups or of all pregnant women; or no routine screening. OUTCOMES: Rates of asymptomatic and symptomatic chlamydial infection, perinatal complications, longterm complications of infection (i.e., pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy), coinfection with other sexually transmitted diseases, disease spread, hospital care, complications of therapy and costs of infection and of screening. EVIDENCE: Search of MEDLINE for articles published between Jan. 1, 1983, and Dec. 31, 1995, with the use of the major MeSH heading "chlamydial infections," references from recent review articles and recommendation by other organizations. VALUES: The evidence-based methods of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination were used. Advice from reviewers and experts and recommendations of other organizations were taken into consideration. Prevention of symptomatic disease and decreased overall costs were given high values. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: The greatest potential benefits of screening asymptomatic patients for chlamydial infections are the prevention of complications, especially infertility and perinatal complications, and the prevention of disease spread. There is no evidence that screening of the general population for chlamydial infections leads to a reduction in complications, and screening may increase costs. However, there is evidence that annual screening of selected high-risk groups and of pregnant women during the first trimester is beneficial in preventing symptoms and reducing the overall cost resulting from infection. RECOMMENDATIONS: There is fair evidence to support screening and treatment of pregnant women during the first trimester (grade B recommendation) as well as annual screening and treatment of high-risk groups (sexually active women less than 25 years of age, men or women with new or multiple sexual partners during the preceding year, women who use nonbarrier contraceptive methods and women who have symptoms of chlamydial infection: cervical friability, mucopurulent cervical discharge or intermenstrual bleeding; grade B recommendation). There is fair evidence to exclude routine screening of the general population (grade D recommendation). VALIDATION: These recommendations are similar to those of the US Preventive Services Task Force and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta. SPONSOR: These guidelines were developed and endorsed by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination, which is funded by Health Canada and the National Health Canada and the National Health Research and Development Program. The principal author (H.D.D.) was supported in part by the Ontario Ministry of Health and the Canadian Infectious Diseases Society Lilly Fellowship. PMID:8646651

  9. The Joint Commission has provided a tool to change your work force: are you paying attention?

    PubMed

    Decker, P J; Strader, M K

    1998-03-01

    Most health care managers wonder how to change employee "attitudes" so that their staff will be more accountable for patient satisfaction, cost reduction, and quality of care. Employees were trained to function in an industry where the power players were the physician and the administrator and now it is exceedingly difficult to get them to switch their attention to the patient and the payer in a market-driven economy. For hospital managers, the answer may be right at their fingertips: The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations' standards demanding that employee competence be objectively measured, proven, tracked & trended, improved, and age specific. A comprehensive competence assessment system can save the health care manager enormous work in measuring fewer things, focusing performance assessment on the 20 percent of things that are true problems, and helping to specifically define certain competencies such as customer focus and cost consciousness so that coaching, training, and giving performance feedback is easier. Developing a comprehensive competence assessment system is a powerful tool to change the culture of organizations. Consequently, it is important that managers be aware of those possibilities before they embark on developing "competencies" or before their organizations get too carried away on redesigning systems to satisfy standards. PMID:10177390

  10. SIB health psychology in Brazil: The challenges for working in public health settings.

    PubMed

    Spink, Mary-Jane P; Brigagão, Jacqueline M; Menegon, Vera M; Vicentin, Maria-Cristina G

    2016-03-01

    Considering the diversity of theoretical approaches and settings for psychological practice, this editorial provides a background for the articles that have been included in this special issue concerning health psychology in the context of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Unico de Saude). We addressed issues concerning the national curricular outline for undergraduate training in psychology and historical data on the social movements that led to the creation of the Sistema Unico de Saude and the Psychiatric Reform which created an important area for psychological work absorbing a considerable number of psychologists. PMID:26987822

  11. To What Extent Do Financial Strain and Labour Force Status Explain Social Class Inequalities in Self-Rated Health? Analysis of 20 Countries in the European Social Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Richard J.; Benzeval, Michaela; Popham, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nordic countries do not have the smallest health inequalities despite egalitarian social policies. A possible explanation for this is that drivers of class differences in health such as financial strain and labour force status remain socially patterned in Nordic countries. Methods Our analyses used data for working age (25–59) men (n?=?48,249) and women (n?=?52,654) for 20 countries from five rounds (2002–2010) of the European Social Survey. The outcome was self-rated health in 5 categories. Stratified by gender we used fixed effects linear regression models and marginal standardisation to instigate how countries varied in the degree to which class inequalities were attenuated by financial strain and labour force status. Results and Discussion Before adjustment, Nordic countries had large inequalities in self-rated health relative to other European countries. For example the regression coefficient for the difference in health between working class and professional men living in Norway was 0.34 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.42), while the comparable figure for Spain was 0.15 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.22). Adjusting for financial strain and labour force status led to attenuation of health inequalities in all countries. However, unlike some countries such as Spain, where after adjustment the regression coefficient for working class men was only 0.02 (95% CI ?0.05 to 0.10), health inequalities persisted after adjustment for Nordic countries. For Norway the adjusted coefficient was 0.17 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.25). Results for women and men were similar. However, in comparison to men, class inequalities tended to be stronger for women and more persistent after adjustment. Conclusions Adjusting for financial security and labour force status attenuates a high proportion of health inequalities in some counties, particularly Southern European countries, but attenuation in Nordic countries was modest and did not improve their relative position. PMID:25313462

  12. Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…

  13. Is Lifelong Knee Joint Force from Work, Home, and Sport Related to Knee Osteoarthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Ratzlaff, Charles R.; Koehoorn, Mieke; Cibere, Jolanda; Kopec, Jacek A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the association of cumulative lifetime knee joint force on the risk of self-reported medically-diagnosed knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Exposure data on lifetime physical activity type (occupational, household, sport/recreation) and dose (frequency, intensity, duration) were collected from 4,269 Canadian men and women as part of the Physical Activity and Joint Heath cohort study. Subjects were ranked in terms of the “cumulative peak force index”, a measure of lifetime mechanical knee force. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to obtain adjusted effects for mean lifetime knee force on the risk of knee OA. Results. High levels of total lifetime, occupational and household-related force were associated with an increased in risk of OA, with odds ratio's ranging from approximately 1.3 to 2. Joint injury, high BMI and older age were related to risk of knee OA, consistent with previous studies. Conclusions. A newly developed measure of lifetime mechanical knee force from physical activity was employed to estimate the risk of self-reported, medically-diagnosed knee OA. While there are limitations, this paper suggests that high levels of total lifetime force (all domains combined), and occupational force in men and household force in women were risk factors for knee OA. PMID:22848225

  14. Perception and prevalence of work-related health hazards among health care workers in public health facilities in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Senthil, Arasi; Anandh, Balasubramanian; Jayachandran, Palsamy; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Josephin, Diana; Yamini, Ravindran; Kalpana, Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to occupational related health hazards. Measuring worker perception and the prevalence of these hazards can help facilitate better risk management for HCWs, as these workers are envisaged to be the first point of contact, especially in resource poor settings. Objective: To describe the perception of occupational health hazards and self-reported exposure prevalence among HCWs in Southern India. Methods: We used cross sectional design with stratified random sampling of HCWs from different levels of health facilities and categories in a randomly selected district in Southern India. Data on perception and exposure prevalence were collected using a structured interview schedule developed by occupational health experts and administered by trained investigators. Results: A total of 482 HCWs participated. Thirty nine percent did not recognize work-related health hazards, but reported exposure to at least one hazard upon further probing. Among the 81·5% who reported exposure to biological hazard, 93·9% had direct skin contact with infectious materials. Among HCWs reporting needle stick injury, 70·5% had at least one in the previous three months. Ergonomic hazards included lifting heavy objects (42%) and standing for long hours (37%). Psychological hazards included negative feelings (20·3%) and verbal or physical abuse during work (20·5%). Conclusion: More than a third of HCWs failed to recognize work-related health hazards. Despite training in handling infectious materials, HCWs reported direct skin contact with infectious materials and needle stick injuries. Results indicate the need for training oriented toward behavioral change and provision of occupational health services. PMID:25482656

  15. Phthalate exposure and health-related outcomes in specific types of work environment.

    PubMed

    Kolena, Branislav; Petrovicova, Ida; Pilka, Tomas; Pucherova, Zuzana; Munk, Michal; Matula, Bohumil; Vankova, Viera; Petlus, Peter; Jenisova, Zita; Rozova, Zdenka; Wimmerova, Sona; Trnovec, Tomas

    2014-06-01

    Many toxic substances in the workplace can modify human health and quality of life and there is still insufficient data on respiratory outcomes in adults exposed to phthalates. The aim of this work was to assess in waste management workers from the Nitra region of Slovakia (n = 30) the extent of exposure to phthalates and health-related outcomes. Four urinary phthalate metabolites mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), monobutyl phthalate (MnBP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Urinary concentration of MEHP was positively associated with ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity % (FEV1/FVC) (r = 0.431; p = 0.018) and MiNP with fat free mass index (FFMI) (r = 0.439; p = 0.015). The strongest predictor of pulmonary function was the pack/year index as smoking history that predicted a decrease of pulmonary parameters, the FEV1/FVC, % of predicted values of peak expiratory flow (PEF % of PV) and FEV1 % of PV. Unexpectedly, urinary MEHP and MINP were positively associated with pulmonary function expressed as PEF % of PV and FEV1/FVC. We hypothesize that occupational exposure to phthalates estimated from urinary metabolites (MEHP, MiNP) can modify pulmonary function on top of lifestyle factors. PMID:24865398

  16. Phthalate Exposure and Health-Related Outcomes in Specific Types of Work Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kolena, Branislav; Petrovicova, Ida; Pilka, Tomas; Pucherova, Zuzana; Munk, Michal; Matula, Bohumil; Vankova, Viera; Petlus, Peter; Jenisova, Zita; Rozova, Zdenka; Wimmerova, Sona; Trnovec, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Many toxic substances in the workplace can modify human health and quality of life and there is still insufficient data on respiratory outcomes in adults exposed to phthalates. The aim of this work was to assess in waste management workers from the Nitra region of Slovakia (n = 30) the extent of exposure to phthalates and health-related outcomes. Four urinary phthalate metabolites mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), monobutyl phthalate (MnBP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Urinary concentration of MEHP was positively associated with ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity % (FEV1/FVC) (r = 0.431; p = 0.018) and MiNP with fat free mass index (FFMI) (r = 0.439; p = 0.015). The strongest predictor of pulmonary function was the pack/year index as smoking history that predicted a decrease of pulmonary parameters, the FEV1/FVC, % of predicted values of peak expiratory flow (PEF % of PV) and FEV1 % of PV. Unexpectedly, urinary MEHP and MINP were positively associated with pulmonary function expressed as PEF % of PV and FEV1/FVC. We hypothesize that occupational exposure to phthalates estimated from urinary metabolites (MEHP, MiNP) can modify pulmonary function on top of lifestyle factors. PMID:24865398

  17. The mental health of the UK Armed Forces: where facts meet fiction.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Elizabeth J F; Wessely, Simon; Jones, Norman; Rona, Roberto J; Greenberg, Neil

    2014-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has been conducted into the mental health of the UK military in recent years. This article summarises the results of the various studies and offers possible explanations for differences in findings between the UK and other allied nations. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates are perhaps surprisingly low amongst British forces, with prevalence rates of around 4% in personnel who have deployed, rising to 6% in combat troops, despite the high tempo of operations in recent years. The rates in personnel currently on operations are consistently lower than these. Explanations for the lower PTSD prevalence in British troops include variations in combat exposures, demographic differences, higher leader to enlisted soldier ratios, shorter operational tour lengths and differences in access to long-term health care between countries. Delayed-onset PTSD was recently found to be more common than previously supposed, accounting for nearly half of all PTSD cases; however, many of these had sub-syndromal PTSD predating the onset of the full disorder. Rates of common mental health disorders in UK troops are similar or higher to those of the general population, and overall operational deployments are not associated with an increase in mental health problems in UK regular forces. However, there does appear to be a correlation between both deployment and increased alcohol misuse and post-deployment violence in combat troops. Unlike for regular forces, there is an overall association between deployment and mental health problems in Reservists. There have been growing concerns regarding mild traumatic brain injury, though this appears to be low in British troops with an overall prevalence of 4.4% in comparison with 15% in the US military. The current strategies for detection and treatment of mental health problems in British forces are also described. The stance of the UK military is that psychological welfare of troops is primarily a chain of command responsibility, aided by medical advice when necessary, and to this end uses third location decompression, stress briefings, and Trauma Risk Management approaches. Outpatient treatment is provided by Field Mental Health Teams and military Departments of Community Mental Health, whilst inpatient care is given in specific NHS hospitals. PMID:25206948

  18. The mental health of the UK Armed Forces: where facts meet fiction

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Elizabeth J. F.; Wessely, Simon; Jones, Norman; Rona, Roberto J.; Greenberg, Neil

    2014-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has been conducted into the mental health of the UK military in recent years. This article summarises the results of the various studies and offers possible explanations for differences in findings between the UK and other allied nations. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates are perhaps surprisingly low amongst British forces, with prevalence rates of around 4% in personnel who have deployed, rising to 6% in combat troops, despite the high tempo of operations in recent years. The rates in personnel currently on operations are consistently lower than these. Explanations for the lower PTSD prevalence in British troops include variations in combat exposures, demographic differences, higher leader to enlisted soldier ratios, shorter operational tour lengths and differences in access to long-term health care between countries. Delayed-onset PTSD was recently found to be more common than previously supposed, accounting for nearly half of all PTSD cases; however, many of these had sub-syndromal PTSD predating the onset of the full disorder. Rates of common mental health disorders in UK troops are similar or higher to those of the general population, and overall operational deployments are not associated with an increase in mental health problems in UK regular forces. However, there does appear to be a correlation between both deployment and increased alcohol misuse and post-deployment violence in combat troops. Unlike for regular forces, there is an overall association between deployment and mental health problems in Reservists. There have been growing concerns regarding mild traumatic brain injury, though this appears to be low in British troops with an overall prevalence of 4.4% in comparison with 15% in the US military. The current strategies for detection and treatment of mental health problems in British forces are also described. The stance of the UK military is that psychological welfare of troops is primarily a chain of command responsibility, aided by medical advice when necessary, and to this end uses third location decompression, stress briefings, and Trauma Risk Management approaches. Outpatient treatment is provided by Field Mental Health Teams and military Departments of Community Mental Health, whilst inpatient care is given in specific NHS hospitals. PMID:25206948

  19. From insecure to secure employment: changes in work, health, health related behaviours, and sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, M; Kivimaki, M; Elovainio, M; Vahtera, J; Ferrie, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine whether change in employment status (from fixed term to permanent employment) is followed by changes in work, health, health related behaviours, and sickness absence. Methods: Prospective cohort study with four year follow up. Data from 4851 (710 male, 4141 female) hospital employees having a fixed term or permanent job contract on entry to the study were collected at baseline and follow up. Results: At baseline, compared to permanent employees, fixed term employees reported lower levels of workload, job security, and job satisfaction. They also reported greater work ability. All fixed term employees had a lower rate of medically certified sickness absence at baseline. Baseline rate ratios for those who remained fixed term were 0.64 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.75), and were 0.50 (95% CI 0.34 to 0.75) for those who later became permanent. Continuous fixed term employment was not associated with changes in the outcome measures. Change from fixed term to permanent employment was followed by an increase in job security, enduring job satisfaction, and increased medically certified sickness absence (compared to permanent workers rate ratio 0.96 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.16)). Other indicators of work, health, and health related behaviours remained unchanged. Conclusion: Receiving a permanent job contract after fixed term employment is associated with favourable changes in job security and job satisfaction. The corresponding increase in sickness absence might be due to a reduction in presenteeism and the wearing off of health related selection. PMID:14634187

  20. How Can Magnetic Forces Do Work? Investigating the Problem with Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onorato, Pasquale; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We present a sequence of activities aimed at promoting both learning about magnetic forces and students' reflection about the conceptual bridge between magnetic forces on a moving charge and on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field. The activity sequence, designed for students in high school or on introductory physics courses, has been…

  1. One health and force health protection during foreign humanitarian assistance operations: 2010 Pakistan flood relief.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    Restrictions on the number of troops that could enter Pakistan in support of the 2010 flood relief efforts limited the type and number of deployed medical personnel. Although this created the potential for mission gaps, the assigned personnel were able to perform additional functions beyond those normally associated with their particular health specialty to help close these gaps, which was largely made possible due to prior cross-training and predeployment refresher training. Given the rapid and unpredictable nature of disaster response, future foreign humanitarian assistance operations may face similar issues with assigned personnel. Promotion of the One Health concept through instruction and training will help to increase awareness among US Army Medical Department personnel about the roles and functions of health specialties, facilitate the identification of critical gaps during deployments, and provide personnel with the knowledge and skills needed to address them. PMID:23277449

  2. Disparities in the Geography of Mental Health: Implications for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent theory and research on geographic disparities in mental health and their implications for social work. It focuses on work emerging from the fields of mental health geography, psychiatric epidemiology, and social work, arguing that a wide range of spatial disparities in mental health are important to understand but that…

  3. Materials and strategies that work in low literacy health communication.

    PubMed Central

    Plimpton, S; Root, J

    1994-01-01

    In a Maine Area Health Education Center program some solutions were developed to the well-documented problem of health information material that cannot be read or comprehended by low literacy adults. Professionals in health education and adult education were trained to produce easy-to-read health materials and created dozens of low-cost pamphlets on the nation's year 2000 health objectives. The pamphlets are easily reproducible on a copy machine. Concurrently, a model for teaching oral communication skills to health care providers who deal with low-literacy adults was developed in partnership with Maine's largest rural health center delivery system. The train-the-trainers model reached more than 500 direct health care service providers. Participants in the two programs gained skills useful in all aspects of public communication that are replicable in other cities, States, and regions. PMID:8303020

  4. The Relevance of Abraham Maslow's Work to Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolte, Ann

    1976-01-01

    Health educators should be aware of people as growth aspiring, with a basic nature of goodness, and that individuals need to experience those qualities within themselves which produce health and a zest for living. (JD)

  5. Statutory authorizations for the work of local health departments.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, C A; Gilbert, B; Warren, D G; Brooks, E F; DeFriese, G H; Jain, S C; Kavaler, F

    1977-01-01

    A study of public health statutes of the 50 states identifies 44 specific services or functions that are assigned to local health departments by all or some of the states. Authorizations are most commonly assigned conjointly both to local and state health departments; exceptions are identified. Data suggest striking inconsistencies between what local health departments are authorized to perform and the services they actually render with regard to a selected group of programs that involve personal health services. The full scope of authorizations for local health departments is not revealed by examination of public health statutes. For this reason, among others, development of up-to-date health codes for all states would be beneficial. PMID:911005

  6. Sticks, Not Carrots, May Work Best to Boost Employees' Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... He is an assistant professor of medicine and health care management at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. "We ... M.B.A., assistant professor of medicine and health care management, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Soeren Mattke, D.Sc., ...

  7. Health and working conditions in carpenter's workshops in Armenia (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Gómeez, Milena E; Sanchez, Juan F; Cardona, Angélica M; Pioquinto, Jaime F; Torres, Paula; Sanchez, Deisy; Camargo, Lina M; Castañeda, René A; Villamizar, Rafael H; Cremades, Lázaro V

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a study of the health and working conditions in 10 carpenter's workshops in the municipality of Armenia (Colombia). In these workshops, all the most exposed workers to wood dust were surveyed at the areas of sanding, brushing, immunization and painting (workers with the highest risk to get chronic respiratory disease). They were 177 workers. The use of hard and soft woods for furniture was detected. Besides, some pesticides, volatile organic solvents, synthetic epoxy resins glues and paintings, were used for finishes, which increases the risk of acquiring some neurological diseases and damage to the nervous system. Occurrence of cancer in nostrils mainly due to the use of hardwoods is an additional risk. With regard to the basic lighting conditions, it was found that half of workshops had deficiencies in special carving areas, because they were below the minimum allowable lighting limit level (500 lux). With relation to noise, all the workshops exceeded the permissible maximum limit value (85 dBA). With respect to the occurrence of occupational events, no data were found in the companies, or analysis of employee absenteeism due to the exposure to particulate matter. PMID:20424355

  8. Health of Children of the Working Poor: Description and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Barbara J.; Wang, Shirley J.; Kwasman, Alan; Green, Delores; Morton, Linda

    More and more often, children in the United States are denied services that help keep them healthy or heal them when they are ill. This study examines the demographic, psychological, and physical health status of a group of children (N=293) with no access to health care, and who experienced an acute health problem. The children ranged in age from…

  9. Making Health Communication Programs Work. A Planner's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkin, Elaine Bratic

    This manual, designed to assist professionals in health and health-related agencies, offers guidance for planning a health communication program about cancer based on social marketing and other principles as well as the experiences of National Cancer Institute staff and other practitioners. The six chapters are arranged by sequentially ordered…

  10. Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…

  11. The Trouble with Health Savings Accounts: A Social Work Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, conservatives have promoted health savings accounts (HSAs) as a way of addressing the growing cost of health insurance. HSAs were introduced under the Medical Modernization Act of 2003 as "an alternative to traditional health insurance." They are at the heart of an effort to replace the current system of insurance with…

  12. The Trouble with Health Savings Accounts: A Social Work Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, conservatives have promoted health savings accounts (HSAs) as a way of addressing the growing cost of health insurance. HSAs were introduced under the Medical Modernization Act of 2003 as "an alternative to traditional health insurance." They are at the heart of an effort to replace the current system of insurance with…

  13. Creating Sound Minds and Bodies: Health and Education Working Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Health Education Consortium, Washington, DC.

    Collaboration between health and education providers is essential to address the urgent needs of children and families most at risk of school failure and severe health problems. Collaboration represents a fundamental change in the way education and health systems think about, identify, and meet the needs of children, youth, and families utilizing…

  14. Health and Turnover of Working Mothers after Childbirth via the Work-Family Interface: An Analysis across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dawn S.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Ferguson, Merideth; Hunter, Emily M.; Clinch, C. Randall; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined organizational levers that impact work-family experiences, participant health, and subsequent turnover. Using a sample of 179 women returning to full-time work 4 months after childbirth, we examined the associations of 3 job resources (job security, skill discretion, and schedule control) with work-to-family enrichment and the…

  15. Health and Turnover of Working Mothers after Childbirth via the Work-Family Interface: An Analysis across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dawn S.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Ferguson, Merideth; Hunter, Emily M.; Clinch, C. Randall; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined organizational levers that impact work-family experiences, participant health, and subsequent turnover. Using a sample of 179 women returning to full-time work 4 months after childbirth, we examined the associations of 3 job resources (job security, skill discretion, and schedule control) with work-to-family enrichment and the…

  16. The Australian Defence Force Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study: design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Hooff, Miranda Van; McFarlane, Alexander C.; Davies, Christopher E.; Searle, Amelia K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A. Kate; Verhagen, Alan; Benassi, Helen; Hodson, Stephanie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population. Objective The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening methods, and identify specific occupational factors that influence mental health. This paper describes the design, sampling strategies, and methodology used in this study. Method At Phase 1, approximately half of all regular Navy, Army, and Air Force personnel (n=24,481) completed self-report questionnaires. At Phase 2, a stratified sub-sample (n=1,798) completed a structured diagnostic interview to detect mental disorder. Based on data from non-responders, data were weighted to represent the entire ADF population (n=50,049). Results One in five ADF members met criteria for a 12-month mental disorder (22%). The most common disorder category was anxiety disorders (14.8%), followed by affective (9.5%) and alcohol disorders (5.2%). At risk ADF sub-groups were Army personnel, and those in the lower ranks. Deployment status did not have an impact on mental disorder rates. Conclusion This study has important implications for mental health service delivery for Australian and international military personnel as well as contemporary veterans. PMID:25206944

  17. Health Literacy: Critical Opportunities for Social Work Leadership in Health Care and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liechty, Janet M.

