Science.gov

Sample records for health work force

  1. Health Services Research: Work Force and Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Marilyn J., Ed.; And Others

    Health services research is a multidisciplinary field that investigates the structure, processes, and effects of health care services. This report focuses on one part of the field of health services research--its work force and its programs for educating and training that work force. This study undertook the following information collection…

  2. Evaluating the Environmental Health Work Force. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This report contains all materials pertinent to an intensive evaluation of the environmental health work force conducted in 1986 and 1987. The materials relate to a workshop that was one of the key tools used in conducting the study to estimate environmental health personnel supply, demand, and need. The report begins with an overview and…

  3. The health work force, generalism, and the social contract.

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, G F

    1995-01-01

    Since 1990, society has been evolving through a period of significant transformation. In response to an increasingly information-rich and knowledge-based environment, the work force for most of society is becoming more specialized. Medicine is one of the few areas developing a work force which emphasizes generalism. For our current needs, the transitional work force has overproduced physicians. Because the overproduction has been uneven by specialty, it is deceptive to evaluate growth collectively rather than by individual subspecialty. Future shifts in age and types of illness combined with enhanced technology will transform the public's expectations of the American health care system. The type and number of physicians that will be needed in the future will be substantially different than in the past, so current patterns in physician education may not address the population's future demands. Images Figure 1. PMID:7677453

  4. [Investigating work, age, health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ebener, M; Hasselhorn, H M

    2015-04-01

    Working life in Germany is changing. The work force is ageing and the number of people available to the labour market will - from now on - shrink considerably. Prospectively, people will have to work longer; but still today, most people leave employment long before reaching official retirement age. What are the reasons for this? In this report, a conceptual framework and the German lidA Cohort Study are presented. The "lidA conceptual framework on work, age, health and work participation" visualises determinants of employment (11 "domains") in higher working age, e. g., "work", "health", "social status" and "life style". The framework reveals 4 key characteristics of withdrawal from work: leaving working life is the result of an interplay of different domains (complexity); (early) retirement is a process with in part early determinants in the life course (processual character); retirement has a strong individual component (individuality); retirement is embedded in a strong structural frame (structure). On the basis of this framework, the "lidA Cohort Study on work, age, health and work participation" (www.lida-studie.de) investigates long-term effects of work on health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany. It is the only large study in Germany operationalising the concept of employability in a broad interdisciplinary approach. Employees subject to social security and born in 1959 or in 1965 will be interviewed (CAPI) every 3 years (N[wave 1]=6 585, N[wave 2]=4 244) and their data will be linked (where consented) with social security data covering employment history and with health insurance data. The study design ("Schaie's most efficient design") allows for a tri-factor model that isolates the impact of age, cohort and time. In 2014, the second wave was completed. In the coming years lidA will analyse the association of work, health and work participation, and identify age as well as generation differences. lidA will investigate the

  5. For the Health-Care Work Force, a Critical Prognosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Daniel W.; Wartman, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    The United States faces a looming shortage of many types of health-care professionals, including nurses, physicians, dentists, pharmacists, and allied-health and public-health workers. There may also be a shortage of faculty members in the health sciences. The results will be felt acutely within the next 10 years. Colleges and health-science…

  6. Mental health issues in the workplace: maintaining a productive work force.

    PubMed

    Raderstorf, Mark; Kurtz, Jennifer

    2006-08-01

    Occupational health nurses must intervene early and validate the conditions and experiences of employees with psychiatric disabilities. Occupational health nurses must ensure employees are receiving appropriate treatment. They must be aware of and prepared to mitigate iatrogenic influences. Occupational health nurses can facilitate resolution of workplace conflicts and issues regarding changing supervisors or departments. They can also facilitate return to work by establishing clear restrictions and coordinating accommodations. compassionate and supportive, yet assertive, approach is key to managing mental health disability. It will, in most cases, facilitate successful return to full-time work. PMID:16921867

  7. Job Attributes Preferred by Female Health Professionals, before and after Entering the Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordholm, Lena A.; Westbrook, Mary T.

    1982-01-01

    Studied female health professionals' (N=125) preferences for 12 job characteristics at graduation and 20 months later. After employment, respondents placed increased importance on skill development and respect received, and less emphasis on security and promotion opportunities. (Author)

  8. Effects of requested, forced and denied shift schedule change on work ability and health of nurses in Europe -Results from the European NEXT-Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous cross-sectional findings from the European Nurses Early Exit Study (NEXT) show that nurses who were dissatisfied with their work schedule tended to consider leaving the nursing profession. Mediating factors in this decision process may be caused by self-perceived poor work ability and/or health. The aim of this paper is to investigate changes in work ability and general health among nurses in relation to requested, forced and denied change of shift schedule. Methods Longitudinal data from the NEXT Study was used. In total 11,102 nurses from Belgium, Germany, Finland, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, France and Italy completed both the ‘basic questionnaire’ (t1) and the ’12 month follow-up questionnaire’ (t2). To examine the time-effect (repeated measures) and the group-effect of five defined groups of nurses on the Work Ability Index (WAI) and general health (SF36), an adjusted 2-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed. Results The nurses who wanted to, but could not change their shifts during the 12 month follow-up had the lowest initial and follow-up scores for WAI (t1: 37.6, t2: 36.6, p <0.001), lowest general health (t1: 63.9, t2: 59.2, p <0.001) and showed the highest decrease in both outcomes. Shift pattern change in line with the nurses’ wishes was associated with improved work ability and to a lesser comparatively low extent with increased decline in health scores. A forced change of shift against the nurses’ will was significantly associated with a deteriorating work ability and health. Conclusions The findings would suggest that nurses’ desire to change their shift patterns may be an indicator for perceived low work ability and/or low health. The results also indicate that fulfilling nurses’ wishes with respect to their shift work pattern may improve their personal resources such as work ability and – to somewhat lesser extent – health. Disregarding nurses’ preferences, however, bears the risk for

  9. America's Changing Work Force: Statistics in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This booklet provides information about the demographics of the changing work force. It offers an at-a-glance profile of workers age 45 and older and considers likely changes in the work force of the future. The document includes topics such as the composition of the work force of today and tomorrow by age and sex, labor force participation rates,…

  10. America's Changing Work Force. Statistics in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This booklet provides information about the changing work force. It offers a profile of workers aged 45 and older, as well as likely changes in the work force of the future. Tables and graphs illustrate the following: profile of Americans aged 50 and older, by employment status; employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by age…

  11. The Work, the Workplace, and the Work Force of Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Claudia

    1995-01-01

    Ann McLaughlin, a former secretary of labor, discusses her views on the future of the workplace. She feels that to solve the impending problem of educational deficits among the work force, employers will begin their own educational programs, improving both employee loyalty and work force mobility. Includes predictions for future growth fields.…

  12. On the work of internal forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.; Brito, L.

    2015-07-01

    We discuss the role of the internal forces and how their work changes the energy of a system. We illustrate the contribution of the internal work to the variation of the system’s energy, using a pure mechanical example, a thermodynamical system and an example from electromagnetism. We emphasize that internal energy variations related to the work of the internal forces should be pinpointed in the classroom and placed on the same footing as other internal energy variations such as those caused by temperature changes or by chemical reactions.

  13. Making health spending work.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Fred; Zelder, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Medical Savings Accounts (MSAs) are usually promoted as a demand-management tool that gives consumers incentives to economize on medical expenses. "Making Health Spending Work" takes the concept one step further and shows how MSAs can be used to design a publicly funded system that incorporates market dynamics. MSAs can bring efficiency-enhancing incentives to the supply side, creating consumer choice and empowerment with a public system that meets Medicare's key principles. Over the last few months, Canada's political leaders have begun to break away from the reform-stalling tactics of special interest groups - which profit mightily from the the current system - and to examine sensible reforms that could benefit all Canadians. By breaking free of old dogmas, Canada can turn myth into reality: we can have the best medicare system in the world, one that expands choice and creates efficiency-enhancing dynamics. PMID:12811123

  14. Integrated Learning for a Competitive Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolde, Rosemary F.

    1991-01-01

    As the economy has shifted focus from production to service to information, work force composition has diversified, and the scope of required skills has expanded. The classroom of the future must integrate academic and technical knowledge and skills within an applied vocational learning model. This article explains this process. Includes five…

  15. Magnetic Force and Work: An Accessible Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Despite their physics instructors' arguments to the contrary, introductory students can observe situations in which there seems to be compelling evidence for magnetic force doing work. The counterarguments are often highly technical and require physics knowledge beyond the experience of novice students, however. A simple example is presented…

  16. Shift work, health, the working time regulations and health assessments.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, P J; D'Auria, D A

    1999-04-01

    Shift work and night work in particular have been associated with sleep difficulties, general malaise, fatigue, peptic ulceration, ischaemic heart disease, cigarette smoking and adverse pregnancy outcome. The medical conditions previously regarded as making individuals unsuitable for shift work show wide ranging patho-physiological activity and there is no published evidence for any such condition to be regarded an absolute reason to exclude an individual from shift work. The fulfilment of the legal obligations of the Working Time Regulations 1998 is neither prescribed nor constrained in any way. It is advisable therefore to build on existing health procedures where they are in effect. Periodic health questionnaires can offer health professionals an opportunity to detect any disorder likely to be aggravated by shift work or by a combination of shift work, job demands and workplace conditions. A further purpose of the questionnaire is the assessment of ability to undertake shift work duties. However, health questionnaires are neither sensitive nor specific enough to be used to select applicants or employees for shift work, since they do not consistently predict tolerance of shift work or subsequent health problems. Whether employers should offer anything more than a simple questionnaire will depend on the culture of the company and accessibility of health services. Screening programmes affect many people relative to the few who benefit and with existing knowledge, periodic general health examinations performed in asymptomatic subjects have limited predictive or preventive value. PMID:10451593

  17. Employee satisfaction: creating a positive work force.

    PubMed

    Wright, M

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1990s, El Camino Hospital (ECH) streamlined its operations in order to remain competitive. In 1992, the hospital's District Board voted to turn the hospital's management over to a nonprofit company and it became an integrated delivery system (IDS). Hospital employees continued to suffer as their work and work schedules changed in ongoing efforts by the new administration to streamline. Finally, in early 1997, the IDS, Camino Healthcare, was dissolved. The director of radiology and radiation oncology services became aware of increasing employee problems, from high turnover rates and increased absenteeism, to morale and productivity issues. Employees also worried about job redesign, re-engineering and a lack of clear direction and expectations from department leadership. The director of the department created a task force to respond to the needs of staff members. With so much anger directed at department leadership, supervisory staff were not included in the task force. The task force worked first to identify rumors and innuendos and followed with a plan to resolve such issues. The second step was to agree to focus on issues that they could change and to let go of those they couldn't. They selected five priority issues or concerns. The group met weekly and made progress by replacing negative talk and attitudes with positive ones. Meanwhile, the director researched employee satisfaction issues so she would be prepared to discuss such issues and concerns with employees. She focused on a common theme, of having a personal mission or goal for one's self. She encouraged staff members to be aware of their own behavior when communicating with others. Although several informal surveys proved there was still much work to be done, there was positive response--a light at the end of the long tunnel. PMID:10180224

  18. Women, work, and health.

    PubMed

    Hatch, M; Moline, J

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Bureau of National Affairs has conducted several surveys asking women to rate the seriousness of 11 hazards thought to affect female workers. In 1995 the women respondents ranked them in the following order: 1) stress, 2) repetitive motions, 3) AIDS, 4) violence, 5) VDTs, 6) indoor air pollution, 7) hepatitis, 8) injury on the job, 9) reproductive hazards, 10) tuberculosis, and 11) other infectious diseases. A parallel list of 11 hazards thought to affect male workers would look very different. The purpose of this paper is to explore why this is so and what it implies for the occupational health research agenda. PMID:9219662

  19. Gendered work conditions, health, and work outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bond, Meg A; Punnett, Laura; Pyle, Jean L; Cazeca, Dianne; Cooperman, Manuela

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study of nonfaculty university employees examined associations among gendered work conditions (e.g., sexism and discrimination), job demands, and employee job satisfaction and health. Organizational responsiveness and social support were examined as effect modifiers. Comparisons were made by gender and by the male-female ratio in each job category. The relationship of gendered conditions of work to outcomes differed on the basis of respondents' sex and the job sex ratio. Although the same predictors were hypothesized for job satisfaction, physical health, and psychological distress, there were some differing results. The strongest correlate of job satisfaction was social support; perceived sexism in the workplace also contributed for both men and women. Organizational factors associated with psychological distress differed between female- and male-dominated jobs. PMID:14700456

  20. Health problems in cold work.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Tiina M; Hassi, Juhani

    2009-07-01

    Cold in- and outdoor work can result in different adverse effects on human health. Health problems decrease performance and work productivity and increase the occurrence of accidents and injuries. Serious health problems can also result in absence from work due to sick leave or hospitalization. At its worst, work in cold conditions could be associated with deaths due to cold-related accidents or a sudden health event. Musculoskeletal complaints, like pain, aches etc. are common in indoor cold work. Breathing cold air while working may lead to respiratory symptoms, which can decrease performance in cold. The symptoms are usually worsened by exercise and ageing, being more common in persons having a respiratory disease. Cardiovascular complaints and related performance decrements could be especially pronounced during work in cold weather and involving physical exercise, especially among those with an underlying cardiovascular disease. The article also reviews the current information related to diabetes, skin disorders and diseases, as well as cold injuries and accidents occurring in cold work. Increasing awareness and identifying workplace- and individual-related cold risks is the first step in proper cold risk management. Following this, the susceptible population groups need customized advice on proper prevention and protection in cold work. PMID:19531906

  1. Towards a longer and better working life: a challenge of work force ageing.

    PubMed

    Ilmarinen, J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this overview is to describe the background of work force ageing and its consequences in the society, to introduce concepts for the solutions, to emphasize the actions needed, to point out the new challenges for occupational health, to review the targets of work life improvements, and to highlight the new innovations needed. Work life must be lengthened for the sake of society. Early retirement and low employment rates of 55-64-years old employees make the dependency ratios an increasingly heavy burden. New innovations and concepts like promotion of work ability and age management training have been effective tools for the increase of employment rates and decrease of age discrimination in Finland. The increase of the prevalence and incidence rates of work-related symptoms and diseases during ageing is a serious challenge for occupational health experts. The better adjustments of the working life with the individual health is a crucial element for a longer career. The European working life has not improved markedly for workers over 45 years between 1996 and 2000. Therefore, evidence based concepts should be widely and effectively implemented and new innovations created. A better co-operation between macro-, meso and micro levels is necessary, social partners should create mutual programmes in work places and a new deal is needed between the generations. Life course approach combines the needs and possibilities of different generations. Age management takes into consideration the different strengths of the diverse work force. PMID:17017338

  2. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Keith T; Goodson, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter, we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered. PMID:26612237

  3. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith; Goodson, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses, and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered. PMID:26612237

  4. Annual report on contractor work force restructuring, fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This report summarizes work force restructuring and community transition activities at all sites. It outlines work force restructuring activity for FY 1997, changing separation patterns, cost savings and separation costs, program assessment, activities to mitigate restructuring impacts, community transition activities, status of displaced workers, lessons learned, and emerging issues in worker and community transition. Work force restructuring and community transition activities for defense nuclear sites are summarized, as are work force restructuring activities at non-defense sites.

  5. Work and health in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Laurell, A C

    1979-01-01

    It is suggested that the relationship between work and health and disease traditionally has been analyzed in a limited way in that work has been considered only as a situational factor which puts workers in contact with environmental risks. It is proposed that work is an essential category for the understanding of disease, if one tries to study disease not as an individual biological phenomenon but as a social (and biological) phenomenon that occurs to the collectivity. Furthermore, it is suggested that the relation between disease and work should be analyzed in terms of the elements of the work process, understood as a technical and social process, and the capacity of different social groups to realize their interests. Reviewing the general trends of development of the work process in Mexico, it is shown that a transformation in the causes of death among men of working age has occurred during the last 20 years and there has been an increase in the number and the rate of work accidents and occupational diseases, despite a significant under-registration factor. Finally, the labor legislation on health and safety is contrasted with its actual implementation. This problem is interpreted in the context of traditional Mexican trade unionism. It is shown that trade unions which have become democratic and have gained their independence have struggled more vigorously on occupational health and safety issues. PMID:489182

  6. 40 CFR 35.936-14 - Force account work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any...

  7. 40 CFR 35.936-14 - Force account work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any...

  8. 40 CFR 35.936-14 - Force account work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any...

  9. 40 CFR 35.936-14 - Force account work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any...

  10. 40 CFR 35.936-14 - Force account work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any sewer... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14...

  11. Industrial Robots Join the Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gail M.

    1982-01-01

    Robots--powerful, versatile, and easily adapted to new operations--may usher in a new industrial age. Workers throughout the labor force could be affected, as well as the nature of the workplace, skill requirements of jobs, and concomitant shifts in vocational education. (SK)

  12. Overeducated Americans in the Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Work and adjustment to work are vital components of a smoothly functioning society. Currently, a growing imbalance between the collective level of educational attainment of American workers and the skill/knowledge requirements of existing jobs has created the potential for widespread social and economic problems in this country. Overeducation…

  13. Individual and Work Factors Related to Perceived Work Ability and Labor Force Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.; Grosch, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her personal resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the U.S., given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using three independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers’ job characteristics were from self-report and O*NET measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or two weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all three of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364

  14. Individual and work factors related to perceived work ability and labor force outcomes.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L; Grosch, James W

    2015-03-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the United States, given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the job demands-resources model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress, and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using 3 independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers' job characteristics were from self-report and Occupational Information Network measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job and personal resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or 2 weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all 3 of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364

  15. Women's Safety and Health Issues at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Women's Safety and Health Issues at Work Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir America's work ... while also balancing the traditional parenting responsibilities. 1 Work-related health challenges facing women Women face different ...

  16. The Changing Work Force. Trends and Issues Alerts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankard, Bettina A.

    Economic pressures, work force diversity, and advances in technology are changing the nature of work and organizational policy and management. A predicted decline in the annual growth in gross national product is expected to trigger a slowdown in the labor force, especially in occupations that employ workers with only a high school education.…

  17. 48 CFR 223.570 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....

  18. 48 CFR 223.570 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....

  19. 48 CFR 223.570 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....

  20. 48 CFR 223.570 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....

  1. 48 CFR 223.570 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....

  2. Understanding and Motivating the Changing Work Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagliaferri, Louis E.

    1975-01-01

    To cope with the negative attitudes of workers and the public towards industry, industry should utilize a program that: (1) understands clearly worker beliefs and attitudes towards the work environment, (2) utilizes study results as a basis for an employee communications program, and (3) takes their message to the public. (BP)

  3. Reproductive problems of the work force.

    PubMed

    Premalatha, G D; Ravindran, J

    2000-03-01

    The number of women in the workforce in increasing. A substantial proportion are in the reproductive age which brings to attention the problem of work exposures that adversely affect reproductive outcome. These exposures include chemicals, radiation, strenuous physical activity and infections. They affect reproduction by effect on the germ cells, through hormonal distribution which in turn affects transport of germ cells or zygote, implantation and development. Some of these exposures are teratogenic. At present, some regulations and policies seem to be directed at women workers while there is evidence to show that women are not the only victims. Paternal exposures have also been reported to be associated with infertility, spontaneous abortions and other adverse outcomes. There is insufficient information about reproductive effects of work exposures and hence further research is required in this area. PMID:11072503

  4. Environmental education work force pipeline strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, S.U.; Jackson, E.R.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes an educational program designed to provide a pool of highly qualified administrative, technical, and managerial graduates that are familiar with the Hanford Site and business operations. The program is designed to provide work experience and mentoring to a culturally diverse student base which enhances affirmative employment goals. Short-term and long-term objectives of the program are outlined in the report, and current objectives are discussed in more detail. Goals to be completed by the year 2003 are aimed at defining the criteria necessary to establish partnerships between schools, community organizations, and human resources departments. Actions to be implemented includes providing instructors and equipment, enhancing skills of local teachers, and establishing collaboration with human resources organizations. Long-term goals of the program are to ensure a constant supply of qualified, trained workers to support industry missions. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  5. [Indoor environments, work and health].

    PubMed

    Abbritti, G

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, the activities of most of the working population are carried out in confined, non-industrial environments such as offices, hospitals, libraries, social and leisure centres and means of transport. Sub-optimal air quality in these confined spaces can lead to discomfort, ailments and even diseases. The impact and diffusion of these effects have led to the organisation and funding of large-scale epidemiological investigations in many countries and the nomination of working parties by governments, health agencies and international scientific societies. Over the past 20 years studies on indoor environments have identified sources of risk of various pollutants, established the levels of potentially dangerous concentrations and, for most of them, have provided effective measures. However, the effects of many biological agents and chemical mixtures still remain to be defined and effective guidelines are needed for high quality indoor air. Identifying and managing indoor risk factors presupposes a specific methodology: the specialist in occupational medicine can play a key role in risk assessment, in the early diagnosis of building-related illnesses and in the prevention of both short- and long-term effects. PMID:15584444

  6. Retooling the American Work Force. Toward a National Training Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Pat

    Although several fundamental forces are changing the American economy and the American work force, three conditions are pivotal--demographic change, technological change coupled with shifting conditions of competition, and the continuing inadequacies of both public- and private-sector employment and training policies. The employment and training…

  7. Aging and the Work Force: Focusing on the Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Malcolm H.

    1983-01-01

    An entirely different approach is needed to manage America's aging work force. Human resource management and acceleration of skill levels are significantly more important as the structure of the economy changes. (SK)

  8. Round ceiling detail, note tension wires working against outward forces ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Round ceiling detail, note tension wires working against outward forces on the vertical columns while restoration of collapsed roof takes place. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  9. The Culture-Work-Health Model and Work Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Michael; Wilson, John F.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the role of organizational culture in the etiology of workplace stress through the framework of the Culture-Work- Health model. A review of relevant business and health literature indicates that culture is an important component of work stress and may be a key to creating effective organizational stress interventions. (SM)

  10. Report of the Task Force - Space for Health Sciences. Building Blocks. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    The Task Force on Space for Health Sciences is one of four task forces established by the Committee on Capital Financing of the Council of Ontario Universities to work toward the development of a capital formula that would define space needs and building costs for Ontario universities. Each task force has a particular assignment related to the…

  11. Children of Working Mothers. Special Labor Force Report. Bulletin 2158.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Part of a Special Labor Force Report series, this bulletin on children of working mothers discusses the increase in the number of children with working mothers as of March 1981, and describes major reasons for this growth. The bulletin consists of an article first published February 1982 in the "Monthly Labor Review," additional tables providing…

  12. Integrating Work and Family: Women's Health Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killien, Marcia

    An exploratory study examined the relationship between individual, family, and work variables and working mothers' health. The study also investigated the relationship between health management strategies and health. A cross-sectional survey design was used to gather data from 85 women who were married, employed 20 hours a week or more, and had…

  13. Flextime: A Modified Work Force Scheduling Technique for Selected Headquarters Air Force Logistics Command Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimzey, Reed T.; Prince, Samuel M. O.

    The thesis discusses the advantages and disadvantages of one work force scheduling technique--flextime. The authors were interested in determining if a flextime schedule could be put into effect in a governmental organization such as Headquarters Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC). The study objectives were to determine the feasibility,…

  14. Diversity in the Work Force. The Highlight Zone: Research @ Work No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentling, Rose Mary

    A literature review was conducted to identify critical work force diversity issues in today's changing workplace and identify ways organizations and career and technical education (CTE) practitioners can increase work force diversity. A broad, all-inclusive definition of diversity was developed that focuses on how diversity affects individuals and…

  15. Children's Health Problems and Maternal Work Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salkever, David S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper estimates the influence on working mothers' employment status of children's health problems. Effects are estimated for several different types of families, various groups of health problems, and differing degrees of problem severity. (CT)

  16. Dielectric elastomer transducers with enhanced force output and work density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyanov, Hristiyan; Brochu, Paul; Niu, Xiaofan; Della Gaspera, Enrico; Pei, Qibing

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate that the force output and work density of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based dielectric elastomer transducers can be significantly enhanced by the addition of high permittivity titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The nanocomposites are capable of maintaining the actuation strain performance of the pure PDMS at relatively low electric fields while increasing the force output and work density due to mechanical reinforcement. A model relating the Maxwell stress to the measured force from the actuator was used to determine the dielectric permittivity at high electric fields thus providing results that can be directly correlated to device performance. This approach toward higher work density materials should enable smaller, lighter, and less intrusive actuator systems ideal for biomedical and robotic devices in particular.

  17. Long Work Hours May Hurt Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159479.html Long Work Hours May Hurt Your Health At the job ... at Ohio State University. The link between long work hours and disease ''seems to be present a ...

  18. Force identification of dynamic systems using virtual work principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xun; Ou, Jinping

    2015-02-01

    One of the key inverse problems for estimating dynamic forces acting on a structure is to determine the force expansion and the corresponding solving method. This paper presents a moving least square (MLS) method for fitting dynamic forces, which improves the existing traditional methods. The simulation results show that the force expansion order has a tiny effect on the types of forces, which indicates the MLS method's excellent ability for local approximation and noise immunity as well as good fitting function. Then, the differential equation of motion for the system is transformed into an integral equation by using the virtual work principle, which can eliminate the structural acceleration response without introducing the calculation error. Besides, the transformation derives an expression of velocity by integrating by parts, which diminishes the error propagation of the velocity. Hence, the integral equation of motion for the system has a strong constraint to noise with zero mean value. Finally, this paper puts forward an optimization method to solve the equation. The numerical stability can be enhanced as the matrix inversion calculation is avoided. Illustrative examples involving different types of forces demonstrate that the transformation of the differential equation proposed through virtual work principle can eliminate interference efficiently and is robust for dynamic calculation.

  19. Global work force 2000: the new world labor market.

    PubMed

    Johnston, W B

    1991-01-01

    Just as there are global markets for products, technology, and capital, managers must now think of one for labor. Over the next 15 years, human capital, once the most stationary factor in production, will cross national borders with greater and greater ease. Driving the globalization of labor is a growing imbalance between the world's labor supply and demand. While the developed world accounts for most of the world's gross domestic product, its share of the world work force is shrinking. Meanwhile, in the developing countries, the work force is quickly expanding as many young people approach working age and as women join the paid work force in great numbers. The quality of that work force is also rising as developing countries like Brazil and China generate growing proportions of the world's college graduates. Developing nations that combine their young, educated workers with investor-friendly policies could leapfrog into new industries. South Korea, Taiwan, Poland, and Hungary are particularly well positioned for such growth. And industrialized countries that keep barriers to immigration low will be able to tap world labor resources to sustain their economic growth. The United States and some European nations have the best chance of encouraging immigration, while Japan will have trouble overcoming its cultural and language barriers. PMID:10110172

  20. Improving the Health of Working Families: Research Connections Between Work and Health. NPA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Irene H.; Frank, John W.

    This document contains two papers on connections between work and health and policy options for improving the health of working families. "Foreword" (James A. Auerbach) places the two papers in the context of recent research on the connections between work, family, and health. Chapter 1's overview addresses the changing nature of work, the new…

  1. The Need for Work Force Education. Fastback 350.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edward E.

    Educational problems underlie the crisis in the high-tech workplace. Insufficient expenditures for workplace education result in low productivity. Technology requires a skilled work force; the chief competitive advantage for a nation will be its skilled workers. Workplace literacy has been a half-hearted effort. Investment of billions by U.S.…

  2. Self-Management Strategies for Adolescents Entering the Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloss, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    The article proposes a training program in self-management skills for handicapped youths entering the work force. Included are the following sample forms: critical events log, self-referral for training form, self-monitoring report, self-management contract. The forms provide tangible evidence of student progress in self-management. (DB)

  3. Spartanburg Technical College 1998 Work Force Development Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinley, John W.; Cantrell, Jo Ellen

    The 1998 Work Force Development Study focuses on Spartanburg Technical College's (STC's) (South Carolina) role in preparing new workers and training/retraining the current workforce. Surveys were mailed to employers in business and industry--the response rate was 10%. In addition, a series of focus groups, including various business, industry,…

  4. Delivering Alert Messages to Members of a Work Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftis, Julia; Nickens, Stephanie; Pell, Melissa; Pell, Vince

    2008-01-01

    Global Alert Resolution Network (GARNET) is a software system for delivering emergency alerts as well as less-urgent messages to members of the Goddard Space Flight Center work force via an intranet or the Internet, and can be adapted to similar use in other large organizations.

  5. Literacy in the Work Force. Report Number 947.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Leonard; McGuire, E. Patrick

    Up to 10 percent of U.S. workers are either functionally illiterate or marginally literate. These workers increase the operational costs of their employers and restrain companies' flexibility. The high school graduates of the 1990s will exacerbate the problem by entering the work force with marginal literacy skills. A survey of 1,600 manufacturing…

  6. The Aging Work Force: A Guide for Higher Education Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julius, Nancy B., Ed.; Krauss, Herbert H., Ed.

    This volume offers 15 papers on the "graying" of the college and university work force in the context of national demographic trends. The papers are arranged in groups which address: growing older, the graying of America, adapting to changing times, retirement and retirement planning, and the corporate example. The following papers are presented:…

  7. Community Colleges, Work Force Training, and the Clinton Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsinas, Stephen G.

    The proposals for work force training put forth by the Clinton Administration offer unprecedented opportunities as well as risks for community colleges, particularly for community colleges in Illinois. These proposals are grounded in a world view that recognizes the need for public investment in employment and training, although this agenda for…

  8. Latinos In the Work Force: Diversity and Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Carole

    This booklet is written to provide managers, supervisors, and workers with general information about Latino diversity, Latino language differences, and Latino culture as an influence in the work force. The text emphasizes two themes in particular: (1) the great diversity within the Latino group due to many racial and historical differences; and…

  9. [How to promote health competence at work].

    PubMed

    Eickholt, Clarissa; Hamacher, W; Lenartz, N

    2015-09-01

    Health competence is a key concept in occupational health and safety and workplace health promotion for maintaining and enhancing health resources. The effects of governmental or occupational measures to protect or improve health fall short of what is required with regard to the challenges of a changing workplace, e.g., due to the delimitation of work. To secure employability it is becoming more and more important to encourage the personal responsibility of employees. To offer new conclusions on how employers and employees can promote health competence, a survey is required of the research within the fields of health competence and competence development, and of the status quo in enterprises. In this context, a Delphi Study provides an important contribution, with a focus on small and medium-sized enterprises. The development of an extensive understanding of health competence is essential in a work-related context. Beyond knowledge-based health literacy, an action-oriented concept of competence implies the ability and willingness to act in a reasonable and creative manner in complex situations. The development of health competence requires learning embedded in working processes, which challenges competent behaviour. Enabling informal learning is a promising innovative approach and therefore coordinated operational activities are necessary. Ultimately, this is a matter of suitable organisational measures being implemented to meet the health competence needs of an enterprise. Even though the each individual employee bears his or her own health competence, the development potential lies largely within the prevailing working conditions. PMID:26159771

  10. A Safe and Healthful Work Environment

    PubMed Central

    McCullagh, Marjorie C.; Berry, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health nursing focuses on promotion and restoration of health, prevention of illness and injury, protection from work-related and environmental hazards, and corporate profitability. Quality education about the relationship between work and health is critical for nurses’ success regardless of work setting, and is consistent with Healthy People 2020 goals, but is lacking or limited in some programs. This report introduces an innovative occupational health nursing curriculum for students enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. The process of designing and pilot testing this novel curriculum, its alignment with nursing competencies, and its format and learning activities are described. Preparing professional nurses to understand the role of the occupational health nurse and the relationship between work and health is an essential curricular consideration for contemporary nursing education. PMID:26077879

  11. Pilot mental health: expert working group recommendations.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Following a March 27, 2012, incident in which a pilot of a major commercial airline experienced a serious disturbance in his mental health, the Aerospace Medical Association formed an Ad Hoc Working Group on Pilot Mental Health. The working group met several times and analyzed current medical standards for evaluating pilot mental health. The result of the working group was a letter sent to the FAA and other organizations worldwide interested in medical standards. The Committee found that it is neither productive nor cost effective to perform extensive psychiatric evaluations as part of the routine pilot aeromedical assessment. However it did recommend greater attention be given to mental health issues by aeromedical examiners, especially to the more common and detectable mental health conditions and life stressors that can affect pilots and flight performance. They encouraged this through increased education and global recognition of the importance of mental health in aviation safety. PMID:23316549

  12. Home Health Agency Work Environments and Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Linda; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An important goal of home health care is to assist patients to remain in community living arrangements. Yet home care often fails to prevent hospitalizations and to facilitate discharges to community living, thus putting patients at risk of additional health challenges and increasing care costs. Objectives: To determine the relationship between home health agency work environments and agency-level rates of acute hospitalization and discharges to community living. Methods and Design: Analysis of linked Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Home Health Compare data and nurse survey data from 118 home health agencies. Robust regression models were used to estimate the effect of work environment ratings on between-agency variation in rates of acute hospitalization and community discharge. Results: Home health agencies with good work environments had lower rates of acute hospitalizations and higher rates of patient discharges to community living arrangements compared with home health agencies with poor work environments. Conclusion: Improved work environments in home health agencies hold promise for optimizing patient outcomes and reducing use of expensive hospital and institutional care. PMID:25215647

  13. Why do health labour market forces matter?

    PubMed Central

    McPake, Barbara; Araújo, Edson Correia; Lemiere, Christophe; El Maghraby, Atef; Cometto, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Human resources for health have been recognized as essential to the development of responsive and effective health systems. Low- and middle-income countries seeking to achieve universal health coverage face human resource constraints – whether in the form of health worker shortages, maldistribution of workers or poor worker performance – that seriously undermine their ability to achieve well-functioning health systems. Although much has been written about the human resource crisis in the health sector, labour economic frameworks have seldom been applied to analyse the situation and little is known or understood about the operation of labour markets in low- and middle-income countries. Traditional approaches to addressing human resource constraints have focused on workforce planning: estimating health workforce requirements based on a country’s epidemiological and demographic profile and scaling up education and training capacities to narrow the gap between the “needed” number of health workers and the existing number. However, this approach neglects other important factors that influence human resource capacity, including labour market dynamics and the behavioural responses and preferences of the health workers themselves. This paper describes how labour market analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the factors behind human resource constraints in the health sector and to a more effective design of policies and interventions to address them. The premise is that a better understanding of the impact of health policies on health labour markets, and subsequently on the employment conditions of health workers, would be helpful in identifying an effective strategy towards the progressive attainment of universal health coverage. PMID:24347708

  14. Why do health labour market forces matter?

    PubMed

    McPake, Barbara; Maeda, Akiko; Araújo, Edson Correia; Lemiere, Christophe; El Maghraby, Atef; Cometto, Giorgio

    2013-11-01

    Human resources for health have been recognized as essential to the development of responsive and effective health systems. Low- and middle-income countries seeking to achieve universal health coverage face human resource constraints - whether in the form of health worker shortages, maldistribution of workers or poor worker performance - that seriously undermine their ability to achieve well-functioning health systems. Although much has been written about the human resource crisis in the health sector, labour economic frameworks have seldom been applied to analyse the situation and little is known or understood about the operation of labour markets in low- and middle-income countries. Traditional approaches to addressing human resource constraints have focused on workforce planning: estimating health workforce requirements based on a country's epidemiological and demographic profile and scaling up education and training capacities to narrow the gap between the "needed" number of health workers and the existing number. However, this approach neglects other important factors that influence human resource capacity, including labour market dynamics and the behavioural responses and preferences of the health workers themselves. This paper describes how labour market analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the factors behind human resource constraints in the health sector and to a more effective design of policies and interventions to address them. The premise is that a better understanding of the impact of health policies on health labour markets, and subsequently on the employment conditions of health workers, would be helpful in identifying an effective strategy towards the progressive attainment of universal health coverage. PMID:24347708

  15. Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group is a community of practice that recognizes the interconnections between the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and humans and meets to facilitate the exchange of ideas, data, and research opportunities. Membership includes the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Sea Life Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

  16. [Working conditions and health status of railway cashiers].

    PubMed

    Pankova, V B; Kopirovskiĭ, K M; Poliakova, V A; Gipp, E K; Andreeva, I V

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the data of clinical and hygienic studies of railway cashiers' health. The main deleterious factors of their working conditions are poor microclimatic conditions, bacterial inoculation of the working area air, a forced working posture, and a high vocal load under mental stress. There is a significant prevalence of nervous, obstetric, gynecological, thyroid, and vocal diseases and oral dysbacteriosis among the workers of this professional group. There is evidence for the necessity of including the job of a railway cashier into the List of decreed contingents for periodical medical examinations. PMID:12934277

  17. Bad Jobs, Bad Health? How Work and Working Conditions Contribute to Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Burgard, Sarah A.; Lin, Katherine Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we touch on a broad array of ways that work is linked to health and health disparities for individuals and societies. First focusing on the health of individuals, we discuss the health differences between those who do and do not work for pay, and review key positive and negative exposures that can generate health disparities among the employed. These include both psychosocial factors like the benefits of a high status job or the burden of perceived job insecurity, as well as physical exposures to dangerous working conditions like asbestos or rotating shift work. We also provide a discussion of the ways differential exposure to these aspects of work contributes to social disparities in health within and across generations. Analytic complexities in assessing the link between work and health for individuals, such as health selection, are also discussed. We then touch on several contextual level associations between work and the health of populations, discussing the importance of the occupational structure in a given society, the policy environment that prevails there, and the oscillations of the macroeconomy for generating societal disparities in health. We close with a discussion of four areas and associated recommendations that draw on this corpus of knowledge but would push the research on work, health and inequality toward even greater scholarly and policy relevance. PMID:24187340

  18. Work force of India's scheduled caste population: a spatial perspective.

    PubMed

    Gosal, R P

    1992-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the work force of India's scheduled caste population in a spatial perspective. Findings are based upon data from detailed district-wise maps from data relating to the workers. Peninsular India has a far larger proportion of workers to the total scheduled caste population than northern India. The degree of participation of females trying to earn their living is the most crucial factor in the broad regional differentiation which is then associated with women's social status and autonomy in the society and their freedom from inhibitions to work outside of the home. These factors are deeply rooted in the histories of the two regions and their components. Demographic, economic, and political variables are intermingled with the social and cultural dimensions to impact upon the magnitude and composition of the work force. Further disparities exist within and across macro-regions at meso and micro regional levels which are connected with socioeconomic and demographic specificities of the local/regional situations. PMID:12179048

  19. Loaded Vertical Jumping: Force-Velocity Relationship, Work, and Power.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Daniel; Stanhope, Steven J; Kaminski, Thomas W; Machi, Anthony; Jaric, Slobodan

    2016-04-01

    The aims of the current study were to explore the pattern of the force-velocity (F-V) relationship of leg muscles, evaluate the reliability and concurrent validity of the obtained parameters, and explore the load associated changes in the muscle work and power output. Subjects performed maximum vertical countermovement jumps with a vest ranging 0-40% of their body mass. The ground reaction force and leg joint kinematics and kinetics were recorded. The data revealed a strong and approximately linear F-V relationship (individual correlation coefficients ranged from 0.78-0.93). The relationship slopes, F- and V-intercepts, and the calculated power were moderately to highly reliable (0.67 < ICC < 0.91), while the concurrent validity F- and V-intercepts, and power with respect to the directly measured values, was (on average) moderate. Despite that a load increase was associated with a decrease in both the countermovement depth and absolute power, the absolute work done increased, as well as the relative contribution of the knee work. The obtained findings generally suggest that the loaded vertical jumps could not only be developed into a routine method for testing the capacities of leg muscles, but also reveal the mechanisms of adaptation of multijoint movements to different loading conditions. PMID:26398963

  20. Work, obesity, and occupational safety and health.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Paul A; Wagner, Gregory R; Ostry, Aleck; Blanciforti, Laura A; Cutlip, Robert G; Krajnak, Kristine M; Luster, Michael; Munson, Albert E; O'Callaghan, James P; Parks, Christine G; Simeonova, Petia P; Miller, Diane B

    2007-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that obesity and overweight may be related, in part, to adverse work conditions. In particular, the risk of obesity may increase in high-demand, low-control work environments, and for those who work long hours. In addition, obesity may modify the risk for vibration-induced injury and certain occupational musculoskeletal disorders. We hypothesized that obesity may also be a co-risk factor for the development of occupational asthma and cardiovascular disease that and it may modify the worker's response to occupational stress, immune response to chemical exposures, and risk of disease from occupational neurotoxins. We developed 5 conceptual models of the interrelationship of work, obesity, and occupational safety and health and highlighted the ethical, legal, and social issues related to fuller consideration of obesity's role in occupational health and safety. PMID:17267711

  1. Unpaid work in health economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Krol, Marieke; Brouwer, Werner

    2015-11-01

    Given its societal importance, unpaid work should be included in economic evaluations of health care technology aiming to take a societal perspective. However, in practice this does not often appear to be the case. This paper provides an overview of the current place of unpaid work in economic evaluations in theory and in practice. It does so first by summarizing recommendations regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor reported in health economic textbooks and national guidelines for economic evaluations. In total, three prominent health economic text-books were studied and 28 national health economic guidelines. The paper, moreover, provides an overview of the instruments available to measure lost unpaid labor and reports on a review of the place of unpaid labor in applied economic evaluations in the area of rheumatoid arthritis. The review was conducted by examining methodology of evaluations published between 1 March 2008 and 1 March 2013. The results of this study show that little guidance is offered regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor in economic evaluations in textbooks and guidelines. The review identified five productivity costs instruments including questions about unpaid work and 33 economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis of which only one included unpaid work. The results indicate that unpaid work is rarely included in applied economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, despite this disease expecting to be associated with lost unpaid work. Given the strong effects of certain diseases and treatments on the ability to perform unpaid work, unpaid work currently receives less attention in economic evaluations than it deserves. PMID:26421997

  2. A German survey of the abdominal transplantation surgical work force.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael N; Nadalin, Silvio; Schemmer, Peter; Pascher, Andreas; Kaiser, Gernot M; Braun, Felix; Becker, Thomas; Nashan, Björn; Guba, Markus

    2015-07-01

    This manuscript reports the results of a nationwide survey of transplant surgeons in Germany, including the demographics, training, position, individual case loads, center volumes, program structure, professional practice, grade of specialization, workload, work hours, salary, and career expectations. We contacted all 32 German transplant centers that perform liver, kidney, and pancreas transplantation. Surgeons engaged in transplantation were asked to reply to the survey. Eighty-five surgeons responded, with a mean age of 44 ± 8 years, 13% of whom were female. The median transplant frequency per active transplant surgeon was relatively low, with 16 liver transplants, 15 kidney transplants, and three pancreas transplants. The median reported center volumes were 45 liver transplants, 90 kidney transplants, and five pancreas transplants per year. Most of the surgeons reported a primary focus on hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery, and only 10% of effective work time was actually dedicated to perform transplant surgeries. The majority of respondents estimated their weekly work hours to be between 55 and 66 h. When asked about their career satisfaction and expectations, most respondents characterized their salaries as inappropriately low and their career prospects as inadequate. This survey provides a first impression of the transplant surgery work force in Germany. PMID:25800065

  3. Designing Work, Family & Health Organizational Change Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie B; Kelly, Erin L; Moen, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    For decades, leaders and scholars have been advocating change efforts to improve work-life relationships. Yet most initiatives have lacked rigor and not been developed using scientific principles. This has created an evidence gap for employer support of work and personal life as a win-win for productivity and employees' well-being. This paper examines the approach used by the U.S. Work Family Health Network (WFRN) to develop an innovative workplace intervention to improve employee and family health. The change initiative was designed to reduce organizationally based work-family conflict in two contrasting contexts representative of major segments of today's U.S. workforce: health care employees and informational technology professionals. The WFRN Intervention (called STAR) had three theoretically based change elements. They were: 1) increase job control over work time and schedule; 2) increase supervisor social support for family and job effectiveness; and 3) improve organizational culture and job design processes to foster results orientation. Seven practical lessons for developing work-life interventions emerged from this groundbreaking endeavor. PMID:24683279

  4. Designing Work, Family & Health Organizational Change Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Executive Summary For decades, leaders and scholars have been advocating change efforts to improve work-life relationships. Yet most initiatives have lacked rigor and not been developed using scientific principles. This has created an evidence gap for employer support of work and personal life as a win–win for productivity and employees’ well-being. This paper examines the approach used by the U.S. Work Family Health Network (WFRN) to develop an innovative workplace intervention to improve employee and family health. The change initiative was designed to reduce organizationally based work-family conflict in two contrasting contexts representative of major segments of today’s U.S. workforce: health care employees and informational technology professionals. The WFRN Intervention (called STAR) had three theoretically based change elements. They were: 1) increase job control over work time and schedule; 2) increase supervisor social support for family and job effectiveness; and 3) improve organizational culture and job design processes to foster results orientation. Seven practical lessons for developing work-life interventions emerged from this groundbreaking endeavor. PMID:24683279

  5. Working together to safeguard animal health.

    PubMed

    Gibbens, Nigel

    2016-02-13

    Nigel Gibbens, the UK's Chief Veterinary Officer, gives an update on some of the areas of animal health and welfare of particular interest to government and considers how farmers, vets and government can work together to control and respond to animal disease. PMID:26868238

  6. [Work and health: Two social rights].

    PubMed

    García Blanco, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Work and health are two concepts whose formulation varies from one society to another depending on unique and temporal appreciation. Updating them to our time involves the challenge to understand their construction as part of consuming organized societies. Political and social processes during the last decades must be analyzed, and so must be the worker subject as a psychophysics unit. Health, as well, ought to be considered a universal right, from where to focus and understand pathological social behaviors impacting the workplace. The subject's social dimension and the health-work relationship are dynamic. And keeping this dynamic involves to continuously review principles, norms and regulations which need to fit reality, and specific communication and language modes, as well as working conditions and environmental aspects. These processes must be considered as taking part in Argentina's social imaginary worth highlighting: a shift in how the State's role is considered, the public policy's sense, the importance of working in a complementary and interdisciplinary way, redesigning the concept of health through the broadening of those under the State's care and considering and building the workplace as a healthy space. PMID:27089165

  7. Maternal and Child Health Issues and Female Labor Force Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Dorothy C.; And Others

    Reviewing health related "costs" of female labor force participation, this paper examines four highly salient maternal and child health issues. Discussion of acute illness in day care settings begins with an overview of studies on day care and illness and focuses on hepatitis A, appropriate sanitation, and indications of research on respiratory…

  8. [Working Group on Continuing Education in Health].

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The deliberations are summarized of a working group on permanent education in health (EPS) that met in May 1995 in Washington, D.C. to propose theoretical, methodological, and operational instruments for improving the training practices of health services in the Latin America region. The region has had abundant and heterogeneous experiences with education in health services, frequently involving in-service training. This work traces development of Permanent Education in Health, beginning with the 1973 World Health Assembly, in which the problem of educating health personnel and the potential of continuing education were recognized. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has actively assisted in defining and expanding EPS and has published materials detailing the conceptual foundation and practical experiences in different countries of the region with the methodology. The major advantages of EPS are that it is oriented from the initial diagnosis to modification in practices and services; it integrates the individual, institutional, and social in the definition of problems; it considers intellectual and affective aspects jointly; it develops group consciousness and identity; and it permits generation of new knowledge. Controversy surrounding the definition and application of EPS helped to clarify its aims and objectives. Potential applications of EPS are numerous at this time of change in the health sector, with decentralization, institutional development with external funds, privatization, changes in service delivery, and other modifications of existing structures. Brief descriptions of experiences with EPS in Brazil, Argentina, the Dominican Republic, Central America, and in other PAHO programs illustrate the range of situations and contexts in which it may be usefully applied. PMID:8850126

  9. The World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ).

    PubMed

    Kessler, Ronald C; Barber, Catherine; Beck, Arne; Berglund, Patricia; Cleary, Paul D; McKenas, David; Pronk, Nico; Simon, Gregory; Stang, Paul; Ustun, T Bedirhan; Wang, Phillip

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ), a self-report instrument designed to estimate the workplace costs of health problems in terms of reduced job performance, sickness absence, and work-related accidents-injuries. Calibration data are presented on the relationship between individual-level HPQ reports and archival measures of work performance and absenteeism obtained from employer archives in four groups: airline reservation agents (n = 441), customer service representatives (n = 505), automobile company executives (n = 554), and railroad engineers (n = 850). Good concordance is found between the HPQ and the archival measures in all four occupations. The paper closes with a brief discussion of the calibration methodology used to monetize HPQ reports and of future directions in substantive research based on the HPQ. PMID:12625231

  10. The mental health of deployed UK maritime forces

    PubMed Central

    Whybrow, Dean; Jones, Norman; Evans, Charlotte; Minshall, Darren; Smith, Darren; Greenberg, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To establish the level of psychological symptoms and the risk factors for possible decreased mental health among deployed UK maritime forces. Methods A survey was completed by deployed Royal Navy (RN) personnel which measured the prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and potential alcohol misuse. Military and operational characteristics were also measured including exposure to potentially traumatic events, problems occurring at home during the deployment, unit cohesion, leadership and morale. Associations between variables of interest were identified using binary logistic regression to generate ORs and 95% CIs adjusted for a range of potential confounding variables. Results In total, 41.2% (n=572/1387) of respondents reported probable CMD, 7.8% (n=109/1389) probable PTSD and 17.4% (n=242/1387) potentially harmful alcohol use. Lower morale, cohesion, leadership and problems at home were associated with CMD; lower morale, leadership, problems at home and exposure to potentially traumatic events were associated with probable PTSD; working in ships with a smaller crew size was associated with potentially harmful alcohol use. Conclusions CMD and PTSD were more frequently reported in the maritime environment than during recent land-based deployments. Rates of potentially harmful alcohol use have reduced but remain higher than the wider military. Experiencing problems at home and exposure to potentially traumatic events were associated with experiencing poorer mental health; higher morale, cohesion and better leadership with fewer psychological symptoms. PMID:26265671

  11. Health Effects of Vanpooling to Work.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Wendie A; Berman, Barbara A; Stone, Dawn S

    2015-12-01

    Shared commutes to work, such as vanpooling, benefit the environment and provide economic gain for riders in terms of fuel costs, parking fees, and personal vehicle wear and tear. Although ride sharing is commonly believed to promote health through stress reduction, published evidence on this topic is limited, and findings vary. This study explored the perceived health and well-being of vanpoolers using a qualitative, descriptive design. Five focus groups of vanpoolers and two individual interviews with drivers were conducted (N=40 participants). Stress, change in sleep patterns, and interpersonal relationships emerged as major themes. Employee insights about the impact of vanpooling on work productivity and how employer commitment to the vanpool program influences the vanpool experience also were important findings. PMID:26419542

  12. The Air Force health study: an epidemiologic retrospective.

    PubMed

    Buffler, Patricia A; Ginevan, Michael E; Mandel, Jack S; Watkins, Deborah K

    2011-09-01

    In 1979, the U.S. Air Force announced that an epidemiologic study would be undertaken to determine whether the Air Force personnel involved in Operation Ranch Hand-the program responsible for herbicide spraying in Vietnam-had experienced adverse health effects as a result of that service. In January 1982 the Air Force Health Study (AFHS) protocol was approved and the 20 year matched cohort study consisting of independent mortality, morbidity and reproductive health components was initiated. This controversial study has been criticized regarding the study's potential scientific limitations as well as some of the administrative aspects of its conduct. Now, almost 30 years since the implementation of the AFHS and nearly a decade since the final follow up examinations, an appraisal of the study indicates that the results of the AFHS do not provide evidence of disease in the Ranch Hand veterans caused by their elevated levels of exposure to Agent Orange. PMID:21441038

  13. Women's work and health in Iran: a comparison of working and non-working mothers.

    PubMed

    Ahmad-Nia, Shirin

    2002-03-01

    This paper analyses research on the impact of work on mothers' health in Tehran (Iran) within a role analytic framework. A survey was conducted of a representative sample of working and non-working mothers in Tehran in 1998 (N = 1065, 710 working mothers, and 355 non-working mothers). Three main explanatory factors were examined (socio-demographic, work and work-related, and social-life context variables) alongside a range of mental and physical health outcome variables. Unlike in the West, where women's paid work is generally associated with better health, statistically significant differences between working and non-working women were not found in Tehran. It is argued that this is a result of the counter-balance of the positive and negative factors associated with paid work, such as increased stress on one hand and self-esteem on the other. Iranian society's particular socio-cultural climate has contributed to this finding, with its dominant gender-role ideology; the priority and extra weight placed on women's traditional roles as wives and mothers, and the remarkably influential impact of husbands' attitudes on women's health. PMID:11999491

  14. Funding women's health work -- no easy answers.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, J

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses a community's solution to improving women's health in Guatemala. Indigenous women from the highland community of Cajola formed the Asociacion Pro-Bienestar de la Mujer Mam (APBMM). The APBMM identified a need for women health promoters and good, low-cost medicines. The Instituto de Educacion Integral para la Salud y el Desarrollo (IDEI) helped train 16 women as health communicators or promoters in 1996. The health communicators learned about setting up community medicine distribution. The mayor bypassed APBMM's efforts to set up medicine distribution and set up a community pharmacy himself. Someone else opened a private pharmacy. The 200-member group was frustrated and redirected their energies to making natural herbal medicines, such as eucalyptus rub. The group set up a community medicine chest in the IDEI medical clinic and sold modern medicine, homemade vapor rubs, and syrups. The group was joined by midwives and other volunteers and began educating mothers about treatment of diarrhea and respiratory diseases. The Drogueria Estatal, which distributes medicines nationally to nongovernmental groups, agreed to sell high quality, low cost medicine to the medicine chest, which was renamed Venta Social de Medicamentos (VSM). The health communicators are working on three potential income generation projects: VSM, the production and sale of traditional medicines and educational materials, and an experimental greenhouse to grow medicinal plants and research other crops that can be grown in the highlands. PMID:12348709

  15. Precarious employment, working hours, work-life conflict and health in hotel work.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Maria; Bohle, Philip; Quinlan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Precarious or temporary work is associated with adverse outcomes including low control over working hours, work-life conflict and stress. The rise in precarious employment is most marked in the service sector but little research has been done on its health effects in this sector. This study compares permanent and temporary workers in the hotel industry, where working hours are highly variable. Survey data from 150 workers from eight 3-Star hotels in urban and regional areas around Sydney were analyzed. Forty-five per cent were male and 52 per cent were female. Fifty four per cent were permanent full-time and 46 per cent were temporary workers. The effects of employment status on perceived job security, control over working hours, and work-life conflict are investigated using PLS-Graph 3.0. The effects of control over working hours, on work-life conflict and subsequent health outcomes are also explored. Temporary workers perceived themselves as less in control of their working hours, than permanent workers (β = .27). However, they also reported lower levels of work intensity (β = .25) and working hours (β = .38). The effects of low hours control (β = .20), work intensity (β = .29), and excessive hours (β = .39) on work-life conflict (r² = .50), and subsequent health effects (r² = .30), are illustrated in the final structural equation model. PMID:20643398

  16. 48 CFR 252.223-7004 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...

  17. 48 CFR 252.223-7004 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...

  18. 48 CFR 252.223-7004 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...

  19. 48 CFR 252.223-7004 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...

  20. 48 CFR 252.223-7004 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...

  1. The Agricultural Work Force of 1985. A Statistical Profile. Agricultural Economic Report 582.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Victor J.; Cox, E. Jane

    This report examines the demographic and employment characteristics, geographic distribution, and earnings of the agricultural work force in the United States as of 1985. Data are from the Agricultural Work Force Supplement to the December 1985 Current Population Survey. The three components of the agricultural work force--hired farmworkers, farm…

  2. American Indians, Blacks, & Asians in Oregon's Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helvoigt, Ted L.

    Labor force issues do not take place in a vacuum. Most individuals base labor force decisions on a multitude of cultural and social factors, such as the environment in which they were reared, family obligations and responsibilities, divorce or the death of a spouse, or because of governmental policies. Sections in this document on demographics,…

  3. Workplace bullying, working environment and health.

    PubMed

    Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Elofsson, Stig; Gjerde, Maria; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Theorell, Töres

    2012-01-01

    Improved work organisation could be of importance for decreased bullying in workplaces. Participants in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) responded to questions about work and workplace and whether they had been bullied during the past year in 2006. Those in worksites with at least five employees who did not report that they had been bullied in 2006 and without workplace change between 2006 and 2008 constituted the final sample (n=1,021 men and 1,182 women). Work characteristics and workplace factors in 2006 were used in multiple logistic regression as predictors of bullying in 2008. Separate analyses were performed for work characteristics and workplace factors respectively. Adjustments for demographic factors were made in all analyses. The question used for bullying was: "Are you exposed to personal persecution by means of vicious words or actions from your superiors or your workmates?" Such persecution any time during the past year was defined as bullying. For both genders organisational change and conflicting demands were identified as risk factors, and good decision authority as a protective factor. Dictatorial leadership, lack of procedural justice and attitude of expendability were male and lack of humanity a female risk factor for bullying. PMID:22453205

  4. Masked Symptoms: Mid-Life Women, Health, and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Zelda

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Labour Force Survey (1997) reveal that relatively few mid-life women offer ill health as a reason for leaving their job or downshifting to part-time employment, implying that the role of ill health may be inconsequential in effecting changing patterns in mid-life women's labour force activity. In contrast, interviews with 30…

  5. Vacuum Shear Force Microscopy Application to High Resolution Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonski, Vitali; Yamamoto, Yoh; White, Jonathon; Kourogi, Motonobu; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    1999-07-01

    A new technique—Vacuum Shear Force Microscopy (VSFM)—is introduced as a reliable method for maintaining a constant separation between a probe and sample. Elimination of many of the instabilities observed when applying the shear force mechanism to imaging under ambient conditions, allows for routine nanometer lateral and sub-nanometer normal resolution. In this paper this technique is applied, firstly, to the imaging of microtubules (biology) and, secondly, to the patterning and subsequent imaging of nanoscale metal lines (nanofabrication).

  6. 14 CFR 151.51 - Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... force account. 151.51 Section 151.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Development Projects § 151.51 Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account. (a) Before undertaking any force account construction work, the sponsor (or any public agency acting as agent for the...

  7. 3 CFR - White House Task Force on Middle-Class Working Families

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false White House Task Force on Middle-Class Working... Task Force on Middle-Class Working Families Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and... times. To these ends, I hereby direct the following: Section 1. White House Task Force on...

  8. 14 CFR 151.51 - Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... force account. 151.51 Section 151.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Development Projects § 151.51 Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account. (a) Before undertaking any force account construction work, the sponsor (or any public agency acting as agent for the...

  9. 14 CFR 151.51 - Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... force account. 151.51 Section 151.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Development Projects § 151.51 Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account. (a) Before undertaking any force account construction work, the sponsor (or any public agency acting as agent for the...

  10. 14 CFR 151.51 - Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... force account. 151.51 Section 151.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Development Projects § 151.51 Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account. (a) Before undertaking any force account construction work, the sponsor (or any public agency acting as agent for the...

  11. 14 CFR 151.51 - Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... force account. 151.51 Section 151.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Development Projects § 151.51 Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account. (a) Before undertaking any force account construction work, the sponsor (or any public agency acting as agent for the...

  12. Health Issues at Work: Opportunities for Industrial/Organizational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Daniel R.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses why health issues should be addressed, and why industrial/organizational psychologists should address these issues in the workplace. Presents five models for addressing health at work. Explores health-related criteria as sources for studying and developing programs concerning health. Discusses responses to health at work on an individual…

  13. Workplace-based health and wellness programs: the intersection of aging, work, and health.

    PubMed

    Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; James, Jacquelyn Boone; Matz-Costa, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Workplace-based health and wellness programs (HWPs) may be an obvious yet under-utilized strategy for promoting positive health-related behaviors among older workers and for increasing their ability to continue to work. Given the unprecedented number of older adults who extend their labor force attachment beyond traditional retirement ages, a new vision of older adults' economic security and overall quality-of-life should take into account the intersections of aging, work, and health. The purpose of this article is to: (a) discuss the workplace as an increasingly important setting that can expand the reach and effectiveness of health promotion efforts; (b) examine current knowledge of barriers and facilitators that can affect older workers' participation in workplace-based HWPs; and (c) suggest new incentive structures that may increase older workers' engagement in these programs. We develop a rationale for our proposition that sustained participation in HWPs may improve the health status of older workers and reduce health care costs. It is our conclusion that there is significant potential for workplace-based HWPs to support older adults who want to or need to work. PMID:26035602

  14. Developing a Culturally Competent Work Force: An Opportunity for Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mary Elaine; Bond, Mary Lou; Mancini, Mary E.

    1998-01-01

    To meet the health-care needs of a growing Hispanic population in Dallas, a nursing school used two strategies: short-term cultural immersion (language and cultural experiences in Mexico) and a nurse exchange program with a Mexican hospital. The importance of cultural-competence training for health-care personnel was affirmed. (SK)

  15. Educating the Military Work Force: A Worldwide Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Donald W.; Saltman, Lenore E.

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Defense, in cooperation with a number of colleges and universities, offers a variety of higher education opportunities to military personnel: the Community College of the Air Force, the Army and Navy's Servicemembers Opportunity Colleges, and Defense Activity for Nontraditional Education Support (DANTES). (SK)

  16. Reduction-in-Force: Working Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.

    The reduction-in-force (RIF) policies presented here are intended to represent the variety of approaches currently being used throughout the nation. They were obtained through inquiries to personnel in more than 100 U.S. school districts. They are presented to give principals and assistant principals information to allow them to play an…

  17. Health status of air force veterans occupationally exposed to herbicides in Vietnam: I. Physical health

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.H.; Michalek, J.E.; Miner, J.C. ); Rahe, A. ); Silva, J. ); Thomas, W.F.; Lustik, M.B.; Grubbs, W.D.; Roegner, R.H. ); Karrison, T.G. ); Williams, D.E. )

    1990-10-10

    The Air Force Health Study is a 20-year comprehensive assessment of the health of Air Force veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam. The study compares the health and noncombat mortality of Ranch Hand veterans with a comparison group of Air Force veterans primarily involved with cargo missions in Southeast Asia but who were not exposed to herbicides. This report summarizes the health of these veterans as determined at the third in a series of physical examinations. Nine hundred ninety-five Ranch Hands and 1,299 comparison subjects attended the second follow-up examination in 1987. The two groups were similar in reported health problems, diagnosed skin conditions, and hepatic, cardiovascular, and immune profiles. Ranch Hands have experienced significantly more basal cell carcinomas than comparison subjects. The two groups were not different with respect to melanoma and systemic cancer.

  18. Multicultural Group Work: A Force for Developing and Healing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Multicultural group work represents a powerful tool for helping and healing in the context of human diversity. This article summarizes multicultural group work, including task, psychoeducational, counseling, and psychotherapy groups, and describes a group work model for multicultural assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning. Group work…

  19. Work-Family Spillover and Daily Reports of Work and Family Stress in the Adult Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Almeida, David M.; McDonald, Daniel A.

    2002-01-01

    Data from two affiliated national surveys were used to examine distribution of work-family spillover among working adults. Analyses testing family life course hypotheses indicated self-reported negative and positive spillover between work and family were not randomly distributed within the labor force. Age was found to have a persistent…

  20. The aging work force--helping employees navigate midlife.

    PubMed

    Leggett, Diane

    2007-04-01

    The baby-boom generation is aging and workplace demographics are changing. Employees in this age group are now middle-aged. Occupational health nurses are in a unique position to guide these individuals through decisions that can affect the years ahead. Individuals in midlife may experience both physical and psychological changes, including changing physical appearance, decreased stamina, loss of family or friends, and altered vision. In the workplace, annual assessments can include evaluations to address normal changes, personal expectations, and needed support, counseling, or referrals. Middle-aged men and women are at a predictable turning point in life that offers an opportunity for growth. Education in the workplace can assist these individuals as they adjust to changes in relationships, make health care decisions, and plan for retirement. PMID:17472132

  1. Reduction in force perspectives--the occupational health nurse as the employee.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Olga

    2009-06-01

    The occupational health nurse usually encounters reduction in force issues from a company perspective. This article discusses strategies for the occupational health nurse who is downsized. PMID:19552341

  2. The Quality of Work and Youth Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Harley, Carolyn; Staff, Jeremy

    2002-01-01

    Data from the Youth Development Study on adolescents who worked in high school were used to examine mental health, work stress, and work/school interactions. The quality of high school work experiences had significant consequences for mental states during high school, but had little effect on long-term mental health. (Contains 70 references.) (SK)

  3. Massachusetts health care reform: is it working?

    PubMed

    McAdoo, Joshua; Irving, Julian; Deslich, Stacie; Coustasse, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Before 2006, Massachusetts had more than 500 000 residents who lacked health insurance. Governor Mitt Romney enacted landmark legislation requiring all residents to obtain health insurance. Also, the legislation established a health insurance exchange for the purpose of broadening the choices of insurance plans made available to individuals in the state. The purpose of this research was to assess the Massachusetts health care reform in terms of access, cost, and sustainability. The methodology used was a literature review from 2006 to 2013; a total of 43 references were used. Health reform resulted in additional overall state spending of $2.42 billion on Medicaid for Massachusetts. Since the 2006 reform, 401 000 additional residents have obtained insurance. The number of Massachusetts residents who had access to health care increased substantially after the health care reform was enacted, to 98.1% of residents. The Massachusetts health care reform has not saved money for the state; its funding has been covered by Federal spending. However, reform has been sustained over time because of the high percentage of state residents who have supported the state mandate to obtain health care coverage. PMID:24168866

  4. The Prediction of the Work of Friction Force on the Arbitrary Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matehkolaee, Mehdi Jafari; Majidian, Kourosh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have calculated the work of friction force on the arbitrary path. In our method didn't use from energy conservative conceptions any way. The distinction of this procedure is that at least do decrease measurement on the path once. Thus we can forecast the amount of work of friction force without information about speed of…

  5. Armed Forces VIEW (Vital Information for Education and Work).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Walter H.; Zerface, W. A., Ed.