    2011-01-01

    One-third of U. S. adults do not have adequate health literacy to manage their health care needs; and low health literacy is a major concern due to its association with poor health outcomes, high health care costs, and health communication problems. Low health literacy is a potential driver of health disparities, and its alleviation is central to…

  18. Breastfeeding mothers returning to work: possibilities for information, anticipatory guidance and support from US health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Angeletti, Michelle A

    2009-05-01

    Today, more mothers in the United States are in the labor force, and returning to the workforce presents numerous challenges for the breastfeeding mother. Although it as been demonstrated that maternal employment is associated with a decrease in the length of time a mother continues to breastfeed, health care providers are in a unique position to enhance a mother's breastfeeding success as she transitions back into the workplace. This article describes various commonly perceived obstacles to combining breastfeeding and working and provides examples of information, anticipatory guidance, and support that health care providers can use to assist a breastfeeding mother with a successful return to the workforce. PMID:19136394

  19. 76 FR 63927 - Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance (ITFAR): An Update on A Public Health Action...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... Resistance (ITFAR): An Update on A Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance AGENCY... report on progress by Federal agencies in accomplishing activities outlined in A Public Health Action... (AR) in recognition of the increasing importance of AR as a public health threat. The Task Force is...

  20. A systematic review of resilience and mental health outcomes of conflict-driven adult forced migrants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising global burden of forced migration due to armed conflict is increasingly recognised as an important issue in global health. Forced migrants are at a greater risk of developing mental disorders. However, resilience, defined as the ability of a person to successfully adapt to or recover from stressful and traumatic experiences, has been highlighted as a key potential protective factor. This study aimed to review systematically the global literature on the impact of resilience on the mental health of adult conflict-driven forced migrants. Methodology Both quantitative and qualitative studies that reported resilience and mental health outcomes among forcibly displaced persons (aged 18+) by way of exploring associations, links, pathways and causative mechanisms were included. Fourteen bibliographic databases and seven humanitarian study databases/websites were searched and a four stage screening process was followed. Results Twenty three studies were included in the final review. Ten qualitative studies identified highlighted family and community cohesion, family and community support, individual personal qualities, collective identity, supportive primary relationships and religion. Thirteen quantitative studies were identified, but only two attempted to link resilience with mental disorders, and three used a specific resilience measure. Over-reliance on cross-sectional designs was noted. Resilience was generally shown to be associated with better mental health in displaced populations, but the evidence on this and underlying mechanisms was limited. Discussion The review highlights the need for more epidemiological and qualitative evidence on resilience in forcibly displaced persons as a potential avenue for intervention development, particularly in resource-poor settings. PMID:25177360

  1. The Air Force Health Study Data and Specimens as a Resource for Researchers.

    PubMed

    Styka, Anne N; Butler, David A

    2015-10-01

    The Air Force Health Study (AFHS) is perhaps the most thorough longitudinal examination of both the health of military personnel and the health effects of herbicide exposure ever conducted. Data were collected through comprehensive physical examinations, questionnaires, and other records at six time points over a 20-year period; 2,758 subjects participated in at least one examination cycle. Data collected during physical examinations included indices of health status overall and specific endpoints for each organ system. Questionnaire data included sociodemographic information, marital and fertility history, health habits, recreation activities, toxic substances exposure, and military experience. Biospecimens were collected at each examination cycle; serum was collected at all six examinations while other biospecimens, such as semen and whole blood, were collected at one time. More than 200 clinical laboratory tests and measures were performed, with more than 60 of these measured at all six cycles. The vast amount of electronic data and the more than 91,000 unaliquoted biospecimens contained in the repository offer unique opportunities for new research on understanding determinants of health. The Institute of Medicine is the custodian of the AFHS materials and conducted a pilot research program to facilitate new research using the materials. An expert committee issued requests for proposals, created a Web-based form for submissions, reviewed and evaluated potential research studies, and made data and biospecimens available to qualified researchers. This article summarizes the experience of this initiative. PMID:26444896

  2. Comparison of United States (NIOSH Lifting Guidelines) and European (ECSC Force Limits) recommendations for manual work limits.

    PubMed

    Freivalds, A

    1987-08-01

    In the early 1980's two different guidelines for manual lifting were established: the NIOSH Work Practices Guide for Manual Lifting and the European Coal and Steel Community's Force Limits in Manual Work. A comparison of the two guidelines indicates some discrepancies in their predictive capabilities and a significant nonlinear relationship between the two limits. These discrepancies may be explained by differences in respective predictive equations, assumptions and underlying concepts. PMID:3630918

  3. The 21st Century at Work: Forces Shaping the Future Workforce and Workplace in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Lynn A.; Panis, Constantijn W. A.

    2004-01-01

    What are the forces that will continue to shape the U.S. workforce and workplace over the next 10 to 15 years? With such inevitabilities as the proliferation and acceleration of technology worldwide, will more individuals work at home, will more businesses outsource their noncore functions -- and with what consequences? Answering such questions…

  4. The 21st Century at Work: Forces Shaping the Future Workforce and Workplace in the United States. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Lynn A.; Panis, Constantijn W. A.

    2004-01-01

    What are the forces that will continue to shape the U.S. workforce and workplace over the next 10 to 15 years? With such inevitabilities as the proliferation and acceleration of technology worldwide, will more individuals work at home, will more businesses outsource their noncore functions -- and with what consequences? Answering such questions…

  5. A Measurement of the Effectiveness of the Airway Science Program To Meet Federal Aviation Administration Work Force Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Brent D.

    This paper examines why the Airway Science Program, initiated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to develop college-educated and technically prepared personnel for FAA employment (primarily for air traffic control), has failed to meet its work force goals. Research data were gathered from interviews with Airway Science Program…

  6. Texas Quality Workforce Planning: 1993 Key Industries and Targeted Occupations for Texas' 24 Quality Work Force Planning Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Commerce, Austin.

    In 1993, Texas' 24 quality work force planning committees used a state-developed targeted occupations planning methodology to identify key industries and targeted occupations with the greatest potential for job openings in their respective regions. Between 11 and 20 key industries (13.5 on average) were identified for each region. The following 10…

  7. Force, Velocity, and Work: The Effects of Different Contexts on Students' Understanding of Vector Concepts Using Isomorphic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare students' understanding of vector concepts in problems with no physical context, and with three mechanics contexts: force, velocity, and work. Based on our "Test of Understanding of Vectors," a multiple-choice test presented elsewhere, we designed two isomorphic shorter versions of 12 items each: a test…

  8. Force, Velocity, and Work: The Effects of Different Contexts on Students' Understanding of Vector Concepts Using Isomorphic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare students' understanding of vector concepts in problems with no physical context, and with three mechanics contexts: force, velocity, and work. Based on our "Test of Understanding of Vectors," a multiple-choice test presented elsewhere, we designed two isomorphic shorter versions of 12 items each: a test…

  9. Four principles for expanding PEPFAR's role as a vital force in US health diplomacy abroad.

    PubMed

    Collins, Chris; Isbell, Michael; Sohn, Annette; Klindera, Kent

    2012-07-01

    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is the leading platform for US health diplomacy and a symbol of American capacity to achieve constructive and beneficial change. The program now faces an evolving context for its work that includes, on the one hand, domestic fiscal pressures in the United States, but on the other, the potential for substantial gains against the AIDS epidemic around the world. Continued success in advancing America's humanitarian and diplomatic interests through global health requires the United States to maintain robust investments in PEPFAR; implement a strategic plan to achieve an AIDS-free generation; use the program as a foundation to strengthen health systems generally and enable them to address broader health issues, such as chronic and noncommunicable diseases; carefully manage the transition to country "ownership" of the fight against HIV; and achieve greater coherence in US government health-related policy. PMID:22778348

  10. Complementary alternative medicine in health and mental health: implications for social work practice.

    PubMed

    Cook, C A; Becvar, D S; Pontious, S L

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the increasing use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) in this country and its implications for social work practice, education, research and policy in the health care field. Descriptive examples of CAM treatment modalities are provided along with their underlying rationale, common uses and available empirical support. It is concluded that patients will be better served by social workers who have knowledge of CAM treatment modalities. Furthermore, the need for further research on the efficacy of many CAM treatments and the certification of CAM treatment providers is discussed. PMID:11101164

  11. Child Health Inequality: Framing a Social Work Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Virginia Rondero; Montana, Salvador; Clarke, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies acknowledge that the well-being of our nation hinges on the health of its people. There is specific concern about children because they represent the future. Ignoring children's health needs can compromise their educational preparedness, occupational pursuits, productivity, and longevity. Current science demonstrates that…

  12. Russia's College Students: Work and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, L. Iu.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the effect of secondary employment on the sense of well-being of students in full-time education shows that the degree of fatigue and emotional stress on the job is affected by gender, the students' assessment of their own health, and their disposition to take care of their health.

  13. Child Health Inequality: Framing a Social Work Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Virginia Rondero; Montana, Salvador; Clarke, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies acknowledge that the well-being of our nation hinges on the health of its people. There is specific concern about children because they represent the future. Ignoring children's health needs can compromise their educational preparedness, occupational pursuits, productivity, and longevity. Current science demonstrates that…

  14. Mortality, length of life, and physical examination attendance in participants of the Air Force Health Study.

    PubMed

    Ketchum, Norma S; Michalek, Joel E; Pavuk, Marian

    2007-01-01

    Begun in 1982, the Air Force Health Study (AFHS) has assessed the mortality of veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerially spraying herbicides in Vietnam. A comparison group of other Air Force veterans involved with aircraft missions in Southeast Asia during the same period, but not involved with spraying herbicides, was included in the study. Among 18,082 veterans, this report examined whether attendance at AFHS physical examinations from 1982 to 1999 played a role in mortality experience and potential lengthening of life relative to veterans who did not attend. The years of potential life lost for 1173 veterans who died before age 65 was calculated. No statistically significant difference in risk of death was found from all causes, cancer, or circulatory disease between attendees and nonattendees. No evidence was found to suggest that attending physical examinations decreased mortality or substantially lengthened life in AFHS participants. PMID:17274267

  15. Work History and Later-Life Labor Force Participation: Evidence from a Large Telecommunications Firm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Gangaram; Verma, Anil

    2003-01-01

    Of 1,805 early retirees, 40% returned to work (17% full time, 51% part time, 32% self employed). Return was positively related to work attachment and tenure at last job. Clerical workers were less likely than managers to choose part-time work over retirement. Lateral mobility and high work attachment were negatively related to postretirement…

  16. Serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels in Air Force health study participants - preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-24

    In 1978, the US Air Force responded to a congressional mandate to initiate an epidemiologic study of the possible health effects of exposure to herbicides and their 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) contaminants in Air Force veterans who served in the Ranch Hand defoliation operation during the Vietnam conflict. Accordingly, the Air Force conducted a nonconcurrent prospective study, the Air Force Health Study, of all 1267 members of the Ranch Hand unit and a series of matched controls. This phase of the Air Force study focused on measuring serum TCDD levels in 150 Ranch Hand veterans and 50 controls. All participants were enlisted men; the Ranch Hand veterans had been either herbicide loaders or herbicide specialists in Vietnam. The demographic and health characteristics of Ranch Hand personnel and controls were similar; however, their serum TCDD levels differed markedly.

  17. INDIGENOUS PEOPLES’ FOOD SYSTEMS FOR HEALTH: FINDING INTERVENTIONS THAT WORK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a short report of a “safari” held in conjunction with the International Congress of Nutrition in September, 2005, in Futululu, St. Lucia, South Africa. Participants were several members of the International Union of Nutritional Sciences Task Force on Indigenous Peoples’ Food Systems and Nutr...

  18. [Subjectiveness and management: exploring psychosocial links on managerial and health work].

    PubMed

    Sá, Marilene de Castilho; Azevedo, Creuza da Silva

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents our theoretical perspective over health management, particularly on managerial and health work. To face the complex problems related to public health services management and health care quality - important challenges of Brazilian Sanitary Reform - we study the group/inter-subjective and unconscious characteristic of organizational processes, which has important effects over health services dynamics and their quality. For this purpose, we attempt to articulate three theoretical perspectives:(1) the French Psycho sociology approach on organizations and contemporary society; (2) the psychoanalytical theory on inter-subjective and group processes; and (3) the Work Psychodynamics, which focuses the relations between pleasure and suffering in work processes. Through this research process, we explore links and mediations among psychic, inter-subjective, group and social realities that are present in health organizations, managerial work and health work. Also, limits and possibilities these mediations set to leadership, cooperation, collective projects and health care quality are identified. PMID:20802868

  19. IS WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT A MULTILEVEL STRESSOR LINKING JOB CONDITIONS TO MENTAL HEALTH? EVIDENCE FROM THE WORK, FAMILY AND HEALTH NETWORK

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Kaduk, Anne; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie; Buxton, Orfeu M.; O’Donnell, Emily; Almeida, David; Fox, Kimberly; Tranby, Eric; Oakes, J. Michael; Casper, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Most research on the work conditions and family responsibilities associated with work-family conflict and other measures of mental health uses the individual employee as the unit of analysis. We argue that work conditions are both individual psychosocial assessments and objective characteristics of the proximal work environment, necessitating multilevel analyses of both individual- and team-level work conditions on mental health. Methodology/approach This study uses multilevel data on 748 high-tech professionals in 120 teams to investigate relationships between team- and individual-level job conditions, work-family conflict, and four mental health outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, perceived stress, and psychological distress). Findings We find that work-to-family conflict is socially patterned across teams, as are job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Team-level job conditions predict team-level outcomes, while individuals’ perceptions of their job conditions are better predictors of individuals’ work-to-family conflict and mental health. Work-to-family conflict operates as a partial mediator between job demands and mental health outcomes. Practical implications Our findings suggest that organizational leaders concerned about presenteeism, sickness absences, and productivity would do well to focus on changing job conditions in ways that reduce job demands and work-to-family conflict in order to promote employees’ mental health. Originality/value of the chapter We show that both work-to-family conflict and job conditions can be fruitfully framed as team characteristics, shared appraisals held in common by team members. This challenges the framing of work-to-family conflict as a “private trouble” and provides support for work-to-family conflict as a structural mismatch grounded in the social and temporal organization of work. PMID:25866431

  20. Integrating Education on Addressing Health Disparities into the Graduate Social Work Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jamie Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose an elective social work course as a means of better preparing social workers entering practice in healthcare to meet the challenges of promoting health and reducing health disparities in minority and underserved communities. Course offerings specifically targeting health or medical social work training…

  1. Integrating Education on Addressing Health Disparities into the Graduate Social Work Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jamie Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose an elective social work course as a means of better preparing social workers entering practice in healthcare to meet the challenges of promoting health and reducing health disparities in minority and underserved communities. Course offerings specifically targeting health or medical social work training…

  2. Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. Methods A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO’s and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Results Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. Conclusion The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and policy framework should go hand in hand with both education and increased economic opportunities. Education and awareness-raising of all ages is considered essential, seeing that parents and the extended family play a huge role in marrying off girls and young women. PMID:24131501

  3. Social Networks, the ‘Work’ and Work Force of Chronic Illness Self-Management: A Survey Analysis of Personal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Vassilev, Ivaylo; Rogers, Anne; Blickem, Christian; Brooks, Helen; Kapadia, Dharmi; Kennedy, Anne; Sanders, Caroline; Kirk, Sue; Reeves, David

    2013-01-01

    Self-management support forms a central aspect of chronic Illness management nationally and globally. Evidence for the success of self-management support has mainly focussed on individually-centred outcomes of behavioural change. While it is recognised that social network members play an important role there is currently a gap in knowledge regarding who provides what type of support and under what circumstances. This is relevant for understanding the division of labour and the meeting of needs for those living with a long-term condition. We therefore took a network approach to explore self-management support conceptualising it as types of illness ‘work’ undertaken within peoples’ social networks. 300 people from deprived areas and with chronic illnesses took part in a survey conducted in 2010 in the North West of England. A concentric circles diagram was used as a research tool with which participants identified 2,544 network members who contributed to illness management. The results provide an articulation of how social network members are substantially involved in illness management. Whilst partners and close family make the highest contributions there is evidence of inputs from a wide range of relationships. Network member characteristics (type of relationship, proximity, frequency of contact) impact on the amount of illness work undertaken in peoples’ networks. In networks with ‘no partner’ other people tend to contribute more in the way of illness related work than in networks with a partner. This indicates a degree of substitutability between differently constituted networks, and that the level and type of input by different members of a network might change according to circumstances. A network perspective offers an opportunity to redress the balance of an exclusively individual focus on self-management because it addresses the broader set of contributions and resources available to people in need of chronic illness management and support. PMID:23565162

  4. Self-Rated Health as a Predictor of Disability Retirement – The Contribution of Ill-Health and Working Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pietiläinen, Olli; Laaksonen, Mikko; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2011-01-01

    Objective Self-rated health is a generic health indicator predicting mortality, many diseases, and need for care. We examined self-rated health as a predictor of subsequent disability retirement, and ill-health and working conditions as potential explanations for the association. Methods Self-rated health and the covariates were obtained from the Helsinki Health Study baseline mail surveys in 2000–2002 conducted among municipal employees aged 40–60 years (n?=?6525). Data for disability retirement events (n?=?625) along with diagnoses were linked from the Finnish Centre for Pensions, with a follow-up by the end of 2010. Hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using competing risks models. Results Less than good self-rated health predicted disability retirement due to all causes among both women (HR?=?4.60, 95% CI?=?3.84–5.51) and men (HR?=?3.83, 95% CI?=?2.64–5.56), as well as due to musculoskeletal diseases (HR?=?5.17, 95% CI?=?4.02–6.66) and mental disorders (HR?=?4.80, 95% CI?=?3.50–6.59) among women and men pooled. Ill-health and physical working conditions partly explained the found associations, which nevertheless remained after the adjustments. Among the measures of ill-health limiting long-standing illness explained the association most in all-cause disability retirement and disability retirements due to musculoskeletal diseases, whereas common mental disorders explained the association most in disability retirements due to mental health disorders. Among working conditions physical work load and hazardous exposures at work explained the association most, although much less than ill-health. Conclusions Self-rated health is a strong predictor of disability retirement. This can be partly explained by ill-health and working conditions. Poor self-rated health provides a useful marker for increased risk of work disability and subsequent disability retirement. PMID:21949830

  5. Perspectives: Reforming American Higher Education--Implications for a Vibrant Work Force and a Healthy Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The forces of globalization are finally hitting American postsecondary education. For nearly three decades, since the 1983 publication of "A Nation At Risk" launched a sustained focus on the mediocre, if not failing, K-12 system, American postsecondary education has avoided the accountability spotlight. Postsecondary policy debates have focused…

  6. The Redistribution of the Black Work Force in the South by Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Jong Mo

    The exodus of blacks from the south is connected to their abandonment of farming as a way of life. Since 1860 there has been a gradual move by the black population out of the rural south to the urban north from which stems a remarkable shift of the black labor force into industry. The black population from 1940 to 1970 has progressed from…

  7. Adult Literacy: Skills for the American Work Force. Research and Development Series No. 265B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, William L.; Sechler, Judith A.

    A study examined the nature and extent of adult literacy needs in the American labor force. Data for the study were collected from a review of the literature, site visits to nine industry-based training programs, and consultation with a technical panel of experts. Input from company managers, instructors, and trainers familiar with the…

  8. Wives' Relative Wages, Husbands' Paid Work Hours, and Wives' Labor-Force Exit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2011-01-01

    Economic theories predict that women are more likely to exit the labor force if their partners' earnings are higher and if their own wage rate is lower. In this article, I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,254) and discrete-time event-history analysis to show that wives' relative wages are more predictive of their exit than are…

  9. Labor Force Participation Rates among Working-Age Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes four consecutive years of monthly labor force participation rates reported by the Current Population Survey that included nationally representative samples of the general U.S. population and nationally representative samples of the U.S. population with specifically identified disabilities. Visual impairment is one of the…

  10. Labor Force Participation Rates among Working-Age Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes four consecutive years of monthly labor force participation rates reported by the Current Population Survey that included nationally representative samples of the general U.S. population and nationally representative samples of the U.S. population with specifically identified disabilities. Visual impairment is one of the…

  11. Video: Animals; Electric Current; Force; Science Activities. Learning in Science Project. Working Papers 51-54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Beverley; And Others

    Four papers to be used in conjunction with video-tapes developed by the Learning in Science Project are presented. Topic areas of the papers focus on: (1) animals; (2) electric current; (3) force; and (4) science activities. The first paper presents transcripts of class discussions focusing on the scientific meaning of the word animal. The second…

  12. Successful Global Health Research Partnerships: What Makes Them Work?

    PubMed

    John, Chandy C; Ayodo, George; Musoke, Philippa

    2016-01-01

    There are many successful global health research partnerships, but little information is available about what makes them successful. We asked 14 research colleagues from Uganda, Kenya, and the United States who have extensive global health research experience about what they considered the top three factors that led to or impeded successful international research collaborations. Four key factors were identified: 1) mutual respect and benefit, 2) trust, 3) good communication, and 4) clear partner roles and expectations. Initial and ongoing assessment of these factors in global health research partnerships may prevent misunderstandings and foster a collaborative environment that leads to successful research. PMID:26483123

  13. First Lady praises California for work in health care debate.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1993-01-01

    Hillary Rodham Clinton called California's health care delivery system a model for the nation during a live teleconference at the CAHHS Annual Meeting Oct. 13 in San Diego. In her first-ever address before a state hospital association, the first lady told nearly 1,000 people that California "has its own place of honor in the health care debate" and praised the state for being "years ahead of Washington (D.C.) in recognizing what's right about American health care." What follows is the transcript from her address. PMID:10130730

  14. Equal health, equal work? The role of disability benefits in employment after controlling for health status.

    PubMed

    Frutos, Eva Maria Lopez; Castello, Judit Vall

    2015-04-01

    In Spain, an individual can be considered legally disabled in one of the following two ways: by either receiving a disability support benefit and/or holding a certificate of disability. Having at least one of these official sanctions entitles the disabled person to a number of financial and tax advantages. However, only support benefits entail a monthly allowance and, at the same time, the individual is required to undertake a different job to that of his/her previous one. To jointly estimate (after controlling for the health characteristics of the disabling condition and for unobserved factors) the probability of receiving disability benefits and the probability of working, we make use of a newly released database of individuals with a certificate of disability. Additionally, we exploit the rich set of health measures that this database also provides. Our results show that the probability of working is 5% lower (average treatment effect, ATE) for those disabled individuals receiving benefits. However, when we perform the estimation for individuals with differing degrees of disability, the disincentive effects of the benefits are only significant for individuals with the mildest level of disability (33-44%) i.e. those who are on the threshold of being disabled. PMID:24647566

  15. 75 FR 52751 - Office of Global Health Affairs; Trans-Atlantic Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance (TATFAR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of Global Health Affairs; Trans-Atlantic Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance... public on the activities of the Trans-Atlantic Taskforce on Antimicrobial Resistance (TATFAR). DATES: A... force to focus ``on urgent antimicrobial resistance issues focused on appropriate therapeutic use...