    Armed Services VIEW (Vital Information for Education and Work) is described as a cooperative program with the Department of Defense which (1) introduces career opportunities and training available through volunteer service enlistment, (2) will be provided to senior high schools at no cost, and (3) presents materials in both printed and microfilm…

  6. Work and Health among Latina Mothers in Farmworker Families

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Ip, Edward H.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Work organization is important for the health of vulnerable workers, particularly women. This analysis describes work organization for Latinas in farmworker families and delineates the associations of work organization with health indicators. Methods 220 Latino women in farmworker families completed interviews from October 2012 - July 2013. Interviews addressed job structure, job demand, job control, and job support. Health measures included stress, depressive symptoms, physical activity, family conflict, and family economic security. Results Three-fifths of the women were employed. Several work organization dimensions, including shift, psychological demand, work safety climate, and benefits, were associated with participant health as expected, based on the work organization and job demands-control-support models. Conclusions Research should address women's health and specific work responsibilities. Occupational safety policy must consider the importance of work organization in the health of vulnerable workers. PMID:25742536

  7. Forced migration: health and human rights issues among refugee populations.

    PubMed

    Lori, Jody R; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2015-01-01

    Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that is manifest in diverse contexts. In this article, we examine the situations that precipitate the movement of large numbers of people across several African countries, producing a unique type of undocumented migrant--the refugee. These refugee movements impact already fragile African health care systems and often involve human rights violations that are of particular concern, such as gender-based violence and child soldiers. We use examples from several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current research, and our personal international experiences, we provide an overview of forced migration and discuss implications and opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice, and policy related to refugee health. PMID:25645484

  8. Treatment of allergic rhinitis: effect on occupation productivity and work force costs.

    PubMed

    Fireman, P

    1997-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis, one of the most common chronic illnesses, can have a negative impact on occupational productivity in the work-place. Allergic rhinitis affects over 13 million workers (6.15 million men and 6.11 million women) of the United States work force. Work place productivity can be reduced in the several ways: (1) Employee works at suboptimal efficiency because of the disease or its treatment; (2) employee takes a sick day away from work because of allergic rhinitis or its complications; (3) employee takes time off from work to care for or transport a child or dependent who needs care for allergic rhinitis or its complications, and (4) worker takes time off because of a work-related injury related to the disease or the medication used to treat the illness. Although nonsedating antihistamines and intranasal anti-inflammatory medications have been developed as effective therapies and are available as prescription drugs, many workers (50%) indicate that they manage their allergic rhinitis with over-the-counter medications. Most of these over-the-counter medicines contain sedating antihistamines which are known to alter cognitive and motor function. To determine whether the medications used by 3394 members of a health maintenance organization were associated with incident work-related injury, they were compared to two control groups selected from the membership and matched for age, gender, and Standard Industrial Classification Code of their employer. Medication use was determined from pharmacy data. The injuries included 496 fractures on dislocations, 2728 open, crushing, or superficial injuries, 176 burns, and 63 internal injuries. The risk of injury was statistically significantly elevated among users of sedating antihistamines. Utilizing demographic data the annual cost of last productivity to employers and society as the result of allergic rhinitis and its therapy with the over-the-counter sedating antihistamines is estimated to be greater than $4 billion

  9. Accountable Care Organizations in California: Market Forces at Work?

    PubMed

    Whaley, Christopher; Frech, H E; Scheffler, Richard M

    2015-08-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs), one of the most recent and promising health care delivery innovations, encourage care coordination among providers. While ACOs hold promise for decreasing costs by reducing unnecessary procedures, improving resource use as a result of economies of scale and scope, ACOs also raise concerns about provider market power. This study examines the market-level competition factors that are associated with ACO participation and the number of ACOs. Using data from California, we find that higher levels of preexisting managed care leads to higher ACO entry and enrollment growth, while hospital concentration leads to fewer ACOs and lower enrollment. We find interesting results for physician market power - markets with concentrated physician markets have a smaller share of individuals in commercial ACOs but a larger number of commercial ACO organizations. This finding implies smaller ACOs in these markets. PMID:26124301

  10. A feminist critique of research on women's work and health.

    PubMed

    Im, E O

    2000-03-01

    Research on women's work and health largely has failed to incorporate gender into the models of the processes through which work influences well-being. In this article, the research on women's work and health is critiqued from a feminist perspective; male-oriented and ethnocentric views on women's work are negated, and gender and socioeconomic issues are highlighted and included in the picture of women's work. Male-centered and ethnocentric views and assumptions on women's work are prevalent in the whole research process, and methodological limitations due to the distorted views are indicated. Based on the critique, some implications for future research on women's work and health are proposed. PMID:10818832

  11. Health effects of forced evictions in the slums of Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Emmel, N D; D'Souza, L

    1999-09-25

    This paper focuses on the effects of forced evictions on the health of the people living in the slum areas of Mumbai, India. The media has remained silent on issues regarding the refugee crisis in the developing world, which concerns mainly, the forced eviction of people to make way for development projects. These projects included many urban development schemes, which displace 10 million people a year in less developed countries. In Mumbai, there has been a systematic program of slum clearance. Slum dwellers in Ambedkar Nagar epitomize the plight of the slum dwellers in Mumbai. Over the past 10 years, these slum dwellers have faced eviction 45 times and the repeated evictions have had profound effects on the health of the residents, some of which are protracted deprivation, widespread infections, hypovitaminosis, and wasting. Evictions in India have continuously been carried out despite Article 21 of the Constitution, which recognizes the right to life. However, despite the legal framework, it is evident that the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation, in its efforts to achieve a vision of modern Mumbai, is ignoring the plight of the poor. PMID:10509519

  12. A Statistical Portrait of Working at Home in the U.K.: Evidence from the Labour Force Survey. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick; Phizacklea, Annie; Walters, Sally

    The patterns, extent, and problems of working at home in the United Kingdom were examined through a multivariate analysis of data from the Labour Force Survey, which has questioned respondents about the location of their workplace since 1992. The numbers of people working "mainly" at home increased from 345,920 (1.5%) in 1981 to 680,612 (2.5%) in…

  13. Work, Family, and Mental Health: Testing Different Models of Work-Family Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Bass, Brenda L.

    2003-01-01

    Using family resilience theory, this study examined the effects of work-family conflict and work-family facilitation on mental health among working adults to gain a better understanding of work-family fit. Results suggest that family to work facilitation is a family protective factor that offsets and buffers the deleterious effects of work-family…

  14. WORKING AND CARING: THE SIMULTANEOUS DECISION OF LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND INFORMAL ELDERLY AND CHILD SUPPORT ACT IVITIES IN MEXICO*

    PubMed Central

    van Gameren, Edwin; Velandia Naranjo, Durfari

    2016-01-01

    We analyze factors determining women’s decisions to participate in the labor market and provide elderly care and nonfinancial support to their (grand)children. We use data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, a survey of people aged 50 and over, applying a three-equation, reduced-form SUR model. Results suggest that care needs are the driving force behind caregiving activities. Traditional roles also appear to be relevant in the labor force participation decision: women with a closer labor market connection when they were young are more likely to work. Simulations of demographic changes illustrate potential effects for future caregiving and participation rates. PMID:26924883

  15. Energetic costs of producing muscle work and force in a cyclical human bouncing task

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Arthur D.

    2011-01-01

    Muscles expend energy to perform active work during locomotion, but they may also expend significant energy to produce force, for example when tendons perform much of the work passively. The relative contributions of work and force to overall energy expenditure are unknown. We therefore measured the mechanics and energetics of a cyclical bouncing task, designed to control for work and force. We hypothesized that near bouncing resonance, little work would be performed actively by muscle, but the cyclical production of force would cost substantial metabolic energy. Human subjects (n = 9) bounced vertically about the ankles at inversely proportional frequencies (1–4 Hz) and amplitudes (15–4 mm), such that the overall rate of work performed on the body remained approximately constant (0.30 ± 0.06 W/kg), but the forces varied considerably. We used parameter identification to estimate series elasticity of the triceps surae tendon, as well as the work performed actively by muscle and passively by tendon. Net metabolic energy expenditure for bouncing at 1 Hz was 1.15 ± 0.31 W/kg, attributable mainly to active muscle work with an efficiency of 24 ± 3%. But at 3 Hz (near resonance), most of the work was performed passively, so that active muscle work could account for only 40% of the net metabolic rate of 0.76 ± 0.28 W/kg. Near resonance, a cost for cyclical force that increased with both amplitude and frequency of force accounted for at least as much of the total energy expenditure as a cost for work. Series elasticity reduces the need for active work, but energy must still be expended for force production. PMID:21212245

  16. Women's Health. Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health Issues. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report identifies a broad spectrum of issues affecting women's health and is divided into four sections: (1) social factors affecting women's health; (2) women's physical health and well-being; (3) health concerns of older women; and (4) issues related to alcohol, drug use and abuse, and the mental health of women. The Public Health Service…

  17. Force Health Protection: the mission and political context of the longitudinal health record.

    PubMed

    Collmann, Jeff

    2009-05-01

    Drawing upon an extensive search of publically available literature and discussions at the "National Forum on the Future of the Defense Health Information System," this article documents the evolving mission and political context of the longitudinal health record (LHR) as an instrument for Force Health Protection (FHP). Because of the Gulf War syndrome controversy, the Department of Defense (DoD) launched an ambitious, complex series of programs designed to create a comprehensive, integrated defense health surveillance capability to assure FHP and keep faith with the American people. This "system of systems" includes individual component systems to perform specific functions such as disease surveillance, battlefield assessment, and patient care and consolidates these diverse types of information into centrally accessible archives that serve the interests of occupational health, preventive medicine, medical strategic planning, and longitudinal patient health care. After 25 years of effort and major accomplishments, progress toward a LHR remains uneven and controversy persists. PMID:19562957

  18. Thailand’s Work and Health Transition

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Matthew; Strazdins, Lyndall; Dellora, Tarie; Khamman, Suwanee; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2011-01-01

    Thailand has experienced a rapid economic transition from agriculture to industry and services, and from informal to formal employment. It has much less state regulation and worker representation relative to developed nations, who underwent these transitions more slowly and sequentially, decades earlier. We examine the strengthening of Thai government policy and legislation affecting worker’s health, responding to international norms, a new democratic constitution, fear of foreign importer embargos and several fatal workplace disasters. We identify key challenges remaining for Thai policy makers, including legislation enforcement and the measurement of impacts on worker’s mental and physical health. PMID:22318916

  19. [Perspectives of work, age, health, and labor market participation in Germany].

    PubMed

    Hasselhorn, H M; Rauch, A

    2013-03-01

    The German population is aging and shrinking. This will have a significant impact on the labor market, because labor supply will start to shrink. Consequently, there is a need to develop additional labor market resources. In this setting, a crucial issue is the health and employment of the older working population. This article discusses--on the basis of nine articles in this special issue--the health of the working population in the context of work, age, and labor participation. It shows the diversity of morbidity in the work force in general and particularly in older age, and it identifies older labor force groups with good health and those with bad health. The latter shows that "working while having a bad state of health" is today's reality. Labor market participation is less dependent on health than on the "work ability" and/or the "motivation to work" of older workers. The employment dynamics of an aging population will be a key issue in future political debate. A reliable knowledge base is needed for proper discussion, judgment, and action in the economic, political, and social fields. Current research is often focused on subtopics or on subgroups; however, a network of all the related scientific disciplines and the establishment of new comprehensive research approaches are needed in this area. PMID:23455551

  20. Simultaneous current-, force-, and work-function measurement with atomic resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herz, M.; Schiller, Ch.; Giessibl, F. J.; Mannhart, J.

    2005-04-01

    The local work function of a surface determines the spatial decay of the charge density at the Fermi level normal to the surface. Here, we present a method that enables simultaneous measurements of local work-function and tip-sample forces. A combined dynamic scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope is used to measure the tunneling current between an oscillating tip and the sample in real time as a function of the cantilever's deflection. Atomically resolved work-function measurements on a silicon (111)-(7×7) surface are presented and related to concurrently recorded tunneling current and force measurements.

  1. Poultry Processing Work and Respiratory Health of Latino Men and Women in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Chatterjee, Arjun B.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Mora, Dana C.; Blocker, Jill N.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Chen, Haiying; Marín, Antonio J.; Schulz, Mark R.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate associations between poultry processing work and respiratory health among working Latino men and women in North Carolina. Methods Between May 2009 and November 2010, 402 poultry processing workers and 339 workers in a comparison population completed interviewer-administered questionnaires. Of these participants, 279 poultry processing workers and 222 workers in the comparison population also completed spirometry testing to provide measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity. Results Nine percent of poultry processing workers and 10% of workers in the comparison population reported current asthma. Relative to the comparison population, adjusted mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were lower in the poultry processing population, particularly among men who reported sanitation job activities. Conclusions Despite the low prevalence of respiratory symptoms reported, poultry processing work may affect lung function. PMID:22237034

  2. Effect of force and acoustic feedback on object-insertion work by teleoperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhenglie; Matsunaga, Katsuya; Shidoji, Kazunori

    2004-05-01

    The operating efficiency of teleoperation under stereoscopic video images has been reported to be inferior to that of using the naked eye at a real working environment. A human operator working at an actual work location is aided by force, tactile, and acoustic senses in addition to vision. Conventional teleoperated robots lack sense information, except vision, which may explain operators" inefficient cognition of the working space. Therefore, using stereoscopic video images, we intend to clarify effects of force and acoustic feedback information on the performance of the teleoperation work. Experiment 1 produces a system that can acquire touch-information by the site of the master robot; it elucidates the influence of force and acoustic feedback information in work. Human operators are required to pick up a cylindrical object and insert it into a hole. The experiment shows that feedback of simple touch-information by force and acoustic feedback was not effective to shorten the completion-time. Experiment 2, in force feedback conditions, directs a user to search a hole by sliding a cylindrical object on its surface. Experimental results indicate that the working efficiency was improved by force information using a sliding sense. Experiment 3 investigated effects of sound when the cylindrical object was oriented such that it could be inserted in a hole and the hole was approached in a state of contact. Experimental results demonstrate that working efficiency was not improved by presentation of acoustic information.

  3. Bending the curve: force health protection during the insertion phase of the Ebola outbreak response.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Mark S; Beaton, K; Bowley, D; Eardley, W; Hunt, P; Johnson, S; Round, J; Tarmey, N T; Williams, A

    2016-06-01

    After >10 years of enduring operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, Defence Strategic Direction is returning to a contingency posture. As the first post-Afghanistan operation, in September 2014, a UK Joint Inter-Agency Task Force deployed to Sierra Leone in response to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa. The aims were expanding treatment capacity, assisting with training and supporting host nation resilience. The insertion phase of this deployment created a unique set of challenges for force health protection. In addition to the considerable risk of tropical disease and trauma, deployed personnel faced the risks of working in an EVD epidemic. This report explores how deployed medical assets overcame the difficulties of mounting a short-notice contingent operation in a region of the world with inherent major climatic and health challenges. PMID:26036821

  4. Extrinsic Motivation as Correlates of Work Attitude of the Nigerian Police Force: Implications for Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igun, Sylvester Nosakhare

    2008-01-01

    The study examined Extrinsic motivation as correlates of work attitude of the Nigeria Police Force and its implications for counselling. 300 Police personnel were selected by random sampling technique from six departments that make up police force Headquarters, Abuja. The personnel were selected from each department using simple sampling…

  5. Labor Force Status and Other Characteristics of Persons with a Work Disability: 1981 to 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennefield, Robert L.; McNeil, John M.

    1989-01-01

    This document examines 8-year trends in the labor force status and other characteristics (including age and years of school completed) of persons with a work force disability, using March supplements to the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS). (Disabled persons are considered to be individuals 16 to 64 years old with a disability…

  6. Exploring Work and Development Options to Reduce Early Labour Force Exit of Mature Aged Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Early labour force exit is a significant challenge associated with the ageing workforce in Australia and many other developed countries. A reduction and increased flexibility of work hours has been suggested to improve labour force participation of the mature aged cohort. However, little is known about mature aged workers' aspirations for…

  7. Long Work Hours May Hurt Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the increased risks he found for women. The study included information on the working habits of nearly 7,500 U.S. men and women over more than three decades. Most of the study volunteers were over 50 toward the end of ...

  8. Health care strategy for ensuring work ability in an aging Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungsun; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Soo Geun; Yoo, Cheol-In; Son, Junseok; Yim, Jun; Kim, Dae-Seong; Rhee, Kyung Young; Kim, Yangho

    2016-01-01

    The rapid aging trend in South Korea will cause a growing shortage of labor and decreasing quality of the labor force. The purpose of this commentary is to recommend a health care strategy to maintain and promote the work ability of employees in an aging Korea. Strategies to promote the work ability require the collaboration of governmental agencies at the central and local levels. First, the common goal should be the reinforcement of follow-up measure in general medical examinations and the promotion of healthy lifestyles for workers. Second, collaborating activities should be performed among the Worker's Health Center, the Health Promotion Center, and community health centers. In conclusion, health care strategies for ensuring the work ability in an aging Korea require the collaboration of governmental agencies at the central and local levels. PMID:27610236

  9. Operational Stress and Correlates of Mental Health Among Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; De La Rosa, Gabriel M; Schmitz, Kimberly J; Vishnyak, Elizabeth J; Raducha, Stephanie C; Roesch, Scott C; Johnston, Scott L

    2015-12-01

    Military personnel deployed to Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay (JTF-GTMO) faced numerous occupational stressors. As part of a program evaluation, personnel working at JTF-GTMO completed several validated self-report measures. Personnel were at the beginning, middle, or end of their deployment phase. This study presents data regarding symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse, depression, and resilience among 498 U.S. military personnel deployed to JTF-GTMO in 2009. We also investigated individual and organizational correlates of mental health among these personnel. Findings indicated that tenure at JTF-GTMO was positively related to adverse mental health outcomes. Regression models including these variables had R2 values ranging from .02 to .11. Occupation at JTF-GTMO also related to mental health such that guards reported poorer mental health than medical staff. Reluctance to seek out mental health care was also related to mental health outcomes. Those who reported being most reluctant to seek out care tended to report poorer mental health than those who were more willing to seek out care. Results suggested that the JTF-GTMO deployment was associated with significant psychological stress, and that both job-related and attitude-related variables were important to understanding mental health symptoms in this sample. PMID:26595460

  10. [Immigration and health: social inequalities in health disparities in the health system, in welfare and work].

    PubMed

    Pullini, A

    2011-01-01

    Within the analysis of the socio-economic context and the data from hospital discharges, the themes of social inequalities, health disparities, determinants of health care are discussed. Regular immigrants versus irregular, wealthy people versus those in poverty, they have access to and receive different health treatments, besides presenting risk conditions significantly different in relation to their social situation. Through the analysis of hospital discharge records as well as data from injuries at work, besides underestimations in foreign people and the greater risk of injuries for immigrants, it is evident how the aspects of inequalities connected to socioeconomic determinants and the different access to health services are pivotal for our health and welfare and that a profound change is required to tackle them properly, focusing on intervention on health care system, according to models which take into account not only evidence based medicine, but also narrative medicine, not only health protection, but also health promotion, so that equity and quality of health care is warranted for everyone. PMID:22187915

  11. Pilot Mental Health: Expert Working Group Recommendations - Revised 2015.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    In September 2012, the Aerospace Medical Association published and distributed recommendations from its Pilot Mental Health Working Group to improve awareness and identification of pilot mental health issues during the aeromedical assessment of pilots. Following the crash of Germanwings Flight 9525 in March 2015 with pilot suicide as the probable cause, the Pilot Mental Health Working Group reconvened to review their recommendations. As a result, the working group revised the recommendations which are provided here and which were distributed worldwide. The Working Group continues to emphasize the importance of assessing and optimizing pilot mental health, while providing additional recommendations on building trust and rapport between the aeromedical examiner and the pilot, on utilizing aviation mental health and aeromedical specialists, and on the balance between medical confidentiality and risk to public safety. The working group encourages all organizations involved in flight safety to review and consider implementing these recommendations within their usual operations. PMID:27099091

  12. Health, work and working conditions: a review of the European economic literature.

    PubMed

    Barnay, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Economists have traditionally been very cautious when studying the interaction between employment and health because of the two-way causal relationship between these two variables: health status influences the probability of being employed and, at the same time, working affects the health status. Because these two variables are determined simultaneously, researchers control endogeneity skews (e.g., reverse causality, omitted variables) when conducting empirical analysis. With these caveats in mind, the literature finds that a favourable work environment and high job security lead to better health conditions. Being employed with appropriate working conditions plays a protective role on physical health and psychiatric disorders. By contrast, non-employment and retirement are generally worse for mental health than employment, and overemployment has a negative effect on health. These findings stress the importance of employment and of adequate working conditions for the health of workers. In this context, it is a concern that a significant proportion of European workers (29 %) would like to work fewer hours because unwanted long hours are likely to signal a poor level of job satisfaction and inadequate working conditions, with detrimental effects on health. Thus, in Europe, labour-market policy has increasingly paid attention to job sustainability and job satisfaction. The literature clearly invites employers to take better account of the worker preferences when setting the number of hours worked. Overall, a specific "flexicurity" (combination of high employment protection, job satisfaction and active labour-market policies) is likely to have a positive effect on health. PMID:26280132

  13. Stigma and barriers to accessing mental health services perceived by Air Force nursing personnel.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Stephen H A; Bedrick, Edward J; Parshall, Mark B

    2014-11-01

    We investigated perceptions of stigma and barriers associated with accessing mental health services among active component U.S. Air Force officer and enlisted nursing personnel (N = 211). The Britt and Hoge et al Stigma scale and Hoge et al Barriers to Care scale were administered via an anonymous, online survey. Stigma items pertained to concerns that might affect decisions to seek mental health treatment. Most of the sample agreed with the items "Members of my unit might have less confidence in me" and "My unit leadership might treat me differently." Approximately 20% to 46% agreed with the other four stigma items. Officer nursing personnel were significantly more likely than enlisted to agree that accessing mental health services would be embarrassing, harm their career, or cause leaders to blame them for the problem (p ≤ 0.03 for each comparison). Getting time off from work for treatment and scheduling appointments were perceived as barriers by 41% and 21% of respondents, respectively. We conclude that proportions of Air Force nursing personnel reporting concerns about potential stigmatizing consequences of seeking mental health care are substantial and similar to ranges previously reported by military service members screening positive for mental health problems after deployment. PMID:25373066

  14. Occupational epidemiology and work related inequalities in health: a gender perspective for two complementary approaches to work and health research

    PubMed Central

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Borrell, Carme; Cortès, Imma; Escribà‐Agüir, Vicenta; Cascant, Lorena

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To provide a framework for epidemiological research on work and health that combines classic occupational epidemiology and the consideration of work in a structural perspective focused on gender inequalities in health. Methods Gaps and limitations in classic occupational epidemiology, when considered from a gender perspective, are described. Limitations in research on work related gender inequalities in health are identified. Finally, some recommendations for future research are proposed. Results Classic occupational epidemiology has paid less attention to women's problems than men's. Research into work related gender inequalities in health has rarely considered either social class or the impact of family demands on men's health. In addition, it has rarely taken into account the potential interactions between gender, social class, employment status and family roles and the differences in social determinants of health according to the health indicator analysed. Conclusions Occupational epidemiology should consider the role of sex and gender in examining exposures and associated health problems. Variables should be used that capture the specific work environments and health conditions of both sexes. The analysis of work and health from a gender perspective should take into account the complex interactions between gender, family roles, employment status and social class. PMID:18000116

  15. Changes in kinematics, metabolic cost and external work during walking with a forward assistive force.

    PubMed

    Zirker, Christopher A; Bennett, Bradford C; Abel, Mark F

    2013-08-01

    We examined how the application of a forward horizontal force applied at the waist alters the metabolic cost, kinematics, and external work of gait. Horizontal assist forces of 4%, 8% and 12% of a subject's body weight were applied via our testing apparatus while subjects walked at comfortable walking speed on a level treadmill. Kinematic and metabolic parameters were measured using motion capture and ergospirometry respectively on a group of 10 healthy male subjects. Changes in kinematic and metabolic parameters were quantified and found similar to walking downhill at varying grades. A horizontal assist force of 8% resulted in the greatest reduction of metabolic cost. Changes in recovery factor, external work, and center of mass (COM) movement did not correlate with changes in metabolic rate and therefore were not driving the observed reductions in cost. The assist force may have performed external work by providing propulsion as well as raising the COM as it pivots over the stance leg. Assist forces may decrease metabolic cost by reducing the concentric work required for propulsion while increasing the eccentric work of braking. These findings on the effects of assist forces suggest novel mobility aids for individuals with gait disorders and training strategies for athletes. PMID:23183216

  16. After the Baby: Work-Family Conflict and Working Mothers' Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nancy L.; Tracy, Allison J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines work and family characteristics and depressive symptomatology among over 700 working mothers of infants. Working mothers in poorer quality jobs, as well as working mothers who were single or whose infant's health was poorer than that of other infants, reported greater depressive symptomatology. The effect of job quality on…

  17. The Competitiveness and Productivity of Tomorrow's Work Force: Compelling Reasons for Investing in Healthy Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet outlines some demographic trends that are influencing the cost and availability of health care for children and making it increasingly necessary to take action to improve the health of the nation's children. In recent years children, as a group, are more likely to be poor, lack health insurance, have working mothers, receive…

  18. THE HIRED FARM WORKING FORCE OF 1966, A STATISTICAL REPORT. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REPORT NO. 120.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    INFORMATION ON THE SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF THE HIRED FARM WORKING FORCE, AND ON THE EMPLOYMENT AND CASH EARNINGS FROM FARM AND NONFARM WAGE WORK FOR 1966 IS PRESENTED. THE DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM THE ANNUAL SURVEY CONDUCTED FOR THE ECONOMIC RESEARCH SERVICE BY THE BUREAU OF CENSUS. THE SAMPLE INCLUDED APPROXIMATELY 35,000 HOUSEHOLDS INTERVIEWED…

  19. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Work Motivators: Implications for the Incoming Air Force Officer Workforce. Posters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stephanie K.; Davis, Jason J.; Rate, Christopher

    This document contains three poster presentations from a conference on human resource development. "Intrinsic and Extrinsic Work Motivators: Implications for the Incoming Air Force Officer Workforce" (Stephanie K. Johnson, Jason J. Davis, Christopher Rate) reports on a study that explored the literature relating to work motivators to find Air…

  20. Children of Working Mothers, March 1977. Special Labor Force Report 217.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Allyson Sherman

    1979-01-01

    This special labor force report, focusing on children of working mothers, summarizes findings from the 1977 annual survey of marital and family characteristics of workers in the population who are 16 years old and over. Data are given on: the numbers of children of various ages with working mothers, the percentages of black and white children…

  1. Children of Working Mothers, March 1973. Special Labor Force Report No. 165.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Elizabeth; Whitmore, Robert

    A special labor force report, the pamphlet provides statistics related to the children of working mothers: type of family, number of children under 18, race, number of children in broken families, work experience of family head, and family income. Although the number of children in the population has declined, the number of children with working…

  2. Career Counseling for Work Life Extension: Integrating the Older Worker into the Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Michael; Salomone, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    Notes that inclusion of older workers into the labor force is becoming a social and economic need. Asks counselors to encourage career planning for the total life span including years typically used for retirement. Addresses attitudinal obstacles to extending work lives, options for continuing work life, and effective procedures for promoting…

  3. Association of Returning to Work With Better Health in Working-Aged Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Lori; Wilson, Mike; Mustard, Cameron; Rourke, Sean B.; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Raboud, Janet; Lavis, John

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We systematically reviewed the literature on the impact of returning to work on health among working-aged adults. Methods. We searched 6 electronic databases in 2005. We selected longitudinal studies that documented a transition from unemployment to employment and included a comparison group. Two reviewers independently appraised the retrieved literature for potential relevance and methodological quality. Results. Eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria, including 1 randomized controlled trial. Fifteen studies revealed a beneficial effect of returning to work on health, either demonstrating a significant improvement in health after reemployment or a significant decline in health attributed to continued unemployment. We also found evidence for health selection, suggesting that poor health interferes with people’s ability to go back to work. Some evidence suggested that earlier reemployment may be associated with better health. Conclusions. Beneficial health effects of returning to work have been documented in a variety of populations, times, and settings. Return-to-work programs may improve not only financial situations but also health. PMID:22390520

  4. Selected aspects of absence at work and work-related health problems in Polish enterprises.

    PubMed

    Pęciłło, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Workers' working conditions, work-related health problems and sickness absence are interdependent factors. Both workers' health problems and their absence are adverse events which generate significant costs for both Poland's Social Insurance Institution (ZUS) and employers. Despite the related burdens, it is difficult to assess the number of workers who experience work-related health problems, to indicate the share of those workers who have been unfit for work owing to such disorders and to indicate the types of workers' disorders which are caused by factors the workers are exposed to in the working environment. This article presents the findings of surveys carried out in selected production and service-providing companies, assessing the scale and nature of work-related health problems and their links with workers' sickness absence. PMID:26647948

  5. Selected aspects of absence at work and work-related health problems in Polish enterprises

    PubMed Central

    Pęciłło, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Workers’ working conditions, work-related health problems and sickness absence are interdependent factors. Both workers’ health problems and their absence are adverse events which generate significant costs for both Poland's Social Insurance Institution (ZUS) and employers. Despite the related burdens, it is difficult to assess the number of workers who experience work-related health problems, to indicate the share of those workers who have been unfit for work owing to such disorders and to indicate the types of workers’ disorders which are caused by factors the workers are exposed to in the working environment. This article presents the findings of surveys carried out in selected production and service-providing companies, assessing the scale and nature of work-related health problems and their links with workers’ sickness absence. PMID:26647948

  6. How can magnetic forces do work? Investigating the problem with students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onorato, Pasquale; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2013-11-01

    We present a sequence of activities aimed at promoting both learning about magnetic forces and students’ reflection about the conceptual bridge between magnetic forces on a moving charge and on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field. The activity sequence, designed for students in high school or on introductory physics courses, has been tested with about 150 high school students and 50 pre-service teachers. Results indicate that students’ understanding of the direction and magnitude of the magnetic force improved markedly and that some typical difficulties were overcome. Comparison of the two types of forces and of their effects allowed focusing on their crucial difference with respect to the possibility of doing work and encouraged students to search for models that are able to link one force to another.

  7. The Role of Institutions and Health in European Patterns of Work and Retirement.

    PubMed

    Börsch-Supan, Axel; Brugiavini, Agar; Croda, Enrica

    2009-10-01

    This paper uses the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) to investigate the role of pension and social security institutions in shaping the European patterns of work and retirement. The key novelty of our paper is a careful account of the health status of the respondents. We provide new evidence on the extent of health-adjusted "unused capacity" in the labour force, on the institutional determinants of the pathways to retirement, and on the relationship between actual health status and disability-benefit recipiency. We find that institutional differences between countries explain much of the cross-national differences in work and retirement, while differences in health and demographics play only a minor role. PMID:20428466

  8. Enhancing interprofessional education: integrating public health and social work perspectives.

    PubMed

    Addy, Cheryl L; Browne, Teri; Blake, Elizabeth W; Bailey, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    National stakeholders in health system improvement and patient safety including accreditation bodies have requested health professional educational programs to include multiple interprofessional experiences through didactic and experiential opportunities. Clinical and population health faculty at the University of South Carolina redesigned and expanded an introductory interprofessional course to include more than 500 students from public health, social work, medicine, pharmacy, and nursing. Students participated in 3 live class meetings and completed required online coursework to explore concepts related to social determinants of health and health disparities, health system improvement, patient safety, cultural competency, and ethics to address interprofessional education core competencies. Course modifications and expanded student enrollment improved understanding of key health concepts and appreciation of interprofessional collaboration. PMID:25706002

  9. Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Reed

    1989-01-01

    Discusses pupil misconceptions concerning forces. Summarizes some of Assessment of Performance Unit's findings on meaning of (1) force, (2) force and motion in one dimension and two dimensions, and (3) Newton's second law. (YP)

  10. Changing Work, Changing Health: Can Real Work-Time Flexibility Promote Health Behaviors and Well-Being?

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L.; Tranby, Eric; Huang, Qinlei

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates a change in the structuring of work time, using a natural experiment to test whether participation in a corporate initiative (Results Only Work Environment; ROWE) predicts corresponding changes in health-related outcomes. Drawing on job strain and stress process models, we theorize greater schedule control and reduced work-family conflict as key mechanisms linking this initiative with health outcomes. Longitudinal survey data from 659 employees at a corporate headquarters shows that ROWE predicts changes in health-related behaviors, including almost an extra hour of sleep on work nights. Increasing employees’ schedule control and reducing their work-family conflict are key mechanisms linking the ROWE innovation with changes in employees’ health behaviors; they also predict changes in well-being measures, providing indirect links between ROWE and well-being. This study demonstrates that organizational changes in the structuring of time can promote employee wellness, particularly in terms of prevention behaviors. PMID:22144731

  11. Work, health, and welfare: the association between working conditions, welfare states, and self-reported general health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bambra, Clare; Lunau, Thorsten; Van der Wel, Kjetil A; Eikemo, Terje A; Dragano, Nico

    2014-01-01

    This article is the first to examine the association between self-reported general health and a wide range of working conditions at the European level and by type of welfare state regime. Data for 21,705 men and women ages 16 to 60 from 27 European countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. The influence of individual-level sociodemographic, physical, and psychosocial working conditions and of the organization of work were assessed in multilevel logistic regression analyses, with additional stratification by welfare state regime type (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Eastern European, Scandinavian, and Southern). At the European level, we found that "not good" general health was more likely to be reported by workers more exposed to hazardous working conditions. Most notably, tiring working positions, job strain, and temporary job contracts were strongly associated with a higher likelihood of reporting "not good" health. Analysis by welfare state regime found that only tiring or painful working conditions were consistently associated with worse self-reported health in all regimes. There was no evidence that the Scandinavian welfare regime protected against the adverse health effects of poor working conditions. The article concludes by examining the implications for comparative occupational health research. PMID:24684087

  12. Health literacy: critical opportunities for social work leadership in health care and research.

    PubMed

    Liechty, Janet M

    2011-05-01

    One-third of U.S. adults do not have adequate health literacy to manage their health care needs; and low health literacy is a major concern due to its association with poor health outcomes, high health care costs, and health communication problems. Low health literacy is a potential driver of health disparities, and its alleviation is central to the values and concerns of the social work profession. Despite the extensive knowledge and skills that social workers can bring to bear to assist patients with low health literacy, the concept of health literacy is underused in social work scholarship.This gap reflects missed opportunities for social workers to contribute their expertise to the evolving field of health literacy and to strategically align their work with organizational and national priorities.To address this gap, this article provides an overview of health literacy, its relevance to social work, and its representation in disciplinary literature; and it outlines opportunities for health social workers to systematically incorporate health literacy concepts and tools into their practices with patients and families. Implications for a social work research and practice agenda in health literacy are discussed. PMID:21661299

  13. Health Coverage Instability for Mothers in Working Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Steven G.; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors examined the health insurance coverage stability of 1,667 women in working families over a three-year period (1995-1997). Findings revealed that coverage instability is common. Nearly one-half of low-income women experienced health coverage instability over the three-year study…

  14. Incorporating Integrative Health Services in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gant, Larry; Benn, Rita; Gioia, Deborah; Seabury, Brett

    2009-01-01

    More than one third of Americans practice complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Social workers continue to provide most first-line health, mental health, and psychological referral and direct practice services in the United States, despite a lack of systematic education and training opportunities in CAM. Schools of social work are…

  15. Community Mental Health: Issues for Social Work Practice and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Arthur J., Ed.

    Articles by social work educators on some of the critical issues in community mental health are presented. Examined are some conceptual and program developments related to coordination, continuity of care, and the use of teams in planning and service delivery for community mental health (Lawrence K. Berg). The issue of civil commitment to and…

  16. The hierarchy of work pursuits of public health managers.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Luft, Sabine; Bender, Wolfgang; Callen, Joanne; Westbrook, Johanna I; Westbrook, Mary T; Mallock, Nadine A; Iedema, Rick; Hindle, Donald; Jochelson, Tanya

    2007-05-01

    How public health is managed in various settings is an important but under-examined issue. We examine themes in the management literature, contextualize issues facing public health managers and investigate the relative importance placed on their various work pursuits using a 14-activity management model empirically derived from studies of clinician-managers in hospitals. Ethnographic case studies of 10 managers in nine diverse public health settings were conducted. The case study accounts of managers' activities were content analysed, and substantive words encapsulating their work were categorized using the model. Managerial activities of the nine public health managers were ranked according to the number of words describing each activity. Kendall's coefficient of concordance yielded W = 0.710, P < 0.000, revealing significant similarity between the activity patterns of the public health managers. A rank order correlation between the activity patterns of the average ranks for the public health sample and for the hospital clinician-managers (n = 52) was R = 0.420, P = 0.131, indicating no significant relationship between relative activity priorities of the two groups. Public health managers put less emphasis on pursuits associated with structure, hierarchy and education, and more on external relations and decision-making. The model of hospital clinician-managers' managerial activities is applicable to public health managers while identifying differences in the way the two groups manage. The findings suggest that public health management work is more managerialist than previously thought. PMID:17524219

  17. Muscle force, work and cost: a novel technique to revisit the Fenn effect.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Justus O; Lindstedt, Stan L; Nelson, Frank E; Jubrias, Sharon A; Kushmerick, Martin J; Conley, Kevin E

    2015-07-01

    Muscle produces force by forming cross-bridges, using energy released from ATP. While the magnitude and duration of force production primarily determine the energy requirement, nearly a century ago Fenn observed that muscle shortening or lengthening influenced energetic cost of contraction. When work is done by the muscle, the energy cost is increased and when work is done on the muscle the energy cost is reduced. However, the magnitude of the 'Fenn effect' and its mirror ('negative Fenn effect') have not been quantitatively resolved. We describe a new technique coupling magnetic resonance spectroscopy with an in vivo force clamp that can directly quantify the Fenn effect [E=I+W, energy liberated (E) equals the energy cost of isometric force production (I) plus the work done (W)] and the negative Fenn effect (E=I-W) for one muscle, the first dorsal interosseous (FDI). ATP cost was measured during a series of contractions, each of which occurred at a constant force and for a constant duration, thus constant force-time integral (FTI). In all subjects, as the FTI increased with load, there was a proportional linear increase in energy cost. In addition, the cost of producing force greatly increased when the muscle shortened, and was slightly reduced during lengthening contraction. These results, though limited to a single muscle, contraction velocity and muscle length change, do quantitatively support the Fenn effect. We speculate that they also suggest that an elastic element within the FDI muscle functions to preserve the force generated within the cross-bridges. PMID:25964423

  18. Effects of extended work shifts and shift work on patient safety, productivity, and employee health.

    PubMed

    Keller, Simone M

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated 1.3 million health care errors occur each year and of those errors 48,000 to 98,000 result in the deaths of patients (Barger et al., 2006). Errors occur for a variety of reasons, including the effects of extended work hours and shift work. The need for around-the-clock staff coverage has resulted in creative ways to maintain quality patient care, keep health care errors or adverse events to a minimum, and still meet the needs of the organization. One way organizations have attempted to alleviate staff shortages is to create extended work shifts. Instead of the standard 8-hour shift, workers are now working 10, 12, 16, or more hours to provide continuous patient care. Although literature does support these staffing patterns, it cannot be denied that shifts beyond the traditional 8 hours increase staff fatigue, health care errors, and adverse events and outcomes and decrease alertness and productivity. This article includes a review of current literature on shift work, the definition of shift work, error rates and adverse outcomes related to shift work, health effects on shift workers, shift work effects on older workers, recommended optimal shift length, positive and negative effects of shift work on the shift worker, hazards associated with driving after extended shifts, and implications for occupational health nurses. PMID:20043622

  19. Women, Work and Health Hazards: A Fact Sheet and Cosmetologists: Health Risks at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.

    The first part of this document is a fact sheet that provides information on health hazards faced by employed women. It covers the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), job-related diseases suffered by workers in female-dominated occupations, employer responsibilities under OSHA, and the lack of statistical reporting on job-related disease.…

  20. HHS announces Text4Health task force recommendations

    Cancer.gov

    Today, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) announced new recommendations to support health text messaging and mobile health (mHealth) programs. The department has been actively exploring means to capitalize on the rapid proliferation of

  1. When work calls-associations between being contacted outside of regular working hours for work-related matters and health.

    PubMed

    Arlinghaus, Anna; Nachreiner, Friedhelm

    2013-11-01

    Boundaries between work and private life are diminishing, but little is known on how this influences worker health. Therefore, we examined the association between work-related contacts outside of regular working hours by e-mail or phone and self-reported health in a representative sample of European employees (n = 23 760). The risk of reporting ≥1 health problem(s) was increased in workers contacted sometimes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.27) or often (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.12-1.34) as compared with never, controlling for several demographic and workplace characteristics. Further research is needed to quantify work and nonwork patterns and their health effects. PMID:23898880

  2. Health, Economic Resources and the Work Decisions of Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Bound, John; Stinebrickner, Todd; Waidmann, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    We specify a dynamic programming model that addresses the interplay among health, financial resources, and the labor market behavior of men late in their working lives. We model health as a latent variable, for which self reported disability status is an indicator, and allow self-reported disability to be endogenous to labor market behavior. We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study. While we find large impacts of health on behavior, they are substantially smaller than in models that treat self-reports as exogenous. We also simulate the impacts of several potential reforms to the Social Security program. PMID:27158180

  3. Working-Class Jobs and New Parents' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Goldberg, Abbie E.; Logan, Jade

    2011-01-01

    Little research has explored linkages between work conditions and mental health in working-class employed parents. The current study aims to address this gap, employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how levels of and changes in job autonomy, job urgency, supervisor support, and coworker support predicted parents' depressive…

  4. Critically Reflective Work Behavior of Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Esther; Jaarsma, Debbie; Endedijk, Maaike; Mainhard, Tim; Lam, Ineke; Simons, Robert-Jan; van Beukelen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Better understanding of critically reflective work behavior (CRWB), an approach for work-related informal learning, is important in order to gain more profound insight in the continuing development of health care professionals. Methods: A survey, developed to measure CRWB and its predictors, was distributed to veterinary…

  5. Measuring coupling forces woodcutters exert on saws in real working conditions.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Borowska, Jolanta; Harazin, Barbara; Zieliński, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) generated by chainsaws can cause HAV syndrome, i.e., disorders in the upper extremities of forestry workers. Progress of HAV syndrome depends on the intensity of mechanical vibration transmitted throughout the body, which is directly proportional to coupling forces applied by the woodcutter to a vibrating tool. This study aimed to establish a method of measuring coupling forces exerted by chainsaw workers in real working conditions. Coupling forces exerted by workers with their right and left hands were measured with a hydro-electronic force meter. Wood hardness, the type of chainsaw and the kind of forest operation, i.e., felling, cross-cutting or limbing, were considered. PMID:22429531

  6. Barriers to Partnership Working in Public Health: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, David Carlton; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Orton, Lois; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. Methodology/Principal Findings 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. Conclusions The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions. PMID:22238619

  7. Caretaking as articulation work: the effects of taking up responsibility for a child with asthma on labor force participation.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Stefan; Freidin, Betina

    2007-10-01

    A well-established quantitative literature has documented the financial toll for women's caretaking. Still, we do not know much about the process by which women end up taking on an extensive caretaking role and what they do on a daily basis. Based on in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of fifty caretakers of school aged children with asthma and nine health professionals in the USA, this study examines how health professionals socialize mothers into an intensive caretaking role for their children with asthma, how mothers negotiated and perform that role, and the impact of care work on their labor force participation. Care providers assign broad caretaking tasks that require further articulation work to get the job done. Although mothers care for their children in varied ways, caring for a child with a chronic disease remains a time-consuming activity. Mothers pay a price for the indeterminate nature of articulation work by scaling back their involvement in the paid labor force. PMID:17590253

  8. New systems of work organization and workers' health.

    PubMed

    Kompier, Michiel A J

    2006-12-01

    This paper aims at identifying major changes in and around work organizations, their effects upon job characteristics and the health and well-being of today's employees, and related research challenges. Increased internationalization and competition, increased utilization of information and communication technology, the changing workforce configuration, and flexibility and new organizational practices are considered. As work has changed from physical to mental in nature, job characteristics have changed significantly. Meanwhile work and family life have blended. New systems of work organization have become more prevalent, but they do not represent a radical change across the whole economy. New practices may have an adverse impact upon job characteristics, but their effects depend on their design, implementation, and management. Research recommendations include improved monitoring of changes in work organization and studies into their health and safety consequences, intervention studies, studies into the motivating potential of modern work practices, studies of marginalized workers and workers in less developed countries, and "mechanism studies". PMID:17173199

  9. Health and Nutritional Status of Working and Non-Working Mothers in Poverty Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Daphne A.; Eickwort, Kathleen R.

    The aim of this study was to examine the health and nutritional status of low-income women in Upstate New York and to identify problems that interfere with their employment. Questionnaires on health and work, complete medical and employment histories, physical examination, laboratory tests, dental examination and diet recalls were obtained for 469…

  10. Changing Work and Work-Family Conflict: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Network*

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis; Oakes, J. Michael; Fan, Wen; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Davis, Kelly D.; Hammer, Leslie; Kossek, Ellen; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Hanson, Ginger; Mierzwa, Frank; Casper, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life are work resources that may help employees manage the work-family interface. However, existing data and designs have made it difficult to conclusively identify the effects of these work resources. This analysis utilizes a group-randomized trial in which some units in an information technology workplace were randomly assigned to participate in an initiative, called STAR, that targeted work practices, interactions, and expectations by (a) training supervisors on the value of demonstrating support for employees’ personal lives and (b) prompting employees to reconsider when and where they work. We find statistically significant, though modest, improvements in employees’ work-family conflict and family time adequacy and larger changes in schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life. We find no evidence that this intervention increased work hours or perceived job demands, as might have happened with increased permeability of work across time and space. Subgroup analyses suggest the intervention brings greater benefits to employees more vulnerable to work-family conflict. This study advances our understanding of the impact of social structures on individual lives by investigating deliberate organizational changes and their effects on work resources and the work-family interface with a rigorous design. PMID:25349460

  11. Changing Work and Work-Family Conflict: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Network*

    PubMed

    Kelly, Erin L; Moen, Phyllis; Oakes, J Michael; Fan, Wen; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Davis, Kelly D; Hammer, Leslie; Kossek, Ellen; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Hanson, Ginger; Mierzwa, Frank; Casper, Lynne

    2014-06-01

    Schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life are work resources that may help employees manage the work-family interface. However, existing data and designs have made it difficult to conclusively identify the effects of these work resources. This analysis utilizes a group-randomized trial in which some units in an information technology workplace were randomly assigned to participate in an initiative, called STAR, that targeted work practices, interactions, and expectations by (a) training supervisors on the value of demonstrating support for employees' personal lives and (b) prompting employees to reconsider when and where they work. We find statistically significant, though modest, improvements in employees' work-family conflict and family time adequacy and larger changes in schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life. We find no evidence that this intervention increased work hours or perceived job demands, as might have happened with increased permeability of work across time and space. Subgroup analyses suggest the intervention brings greater benefits to employees more vulnerable to work-family conflict. This study advances our understanding of the impact of social structures on individual lives by investigating deliberate organizational changes and their effects on work resources and the work-family interface with a rigorous design. PMID:25349460

  12. Psychosocial work environment and mental health among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Boschman, J S; van der Molen, H F; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2013-09-01

    We assessed psychosocial work environment, the prevalence of mental health complaints and the association between these two among bricklayers and construction supervisors. For this cross-sectional study a total of 1500 bricklayers and supervisors were selected. Psychosocial work characteristics were measured using the Dutch Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation of Work and compared to the general Dutch working population. Mental health effects were measured with scales to assess fatigue during work, need for recovery after work, symptoms of distress, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. The prevalence of self-reported mental health complaints was determined using the cut-off values. Associations between psychosocial work characteristics and self-reported mental health complaints were analysed using logistic regression. Total response rate was 43%. Compared to the general working population, bricklayers experienced statistically significant worse job control, learning opportunities and future perspectives; supervisors experienced statistically significant higher psychological demands and need for recovery. Prevalence of self-reported mental health effects among bricklayers and supervisors, respectively, were as follows: high need for recovery after work (14%; 25%), distress (5%, 7%), depression (18%, 20%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (11%, 7%). Among both occupations, high work speed and quantity were associated with symptoms of depression. Further, among construction supervisors, low participation in decision making and low social support of the direct supervisor was associated with symptoms of depression. The findings in the present study indicate psychosocial risk factors for bricklayers and supervisors. In each occupation a considerable proportion of workers was positively screened for symptoms of common mental disorders. PMID:23380530

  13. Psychological detachment from work during non-work time: linear or curvilinear relations with mental health and work engagement?

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Akihito; Matsudaira, Ko; Jonge, Jan DE; Tosaka, Naoya; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Masaya

    2016-06-10

    This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental health, and work engagement as well as for job characteristics and demographic variables as potential confounders. The hypothesized model was tested with moderated structural equation modeling techniques among 2,234 respondents working in the tertiary industries with regular employment. Results showed that psychological detachment had curvilinear relations with mental health as well as with work engagement. Mental health improved when psychological detachment increased from a low to higher levels but did not benefit any further from extremely high levels of psychological detachment. Work engagement showed the highest level at an intermediate level of detachment (inverted U-shaped pattern). Although high psychological detachment may enhance employee mental health, moderate levels of psychological detachment are most beneficial for his or her work engagement. PMID:26829972

  14. Psychological detachment from work during non-work time: linear or curvilinear relations with mental health and work engagement?

    PubMed Central

    SHIMAZU, Akihito; MATSUDAIRA, Ko; DE JONGE, Jan; TOSAKA, Naoya; WATANABE, Kazuhiro; TAKAHASHI, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental health, and work engagement as well as for job characteristics and demographic variables as potential confounders. The hypothesized model was tested with moderated structural equation modeling techniques among 2,234 respondents working in the tertiary industries with regular employment. Results showed that psychological detachment had curvilinear relations with mental health as well as with work engagement. Mental health improved when psychological detachment increased from a low to higher levels but did not benefit any further from extremely high levels of psychological detachment. Work engagement showed the highest level at an intermediate level of detachment (inverted U-shaped pattern). Although high psychological detachment may enhance employee mental health, moderate levels of psychological detachment are most beneficial for his or her work engagement. PMID:26829972

  15. e-Labs and Work Objects: Towards Digital Health Economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainsworth, John D.; Buchan, Iain E.

    The optimal provision of healthcare and public health services requires the synthesis of evidence from multiple disciplines. It is necessary to understand the genetic, environmental, behavioural and social determinants of disease and health-related states; to balance the effectiveness of interventions with their costs; to ensure the maximum safety and acceptability of interventions; and to provide fair access to care services for given populations. Ever expanding databases of knowledge and local health information, and the ability to employ computationally expensive methods, promises much for decisions to be both supported by best evidence and locally relevant. This promise will, however, not be realised without providing health professionals with the tools to make sense of this information rich environment and to collaborate across disciplines. We propose, as a solution to this problem, the e-Lab and Work Objects model as a sense-making platform for digital health economies - bringing together data, methods and people for timely health intelligence.

  16. With health comes work? People living with HIV/AIDS consider returning to work.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, S E; Lavis, J N

    2003-06-01

    Many people living with HIV/AIDS (PHAs) ham experienced significant improvements in their health over the last few years, to the point that many are considering returning to work. The objectives of this study were to develop a model of return to work which could apply to chronic illnesses with a fluctuating or uncertain course. Issues related to health, work and return to work were explored using in-depth interviews with 20 PHAs in Toronto, Canada, who had been on long-term disability for at least five years. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Contextual factors like the approach of disability and health (drug) insurance plans and intervening conditions like PHAs' current activities influenced their consideration of returning to work and the strategies they employed as a result of considering such a return. More than two-thirds of the sample had undertaken more activities as their health improved. The three study participants who had returned to work either had an opportunity for a low-risk trial of work or could return to their old job. Employers and disability compensation plan administrators, assisted by AIDS service organizations and governments, can facilitate return to work for PHAs by reducing the risks of and removing the barriers to returning to work. PMID:12828149

  17. Review and Implications of Job Satisfaction and Work Motivation Theories for Air Force Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Thomas C.; Hazel, Joe T.

    The purpose of this report is to: (a) review certain major theories of work motivation, particularly as related to job satisfaction, (b) distill from such theories and other research, implications for an Air Force job satisfaction research program, and (c) provide a comprehensive bibliography of satisfaction/retention studies. The theoretical…

  18. Preparing the Work Force for the 21st Century: 1998 Community Based Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinley, John W.; Cantrell, Jo Ellen

    To help determine the community's work force training needs, Spartanburg Technical College (STC) completed an extensive research study. It included a survey of 1,501 high school juniors in Cherokee, Union, and Spartanburg counties in South Carolina; a survey of 293 area businesses and industries; focus groups representing 63 companies, elected…

  19. Preparing for an Aging Work Force: A Practical Guide for Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AARP, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is intended for human resource managers, provides practical guidance regarding preparing for an aging work force. Chapter 1 concerns the relationship between business practices and age neutrality and offers checklists that human resource managers can use to assess their company's general policy development, training,…

  20. Administrative Task Force on the Four Day Work Week. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles.

    The Administrative Task Force on a 4-day work week at California State University in Los Angeles was charged with the following responsibilities: (1) To make an indepth study of the "literature" of experience of other universities, a survey of staff, faculty, and students if required, and other activities that will result in setting up a list of…

  1. Education for the World of Work. Report of the Joint Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Board for Community Colleges and Occupational Education, Denver. Div. of Occupational Education.

    A task force convened by the Colorado State Board for Community Colleges and Occupational Education and the Colorado Department of Education met in 1984-85 to seek ways to bring vocational education, industrial arts education, and general education closer together in the preparation of students for entry into the world of work. This report…

  2. Selected Contemporary Work Force Reports: A Synthesis and Critique. Information Series No. 354.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, James M.

    Demographic and social changes, increasing economic interdependence, and educational reform movements are causing major changes in vocational education. Essential work force skills and the standards to account for their achievement are being debated. The 1980s'"Excellence Movement" focused on strengthening academic requirements, developing…

  3. Demographic Trends and the Scientific and Engineering Work Force. A Technical Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    The Federal Government has acknowledged its key role in educating and assuring an adequate supply of scientists and engineers since World War II. Although scientists and engineers represent only three percent of the national work force, they are considered by many to be a crucial element in the nation's efforts to improve its economic…

  4. For Work-Force Training, a Plan to Give College Credit Where It's Due

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    After nearly three years of planning, Ohio's higher-education officials are finalizing an ambitious program to grant college credit for some technical courses offered at the state's adult-education centers. The program, called the Career-Technical Credit Transfer, is the latest in a string of state efforts to more closely link work-force training…

  5. Astronomy Resources for Intercurricular Elementary Science (ARIES): Exploring Motion and Forces. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "ARIES: Exploring Motion and Forces" is a physical science curriculum for students in grades 5-8 that employs 18 inquiry-centered, hands-on lessons called "explorations." The curriculum draws upon students' curiosity to explore phenomena, allowing for a discovery-based learning process. Group-centered lab work is designed to help students build an…

  6. Children of Working Mothers, March 1976. Special Labor Force Report 205.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Allyson Sherman

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of the number of mothers with children under age 17 who were in the work force in 1976. The paper surveys various factors which influence these statistics: age of children, socioeconomic factors, ethnic and racial characteristics, family size, family income and the availability of child care services. The statistics…

  7. Developing the Nation's Work Force: Yearbook 5 of the American Vocational Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Merle E., Ed.

    Focusing on major issues related to the preparation of the nation's work force, the yearbook considers all sectors of manpower preparation--public and private schools, industry, military, and other agencies. Thirty contributing authors represent the broad fields of manpower and research. Section 1, The Opportunity for Leadership, contains chapters…

  8. Factors Affecting Work Force Development in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sredl, Henry J.

    Work force development in the Peoples' Republic of China (PRC) is affected by sundry but interrelated factors. Included among these are the following: (1) the PRC's population of one billion people; (2) a recent history of political turmoil and violence, resulting in profound changes in national leadership and vacillation in national policy; (3)…

  9. The Hired Farm Working Force of 1983: A Statistical Profile. Agricultural Economic Report No. 554.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Susan L.

    In 1983, about 2.6 million people 14 years of age and older did hired farmwork. Most of the woekers were White (73%), under 25 years old (50%), and male (78%). Hispanics made up 13% of the work force, and Blacks and other minority groups made up 14%. There were significant regional differences in racial/ethnic composition. Hispanic workers were…

  10. Profile of a Rural Area Work Force: The Wyoming Uranium Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Thomas L.; Kiner, Phil E.

    1974-01-01

    Designed to provide insights into policies relative to human resource investments and employment information channels, the study's objectives were to: (1) relate types of employment in Wyoming's uranium mines and mills to work force participants; (2) determine employee earnings and relate those earnings to employment categories and…

  11. Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Refugee Children’s Forced Repatriation: Social Workers’ and Police Officers’ Health and Job Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sundqvist, Johanna; Hansson, Jonas; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Ögren, Kenneth; Padyab, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    During the past ten years the number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children has dramatically increased in Sweden. Some of them are permitted to stay in the receiving country, but some are forced back to their country of origin. Social workers and police officers are involved in these forced repatriations, and such complex situations may cause stressful working conditions. This study aimed to bridge the gap in knowledge of the relationship between general mental health and working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children who are due for forced repatriation. In addition, the role of psychosocial job characteristics in such relationships was investigated. A questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire, and the 12-item General Mental Health Questionnaire were distributed nationally. Univariate and multivariable regression models were used. Poorer mental health was associated with working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children among social workers but not among police officers. Psychological job demand was a significant predictor for general mental health among social workers, while psychological job demand, decision latitude, and marital status were predictors among police officers. Findings are discussed with special regard to the context of social work and police professions in Sweden. PMID:26153185

  12. Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Refugee Children's Forced Repatriation: Social Workers' and Police Officers' Health and Job Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sundqvist, Johanna; Hansson, Jonas; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Ögren, Kenneth; Padyab, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    During the past ten years the number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children has dramatically increased in Sweden. Some of them are permitted to stay in the receiving country, but some are forced back to their country of origin. Social workers and police officers are involved in these forced repatriations, and such complex situations may cause stressful working conditions. This study aimed to bridge the gap in knowledge of the relationship between general mental health and working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children who are due for forced repatriation. In addition, the role of psychosocial job characteristics in such relationships was investigated. A questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire, and the 12-item General Mental Health Questionnaire were distributed nationally. Univariate and multivariable regression models were used. Poorer mental health was associated with working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children among social workers but not among police officers. Psychological job demand was a significant predictor for general mental health among social workers, while psychological job demand, decision latitude, and marital status were predictors among police officers. Findings are discussed with special regard to the context of social work and police professions in Sweden. PMID:26153185

  13. Work organization and the health of bank employees.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juliana Lemos; Navarro, Vera Lucia

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian banking sector has undergone an intense restructuring process and taken a leading position in the incorporation of new technologies and organizational innovations. Computerization in the industry, in association with forms of work organization, has resulted in changes that reflect on the workers' health. Based on the theoretical and methodological frameworks of historical and dialectical materialism, this qualitative study investigates the work conditions of bank employees in order to identify the extent to which changes in work organization interfere with these workers' health. Data were collected through interviews held with 11 bank employees. In addition to physical sickening due to occupational diseases directly related to work intensification, the results also show an increased incidence of mental suffering and a feeling of loss of professional identity. Work-related frustration, instability and concerns related to psychological pressure resulting from the need to achieve goals predominated in the reports. PMID:22699722

  14. Elastic ankle exoskeletons reduce soleus muscle force but not work in human hopping.

    PubMed

    Farris, Dominic James; Robertson, Benjamin D; Sawicki, Gregory S

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by elastic energy storage and return in tendons of human leg muscle-tendon units (MTU), exoskeletons often place a spring in parallel with an MTU to assist the MTU. However, this might perturb the normally efficient MTU mechanics and actually increase active muscle mechanical work. This study tested the effects of elastic parallel assistance on MTU mechanics. Participants hopped with and without spring-loaded ankle exoskeletons that assisted plantar flexion. An inverse dynamics analysis, combined with in vivo ultrasound imaging of soleus fascicles and surface electromyography, was used to determine muscle-tendon mechanics and activations. Whole body net metabolic power was obtained from indirect calorimetry. When hopping with spring-loaded exoskeletons, soleus activation was reduced (30-70%) and so was the magnitude of soleus force (peak force reduced by 30%) and the average rate of soleus force generation (by 50%). Although forces were lower, average positive fascicle power remained unchanged, owing to increased fascicle excursion (+4-5 mm). Net metabolic power was reduced with exoskeleton assistance (19%). These findings highlighted that parallel assistance to a muscle with appreciable series elasticity may have some negative consequences, and that the metabolic cost associated with generating force may be more pronounced than the cost of doing work for these muscles. PMID:23788578

  15. The changing organization of work and the safety and health of working people: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Landsbergis, Paul A

    2003-01-01

    Recent trends in the organization of work may affect worker health through a variety of pathways--by increasing the risk of stress-related illnesses, such as cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, and psychological disorders, by increasing exposure to hazardous substances and violence on the job, or by affecting occupational health services and training programs. Much remains to be learned about the nature of changes in work organization, and how they affect worker health and safety. While available evidence is limited, such evidence suggests that recent trends in work organization may be increasing the risk of occupational illnesses. In a groundbreaking publication, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has provided a concise summary of available knowledge and a detailed agenda for research and development. PMID:12553180

  16. Does team training work? Principles for health care.

    PubMed

    Salas, Eduardo; DiazGranados, Deborah; Weaver, Sallie J; King, Heidi

    2008-11-01

    Teamwork is integral to a working environment conducive to patient safety and care. Team training is one methodology designed to equip team members with the competencies necessary for optimizing teamwork. There is evidence of team training's effectiveness in highly complex and dynamic work environments, such as aviation and health care. However, most quantitative evaluations of training do not offer any insight into the actual reasons why, how, and when team training is effective. To address this gap in understanding, and to provide guidance for members of the health care community interested in implementing team training programs, this article presents both quantitative results and a specific qualitative review and content analysis of team training implemented in health care. Based on this review, we offer eight evidence-based principles for effective planning, implementation, and evaluation of team training programs specific to health care. PMID:18828828

  17. Working conditions and mental health: Results from the CARESUN study.

    PubMed

    Feola, Daniela; Pedata, Paola; D'Ancicco, Francesco; Santalucia, Laura; Sannolo, Nicola; Ascione, Eduardo; Nienhaus, Albert; Magliano, Lorenza; Lamberti, Monica

    2016-05-01

    The authors conducted a work-related stress surveillance study in 2013 on 6,558 public-sector employees in Italy, examining how they perceived their jobs, via the Job Content Questionnaire, and their mental health status, via the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). Of the 2,094 employees completing the questionnaires, 60% were male, 52% had a medium-level education, and 76% had a medium-level job. Three hundred and eighty-five employees (18%) had a GHQ-12 score >3 and were classified as GHQ-12 cases: these were more often female (54%), medium-to-highly educated (54%), and had more often reported health problems over the previous year (51%). Thus, GHQ-12 cases represented a significant percentage of the examined population, indicating that work-related stress surveillance programs are needed for the planning of psychosocial interventions aimed at the reintegration of individuals with mental health problems. PMID:26167870

  18. [Voluntary work: an alternative to promote health for the elderly].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Luccas Melo; Lautert, Liana

    2008-06-01

    This article is a thematic reflection. It aims at presenting volunteer work as an alternative for promoting health for elders in Brazil. Having as a starting point the definition of volunteer work, this study contextualizes this type of activity in Brazilian society, explaining it also as an instrument that makes possible for people to experience an active and healthy aging process. The text presents international studies with elders who volunteer and, as a result, have found a relationship between volunteering and satisfaction with their lives and have had less symptoms of depression and a more positive evaluation of life when compared to elderly who do not volunteer. The conclusion emphasizes the importance for health professionals to stimulate and facilitate the access of elders to volunteer work, considering this posture a creative and innovative challenge for the promotion of health for the elderly. PMID:18642751

  19. The impact of conservative forces on student reasoning about graphical work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, John; Clark, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    Many students compare thermodynamic work done during processes based on P-V diagrams using the endpoints of the processes being compared rather than the process paths. Researchers speculate one cause of this reasoning to be overgeneralization of work done by conservative forces. In a study to investigate this possibility, students in introductory calculus-based physics were presented with a force-position graph (F-x) that showed two different mechanical processes with identical initial values and identical final values for force and position. The task, to compare the work done in each process, was administered before and after relevant instruction along the two-semester sequence to probe differences in student responses and reasoning. Findings were also compared to results from analogous thermodynamics questions in physics and engineering courses. Response prevalence varied little with instruction. However, student reasoning did show trends, with more intuitive explanations on the pretest and more technical explanations after instruction for both correct and incorrect responses, including more prevalent invocation of ``path independence'' or ``conservative forces'' for the major incorrect interpretation. Supported in part by NSF Grants DUE-0817282 and DUE-1323426.