  16. Between the Cracks: Access to Physical Health Care in Children of the Working Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Barbara J.; Wang, Shirley J.; Kwasman, Alan; Green, Delores

    This study examined the demographic and psychological characteristics of the parents of a group of children with no access to health care, due to their status as "working poor" and thus denied either public or private health insurance whose children were referred for treatment for an acute health problem by a volunteer health care program for…

  17. [Climatic change and public health: scenarios after the coming into force of the Kyoto Protocol].

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ferran; Díaz, Julio; Moreno, José Manuel

    2006-03-01

    According to the reports of the intergovernmental panel for climatic change (IPCC) human beings of the present and near future are going to experiment, in fact we are already experimenting, important changes in the world climate. Conscious of the magnitude of the problem, international organizations have taken a series of initiatives headed to stop the climatic change and to reduce its impact. This willingness has been shaped into the agreements established in the Kyoto protocol, where countries commit to reduce greenhouse-effect gas emissions. Kyoto protocol has come into force on February 16th 2005 with the support of 141 signing countries. Among the major worries are the effects which climatic change may have upon health, such as: 1) changes in the morbidity- mortality related to temperature; 2) Effects on health related with extreme meteorological events (tornados, storms, hurricanes and extreme raining); 3) Air pollution and increase of associated health effects; d) Diseases transmitted by food and water and 4) Infectious diseases transmitted by vectors and by rodents. Even if all the countries in the world committed to the Kyoto Protocol, some consequences of the climatic change will be inevitable; among them some will have a negative impact on health. It would be necessary to adapt a key response strategy to minimize the impacts of climatic change and to reduce, at minimum cost, its adverse effects on health. From the Public Health position, a relevant role can and must be played concerning the understanding of the risks for health of such climatic changes, the design of surveillance systems to evaluate possible impacts, and the establishment of systems to prevent or reduce damages as well as the identification and development of investigation needs. PMID:16539979

  18. Empowering nurses for work engagement and health in hospital settings.

    PubMed

    Laschinger, Heather K Spence; Finegan, Joan

    2005-10-01

    Employee empowerment has become an increasingly important factor in determining employee health and wellbeing in restructured healthcare settings. The authors tested a theoretical model which specified the relationships among structural empowerment, 6 areas of worklife that promote employee engagement, and staff nurses' physical and mental health. A predictive, non-experimental design was used to test the model in a random sample of staff nurses. The authors discuss their findings and the implication for nurse administrators. PMID:16220057

  19. Looking after your health. 2. Avoiding constipation at work.

    PubMed

    Randall, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This article is to summarise key concepts for the health of the midwife, with particular focus on constipation. This is often a taboo subject even amongst women whi aren't midwives, so they do not always freely discuss the issue. It is a key discussion when talking through iron supplementation, hormonal changes and nutrition within the realm of the midwife. Raising awareness and taking care of your own bowel habits is key to enjoying future health and wellbeing. PMID:26310091

  20. Preparing for Global Women’s Health Work

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Nawal M

    2013-01-01

    Interest in global maternal health has steadily increased over the past decade. Medical schools are offering courses on this subject, residencies are incorporating international elective rotations into their practices, and retiring practitioners are opting to spend a year or two in low-resource settings. Although interest is growing, sometimes wellmeaning health practitioners are not entirely prepared for their new experience. Prior to departure, a multistep process is necessary to prepare physicians for living and practicing overseas. PMID:24358408

  1. Public health insurance eligibility and labor force participation of low-income childless adults.

    PubMed

    Guy, Gery P; Atherly, Adam; Adams, E Kathleen

    2012-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act aims to substantially increase public health insurance eligibility among low-income childless adults. The literature suggests that public health insurance may have important implications for labor market participation. With data from the March supplement to the Current Population Survey, difference-in-difference multivariable regression modeling is used to examine the association between state-level public health insurance expansions and the likelihood of full-time employment, part-time employment, and not working among eligible childless adults. Results indicate that public health insurance eligibility is associated with a 2.2 percentage point decrease in full-time employment, a 0.8 percentage point increase in the likelihood of part-time employment, and a 1.4 percentage point increase in the likelihood of not working. These associations were greatest among those with worse health and those aged from 50 to 64 years. This analysis provides important insights into the potential labor market repercussions of health insurance expansions under the Affordable Care Act. PMID:22922636

  2. An Exploration of the Working Alliance in Mental Health Case Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondrat, David C.; Early, Theresa J.

    2010-01-01

    The working alliance between clients and helpers has been identified as a common factor of treatment effectiveness, yet very little research has explored variables associated with working alliance between mental health case managers and their consumers. This study explored the potential covariates of working alliance within community mental health…

  3. Developing Future Health Professionals' Capacities for Working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, Antonia; Britton, Katherine Frances; Hoffman, Julie; Kickett, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This article details reflections of an interdisciplinary team of educators working with groups of health sciences students in preparing them for working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The first-year common core unit discussed here is one attempt to equip future health practitioners with skills and knowledges to work adequately…

  4. Developing Future Health Professionals' Capacities for Working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, Antonia; Britton, Katherine Frances; Hoffman, Julie; Kickett, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This article details reflections of an interdisciplinary team of educators working with groups of health sciences students in preparing them for working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The first-year common core unit discussed here is one attempt to equip future health practitioners with skills and knowledges to work adequately…

  5. Cellular Tug-of-War: Forces at Work and DNA Stretching in Mitosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Brian; Kilfoil, Maria L.

    2013-03-01

    In the microscopic world of the cell dominated by thermal noise, a cell must be able to successfully segregate its DNA with high fidelity in order to pass its genetic information on to its progeny. In this process of mitosis in eukaryotes, driving forces act on the cytoskeleton-based architecture called the mitotic spindle to promote this division. Our preliminary data demonstrates that the dynamics of this process in yeast cells is universal. Moreover, the dynamics suggest an increasing load as the chromosomes are pulled apart. To investigate this, we use three-dimensional imaging to track the dynamics of the poles of this architecture and the points of attachment to chromosomes simultaneously and with high spatial resolution. We analyze the relative motions of chromosomes as they are organized before segregation and as they are pulled apart, using this data to investigate the force-response behavior of this cytoskeleton-chromosome polymer system.

  6. Effects of war exposure on Air Force personnel’s mental health, job burnout and other organizational related outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Vinokur, Amiram D.; Pierce, Penny F.; Lewandowski-Romps, Lisa; Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal data from a stratified representative sample of U.S. Air Force personnel (N = 1009) deployed to the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other locations were analyzed in this study. Using structural equation models, we examined the effects of war exposure on traumatic experiences, Post Traumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms, resource loss, and on subsequent functioning, perceived health, and on job and organizationally relevant outcomes. The job and organizational outcomes included job burnout, job involvement, job strain, job satisfaction, work-family conflict, organizational commitment, deployment readiness, and intention to reenlist. We found that deployment to the theater of the war increased risk of exposure to trauma, which in turn, predicted elevated PTS symptoms and resource loss. PTS symptoms predicted later loss of resources and deterioration in perceived health and functioning. In turn, resource loss predicted negative job and organizational outcomes. Exposure to trauma fully mediated the effects of deployment to the theater of war on PTS symptoms and resource loss and had additional significant indirect effects on several job and organizational relevant outcomes. For returning veterans, deployment to the theater of war, exposure to trauma, PTS symptoms, and resource loss represents a ‘cascading’ chain of events that over time results in a decline of health and functioning as well as in adverse job and organizationally relevant outcomes that may affect organizational effectiveness. PMID:21280941

  7. Electron work functions of ferrite and austenite phases in a duplex stainless steel and their adhesive forces with AFM silicon probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liqiu; Hua, Guomin; Yang, Binjie; Lu, Hao; Qiao, Lijie; Yan, Xianguo; Li, Dongyang

    2016-02-01

    Local electron work function, adhesive force, modulus and deformation of ferrite and austenite phases in a duplex stainless steel were analyzed by scanning force microscopy. It is demonstrated that the austenite has a higher electron work function than the ferrite, corresponding to higher modulus, smaller deformation and larger adhesive force. Relevant first-principles calculations were conducted to elucidate the mechanism behind. It is demonstrated that the difference in the properties between austenite and ferrite is intrinsically related to their electron work functions.

  8. [Human resources and health work: challenges for a research agenda].

    PubMed

    Assunção, Ada Avila; Belisário, Soraya Almeida; Campos, Francisco Eduardo; D'Avila, Luciana Souza

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses several key concepts for human resources policy in health in the context of Latin America's regional integration efforts. The article focuses on different concepts of integration to emphasize the analytical distinction between regional and conceptual integration. It also presents labor and human resources concepts before discussing, in the final analysis, the challenges that a common research agenda faces in the context of current health sector reforms in Latin America. The conclusion emphasizes the need to develop a technology and research system capable of supporting the agenda for exchange between MERCOSUR member countries. PMID:17625646

  9. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change’s health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities. PMID:26690194

  10. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change's health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities. PMID:26690194

  11. Distraction: an assessment of smartphone usage in health care work settings

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Preetinder S; Kamath, Ashwini; Gill, Tejkaran S

    2012-01-01

    Smartphone use in health care work settings presents both opportunities and challenges. The benefits could be severely undermined if abuse and overuse are not kept in check. This practice-focused research paper examines the current panorama of health software applications. Findings from existing research are consolidated to elucidate the level and effects of distraction in health care work settings due to smartphone use. A conceptual framework for crafting guidelines to regulate the use of smartphones in health care work settings is then presented. Finally, specific guidelines are delineated to assist in creating policies for the use of smartphones in a health care workplace. PMID:22969308

  12. A good training based on insufficiency: Work in health care as an ethics.

    PubMed

    Casetto, Sidnei J; Henz, Alexandre O; Garcia, Maurício L; Aguiar, Fernanda B; Montenegro, Julia T; Unzueta, Leandro B; Capozzolo, Angela A

    2016-03-01

    The article discusses psychology training in health care at the Federal University of São Paulo. It places curriculum guidelines in a changing movement of training for health professions, proposing Work in Health Care as one of its common axes. In the Baixada Santista campus, the course is based on learning by experience, public health services and multidisciplinary team work. Three vectors derived from the experience in this project and its assessment are discussed: a common clinic, work in health care as an ethics and the idea of good training by insufficiency. PMID:26987824

  13. Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force White Paper #2 -- Uses of Uncensored Data

    SciTech Connect

    MacQueen, D H

    2007-10-10

    On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: (1) reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors; (2) minimize the levels of, and potential for, exposure to beryllium; and (3) establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease. On January 4, 2001, DOE issued DOE G 440.1-7A, Implementation Guide for use with 10 CFR 850, Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program, to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing the CBDPP. That guide describes methods and techniques that DOE considers acceptable in complying with the Rule. In 2005 a draft DOE Technical Standard ''Management of Items and Areas Containing Low Levels of Beryllium'' (SAFT 0103; hereafter referred to as the ''TS'') was circulated for comment (http://www.hss.energy.gov/NuclearSafety/techstds/tsdrafts/saft-0103.pdf). DOE technical standards are voluntary consensus standards developed when industry standards do not exist (see http://www.hss.energy.gov/NuclearSafety/techstds/index.html for more information). DOE does not require its field elements to implement DOE technical standards, but field elements may choose to adopt these standards to meet specific needs. This beryllium TS is intended to provide best practices and lessons learned for manageing items and areas that contain low levels of beryllium, which has been a costly and technically challenging component of CBDPPs. The TS is also intended to provide guidance for determining if the Rule's housekeeping and release criteria are met. On challenge the TS addressed was the statistical interpretation of data sets with non-detected results, a topic for which no strong consensus exists. Among the many comments on the draft TS was a suggestion that certain of the statistical comparisons described in the TS could be better implemented if analytical results, even when below a reporting limit, were to be reported by analytical laboratories. See Appendix 1 for a review of terminology related to reporting limits. The Beryllium Health and Safety Committee (BHSC) formed a Sampling and Analysis Subcommittee (SAS) in 2003. The SAS established a working group on accreditation and reporting limits. By 2006 it had become evident that the issues extended to data reporting as a whole. The SAS proposed to the BHSC the formation of a Data Reporting Task Force (DRTF) to consider issues related to data reporting. The BHSC Board agreed, and requested that the DRTF generate a white paper, to be offered by the BHSC to potential interested parties such as the DOE policy office that is responsible for beryllium health and safety policy. It was noted that additional products could include detailed guidance and potentially a journal article in the future. The SAS proposed that DRTF membership represent the affected disciplines (chemists, industrial hygiene professionals and statisticians, and the DOE office that is responsible for beryllium health and safety policy). The BHSC Board decided that DRTF membership should come from DOE sites, since the focus would be on reporting in the context of the TS and the Rule. The DRTF came into existence in late 2006. The DRTF membership includes industrial hygienists, analytical chemists and laboratory managers, members of the regulatory and oversight community, and environmental statisticians. A first White Paper, ''Summary of Issues and Path Forward'', was reviewed by the BHSC in March 2007 and issued by the DRTF in June 2007. It describes the charter of the DRTF, introduces some basic terminology (reproduced here in Appendix 1), lays out the issues the DRTF is expected to address, and describes a path forward for the DRTF's work. This first White Paper is available through the BHSC web site. This White Paper presents recommendations developed by the DRTF following the process laid out in that first White Paper.

  14. Deriving the Work Done by an Inverse Square Force in Non-Calculus-Based Introductory Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    I describe a method of evaluating the integral of 1/r[superscript 2] with respect to r that uses only algebra and the concept of area underneath a curve, and which does not formally employ any calculus. This is useful for algebra-based introductory physics classes (where the use of calculus is forbidden) to derive the work done by the force of one…

  15. Working with the private sector for child health.

    PubMed

    Waters, Hugh; Hatt, Laurel; Peters, David

    2003-06-01

    Private sector providers are the most commonly consulted source of care for child illnesses in many countries, offering significant opportunities to expand the reach of essential child health services and products. Yet collaboration with private providers presents major challenges - the suitability and quality of the services they provide is often questionable and governments' capacity to regulate them is limited. This article assesses the actual and potential contributions of the private sector to child health, and classifies and evaluates public sector strategies to promote and rationalize the contributions of private sector actors. Governments and international organizations can use a variety of strategies to collaborate with and influence private sector actors to improve child health - including contracting, regulating, financing and social marketing, training, coordinating and informing the public. These mutually reinforcing strategies can both improve the quality of services currently delivered in the private sector, and expand and rationalize the coverage of these services. One lesson from this review is that the private sector is very heterogeneous. At the country level, feasible strategies depend on the potential of the different components of the private sector and the capacity of governments and their partners for collaboration. To date, experience with private sector strategies offers considerable promise for children's health, but also raises many questions about the feasibility and impact of these strategies. Where possible, future interventions should be designed as experiments, with careful assessment of the intervention design and the environment in which they are implemented. PMID:12740317

  16. Local Health Integration Networks: will "made in Ontario" work?

    PubMed

    Ronson, John

    2006-01-01

    This article analyzes the prospects for success of the new LHINs and whether or not a "made in Ontario" model is likely to work. It concludes with some advice for independent healthcare corporations in the province. PMID:16548433

  17. Globalisation, rural restructuring and health service delivery in Australia: policy failure and the role of social work?

    PubMed

    Alston, Margaret

    2007-05-01

    The impacts of globalisation and rural restructuring on health service delivery in rural Australia have been significant. In the present paper, it is argued that declining health service access represents a failure of policy. Rural communities across the world are in a state of flux, and Australia is no different: rural communities are ageing at faster rates than urban communities and young people are out-migrating in large numbers. During the past 5 years, rural Australia has also experienced a severe and widespread drought that has exacerbated rural poverty, and impacted on the health and well-being of rural Australians. Australian governments have responded to globalising forces by introducing neoliberal policy initiatives favouring market solutions and championing the need for self-reliance among citizens. The result for rural Australia has been a withdrawal of services at a time of increased need. This paper addresses the social work response to these changes. PMID:17444982

  18. Research in the Service of Mental Health: Summary Report of the Research Task Force of the National Institute of Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Julius, Ed.; Boomer, Donald S., Ed.

    Presented is a summary of the findings and recommendations of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Task Force on Research in the Service of Mental Health. Research is discussed on topics which include background and organization of NIMH research programs; biological, psychological, and sociocultural influences on behavior; role and…

  19. Genomic information as a behavioral health intervention: can it work?

    PubMed Central

    Bloss, Cinnamon S; Madlensky, Lisa; Schork, Nicholas J; Topol, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    Individuals can now obtain their personal genomic information via direct-to-consumer genetic testing, but what, if any, impact will this have on their lifestyle and health? A recent longitudinal cohort study of individuals who underwent consumer genome scanning found minimal impacts of testing on risk-reducing lifestyle behaviors, such as diet and exercise. These results raise an important question: is personal genomic information likely to beneficially impact public health through motivation of lifestyle behavioral change? In this article, we review the literature on lifestyle behavioral change in response to genetic testing for common disease susceptibility variants. We find that only a few studies have been carried out, and that those that have been done have yielded little evidence to suggest that the mere provision of genetic information alone results in widespread changes in lifestyle health behaviors. We suggest that further study of this issue is needed, in particular studies that examine response to multiplex testing for multiple genetic markers and conditions. This will be critical as we anticipate the wide availability of whole-genome sequencing and more comprehensive phenotyping of individuals. We also note that while simple communication of genomic information and disease susceptibility may be sufficient to catalyze lifestyle changes in some highly motivated groups of individuals, for others, additional strategies may be required to prompt changes, including more sophisticated means of risk communication (e.g., in the context of social norm feedback) either alone or in combination with other promising interventions (e.g., real-time wireless health monitoring devices). PMID:22199991

  20. Beyond workers' compensation: men's mental health in and out of work.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina S E

    2014-01-01

    The mental health of men is an important issue with significant direct and indirect costs emerging from work-related depression and suicide. Although the merits of men's community-based and workplace mental health promotion initiatives have been endorsed, few programs are mandated or formally evaluated and reported on. Conspicuously absent also are gender analyses detailing connections between masculinities and men's work-related depression and suicide on which to build men-centered mental health promotion programs. This article provides an overview of four interconnected issues, (a) masculinities and men's health, (b) men and work, (c) men's work-related depression and suicide, and (d) men's mental health promotion, in the context of men's diverse relationships to work (including job insecurity and unemployment). Based on the review, recommendations are made for advancing the well-being of men who are in as well as of those out of work. PMID:23727792

  1. Beyond workers' compensation: men's mental health in and out of work.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Oliffe JL; Han CS

    2014-01-01

    The mental health of men is an important issue with significant direct and indirect costs emerging from work-related depression and suicide. Although the merits of men's community-based and workplace mental health promotion initiatives have been endorsed, few programs are mandated or formally evaluated and reported on. Conspicuously absent also are gender analyses detailing connections between masculinities and men's work-related depression and suicide on which to build men-centered mental health promotion programs. This article provides an overview of four interconnected issues, (a) masculinities and men's health, (b) men and work, (c) men's work-related depression and suicide, and (d) men's mental health promotion, in the context of men's diverse relationships to work (including job insecurity and unemployment). Based on the review, recommendations are made for advancing the well-being of men who are in as well as of those out of work.

  2. Health Workforce and International Migration: Can New Zealand Compete? OECD Health Working Papers No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurn, Pascal; Dumont, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines health workforce and migration policies in New Zealand, with a special focus on the international recruitment of doctors and nurses. The health workforce in New Zealand, as in all OECD countries, plays a central role in the health system. Nonetheless, maybe more than for any other OECD country, the health workforce in New…

  3. Working towards Men's Health: Findings from the Sefton Men's Health Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve; McCullagh, Jo; Hacking, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a health improvement initiative aimed at enhancing the health of men in deprived areas. Design: A healthy lifestyle programme was undertaken with men to increase their health knowledge, and encourage behaviour modification and access to health improvement services. A peer mentoring programme was implemented and a training…

  4. Working towards Men's Health: Findings from the Sefton Men's Health Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve; McCullagh, Jo; Hacking, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a health improvement initiative aimed at enhancing the health of men in deprived areas. Design: A healthy lifestyle programme was undertaken with men to increase their health knowledge, and encourage behaviour modification and access to health improvement services. A peer mentoring programme was implemented and a training…

  5. Special operations forces and counterproliferation: The interagency process at work. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Bakken, H.L.

    1996-04-01

    The threat of use of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) in the United States or against American vital interests overseas is real. Combating the proliferation of WMD has become a high priority for the U.S. Government. Within Department of Defense Counterproliferation Initiative (DOD CPI) of 1993 Special Operations Forces (SOF) have become pivotal players in the creation of a full range of military options to counter this threat. SOF provides the National Command Authority (NCA) with flexible and responsive options. In order to successfully execute any type of CP related special operation, the interagency process must be fully engaged and synchronized. This study assesses the nature of the threat, reviews the evolution of the DOD CPI, and focuses on the use of SOF as an instrument of U.S. policy. Specifically this study explores the connectivity of the interagency process to support a U.S. SOF Counterproliferation mission.