  20. The Health Care Labor Shortage: Report of the Health Care Labor Shortage Work Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Workforce Training and Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    A work group consisting of representatives of public agencies, education, the health care industry, and unions and professional associations was formed to examine education and training issues related to the shortage of health care workers in Washington state. The group concluded that the shortage of available workers in many health care…

  1. Process Evaluation of an Integrated Health Promotion/Occupational Health Model in WellWorks-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Mary Kay; Lederman, Ruth; Stoddard, Anne M.; LaMontagne, Anthony D.; McLellan, Deborah; Combe, Candace; Barbeau, Elizabeth; Sorensen, Glorian

    2005-01-01

    Disparities in chronic disease risk by occupation call for new approaches to health promotion. WellWorks-2 was a randomized, controlled study comparing the effectiveness of a health promotion/occupational health program (HP/OHS) with a standard intervention (HP). Interventions in both studies were based on the same theoretical foundations. Results…

  2. A Safe and Healthful Work Environment: Development and Testing of an Undergraduate Occupational Health Nursing Curriculum.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, Marjorie C; Berry, Peggy

    2015-08-01

    Occupational health nursing focuses on promotion and restoration of health, prevention of illness and injury, protection from work-related and environmental hazards, and corporate profitability. Quality education about the relationship between work and health is critical for nurses' success regardless of work setting, and is consistent with Healthy People 2020 goals, but is lacking or limited in some programs. This report introduces an innovative occupational health nursing curriculum for students enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. The process of designing and pilot testing this novel curriculum, its alignment with nursing competencies, and its format and learning activities are described. Preparing professional nurses to understand the role of the occupational health nurse and the relationship between work and health is an essential curricular consideration for contemporary nursing education. PMID:26077879

  3. Shift Work and Health: Current Problems and Preventive Actions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the problems to be tackled nowadays by occupational health with regards to shift work as well as the main guidelines at organizational and medical levels on how to protect workers' health and well-being. Working time organization is becoming a key factor on account of new technologies, market globalization, economic competition, and extension of social services to general populations, all of which involve more and more people in continuous assistance and control of work processes over the 24 hours in a day. The large increase of epidemiological and clinical studies on this issue document the severity of this risk factor on human health and well being, at both social and psychophysical levels, starting from a disruption of biological circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycle and ending in several psychosomatic troubles and disorders, likely also including cancer, and extending to impairment of performance efficiency as well as family and social life. Appropriate interventions on the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria and careful health surveillance and social support for shift workers are important preventive and corrective measures that allow people to keep working without significant health impairment. PMID:22953171

  4. Shift work and health: current problems and preventive actions.

    PubMed

    Costa, Giovanni

    2010-12-01

    The paper gives an overview of the problems to be tackled nowadays by occupational health with regards to shift work as well as the main guidelines at organizational and medical levels on how to protect workers' health and well-being. Working time organization is becoming a key factor on account of new technologies, market globalization, economic competition, and extension of social services to general populations, all of which involve more and more people in continuous assistance and control of work processes over the 24 hours in a day. The large increase of epidemiological and clinical studies on this issue document the severity of this risk factor on human health and well being, at both social and psychophysical levels, starting from a disruption of biological circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycle and ending in several psychosomatic troubles and disorders, likely also including cancer, and extending to impairment of performance efficiency as well as family and social life. Appropriate interventions on the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria and careful health surveillance and social support for shift workers are important preventive and corrective measures that allow people to keep working without significant health impairment. PMID:22953171

  5. Managing professional work: three models of control for health organizations.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, W R

    1982-01-01

    Three arrangements for structuring the work of professional participants in professional organizations are described, contrasted and evaluated. Arguments are illustrated by application to the organization of physicians within hospitals. The primary rationale, the support structures that have fostered its development, the key structural features and the advantages and disadvantages of each arrangement are described. The effect on these arrangements of structures and forces external to any particular professional organization is emphasized. PMID:6749761

  6. The Role of Market Forces in the Delivery of Health Care: Issues for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This edition of the Role of Market Forces program note suggests empirical and descriptive analyses required to complement new areas of health policy emphasis and direction. Eight areas and related questions involving health economics are outlined: (1) rural health care; (2) medical malpractice and insurance; (3) supply, productivity, and…

  7. Health problems of Nepalese migrants working in three Gulf countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nepal is one of the largest suppliers of labour to countries where there is a demand for cheap and low skilled workers. In the recent years the Gulf countries have collectively become the main destinations for international migration. This paper aims to explore the health problems and accidents experienced by a sample of Nepalese migrant in three Gulf countries. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 408 Nepalese migrants who had at least one period of work experience of at least six months in any of three Gulf countries: Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE). Face to face questionnaire interviews were conducted applying a convenience technique to select the study participants. Results Nepalese migrants in these Gulf countries were generally young men between 26-35 years of age. Unskilled construction jobs including labourer, scaffolder, plumber and carpenter were the most common jobs. Health problems were widespread and one quarter of study participants reported experiencing injuries or accidents at work within the last 12 months. The rates of health problems and accidents reported were very similar in the three countries. Only one third of the respondents were provided with insurance for health services by their employer. Lack of leave for illness, cost and fear of losing their job were the barriers to accessing health care services. The study found that construction and agricultural workers were more likely to experience accidents at their workplace and health problems than other workers. Conclusion The findings suggest important messages for the migration policy makers in Nepal. There is a lack of adequate information for the migrants making them aware of their health risks and rights in relation to health services in the destination countries and we suggest that the government of Nepal should be responsible for providing this information. Employers should provide orientation on possible health risks and appropriate

  8. Where do students in the health professions want to work?

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Deborah; Fletcher, Susan; Fuller, Jeffery; Birden, Hudson; Page, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Background Rural and remote areas of Australia are facing serious health workforce shortages. While a number of schemes have been developed to improve recruitment to and retention of the rural health workforce, they will be effective only if appropriately targeted. This study examines the factors that most encourage students attending rural clinical placements to work in rural Australia, and the regions they prefer. Methods The Careers in Rural Health Tracking Survey was used to examine the factors that most influence medical, nursing and allied health students' preference for practice locations and the locations preferred. Results Students showed a preference for working in large urban centres within one year, but would consider moving to a more rural location later in life. Only 10% of students surveyed said they would never work in a rural community with a population of less than 10 000. Almost half the sample (45%) reported wanting to work overseas within five years. The type of work available in rural areas was found to be the factor most likely to encourage students to practice rurally, followed by career opportunities and challenge Conclusion The decision to practise rurally is the result of a complex interaction between a number of factors including ethnicity, discipline, age and sex, among others. Incentives that aim to entice all students to rural practice while considering only one of these variables are likely to be inadequate. PMID:19686605

  9. [Gender, paid work, domestic chores and health in Spain].

    PubMed

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Cortès, Imma

    2004-01-01

    The present study reviews gender-related differences and inequalities in paid work and domestic chores in Spain. The impact of both types of work on health are analyzed and the main policies of the European Union (EU) and Spain to achieve gender equality at work are described. In Spain, fewer women are in paid work than in other EU countries. The labor market displays horizontal segregation (men and women work in different sectors), as well as vertical segregation (men hold more senior positions), leading to gender-related differences in employment conditions and exposure to occupational hazards. The precariousness of work is significantly higher in women (19% unemployment in women versus 9% in men) and women are more likely than men to have temporary contracts. Men are more frequently exposed to physical risks and suffer a greater number of occupational accidents; women, especially manual workers, are more frequently exposed to psychosocial risks. Most domestic chores continue to be performed by women, even by working women, which negatively affects their health. The EU has made an increase in female employment a priority, which means that from 2000-2010 Spain should create 3 million jobs for women and implement work/family policies. Achieving gender equality at work requires employment policies that would guarantee equal opportunities for both sexes, as well as shared responsibility for domestic chores between men and women. In Spain, moreover, there is an urgent need to significantly increase public childcare facilities and resources for the care of other dependent individuals. PMID:15171842

  10. Gender, work, and health for trans health providers: a focus on transmen.

    PubMed

    Macdonnell, Judith A; Grigorovich, Alisa

    2012-01-01

    Well-documented health research points to trans people's vulnerability to health inequities that are linked to deeply embedded structural and social determinants of health. Gender and work, as social determinants of health for trans people, both shape and are shaped by multiple factors such as support networks, social environments, income and social status, shelter, and personal health practices. There is a gap in the nursing literature in regards to research on work and health for diverse trans people and a virtual silence on the particular issues of trans-identified health providers. This qualitative study used comparative life history methodology and purposeful sampling to examine links among work, career, and health for transmen who are health providers. Semistructured interviews were completed with four Canadian transmen involved in health care professional and/or practice contexts with diverse professions, age, work, and transitioning experiences. Critical gender analysis showed that unique and gender-related critical events and influences shape continuities and discontinuities in their careerlives. This strength-based approach foregrounds how resilience and growth emerged through participants' articulation with everyday gender dynamics. These findings have implications for nursing research, education, and practice that include an understanding of how trans providers "do transgender work" and supporting them in that process. PMID:23316387

  11. Work engagement, work commitment and their association with well-being in health care.

    PubMed

    Kanste, Outi

    2011-12-01

    The aim was to examine whether work engagement and work commitment can be empirically discriminated and how they are associated with well-being. The terminology used in literature and in practice is confused by the interchangeable use of these terms. Only few studies, like Hallberg and Schaufeli's study, have examined the relationships between work engagement and work commitment systematically by using empirical data. In this study, the data were gathered via self-reported questionnaire from the healthcare staff working in 14 health centres and four hospitals in Finland. The data consisted of 435 responses. The material was analysed by using structural equation modelling (SEM) and correlations. The items of work engagement and work commitment dimensions (identification with organization, willingness to exert in organization's favour, occupational commitment and job involvement) loaded on their own latent variables in SEM analysis, so the data supported this five-factor model. Work engagement and work commitment dimensions were positively related, sharing between 2 and 33% of their variances. These constructs also displayed different correlations with some indicators of well-being measured as personal accomplishment, psychological well-being, mental resources, internal work motivation and willingness to stay on at work. Work engagement had moderate positive correlation to personal accomplishment (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). Identification with organization (r = 0.40, p < 0.001), willingness to exert in organization's favour (r =0.44, p < 0.001) and occupational commitment (r =0.37, p < 0.001) had low correlations to personal accomplishment. The results support the notion that work engagement can be empirically discriminated from work commitment. They are distinct, yet related constructs that complement each other, describing different aspects of positive attitudes towards work. The results can be utilized in interventions aimed at quality of working life in health care as

  12. Psychosocial working conditions and the utilization of health care services

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While there is considerable theoretical and empirical evidence on how job stress affects physical and mental health, few studies have examined the association between job related stress and health care utilization. Using data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey from 2000 to 2008, this paper examines the association between stressful working conditions, as measured by the job strain model, and the utilization of health care services. Methods A zero inflated negative binomial regression is used to examine the excess health care utilization due to job strain. Separate regressions are estimated for both males and females since studies have shown gender differences in health care utilization. Results Estimates for the whole population show that high or medium job strain has a positive and statistically significant association with the number of visits to both a general practitioner (GP) and a specialist (SP). On average, the number of GP visits is up to 26% more (IRR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.19-1.31) for individuals with high strain jobs compared to those in the low job strain category. Similarly, SP visits are up to 27% more (IRR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.14-142) for the high strain category. Results are quantitatively similar for males and females, save for medium strain. In general, findings are robust to the inclusion of workplace social support, health status, provincial and occupational-fixed effects. Conclusion Job strain may be positively associated with the utilization of health care services. This suggests that improving psychosocial working conditions and educating workers on stress-coping mechanisms could be beneficial for the physical and mental health of workers. PMID:21834974

  13. Forces Pushing Prescription Psychotropic Drugs in College Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Leighton C.

    2007-01-01

    A complex of forceful influences is greatly accelerating the use of what are usually referred to as "psychiatric drugs," although most prescribing is not done by psychiatrists. Many other clinicians, including other kinds of physicians, and recently psychologists, prescribe these medications. The influences contributing to this dramatic surge…

  14. Effect of reciprocating motions around working points on levitation force of superconductor-magnet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jimin; Zhang, Fei; Sun, Tao; Yuan, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Cuiping

    2016-09-01

    In order to simulate vibration around working points in practical operation of superconducting levitation system, magnet in a simple superconductor-magnet system are conducted reciprocating motions around static height in this study. Two YBCO cylindrical samples with different grain orientations are used to investigate the effect of reciprocating motions of magnet on superconducting magnetic force. The c-axis of sample S1 is perpendicular to the top surface while sample S2 is parallel to the top surface. The initial cooling processes for the superconductors include zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and filed-cooled (FC). Compared to the levitation force before reciprocating motions, the ZFC levitation force at static height becomes smaller after reciprocating while the FC force presents opposite phenomenon. It is found that levitation force at static height tends to be stable after several times of reciprocating under ZFC and FC conditions and its time-decay phenomenon is suppressed in some extent, which is meaningful for the practical application of superconducting levitation system. Based on vortex dynamic, some physical discussions are presented to the experimental results.

  15. Justice at Work, Job Stress, and Employee Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Heaney, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    A small but growing literature has documented an association between justice at work and employee health. However, the pathways and mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. This article proposes a conceptual framework that bridges the organizational justice, occupational stress, and occupational epidemiology literatures.…

  16. Tackling Work Related Stress in a National Health Service Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Donna; Whyatt, Hilary

    2004-01-01

    The challenge of tackling the problem of coping with work related stress in a National Health Service (NHS) Trust was undertaken. Ideas were developed within the context of two different action learning sets and led to actions resulting in a large therapy Taster Session event and the establishment of a centre offering alternative therapies and…

  17. Private and Public Initiatives: Working Together for Health and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaag, Jacques van der

    The World Bank helps countries to arrive at whatever combination of public and private control is best for their particular economic circumstances. This booklet describes that work and summarizes examples of private-sector involvement in health and education provision in the developing world today. The examples also illustrate what the World Bank…

  18. Gender, Work, and Health for Trans Health Providers: A Focus on Transmen

    PubMed Central

    MacDonnell, Judith A.; Grigorovich, Alisa

    2012-01-01

    Well-documented health research points to trans people's vulnerability to health inequities that are linked to deeply embedded structural and social determinants of health. Gender and work, as social determinants of health for trans people, both shape and are shaped by multiple factors such as support networks, social environments, income and social status, shelter, and personal health practices. There is a gap in the nursing literature in regards to research on work and health for diverse trans people and a virtual silence on the particular issues of trans-identified health providers. This qualitative study used comparative life history methodology and purposeful sampling to examine links among work, career, and health for transmen who are health providers. Semistructured interviews were completed with four Canadian transmen involved in health care professional and/or practice contexts with diverse professions, age, work, and transitioning experiences. Critical gender analysis showed that unique and gender-related critical events and influences shape continuities and discontinuities in their careerlives. This strength-based approach foregrounds how resilience and growth emerged through participants' articulation with everyday gender dynamics. These findings have implications for nursing research, education, and practice that include an understanding of how trans providers “do transgender work” and supporting them in that process. PMID:23316387

  19. Work engagement: a practical measure for workplace health promotion?

    PubMed

    Torp, S; Grimsmo, A; Hagen, S; Duran, A; Gudbergsson, S B

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate whether psychological job demands, personal control and social support affect the negative health measure of depression differently than the positive measure of work engagement and to investigate whether work engagement mediates the effects of job demands and resources on the level of depression. We discuss the implications of using engagement as an outcome measure in workplace health promotion. We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study among a general working population in Norway (n = 605). In the multivariate analysis, high psychological job demands as well as high control and social support correlated significantly with high work engagement. High demands as well as low control and social support correlated significantly with high levels of depression. When we included engagement as an independent variable together with demands, control and social support in the multivariate analysis, the positive correlation between demands and depression remained as well as the significant correlations between the level of depression and control and social support became non-significant. This indicates that engagement mediates the effects of control and social support on the level of depression. Encouraging enterprises to improve engagement in addition to focusing on preventing diseases may be worthwhile in workplace health promotion. Promoting engagement may have more positive organizational effects than a more traditional disease prevention focus, because engagement is contagious and closely related to good work performance and motivation. PMID:22692482

  20. Effects of new ways of working on work hours and work location, health and job-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nijp, Hylco H; Beckers, Debby G J; van de Voorde, Karina; Geurts, Sabine A E; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2016-01-01

    New ways of working (NWW) is a type of work organization that is characterized by temporal and spatial flexibility, often combined with extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and performance-based management. In a three-wave intervention study, we examined the effects of NWW on both the organization of work (changes in control over time and place of work; working hours and work location; and other key job characteristics), and on employees' outcomes (work-nonwork balance; health and well-being; and job-related outcomes). We applied a quasi-experimental design within a large Dutch financial company (N = 2,912). We studied an intervention group (n = 2,391) and made comparisons with a reference group (n = 521). There were three study waves: (i) one/two months before, and (ii) 4 months and (iii) 10 months after implementation of NWW. Repeated measures analyses of covariance (involving 361 participants from the intervention group and 80 participants from the reference group) showed a large and significant shift from hours worked at the office to hours worked at home after implementation of NWW. Accordingly, commuting time was reduced. Employees remained working on week days and during day time. Psychosocial work-characteristics, work-nonwork balance, stress, fatigue, and job-related outcomes remained favourable and largely unaffected, but the health score in the intervention group decreased (medium effect). These findings suggest that the implementation of NWW does not necessarily lead to changes in psychosocial work characteristics, well-being or job-related outcomes. PMID:27223247

  1. Initial Report of the Task Force on Cultural Competence Education in the Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings and recommendations of the Task Force on Cultural Competence Education and represents the distillation of the Task Force's efforts to fulfill its legislative charge. The report is intended to facilitate a statewide conversation about the health services provided to New Mexico's multicultural citizenry. It…

  2. Depression in Working Adults: Comparing the Costs and Health Outcomes of Working When Ill

    PubMed Central

    Cocker, Fiona; Nicholson, Jan M.; Graves, Nicholas; Oldenburg, Brian; Palmer, Andrew J.; Martin, Angela; Scott, Jenn; Venn, Alison; Sanderson, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    Objective Working through a depressive illness can improve mental health but also carries risks and costs from reduced concentration, fatigue, and poor on-the-job performance. However, evidence-based recommendations for managing work attendance decisions, which benefit individuals and employers, are lacking. Therefore, this study has compared the costs and health outcomes of short-term absenteeism versus working while ill (“presenteeism”) amongst employed Australians reporting lifetime major depression. Methods Cohort simulation using state-transition Markov models simulated movement of a hypothetical cohort of workers, reporting lifetime major depression, between health states over one- and five-years according to probabilities derived from a quality epidemiological data source and existing clinical literature. Model outcomes were health service and employment-related costs, and quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs), captured for absenteeism relative to presenteeism, and stratified by occupation (blue versus white-collar). Results Per employee with depression, absenteeism produced higher mean costs than presenteeism over one- and five-years ($42,573/5-years for absenteeism, $37,791/5-years for presenteeism). However, overlapping confidence intervals rendered differences non-significant. Employment-related costs (lost productive time, job turnover), and antidepressant medication and service use costs of absenteeism and presenteeism were significantly higher for white-collar workers. Health outcomes differed for absenteeism versus presenteeism amongst white-collar workers only. Conclusions Costs and health outcomes for absenteeism and presenteeism were not significantly different; service use costs excepted. Significant variation by occupation type was identified. These findings provide the first occupation-specific cost evidence which can be used by clinicians, employees, and employers to review their management of depression-related work attendance, and may

  3. Labor Market Work and Home Care's Unpaid Caregivers: A Systematic Review of Labor Force Participation Rates, Predictors of Labor Market Withdrawal, and Hours of Work

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for “intensive” caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers. PMID:18070333

  4. Opportunities for health and safety professionals in environmental restoration work

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The safety of workers in waste management and in environmental restoration work is regulated in large part by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Many of the OSHA rules are given in Part 1910, Occupational Safety and Health Standards, of Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Section 120 of 29 CFR 1910 specifically addresses hazardous waste operations and emergency response operations. The remainder of this discussion focuses on clean-up operations. The purpose of this paper is to review areas of employment opportunity in environmental restoration work for health and safety professionals. Safety and health risk analyses are mentioned as one area of opportunity, and these analyses are required by the standards. Site safety and health supervisors will be needed during field operations. Those who enjoy teaching might consider helping to meet the training needs that are mandated. Finally, engineering help both to separate workers from hazards and to improve personal protective equipment, when it must be worn, would benefit those actively involved in environmental restoration activities.

  5. Working life and mental health - A challenge to psychiatry?

    PubMed Central

    LEVI, LENNART

    2005-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, "mental health problems and stress-related disorders are the biggest overall cause of early death in Europe". Some of the root causes of this morbidity and mortality are related to living and working conditions that are accessible to preventive and therapeutic interventions, individual as well as collective ones. A political mandate for such interventions is now developing. Members of the WPA Section on Occupational Psychiatry have contributed to this development and we now invite the readers to join the Section in its endeavours. PMID:16633507

  6. Migration and mental health in Europe (the state of the mental health in Europe working group: appendix 1)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background This paper is a part of the work of the group that carried out the report "The state of the mental health in Europe" (European Commission, DG Health and Consumer Protection, 2004) and deals with the mental health issues related to the migration in Europe. Methods The paper tries to describe the social, demographical and political context of the emigration in Europe and tries to indicate the needs and (mental) health problems of immigrants. A review of the literature concerning mental health risk in immigrant is also carried out. The work also faces the problem of the health policy toward immigrants and the access to health care services in Europe. Results Migration during the 1990s has been high and characterised by new migrations. Some countries in Europe, that have been traditionally exporters of migrants have shifted to become importers. Migration has been a key force in the demographic changes of the European population. The policy of closed borders do not stop migration, but rather seems to set up a new underclass of so-called "illegals" who are suppressed and highly exploited. In 2000 there were also 392.200 asylum applications. The reviewed literature among mental health risk in some immigrant groups in Europe concerns: 1) highest rate of schizophrenia; suicide; alcohol and drug abuse; access of psychiatric facilities; risk of anxiety and depression; mental health of EU immigrants once they returned to their country; early EU immigrants in today disadvantaged countries; refugees and mental health Due to the different condition of migration concerning variables as: motivation to migrations (e.g. settler, refugees, gastarbeiters); distance for the host culture; ability to develop mediating structures; legal residential status it is impossible to consider "migrants" as a homogeneous group concerning the risk for mental illness. In this sense, psychosocial studies should be undertaken to identify those factors which may under given conditions, imply

  7. The Social Determinants of Health in Military Forces of Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Sanaeinasab, Hormoz; Ghanei, Mostafa; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali; Ravangard, Ramin; Karamali, Mazyar

    2015-01-01

    Providing effective health interventions and achieving equity in health need to apply the community-based approaches such as social determinants of health. In the military organizations, these determinants have received less attention from the military health researchers and policymakers. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and explain the social determinants affecting the health of military forces in Iran. This was a qualitative study which was conducted in 2014. The required data were collected through semistructured interviews and analyzed through Conventional Content Analysis. The studied sample consisted of 22 military health experts, policymakers, and senior managers selected using purposeful sampling method with maximum variation sampling. MAXQDA.2007 was used to analyze the collected data. After analyzing the collected data, two main contents, that is, “general social determinants of health” and “military social determinants of health,” with 22 themes and 90 subthemes were identified as the social determinants of military forces' health. Main themes were religious rule, spirituality promotion policies, international military factors, military command, and so forth. Given the role and importance of social factors determining the military forces' health, it can be recommended that the military organizations should pay more attention to these determinants in making policies and creating social, economic, and cultural structures for their forces. PMID:26379716

  8. How society shapes the health gradient: work-related health inequalities in a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Christopher B; Hall, Peter A; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Hertzman, Clyde

    2012-04-01

    Analyses in comparative political economy have the potential to contribute to understanding health inequalities within and between societies. This article uses a varieties of capitalism approach that groups high-income countries into coordinated market economies (CME) and liberal market economies (LME) with different labor market institutions and degrees of employment and unemployment protection that may give rise to or mediate work-related health inequalities. We illustrate this approach by presenting two longitudinal comparative studies of unemployment and health in Germany and the United States, an archetypical CME and LME. We find large differences in the relationship between unemployment and health across labor-market and institutional contexts, and these also vary by educational status. Unemployed Americans, especially of low education or not in receipt of unemployment benefits, have the poorest health outcomes. We argue for the development of a broader comparative research agenda on work-related health inequalities that incorporates life course perspectives. PMID:22429159

  9. Health Care Reform and Medical Education: Forces toward Generalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Edward H.; Seifer, Sarena D.

    1995-01-01

    Health care reforms will dramatically change the culture of medical schools in areas of patient care, research, and education programs. Academic medical centers must construct mutually beneficial partnerships that will position them to take advantage of the opportunities rather than leave them without the diversity of resources needed to make…

  10. Physical and psychosocial work environment factors and their association with health outcomes in Danish ambulance personnel – a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reviews of the literature on the health and work environment of ambulance personnel have indicated an increased risk of work-related health problems in this occupation. The aim of this study was to compare health status and exposure to different work environmental factors among ambulance personnel and the core work force in Denmark. In addition, to examine the association between physical and psychosocial work environment factors and different measures of health among ambulance personnel. Methods Data were taken from a nationwide sample of ambulance personnel and fire fighters (n = 1,691) and was compared to reference samples of the Danish work force. The questionnaire contained measures of physical and psychosocial work environment as well as measures of musculoskeletal pain, mental health, self-rated health and sleep quality. Results Ambulance personnel have half the prevalence of poor self-rated health compared to the core work force (5% vs. 10%). Levels of mental health were the same across the two samples whereas a substantially higher proportion of the ambulance personnel reported musculoskeletal pain (42% vs. 29%). The ambulance personnel had higher levels of emotional demands and meaningfulness of and commitment to work, and substantially lower levels of quantitative demands and influence at work. Only one out of ten aspects of physical work environment was consistently associated with higher levels of musculoskeletal pain. Emotional demands was the only psychosocial work factor that was associated with both poorer mental health and worse sleep quality. Conclusions Ambulance personnel have similar levels of mental health but substantially higher levels of musculoskeletal pain than the work force in general. They are more exposed to emotional demands and these demands are associated with higher levels of poor mental health and poor sleep quality. To improve work environment, attention should be paid to musculoskeletal problems and the presence

  11. In Diversity Is Strength: Capitalizing on the New Work Force. 75th Anniversary Symposia Series. Report Number 994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alster, Judith, Ed.; And Others

    This document, which is based on a symposium devoted to capitalizing on the new work force, contains five reports describing how major U.S. corporations are dealing with the demographic changes currently under way in the United States. "Whither the Work Force?" (Delores Wolf) discusses the proper role of corporations in coping with a lack of…

  12. Social Norms about a Health Issue in Work Group Networks

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance theorizing about how small groups understand health issues through the use of social network analysis. To achieve this goal, an adapted cognitive social structure examines group social norms around a specific health issue, H1N1 flu prevention. As predicted, individual’s attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived social norms were each positively associated with behavioral intentions for at least one of the H1N1 health behaviors studied. Moreover, collective norms of the whole group were also associated with behavioral intentions, even after controlling for how individual group members perceive those norms. For members of work groups in which pairs were perceived to agree in their support for H1N1 vaccination, the effect of individually perceived group norms on behavioral intentions was stronger than for groups with less agreement. PMID:26389934

  13. AGU's new task force on scientific ethics and integrity begins work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, Peter; Townsend, Randy

    2011-11-01

    In support of the new strategic plan, AGU has established a new task force to review, evaluate, and update the Union's policies on scientific misconduct and the process for investigating and responding to allegations of possible misconduct by AGU members. As noted by AGU president Michael McPhaden, "AGU can only realize its vision of `collaboratively advancing and communicating science and its power to ensure a sustainable future' if we have the trust of the public and policy makers. That trust is earned by maintaining the highest standards of scientific integrity in all that we do. The work of the Task Force on Scientific Ethics is essential for defining norms of professional conduct that all our members can aspire to and that demonstrate AGU's unwavering commitment to excellence in Earth and space science."

  14. 75 FR 4051 - Defense Health Board; DoD Task Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... of the Secretary Defense Health Board; DoD Task Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces; Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice of meeting. ] SUMMARY...)(2) of Public Law, the DoD Task Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed...

  15. Does health promotion work in relation to noise?

    PubMed

    Borchgrevink, H M

    2003-01-01

    Noise is a health risk. The only scientifically established adverse health effect of noise is noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Besides noise may affect quality of life and cause annoyance and sleep disturbance. The present scientific evidence of potential non-auditory effects of noise on health is quite weak. Whether health promotion works in relation to noise may be reflected by permanent hearing threshold shift development in population studies. Hearing impairment continues to be the most prevalent disability in Western societies. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) still rates noise induced hearing loss among the top ten work-related problems. Recent studies report that employees continue to develop noise induced hearing loss although to a lesser extent than before, in spite of occupational hearing conservation programmes. Besides socio-acusis and leisure noise seem to be an increasing hazard to hearing, also in young children and adolescents. This seems partly related to acute leisure noise exposure (e.g. toy pistols, amplified music). However, population studies increasingly find non-normal high-frequency hearing including the characteristic NIHL-"notch" around 6 kHz also in subjects who do not report noise exposure incidents or activities. Today 12.5% of US children 6-19 years show a noise-"notch" in one or both ears (n= 5249, Niskar et al 2001). A Norwegian county audiometry survey on adults >/= 20 years n=51.975) showed mean unscreened thresholds +10 dB at 6 kHz for both genders even or the youngest age group 20-24 years (Borchgrevink et al 2001). Accordingly, the present health promotion initiatives seem insufficient in relation to noise and noise-induced hearing loss. PMID:12631433

  16. Discrimination, work and health in immigrant populations in Spain.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Gil-González, Diana; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria; Paramio-Pérez, Gema; García, Ana M; Garí, Aitana

    2009-05-01

    One of the most important social phenomena in the global context is the flow of immigration from developing countries, motivated by economic and employment related issues. Discrimination can be approached as a health risk factor within the immigrant population's working environment, especially for those immigrants at greater risk from social exclusion and marginalisation. The aim of this study is to research perceptions of discrimination and the specific relationship between discrimination in the workplace and health among Spain's immigrant population. A qualitative study was performed by means of 84 interviews and 12 focus groups held with immigrant workers in five cities in Spain receiving a large influx of immigrants (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Alicante and Huelva), covering representative immigrant communities in Spain (Romanians, Moroccans, Ecuadorians, Colombians and Sub-Saharan Africans). Discourse narrative content analysis was performed using pre-established categories and gradually incorporating other emerging categories from the immigrant interviewees themselves. The participants reported instances of discrimination in their community and working life, characterised by experiences of racism, mistreatment and precarious working conditions in comparison to the Spanish-born population. They also talked about limitations in terms of accessible occupations (mainly construction, the hotel and restaurant trade, domestic service and agriculture), and described major difficulties accessing other types of work (for example public administration). They also identified political and legal structural barriers related with social institutions. Experiences of discrimination can affect their mental health and are decisive factors regarding access to healthcare services. Our results suggest the need to adopt integration policies in both the countries of origin and the host country, to acknowledge labour and social rights, and to conduct further research into individual

  17. Black & Minority Health. Report of the Secretary's Task Force. Volume 1: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    This volume presents major findings and recommendations of the Department of Health and Human Service's (DHHS) Task Force on Black and Minority Health. The recommendations, which are based on data collected from a number of sources, are intended to guide DHHS in developing programs and policies that address the continuing disparity in the burden…

  18. Force, work and power output of lower limb muscles during human maximal-effort countermovement jumping.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Akinori; Komura, Taku; Fukashiro, Senshi; Himeno, Ryutaro

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to simulate human maximal-effort countermovement jumping with a three-dimensional neuromusculoskeletal model. The specific aim was to investigate muscle force, work and power output of major lower limb muscles during the motion. A neuromusculoskeletal model that has nine rigid body segments, 20 degrees of freedom, 32 Hill-type lower limb muscles was developed. The neural activation input signal was represented by a series of step functions with step duration of 0.05 s. The excitation-contraction dynamics of the contractile element, the tissues around the joints to limit the joint range of motion, as well as the foot-ground interaction were implemented. A simulation was started from a standing posture. Optimal pattern of the activation input signal was searched through numerical optimization with a goal of maximizing the height reached by the mass center of body after jumping up. As a result, feasible kinematics, ground reaction force profile and muscle excitation profile were generated. It was found that monoarticular muscles had major contributions of mechanical work and power output, whereas biarticular muscles had minor contributions. Hip adductors, abductors and external rotator muscles were vigorously activated, although their mechanical work and power output was minor because of their limited length change during the motion. Joint flexor muscles such as m. iliopsoas, m. biceps femoris short head and m. tibialis anterior were activated in the beginning of the motion with an effect of facilitating the generation of a countermovement. PMID:15811607

  19. Audit of work force restructuring at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-23

    The Department of Energy (Department) restructured its work force at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (Fernald Project) to reduce staffing levels and to modify the mix of workers` skills in response to budget cuts, facility closures, and changes in the Fernald Project`s mission. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the work force restructurings were effective in reducing staffing levels and in changing the mix of workers` skills. As of September 30, 1995, the restructurings were not effective in reducing staffing levels or in improving the mix of workers` skills. The Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) spent $2.9 million to separate 255 employees in October 1993. However, by September 30, 1994, all but 14 of the employees separated were either rehired or replaced by new employees with similar skills. The second restructuring began in October 1994 and is not expected to be completed until May 1996. The Department expects the second restructuring to reduce FERMCO`s work force by 476 employees at a cost of $12.9 million. However, since the second restructuring began, FERMCO has hired 265 new employees and at September 30, 1995, had open job announcements seeking 82 additional employees. Many of these new employees have essentially the same skills as employees who separated under the two restructurings. The Department`s objectives were not met because the Fernald Area Office did not (1) require FERMCO to perform the skills analysis necessary to identify which employees were needed to perform the Fernald Project`s current mission, and (2) effectively monitor FERMCO`s restructuring efforts to ensure that the Department`s objectives were met.

  20. Effectiveness of a Multilevel Workplace Health Promotion Program on Vitality, Health, and Work-Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, Ingrid J.M.; Snoijer, Mirjam; de Kok, Brenda P.H.; van Vilsteren, Jeroen; Hofstetter, Hedwig

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the effectiveness of a workplace health promotion program on employees’ vitality, health, and work-related outcomes, and exploring the influence of organizational support and the supervisors’ role on these outcomes. Methods: The 5-month intervention included activities at management, team, and individual level targeting self-management to perform healthy behaviors: a kick-off session, vitality training sessions, workshops, individual coaching, and intervision. Outcome measures were collected using questionnaires, health checks, and sickness absence data at baseline, after the intervention and at 10 months follow-up. For analysis linear and generalized mixed models were used. Results: Vitality, work performance, sickness absence, and self-management significantly improved. Good organizational support and involved supervisors were significantly associated with lower sickness absence. Conclusions: Including all organizational levels and focusing on increasing self-management provided promising results for improving vitality, health, and work-related outcomes. PMID:27136605

  1. New Forces at Work in Mining: Industry View of Critical Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D. J.; LaTourrette, Tom; Bartis, James T.

    2007-04-01

    RAND has just published a report entitled, "New Forces at Work in Mining: Industry Views of Critical Technologies," by D. J. Peterson, Tom LaTourrette, and James T. Bartis. The report presents the results of a series of in-depth discussions with leading mining industry representatives selected for their prominent position and their ability to think broadly about technology trends. The discussions highlighted the importance of collaborative technology research, development, and implementation strategies and the increasingly critical role of mine personnel in the utilization of new technologies.

  2. Physiological responses to low-force work and psychosocial stress in women with chronic trapezius myalgia

    PubMed Central

    Sjörs, Anna; Larsson, Britt; Dahlman, Joakim; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Gerdle, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Background Repetitive and stressful work tasks have been linked to the development of pain in the trapezius muscle, although the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. In earlier studies, it has been hypothesized that chronic muscle pain conditions are associated with imbalance in the autonomic nervous system, predominantly expressed as an increased sympathetic activity. This study investigates whether women with chronic trapezius myalgia show higher muscle activity and increased sympathetic tone at baseline and during repetitive low-force work and psychosocial stress, compared with pain-free controls. Methods Eighteen women with chronic trapezius myalgia (MYA) and 30 healthy female controls (CON) were studied during baseline rest, 100 min of repetitive low-force work, 20 min of psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST), and 80 min recovery. The subjects rated their pain intensity, stress and energy level every 20 min throughout the experiment. Muscle activity was measured by surface electromyography in the trapezius muscle (EMGtrap) and deltoid muscle (EMGdelt). Autonomic reactivity was measured through heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SCL), blood pressure (MAP) and respiration rate (Resp). Results At baseline, EMGtrap, stress ratings, and HR were higher in MYA than in CON. Energy ratings, EMGdelt, SCL, MAP and Resp were, however, similar in the two groups. Significant main group effects were found for pain intensity, stress ratings and EMGtrap. Deltoid muscle activity and autonomic responses were almost identical in MYA and CON during work, stress and recovery. In MYA only, pain intensity and stress ratings increased towards the end of the repetitive work. Conclusion We found increased muscle activity during uninstructed rest in the painful muscle of a group of women with trapezius myalgia. The present study could not confirm the hypothesis that chronic trapezius myalgia is associated with increased sympathetic activity. The suggestion of

  3. Health care voluntourism: addressing ethical concerns of undergraduate student participation in global health volunteer work.