  6. Rethinking work-health models for the new global economy: a qualitative analysis of emerging dimensions of work.

    PubMed

    Polanyi, Michael; Tompa, Emile

    2004-01-01

    Technology change, rising international trade and investment, and increased competition are changing the organization, distribution and nature of work in industrialized countries. To enhance productivity, employers are striving to increase innovation while minimizing costs. This is leading to an intensification of work demands on core employees and the outsourcing or casualization of more marginal tasks, often to contingent workers. The two prevailing models of work and health - demand-control and effort-reward imbalance - may not capture the full range of experiences of workers in today's increasingly flexible and competitive economies. To explore this proposition, we conducted a secondary qualitative analysis of interviews with 120 American workers [6]. Our analysis identifies aspects of work affecting the quality of workers' experiences that are largely overlooked by popular work-health models: the nature of social interactions with customers and clients; workers' belief in, and perception of, the importance of the product of their work. We suggest that the quality of work experiences is partly determined by the objective characteristics of the work environment, but also by the fit of the work environment with the worker's needs, interests, desires and personality, something not adequately captured in current models. PMID:15328458

  7. What is a health worker? How spa therapists in a Norwegian health hotel understand their work.

    PubMed

    Anderssen, Jorid

    2016-04-01

    In Norway, as in many other wealthy countries, the number of health-related services that are being offered outside of the health sector is increasing. The present paper is based on qualitative interviews that were conducted with providers of health-related services at a commercial health hotel in Norway. The hotel is marketed as a health hotel - that is, a place for people with health problems and for those who need relaxation and an escape from their stressful everyday lives. The paper discusses whether the providers of this kind of service consider it a health service or if they distinguish and distance themselves from the health system. The interviews showed that they consider themselves health workers and refer to themselves as therapists. Even though they use therapy in the health sector as a model, they distinguish themselves from therapists in the health sector. They do not want to treat what they call sick people. Most of their therapy is directed toward cultivating or improving people's bodies and souls. These service providers think that they contribute to improving their guests' health by teaching them how to take care of themselves; enjoying oneself (for instance, by receiving skin treatment or a massage) is an important aspect of good health. According to the therapists, modern-day women, in particular, are often worn-out, and they deserve, and are entitled, to enjoy themselves. In these ways, the therapists use health to legitimize their services, and they challenge the current understanding of health. PMID:26324995

  8. Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Work-Rest Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    BHP Program Element Goal: Identify, characterize, and prevent or reduce behavioral health and performance risks associated with space travel, exploration and return to terrestrial life. BHP Requirements: a) Characterize and assess risks (e.g., likelihood and consequences). b) Develop tools and technologies to prevent, monitor, and treat adverse outcomes. c) Inform standards. d) Develop technologies to: 1) reduce risks and human systems resource requirements (e.g., crew time, mass, volume, power) and 2) ensure effective human-system integration across exploration mission.

  9. Human health and the water environment: using the DPSEEA framework to identify the driving forces of disease.

    PubMed

    Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-15

    There is a growing awareness of global forces that threaten human health via the water environment. A better understanding of the dynamic between human health and the water environment would enable prediction of the significant driving forces and effective strategies for coping with or preventing them. This report details the use of the Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework to explore the linkage between water-related diseases and their significant driving forces. The DPSEEA frameworks indicate that a select group of driving forces, including population growth, agriculture, infrastructure (dams and irrigation), and climate change, is at the root cause of key global disease burdens. Construction of the DPSEEA frameworks also allows for the evaluation of public health interventions. Sanitation was found to be a widely applicable and effective intervention, targeting the driver/pressure linkage of most of the water-related diseases examined. Ultimately, the DPSEEA frameworks offer a platform for constituents in both the health and environmental fields to collaborate and commit to a common goal targeting the same driving forces. PMID:24036221

  10. Work-health needs of high-altitude mountain guides (Sherpas) in Nepal - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Ewan B; Shrestha, Shrijana; Chhetri, Mahendra Kashari; Sherpa, Lahkpa Rangdu; Sherpa, Da Gelje; Murray, Keith; Sanati, Kaveh A

    2015-01-01

    Much of the research in high-altitude medicine has been concerned with non-indigenous travellers; no study has examined the work-related health issues of high altitude mountain guides (Sherpas) in Nepal. This pilot study was performed to investigate the work-related health issues of people working as Sherpas by evaluating their perceptions of their general health and its relation to work. An occupational and general health questionnaire was tailored for the Sherpas following a focus group with five Sherpa workers. 131 Sherpas participated in this study. Respiratory (60%) and musculoskeletal symptoms (55%) were reported significantly more frequently than other health problems (p < .05). 33 Sherpas reported work accident experiences (25%) and 27 (21%) reported eye conditions. This pilot study identified respiratory and musculoskeletal problems as well as accidents as the main work-related health issues of high altitude climbing Sherpas. Another important finding was the high prevalence of reported eye conditions (21%). Better occupational health and safety arrangements including routine recording of accidents or work-related health problems would give better insight into the health needs of Sherpas. PMID:26327257

  11. Does Occupational Mobility Influence Health among Working Women? Comparing Objective and Subjective Measures of Work Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Shippee, Tetyana P.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational mobility is highly valued in American society, but is it consequential to women's health? Previous studies have yielded inconsistent results, but most measured occupational mobility by identifying transitions across occupational categories. Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, this study (1) compares objective and subjective…

  12. Does Occupational Mobility Influence Health among Working Women? Comparing Objective and Subjective Measures of Work Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Shippee, Tetyana P.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational mobility is highly valued in American society, but is it consequential to women's health? Previous studies have yielded inconsistent results, but most measured occupational mobility by identifying transitions across occupational categories. Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, this study (1) compares objective and subjective…

  13. What Can Education Teach Child Mental Health Services? Practitioners' Perceptions of Training and Joint Working

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vostanis, Panos; O'Reilly, Michelle; Taylor, Helen; Day, Crispin; Street, Cathy; Wolpert, Miranda; Edwards, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The importance of joint working between educational and child mental health professionals is well documented but there are numerous challenges and only limited training models. While the evidence base and training programmes for educationalists regarding child mental health is growing, training mental health professionals about education is more…

  14. Health promotion in the maritime work environment--training of leaders.

    PubMed

    Jezewska, Maria; Jaremin, Bogdan; Leszczy?ska, Irena

    2007-01-01

    The essence of the project of pro-health attitudes promotion is the assumption that they contribute to a successful occupational career and reduce health and life hazards in the maritime work environment. The method chosen was to train students of the Maritime Academy in Gdynia, the future officers and potential health leaders among maritime employees. PMID:18350982

  15. What Can Education Teach Child Mental Health Services? Practitioners' Perceptions of Training and Joint Working

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vostanis, Panos; O'Reilly, Michelle; Taylor, Helen; Day, Crispin; Street, Cathy; Wolpert, Miranda; Edwards, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The importance of joint working between educational and child mental health professionals is well documented but there are numerous challenges and only limited training models. While the evidence base and training programmes for educationalists regarding child mental health is growing, training mental health professionals about education is more…

  16. The contribution of social work in promoting rural health: a case from the grassroots.

    PubMed

    Nanjunda, D C

    2009-09-01

    Promotion of rural health has become a high priority of policy makers in many third world countries. Numerous NGOs are working to improve health quality in rural India. By describing a rural health promotion project in which a social worker played a key role, this article illustrates how social work practitioners can bring their many skills to bear in efforts to promote health. This commentary seeks to share the experience of an NGO in specific health promotion project in Rural Karnataka State (India). PMID:19773302

  17. Impact of School Staff Health on Work Productivity in Secondary Schools in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alker, Heather J.; Wang, Monica L.; Pbert, Lori; Thorsen, Nancy; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy, productive employees are an integral part of school health programs. There have been few assessments of work productivity among secondary school staff. This study describes the frequency of 3 common health risk factors--obesity, depressive symptoms, and smoking--and their impact on work productivity in secondary school…

  18. Impact of School Staff Health on Work Productivity in Secondary Schools in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alker, Heather J.; Wang, Monica L.; Pbert, Lori; Thorsen, Nancy; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy, productive employees are an integral part of school health programs. There have been few assessments of work productivity among secondary school staff. This study describes the frequency of 3 common health risk factors--obesity, depressive symptoms, and smoking--and their impact on work productivity in secondary school…

  19. The Hidden Health Toll: A Cost of Work to the American Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellman, Jeanne M.

    1977-01-01

    Large numbers of women work at jobs that present serious health hazards, although most people associate workplace hazards with traditionally "male" jobs. Physical dangers, stress, and fatigue lead to manifold health problems among working women. These problems should be investigated and conditions improved for workers of both sexes. (Author/GC)

  20. Piezoresistive cantilever working in a shear force mode for in situ characterization of exposed micro- and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierakowski, Andrzej; Kopiec, Daniel; Janus, Pawe?; Ekwi?ska, Magdalena; P?uska, Mariusz; Grabiec, Piotr; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a method of characterization micro- and nanostructures defined in a photolithography process. To implement this method a measurement system composed of an atomic force microscope (AFM) integrated with a system for maskless lithography was developed. This integration enables exposed patterns to be examined in situ, without any necessity for a developing process. The microscope works in a shear force mode, uses a cantilever with a piezoresistive method of detecting deflection and can be used for measuring surfaces with high aspect ratio by applying an appropriate technology of sharpening in a focused ion beam process. The cantilever fabrication process, its calibration and examination procedures are presented. Finally, the AFM images of structures scanned directly after exposure are shown.

  1. Economic and Work Force Development. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Geneva, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Among the factors reshaping the American workforce are diversity, demands of work and family, global competition, the growing importance of strategic human resource planning, the need to reeducate employees for new technologies and more demanding jobs, and renewed interest in ethics and social responsibility. This collection of articles examines…

  2. Developing a World Class Work Force: Business and Industry, Government, and Schools Respond to School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Theodore J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports from the United States Department of Labor have stated that school to work transitioning have become integral in developing education programs. The article describes good programs' characteristics and notes key issues surrounding the education of a workforce needed to keep U.S. business and industry competitive. (SM)

  3. Re-Forming the Teaching Work Force: The Case of the Academic Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Christine; Youens, Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study of the experiences and expectations of a cohort of 13 "Academic Coaches", appointed to temporary teaching support roles in challenging inner city secondary schools. The discussion of this particular initiative is located in a broader consideration of the work and conditions of para-professionals as the…

  4. Work Force Education: Beyond Technical Skills. Trends and Issues Alert No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    This brief suggests that during the past 2 decades, the skills needed to succeed in the workplace have changed significantly. Technical skills remain important, but, increasingly, employers recognize another category of skills crucial to a worker's ability to work "smarter, not harder." These "soft,""core,""nontechnical,""essential,""generic," and…

  5. Task Force Report 5. Report of the Task Force on Family Medicine’s Role in Shaping the Future Health Care Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Richard G.; Snape, Pam S.; Burke, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recognizing that the implementation of needed changes within family medicine will be enhanced through a concurrent effort to transform the broader health care system, this Future of Family Medicine task force was charged with determining family medicine’s leadership role in shaping the future health care delivery system. METHODS After reviewing the changes taking place within family medicine and the broader health care system, this task force identified 6 priorities for fostering necessary modifications in the health care system. In addressing the leadership challenge facing the discipline, the task force presents a 3-dimensional matrix that provides a useful framework for describing the audiences that should be targeted, the strategic priorities that should be pursued, and the specific recommendations that should be addressed. Noting that leadership is part of the heritage of family medicine, the task force reviewed past successes by the discipline as important lessons that can be instructive as family physicians begin advocating for needed changes. MAJOR FINDINGS Effective leadership is an essential ingredient that will determine, to a large extent, the success of family medicine in advocating for needed change in the health care system overall and in the specialty. It is vitally important to groom leaders within family medicine and to create venues where policy makers and influence leaders can look beyond their usual constituencies and horizons to a comprehensive view of health care. A central concept being proposed is that of a relationship-centered personal medical home. This medical home serves as the focal point through which all individuals—regardless of age, gender, race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status—receive a basket of acute, chronic, and preventive medical care services that are accessible, accountable, comprehensive, integrated, patient-centered, safe, scientifically valid, and satisfying to both patients and their physicians. CONCLUSION Family medicine has and will continue to have an important leadership role in health system change. It has been most successful when it has been able to identify a high-priority goal through consensus within the discipline, to focus and coordinate local and national resources, and to use a multipronged approach in addressing the priority. Although the Future of Family Medicine project has provided an important impetus for the identification of key priorities across the discipline, for the FFM project ultimately to be a success, implementation steps will need to be identified and prioritized. The leadership matrix presented in this report can provide a useful structuring tool to identify, understand, and coordinate change efforts more effectively. Strategic alliances with primary care groups and others also will be critical to the success of change initiatives.

  6. Periodic health examination, 1994 update: 2. Screening strategies for colorectal cancer. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, M J; McLeod, R S

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To make recommendations on the effectiveness of screening for colorectal cancer in asymptomatic patients over 40 years of age. OPTIONS: Multiphase screening that begins with test for fecal occult blood, uniphase screening with sigmoidoscopy and uniphase screening with colonoscopy. Options included screening repeated at different intervals and different procedures for patients with selected risk factors. OUTCOMES: Rates of death, death from cancer and cancer detection; compliance, feasibility and accuracy of each manoeuvre. EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search for articles published between January 1966 and June 1993 with the use of MeSH terms "screening" and "colorectal neoplasia," a check with the reference sections of review articles published before June 1993 and a survey of content experts. Articles were weighted according to the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination levels of evidence. VALUES: The highest value was assigned to manoeuvres that lowered the rate of death from cancer and had a low rate of false-positive results and acceptable cost and compliance. Recommendations were determined by consensus of the authors, members of the task force and colorectal cancer experts. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: There is evidence that annual fecal occult blood testing with the use of the rehydrated Hemoccult test has a small but significant benefit in lowering the rate of death from cancer after more than 10 years of screening; however, the high rate of false-positive results (9.8%) and the poor sensitivity of annual (49%) and biennial (38%) screening make this a poor method for detecting colorectal cancer. There is fair evidence that screening with sigmoidoscopy may improve survival rates; however, this may be due to volunteer bias. The high cost of and poor compliance with colonoscopic screening make this an unfeasible strategy. PMID:7980760

  7. [Objectives and activities of the German Federal Working Group on migration and public health].

    PubMed

    Grieger, D; Gardemann, J

    2003-12-01

    The 53rd scientific congress of the Federal association of physicians and dentists in the public health services addressed the interdependence of migration and health under the motto "health unlimited" in May, 2003. Manifold interactions between migration and health contribute to the public health services' everyday experiences. Immigrants often encounter manifold obstacles to their access to health services in Germany. These barriers are often of communicative or administrative nature. The system of public health administration and services has, by its very nature, opportunities and assignment a special obligation to support the immigrant population. The public health services will increasingly become guarantors of equal health opportunities in times of cumulative migration and social inequalities. In cooperation with the German Federal Commissioner for Migration, Refugees and Integration the German Federal Working Group on Migration and Public Health acts as facilitator and advocate for health of immigrants to Germany since 1994. A very close co-operation with the public health services and an interdisciplinary, intercultural, population-oriented and health-promoting approach are core elements of the working group that is lobbying the health of a multinational population within the borders of Germany. PMID:14685921

  8. The Relationships between Mothers’ Work Pathways and Physical and Mental Health*

    PubMed Central

    Frech, Adrianne; Damaske, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    We contribute to research on the relationships between gender, work and health by using longitudinal, theoretically driven models of mothers’ diverse work pathways and adjusting for unequal selection into these pathways. Using the NLSY79 (N=2,540), we find full-time, continuous employment following a first birth is associated with significantly better health at age forty than part-time work, paid work interrupted by unemployment, and unpaid work in the home. Part-time workers with little unemployment report significantly better health at age forty than mothers experiencing persistent unemployment. These relationships remain after accounting for the unequal selection of more advantaged mothers into full-time, continuous employment, suggesting full-time workers benefit from cumulating advantages across the life course and reiterating the need to disentangle health benefits associated with work from those associated with pre-pregnancy characteristics. PMID:23197483

  9. Competing conceptualizations of decent work at the intersection of health, social and economic discourses.

    PubMed

    Di Ruggiero, Erica; Cohen, Joanna E; Cole, Donald C; Forman, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), decent work is critical to economic and social progress and well-being. The ILO's Decent Work Agenda outlines four directions (creating jobs, guaranteeing rights at work, extending social protection, promoting social dialogue) (ILO, 2015). While the Agenda's existence may imply consensus about its meaning, we contend that several conceptualizations of decent work exist in the global policy arena. Different institutional perspectives must be negotiated, and political, economic, social and health considerations balanced in its pursuit. This paper reports findings from a critical discourse analysis of 10 policy texts that aimed to reveal different health, economic, and social claims about decent work and how these are shaped by the work policy agendas of the ILO, World Health Organization, and World Bank. Themes emerging from the discourse analysis include the: challenges and realities of promoting "one" agenda; complex intersection between decent work, health and health equity concepts; emphasis on economic and pro-market interests versus the social dimensions of work; and, relative emphasis on individual versus collective responsibility for decent work. To our knowledge, this is a first attempt to contrast different conceptualizations of decent work involving these institutions. Our findings suggest that decent work is a contested notion, and that more than one "agenda" is operating in the face of vested institutional interests. Broader discourses are contributing to a reframing of decent work in economic, social and/or health terms and these are impacting which dimensions of work are taken up in policy texts over others. Results show how the language of economics acts as a disciplinary and regulatory power and its role as a normalizing discourse. We call for research that deepens understanding of how a social, economic and health phenomenon like work is discursively re-interpreted through different global institutional interests. PMID:25864148

  10. Constrained Choices? Linking Employees' and Spouses' Work Time to Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wen; Lam, Jack; Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; King, Rosalind; McHale, Susan

    2014-01-01

    There are extensive literatures on work conditions and health and on family contexts and health, but less research asking how a spouse or partners' work conditions may affect health behaviors. Drawing on the constrained choices framework, we theorized health behaviors as a product of one's own time and spouses' work time as well as gender expectations. We examined fast food consumption and exercise behaviors using survey data from 429 employees in an Information Technology (IT) division of a U.S. Fortune 500 firm and from their spouses. We found fast food consumption is affected by men's work hours—both male employees' own work hours and the hours worked by husbands of women respondents—in a nonlinear way. The groups most likely to eat fast food are men working 50 hours/week and women whose husbands work 45-50 hours/week. Second, exercise is better explained if work time is conceptualized at the couple, rather than individual, level. In particular, neo-traditional arrangements (where husbands work longer than their wives) constrain women's ability to engage in exercise but increase odds of men exercising. Women in couples where both partners are working long hours have the highest odds of exercise. In addition, women working long hours with high schedule control are more apt to exercise and men working long hours whose wives have high schedule flexibility are as well. Our findings suggest different health behaviors may have distinct antecedents but gendered work-family expectations shape time allocations in ways that promote men's and constrain women's health behaviors. They also suggest the need to expand the constrained choices framework to recognize that long hours may encourage exercise if both partners are looking to sustain long work hours and that work resources, specifically schedule control, of one partner may expand the choices of the other. PMID:25531550

  11. Constrained choices? Linking employees' and spouses' work time to health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wen; Lam, Jack; Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; King, Rosalind; McHale, Susan

    2015-02-01

    There are extensive literatures on work conditions and health and on family contexts and health, but less research asking how a spouse or partners' work conditions may affect health behaviors. Drawing on the constrained choices framework, we theorized health behaviors as a product of one's own time and spouses' work time as well as gender expectations. We examined fast food consumption and exercise behaviors using survey data from 429 employees in an Information Technology (IT) division of a U.S. Fortune 500 firm and from their spouses. We found fast food consumption is affected by men's work hours-both male employees' own work hours and the hours worked by husbands of women respondents-in a nonlinear way. The groups most likely to eat fast food are men working 50 h/week and women whose husbands work 45-50 h/week. Second, exercise is better explained if work time is conceptualized at the couple, rather than individual, level. In particular, neo-traditional arrangements (where husbands work longer than their wives) constrain women's ability to engage in exercise but increase odds of men exercising. Women in couples where both partners are working long hours have the highest odds of exercise. In addition, women working long hours with high schedule control are more apt to exercise and men working long hours whose wives have high schedule flexibility are as well. Our findings suggest different health behaviors may have distinct antecedents but gendered work-family expectations shape time allocations in ways that promote men's and constrain women's health behaviors. They also suggest the need to expand the constrained choices framework to recognize that long hours may encourage exercise if both partners are looking to sustain long work hours and that work resources, specifically schedule control, of one partner may expand the choices of the other. PMID:25531550

  12. Star wars and strategic defense initiatives: work activity and health symptoms of unionized bank tellers during work reorganization.

    PubMed

    Seifert, A M; Messing, K; Dumais, L

    1997-01-01

    Work activity and health symptoms of bank tellers whose work was undergoing reorganization were examined during a university-union study of the health effects of work in women's traditional jobs. Data were gathered through collective and individual interviews, analysis of work activity, and a questionnaire administered to 305 tellers. Employees worked in a standing posture over 80 percent of the time. More than two-thirds frequently suffered pain in back, legs, and feet. The average teller had been involved in 3.7 robberies as a direct victim and six as a witness. Work required feats of memory and concentration. In order to meet job demands, tellers engaged in supportive activities and teamwork. The introduction of individualized objectives threatened the employees' ability to collaborate and induced distress. More than twice as many tellers as other female workers in Québec experience psychological distress (Ilfeld scale), related to: robbery during the past two years (odds ratio = 1.7; confidence interval = 1.0-2.9); difficult relations with superiors (O.R. = 2.6; C.I. = 1.3-5.3); and full-time work (O.R. = 2.3; C.I. = 1.3-3.9). Diverse methods enriched the analysis, and union participation allowed the proposal of concrete correction measures. PMID:9285277

  13. Mental health/illness and prisons as place: frontline clinicians׳ perspectives of mental health work in a penal setting.

    PubMed

    Wright, Nicola; Jordan, Melanie; Kane, Eddie

    2014-09-01

    This article takes mental health and prisons as its two foci. It explores the links between social and structural aspects of the penal setting, the provision of mental healthcare in prisons, and mental health work in this environment. This analysis utilises qualitative interview data from prison-based fieldwork undertaken in Her Majesty׳s Prison Service, England. Two themes are discussed: (1) the desire and practicalities of doing mental health work and (2) prison staff as mental health work allies. Concepts covered include equivalence, training, ownership, informal communication, mental health knowledge, service gatekeepers, case identification, and unmet need. Implications for practice are (1) the mental health knowledge and understanding of prison wing staff could be appraised and developed to improve mental healthcare and address unmet need. Their role as observers and gatekeepers could be considered. (2) The realities of frontline mental health work for clinicians in the penal environment should be embraced and used to produce and implement improved policy and practice guidance, which is in better accord with the actuality of the context - both socially and structurally. PMID:25124166

  14. Perceived unfairness in working conditions: The case of public health services in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The focus on the determinants of the quality of health services in low-income countries is increasing. Health workers' motivation has emerged as a topic of substantial interest in this context. The main objective of this article is to explore health workers' experience of working conditions, linked to motivation to work. Working conditions have been pointed out as a key factor in ensuring a motivated and well performing staff. The empirical focus is on rural public health services in Tanzania. The study aims to situate the results in a broader historical context in order to enhance our understanding of the health worker discourse on working conditions. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit detailed information on health workers' experience of their working conditions. The data comprise focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with administrators, clinicians and nursing staff in the public health services in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in the same part of Tanzania. Results The article provides insights into health workers' understanding and assessment of their working conditions. An experience of unsatisfactory working conditions as well as a perceived lack of fundamental fairness dominated the FGDs and IDIs. Informants reported unfairness with reference to factors such as salary, promotion, recognition of work experience, allocation of allowances and access to training as well as to human resource management. The study also revealed that many health workers lack information or knowledge about factors that influence their working conditions. Conclusions The article calls for attention to the importance of locating the discourse of unfairness related to working conditions in a broader historical/political context. Tanzanian history has been characterised by an ambiguous and shifting landscape of state regulation, economic reforms, decentralisation and emerging democratic sentiments. Such a historic contextualisation enhances our understanding of the strong sentiments of unfairness revealed in this study and assists us in considering potential ways forward. PMID:21314985

  15. Force generation and work production by covalently cross-linked actin-myosin cross-bridges in rabbit muscle fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Bershitsky, S Y; Tsaturyan, A K

    1995-01-01

    To separate a fraction of the myosin cross-bridges that are attached to the thin filaments and that participate in the mechanical responses, muscle fibers were cross-linked with 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide and then immersed in high-salt relaxing solution (HSRS) of 0.6 M ionic strength for detaching the unlinked myosin heads. The mechanical properties and force-generating ability of the cross-linked cross-bridges were tested with step length changes (L-steps) and temperature jumps (T-jumps) from 6-10 degrees C to 30-40 degrees C. After partial cross-linking, when instantaneous stiffness in HSRS was 25-40% of that in rigor, the mechanical behavior of the fibers was similar to that during active contraction. The kinetics of the T-jump-induced tension transients as well as the rate of the fast phase of tension recovery after length steps were close to those in unlinked fibers during activation. Under feedback force control, the T-jump initiated fiber shortening by up to 4 nm/half-sarcomere. Work produced by a cross-linked myosin head after the T-jump was up to 30 x 10(-21) J. When the extent of cross-linking was increased and fiber stiffness in HSRS approached that in rigor, the fibers lost their viscoelastic properties and ability to generate force with a rise in temperature. PMID:8519956

  16. Health care utilization and attitudes to health care before and after development work in a health centre. Results from two independent postal surveys.

    PubMed

    Westman, G; Eriksson, C G; von Post, H

    1989-01-01

    In development work at the Vännäs Primary Health Care Centre (VPHCC) in northern Sweden, attitudes towards and the use of health care were studied from 1977 to 1979. Mail questionnaires were sent to random and independent samples of Vännäs inhabitants to collect data. A relative increase in the health centre physician consultancy rate was found when it was compared to other health care facilities. No change was seen in hospital utilization. Attitudes towards health information and health care accessibility were more positive after the development work. No change in attitudes to quality of health care as such was seen. The changes implemented at the VPHCC seemed to be a major cause for the results obtained as no such change was seen in the catchment area of the reference health centre. PMID:2749205

  17. Demographic determinants of health care practitioners’ intentions to work with traditional healers

    PubMed Central

    Mokgobi, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the demographic determinants of health care practitioners’ intentions to work with traditional healers in South Africa. The study sampled 319 health care practitioners from State hospitals and clinics in Limpopo and Gauteng provinces, South Africa. Participants completed the Views on Traditional Healing Questionnaire (VTHQ) which was designed for the purposes of this study. Results of multiple regression analyses indicated that health care practitioners’ demographic variables (i.e. their designated roles, home language and hospital/clinic setting) did not yield significant variations in terms of their intentions to work with traditional healers in the future. Overall, health care practitioners’ attitudes towards traditional healing explained their intentions to work with traditional healers in the future. For xiTsonga and Sesotho speaking health care practitioners, their experiences with traditional healing explained their intentions to work with traditional healers in the future. PMID:26594669

  18. Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

  19. Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

  20. Transforming consumer health informatics through a patient work framework: connecting patients to context

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Rupa S; Holden, Richard J; Novak, Laurie L; Veinot, Tiffany C

    2015-01-01

    Designing patient-centered consumer health informatics (CHI) applications requires understanding and creating alignment with patients’ and their family members’ health-related activities, referred to here as ‘patient work’. A patient work approach to CHI draws on medical social science and human factors engineering models and simultaneously attends to patients, their family members, activities, and context. A patient work approach extends existing approaches to CHI design that are responsive to patients’ biomedical realities and personal skills and behaviors. It focuses on the embeddedness of patients’ health management in larger processes and contexts and prioritizes patients’ perspectives on illness management. Future research is required to advance (1) theories of patient work, (2) methods for assessing patient work, and (3) techniques for translating knowledge of patient work into CHI application design. Advancing a patient work approach within CHI is integral to developing and deploying consumer-facing technologies that are integrated with patients’ everyday lives. PMID:25125685

  1. Stress at work and mental health status among female hospital workers.

    PubMed

    Estryn-Behar, M; Kaminski, M; Peigne, E; Bonnet, N; Vaichere, E; Gozlan, C; Azoulay, S; Giorgi, M

    1990-01-01

    Relations between working conditions and mental health status of female hospital workers were studied in a sample of 1505 women: 43% were nurses, 32% auxiliaries, and 7% ancillary staff; 13% were other qualified health care staff, mainly head nurses; 5% had occupations other than direct health care; 63% worked on the morning, 20% on the afternoon, and 17% on the night shift. Data were collected at the annual routine medical visit by the occupational health practitioner, using self administered questionnaires and clinical assessments. Five health indicators were considered: a high score to the general health questionnaire (GHQ); fatigue; sleep impairment; use of antidepressants, sleeping pills, or sedatives; and diagnosis of psychiatric morbidity at clinical assessment. Four indices of stress at work were defined: job stress, mental load, insufficiency in internal training and discussion, and strain caused by schedule. The analysis was conducted by multiple logistic regression, controlling for type of occupation, shift, number of years of work in hospital, daily travel time to work, age, marital status, number of children, and wish to move house. Sleep impairment was mostly linked to shift and strain due to schedule. For all other indicators of mental health impairment and especially high GHQ scores, the adjusted odds ratios increased significantly with the levels of job stress, mental load, and strain due to schedule. This evidence of association between work involving an excessive cumulation of stress factors and mental wellbeing should be considered in interventions aimed at improving the working conditions of hospital workers. PMID:2310704

  2. Relationship of Work Hours with Selected Health Behaviors and Academic Progress among a College Student Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kim; Danner, Fred; Staten, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 57% of college students work while attending school. Health risks related to working while in college have not been widely studied. Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to determine associations between hours worked, binge drinking, sleep habits, and academic performance among a college student cohort. Participants and…

  3. Gendered emotion work around physical health problems in mid- and later-life marriages.

    PubMed

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The provision and receipt of emotion work-defined as intentional activities done to promote another's emotional well-being-are central dimensions of marriage. However, emotion work in response to physical health problems is a largely unexplored, yet likely important, aspect of the marital experience. We analyze dyadic in-depth interviews with husbands and wives in 21 mid- to later-life couples to examine the ways that health-impaired people and their spouses provide, interpret, and explain emotion work. Because physical health problems, emotion work, and marital dynamics are gendered, we consider how these processes differ for women and men. We find that wives provide emotion work regardless of their own health status. Husbands provide emotion work less consistently, typically only when the husbands see themselves as their wife's primary source of stability or when the husbands view their marriage as balanced. Notions of traditional masculinity preclude some husbands from providing emotion work even when their wife is health-impaired. This study articulates emotion work around physical health problems as one factor that sustains and exacerbates gender inequalities in marriage with implications for emotional and physical well-being. PMID:25661852

  4. Towards a unified taxonomy of health indicators: academic health centers and communities working together to improve population health.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Ahmed, Syed; Franco, Zeno; Kissack, Anne; Gabriel, Davera; Hurd, Thelma; Ziegahn, Linda; Bates, Nancy J; Calhoun, Karen; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Eder, Milton Mickey; Ferrans, Carol; Hacker, Karen; Rumala, Bernice B; Strelnick, A Hal; Wallerstein, Nina

    2014-04-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program represents a significant public investment. To realize its major goal of improving the public's health and reducing health disparities, the CTSA Consortium's Community Engagement Key Function Committee has undertaken the challenge of developing a taxonomy of community health indicators. The objective is to initiate a unified approach for monitoring progress in improving population health outcomes. Such outcomes include, importantly, the interests and priorities of community stakeholders, plus the multiple, overlapping interests of universities and of the public health and health care professions involved in the development and use of local health care indicators.The emerging taxonomy of community health indicators that the authors propose supports alignment of CTSA activities and facilitates comparative effectiveness research across CTSAs, thereby improving the health of communities and reducing health disparities. The proposed taxonomy starts at the broadest level, determinants of health; subsequently moves to more finite categories of community health indicators; and, finally, addresses specific quantifiable measures. To illustrate the taxonomy's application, the authors have synthesized 21 health indicator projects from the literature and categorized them into international, national, or local/special jurisdictions. They furthered categorized the projects within the taxonomy by ranking indicators with the greatest representation among projects and by ranking the frequency of specific measures. They intend for the taxonomy to provide common metrics for measuring changes to population health and, thus, extend the utility of the CTSA Community Engagement Logic Model. The input of community partners will ultimately improve population health. PMID:24556775

  5. Self rated health and working conditions of small-scale enterprisers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Vingård, Eva; Josephson, Malin

    2007-12-01

    This study was an investigation of prevalence and associations between self-rated health and working conditions for small-scale enterprisers in a county in Sweden. A postal questionnaire was answered by 340 male and 153 female small-scale enterprisers in different sectors, with a response rate of 66%. For comparative purposes, data from a population study of 1,699 employees in private companies was included in the analyses. Differences were tested by Chi(2)-test and associations were presented as odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The frequency of health problems in male enterprisers was higher than in employees in the private sector, while the frequency of health problems in female enterprisers was equal to that of the control employees. The main findings highlighted that male enterprisers reported higher rate of health problems and female enterprisers equal rate compared with employees in the private sector. Enterprisers stated musculoskeletal pain (women 59%, men 56%) and mental health problems (women 47%, men 45%) as the most frequent health problems. Poor job satisfaction, reported by 17% of the females and 20% of the male enterprisers, revealed an OR of 10.42 (95% CI 5.78-18.77) for poor general health. For the enterprisers, the most frequent complaints, musculoskeletal pain and mental health problems, were associated with poor job satisfaction and poor physical work environment. An association between poor general health and working as an enterpriser remained after adjusting for working conditions, sex and age. PMID:18212472

  6. Consumer Health: Does Advertising Work on You? and Evaluating a Product's Health Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Carolyn C.

    This paper describes lessons for teaching middle and high school students how to determine if they are influenced by the power of advertising and how to evaluate a product's health claims. To determine the influence of advertising, teachers have high school students discuss what their latest health product/service purchase was, why they bought it,…

  7. Healthy Workplaces: The Effects of Nature Contact at Work on Employee Stress and Health

    PubMed Central

    Largo-Wight, Erin; Chen, W. William; Dodd, Virginia; Weiler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Cultivating healthy workplaces is a critical aspect of comprehensive worksite health promotion. The influence of healthy workplace exposures on employee health outcomes warrants research attention. To date, it is unknown if nature contact in the workplace is related to employee stress and health. This study was designed to examine the effects of nature contact experienced at work on employee stress and health. Methods. Office staff at a southeastern university (n=503, 30% response rate) participated in the cross-sectional study. We used a 16-item workplace environment questionnaire, the Nature Contact Questionnaire, to comprehensively measure, for the first time, nature contact at work. The Perceived Stress Questionnaire and 13 established health and behavioral items assessed the dependent variables, general perceived stress, stress-related health behaviors, and stress-related health outcomes. Results. There was a significant, negative association between nature contact and stress and nature contact and general health complaints. The results indicate that as workday nature contact increased, perceived stress and generalized health complaints decreased. Conclusions. The findings suggest that nature contact is a healthy workplace exposure. Increasing nature contact at work may offer a simple population-based approach to enhance workplace health promotion efforts. Future researchers should test the efficacy of nature-contact workplace stress interventions. PMID:21563720

  8. Working Atmosphere and Job Satisfaction of Health Care Staff in Kenya: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Katja; Marx, Michael; Marx, Irmgard; Brodowski, Marc; Nafula, Maureen; Prytherch, Helen; Omogi Awour, Irene K. E.; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Background. Job satisfaction and working atmosphere are important for optimal health care delivery. The study aimed to document working atmosphere and job satisfaction of health care professionals in Kenya and to explore associations between job satisfaction, staff characteristics, and working atmosphere. Methods. Data from the integrated quality management system (IQMS) for the health sector in Kenya were used. Job satisfaction was measured with 10 items and with additional 5 items adapted to job situation in Kenya. Working atmosphere was measured with 13 item questionnaire. A stepwise linear regression analysis was performed with overall job satisfaction and working atmosphere, aspects of job satisfaction, and individual characteristics. Results. Out of 832 questionnaires handed out, 435 questionnaires were completed (response rate: 52.3%). Health care staff indicated high commitment to provide quality services and low levels regarding the adequacy and functionality of equipment at their work station. The aspect “support of the ministry of health” (β = 0.577) showed the highest score of explained variance (32.9%) regarding overall job satisfaction. Conclusions. IQMS which also evaluates job satisfaction and working atmosphere of health care staff provides a good opportunity for strengthening the recruitment and retention of health care staff as well as improving the provision of good quality of care. PMID:26504793

  9. Gendered emotion work around physical health problems in mid- and later-life marriages☆

    PubMed Central

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The provision and receipt of emotion work—defined as intentional activities done to promote another’s emotional well-being—are central dimensions of marriage. However, emotion work in response to physical health problems is a largely unexplored, yet likely important, aspect of the marital experience. We analyze dyadic in-depth interviews with husbands and wives in 21 mid-to later-life couples to examine the ways that health-impaired people and their spouses provide, interpret, and explain emotion work. Because physical health problems, emotion work, and marital dynamics are gendered, we consider how these processes differ for women and men. We find that wives provide emotion work regardless of their own health status. Husbands provide emotion work less consistently, typically only when the husbands see themselves as their wife’s primary source of stability or when the husbands view their marriage as balanced. Notions of traditional masculinity preclude some husbands from providing emotion work even when their wife is health-impaired. This study articulates emotion work around physical health problems as one factor that sustains and exacerbates gender inequalities in marriage with implications for emotional and physical well-being. PMID:25661852

  10. A conceptual model of work and health disparities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Loomis, Dana; McDonald, Mary Anne; Argue, Robin A; Wing, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Recent research in medicine and public health highlights differences in health related to race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender. These inequalities, often labeled "disparities," are pervasive and pertain to the major causes of morbidity, mortality, and lost life years. Often ignored in discussions of health disparities is the complex role of work, including not only occupational exposures and working conditions, but also benefits associated with work, effects of work on families and communities, and policies that determine where and how people work. The authors argue that work should be considered explicitly as a determinant of health disparities. Their conceptual model and empirical evidence, built on previous contributions, describe how work contributes to disparities in health on multiple levels. The examples focus on the United States, but many of the key conceptual features can also be applied to other countries. The model emphasizes behaviors and characteristics of institutions rather than individual workers. This approach avoids a focus on individual responsibility alone, which may lead to victim blaming and failure to emphasize policies and institutional factors that affect large populations and systematically create and maintain racial, gender, and socioeconomic disparities in health. PMID:16524164

  11. Electron work functions of ferrite and austenite phases in a duplex stainless steel and their adhesive forces with AFM silicon probe

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liqiu; Hua, Guomin; Yang, Binjie; Lu, Hao; Qiao, Lijie; Yan, Xianguo; Li, Dongyang

    2016-01-01

    Local electron work function, adhesive force, modulus and deformation of ferrite and austenite phases in a duplex stainless steel were analyzed by scanning force microscopy. It is demonstrated that the austenite has a higher electron work function than the ferrite, corresponding to higher modulus, smaller deformation and larger adhesive force. Relevant first-principles calculations were conducted to elucidate the mechanism behind. It is demonstrated that the difference in the properties between austenite and ferrite is intrinsically related to their electron work functions. PMID:26868719

  12. Electron work functions of ferrite and austenite phases in a duplex stainless steel and their adhesive forces with AFM silicon probe.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liqiu; Hua, Guomin; Yang, Binjie; Lu, Hao; Qiao, Lijie; Yan, Xianguo; Li, Dongyang

    2016-01-01

    Local electron work function, adhesive force, modulus and deformation of ferrite and austenite phases in a duplex stainless steel were analyzed by scanning force microscopy. It is demonstrated that the austenite has a higher electron work function than the ferrite, corresponding to higher modulus, smaller deformation and larger adhesive force. Relevant first-principles calculations were conducted to elucidate the mechanism behind. It is demonstrated that the difference in the properties between austenite and ferrite is intrinsically related to their electron work functions. PMID:26868719

  13. Health promotion and surveillance: the establishment of an IUHPE global working group.

    PubMed

    Campostrini, Stefano; McQueen, David V; Evans, Linnea

    2009-12-01

    Following a series of international meetings on behavioral monitoring and surveillance, in 2007 the Italian Ministry of Health (Ministerio della Salute) and the Institute for Health (Istituto Superiore della Sanità) hosted the 5(th) International Conference on Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance (BRFS) in Rome. A key focus of the conference was on how current surveillance systems could be applied to the field of health promotion, particularly in building the evidence base for health promotion practice. As a result of these discussions, the World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS), an IUHPE Global Working Group, was formed to work toward providing knowledge and expertise in surveillance as a tool for advancing health promotion. For those IUHPE members interested in participation, this article provides an overview on the strategic direction of WARFS and the newly formed sub-working groups. PMID:20028670

  14. Indonesian experts' perspectives on a curriculum for psychologists working in primary health care in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Setiyawati, Diana; Blashki, Grant; Wraith, Ruth; Colucci, Erminia; Minas, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Mental health is a critical issue in Indonesia, since its population ranks among the top five in the world and the prevalence of common mental disorders is 11.6% of the adult population. However, the need to build an effective mental health-care system that is accessible to the whole population has only been recently addressed. The Aceh tsunami in 2004 brought to the forefront an unexpected window of opportunity to build a mental health-care system. Integration of mental health care into primary health care is a key strategy to close the treatment gap for people with mental disorders. Existing integration of psychologists into primary health care is a big step to meet the shortage of mental health-care specialists. As primary mental health care is an emerging field, the perspectives of Indonesian experts on Indonesian mental health care are needed to develop a curriculum for training psychologists to work in primary health care. In this study, data have been collected through semi-structured interviews with 24 Indonesian mental health experts, and three focus group discussions with 26 psychologists. Overall, experts agreed that to be able to work in primary health-care psychologists should have roles and training ranging from clinical to advocacy skills. Participants also agreed that psychologists should work in the community and contribute to primary health care as service providers and that strong collaborations between psychologists and other primary health-care providers are the key; these can be developed partly through referral and by respecting each other's unique strengths. PMID:25750806

  15. [Problems of work world and its impact on health. Current financial crisis].

    PubMed

    Tomasina, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Health and work are complex processes. Besides, they are multiple considering the forms they take. These two processes are linked to each other and they are influenced by each other. According to this, it is possible to establish that work world is extremely complex and heterogeneous. In this world, "old" or traditional risks coexist with "modern risks", derived from the new models of work organization and the incorporation of new technologies. Unemployment, work relationships precariousness and work risks outsourcing are results of neoliberal strategies. Some negative results of health-sickness process derived from transformation in work world and current global economic crisis have been noticed in current work conditions. Finally, the need for reconstructing policies focusing on this situation derived from work world is suggested. PMID:23258747

  16. The FORCE Fitness Profile--Adding a Measure of Health-Related Fitness to the Canadian Armed Forces Operational Fitness Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Patrick; Spivock, Michael; Reilly, Tara; Mattie, Paige; Stockbrugger, Barry

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) implemented the Fitness for Operational Requirements of Canadian Armed Forces Employment (FORCE), a field expedient fitness test designed to predict the physical requirements of completing common military tasks. Given that attaining this minimal physical fitness standard may not represent a challenge to some personnel, a fitness incentive program was requested by the chain of command to recognize and reward fitness over and above the minimal standard. At the same time, it was determined that the CAF would benefit from a measure of general health-related fitness, in addition to this measure of operational fitness. The resulting incentive program structure is based on gender and 8 age categories. The results on the 4 elements of the FORCE evaluation were converted to a point scale from which normative scores were derived, where the median score corresponds to the bronze level, and silver, gold, and platinum correspond to a score which is 1, 2, and 3 SDs above this median, respectively. A suite of rewards including merit board point toward promotions and recognition on the uniform and material rewards was developed. A separate group rewards program was also tabled, to recognize achievements in fitness at the unit level. For general fitness, oxygen capacity was derived from FORCE evaluation results and combined with a measure of abdominal circumference. Fitness categories were determined based on relative risks of mortality and morbidity for each age and gender group. Pilot testing of this entire program was performed with 624 participants to assess participants' reactions to the enhanced test, and also to verify logistical aspects of the electronic data capture, calculation, and transfer system. The newly dubbed fitness profile program was subsequently approved by the senior leadership of the CAF and is scheduled to begin a phased implementation in June 2015. PMID:26506187

  17. Understanding the bond-energy, hardness, and adhesive force from the phase diagram via the electron work function

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hao; Huang, Xiaochen; Li, Dongyang

    2014-11-07

    Properties of metallic materials are intrinsically determined by their electron behavior. However, relevant theoretical treatment involving quantum mechanics is complicated and difficult to be applied in materials design. Electron work function (EWF) has been demonstrated to be a simple but fundamental parameter which well correlates properties of materials with their electron behavior and could thus be used to predict material properties from the aspect of electron activities in a relatively easy manner. In this article, we propose a method to extract the electron work functions of binary solid solutions or alloys from their phase diagrams and use this simple approach to predict their mechanical strength and surface properties, such as adhesion. Two alloys, Fe-Ni and Cu-Zn, are used as samples for the study. EWFs extracted from phase diagrams show same trends as experimentally observed ones, based on which hardness and surface adhesive force of the alloys are predicted. This new methodology provides an alternative approach to predict material properties based on the work function, which is extractable from the phase diagram. This work may also help maximize the power of phase diagram for materials design and development.

  18. Labor Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  19. Final Report of the National Black Health Providers Task Force on High Blood Pressure Education and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This is the final report of National Black Health Providers Task Force (NBHPTF) on High Blood Pressure Education and Control. The first chapter of the report recounts the history of the NBHPTF and its objectives. In the second chapter epidemiological evidence is presented to demonstrate the need for a suggested 20 year plan aimed at controlling…

  20. Preparing Social Work Students for Interprofessional Practice in Geriatric Health Care: Insights from Two Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonifas, Robin P.; Gray, Amanda K.