    PubMed

    McCall, Daniel; Iltis, Ana S

    2014-12-01

    The popularity and availability of global health experiences has increased, with organizations helping groups plan service trips and companies specializing in "voluntourism," health care professionals volunteering their services through different organizations, and medical students participating in global health electives. Much has been written about global health experiences in resource poor settings, but the literature focuses primarily on the work of health care professionals and medical students. This paper focuses on undergraduate student involvement in short term medical volunteer work in resource poor countries, a practice that has become popular among pre-health professions students. We argue that the participation of undergraduate students in global health experiences raises many of the ethical concerns associated with voluntourism and global health experiences for medical students. Some of these may be exacerbated by or emerge in unique ways when undergraduates volunteer. Guidelines and curricula for medical student engagement in global health experiences have been developed. Guidelines specific to undergraduate involvement in such trips and pre-departure curricula to prepare students should be developed and such training should be required of volunteers. We propose a framework for such guidelines and curricula, argue that universities should be the primary point of delivery even when universities are not organizing the trips, and recommend that curricula should be developed in light of additional data. PMID:25079381

  4. Burnout and Work Demands Predict Reduced Job Satisfaction in Health Professionals Working In a Surgery Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Basarovska, Vera; Stoleski, Sasho; Minov, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Burnout syndrome develops in health professionals (HPs) as a result of exposure to chronic emotional and interpersonal workplace stressors. Research demonstrates the links between burnout, work demands, and job satisfaction in hospital HPs. AIMS: To examine the associations between burnout, work demands and job satisfaction, and to demonstrate the mediation effect of emotional exhaustion on the relationship between work demands and job satisfaction in surgery clinic HPs. METHODS: Maslach Burnout Inventory was used for assessment of burnout. Work demands and job satisfaction were measured with Hospital Experience Scale and Job Satisfaction Survey, respectively. In order to examine the role of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and work demands, controlling for age, hospital tenure, and unit tenure, a hierarchical multiple regression models were tested for each job satisfaction factor. RESULTS: Job satisfaction was negatively predicted by emotional exhaustion. Certain types of work demands negatively predicted different factors of job satisfaction. Emotional exhaustion was a significant partial mediator of the relationship between work demands and job satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Adequate management of work demands, particularly excessive workload, time pressure, and lack of staff can lead to prevention of burnout and reduced job satisfaction in surgery clinic HPs, and contribute to better quality of patient care. PMID:27275216

  5. Work-Related Health Disorders among Saudi Computer Users

    PubMed Central

    Jomoah, Ibrahim M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and eye and vision complaints among the computer users of King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabian Airlines (SAUDIA), and Saudi Telecom Company (STC). Stratified random samples of the work stations and operators at each of the studied institutions were selected and the ergonomics of the work stations were assessed and the operators' health complaints were investigated. The average ergonomic score of the studied work station at STC, KAU, and SAUDIA was 81.5%, 73.3%, and 70.3, respectively. Most of the examined operators use computers daily for ≤ 7 hours, yet they had some average incidences of general complaints (e.g., headache, body fatigue, and lack of concentration) and relatively high level of incidences of eye and vision complaints and musculoskeletal complaints. The incidences of the complaints have been found to increase with the (a) decrease in work station ergonomic score, (b) progress of age and duration of employment, (c) smoking, (d) use of computers, (e) lack of work satisfaction, and (f) history of operators' previous ailments. It has been recommended to improve the ergonomics of the work stations, set up training programs, and conduct preplacement and periodical examinations for operators. PMID:25383379

  6. Work-related health disorders among Saudi computer users.

    PubMed

    Jomoah, Ibrahim M

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and eye and vision complaints among the computer users of King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabian Airlines (SAUDIA), and Saudi Telecom Company (STC). Stratified random samples of the work stations and operators at each of the studied institutions were selected and the ergonomics of the work stations were assessed and the operators' health complaints were investigated. The average ergonomic score of the studied work station at STC, KAU, and SAUDIA was 81.5%, 73.3%, and 70.3, respectively. Most of the examined operators use computers daily for ≤ 7 hours, yet they had some average incidences of general complaints (e.g., headache, body fatigue, and lack of concentration) and relatively high level of incidences of eye and vision complaints and musculoskeletal complaints. The incidences of the complaints have been found to increase with the (a) decrease in work station ergonomic score, (b) progress of age and duration of employment, (c) smoking, (d) use of computers, (e) lack of work satisfaction, and (f) history of operators' previous ailments. It has been recommended to improve the ergonomics of the work stations, set up training programs, and conduct preplacement and periodical examinations for operators. PMID:25383379

  7. Training for health care in developing countries: the work of the Tropical Health and Education Trust.

    PubMed

    Parry, E; Parry, V

    1998-11-01

    The Tropical Health and Education Trust (THET) was established to strengthen medical education and training for health care in developing countries. The Trust responds to requests from training institutions with a wide range of activities and programmes. Projects to meet specific needs are planned in outline with the Deans or Directors of institutions, as a basis for a long-term link with a similar institution in the United Kingdom. These links are now the preferred method for meeting requests to develop skills, strengthen services and promote staff development. However, funding is always necessary for their support. THET has promoted students' community-based training by enabling students in a team-training programme in Ethiopia to make interventions in primary health care. A prize for the best students' community, clinical or laboratory projects in six African countries encourages enquiry by the students, promotes independent learning, and relates academic work to problems in health care. Work with Ministries of Health includes a continuing medical education programme for rural medical officers in Uganda, courses in basic and life-saving surgery for Ethiopian health and medical officers, and a programme to update the skills of laboratory technologists in rural hospitals in Ghana. The range of projects that THET supports is wide because the needs, defined by those who are working in, and responsible for, training in the health service are diverse. PMID:10211253

  8. Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    MacQueen, D H

    2007-02-21

    On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: {sm_bullet} reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors, {sm_bullet} minimize the levels of, and potential for, expos exposure to beryllium, and {sm_bullet} establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease.

  9. An occupational health and safety intervention research agenda for production agriculture: does safety education work?

    PubMed

    Murphy, D J; Kiernan, N E; Chapman, L J

    1996-04-01

    It is clear that agriculture has not kept pace with other hazardous industries in reducing its injury rate. For example, between 1960 and 1990 the work death rate for agriculture decreased only 28% while the work death rates decreased 65% for mining and 55% for construction [Purschwitz (1992)]. A national conference in Iowa in 1988 came to the forceful conclusion that "America's most productive workforce was being systematically liquidated by an epidemic of occupational disease and traumatic death and injury" [NCASH (1988)]. In 1991, the nation's top public health officer, the U.S. Surgeon General, convened a conference titled "FarmSafe 2000-A National Coalition for Local Action," to formally address agricultural safety and health issues. Importantly, conferees recognized that preventing injury and disease was superior to trying to rehabilitate people after an injury occurred. But does participation in farm safety and health educational programs lead to a reduction in risk of injury from farm work? Questions are being raised about the value of farm safety and health educational information, campaigns, programs, and related activities. The questions have identified a critical gap in the literature of farm safety and health education. There is currently no good evidence demonstrating that farm safety and health education, campaigns, programs, or related activities lead to a relatively stable reduction of risk on the farm. In other words, do farmers and their families actually put to use, in a relatively permanent or stable manner, the educational information regarding elimination, reduction, or control of physical hazards and the modification of work behavior that may cause injury? PMID:8728146

  10. Personal and workgroup incivility: impact on work and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sandy; Cortina, Lilia M; Magley, Vicki J

    2008-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical model of the impact of workplace incivility on employees' occupational and psychological well-being. In Study 1, the authors tested the model on 1,158 employees, finding that satisfaction with work and supervisors, as well as mental health, partially mediated effects of personal incivility on turnover intentions and physical health; this process did not vary by gender. Study 2 cross-validated and extended these results on an independent sample of 271 employees, showing negative effects of workgroup incivility that emerged over and above the impact of personal incivility. In both studies, all results held while controlling for general job stress. Implications for organizational science and practice are discussed. PMID:18211138

  11. Women's work environment and health: clerical workers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Meleis, A I; Messias, D K; Arruda, E N

    1996-02-01

    Although women are participating more in the formal workforce, the majority are employed primarily in low-income and low-status occupations. While work roles may provide women with some rewards, employment may also create many stressful demands on their daily lives. As part of an international study, 60 female Brazilian clerical workers responded to a self-administered questionnaire describing what they liked, disliked, and found stressful about the structural, physical, and social aspects of their work environment. Participants also identified strategies they used to cope with stress in the work environment. Dimensions of healthy environments identified in the data included utility, challenge, participation, safety, pleasing workplace, valuation, clarity of roles, and empowerment. Unhealthy environments were characterized by hazards, bureaucracy, devaluation, and economic constraints. Participants described their concerns about the effect of the environment on their physical and mental health, but tended to adopt a passive, resigned coping style rather than a proactive approach to co-creating a healthier work environment. The results and their relationship to healthy work environments are discussed within the context of the larger sociopolitical environment of Brazil. PMID:8552803

  12. The underdevelopment of health of working America: causes, consequences and possible solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, V

    1976-01-01

    This article presents the health conditions of working America, and provides an analysis of the causes of that situation. It is postulated that the main health problems in the U.S. are due not to prevalent life styles-as the behavioralists indicate-but to the dramatic maldistribution of economic and political power in our society, with the absence of control by the majority of the U.S. population-the working and lower-middle classes-over the work process with which they are involved, the economic wealth that they produce, and the political institutions that they pay for. The production of goods and wealth as well as the political institutions of the United States are dominated and controlled by a minority of our population-the corporate and upper-middle classes. Empirical information is presented to support this postulate. In light of this explanation, it is asserted that a major public health task is to deliberately and actively contribute to the political mobilization of forces aimed at bringing about profound changes in the pattern of control of our working insitutions and of the distribution of wealth and political power, changes which seek to shift that control from the few to the many. PMID:937599

  13. Working in Australia's heat: health promotion concerns for health and productivity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhvir; Hanna, Elizabeth G; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2015-06-01

    This exploratory study describes the experiences arising from exposure to extreme summer heat, and the related health protection and promotion issues for working people in Australia. Twenty key informants representing different industry types and occupational groups or activities in Australia provided semi-structured interviews concerning: (i) perceptions of workplace heat exposure in the industry they represented, (ii) reported impacts on health and productivity, as well as (iii) actions taken to reduce exposure or effects of environmental heat exposure. All interviewees reported that excessive heat exposure presents a significant challenge for their industry or activity. People working in physically demanding jobs in temperatures>35°C frequently develop symptoms, and working beyond heat tolerance is common. To avoid potentially dangerous health impacts they must either slow down or change their work habits. Such health-preserving actions result in lost work capacity. Approximately one-third of baseline work productivity can be lost in physically demanding jobs when working at 40°C. Employers and workers consider that heat exposure is a 'natural hazard' in Australia that cannot easily be avoided and so must be accommodated or managed. Among participants in this study, the locus of responsibility for coping with heat lay with the individual, rather than the employer. Heat exposure during Australian summers commonly results in adverse health effects and productivity losses, although quantification studies are lacking. Lack of understanding of the hazardous nature of heat exposure exacerbates the serious risk of heat stress, as entrenched attitudinal barriers hamper amelioration or effective management of this increasing occupational health threat. Educational programmes and workplace heat guidelines are required. Without intervention, climate change in hot countries, such as Australia, can be expected to further exacerbate heat-related burden of disease and loss

  14. Integrated approach for managing health risks at work--the role of occupational health nurses.

    PubMed

    Marinescu, Luiza G

    2007-02-01

    Currently, many organizations are using a department-centered approach to manage health risks at work. In such a model, segregated departments are providing employee benefits such as health insurance, workers' compensation, and short- and long-term disability or benefits addressing work-life issues. In recent years, a new model has emerged: health and productivity management (HPM). This is an employee-centered, integrated approach, designed to increase efficiency, reduce competition for scarce resources, and increase employee participation in prevention activities. Evidence suggests that corporations using integrated HPM programs achieve better health outcomes for their employees, with consequent increased productivity and decreased absenteeism. Occupational health nurses are well positioned to assume leadership roles in their organizations by coordinating efforts and programs across departments that offer health, wellness, and safety benefits. To assume their role as change agents to improve employees' health, nurses should start using the language of business more often by improving their communication skills, computer skills, and ability to quantify and articulate results of programs and services to senior management. PMID:17323873

  15. Workplace Health Promotion and Mental Health: Three-Year Findings from Partnering Healthy@Work.

    PubMed

    Jarman, Lisa; Martin, Angela; Venn, Alison; Otahal, Petr; Blizzard, Leigh; Teale, Brook; Sanderson, Kristy

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between mental health and comprehensive workplace health promotion (WHP) delivered to an entire state public service workforce (~28,000 employees) over a three-year period. Government departments in a state public service were supported to design and deliver a comprehensive, multi-component health promotion program, Healthy@Work, which targeted modifiable health risks including unhealthy lifestyles and stress. Repeated cross-sectional surveys compared self-reported psychological distress (Kessler-10; K10) at commencement (N = 3406) and after 3 years (N = 3228). WHP availability and participation over time was assessed, and associations between the K10 and exposure to programs estimated. Analyses were repeated for a cohort subgroup (N = 580). Data were weighted for non-response. Participation in any mental health and lifestyle programs approximately doubled after 3 years. Both male and female employees with poorer mental health participated more often over time. Women's psychological distress decreased over time but this change was only partially attributable to participation in WHP, and only to lifestyle interventions. Average psychological distress did not change over time for men. Unexpectedly, program components directly targeting mental health were not associated with distress for either men or women. Cohort results corroborated findings. Healthy@Work was successful in increasing participation across a range of program types, including for men and women with poorer mental health. A small positive association of participation in lifestyle programs with mental health was observed for women but not men. The lack of association of mental health programs may have reflected program quality, its universality of application or other contextual factors. PMID:27513577

  16. Workplace Health Promotion and Mental Health: Three-Year Findings from Partnering Healthy@Work

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Angela; Venn, Alison; Otahal, Petr; Blizzard, Leigh; Teale, Brook; Sanderson, Kristy

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between mental health and comprehensive workplace health promotion (WHP) delivered to an entire state public service workforce (~28,000 employees) over a three-year period. Government departments in a state public service were supported to design and deliver a comprehensive, multi-component health promotion program, Healthy@Work, which targeted modifiable health risks including unhealthy lifestyles and stress. Repeated cross-sectional surveys compared self-reported psychological distress (Kessler-10; K10) at commencement (N = 3406) and after 3 years (N = 3228). WHP availability and participation over time was assessed, and associations between the K10 and exposure to programs estimated. Analyses were repeated for a cohort subgroup (N = 580). Data were weighted for non-response. Participation in any mental health and lifestyle programs approximately doubled after 3 years. Both male and female employees with poorer mental health participated more often over time. Women’s psychological distress decreased over time but this change was only partially attributable to participation in WHP, and only to lifestyle interventions. Average psychological distress did not change over time for men. Unexpectedly, program components directly targeting mental health were not associated with distress for either men or women. Cohort results corroborated findings. Healthy@Work was successful in increasing participation across a range of program types, including for men and women with poorer mental health. A small positive association of participation in lifestyle programs with mental health was observed for women but not men. The lack of association of mental health programs may have reflected program quality, its universality of application or other contextual factors. PMID:27513577

  17. Mental Health of Elementary Schoolteachers in Southern Brazil: Working Conditions and Health Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz

    2015-01-01

    The mental health of educators is a growing problem in many countries. This study sought to identify self-reported stressful working conditions of elementary schoolteachers and the biopsychosocial consequences of those working conditions and then identify working conditions that promote well-being for teachers in the workplace. Exploratory study was done with 37 teachers. Data collection was performed using a structured interview with a questionnaire. Results show that stressful working conditions are related to inadequate salary, an excessive number of activities, and having to take work home. Biopsychosocial consequences include anxiety, stress, and sleep disorders. There was a statistically significant association between inadequate salary and anxiety (p = 0.01) and between an excessive number of activities and stress (p = 0.01). Teachers reported that a good relationship among colleagues is a working condition that promotes well-being in the workplace. The identification of stressful working conditions for teachers, the biopsychosocial consequences, and working conditions that promote well-being in the workplace are relevant to determining actions that improve the work environment and, consequently, the health of teachers. PMID:26366433

  18. Mental Health of Elementary Schoolteachers in Southern Brazil: Working Conditions and Health Consequences.

    PubMed

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz

    2015-01-01

    The mental health of educators is a growing problem in many countries. This study sought to identify self-reported stressful working conditions of elementary schoolteachers and the biopsychosocial consequences of those working conditions and then identify working conditions that promote well-being for teachers in the workplace. Exploratory study was done with 37 teachers. Data collection was performed using a structured interview with a questionnaire. Results show that stressful working conditions are related to inadequate salary, an excessive number of activities, and having to take work home. Biopsychosocial consequences include anxiety, stress, and sleep disorders. There was a statistically significant association between inadequate salary and anxiety (p = 0.01) and between an excessive number of activities and stress (p = 0.01). Teachers reported that a good relationship among colleagues is a working condition that promotes well-being in the workplace. The identification of stressful working conditions for teachers, the biopsychosocial consequences, and working conditions that promote well-being in the workplace are relevant to determining actions that improve the work environment and, consequently, the health of teachers. PMID:26366433

  19. Correlates of Injury-forced Work Reduction for Massage Therapists and Bodywork Practitioners†

    PubMed Central

    Blau, Gary; Monos, Christopher; Boyer, Ed; Davis, Kathleen; Flanagan, Richard; Lopez, Andrea; Tatum, Donna S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Injury-forced work reduction (IFWR) has been acknowledged as an all-too-common occurrence for massage therapists and bodywork practitioners (M & Bs). However, little prior research has specifically investigated demographic, work attitude, and perceptual correlates of IFWR among M & Bs. Purpose To test two hypotheses, H1 and H2. H1 is that the accumulated cost variables set ( e.g., accumulated costs, continuing education costs) will account for a significant amount of IFWR variance beyond control/demographic (e.g., social desirability response bias, gender, years in practice, highest education level) and work attitude/perception variables (e.g., job satisfaction, affective occupation commitment, occupation identification, limited occupation alternatives) sets. H2 is that the two exhaustion variables (i.e., physical exhaustion, work exhaustion) set will account for significant IFWR variance beyond control/demographic, work attitude/perception, and accumulated cost variables sets. Research Design and Participants An online survey sample of 2,079 complete-data M & Bs was collected. Stepwise regression analysis was used to test the study hypotheses. The research design first controlled for control/demographic (Step1) and work attitude/perception variables sets (Step 2), before then testing for the successive incremental impact of two variable sets, accumulated costs (Step 3) and exhaustion variables (Step 4) for explaining IFWR. Results Results supported both study hypotheses: accumulated cost variables set (H1) and exhaustion variables set (H2) each significantly explained IFWR after the control/demographic and work attitude/perception variables sets. The most important correlate for explaining IFWR was higher physical exhaustion, but work exhaustion was also significant. It is not just physical “wear and tear”, but also “mental fatigue”, that can lead to IFWR for M & Bs. Being female, having more years in practice, and having higher continuing

  20. Health and turnover of working mothers after childbirth via the work-family interface: an analysis across time.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Dawn S; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Ferguson, Merideth; Hunter, Emily M; Clinch, C Randall; Arcury, Thomas A

    2011-09-01

    This study examined organizational levers that impact work-family experiences, participant health, and subsequent turnover. Using a sample of 179 women returning to full-time work 4 months after childbirth, we examined the associations of 3 job resources (job security, skill discretion, and schedule control) with work-to-family enrichment and the associations of 2 job demands (psychological requirements and nonstandard work schedules) with work-to-family conflict. Further, we considered subsequent impact of work-to-family conflict and enrichment on women's health (physical and mental health) 8 months after women returned to work and the impact of health on voluntary turnover 12 months after women returned to work. Having a nonstandard work schedule was directly and positively related to conflict, whereas schedule control buffered the effect of psychological requirements on conflict. Skill discretion and job security, both job resources, directly and positively related to enrichment. Work-to-family conflict was negatively related to both physical and mental health, but work-to-family enrichment positively predicted only physical health. Physical health and mental health both negatively influenced turnover. We discuss implications and opportunities for future research. PMID:21604833

  1. [Work process and workers' health in a food and nutrition unit: prescribed versus actual work].

    PubMed

    Colares, Luciléia Granhen Tavares; Freitas, Carlos Machado de

    2007-12-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between the work process in a food and nutrition unit and workers' health, in the words of the participants themselves. Direct observation, a semi-structured interview, and focus groups were used to collect the data. The reference was the dialogue between human ergonomics and work psychodynamics. The results showed that work organization in the study unit represents a routine activity, the requirements of which in terms of the work situation are based on criteria set by the institution. Variability in the activities is influenced mainly by the available equipment, instruments, and materials, thereby generating improvisation in meal production that produces both a physical and psychological cost for workers. Dissatisfaction during the performance of tasks results mainly from the supervisory style and relationship to immediate superiors. Workers themselves proposed changes in the work organization, based on greater dialogue and trust between supervisors and the workforce. Finally, the study identifies the need for an intervention that encourages workers' participation as agents of change. PMID:18157343

  2. Partnerships for better mental health worldwide: WPA recommendations on best practices in working with service users and family carers

    PubMed Central

    WALLCRAFT, JAN; AMERING, MICHAELA; FREIDIN, JULIAN; DAVAR, BHARGAVI; FROGGATT, DIANE; JAFRI, HUSSAIN; JAVED, AFZAL; KATONTOKA, SYLVESTER; RAJA, SHOBA; RATAEMANE, SOLOMON; STEFFEN, SIGRID; TYANO, SAM; UNDERHILL, CHRISTPHER; WAHLBERG, HENRIK; WARNER, RICHARD; HERRMAN, HELEN

    2011-01-01

    WPA President M. Maj established the Task Force on Best Practice in Working with Service Users and Carers in 2008, chaired by H. Herrman. The Task Force had the remit to create recommendations for the international mental health community on how to develop successful partnership working. The work began with a review of literature on service user and carer involvement and partnership. This set out a range of considerations for good practice, including choice of appropriate terminology, clarifying the partnership process and identifying and reducing barriers to partnership working. Based on the literature review and on the shared knowledge in the Task Force, a set of ten recommendations for good practice was developed. These recommendations were the basis for a worldwide consultation of stakeholders with expertise as service users, families and carers, and the WPA Board and Council. The results showed a strong consensus across the international mental health community on the ten recommendations, with the strongest agreement coming from service users and carers. This general consensus gives a basis for Task Force plans to seek support for activities to promote shared work worldwide to identify best practice examples and create a resource to assist others to begin successful collaboration. PMID:21991284

  3. Uranium mining and milling work force characteristics in the western US

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, D.A.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the socioeconomic characteristics associated with 11 uranium mine and mill operations in 5 Western States. Comparisons are made with the socioeconomic characteristics of construction and operating crews for coal mines and utility plants in eight Western States. Worker productivity also is compared with that in similar types of coal and uranium mining operations. We found that there existed no significant differences between the socioeconomic characteristics of construction and operating crews and the secondary employment impacts associated with uranium mines and mills when compared with those associated with coal mines and utility plants requiring similar skills at comparable locations. In addition, our survey includes a comparison of several characteristics associated with the households of basic and nonbasic work forces and concludes that significant changes have occurred in the last 5 yr. Accordingly, we recommend additional monitoring and updating of data used in several economic forecasting models to avoid unwarranted delays in achieving national energy goals.

  4. Latina Workers in North Carolina: Work Organization, Domestic Responsibilities, Health, and Family Life.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Trejo, Grisel; Schiemann, Elizabeth; Quandt, Sara A; Daniel, Stephanie S; Sandberg, Joanne C; Arcury, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    This analysis describes the work organization and domestic work experienced by migrant Latinas, and explores the linkage between work and health. Twenty Latina workers in North Carolina with at least one child under age 12 completed in-depth interviews focused on their work organization, domestic responsibilities, work-family conflict, health, and family health. Using a systematic qualitative analysis, these women described a demanding work organization that is contingent and exploitative, with little control or support. They also described demanding domestic roles, with gendered and unequal division of household work. The resulting work-family conflict affects their mental and physical health, and has negative effects on the care and health of their families. The findings from this study highlight that work stressors from an unfavorable work organization create work-family conflict, and that work-family conflict in this population has a negative influence on workers' health and health behaviors. PMID:26590923

  5. Do stigma and other perceived barriers to mental health care differ across Armed Forces?

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Matthew; Adler, Amy; Zamorski, Mark; Castro, Carl; Hanily, Natalie; Steele, Nicole; Kearney, Steve; Greenberg, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objectives Military organizations are keen to address barriers to mental health care yet stigma and barriers to care remain little understood, especially potential cultural differences between Armed Forces. The aim of this study was to compare data collected by the US, UK, Australian, New Zealand and Canadian militaries using Hoge et al.'s perceived stigma and barriers to care measure (Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems and barriers to care. New Engl J Med 2004;351:13–22). Design Each member country identified data sources that had enquired about Hoge et al.'s perceived stigma and perceived barriers to care items in the re-deployment or immediate post-deployment period. Five relevant statements were included in the study. Setting US, UK Australian, New Zealand and Canadian Armed Forces. Results Concerns about stigma and barriers to care tended to be more prominent among personnel who met criteria for a mental health problem. The pattern of reported stigma and barriers to care was similar across the Armed Forces of all five nations. Conclusions Barriers to care continue to be a major issue for service personnel within Western military forces. Although there are policy, procedural and cultural differences between Armed Forces, the nations studied appear to share some similarities in terms of perceived stigma and barriers to psychological care. Further research to understand patterns of reporting and subgroup differences is required. PMID:20382906

  6. Health status of people with work-related musculoskeletal disorders in return to work programs: a Malaysian study.

    PubMed

    Murad, Mohd Suleiman; O'Brien, Lisa; Farnworth, Louise; Chien, Chi-Wen

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the health status of injured workers with musculoskeletal disorders enrolled in the Malaysian Return to Work (RTW) program. The 102 participants were categorized into three RTW groups: Off-work (n = 30, 29.4%), Re-entry (n = 44, 43.1%), and Maintenance (n = 28, 27.5%). Overall health status, as measured by the SF-36 version 2, of the workers exhibited below average compared to the internationally established normative population, with their physical health component summary rated lower than mental health. Across the different groups, significant differences were found in role-physical, vitality, bodily pain, general health, and mental health. However, the mean values of these variables were higher in the Maintenance group and were found significant. The current health status of injured workers at Off-work and Re-entry phases was significantly low and warranted to be improved by involving other health professionals such as occupational therapists, ergonomists, and psychologists. PMID:23855610

  7. Promoting Positive Emotional Health of Children of Transient Armed Forces Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eodanable, Miranda; Lauchlan, Fraser

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this research was to promote emotional health in a small primary school (n = 180), with a highly transient pupil population of armed forces children (Service children). Negative effects of pupil mobility have been found to relate to academic attainment (Dobson, Henthorne, & Lynas, 2000; Mott, 2002), but its effect on social and…

  8. Health status of Air Force veterans occupationally exposed to herbicides in Vietnam: II. Mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Michalek, J.E.; Wolfe, W.H.; Miner, J.C. )

    1990-10-10

    The Air Force Health Study is a 20-year comprehensive assessment of the current health of Air Force veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam. This report compares the noncombat mortality of 1261 Ranch Hand veterans to that of a comparison population of 19,101 other Air Force veterans primarily involved in cargo missions in Southeast Asia but who were not exposed to herbicides. The indirectly standardized all-cause death rate among Ranch Hands is 2.5 deaths per 1,000 person-years, the same as that among comparison subjects. After adjustment for age, rank, and occupation, the all-cause standardized mortality ratio was 1.0. In adjusted cause-specific analyses, the authors found no significant group differences regarding accidental, malignant neoplasm, and circulatory deaths. These data are not supportive to a hypothesis of increases mortality among Ranch Hands.

  9. Workgroup Report: Developing Environmental Health Indicators for European Children: World Health Organization Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Pond, Kathy; Kim, Rokho; Carroquino, Maria-Jose; Pirard, Philippe; Gore, Fiona; Cucu, Alexandra; Nemer, Leda; MacKay, Morag; Smedje, Greta; Georgellis, Antonis; Dalbokova, Dafina; Krzyzanowski, Michal

    2007-01-01

    A working group coordinated by the World Health Organization developed a set of indicators to protect children’s health from environmental risks and to support current and future European policy needs. On the basis of identified policy needs, the group developed a core set of 29 indicators for implementation plus an extended set of eight additional indicators for future development, focusing on exposure, health effects, and action. As far as possible, the indicators were designed to use existing information and are flexible enough to be developed further to meet the needs of policy makers and changing health priorities. These indicators cover most of the priority topic areas specified in the Children’s Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE) as adopted in the Fourth Ministerial Conference on Health and Environment in 2004, and will be used to monitor the implementation of CEHAPE. This effort can be viewed as an integral part of the Global Initiative on Children’s Environmental Health Indicators, launched at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002. PMID:17805431

  10. ‘The dangers attending these conditions are evident’: Public Health and the Working Environment of Lancashire Textile Communities, c.1870–1939

    PubMed Central

    Greenlees, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the position of the working environment within public health priorities and as a contributor to the health of a community. Using two Lancashire textile towns (Burnley and Blackburn) as case studies and drawing on a variety of sources, it highlights how, while legislation set the industry parameters for legal enforcement of working conditions, local public health priorities were pivotal in setting codes of practice. The complexities entwined with identifying the working environment as a cause of ill health and with improving it were entangled within the local community health context. In addition, the multiple understandings of Medical Officers of Health surrounding the remit of their responsibilities impacted the local health context. These did not always parallel national regulations. Indeed, it was these local, community specific forces that set the public health agenda, determined its path and the place of the working environment within this. PMID:24771979

  11. Re-entry into the registered nursing work force: we did it!

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, Ruth E; Bartlett, Doris

    2006-01-01

    Because the enrollment in nursing programs dropped in the late 1990s and healthcare agencies and education programs were seeking ways to increase the numbers of nurses, Bethel College in Mishawaka, Indiana, and Memorial Hospital in South Bend, Indiana, designed a plan to encourage nurses who had been out of nursing to re-enter the work force. This article details the steps used in this partnership and demonstrates a process for helping registered nurses to return to nursing. In the 6-credit, 8-week course, nurses were prepared to function on a medical-surgical unit by reviewing important concepts related to nursing practice, physical assessment, nursing process, nursing skills, pharmacology, and clinical nursing update. It was anticipated that receiving college credit for the course would be a motivator for returning to study at the registered nurse to bachelor of science in nursing level. With 2 full clinical days each week, the students could experience a normal work shift and the routine of a busy clinical unit. PMID:16892670

  12. Cohort profile: the lidA Cohort Study-a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation.

    PubMed

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-12-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). PMID:24618186

  13. [Social determinants of health: community features and nurse work in family health care].