    2013-01-01

    Although several interprofessional education projects have addressed training allied health students for effective teamwork in geriatrics, few curriculum evaluation studies have examined differences in learning outcomes between interprofessional and traditional uniprofessional approaches, especially for social work students. This paper compares…

  1. Reproductive Health in the United States: A Review of the Recent Social Work Literature.

    PubMed

    Wright, Rachel L; Bird, Melissa; Frost, Caren J

    2015-10-01

    Reproductive health is an important area affecting a woman's overall health and well-being. The examination of reproductive health and barriers to care is pertinent to the social work profession and should be a focus of social work practice, education, research, and advocacy. The authors conducted a literature search of articles published in the social work literature from 2010 to 2014. The findings reveal important published articles that increase our knowledge of the reproductive health of women in the United States. Most published articles focused on pregnancy and birth outcomes. Articles also addressed sexually transmitted infections; abortion; intimate partner violence; prostitution; access to care; cancer screening; views toward contraception; hysterectomies; breastfeeding; menopause; and the intersection of reproductive rights, religion, and social justice. This review also identified unexamined areas that require further social work attention and consideration. PMID:26489350

  2. Preparing Social Work Students for Interprofessional Practice in Geriatric Health Care: Insights from Two Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonifas, Robin P.; Gray, Amanda K.

    2013-01-01

    Although several interprofessional education projects have addressed training allied health students for effective teamwork in geriatrics, few curriculum evaluation studies have examined differences in learning outcomes between interprofessional and traditional uniprofessional approaches, especially for social work students. This paper compares…

  3. The challenges of health care reform for hospital social work in the United States.

    PubMed

    Reisch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the potential impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 on the practice of hospital social work in the United States and its implications for social work education and training. It briefly traces the history of hospital social work, outlines some contemporary issues in the health care field, particularly those that create persistent health disparities, summarizes the major provisions of the Act that have implications for social work practice, and discusses how social workers in hospital settings might respond effectively to the changes produced by the legislation. PMID:23151284

  4. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress biology research join forces

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child’s body, alterations which may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathology and for society, and we recommend that stress-biology research and intervention science join forces to tackle the problem. We examine the evidence base in relation to stress-sensitive measures for the body (inflammatory reactions, telomere erosion, epigenetic methylation, and gene expression) and brain (mental disorders, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing). We also review promising interventions for families, couples, and children that have been designed to reduce the effects of childhood violence exposure. We invite intervention scientists and stress-biology researchers to collaborate in adding stress-biology measures to randomized clinical trials of interventions intended to reduce effects of violence exposure and other traumas on young people. PMID:24342859

  5. Bachelor of Social Work Students and Mental Health Stigma: Understanding Student Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellmann, Karen T.; Madden, Elissa E.; Aguiniga, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor-level social work students (n = 198) at a midsized Midwestern public university were surveyed to evaluate their attitudes toward those with mental health concerns. Additionally, students were surveyed regarding their willingness to seek treatment for their own mental health needs. Results of the analyses suggest that the majority of…

  6. Clocking in: The Organization of Work Time and Health in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiner, Sibyl; Pavalko, Eliza K.

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the health implications of emerging patterns in the organization of work time. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we examine general mental and physical health (SF-12 scores), psychological distress (CESD score), clinical levels of obesity, and the presence of medical conditions, at age 40.…

  7. Clocking in: The Organization of Work Time and Health in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiner, Sibyl; Pavalko, Eliza K.

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the health implications of emerging patterns in the organization of work time. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we examine general mental and physical health (SF-12 scores), psychological distress (CESD score), clinical levels of obesity, and the presence of medical conditions, at age 40.…

  8. Bachelor of Social Work Students and Mental Health Stigma: Understanding Student Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellmann, Karen T.; Madden, Elissa E.; Aguiniga, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor-level social work students (n = 198) at a midsized Midwestern public university were surveyed to evaluate their attitudes toward those with mental health concerns. Additionally, students were surveyed regarding their willingness to seek treatment for their own mental health needs. Results of the analyses suggest that the majority of…

  9. Work-Related Health Limitations, Education, and the Risk of Marital Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Despite progress in identifying the covariates of divorce, there remain substantial gaps in the knowledge. One of these gaps is the relationship between health and risk of marital dissolution. I extend prior research by examining the linkages between work-related health limitations and divorce using 25 years of data (N = 7919) taken from the 1979…

  10. Mental Health Workforce Change through Social Work Education: A California Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Gwen; Morris, Meghan Brenna; Sirojudin, Sirojudin

    2013-01-01

    The 2004 California Mental Health Services Act requires large-scale system change in the public mental health system through a shift to recovery-oriented services for diverse populations. This article describes an innovative strategy for workforce recruitment and retention to create and sustain these systemic changes. The California Social Work…

  11. The Health of Women at Work. A Bibliography. Occasional Papers No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Vilma R.

    Both English and foreign language articles and books, most of them published since 1950, are cited in this bibliography on the health of women in the workplace. Citations were selected to represent the efforts that have been made by health professionals, statisticians, historians, and social scientists in this area. The designation "at work

  12. The Community Health Worker. Working Guide. Guidelines for Training. Guidelines for Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This book is a revised and enlarged edition of "The Primary Health Worker," a standard teaching text and reference manual developed for community health workers and their trainers and supervisors. The new edition has been updated with practical knowledge gained during the extensive field use of the previous work. The book also incorporates new…

  13. Liaison Problems among Infant Psychiatry, Psychology, Pediatrics, Nursing, and Social Work in Infant Mental Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bry, Thea

    Discussed are attempts made by staff at the Community Mental Health Center of the New Jersey School of Medicine to develop an ongoing working relationship with pediatric neonatologists, house staff, and nursing staff in order to promote their attunement to mental health needs and obtain access to their expertise. After a description of the center…

  14. The Health of Women at Work. A Bibliography. Occasional Papers No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Vilma R.

    Both English and foreign language articles and books, most of them published since 1950, are cited in this bibliography on the health of women in the workplace. Citations were selected to represent the efforts that have been made by health professionals, statisticians, historians, and social scientists in this area. The designation "at work"…

  15. Health Inequalities among Workers with a Foreign Background in Sweden: Do Working Conditions Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Dunlavy, Andrea C.; Rostila, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Employment and working conditions are key social determinants of health, yet current information is lacking regarding relationships between foreign background status, working conditions and health among workers in Sweden. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU) and the Level of Living Survey for Foreign Born Persons and their Children (LNU-UFB) to assess whether or not health inequalities exist between native Swedish and foreign background workers and if exposure to adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions contributes to the risk for poor health among foreign background workers. A sub-sample of 4,021 employed individuals aged 18–65 was analyzed using logistic regression. Eastern European, Latin American and Other Non-Western workers had an increased risk of both poor self-rated health and mental distress compared to native Swedish workers. Exposure to adverse working conditions only minimally influenced the risk of poor health. Further research should examine workers who are less integrated or who have less secure labor market attachments and also investigate how additional working conditions may influence associations between health and foreign background status. PMID:23846669

  16. Work-related factors of presenteeism: The mediating role of mental and physical health.

    PubMed

    Pohling, Rico; Buruck, Gabriele; Jungbauer, Kevin-Lim; Leiter, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Even though work-related factors have been found to play a crucial role in predicting presenteeism, studies investigating established theoretical frameworks of job design features and, in particular, underlying mechanisms are still very scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the areas of work life according to the Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS; Leiter & Maslach, 2004) on presenteeism. We examined mental and physical health as the underlying process of this relationship and assessed 2 presenteeism outcome measures and their relationship to each other-that is, the frequency of acts of presenteeism and work productivity. Using a cross-sectional design, the study was conducted in a sample of 885 employees from German public service. Results showed that the influence of some, but not all, areas of work life (workload, control, reward, and values) on both acts of presenteeism and health-related lost productivity was mediated by health indicators (well-being and musculoskeletal complaints). Moreover, we found a relationship between health-related lost productivity and acts of presenteeism. The present research clarifies the importance of work-related factors as antecedents of sickness presenteeism. The findings of our study also emphasize the necessity to include both acts of presenteeism and health-related lost productivity in presenteeism research and prevention. Presenteeism should be included as a measure in health prevention interventions because it reflects a crucial part of employee health that is not covered by other measures. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322439

  17. Towards a Unified Taxonomy of Health Indicators: Academic Health Centers and Communities Working Together to Improve Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Ahmed, Syed; Franco, Zeno; Kissack, Anne; Gabriel, Davera; Hurd, Thelma; Ziegahn, Linda; Bates, Nancy J.; Calhoun, Karen; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Eder, Milton “Mickey”; Ferrans, Carol; Hacker, Karen; Rumala, Bernice B.; Strelnick, A. Hal; Wallerstein, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The Clinical Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Program represents a significant public investment. To realize its major goal of improving the public’s health and reducing health disparities, the CTSA Consortium’s Community Engagement Key Function Committee has undertaken the challenge of developing a taxonomy of community health indicators. The objective is to initiate a unified approach for monitoring progress in improving population health outcomes. Such outcomes include, importantly, the interests and priorities of community stakeholders, plus the multiple, overlapping interests of universities and of the public health and health care professions involved in the development and use of local health care indicators. The emerging taxonomy of community health indicators that the authors propose supports alignment of CTSA activities and facilitates comparative effectiveness research across CTSAs, thereby improving the health of communities and reducing health disparities. The proposed taxonomy starts at the broadest level, determinants of health; subsequently moves to more finite categories of community health indicators; and, finally, addresses specific quantifiable measures. To illustrate the taxonomy’s application, the authors have synthesized 21 health indicator projects from the literature and categorized them into international, national, or local/special jurisdictions. They furthered categorized the projects within the taxonomy by ranking indicators with the greatest representation among projects and by ranking the frequency of specific measures. They intend for the taxonomy to provide common metrics for measuring changes to population health and, thus, extend the utility of the CTSA Community Engagement Logic Model. The input of community partners will ultimately improve population health. PMID:24556775

  18. The importance of communication for clinical leaders in mental health nursing: the perspective of nurses working in mental health.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Gary; Happell, Brenda; Broadbent, Marc; Reid-Searl, Kerry

    2013-11-01

    Communication has been identified as an important attribute of clinical leadership in nursing. However, there is a paucity of research on its relevance in mental health nursing. This article presents the findings of a grounded theory informed study exploring the attributes and characteristics required for effective clinical leadership in mental health nursing, specifically the views of nurses working in mental health about the importance of effective communication in day to day clinical leadership. In-depth interviews were conducted to gain insight into the participants' experiences and views on clinical leadership in mental health nursing. The data that emerged from these interviews were constantly compared and reviewed, ensuring that any themes that emerged were based on the participants' own experiences and views. Participants recognized that effective communication was one of the attributes of effective clinical leadership and they considered communication as essential for successful working relationships and improved learning experiences for junior staff and students in mental health nursing. Four main themes emerged: choice of language; relationships; nonverbal communication, and listening and relevance. Participants identified that clinical leadership in mental health nursing requires effective communication skills, which enables the development of effective working relationships with others that allows them to contribute to the retention of staff, improved outcomes for clients, and the development of the profession. PMID:24131413

  19. Vulnerable families: a study of health visitors' prioritization of their work.

    PubMed

    Williams, D M

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the NHS have supported the idea of targeting health services to those in greatest need. This has meant that health visitors are increasingly having to identify 'vulnerable' families in need of increased health visiting intervention. This paper reports on a qualitative study undertaken in order to explore the ways in which health visitors plan and organize their work in relation to the concept of vulnerability. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were carried out with health visitors from two separate geographical areas, one an inner city area and the other suburban, in order to explore the criteria by which health visitors define vulnerability and decide to increase their levels of intervention to particular families. It was found that vulnerability was extremely difficult to define but that the health visitors used criteria which were appropriate to the particular localities in which they worked to identify vulnerable families and to increase their levels of intervention to those families. Health visitors were targeting their services within a framework of a basic minimum service to all and were assessing the health needs of individuals or families rather than planning their work on the basis of community or practice profiles. PMID:9146200

  20. Hope and despair: community health assistants’ experiences of working in a rural district in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to address the challenges facing the community-based health workforce in Zambia, the Ministry of Health implemented the national community health assistant strategy in 2010. The strategy aims to address the challenges by creating a new group of workers called community health assistants (CHAs) and integrating them into the health system. The first group started working in August 2012. The objective of this paper is to document their motivation to become a CHA, their experiences of working in a rural district, and how these experiences affected their motivation to work. Methods A phenomenological approach was used to examine CHAs’ experiences. Data collected through in-depth interviews with 12 CHAs in Kapiri Mposhi district and observations were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Personal characteristics such as previous experience and knowledge, passion to serve the community and a desire to improve skills motivated people to become CHAs. Health systems characteristics such as an inclusive work culture in some health posts motivated CHAs to work. Conversely, a non-inclusive work culture created a social structure which constrained CHAs’ ability to learn, to be innovative and to effectively conduct their duties. Further, limited supervision, misconceptions about CHA roles, poor prioritisation of CHA tasks by some supervisors, as well as non- and irregular payment of incentives also adversely affected CHAs’ ability to work effectively. In addition, negative feedback from some colleagues at the health posts affected CHA’s self-confidence and professional outlook. In the community, respect and support provided to CHAs by community members instilled a sense of recognition, appreciation and belonging in CHAs which inspired them to work. On the other hand, limited drug supplies and support from other community-based health workers due to their exclusion from the government payroll inhibited CHAs’ ability to deliver services. Conclusions Programmes aimed at integrating community-based health workers into health systems should adequately consider multiple incentives, effective management, supervision and support from the district. These should be tailored towards enhancing the individual, health system and community characteristics that positively impact work motivation at the local level if such programmes are to effectively contribute towards improved primary healthcare. PMID:24886146

  1. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  2. Health services market testing--the experience of the community services review team in British Forces Germany.

    PubMed

    Leach, A J; Whitmore, M K; Schofield, J; Morris, G

    1996-06-01

    During 1993-1995 the health services in British Forces Germany were subjected to a market testing process by which the primary, community and acute health services for the British Servicemen and women, their families and attached civilian staff, a population of 70,000, were put out to competitive tender with the then current provider, the Defence Medical Services, as one tenderer for the contract. This paper outlines the methodology developed by the Health Alliance Community Services Review team in formulating a successful bid. It is considered that the process outlined could be of value to those involved in future market tests, commissioning projects or performance improvement programmes. PMID:8819035

  3. Work demands are related to mental health problems for older engine room officers.

    PubMed

    Rydstedt, Leif W; Lundh, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the main and interaction effects of age and psychosocial work demands on mental wellbeing in a sample (N = 685; age M = 47 years) of engine room officers in the Swedish merchant fleet. As expected, work demands were highly related to general mental health as well as to perceived stress, while the main effect of age only related significantly to perceived stress. The interaction effects between high work demands and high age significantly explained the variance of general mental health as well as perceived stress. The results can be understood as a consequence of the rapid technological and organisational development in the shipping industry and suggest that it ought be of high priority to provide older employees with work-related resources to support their long-term work performance as well as their health and wellbeing. PMID:24595972

  4. Women of Hispanic Origin in the Labor Force. Facts on Working Women No. 89-1 = La mujer de origen hispano en la fuerza laboral. Facts on Working Women Num. 89-1S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Data on Hispanic women in the labor force between 1978 and 1988 show the following: (1) 6.5 percent of the women in the work force in 1988 were of Hispanic origin (3.6 million); (2) the median age of Hispanic women was 26.1 years, 2-5 years younger than Black or White women; (3) 66 percent of Hispanic women participate in the labor force, a higher…

  5. The effects of a health promotion-health protection intervention on behavior change: the WellWorks Study.

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, G; Stoddard, A; Hunt, M K; Hebert, J R; Ockene, J K; Avrunin, J S; Himmelstein, J; Hammond, S K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effects of a 2-year integrated health promotion-health protection work-site intervention on changes in dietary habits and cigarette smoking. METHODS: A randomized, controlled intervention study used the work site as the unit of intervention and analysis; it included 24 predominantly manufacturing work sites in Massachusetts (250-2500 workers per site). Behaviors were assessed in self-administered surveys (n = 2386; completion rates = 61% at baseline, 62% at final). Three key intervention elements targeted health behavior change: (1) joint worker-management participation in program planning and implementation, (2) consultation with management on work-site environmental changes, and (3) health education programs. RESULTS: Significant differences between intervention and control work sites included reductions in the percentage of calories consumed as fat (2.3% vs 1.5% kcal) and increases in servings of fruit and vegetables (10% vs 4% increase). The intervention had a significant effect on fiber consumption among skilled and unskilled laborers. No significant effects were observed for smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS: Although the size of the effects of this intervention are modest, on a populationwide basis effects of this size could have a large impact on cancer-related and coronary heart disease end points. PMID:9807537

  6. Effects of extended work shifts on employee fatigue, health, satisfaction, work/family balance, and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Estryn-Béhar, Madeleine; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M

    2012-01-01

    12-hour shifts are quickly spreading in Europe. From our multivariate analysis concerning 25,924 European nurses, including twenty explanatory variables simultaneously, we found that work schedule itself is not a major determinant factor. Nurses aim to choose or accept night shifts or 12-hour shift in order to reduce their work/home conflicts, however, at the expense of the patient's safety, as well as their own health and safety. Therefore, it is important to develop measures, such as extended child care, association of nurses to the elaboration of their rota, 9- or 10-hour shifts in the afternoon, allowing naps during night shifts, and reduction of changing shifts with short notice. Work schedules must be organized in order to allow time for shift handover, social support and team building. PMID:22317378

  7. Health and social care futures in Ireland: the need for cross-boundary work.

    PubMed

    Mcilfatrick, Sonia; McKenna, Hugh; Gray, Ann-Marie; Hinds, Mary

    2002-05-01

    Fundamental changes are taking place in health and social care. The drivers for these changes include new discoveries, new treatments and globalization and the need to examine and consider cross-boundary work. This paper will outline some of the issues generated from a research project that aimed to provide an all-Ireland perspective on health and social care futures and to examine the implications of these trends both for nursing specifically and health and social care generally. Cross-boundary working is important in relation to health and social care futures. This incorporates cross-boundary working to include interprofessional, intraprofessional and interagency but also cross-border working with the Republic of Ireland. There is a great potential for cross-boundary work in nursing as we look towards the future. Nonetheless, it needs to be acknowledged that working across sectors, departments and even borders is not easy and barriers do exist. Some of the implications for nursing include the need to re-examine nursing roles and span the boundaries of our profession with the increasing development of nurse-led services. In addition nurses need to develop ways of "working together" strategically with others to achieve the public health agenda. PMID:12010532

  8. Work Organization and Health Among Immigrant Women: Latina Manual Workers in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Chen, Haiying; Mora, Dana C.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to describe work organization attributes for employed immigrant Latinas and determine associations of work organization with physical health, mental health, and health-related quality of life. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 319 employed Latinas in western North Carolina (2009–2011). Measures included job demands (heavy load, awkward posture, psychological demand), decision latitude (skill variety, job control), support (supervisor control, safety climate), musculoskeletal symptoms, mental health (depressive symptoms), and mental (MCS) and physical component score (PCS) health-related quality of life. Results. Three fifths reported musculoskeletal symptoms. Mean scores for depression, MCS, and PCS were 6.2 (SE = 0.2), 38.3 (SE = 0.5), and 42.8 (SE = 0.3), respectively. Greater job demands (heavy load, awkward posture, greater psychological demand) were associated with more musculoskeletal and depressive symptoms and worse MCS. Less decision latitude (lower skill variety, job control) was associated with more musculoskeletal and depressive symptoms. Greater support (supervisor’s power and safety climate) was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and better MCS. Conclusions. Work organization should be considered to improve occupational health of vulnerable women workers. Additional research should delineate the links between work organization and health among vulnerable workers. PMID:24432938

  9. [Conditions and work process in the daily of the Family Health Program: coherency with health humanization principles].

    PubMed

    Trad, Leny Alves Bomfim; Rocha, Ana Angélica Ribeiro de Meneses E

    2011-03-01

    This study analyzes humanization at work in the context of the Family Health Program (FHP), inquiring: what is the role that infrastructure assumes in the construction of humanized work in the FHP? Does the course of staff work reveal coherency with health humanization principles? In order to find out answers to these questions, it was explored the perception of FHP' professionals about their work routine, considering concrete conditions whereby it occurs besides involved relationships, practices and products. It is a multiple case study, both qualitative and quantitative (with primacy of the first approach), developed through questionnaires and focal-groups with FHP' teams of selected areas. The results indicate that infrastructure fragilities and low investment in training of staffs are factors that contribute for the persistence of work conditions and practices that are far away from health humanization principles. Despite of the difficulties, it was evidenced, by the staffs, in general way, great engagement to their work and great sensibility to population needs and problems. PMID:21519685

  10. The Outsourcing of Health, Sport and Physical Educational Work: A State of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Benjamin James; Hay, Peter James; Macdonald, Doune

    2011-01-01

    Background: The outsourcing of health, sport and physical educational (HSPE) work has been a feature of physical education (PE) "futures talk" for over 20 years. However, HSPE work outsourcing has been the focus of little empirical research and only occasional commentary. That small amount of empirical research that has been conducted has been…

  11. Work Stressors, Health and Sense of Coherence in UK Academic Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinman, Gail

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relationships between job-specific stressors and psychological and physical health symptoms in academic employees working in UK universities. The study also tests the main and moderating role played by sense of coherence (SOC: Antonovsky, 1987 in work stress process). SOC is described as a generalised resistance…

  12. Primary Prevention in Mental Health and Social Work: A Sourcebook of Curriculum and Teaching Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobel, Milton, Ed.

    A sourcebook of curriculum and teaching materials pertaining to primary prevention in mental health and social work is presented. Contents include: two articles addressing the theoretical dimensions of primary prevention and the relationship to social work education and practice; five articles describing preventive content that can be integrated…

  13. The Orthodontist, Our Friend: World of Work Project: Fifth Grade: Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy

    The document is one of the teaching units developed by the Utah World of Work Project, designed to integrate career awareness into the regular curriculum at the elementary level. The fifth grade guide is tied to the health education area and focuses on the work of the orthodontist in terms of understanding what an orthodontist does, learning what…

  14. Individual and Work-Related Factors Influencing Burnout of Mental Health Professionals: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Nayoung; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyunjung; Yang, Eunjoo; Lee, Sang Min

    2010-01-01

    The current study identifies and assesses individual and work-related factors as correlates of burnout among mental health professionals. Results of a meta-analysis indicate that age and work setting variables are the most significant indicators of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. In terms of level of personal accomplishment, the age…

  15. Perceptions of Health Promotion and Cancer Prevention among Adults in Working-Class Occupations and Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Roberta E.; Barbeau, Elizabeth; Hunt, Mary Kay; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Emmons, Karen M.; Gagne, Joshua; Sorensen, Glorian

    2008-01-01

    A social-contextual approach to cancer prevention among participants associated with the working class may result in behavior-change messages that are more relevant to them and contribute to a reduction in health disparities among classes. This article reports findings from a qualitative study of adults in working-class occupations and/or living…

  16. The Relationships between Mothers' Work Pathways and Physical and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frech, Adrianne; Damaske, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    We contribute to research on the relationships between gender, work, and health by using longitudinal, theoretically driven models of mothers' diverse work pathways and adjusting for unequal selection into these pathways. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth-1979 (N = 2,540), we find full-time, continuous employment following a first…

  17. 75 FR 73946 - Worker Safety and Health Program: Safety Conscious Work Environment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... petition for rulemaking, published on October 16, 2009. 74 FR 53190. The vast majority of those comments... Part 851 Worker Safety and Health Program: Safety Conscious Work Environment AGENCY: Office of the... ``Safety-Conscious Work Environment'' guidelines as a model. DOE published this petition and a request...

  18. The Relationships between Mothers' Work Pathways and Physical and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frech, Adrianne; Damaske, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    We contribute to research on the relationships between gender, work, and health by using longitudinal, theoretically driven models of mothers' diverse work pathways and adjusting for unequal selection into these pathways. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth-1979 (N = 2,540), we find full-time, continuous employment following a first…

  19. A Proposed Framework for Understanding the Forces behind Legislation of Universal Health Insurance—Lessons from Ten Countries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C Jason; Ellender, Stacey M; Textor, Theodora; Bauchner, Joshua H; Wu, Jen-You; Bauchner, Howard; Huang, Andrew T

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the forces propelling countries to legislate universal health insurance. Data Source/Study Design Descriptive review and exploratory synthesis of historic data on economic, geographic, socio-demographic, and political factors. Data Extraction Methods We searched under “insurance, health” on MEDLINE and Google Scholar, and we reviewed relevant books and articles via a snowball approach. Principal Findings Ten countries with universal health insurance were studied. For the five countries that passed final universal insurance laws prior to 1958, we found that two forces of “historical context” (i.e., social solidarity and historic patterns), one “ongoing dynamic force” (political pressures), and “one uniqueness of the moment” force (legislative permissiveness) played a major role. For the five countries that passed final legislation between 1967 and 2010, the predominant factors were two “ongoing dynamic forces” (economic pressures and political pressures) and one “uniqueness of the moment” force (leadership). In general, countries in the former group made steady progress, whereas those in the latter group progressed in abrupt leaps. Conclusions The lessons of more recent successes—almost all of which were achieved via abrupt leaps—strongly indicate the importance of leadership in taking advantage of generalized economic and political pressures to achieve universal health insurance. PMID:22092227

  20. Group work in the public health context: A proposal for training in psychology.

    PubMed

    Rasera, Emerson F; Pegoraro, Renata F; Pereira, Eliane R

    2016-03-01

    The entry of psychologists into the public health sector in Brazil is usually connected to a traditional clinical model, and, thus, marked by a lack of training for group work. A reflection on the training of psychologists for group work is essential. Aiming at contributing to this theme, the objective of this article is to discuss the training for group work in the public health sector. In particular, we aim to introduce a proposal for training in psychology in a Brazilian public university, covering a theoretical-practical module, as well as basic and professionalizing internship programmes. PMID:26987826

  1. Health Services Researchers Working within Healthcare Organizations: The Intriguing Sound of Three Hands Clapping.

    PubMed

    Chafe, Roger; Dobrow, Mark

    2008-11-01

    Healthcare organizations offer a promising but complicated work environment for health services researchers. Working directly within these organizations can yield stronger connections with decision-makers, better access to organizational data and, ultimately, greater potential for research findings to influence decisions. However, there are also challenges for the researcher and the host organization related to divergent work objectives, mismatched timelines and unclear criteria for performance assessment. The authors examine the advantages and disadvantages of this research model for both the health services researcher and the decision-maker. PMID:19377368

  2. Networking between community health programs: a team-work approach to improving health service provision

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Networking between non-government organisations in the health sector is recognised as an effective method of improving service delivery. The Uttarakhand Cluster was established in 2008 as a collaboration of community health programs in rural north India with the aim of building capacity, increasing visibility and improving linkages with the government. This qualitative research, conducted between 2011-2012, examined the factors contributing to formation and sustainability of this clustering approach. Methods Annual focus group discussions, indicator surveys and participant observation were used to document and observe the factors involved in the formation and sustainability of an NGO network in North India. Results The analysis demonstrated that relationships were central to the formation and sustainability of the cluster. The elements of small group relationships: forming, storming, norming and performing emerged as a helpful way to describe the phases which have contributed to the functioning of this network with common values, strong leadership, resource sharing and visible progress encouraging the ongoing commitment of programs to the network goals. Conclusions In conclusion, this case study demonstrates an example of a successful and effective network of community health programs. The development of relationships was seen to be to be an important part of promoting effective resource sharing, training opportunities, government networking and resource mobilisation and will be important for other health networks to consider. PMID:25015212

  3. [The meaning of work for professionals in a substitute mental health service].

    PubMed

    Araújo, Meiriele Tavares; Montenegro, Lívia Cozer; Alves, Marília; Brito, Maria José Menezes

    2013-06-01

    The Psychosocial Care Center is seeing as a new strategy to address patients with mental disorders in that is has special features in everyday work that directly influence the practices developed by health professionals working in the area. To learn about the meaning of work for professionals working in a Psychosocial Care Center in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, a qualitative case study was conducted that included recorded interviews with 13 professionals from different categories. For data analysis, the technique of content analysis was used, and the results were as follows: professionals working in psychosocial care centers are satisfied with the new model of mental health care based on the anti-asylum proposal, and work fulfillment is due to the achievement of socially integrating individuals with mental disorders and helping them achieve autonomy. PMID:24601144

  4. The implications of work organization for occupational health policy: the case of Canada.

    PubMed

    Sass, R

    1989-01-01

    This article examines occupational health and safety developments in Canada during the decade of the 1970s when most government jurisdictions replaced former factory Acts with new health and safety legislation recognizing the right of workers to be involved in work environment matters. During the latter part of the 1970s, health and safety "activists" and trade unionists began to perceive the need for a wider conception of occupational health and safety. Canadian reformers were influenced by Scandinavian developments, especially the research of Dr. Bertil Gardell and his associates. Unfortunately, during the late 1970s Canada experienced a recession and a political shift to conservatism. Consequently, during the 1980s there have been no meaningful workplace health and safety reforms. Further, the article suggests that there is strong resistance by management and government to extension of worker rights in occupational health and safety. All major political parties ground their work environment policies in utilitarian concepts that trade worker health and safety for economic considerations. The author, therefore, argues for the development of an "ethics of the work environment" based upon egalitarian principles, and the transformation of the primary work group into a community of workers who can shape the character of their work environment. Ideally, the relationship between the major "actors" in our industrial relations system ought to be based on obligation instead of the present language of worker protest based on rights. Nonetheless, there is a need to extend and deepen worker rights in the workplace. Finally, the author argues that the appropriate relationship in industry to reflect a democratic work environment is "partnership"--the coming together of the primary work groups as equals. PMID:2925299

  5. [The feelings experienced after occupational exposure among health care workers: fulcrum approach to work in health institutions].

    PubMed

    Sarquis, Leila Maria Mansano; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andrés

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at capturing the psychosocial feelings and perceptions health workers face after accidents with biological material, identifying the difficulties to accomplish the follow-up. This qualitative research with intentional sample of 15 health workers was carried out. The fear was the first expressed feeling. The fear the health worker feels is related to his/her attributions, potentiates the development of stressing situations in work setting and trigger psychic suffering. The feeling of anger and outbreak appear in the discourses face the workers' indignity. Another feeling is guilty for triggering the accident. This finding allows recommending organizational restructuring proposals as well as in the behavior of workers in the dynamics of work. PMID:20552827

  6. Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Annette M.

    2003-01-01

    Draws upon Maria Montessori's writings to examine work as a universal human tendency throughout life. Discusses the work of adaptation of the infant, work of "psycho-muscular organism" for the preschooler, work of the imagination for the elementary child, community work of the adolescent, and work of the adult. Asserts that Montessorians' role is…

  7. [The value of using administrative data in public health research: the Continuous Working Life Sample].

    PubMed

    López, María Andrée; Benavides, Fernando G; Alonso, Jordi; Espallargues, Mireia; Durán, Xavier; Martínez, José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The use of administrative data is common practice in public health research. The present field note describes the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) and its use in health research. The CWLS is built on records generated by all contacts with the social security system (work contracts, disability, etc.), plus tax data (monetary gains, income, etc.) and census data (level of education, country of birth, etc.), but does not allow individuals to be identified. The CWLS was started in 2004 with 4% (1.1 million persons) of the total population who were either contributors to or beneficiaries of the social security system. The information on the individuals in the CWLS is updated annually and lost individuals are replaced. This continuous design allows the construction of a cohort with information on working life and financial status and evaluation of their relationship with work disability. Future connection with clinical records would enable analysis of other health-related outcomes. PMID:24698033

  8. Effects of a Dutch work-site wellness-health program: the Brabantia Project.

    PubMed Central

    Maes, S; Verhoeven, C; Kittel, F; Scholten, H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined a project designed to improve the health and wellness of employees of Brabantia, a Dutch manufacturer of household goods, by means of lifestyle changes and changes in working conditions. METHODS: The workers at one Brabantia site constituted the experimental group, and the workers from two other sites formed the control group. Biomedical variables, lifestyles, general stress reactions, and quality of work were measured identically in both groups at baseline and 1, 2, and 3 years later. During this period, there was continuous registration of absenteeism. RESULTS: The interventions brought about favorable short-term changes in terms of health risks, and there were stable effects on working conditions (especially decision latitude) and absenteeism. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of interventions directed at both lifestyles and the work environment can produce extensive and stable effects on health-related variables, wellness, and absenteeism. PMID:9663150

  9. Work and health conditions of nursing staff in palliative care and hospices in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Christina; Bänsch, Alexander; Schröder, Harry

    2004-01-01

    Aims of this representative study were to assess the relevant differences between the work and organisational characteristics as well as the subjective resources and health status of nurses occupied in hospice care, compared to nurses from palliative stations. Further, the assessment of the predictive correlations between the work situation of this nurses as a factor influencing their health and perceived strains was also a leading intention. Method: In a written survey conducted in Germany in 2001, 820 nursing staff of 113 palliative stations and stationary hospices were included. A qualified diagnostic procedure for the assessment of health promoting work was implemented. In order of obtaining a secure comparison, a sample of 320 nurses working in 12 homes for old people in Saxony was also considered. Results: The nurses referred generally to favourable working conditions, still they informed about deficiencies in the perceived participation, organizational benefits and experienced gratification. Hospice nurses experienced overall more favourable work conditions than palliative nurses or than the staff of homes for old people (regarding identification with the institution, organizational benefits, accurate gratification and little time pressure during work). Hospice personnel were psychologically and physically healthier than the staff of palliative stations. Important predictors for health stability that could be assessed by multiple regression analysis were: positively evaluated work contents, the identification with the institution, little time pressure and a positive working atmosphere. Conclusions: The assessed organisational framework is generally more favourable in the institutions of professional terminal care than in common hospitals and homes for old people. Therefore, the conditions in hospices could have a modelling function for the inner-institutional work organisation and for the anchorage of the intrinsic motivation of nurses in the health care system. PMID:19742056

  10. [The working conditions and health status of miners in Donets Basin coal mines].

    PubMed

    Kovets, G P; Sukhanov, V V; Menia?lo, N I; Zinger, F Kh; Valutsina, V M; Lastkov, D O; Cherkesov, V V; Kal'ianov, A V

    1992-01-01

    Data are reported on working conditions of coal miners considering the main physical (dust, noise, vibration, microclimate) and chemical environmental professional factors and their prognosis up to the year 2005. The authors analyze professional morbidity (pneumoconiosis, dust-induced bronchitis, vibration disease, cochlear neuritis etc.) and diseases with temporary loss of the working capacity invalidity and mortality of miners. The relation between working conditions and health status of miners were analyzed. PMID:1292209

  11. "Have you seen your aura lately?" examining boundary-work in holistic health pamphlets.

    PubMed

    Ho, Evelyn Y

    2007-01-01

    An increasing number of people in the United States are using holistic therapies. Both encouraging and informing this trend in growth, printed leaflets are a popular and important medium for holistic health practitioners. Using a discourse analytic approach, the author analyzed pamphlets and printed texts distributed at a holistic health fair. These texts reflect and construct specific understandings of holistic health and proper health care. Understood through the notion of boundary-work, pamphlets demarcated holism as the proper way of conceptualizing health and health care. However, holistic medicine's boundaries are quite porous, as these practices are also legitimized through the use of scientific conventions and the practice of integration, both commonly associated with biomedicine. PMID:17170241

  12. Clinician perspectives on working with health coaches: A mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Kate; Willard-Grace, Rachel; O'Connell, Brendon; DeVore, Denise; Prado, Camille; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Hessler, Danielle; Thom, David H

    2015-09-01

    We sought to understand how health coaches affect the work of primary care clinicians and influence their perception of patient care. As a mixed methods hypothesis-generating study, we administered a structured post-visit survey and conducted in-depth individual interviews with primary care clinicians who worked with health coaches at two urban community health centers. Survey responses were compared using t tests. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using Atlas.ti software and modified grounded theory. Surveys were completed by 15 of 17 clinicians for 61% of eligible patient visits (269/441). Compared to usual care patients, clinicians rated visits with health-coached patients as less demanding (2.44 vs. 3.06, p < .001) and were more likely to feel that they had adequate time with their patient (3.96 vs. 3.57, p < .001). Qualitative findings expanded upon these results and uncovered four key health coach activities thought to improve patient care. Through developing a rapport with patients over time and working with patients between medical visits, health coaches (a) empower patients by offering self-management support, (b) bridge communication gaps between clinicians and patients, (c) assist patients in navigating the health care system, and (d) act as a point of contact for patients. PMID:25751177

  13. Evidence of Health Risks Associated with Prolonged Standing at Work and Intervention Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas R.; Dick, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prolonged standing at work has been shown to be associated with a number of potentially serious health outcomes, such as lower back and leg pain, cardiovascular problems, fatigue, discomfort, and pregnancy related health outcomes. Recent studies have been conducted examining the relationship between these health outcomes and the amount of time spent standing while on the job. The purpose of this article was to provide a review of the health risks and interventions for workers and employers that are involved in occupations requiring prolonged standing. A brief review of recommendations by governmental and professional organizations for hours of prolonged standing is also included. Findings Based on our review of the literature, there seems to be ample evidence showing that prolonged standing at work leads to adverse health outcomes. Review of the literature also supports the conclusion that certain interventions are effective in reducing the hazards associated with prolonged standing. Suggested interventions include the use of floor mats, sit-stand workstations/chairs, shoes, shoe inserts and hosiery or stockings. Studies could be improved by using more precise definitions of prolonged standing (e.g., duration, movement restrictions, and type of work), better measurement of the health outcomes and more rigorous study protocols. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance Use of interventions and following suggested guidelines on hours of standing from governmental and professional organizations should reduce the health risks from prolonged standing. PMID:25041875

  14. Childbearing and Economic Work: The Health Balance of Women in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, Philippa; Hill, Allan G; Hinde, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Objectives This study aims to investigate (1) whether the health of working women with young children differs from that of working women without young children, and (2) which social factors mediate the relationship between economic and maternal role performance and health among mothers with young children. Methods The analyses uses panel data from 697 women present in both waves of the Women's Health Study for Accra (WHSA-I and WHSA-II); a community based study of women aged 18 years and older in the Accra Metropolitan Area of Ghana conducted in 2003 and 2008-2009. Change in physical and mental health between the survey waves is compared between women with a biological child alive at WHSA-II and born since WHSA-I and women without a living biological child at WHSA-II born in the interval. To account for attrition between the two survey waves selection models were used with unconditional change score models being used as the outcome model. Results We found in our sample of working women that those who had a child born between WHSA-I and WHSA-II who was still alive at WHSA-II did not experience a change in mental or physical health different from other women. Among working women with young children, educational status, relationship to the household head and household demography were associated with change in mental health at the 5 % level, whilst migration status and household demography was associated with change in physical health scores. Conclusion The results suggest there are no health penalties of combining work and childbearing among women with young children in Accra, Ghana. PMID:26537388

  15. 'I'm a bad mum': pregnant presenteeism and poor health at work.

    PubMed

    Gatrell, Caroline Jane

    2011-02-01

    This paper contributes to research on women's health by challenging the 'common belief' that pregnant employees are prone to take sick leave. Conversely, it shows how some pregnant employees are so determined to appear 'well' that they remain at work when they are ill. The paper coins the phrase 'pregnant presenteeism' to describe pregnant employees who resist taking sick leave. The paper first acknowledges previous studies which show how employers associate pregnancy with incompetence and sickness absence. It then examines why (in contrast to employers' assumptions), some pregnant employees remain at work when they are ill. It does this through a qualitative study of 15 employed mothers in the UK, each of whom was working in a managerial/professional role at the time of her interview. Of these 15 women, three remained at work during pregnancy despite serious health problems. In order to understand the experiences of these 'pregnant presentees', the paper draws upon Annandale and Clark's (1996) concept of a 'binary opposition' which articulates the tendency within medicine to polarize women's and men's health as if at opposite ends of a scale, with women's health classified as 'poor' and men's health as 'good'. The paper argues that the conceptual principles of 'binary opposition' spill over into workplace contexts especially in relation to pregnancy. It then proposes that some employed pregnant women deny their own ill health due to fear of being identified with the female, 'poor health' end of the binary opposition scale. It articulates such denial as a potentially serious health issue for pregnant workers. The paper develops new and more explicit links between 'socio-cultural' feminist studies on the employed maternal body, and health research. PMID:21194818

  16. Effects of the Change in Working Status on the Health of Older People in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hasebe, Masami; Nonaka, Kumiko; Koike, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Yoh; Uchida, Hayato

    2015-01-01

    Background Working at old ages is regarded as a good way to keep one’s health according to the idea of productive aging. However, there is not enough evidence yet whether retirement is good or bad, or the kind of effects it has on the health of older adults aged 65 and over. We examined it by using a recent data of Wako city, a suburb area near Tokyo in Japan. Methods One thousand seven hundred sixty-eight participants answered to 3 waves of survey questionnaires: 2008, 2010, and 2012, successively. We considered 3 indicators of health; self-rated health, mental health (GDS15) and HLFC (Higher-Level Functional Capacity: TMIG-IC). In cross-sectional analysis, we compared these 3 indicators by three groups: full-time worker, part-time worker, and non-worker. In longitudinal analysis, we compared these three indicators by two groups: subjects who successively worked in 2008, 2010, 2012, and subjects who worked in 2008 but retired before 2010. We used one-way and two way repeated measures ANCOVA for these analyses, respectively. Results It was significantly clear that retirement worsened both mental health and HLFC in people aged 65 years and over; especially, mental health worsened rapidly and HLFC gradually. However, these indicators didn’t worsen in subjects who changed from full-time jobs to part-time jobs. Quitting from part-time jobs deteriorated mental health gradually and HLFC moderately compared to full-time jobs. Conclusion The results support the activity theory that older adults who quit from full-time jobs deteriorated both mental health and HLFC, though at different speeds. If they make a transit to part-time jobs, the deterioration would be moderate. It shows that working is an effective way of social participation for older people aged 65 years and over in Japan. PMID:26633033

  17. Health inequalities by wage income in Sweden: the role of work environment.

    PubMed

    Hemström, Orjan

    2005-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore the mediating role made by work environment to health inequalities by wage income in Sweden. Gender differences were also analysed. Data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions for the years 1998 and 1999 were analysed. Employed 20-64-year olds with a registered wage were included (nearly 6000 respondents). Sex-specific logistic regressions in relation to global self-rated health were applied. Those in the lowest income quintile had 2.4 times (men) and 4.3 times (women) higher probability of less than good health than did those in the highest quintile (adjusted for age, family status, country of birth, education level, smoking and full-time work). The mediating contribution of work environment factors to the health gradient by income was 25 per cent (men) and 29 per cent (women), respectively. This contribution was observed mainly from ergonomic and physical exposure, decision authority and skill discretion. Psychological demands did not contribute to such inequalities because mentally demanding work tasks are more common in high income as compared with low income jobs. Using sex-specific income quintiles, instead of income quintiles for the entire sample, gave very similar results. In conclusion, work environment factors can be seen as important mediators for the association between wage income and ill health in Sweden. A larger residual effect of income on health for women as compared with men suggests that one's own income from work is a more important determinant of women's than men's ill health in Sweden. PMID:15899322

  18. What keeps health professionals working in rural district hospitals in South Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Gunst, Colette; Blitz, Julia; Coetzee, Johan F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The theme of the 2014 Southern African Rural Health Conference was ‘Building resilience in facing rural realities’. Retaining health professionals in South Africa is critical for sustainable health services. Only 12% of doctors and 19% of nurses have been retained in the rural areas. The aim of the workshop was to understand from health practitioners why they continued working in their rural settings. Conference workshop The workshop consisted of 29 doctors, managers, academic family physicians, nurses and clinical associates from Southern Africa, with work experience from three weeks to 13 years, often in deep rural districts. Using the nominal group technique, the following question was explored, ‘What is it that keeps you going to work every day?’ Participants reflected on their work situation and listed and rated the important reasons for continuing to work. Results Five main themes emerged. A shared purpose, emanating from a deep sense of meaning, was the strongest reason for staying and working in a rural setting. Working in a team was second most important, with teamwork being related to attitudes and relationships, support from visiting specialists and opportunities to implement individual clinical skills. A culture of support was third, followed by opportunities for growth and continuing professional development, including teaching by outreaching specialists. The fifth theme was a healthy work-life balance. Conclusion Health practitioners continue to work in rural settings for often deeper reasons relating to a sense of meaning, being part of a team that closely relate to each other and feeling supported. PMID:26245623

  19. Constructing health and sickness in the context of motherhood and paid work.

    PubMed

    Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Backett-Milburn, Kathryn; Kemmer, Debbie

    2006-05-01

    Changes in the labour market, especially the rise in the employment of women (lone or partnered) with children, alongside an increased policy emphasis on work as a component of active citizenship for men and women, have stimulated the development of research examining the balance between work and home. Although sociologists have long been interested in the interface between the spheres of paid work and domestic life, understandings of the subjective experience of health and illness have tended to keep the domains of family and work separate. This paper addresses the construction of health and illness as operating at the interface between the worlds of work and home. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers in paid work and having primary school aged children; the study was located in Edinburgh, Scotland. Through an analysis of the interview accounts, this paper examines respondents' experiences and constructions of health, sickness and wellbeing in themselves and in their children. Four areas are discussed: respondents' accounts of the effects of caring and providing on their own health; respondents' accounts of the influence of workplace relationships in the construction of sickness; respondents' accounts of negotiating absence for their children's sickness and how they made sense of and defined child sickness. We argue that managing sickness, itself an anticipated but unpredictable event, gives analytical purchase to understanding the values and practices that characterise the interrelationship between work and family life. The intersections of home and work operate powerfully in respondents' constructions of health and sickness, and the analysis demonstrates how these are played out in everyday life, at home and at work. PMID:16669805