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Cynthia Fontella; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Cardoso, Leticia Silveira; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Soares, Jorgana Fernanda de Souza

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the Social Determinants of Health Care which emerge in nurses' statements as they characterize the community, analyzing its relation to the work carried out by them. It is an exploratory and descriptive study containing a qualitative analysis in the theoretical categories of the determinants. We used a semi-structured interview, recorded with the permission of the 65 nurses of the Family Health Care, members of the 3rd Regional Health Care Coordination of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It has been shown the inter- and intra-relation in the health determinant factors, obtaining 104 citations for the anatomo-physiological features of the corresponding individuals/community to the proximal correspondents and in association, mainly, to the work carried out by the nurses. For intermediate determinants there were 27 citations and, for distals, 166, with predominant reference to the territorial localization of communities in rural areas and peripheries. The nurses have stated a narrow relation between the proximal features and the work carried out by them, as well as the connection with other determinants in the relation with the process of getting sick. PMID:20839542

  14. Using conceptual work products of health care to design health IT.

    PubMed

    Berry, Andrew B L; Butler, Keith A; Harrington, Craig; Braxton, Melissa O; Walker, Amy J; Pete, Nikki; Johnson, Trevor; Oberle, Mark W; Haselkorn, Jodie; Paul Nichol, W; Haselkorn, Mark

    2016-02-01

    This paper introduces a new, model-based design method for interactive health information technology (IT) systems. This method extends workflow models with models of conceptual work products. When the health care work being modeled is substantially cognitive, tacit, and complex in nature, graphical workflow models can become too complex to be useful to designers. Conceptual models complement and simplify workflows by providing an explicit specification for the information product they must produce. We illustrate how conceptual work products can be modeled using standard software modeling language, which allows them to provide fundamental requirements for what the workflow must accomplish and the information that a new system should provide. Developers can use these specifications to envision how health IT could enable an effective cognitive strategy as a workflow with precise information requirements. We illustrate the new method with a study conducted in an outpatient multiple sclerosis (MS) clinic. This study shows specifically how the different phases of the method can be carried out, how the method allows for iteration across phases, and how the method generated a health IT design for case management of MS that is efficient and easy to use. PMID:26528606

  15. Do body weight and gender shape the work force? The case of Iceland.

    PubMed

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey

    2011-03-01

    Most studies of the relationship between body weight - as well as its corollary, beauty - and labor-market outcomes have indicated that it is a function of a gender bias, the negative relationship between excess weight or obesity and labor-market outcomes being greater for women than for men. Iceland offers an exceptional opportunity to examine this hypothesis, given that it scores relatively well on an index of gender equality comprising economic, political, educational, labor-market, and health-based criteria. Equipped with an advanced level of educational attainment, on average, women are well represented in Iceland's labor force. When it comes to women's presence in the political sphere, Iceland is out of the ordinary as well; that Icelanders were the first in the world to elect a woman to be president may suggest a relatively gender-blind assessment in the labor market. In the current study, survey data collected by Gallup Iceland in 2002 are used to examine the relationship between weight and employment within this political and social setting. Point estimates indicate that, despite apparently lesser gender discrimination in Iceland than elsewhere, the bias against excess weight and obesity remains gender-based, showing a slightly negative relationship between weight and the employment rate of women, whereas a slightly positive relationship was found for men. PMID:21196135

  16. The Occupational Safety of Health Professionals Working at Community and Family Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Havva; Babacan, Elif

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthcare professionals encounter many medical risks while providing healthcare services to individuals and the community. Thus, occupational safety studies are very important in health care organizations. They involve studies performed to establish legal, technical, and medical measures that must be taken to prevent employees from sustaining physical or mental damage because of work hazards. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine if the occupational safety of health personnel at community and family health centers (CHC and FHC) has been achieved. Martials and Methods: The population of this cross-sectional study comprised 507 nurses, 199 physicians, and 237 other medical personnel working at a total of 18 family health centers (FHC) and community health centers (CHC) in Trabzon, Turkey. The sample consisted of a total of 418 nurses, 156 physicians, and 123 other medical personnel. Sampling method was not used, and the researchers tried to reach the whole population. Data were gathered with the Occupational Safety Scale (OSS) and a questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics and occupational safety. Results: According to the evaluations of all the medical personnel, the mean ± SD of total score of the OSS was 3.57 ± 0.98; of the OSS’s subscales, the mean ± SD of the health screening and registry systems was 2.76 ± 1.44, of occupational diseases and problems was 3.04 ± 1.3 and critical fields control was 3.12 ± 1.62. In addition, occupational safety was found more insufficient by nurses (F = 14.18; P < 0.001). Conclusions: All healthcare personnel, particularly nurses working in CHCs and FHCs found occupational safety to be insufficient as related to protective and supportive activities. PMID:25558383

  17. The Influence of Group Work Discussion on Scores of the Force Concept Inventory in Lao PDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luangrath, Phimpho; Pettersson, Sune

    2010-07-01

    In this study, we investigated if freshman student's participation in small group discussions in the tutorial sessions would influence their score of the Lao version of the Force Concept Inventory test (LFCI). We used the LFCI version to test 188 students" understanding of mechanics concepts before and after they studied mechanics at university. In three classes the students used group discussions when they solved the end-of-chapter questions in the textbook during tutorials and they also used group discussions to answer the LFCI. We video recorded three groups when they solved end-of-chapter questions. In two classes the students both solved the problems and answered the LFCI individually. A questionnaire about advantages and disadvantages of cooperative group and individual problem solving were handed out to the students. The questionnaire was supplemented by interviews with four students and three groups. We found that almost all students would like to work with group discussions; only 3% of them were negative. Students that worked with group discussions obtained an average score of 26% correct answers to the LFCI which was slightly higher than the average score of 23% for students that worked individually. The improvement from the pre- to the post-test in average score was 7 percentage points for classes with group discussions and 6 percentage points for classes with individual problem solving. It is not possible to claim that one of these ways of study will result in a larger improvement in the LFCI-score. Apparently, the group discussions did not help the students to improve their theoretical understanding of mechanics concepts as it is tested by the LFCI. However, it was observed in the video analysis that group discussions helped students to better understand mechanics concepts in the context of solving the end-of-chapter questions in the textbook. This observation was also supported by the students' answers to the questionnaire and the interview.

  18. SIB health psychology in Brazil: The challenges for working in public health settings.

    PubMed

    Spink, Mary-Jane P; Brigagão, Jacqueline M; Menegon, Vera M; Vicentin, Maria-Cristina G

    2016-03-01

    Considering the diversity of theoretical approaches and settings for psychological practice, this editorial provides a background for the articles that have been included in this special issue concerning health psychology in the context of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Unico de Saude). We addressed issues concerning the national curricular outline for undergraduate training in psychology and historical data on the social movements that led to the creation of the Sistema Unico de Saude and the Psychiatric Reform which created an important area for psychological work absorbing a considerable number of psychologists. PMID:26987822

  19. Working on wellness (WOW): A worksite health promotion intervention programme

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    CVD is preferred. Importantly, this study extends the work of a previous, similar study, Health Under Construction, in a different setting. Finally, this study will allow an economic evaluation of the intervention that will be an important outcome for health care funders, who ultimately will be responsible for implementation of such an intervention. Trial registration United States Clinical Trails Register NCT 01494207 PMID:22625844

  20. Labor Force Participation in Formal Work-Related Education in 2000-01. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2005-048

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Lisa; Bhandari, Rajika; Peter, Katharin; Bills, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Of the many purposes education serves in society, one of the most important is to prepare people for work. In today's economy, education is important not just to help adults enter the labor market, but also to ensure that adults remain marketable throughout their working lives. This report examines how adults in the labor force use formal…

  1. Have Disability Transfers Caused the Decline in Older Male Labor Force Participation? A Work-Status Rational Choice Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Robert H.; Wolfe, Barbara L.

    This paper presents a decision-process model for explaining the growth in transfer recipiency (the receipt by working age people of disability income), the choice of work status, and the reduction in labor force participation of older workers. It is hypothesized that the attractiveness of disability income transfer options has led older male…

  2. Perception and prevalence of work-related health hazards among health care workers in public health facilities in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Senthil, Arasi; Anandh, Balasubramanian; Jayachandran, Palsamy; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Josephin, Diana; Yamini, Ravindran; Kalpana, Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to occupational related health hazards. Measuring worker perception and the prevalence of these hazards can help facilitate better risk management for HCWs, as these workers are envisaged to be the first point of contact, especially in resource poor settings. Objective: To describe the perception of occupational health hazards and self-reported exposure prevalence among HCWs in Southern India. Methods: We used cross sectional design with stratified random sampling of HCWs from different levels of health facilities and categories in a randomly selected district in Southern India. Data on perception and exposure prevalence were collected using a structured interview schedule developed by occupational health experts and administered by trained investigators. Results: A total of 482 HCWs participated. Thirty nine percent did not recognize work-related health hazards, but reported exposure to at least one hazard upon further probing. Among the 81·5% who reported exposure to biological hazard, 93·9% had direct skin contact with infectious materials. Among HCWs reporting needle stick injury, 70·5% had at least one in the previous three months. Ergonomic hazards included lifting heavy objects (42%) and standing for long hours (37%). Psychological hazards included negative feelings (20·3%) and verbal or physical abuse during work (20·5%). Conclusion: More than a third of HCWs failed to recognize work-related health hazards. Despite training in handling infectious materials, HCWs reported direct skin contact with infectious materials and needle stick injuries. Results indicate the need for training oriented toward behavioral change and provision of occupational health services. PMID:25482656

  3. Health Manpower in South Carolina. Report of the Task Force on Health Manpower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Advisory Council for Comprehensive Health Planning, Columbia.

    The factors contributing to the need for an increasing ratio of health workers to total manpower in South Carolina are: demand for more and better health services, augmented by government support; technological advances in medical science; new organization patterns in medical care; rapid increase in population; development of new kinds of…

  4. Health Services Management in the Health Administration Curriculum. Report by the Curriculum Task Force on Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Univ. Programs in Health Administration, Washington, DC.

    Critical decisions that need to be made by faculties of health administration education programs when developing and assessing the health services management portion of the curriculum are identified. Decisions should draw from the information available concerning professional target roles of graduates, graduate behavior expected, resources for…

  5. Employment in multiple sclerosis. Exiting and re-entering the work force.

    PubMed

    Julian, Laura J; Vella, Lea; Vollmer, Tim; Hadjimichael, Olympia; Mohr, David C

    2008-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with significant economic burden and high rates of unemployment. This investigation evaluated patient and disease characteristics associated with work loss and work initiation using the NARCOMS patient registry. Patient and disease characteristics associated with transitions to unemployment or employment were evaluated cross-sectionally and prospectively over the course of two assessment periods (mean interval of 1.56 +/- 0.93 years). Eligible participants included 8,867 patients for the cross-sectional component, and 8,122 for longitudinal analyses. At Time 1 and Time 2 56-58 % of MS patients were not employed. At Time 1, unemployed participants more likely to have a progressive disease course, had a longer symptom duration, greater levels of disability as measured by the PDDS, and greater functional limitations across all domains of the performance scales (p < 0.0001 for all). At Time 2, increasing MS symptoms in the past 6 months increased the odds of becoming unemployed. In addition, specific problems in mobility, hand function, fatigue, and cognitive performance domains were associated with increased odds of becoming unemployed. Less severe problems in similar areas, including mobility, hand function, and cognitive functioning were also predictive of work initiation among patients not employed. MS is associated with high rates of unemployment. Specific physical and mental health limitations confer risk of employment cessation over time, as well as the likelihood of employment initiation. This study has implications for rehabilitation interventions to target specific MS related limitations that place patients at greatest risk for work status changes. PMID:18677639

  6. Characterization of the 1986 coal-mining work force. Information Circular/1988

    SciTech Connect

    Butani, S.J.; Bartholomew, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986, the Bureau of Mines conducted a probability sample survey, Mining Industry Population Survey, to measure such employee characteristics as occupation; principal equipment operated; work location at the mine; present job, present company, and total mining experience; job-related training during the last 2 years; age; sex; race; and education. The population estimates are necessary to properly analyze the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) injury (includes illness and fatality data) statistics; that is, to compare and contrast injury rates for various subpopulations in order to identify those groups that are exhibiting higher than average injury rates. The report uses the survey's results to characterize the U.S. coal mining workforce from March through September 1986.

  7. The American Work Ethic and the Changing Work Force: An Historical Perspective. Contributions in Labor Studies, Number 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Herbert

    During the colonial period, the ideology of work--the American work ethic--took root. Americans valued work and considered it an obligation to society, to oneself, and to one's family. The key to the agrarian culture was an ethic that recognized the importance of hard, physical labor within a framework of yearly cycles of tasks. The world of the…

  8. The Joint Commission has provided a tool to change your work force: are you paying attention?

    PubMed

    Decker, P J; Strader, M K

    1998-03-01

    Most health care managers wonder how to change employee "attitudes" so that their staff will be more accountable for patient satisfaction, cost reduction, and quality of care. Employees were trained to function in an industry where the power players were the physician and the administrator and now it is exceedingly difficult to get them to switch their attention to the patient and the payer in a market-driven economy. For hospital managers, the answer may be right at their fingertips: The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations' standards demanding that employee competence be objectively measured, proven, tracked & trended, improved, and age specific. A comprehensive competence assessment system can save the health care manager enormous work in measuring fewer things, focusing performance assessment on the 20 percent of things that are true problems, and helping to specifically define certain competencies such as customer focus and cost consciousness so that coaching, training, and giving performance feedback is easier. Developing a comprehensive competence assessment system is a powerful tool to change the culture of organizations. Consequently, it is important that managers be aware of those possibilities before they embark on developing "competencies" or before their organizations get too carried away on redesigning systems to satisfy standards. PMID:10177390

  9. Public Health Works: Blood Donation in Urban China

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Vincanne; Erwin, Kathleen; Le, Phuoc V

    2009-01-01

    Recent shifts in the global health infrastructure warrant consideration of the value and effectiveness of national public health campaigns. These shifts include the globalization of pharmaceutical research, the rise of NGO-funded health interventions, and the rise of biosecurity models of international health. We argue that although these trends have arisen as worthwhile responses to actual health needs, it is important to remember the key role that public health campaigns can play in the promotion of national health, especially in developing nations. Focusing on an example set by China in response to a public health crisis surrounding the national need for a clean and adequate blood supply and the inadvertent spread of HIV by way of blood donation in the early 19902, we argue that there is an important role for strong national public health programs. We also identify the key factors that enabled China’s response to this bourgeoning epidemic to be, in the end, largely successful. PMID:19058887

  10. Health problems due to long working hours in Japan: working hours, workers' compensation (Karoshi), and preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori

    2006-10-01

    Late in the 1970s, serious social concern over health problems due to long working hours has arisen in Japan. This report briefly summarizes the Japanese circumstances about long working hours and what the Government has achieved so far. The national statistics show that more than 6 million people worked for 60 h or more per week during years 2000 and 2004. Approximately three hundred cases of brain and heart diseases were recognized as labour accidents resulting from overwork (Karoshi) by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) between 2002 and 2005. Consequently, the MHLW has been working to establish a more appropriate compensation system for Karoshi, as well as preventive measures for overwork related health problems. In 2001, the MHLW set the standards for clearly recognizing Karoshi in association with the amount of overtime working hours. These standards were based on the results of a literature review and medical examinations indicating a relationship between overwork and brain and heart diseases. In 2002, the MHLW launched the program for the prevention of health impairment due to overwork, and in 2005 the health guidance through an interview by a doctor for overworked workers has been enacted as law. Long working hours are controversial issues because of conflicts between health, safety, work-life balance, and productivity. It is obvious that we need to continue research regarding the impact on worker health and the management of long working hours. PMID:17085914

  11. Periodic health examination, 1996 update: 2. Screening for chlamydial infections. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, H D; Wang, E E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update the 1984 recommendations of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination on the routine screening of asymptomatic patients for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. OPTIONS: Screening, with the use of culture or nonculture tests, of the general population, of certain high-risk groups or of all pregnant women; or no routine screening. OUTCOMES: Rates of asymptomatic and symptomatic chlamydial infection, perinatal complications, longterm complications of infection (i.e., pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy), coinfection with other sexually transmitted diseases, disease spread, hospital care, complications of therapy and costs of infection and of screening. EVIDENCE: Search of MEDLINE for articles published between Jan. 1, 1983, and Dec. 31, 1995, with the use of the major MeSH heading "chlamydial infections," references from recent review articles and recommendation by other organizations. VALUES: The evidence-based methods of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination were used. Advice from reviewers and experts and recommendations of other organizations were taken into consideration. Prevention of symptomatic disease and decreased overall costs were given high values. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: The greatest potential benefits of screening asymptomatic patients for chlamydial infections are the prevention of complications, especially infertility and perinatal complications, and the prevention of disease spread. There is no evidence that screening of the general population for chlamydial infections leads to a reduction in complications, and screening may increase costs. However, there is evidence that annual screening of selected high-risk groups and of pregnant women during the first trimester is beneficial in preventing symptoms and reducing the overall cost resulting from infection. RECOMMENDATIONS: There is fair evidence to support screening and treatment of pregnant women during the

  12. Reliability and Effects of Arm Dominance on Upper Extremity Isokinetic Force, Work, and Power Using the Closed Chain Rider System

    PubMed Central

    Kovaleski, John E.; Heitman, Robert J.; Gurchiek, Larry R.; Trundle, Terry L.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to assess the reliability of the Closed Chain Rider System between exercise sessions and to determine the effects of arm dominance using muscle force, work, and power measures during closed chain chest-press exercise. Design and Setting: Sitting subjects underwent identical testing on 2 occasions and performed 5 reciprocal chest-press movements at speeds of 51 and 76 cm/s. Subjects: Thirty-eight healthy college students. Measurements: Average force, total work, average power, and linear range of motion were recorded. Reliability was evaluated by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients. Mean differences between the dominant and nondominant arms for the measured variables were analyzed by dependent t tests. Results: For both the dominant and nondominant arms at the 51 and 76 cm/s speeds, reliabilities of average force (range = 0.85 to 0.91), total work (range = 0.88 to 0.92), and average power (range = 0.86 to 0.89) were clinically acceptable. The dominant arm produced significantly greater average force, total work, and average power compared with the nondominant arm. Conclusions: Our results provide clinically useful information about the reliability of force, work, and power measures during multijoint bilateral chest-press movement. Clinicians should be aware of measured differences between dominant and nondominant arms. Imagesp359-a PMID:16558589

  13. Work-related psychosocial factors, worry about work conditions and health complaints among female and male ambulance personnel.

    PubMed

    Aasa, Ulrika; Brulin, Christine; Angquist, Karl-Axel; Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta

    2005-09-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relationships between work-related psychosocial factors, worry about work conditions and health complaints (sleeping problems, headache and stomach symptoms) among female and male ambulance personnel. Out of 4000 ambulance personnel in Sweden, 1500 (300 female and 1200 male personnel) were randomly selected. They answered a questionnaire including items on self-reported health complaints, individual characteristics, work-related psychological demands, decision latitude, social support and worry about work conditions. Twenty-five per cent of the female and 20% of the male ambulance personnel reported two or more health complaints sometimes or often. According to the demand-control-support questionnaire, ambulance personnel reported a generally positive psychosocial work environment, although psychological demands were associated with sleeping problems, headache and stomach symptoms among both female and male ambulance personnel. Another factor that was significantly associated with health complaints among both genders was worry about work conditions. When worry about work conditions was added to the regression models, this variable took over the role from psychological demands as a predictor for health complaints among the female ambulance personnel. The prevalence of sleeping problems, headache and stomach symptoms were significantly associated with psychological demands among both female and male ambulance personnel. Notably, worry about work conditions seems to be an important risk factor for health complaints. This suggests that worry about work conditions should not be neglected when considering risk factors among ambulance personnel. PMID:16101853

  14. Disparities in the Geography of Mental Health: Implications for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent theory and research on geographic disparities in mental health and their implications for social work. It focuses on work emerging from the fields of mental health geography, psychiatric epidemiology, and social work, arguing that a wide range of spatial disparities in mental health are important to understand but that…

  15. The Relevance of Abraham Maslow's Work to Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolte, Ann

    1976-01-01

    Health educators should be aware of people as growth aspiring, with a basic nature of goodness, and that individuals need to experience those qualities within themselves which produce health and a zest for living. (JD)

  16. The Union Health Center: a working model of clinical care linked to preventive occupational health services.

    PubMed

    Herbert, R; Plattus, B; Kellogg, L; Luo, J; Marcus, M; Mascolo, A; Landrigan, P J

    1997-03-01

    As health care provision in the United States shifts to primary care settings, it is vital that new models of occupational health services be developed that link clinical care to prevention. The model program described in this paper was developed at the Union Health Center (UHC), a comprehensive health care center supported by the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (now the Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees) serving a population of approximately 50,000 primarily minority, female garment workers in New York City. The objective of this paper is to describe a model occupational medicine program in a union-based comprehensive health center linking accessible clinical care with primary and secondary disease prevention efforts. To assess the presence of symptoms suggestive of occupational disease, a health status questionnaire was administered to female workers attending the UHC for routine health maintenance. Based on the results of this survey, an occupational medicine clinic was developed that integrated direct clinical care with worker and employer education and workplace hazard abatement. To assess the success of this new approach, selected cases of sentinel health events were tracked and a chart review was conducted after 3 years of clinic operation. Prior to initiation of the occupational medicine clinic, 64% (648) of the workers surveyed reported symptoms indicative of occupational illnesses. However, only 42 (4%) reported having been told by a physician that they had an occupational illness and only 4 (.4%) reported having field a workers' compensation claim for an occupational disease. In the occupational medicine clinic established at the UHC, a health and safety specialist acts as a case manager, coordinating worker and employer education as well as workplace hazard abatement focused on disease prevention, ensuring that every case of occupational disease is treated as a potential sentinel health event. As examples of the success

  17. Health of Children of the Working Poor: Description and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Barbara J.; Wang, Shirley J.; Kwasman, Alan; Green, Delores; Morton, Linda

    More and more often, children in the United States are denied services that help keep them healthy or heal them when they are ill. This study examines the demographic, psychological, and physical health status of a group of children (N=293) with no access to health care, and who experienced an acute health problem. The children ranged in age from…

  18. Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…

  19. Community Health Workers and Their Value to Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Michael S.; Gunter, Kathryn E.; Palmisano, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) play a vital and unique role in linking diverse and underserved populations to health and social service systems. Despite their effectiveness, as documented by empirical studies across various disciplines including public health, nursing, and biomedicine, the value and potential role of CHWs in the social work…

  20. Family Support & Health Care: Working Together for Healthy Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalley, Jacqueline, Ed.; Ahsan, Nilofer, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This report of the Family Resource Coalition of America examines partnerships between family support programs and health care providers, forged to ensure that the comprehensive needs of families are met. The report begins with two articles, "Family Support and the Emerging Health System" and "Social and Economic Issues Affecting Health--A…

  1. The Trouble with Health Savings Accounts: A Social Work Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, conservatives have promoted health savings accounts (HSAs) as a way of addressing the growing cost of health insurance. HSAs were introduced under the Medical Modernization Act of 2003 as "an alternative to traditional health insurance." They are at the heart of an effort to replace the current system of insurance with…

  2. Health and Turnover of Working Mothers after Childbirth via the Work-Family Interface: An Analysis across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dawn S.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Ferguson, Merideth; Hunter, Emily M.; Clinch, C. Randall; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined organizational levers that impact work-family experiences, participant health, and subsequent turnover. Using a sample of 179 women returning to full-time work 4 months after childbirth, we examined the associations of 3 job resources (job security, skill discretion, and schedule control) with work-to-family enrichment and the…

  3. Improvement of force health protection through preventive medicine oversight of contractor support.

    PubMed

    Mower, Scott A

    2009-01-01

    Unprecedented numbers of contractors are used throughout the Iraq theater of operations to alleviate military manpower shortages. At virtually every major forward operating base, US-based contractors perform the preponderance of essential life support services. At more remote sites, local national contractors are increasingly relied upon to maintain chemical latrines, remove trash, deliver bulk water, and execute other janitorial functions. Vigorous oversight of contractor performance is essential to ensure services are delivered according to specified standards. Poor oversight can increase the risk of criminal activities, permit substandard performance, elevate disease and nonbattle injury rates, degrade morale, and diminish Soldier readiness. As the principal force health protection proponents in the Department of Defense, preventive medicine units must be tightly integrated into the oversight processes. This article defines the force health protection implications associated with service contracts and provide recommendations for strengthening preventive medicine's oversight role. PMID:20084747

  4. How Can Magnetic Forces Do Work? Investigating the Problem with Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onorato, Pasquale; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We present a sequence of activities aimed at promoting both learning about magnetic forces and students' reflection about the conceptual bridge between magnetic forces on a moving charge and on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field. The activity sequence, designed for students in high school or on introductory physics courses, has been…

  5. The mental health of the UK Armed Forces: where facts meet fiction

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Elizabeth J. F.; Wessely, Simon; Jones, Norman; Rona, Roberto J.; Greenberg, Neil

    2014-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has been conducted into the mental health of the UK military in recent years. This article summarises the results of the various studies and offers possible explanations for differences in findings between the UK and other allied nations. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates are perhaps surprisingly low amongst British forces, with prevalence rates of around 4% in personnel who have deployed, rising to 6% in combat troops, despite the high tempo of operations in recent years. The rates in personnel currently on operations are consistently lower than these. Explanations for the lower PTSD prevalence in British troops include variations in combat exposures, demographic differences, higher leader to enlisted soldier ratios, shorter operational tour lengths and differences in access to long-term health care between countries. Delayed-onset PTSD was recently found to be more common than previously supposed, accounting for nearly half of all PTSD cases; however, many of these had sub-syndromal PTSD predating the onset of the full disorder. Rates of common mental health disorders in UK troops are similar or higher to those of the general population, and overall operational deployments are not associated with an increase in mental health problems in UK regular forces. However, there does appear to be a correlation between both deployment and increased alcohol misuse and post-deployment violence in combat troops. Unlike for regular forces, there is an overall association between deployment and mental health problems in Reservists. There have been growing concerns regarding mild traumatic brain injury, though this appears to be low in British troops with an overall prevalence of 4.4% in comparison with 15% in the US military. The current strategies for detection and treatment of mental health problems in British forces are also described. The stance of the UK military is that psychological welfare of troops is primarily a chain of

  6. Health Literacy: Critical Opportunities for Social Work Leadership in Health Care and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liechty, Janet M.

    2011-01-01

    One-third of U. S. adults do not have adequate health literacy to manage their health care needs; and low health literacy is a major concern due to its association with poor health outcomes, high health care costs, and health communication problems. Low health literacy is a potential driver of health disparities, and its alleviation is central to…

  7. Periodic health examination, 1994 update: 1. Obesity in childhood. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update the 1979 Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination recommendation on screening for childhood obesity by reviewing any new evidence concerning health risks in childhood and adulthood, and effective preventive or therapeutic interventions. OPTIONS: Detection: routine measurement of height and weight, use of skinfold thickness measurements, calculation of body mass index (BMI). Intervention: diet, exercise, behaviour modification and comprehensive family-based weight-reduction programs. Components of these interventions could be offered routinely or reserved for children and families who perceive obesity to be a present or potential problem. OUTCOMES: The task force reviewed the probability of obese children become obese adults as a risk factor for adult heart disease and overall related illness and death in adult life as well as obesity as a risk factor for physical and psychologic illness in childhood. EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search for relevant articles published between January 1981 and February 1991 was undertaken. VALUES: The task force's evidence-based rules for recommendations were used. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: If weight reduction in childhood were shown to prevent physical or psychologic illness in childhood, or illness and death in adult life, screening and treatment should be recommended. Screening for obesity may cause anxiety on the part of the child and family; malnutrition in children as a result of parents becoming overly anxious about the health risks of obesity has been reported. Most weight reduction programs have limited long-term effectiveness and can be costly. RECOMMENDATIONS: There is insufficient evidence of short-term or long-term benefits from screening for or treatment of childhood obesity to recommend such screening or recommend against it. There is fair evidence to recommend against very-low-kilojoule diets for preadolescents. There is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against exercise programs or

  8. Work-related Mental Consequences: Implications of Burnout on Mental Health Status Among Health Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.

    2015-01-01

    with any SRSDA subscale. Conclusions: Burnout appears to implicate mental health status of healthcare providers in work index. Emotional exhaustion is the burnout dimension that is correlated the most with employees’ mental health. PMID:25870487

  9. Leveraging the Social Determinants of Health: What Works?

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lauren A.; Tan, Annabel Xulin; Coyle, Caitlin E.; Ndumele, Chima; Rogan, Erika; Canavan, Maureen; Curry, Leslie A.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    We summarized the recently published, peer-reviewed literature that examined the impact of investments in social services or investments in integrated models of health care and social services on health outcomes and health care spending. Of 39 articles that met criteria for inclusion in the review, 32 (82%) reported some significant positive effects on either health outcomes (N = 20), health care costs (N = 5), or both (N = 7). Of the remaining 7 (18%) studies, 3 had non-significant results, 2 had mixed results, and 2 had negative results in which the interventions were associated with poorer health outcomes. Our analysis of the literature indicates that several interventions in the areas of housing, income support, nutrition support, and care coordination and community outreach have had positive impact in terms of health improvements or health care spending reductions. These interventions may be of interest to health care policymakers and practitioners seeking to leverage social services to improve health or reduce costs. Further testing of models that achieve better outcomes at less cost is needed. PMID:27532336

  10. Sales force development in health services organizations; a boundary spanning perspective.

    PubMed

    Kornuszko, M A; Gamm, L D

    1990-01-01

    Sales force development is of growing importance to HSOs in their increasingly competitive and heterogenous health care markets. There is always some danger that, under such circumstances, strategies new to HSOs will be adopted without sufficient attention to how they function and how they might best be integrated into the organization's overall mission. The sales force is becoming an important part of administration in the modern HSO. Ensuring that sales personnel effectively meet the needs of clients and of all relevant units of their HSO calls for attention to a number of concerns raised in organization-environment theory. Concepts from the literature on organizational boundaries and boundary spanning used here organize and illuminate major issues in sales force development. The approach taken is one which underscores the importance of these issues, illustrates some possible responses, and encourages HSO administrators to reflect on organizational implications of sales force development. The perspective offered provides a base for more detailed design considerations in planning and implementing a sales force. PMID:10106600

  11. Health consumption as work: the home pregnancy test as a domesticated health tool.

    PubMed

    Childerhose, Janet E; Macdonald, Margaret E

    2013-06-01

    A growing array of biomedical goods and services has become central to the North American experience of navigating illness and pursuing good health. Yet despite the utility of consumption as an analytical framework within the social sciences, the selection, purchase, and use of biomedical goods and services has been understudied. By using the home pregnancy test as a case study, we suggest new approaches to thinking about the consumption of these goods and services. We chose the home pregnancy test because it is the best-known example of a mass-produced diagnostic tool used by consumers. We draw on two sources of data for this qualitative analysis: a set of stories submitted between 2003 and 2005 by women and men to an online exhibit mounted by the National Institutes of Health called "A Thin Blue Line: The History of the Pregnancy Test Kit," which we analysed between 2006 and 2007; and web sampling conducted in 2009 and 2010 of personal web and video logs of women and men who have posted stories and opinions about their experiences with contemporary home pregnancy testing products. We adapt the term "domestication" from Science and Technology Studies scholarship to describe the movement of diagnostic devices into homes for use by consumers. Specifically, we propose that the consumption of domesticated biomedical devices, goods, and services should be theorized as work performed by consumers, in two senses: as a form of tool use that allows non-experts to produce diagnostic knowledge about their own bodies and health; and as the ongoing biopolitical work that is expected of citizens to produce healthy bodies. Our paper draws attention to these understudied phenomena, while suggesting new approaches to theorizing the social and cultural elements of goods and services for health. PMID:23608088

  12. Making Program Assessment Work: A Profile of the U.S. Air Force Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Barbara J.; Lowe, James K.; Aretz, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the three levels of course and program assessment present at the U.S. Air Force Academy, including assessment at the course, departmental, and institutional levels. Points out common elements useful to all assessment efforts. (EV)

  13. The Australian Defence Force Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study: design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Hooff, Miranda Van; McFarlane, Alexander C.; Davies, Christopher E.; Searle, Amelia K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A. Kate; Verhagen, Alan; Benassi, Helen; Hodson, Stephanie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population. Objective The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening methods, and identify specific occupational factors that influence mental health. This paper describes the design, sampling strategies, and methodology used in this study. Method At Phase 1, approximately half of all regular Navy, Army, and Air Force personnel (n=24,481) completed self-report questionnaires. At Phase 2, a stratified sub-sample (n=1,798) completed a structured diagnostic interview to detect mental disorder. Based on data from non-responders, data were weighted to represent the entire ADF population (n=50,049). Results One in five ADF members met criteria for a 12-month mental disorder (22%). The most common disorder category was anxiety disorders (14.8%), followed by affective (9.5%) and alcohol disorders (5.2%). At risk ADF sub-groups were Army personnel, and those in the lower ranks. Deployment status did not have an impact on mental disorder rates. Conclusion This study has important implications for mental health service delivery for Australian and international military personnel as well as contemporary veterans. PMID:25206944

  14. Do Skyrme forces that fit nuclear matter work well in finite nuclei?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, P. D.; Goddard, P. M.; Stone, J. R.; Dutra, M.

    2013-05-01

    A short list of Skyrme force parameterizations, recently found to have passed a series of constraints relating to nuclear matter properties is analyzed for their ability to reproduce data in finite nuclei. We analyse binding energies, isotope shifts, neutron skin thicknesses and fission barriers. We find that the subset of forces have no common ability to reproduce(or otherwise)properties of finite nuclei, despite passing the extensive range of nuclear matter constraints.

  15. Russia's College Students: Work and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, L. Iu.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the effect of secondary employment on the sense of well-being of students in full-time education shows that the degree of fatigue and emotional stress on the job is affected by gender, the students' assessment of their own health, and their disposition to take care of their health.

  16. Child Health Inequality: Framing a Social Work Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Virginia Rondero; Montana, Salvador; Clarke, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies acknowledge that the well-being of our nation hinges on the health of its people. There is specific concern about children because they represent the future. Ignoring children's health needs can compromise their educational preparedness, occupational pursuits, productivity, and longevity. Current science demonstrates that…

  17. Mental Health Promotion and Work: Rumbalara Community's Roundtable Discussion 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoban, Rosemary

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between socioeconomic status and health is well established, with people at the lowest socioeconomic levels experiencing the highest rates of illnesses and death. While poverty, unemployment and limited access to adequate housing have a significant impact on the health and well being of the general population, Aboriginal people's…

  18. [Mental health and work: integrated technical actions between services for preventive hygiene and worksite safety and mental health centers].