  20. Studying the striving and opposing forces in newspaper journalism: the actantial model of health promotion.

    PubMed

    Aarva, Pauliina; Tampere, Marja Pakarinen

    2006-06-01

    The cultural aspects of health promotion are important in policy development as well as in assessing effectiveness of health promotion activities. The discourses on promoting health and well-being in journalism reflect the health promotion culture in society. This article illustrates how health promotion is portrayed by 147 newspaper items from the two Finnish quality dailies during the period 2002-2004 and introduces a semiotic Actantial Model of Health Promotion (AMHP) for studying health promotion cultures. The most popular news themes on health promotion were physical and social environment, welfare services, nutrition and obesity, and mental well-being. The actants (actors, actions and abstract factor) of health promotion were identified and the AMHP with seven key actants (generator, health-object, public, tool, executor, threat and obstacle) was constructed. The model sheds light on two sides of health promotion discourses in journalism. The dominant culture of health promotion was represented by policy actions, information, education and scientific research, which were defined by health experts, decision-makers and researchers. Representations of the opposite culture--'the otherness' of health promotion included external harmful factors and unhealthy behaviours, mentalities opposed to being health-oriented, rationally uncontrolled living, disorder, disharmony and insecurity. The opposing factors were presented by people and institutions lacking the will, ability or motivation for a health-oriented life. To understand better the values of health promotion, it is necessary to assess the characteristics of the opposite side of health promotion culture, because the current dominant values can be described more clearly by the boundaries--by 'otherness'. The study argues that the AMHP can be used as a semiotic method to identify the value dimensions and the boundaries between the dominant and the opposite discourses of health promotion in various communications such as advertising and health education. Also, it provides a tool for the analysis of the media's role in 'victimization' or 'heroization' of various population groups. PMID:16567361

  1. International perspectives on psychosocial working conditions, mental health, and stress of dairy farm operators.

    PubMed

    Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Kallioniemi, Marja; Lundqvist, Peter; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta; Stallones, Lorann; Brumby, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farm operators-farmers, workers, and family members-are faced with many demands and stressors in their daily work and these appear to be shared across countries and cultures. Dairy operators experience high psychosocial demands with respect to a hard work and production ethos, economic influences, and social and environmental responsibility. Furthermore, both traditional and industrial farms are highly dependent on external conditions, such as weather, fluctuating markets, and regulations from government authorities. Possible external stressors include disease outbreaks, taxes related to dairy production, and recent negative societal attitudes to farming in general. Dairy farm operators may have very few or no opportunities to influence and control these external conditions, demands, and expectations. High work demands and expectations coupled with low control and lack of social support can lead to a poor psychosocial work environment, with increased stress levels, ill mental health, depression, and, in the worst cases, suicide. Internationally, farmers with ill mental health have different health service options depending on their location. Regardless of location, it is initially the responsibility of the individual farmer and farm family to handle mental health and stress, which can be of short- or long-term duration. This paper reviews the literature on the topics of psychosocial working conditions, mental health, stress, depression, and suicide among dairy farm operators, farm workers, and farm family members in an international perspective. PMID:23844791

  2. A systematic review of integrated working between care homes and health care services

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the UK there are almost three times as many beds in care homes as in National Health Service (NHS) hospitals. Care homes rely on primary health care for access to medical care and specialist services. Repeated policy documents and government reviews register concern about how health care works with independent providers, and the need to increase the equity, continuity and quality of medical care for care homes. Despite multiple initiatives, it is not known if some approaches to service delivery are more effective in promoting integrated working between the NHS and care homes. This study aims to evaluate the different integrated approaches to health care services supporting older people in care homes, and identify barriers and facilitators to integrated working. Methods A systematic review was conducted using Medline (PubMed), CINAHL, BNI, EMBASE, PsycInfo, DH Data, Kings Fund, Web of Science (WoS incl. SCI, SSCI, HCI) and the Cochrane Library incl. DARE. Studies were included if they evaluated the effectiveness of integrated working between primary health care professionals and care homes, or identified barriers and facilitators to integrated working. Studies were quality assessed; data was extracted on health, service use, cost and process related outcomes. A modified narrative synthesis approach was used to compare and contrast integration using the principles of framework analysis. Results Seventeen studies were included; 10 quantitative studies, two process evaluations, one mixed methods study and four qualitative. The majority were carried out in nursing homes. They were characterised by heterogeneity of topic, interventions, methodology and outcomes. Most quantitative studies reported limited effects of the intervention; there was insufficient information to evaluate cost. Facilitators to integrated working included care home managers' support and protected time for staff training. Studies with the potential for integrated working were longer in duration. Conclusions Despite evidence about what inhibits and facilitates integrated working there was limited evidence about what the outcomes of different approaches to integrated care between health service and care homes might be. The majority of studies only achieved integrated working at the patient level of care and the focus on health service defined problems and outcome measures did not incorporate the priorities of residents or acknowledge the skills of care home staff. There is a need for more research to understand how integrated working is achieved and to test the effect of different approaches on cost, staff satisfaction and resident outcomes. PMID:22115126

  3. [The requirement for the health examination in work place to focus on mood disorders].

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Norio

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 Mr. Nagatsuma, the former Minister of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan expressed his opinion that the health examination of work place should includes items to focus on mental disorders such as depression, just after the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology with related societies launched the Joint Declaration of Countermeasure for Depression. To carry out the examination the following requirement is necessary. 1) Keeping the results of the health examination in secret. 2) Enlightenment of mental disorders including depression, bipolar disorders, schizophrenia and pervasive developmental disorders. 3) Not only questionnaires for screening but also supportive and sympathetic interview methods that are reliable and valid. 4) Cooperation between work place and health professional In introduction of medical intervention and rehabilitation. The strategy to realize the above-mentioned requirements is as follows. 1) Education of the industrial mental health staff: public health nurses and psychologists. 2) Pilot study to examine the method of the health examination. 3) Research to establish the future preventive method of mental disrders. 4) Budgetary appropriation. As the health examination should be benefit for workers, hasty introduction of the examination should be avoided. PMID:22746043

  4. Promoting occupational safety and health for working children through microfinance programming.

    PubMed

    Carothers, Richard; Breslin, Curtis; Denomy, Jennifer; Foad, Mamdouh

    2010-01-01

    Microfinance programs are recognized as a way of improving incomes and creating employment for large numbers of low-income families, but there are concerns that working conditions within these informal microenterprises are far from ideal. For example, when families receive loans to expand a microenterprise, children may make up the labor shortfall until the family can afford to hire adult workers. Through the Promoting and Protecting the Interests of Children who Work (PPIC-Work) project being carried out in Egypt, a set of interventions that can not only improve working conditions, but can also be integrated into standard microfinance programs has been developed. By working with and through self-financing microfinance programs, the PPIC-Work approach provides a way of improving occupational safety and health not only for children working in microenterprises but also for large numbers of children and adults working in the informal sector more generally. PMID:20465063

  5. [Forced spirometry procedure].

    PubMed

    Cortés Aguilera, Antonio Javier

    2008-11-01

    Forced spirometry consists in a complementary test which is carried out in a health office in a workplace in order to determine the lung capacity of workers exposed to determined professional risks or those susceptible to determined working conditions which could lead to the development of respiratory problems. This test has been developed based on health vigilance laws under Article 22 of the Law for Prevention of Risks in the Workplace and requires that the technician, a nurse in a workplace, who performs it have some knowledge and skills regarding its use, following the norms for forced spirometry set by the Spanish Association for Pneumatology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR). PMID:19203116

  6. Women's paid/unpaid work and health: exploring the social context of everyday life.

    PubMed

    Angus, J

    1994-01-01

    Literature from various disciplines was reviewed to obtain a description of the working lives of Canadian women. This analysis drew on the work of Smith (1987, 1990) and other feminist and critical theorist authors who have argued that much of women's work remains invisible and undervalued. Patterns of normative thought or social ideology may obscure the extent and value of women's contributions. It is suggested here that an "ideology of separate spheres" operates in the designation of paid activity in the public sphere as work, whereas activities pursued in the private sphere of the home are overlooked. It is further argued that women's heavy involvement in unpaid activities that support and sustain others results in a state of lesser citizenship, and women's own prerequisites of health are often compromised. Women's work often takes place outside the formal economy, within a "shadow" or subsistence economy (Illich, 1981) which is essential for the continued health of others. PMID:7788588

  7. Mixed methods study examining work reintegration experiences from perspectives of Veterans with mental health disorders.

    PubMed

    Kukla, Marina; Rattray, Nicholas A; Salyers, Michelle P

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that reintegration for Veterans is often challenging. One difficult aspect of reintegration—transitioning into the civilian workplace—has not been fully explored in the literature. To address this gap and examine work reintegration, this mixed methods study examined the perspectives of Veterans with mental health disorders receiving Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare. Forty Veterans rated factors that affect work success; participants also provided narratives on their most and least successful work experiences. We used t-tests and qualitative analysis to compare participants who did and did not serve in combat. Several themes relevant to work reintegration emerged in the narratives, particularly for Veterans who served in combat. An array of work difficulties were reported in the months following military discharge. In addition, Veterans who served in combat reported significantly more work barriers than Veterans who did not serve in combat, particularly health-related barriers. In conclusion, Veterans with mental health disorders who served in combat experienced more work reintegration difficulty than their counterparts who did not serve in combat. The role of being a Veteran affected how combat Veterans formed their self-concept, which also shaped their work success and community reintegration, especially during the early transition period. PMID:26348934

  8. Team-level flexibility, work–home spillover, and health behavior

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Fan, Wen; Kelly, Erin L.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on two waves of survey data conducted six months apart in 2006, this study examined the impacts of a team-level flexibility initiative (ROWE – Results Only Work Environment) on changes in the work-home spillover and health behavior of employees at the Midwest headquarters of a large US corporation. Using cluster analysis, we identified three distinct baseline spillover constellations: employees with high negative spillover, high positive spillover, and low overall spillover. Within-team spillover measures were highly intercorrelated, suggesting that work teams as well as individuals have identifiable patterns of spillover. Multilevel analyses showed ROWE reduced individual- and team-level negative work-home spillover but not positive work-home spillover or spillover from home-to-work. ROWE also promoted employees’ health behaviors: increasing the odds of quitting smoking, decreasing smoking frequency, and promoting perceptions of adequate time for healthy meals. Trends suggest that ROWE also decreased the odds of excessive drinking and improved sleep adequacy and exercise frequency. Some health behavior effects were mediated via reduced individual-level negative work-home spillover (exercise frequency, adequate time for sleep) and reduced team-level negative work-home spillover (smoking frequency, exercise frequency, and adequate time for sleep). While we found no moderating effects of gender, ROWE especially improved the exercise frequency of singles and reduced the smoking frequency of employees with low overall spillover at baseline. PMID:23517706

  9. Stress and burnout among healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Yang, Suyi; Meredith, Pamela; Khan, Asaduzzaman

    2015-06-01

    International literature suggests that the experience of high levels of stress by healthcare professionals has been associated with decreased work efficiency and high rates of staff turnover. The aims of this study are to identify the extent of stress and burnout experienced by healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore and to identify demographic characteristics and work situations associated with this stress and burnout. A total of 220 Singaporean mental health professionals completed a cross-sectional survey, which included measures of stress, burnout (exhaustion and disengagement), participants' demographic details, and working situation. Independent t-tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to examine between-group differences in the dependent variables (stress and burnout). Analyses revealed that healthcare professionals below the age of 25, those with less than five years experience, and those with the lowest annual income, reported the highest levels of stress and burnout. No significant differences were found with other demographic or work situation variables. Findings suggest that healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore are experiencing relatively high levels of stress and burnout. It is important that clinicians, administrators and policy makers take proactive steps to develop programs aimed at reducing stress and burnout for healthcare professionals. These programs are likely to also increase the well-being and resilience of healthcare professionals and improve the quality of mental health services in Singapore. PMID:25922279

  10. Work Related Stress, Burnout, Job Satisfaction and General Health of Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Khamisa, Natasha; Oldenburg, Brian; Peltzer, Karl; Ilic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Gaps in research focusing on work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses is evident within developing contexts like South Africa. This study identified the relationship between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. A total of 1200 nurses from four hospitals were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study (75% response rate). Participants completed five questionnaires and multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Staff issues are best associated with burnout as well as job satisfaction. Burnout explained the highest amount of variance in mental health of nurses. These are known to compromise productivity and performance, as well as affect the quality of patient care. Issues, such as security risks in the workplace, affect job satisfaction and health of nurses. Although this is more salient to developing contexts it is important in developing strategies and intervention programs towards improving nurse and patient related outcomes. PMID:25588157

  11. Cool aid? Health, wellbeing and place in the work of Bono and U2.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Gavin J; Kearns, Robin A; Kingsbury, Paul; Carr, Edward R

    2011-01-01

    Through a discussion of the sounds and statements of Bono and U2, this paper explores the ways in which music can work in particular spatial contexts, contributing towards both personal and population-wide health and wellbeing. We engage critically with the idea of celebrity diplomacy, and look beyond this notion to suggest ways in which the production, circulation and consumption of music warrants greater attention within the unfolding domain of health geography. PMID:20970367

  12. [Comparison of shift work and night shifts: impacts on health and wellbeing among sanitary workers].

    PubMed

    Della Betta, F; Martinellit, R; Del Re, C; Tarquini, M; Fantasia, D; Paoletti, A

    2011-01-01

    The generally agreed view is that there is no ideal shift system, and that most systems will have both advantages and disadvantages. As such, attention has been placed on trying to identify good and bad features of shift systems, with a view to minimising the possible ill health as a consequence of shiftwork. The present study focuses on the quality of the shift and looks at the implications for individual health and wellbeing, during the wellbeing, during the shift. Three groups of sanitary workers, one working in the morning, one working two shifts, and the other working three, took part. All completed a version of the standard shiftwork index (SSI), a set of self reported questionnaires related to health and wellbeing. The three groups differed on many outcome measures, although the differences that did exist didn't suggested advantages for one shift system over the others. PMID:23393869

  13. Periodic health examination, 1995 update: 1. Screening for human papillomavirus infection in asymptomatic women. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, K

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop recommendations for practising physicians on the advisability of screening for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in asymptomatic women. OPTIONS: Visual inspection, Papanicolaou testing, colposcopy or cervicography, use of HPV group-specific antigen, DNA hybridization, dot blot technique, Southern blot technique or polymerase chain reaction followed by physical or chemical therapeutic intervention. OUTCOMES: Evidence for a link between HPV infection and cervical cancer, sensitivity and specificity of HPV screening techniques, effectiveness of treatments for HPV infection, and the social and economic costs incurred by screening. EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched for articles published between January 1966 to June 1993 with the use of the key words "papillomavirus," "cervix neoplasms," "mass screening," "prospective studies," "prevalence," "sensitivity," "specificity," "human" and "female." VALUES: Proven cost-effective screening techniques that could lead to decreased morbidity or mortality were given a high value. The evidence-based methods and values of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination were used. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Potential benefits are to prevent cervical cancer and eliminate HPV infection. Potential harmful effects include the creation of an unnecessary burden on the health care system and the labelling of otherwise healthy people as patients with a sexually transmitted disease for which therapy is generally ineffective. Potential costs would include expense of testing, increased use of colposcopy and treatment. RECOMMENDATIONS: There is fair evidence to exclude HPV screening (beyond Papanicolaou testing for cervical cancer) in asymptomatic women (grade D recommendation). VALIDATION: The report was reviewed by members of the task force and three external reviewers who were selected to represent different areas of expertise. SPONSORS: These guidelines were developed and endorsed by the task force, which is funded by Health Canada and the National Health Research and Development Program. The principal author (K.J.) was supported in part by the National Health Research and Development Program through a National Health Fellowship (AIDS). PMID:7859196

  14. Work Stress and Risk Factors For Health Management Trainees in Canakkale, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Tan??man, Beyhan; Cevizci, Sibel; Çelik, Merve; Sevim, Sezgin

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to investigate the general mental health situation, work-related stress and risk factors of health management trainees. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on Health Management Musters students (N=96) in Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Health Sciences Institute, May-June 2014. A total of 58 students who voluntarily participated in the study were reached (60.42%). Participants completed a 22-question sociodemographic survey form and a 12-item General Health Questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 20.0. Results: The average age of participants was 36.4±6.2 (Min:24-Max:62) years. Thirty five of the participants were female (60.3%), 23 were male (39.7%). The number of people using cigarettes and alcohol were 23 (39.7%) and 9 (15.8%) respectively. In our study group according to GHQ scale 32 people (55.2%) were in the group at risk of depression. Eighty-six percent of participants reported experiencing work stress. The most frequently reported sources of stress were superiors (56.8%), work itself (41.3%), and work colleagues (25.8%). There was no significant difference between those at risk of depression and those not at risk in terms of gender, marital status, educational level, age, work-related factors (daily work, computer use, duration of sitting at desk), sleep duration, presence of chronic disease, substance use (cigarettes, alcohol), regular exercise, regular meals, fast-food consumption, sufficient family time and vacations (p>0.05). Conclusions: Our study results indicated that majority of participants reported experiencing work stress with more than half at high risk of developing depression. The most reported risk factors were superiors, the work itself and colleagues in the present study. Psychosocial risk factors at work environment should be investigated in terms of psychological, sociological and ergonomics in more detail to reduce the risk of health management trainees experiencing work stress and mental health problems. PMID:25568633

  15. Health-Related Factors Associated with Mode of Travel to Work

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, Melissa; Kaczynski, Andrew T.; Campbell, Matthew E.

    2013-01-01

    Active commuting (AC) to the workplace is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and is associated with health benefits. This study examined the association between health-related factors and mode of travel to the workplace. Methods. A volunteer convenience sample of employed adults completed an online survey regarding demographics, health-related factors, and the number of times/week walking, biking, driving, and using public transit to work (dichotomized as no walk/bike/drive/PT and walk/bike/drive/PT 1 + x/week). Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of each mode of transport and meeting PA recommendations from AC according to demographics and health-related factors. Results. The sample (n = 1175) was aged 43.5 ± 11.4 years and was primarily White (92.7%) and female (67.9%). Respondents reported walking (7.3%), biking (14.4%), taking public transit (20.3%), and driving (78.3%) to work at least one time/week. Among those reporting AC, 9.6% met PA recommendations from AC alone. Mode of travel to work was associated with several demographic and health-related factors, including age, number of chronic diseases, weight status, and AC beliefs. Discussion. Mode of transportation to the workplace and health-related factors such as disease or weight status should be considered in future interventions targeting AC. PMID:23533450

  16. Does Leaders' Health (and Work-Related Experiences) Affect their Evaluation of Followers' Stress?

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Gabriele; Mancuso, Serena; Fiz Perez, Francisco Javier; Montani, Francesco; Courcy, Francois; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Background Stressed workers suffer from severe health problems which appear to have increased. Poor leadership is especially considered a source of stress. Indeed, supervisors might perceive their subordinates to be similar to them as far as stress is concerned and this might more widespread in organizations than previously thought. Methods The present research investigates the relationships between leaders' health, in terms of work-related stress, mental health, and workplace bullying and their evaluation of subordinates' stress. Five regression models were formulated to test our hypothesis. This is a cross-sectional study among 261 Italian leaders, using supervisor self-assessment and leaders' assessments of their subordinates. Results Leaders' health was related to their evaluation of staff stress. Job demand, lack of job control, and lack of support by colleagues and supervisors evaluated in their subordinates were particularly associated with the leaders' own health. Conclusion Implications for developing healthy leaders are finally discussed. PMID:26929835

  17. Job Burnout, Work Engagement and Self-reported Treatment for Health Conditions in South Africa.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Leon T; Pienaar, Jaco; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study being reported here was to investigate the relationship of job burnout and work engagement with self-reported received treatment for health conditions (cardiovascular condition, high cholesterol, depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome), while controlling for age, gender, smoking and alcohol use. The sample comprised 7895 employees from a broad range of economic sectors in the South African working population. A cross-sectional survey design was used for the study. Structural equation modelling methods were implemented with a weighted least squares approach. The results showed that job burnout had a positive relationship with self-reported received treatment for depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome. Work engagement did not have any significant negative or positive relationships with the treatment for these health conditions. The results of this study make stakeholders aware of the relationship between job burnout, work engagement and self-reported treatment for health conditions. Evidence for increased reporting of treatment for ill-health conditions due to burnout was found. Therefore, attempts should be made to manage job burnout to prevent ill-health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24723548

  18. Involvement in Mental Health and Substance Abuse Work: Conceptions of Service Users

    PubMed Central

    Laitila, Minna; Nikkonen, Merja; Pietilä, Anna-Maija

    2011-01-01

    Service user involvement (SUI) is a principal and a guideline in social and health care and also in mental health and substance abuse work. In practice, however, there are indicators of SUI remaining rhetoric rather than reality. The purpose of this study was to analyse and describe service users' conceptions of SUI in mental health and substance abuse work. The following study question was addressed: what are service users' conceptions of service user involvement in mental health and substance abuse work? In total, 27 users of services participated in the study, and the data was gathered by means of interviews. A phenomenographic approach was applied in order to explore the qualitative variations in participants' conceptions of SUI. As a result of the data analysis, four main categories of description representing service users' conceptions of service user involvement were formed: service users have the best expertise, opinions are not heard, systems make the rules, and courage and readiness to participate. In mental health and substance abuse work, SUI is still insufficiently achieved and there are obstacles to be taken into consideration. Nurses are in a key position to promote and encourage service user involvement. PMID:21994839

  19. Leadership, Organizational Climate, and Working Alliance in a Children's Mental Health Service System

    PubMed Central

    Green, Amy E.; Albanese, Brian J.; Cafri, Guy; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationships of transformational leadership and organizational climate with working alliance, in a children's mental health service system. Using multilevel structural equation modeling, the effect of leadership on working alliance was mediated by organizational climate. These results suggest that supervisors may be able to impact quality of care through improving workplace climate. Organizational factors should be considered in efforts to improve public sector services. Understanding these issues is important for program leaders, mental health service providers, and consumers because they can affect both the way services are delivered and ultimately, clinical outcomes. PMID:24323137

  20. Leadership, organizational climate, and working alliance in a children's mental health service system.

    PubMed

    Green, Amy E; Albanese, Brian J; Cafri, Guy; Aarons, Gregory A

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationships of transformational leadership and organizational climate with working alliance, in a children's mental health service system. Using multilevel structural equation modeling, the effect of leadership on working alliance was mediated by organizational climate. These results suggest that supervisors may be able to impact quality of care through improving workplace climate. Organizational factors should be considered in efforts to improve public sector services. Understanding these issues is important for program leaders, mental health service providers, and consumers because they can affect both the way services are delivered and ultimately, clinical outcomes. PMID:24323137