    PubMed

    Bosco, M G; Salerno, S; Valcella, F

    1999-01-01

    We analyzed occupational and mental health activities in an occupational health service and in a mental health service using the Method of Organizational Congruences (MOC). No technical actions in either services were dedicated to mental health at work although this is prescribed by the Italian law (833/76) and has a demand among the local shared users identified in this study. We propose integrated technical action for mental health in public health services to address the risk of stress, burnout and mobbing in the workplace. Attention is drawn to the need for further research on health services in the field of organization and mental well-being. PMID:10703191

  19. IS WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT A MULTILEVEL STRESSOR LINKING JOB CONDITIONS TO MENTAL HEALTH? EVIDENCE FROM THE WORK, FAMILY AND HEALTH NETWORK

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Kaduk, Anne; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie; Buxton, Orfeu M.; O’Donnell, Emily; Almeida, David; Fox, Kimberly; Tranby, Eric; Oakes, J. Michael; Casper, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Most research on the work conditions and family responsibilities associated with work-family conflict and other measures of mental health uses the individual employee as the unit of analysis. We argue that work conditions are both individual psychosocial assessments and objective characteristics of the proximal work environment, necessitating multilevel analyses of both individual- and team-level work conditions on mental health. Methodology/approach This study uses multilevel data on 748 high-tech professionals in 120 teams to investigate relationships between team- and individual-level job conditions, work-family conflict, and four mental health outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, perceived stress, and psychological distress). Findings We find that work-to-family conflict is socially patterned across teams, as are job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Team-level job conditions predict team-level outcomes, while individuals’ perceptions of their job conditions are better predictors of individuals’ work-to-family conflict and mental health. Work-to-family conflict operates as a partial mediator between job demands and mental health outcomes. Practical implications Our findings suggest that organizational leaders concerned about presenteeism, sickness absences, and productivity would do well to focus on changing job conditions in ways that reduce job demands and work-to-family conflict in order to promote employees’ mental health. Originality/value of the chapter We show that both work-to-family conflict and job conditions can be fruitfully framed as team characteristics, shared appraisals held in common by team members. This challenges the framing of work-to-family conflict as a “private trouble” and provides support for work-to-family conflict as a structural mismatch grounded in the social and temporal organization of work. PMID:25866431

  20. Texas Quality Workforce Planning: 1993 Key Industries and Targeted Occupations for Texas' 24 Quality Work Force Planning Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Commerce, Austin.

    In 1993, Texas' 24 quality work force planning committees used a state-developed targeted occupations planning methodology to identify key industries and targeted occupations with the greatest potential for job openings in their respective regions. Between 11 and 20 key industries (13.5 on average) were identified for each region. The following 10…

  1. Technology Partnership Organization: Quality Work Force Planning in East Texas. Final Report for Project Year 1990-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabac, John N.

    The Technology Partnership Organization (TPO) is one of 24 Quality Work Force Planning (QWFP) entities in Texas. The TPO met its objectives through a variety of activities, including the following: (1) establishing a QWFP committee for the region; (2) providing an inventory of key regional industries with the greatest job opening potential and…

  2. Force, Velocity, and Work: The Effects of Different Contexts on Students' Understanding of Vector Concepts Using Isomorphic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare students' understanding of vector concepts in problems with no physical context, and with three mechanics contexts: force, velocity, and work. Based on our "Test of Understanding of Vectors," a multiple-choice test presented elsewhere, we designed two isomorphic shorter versions of 12 items each: a test…

  3. Secondary and Postsecondary Vocational Education in Mississippi: An Evaluation. Final Report Prepared for the Mississippi Commission on Work Force Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoachlander, E. Gareth; And Others

    In September 1990, the Commission on Work Force Excellence was established to increase Mississippi's economic competitiveness and improve worker opportunities. The commission sponsored an evaluation of the diverse enterprise of the state's secondary and postsecondary vocational education system. Eight findings resulted from the study. First, the…

  4. The 21st Century at Work: Forces Shaping the Future Workforce and Workplace in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Lynn A.; Panis, Constantijn W. A.

    2004-01-01

    What are the forces that will continue to shape the U.S. workforce and workplace over the next 10 to 15 years? With such inevitabilities as the proliferation and acceleration of technology worldwide, will more individuals work at home, will more businesses outsource their noncore functions -- and with what consequences? Answering such questions…

  5. The 21st Century at Work: Forces Shaping the Future Workforce and Workplace in the United States. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Lynn A.; Panis, Constantijn W. A.

    2004-01-01

    What are the forces that will continue to shape the U.S. workforce and workplace over the next 10 to 15 years? With such inevitabilities as the proliferation and acceleration of technology worldwide, will more individuals work at home, will more businesses outsource their noncore functions -- and with what consequences? Answering such questions…

  6. Integrating Education on Addressing Health Disparities into the Graduate Social Work Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jamie Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose an elective social work course as a means of better preparing social workers entering practice in healthcare to meet the challenges of promoting health and reducing health disparities in minority and underserved communities. Course offerings specifically targeting health or medical social work training…

  7. A systematic review of resilience and mental health outcomes of conflict-driven adult forced migrants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising global burden of forced migration due to armed conflict is increasingly recognised as an important issue in global health. Forced migrants are at a greater risk of developing mental disorders. However, resilience, defined as the ability of a person to successfully adapt to or recover from stressful and traumatic experiences, has been highlighted as a key potential protective factor. This study aimed to review systematically the global literature on the impact of resilience on the mental health of adult conflict-driven forced migrants. Methodology Both quantitative and qualitative studies that reported resilience and mental health outcomes among forcibly displaced persons (aged 18+) by way of exploring associations, links, pathways and causative mechanisms were included. Fourteen bibliographic databases and seven humanitarian study databases/websites were searched and a four stage screening process was followed. Results Twenty three studies were included in the final review. Ten qualitative studies identified highlighted family and community cohesion, family and community support, individual personal qualities, collective identity, supportive primary relationships and religion. Thirteen quantitative studies were identified, but only two attempted to link resilience with mental disorders, and three used a specific resilience measure. Over-reliance on cross-sectional designs was noted. Resilience was generally shown to be associated with better mental health in displaced populations, but the evidence on this and underlying mechanisms was limited. Discussion The review highlights the need for more epidemiological and qualitative evidence on resilience in forcibly displaced persons as a potential avenue for intervention development, particularly in resource-poor settings. PMID:25177360

  8. First Lady praises California for work in health care debate.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1993-01-01

    Hillary Rodham Clinton called California's health care delivery system a model for the nation during a live teleconference at the CAHHS Annual Meeting Oct. 13 in San Diego. In her first-ever address before a state hospital association, the first lady told nearly 1,000 people that California "has its own place of honor in the health care debate" and praised the state for being "years ahead of Washington (D.C.) in recognizing what's right about American health care." What follows is the transcript from her address. PMID:10130730

  9. Successful Global Health Research Partnerships: What Makes Them Work?

    PubMed

    John, Chandy C; Ayodo, George; Musoke, Philippa

    2016-01-01

    There are many successful global health research partnerships, but little information is available about what makes them successful. We asked 14 research colleagues from Uganda, Kenya, and the United States who have extensive global health research experience about what they considered the top three factors that led to or impeded successful international research collaborations. Four key factors were identified: 1) mutual respect and benefit, 2) trust, 3) good communication, and 4) clear partner roles and expectations. Initial and ongoing assessment of these factors in global health research partnerships may prevent misunderstandings and foster a collaborative environment that leads to successful research. PMID:26483123

  10. Does living and working in a hot environment induce clinically relevant changes in immune function and voluntary force production capacity?

    PubMed

    Knez, Wade; Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sebastien; Walsh, Andrew; Gaoua, Nadia; Grantham, Justin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of living (summer vs. winter) and working (morning vs. afternoon) in a hot environment on markers of immune function and forearm strength. Thirty-one healthy male gas field employees were screened before (between 05:30 and 07:00) and after their working day (between 15:30 and 17:00) during both seasons. Body core temperature and physical activity were recorded throughout the working days. The hot condition (i.e. summer) led a higher (p≤0.05) average body core temperature (~37.2 vs. ~37.4 °C) but reduced physical activity (-14.8%) during the work-shift. Our data showed an increase (p≤0.05) in lymphocyte and monocyte counts in the summer. Additionally, work-shift resulted in significant (p≤0.001) changes in leukocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes independently of the environment. Handgrip (p=0.069) and pinch (p=0.077) forces tended to be reduced from pre-to post-work, while only force produced during handgrip manoeuvres was significantly reduced (p≤0.05) during the hot compared to the temperate season. No interactions were observed between the environment and work-shift for any marker of immune function or forearm strength. In summary, working and living in hot conditions impact on markers of immune function and work capacity; however by self-regulating energy expenditure, immune markers remained in a healthy reference range. PMID:24583514

  11. New frontiers for diagnostic testing: taking advantage of forces changing health care.

    PubMed

    Allawi, S J; Hill, B T; Shah, N R

    1998-01-01

    The transformation of the health-care industry holds great economic potential for laboratory diagnostic testing providers who understand the five market forces driving change and who are shaping their own roles in the emerging market. Because of these trends, provider-based laboratories (PBLs) are competing with independent laboratories (ILs) for the latter's traditional client base--outpatients and nonpatients. PBLs will continue to service acute care patients while becoming more IL-like in logistics, sales, customer service, and marketing. Forced to compete on price, ILs have engaged in mega-mergers and will try to break into acute care via joint ventures. The ILs will need to choose their markets carefully, solidly integrate with parent organizations, and find ways to be profit centers. Consumers' demands also are forcing change. Consumers want accurate, legible bills and simplified eligibility determination and registration. They want an emphasis on prevention and wellness, which means that diagnostic testing must address early identification and monitoring of high-risk groups. To realize cost-efficiencies under whole-life capitation, laboratory networks must be part of a completely integrated health-care system. The laboratory of the future will be multicentered, without walls, and with quick access to information through technology. PMID:10178702

  12. Preparation of Mental Health Clinicians to Work with Children with Co-Occurring Autism Spectrum Disorders and Mental Health Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Marian E.; Haranin, Emily C.

    2016-01-01

    Up to 70% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a co-occurring mental health disorder; however, many clinicians feel unprepared to serve children with complex co-occurring conditions. This study surveyed 64 mental health clinicians working in 21 publically-funded mental health agencies in a large urban setting to explore their…

  13. Delivering services and influencing policy: health care professionals join forces to improve maternal, newborn, and child health.

    PubMed

    2009-06-01

    This article reviews the major activities of health care professional organizations (HCPAs), and emphasizes the role they can play in advocating for women and children and influencing maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) programs and policies. The ICM/FIGO joint effort to prevent postpartum hemorrhage and the 40-year partnership between the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Indian Health Service (IHS) are highlighted as examples of how and why HCPAs should assume a leadership role in advocacy work. The action-oriented multicountry HCPA workshops organized by the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health (PMNCH) and the international HCPAs are also described. These capacity building workshops are aimed at strengthening the ability of HCPAs to organize, coordinate activities, and become more involved in program and policy development. PMID:19339007

  14. Single-Parent and Working-Parent Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... way toward better health. The main key is time management. Difficult? Sometimes. But not impossible. “It’s become commonly accepted that we are all too busy all of the time, but somehow we find time for all of ...

  15. Universal access: making health systems work for women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Universal coverage by health services is one of the core obligations that any legitimate government should fulfil vis-à-vis its citizens. However, universal coverage may not in itself ensure universal access to health care. Among the many challenges to ensuring universal coverage as well as access to health care are structural inequalities by caste, race, ethnicity and gender. Based on a review of published literature and applying a gender-analysis framework, this paper highlights ways in which the policies aimed at promoting universal coverage may not benefit women to the same extent as men because of gender-based differentials and inequalities in societies. It also explores how ‘gender-blind’ organisation and delivery of health care services may deny universal access to women even when universal coverage has been nominally achieved. The paper then makes recommendations for addressing these. PMID:22992384

  16. Between the Cracks: Access to Physical Health Care in Children of the Working Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Barbara J.; Wang, Shirley J.; Kwasman, Alan; Green, Delores

    This study examined the demographic and psychological characteristics of the parents of a group of children with no access to health care, due to their status as "working poor" and thus denied either public or private health insurance whose children were referred for treatment for an acute health problem by a volunteer health care program for…

  17. Empowering nurses for work engagement and health in hospital settings.

    PubMed

    Laschinger, Heather K Spence; Finegan, Joan

    2005-10-01

    Employee empowerment has become an increasingly important factor in determining employee health and wellbeing in restructured healthcare settings. The authors tested a theoretical model which specified the relationships among structural empowerment, 6 areas of worklife that promote employee engagement, and staff nurses' physical and mental health. A predictive, non-experimental design was used to test the model in a random sample of staff nurses. The authors discuss their findings and the implication for nurse administrators. PMID:16220057

  18. Work History and Later-Life Labor Force Participation: Evidence from a Large Telecommunications Firm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Gangaram; Verma, Anil

    2003-01-01

    Of 1,805 early retirees, 40% returned to work (17% full time, 51% part time, 32% self employed). Return was positively related to work attachment and tenure at last job. Clerical workers were less likely than managers to choose part-time work over retirement. Lateral mobility and high work attachment were negatively related to postretirement…

  19. Four principles for expanding PEPFAR's role as a vital force in US health diplomacy abroad.

    PubMed

    Collins, Chris; Isbell, Michael; Sohn, Annette; Klindera, Kent

    2012-07-01

    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is the leading platform for US health diplomacy and a symbol of American capacity to achieve constructive and beneficial change. The program now faces an evolving context for its work that includes, on the one hand, domestic fiscal pressures in the United States, but on the other, the potential for substantial gains against the AIDS epidemic around the world. Continued success in advancing America's humanitarian and diplomatic interests through global health requires the United States to maintain robust investments in PEPFAR; implement a strategic plan to achieve an AIDS-free generation; use the program as a foundation to strengthen health systems generally and enable them to address broader health issues, such as chronic and noncommunicable diseases; carefully manage the transition to country "ownership" of the fight against HIV; and achieve greater coherence in US government health-related policy. PMID:22778348

  20. Developing Future Health Professionals' Capacities for Working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, Antonia; Britton, Katherine Frances; Hoffman, Julie; Kickett, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This article details reflections of an interdisciplinary team of educators working with groups of health sciences students in preparing them for working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The first-year common core unit discussed here is one attempt to equip future health practitioners with skills and knowledges to work adequately…

  1. Mortality, length of life, and physical examination attendance in participants of the Air Force Health Study.

    PubMed

    Ketchum, Norma S; Michalek, Joel E; Pavuk, Marian

    2007-01-01

    Begun in 1982, the Air Force Health Study (AFHS) has assessed the mortality of veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerially spraying herbicides in Vietnam. A comparison group of other Air Force veterans involved with aircraft missions in Southeast Asia during the same period, but not involved with spraying herbicides, was included in the study. Among 18,082 veterans, this report examined whether attendance at AFHS physical examinations from 1982 to 1999 played a role in mortality experience and potential lengthening of life relative to veterans who did not attend. The years of potential life lost for 1173 veterans who died before age 65 was calculated. No statistically significant difference in risk of death was found from all causes, cancer, or circulatory disease between attendees and nonattendees. No evidence was found to suggest that attending physical examinations decreased mortality or substantially lengthened life in AFHS participants. PMID:17274267

  2. Biomechanically and electromyographically assessed load on the spine in self-paced and force-paced lifting work.

    PubMed

    Leskinen, T P; Stålhammar, H R; Rautanen, M T; Troup, J D

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure dose of spinal load when different pacing methods were applied to lifting work and to develop methodology for such measurements. The compressive load on the spine computed by a dynamic biomechanical model and the electromyographic activity of back muscles were used for describing the spinal load. Five men and five women worked in a laboratory on two days lifting a box up and down for 30 min on both days, on one day force-paced (4 lifts/min), and on the other self-paced in random order. The weight of the box was rated by the subjects to be acceptable for the work done. The lift rate of our female subjects was higher and that of the male subjects lower in self-paced than in force-paced work. There were no significant differences in peak lumbosacral compressions nor in the amplitude distributions of electromyography between the two pacing methods. The biomechanically-calculated compressive forces on the spine were lower (about 2.7 kN for the men and 2.3 kN for women) than the biomechanical recommendations for safe lifting, but the EMG activity showed quite high peaks so that for 1% of work time the activity was on women above 60% and on men above 40% of the activity during maximum isometric voluntary test contraction. PMID:1633794

  3. Social networks, the 'work' and work force of chronic illness self-management: a survey analysis of personal communities.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, Ivaylo; Rogers, Anne; Blickem, Christian; Brooks, Helen; Kapadia, Dharmi; Kennedy, Anne; Sanders, Caroline; Kirk, Sue; Reeves, David

    2013-01-01

    Self-management support forms a central aspect of chronic Illness management nationally and globally. Evidence for the success of self-management support has mainly focussed on individually-centred outcomes of behavioural change. While it is recognised that social network members play an important role there is currently a gap in knowledge regarding who provides what type of support and under what circumstances. This is relevant for understanding the division of labour and the meeting of needs for those living with a long-term condition. We therefore took a network approach to explore self-management support conceptualising it as types of illness 'work' undertaken within peoples' social networks. 300 people from deprived areas and with chronic illnesses took part in a survey conducted in 2010 in the North West of England. A concentric circles diagram was used as a research tool with which participants identified 2,544 network members who contributed to illness management. The results provide an articulation of how social network members are substantially involved in illness management. Whilst partners and close family make the highest contributions there is evidence of inputs from a wide range of relationships. Network member characteristics (type of relationship, proximity, frequency of contact) impact on the amount of illness work undertaken in peoples' networks. In networks with 'no partner' other people tend to contribute more in the way of illness related work than in networks with a partner. This indicates a degree of substitutability between differently constituted networks, and that the level and type of input by different members of a network might change according to circumstances. A network perspective offers an opportunity to redress the balance of an exclusively individual focus on self-management because it addresses the broader set of contributions and resources available to people in need of chronic illness management and support. PMID:23565162

  4. Serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels in Air Force health study participants - preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-24

    In 1978, the US Air Force responded to a congressional mandate to initiate an epidemiologic study of the possible health effects of exposure to herbicides and their 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) contaminants in Air Force veterans who served in the Ranch Hand defoliation operation during the Vietnam conflict. Accordingly, the Air Force conducted a nonconcurrent prospective study, the Air Force Health Study, of all 1267 members of the Ranch Hand unit and a series of matched controls. This phase of the Air Force study focused on measuring serum TCDD levels in 150 Ranch Hand veterans and 50 controls. All participants were enlisted men; the Ranch Hand veterans had been either herbicide loaders or herbicide specialists in Vietnam. The demographic and health characteristics of Ranch Hand personnel and controls were similar; however, their serum TCDD levels differed markedly.

  5. The mental health of the UK Armed Forces in the 21st century: resilience in the face of adversity.

    PubMed

    MacManus, Deirdre; Jones, N; Wessely, S; Fear, N T; Jones, E; Greenberg, N

    2014-06-01

    The recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have attracted considerable political and media interest in the mental health of UK military personnel. As a result of the close operational collaboration between US and UK forces, there have inevitably been many comparisons drawn between the mental health status of the two forces. Considerable research activity suggests that the mental health of UK forces appear to have remained relatively resilient in spite of their considerable exposure to traumatic events; one stark exception to this is the high rates of alcohol misuse which seem to be related to deployment. This paper explores the recently published literature relating to UK military forces and attempts to draw conclusions about the reasons for the apparent resilience shown by the majority of the regular forces. PMID:24574105

  6. The stigma of mental health problems and other barriers to care in the UK Armed Forces

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As with the general population, a proportion of military personnel with mental health problems do not seek help. As the military is a profession at high risk of occupational psychiatric injury, understanding barriers to help-seeking is a priority. Method Participants were drawn from a large UK military health study. Participants undertook a telephone interview including the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ); a short measure of PTSD (Primary Care PTSD, PC-PTSD); a series of questions about service utilisation; and barriers to care. The response rate was 76% (821 participants). Results The most common barriers to care reported are those relating to the anticipated public stigma associated with consulting for a mental health problem. In addition, participants reported barriers in the practicalities of consulting such as scheduling an appointment and having time off for treatment. Barriers to care did not appear to be diminished after people leave the Armed Forces. Veterans report additional barriers to care of not knowing where to find help and a concern that their employer would blame them for their problems. Those with mental health problems, such as PTSD, report significantly more barriers to care than those who do not have a diagnosis of a mental disorder. Conclusions Despite recent efforts to de-stigmatise mental disorders in the military, anticipated stigma and practical barriers to consulting stand in the way of access to care for some Service personnel. Further interventions to reduce stigma and ensuring that Service personnel have access to high quality confidential assessment and treatment remain priorities for the UK Armed Forces. PMID:21310027

  7. 75 FR 47307 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health 510(k) Working Group Preliminary Report and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Group Preliminary Report and Recommendations, and Task Force on the Utilization of Science in Regulatory... of Science in Regulatory Decision Making. Volume I is entitled ``510(k) Working Group Preliminary Report and Recommendations.'' Volume II is entitled ``Task Force on the Utilization of Science...

  8. Impact of Rural Training on Physician Work Force: The Role of Postresidency Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, David A.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 53 obstetrical and rural fellowship programs found that graduates of rural health fellowships were more likely to locate in rural areas. Almost all graduates from obstetrical and rural health programs attained general hospital privileges in family practice and low-risk obstetrics, and a significant number attained privileges in…

  9. Understanding Job Satisfaction and Turnover in the Home Aide Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Penny Hollander; Sapienza, Alice M.

    Increasing demands for home health aides to the frail elderly and disabled, coupled with a high rate of turnover among these aides, has led to growing concerns over worker recruitment and retention in the home care industry. This paper therefore describes a model developed to explain job satisfaction and turnover among home health aides. The model…

  10. The American Organization of Nurse Executives System CNE task force: a work in progress.

    PubMed

    Rudisill, Pamela T; Thompson, Pamela A

    2012-01-01

    Health care is a complex industry, consequently requiring a diverse group of health care executives leading initiatives for efficiency and effectiveness in patient care delivery. Value-based purchasing and pay for performance are at the top of the list for indicators of success, and many hospitals are merging into health care systems. The role of the system chief nurse executive is an evolving role to lead health care systems in clinical, operational, patient safety, and patient satisfaction processes and outcomes. The American Organization of Nurse Executives, being the voice for nursing leadership, convened a group of system chief nurse executives to address the role, function, and competencies needed for this significant and emerging role in health care. This article describes the role statement and system chief nurse executive competencies needed for success in the role. In addition, the next steps for addressing the needs of this group will be outlined in this article. PMID:22955216

  11. When is it social work? Another look at practice with groups in health care.

    PubMed

    Olson, M M

    1986-01-01

    It has been observed that there are problems in the conceptual base of social workers' practice with groups in health settings. This article suggests that to develop a sound conceptual base and to improve the integration of work with groups into the operating structures for delivering social work services in health care, it is necessary to distinguish social work groups from other groups. Criteria for social work practice with groups are identified. Criteria are based on fundamental principles of social work practice in health care and principles of social work practice differentiated to take account of group processes. PMID:3603326

  12. Time for Results: The Governors' 1991 Report on Education. Supporting Works. Task Force on Readiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors' Association, Washington, DC.

    The members of this task force adopted a broad approach to readiness so that issues relating to at-risk children and youth between the preschool years and graduation might be addressed. Two papers are presented: (1) "Readiness for the New Educational Standards" (Jean G. McDonald); and (2) "State Policy for At-Risk Children: Preschool to High…

  13. Perspectives: Reforming American Higher Education--Implications for a Vibrant Work Force and a Healthy Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The forces of globalization are finally hitting American postsecondary education. For nearly three decades, since the 1983 publication of "A Nation At Risk" launched a sustained focus on the mediocre, if not failing, K-12 system, American postsecondary education has avoided the accountability spotlight. Postsecondary policy debates have focused…

  14. The American Work Force, 1992-2005. Historical Trends, 1950-92, and Current Uncertainties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutscher, Ronald E.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the trends of the last four decades in terms of the labor force, economics, employment by industry, and employment by occupation. Considers uncertainties surrounding projections to 2005: end of the cold war, European unification, and the North American Free Trade Agreement. (SK)

  15. Video: Animals; Electric Current; Force; Science Activities. Learning in Science Project. Working Papers 51-54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Beverley; And Others

    Four papers to be used in conjunction with video-tapes developed by the Learning in Science Project are presented. Topic areas of the papers focus on: (1) animals; (2) electric current; (3) force; and (4) science activities. The first paper presents transcripts of class discussions focusing on the scientific meaning of the word animal. The second…

  16. The Redistribution of the Black Work Force in the South by Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Jong Mo

    The exodus of blacks from the south is connected to their abandonment of farming as a way of life. Since 1860 there has been a gradual move by the black population out of the rural south to the urban north from which stems a remarkable shift of the black labor force into industry. The black population from 1940 to 1970 has progressed from…

  17. Labor Force Participation Rates among Working-Age Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes four consecutive years of monthly labor force participation rates reported by the Current Population Survey that included nationally representative samples of the general U.S. population and nationally representative samples of the U.S. population with specifically identified disabilities. Visual impairment is one of the…

  18. Wives' Relative Wages, Husbands' Paid Work Hours, and Wives' Labor-Force Exit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2011-01-01

    Economic theories predict that women are more likely to exit the labor force if their partners' earnings are higher and if their own wage rate is lower. In this article, I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,254) and discrete-time event-history analysis to show that wives' relative wages are more predictive of their exit than are…

  19. Making it work: preventive mental health care for disadvantaged preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Edlefsen, M; Baird, M

    1994-09-01

    Combining education and mental health services in a preschool setting for disadvantaged children can produce significant benefits for these children and their parents. At a time of fiscal constraints, partnerships between the education and mental health sectors can amplify both systems' achievements in a time-efficient manner. Such partnerships recognize and use each profession's expertise to create a more balanced, efficient, and realistic approach to serving children. This article looks at the technical, interpersonal, theoretical, and philosophical aspects of developing mental health-education partnerships in community preschool programs for disadvantaged children and their families. Issues to be addressed in establishing such partnerships include the referral process and tracking of client status, roles and job definition, communication, mutual respect, space and territory issues, and confidentiality. Family outreach, the parent-therapist partnership, professional boundaries, and benefits of partnership are also discussed. PMID:7939867

  20. Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. Methods A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO’s and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Results Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. Conclusion The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and

  1. Do consumers know how their health plan works?

    PubMed

    Cunningham, P J; Denk, C; Sinclair, M

    2001-01-01

    Expanding consumer choice of plans is beneficial only to the extent that consumers make informed choices. Using data from the 1996-97 Community Tracking Study (CTS), this study compares consumers' responses on four key attributes of their health plan with information provided directly by the plan. Plan attributes relate to choice of providers and access to specialists. Although the accuracy of reporting some individual attributes was fairly high, fewer than one-third of consumers accurately reported all four health plan attributes. In general, consumers tended to overreport plan restrictions, especially the need for approval to see specialists. PMID:11260939

  2. Risk and resilience: health inequalities, working conditions and sickness benefit arrangements: an analysis of the 2010 European Working Conditions survey.

    PubMed

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Bambra, Clare; Dragano, Nico; Eikemo, Terje A; Lunau, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    In this article we ask whether the level of sickness benefit provision protects the health of employees, particularly those who are most exposed to hazardous working conditions or who have a little education. The study uses the European Working Condition Survey that includes information on 20,626 individuals from 28 countries. Health was measured by self-reported mental wellbeing and self-rated general health. Country-level sickness benefit provision was constructed using spending data from Eurostat. Group-specific associations were fitted using cross-level interaction terms between sickness benefit provision and physical and psychosocial working conditions respectively, as well as those with little education. The mental wellbeing of employees exposed to psychosocial job strain and physical hazards, or who had little education, was better in countries that offer more generous sickness benefit. These results were found in both men and women and were robust to the inclusion of GDP and country fixed effects. In the analyses of self-reported general health, few group-specific associations were found. This article concludes that generous sickness benefit provision may strengthen employee's resilience against mental health risks at work and risks associated with little education. Consequently, in countries with a generous provision of sickness benefit, social inequalities in mental health are smaller. PMID:26094941

  3. Distraction: an assessment of smartphone usage in health care work settings

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Preetinder S; Kamath, Ashwini; Gill, Tejkaran S

    2012-01-01

    Smartphone use in health care work settings presents both opportunities and challenges. The benefits could be severely undermined if abuse and overuse are not kept in check. This practice-focused research paper examines the current panorama of health software applications. Findings from existing research are consolidated to elucidate the level and effects of distraction in health care work settings due to smartphone use. A conceptual framework for crafting guidelines to regulate the use of smartphones in health care work settings is then presented. Finally, specific guidelines are delineated to assist in creating policies for the use of smartphones in a health care workplace. PMID:22969308

  4. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change’s health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities. PMID:26690194

  5. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change's health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities. PMID:26690194

  6. Economics, Work, and Mental Health: Implications for Primary Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Janet

    Recent research on the impact of economics on mental and physical health has raised fundamental questions about structural elements in the macro-economy and their role in creating stress. This paper reviews and integrates these sometimes conflicting findings into a cohesive model. Structural elements of our current economic system are identified…

  7. Health and work: progress and priorities in 2011.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, A

    2012-09-01

    This article reflects on the progress that has been made in Britain since publication of the Black report on workplace health in 2008. It provides an overview of the key recommendations of the report, reflecting on the interventions that have been put in place in response to these recommendations by the end of September 2011. PMID:22858172

  8. Mental Health Services Coordination: Working towards Utopia. Human Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrea

    1986-01-01

    The need for mental health services coordination is discussed in this report. It is noted that, without coordination, government units and service providers can operate independently and in competition with one another. The move to deinstitutionalization is discussed, including the lack of service coordination resulting from this move and the…

  9. [Climatic change and public health: scenarios after the coming into force of the Kyoto Protocol].

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ferran; Díaz, Julio; Moreno, José Manuel

    2006-03-01

    According to the reports of the intergovernmental panel for climatic change (IPCC) human beings of the present and near future are going to experiment, in fact we are already experimenting, important changes in the world climate. Conscious of the magnitude of the problem, international organizations have taken a series of initiatives headed to stop the climatic change and to reduce its impact. This willingness has been shaped into the agreements established in the Kyoto protocol, where countries commit to reduce greenhouse-effect gas emissions. Kyoto protocol has come into force on February 16th 2005 with the support of 141 signing countries. Among the major worries are the effects which climatic change may have upon health, such as: 1) changes in the morbidity- mortality related to temperature; 2) Effects on health related with extreme meteorological events (tornados, storms, hurricanes and extreme raining); 3) Air pollution and increase of associated health effects; d) Diseases transmitted by food and water and 4) Infectious diseases transmitted by vectors and by rodents. Even if all the countries in the world committed to the Kyoto Protocol, some consequences of the climatic change will be inevitable; among them some will have a negative impact on health. It would be necessary to adapt a key response strategy to minimize the impacts of climatic change and to reduce, at minimum cost, its adverse effects on health. From the Public Health position, a relevant role can and must be played concerning the understanding of the risks for health of such climatic changes, the design of surveillance systems to evaluate possible impacts, and the establishment of systems to prevent or reduce damages as well as the identification and development of investigation needs. PMID:16539979

  10. Solution focused nursing: a fitting model for mental health nurses working in a public health paradigm.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The Australian Federal Government health agenda is advocating an extension of public health principles across all levels of the health sector. Since mental health nurses have long been proponents of public health and health promoting behaviours, an opportunity exists for this specialty of nursing to extend their influence and contribution within health. Solution focused nursing (SFN), a model that emerged from mental health practice, offers a framework to assist mental health nurses and leaders to more clearly practise public health principles within nursing and articulate that practice - for it is in the articulation of practice that nurses and nursing is made visible and valued. This paper aims to expand on and reiterate the SFN model, showing how it connects to public health principles and develops the mental health nurse's role - particularly in those clinical areas that require more than medical management and illness stabilization. PMID:20509799

  11. The Character Strengths of Special Forces Personnel: Insights for Civilian Health Care Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Gayton, Scott D; Kehoe, E James

    2016-09-01

    Civilian employees, contractors, and private community clinicians are increasingly providing health treatment to currently serving and former military personnel. This study addresses recent calls for evidence-based information to assist civilian practitioners in understanding the perspectives of their military clients. To this end, the self-reported character strengths of military personnel were elicited as an operationalized expression of their underlying personal values that shape their perspectives and conduct as soldiers. Specifically, Australian Army Special Forces operators and support personnel (N = 337) were asked to rank themselves on 24 character strengths. The three character strengths of integrity, teamworker, and good judgment were ranked significantly above random assignment. Nearly all the respondents (84%) gave a top rank to at least one of these character strengths. Differences between the operators and support personnel were modest. Results are discussed with respect to establishing an effective relationship between military clients and civilian health care practitioners. PMID:27612343

  12. Sexual health of adults working in pornographic films.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K M; Banks, A; Heggie, C; Scott, C J; Grover, D; Evans, C; Mandalia, S; McLean, K A; Cohen, C E

    2009-07-01

    We report the frequency of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) diagnosed in performers in the adult pornographic film industry. Over a 13 month period, 445 STI screens were performed in 115 patients, 56 women and 59 men. All reported unprotected sex during filming. Seventy-five percent (86) had at least one sexual partner outside work, and 90% used condoms inconsistently with them. Women worked exclusively with women (23%), men only (38%) or both genders (39%). Almost all men (97%) worked exclusively heterosexually. Thirty-eight percent (44/115) were diagnosed with 77 STIs, including non-specific urethritis (51), gonorrhoea (10), chlamydia (6) and genital warts (6). Gonorrhoea was found exclusively at the pharynx in three heterosexual men. There were no cases of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Monthly screening and certification is a working requirement for this population but STIs are common in an industry where unprotected sex is the norm. PMID:19541897

  13. Cellular Tug-of-War: Forces at Work and DNA Stretching in Mitosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Brian; Kilfoil, Maria L.

    2013-03-01

    In the microscopic world of the cell dominated by thermal noise, a cell must be able to successfully segregate its DNA with high fidelity in order to pass its genetic information on to its progeny. In this process of mitosis in eukaryotes, driving forces act on the cytoskeleton-based architecture called the mitotic spindle to promote this division. Our preliminary data demonstrates that the dynamics of this process in yeast cells is universal. Moreover, the dynamics suggest an increasing load as the chromosomes are pulled apart. To investigate this, we use three-dimensional imaging to track the dynamics of the poles of this architecture and the points of attachment to chromosomes simultaneously and with high spatial resolution. We analyze the relative motions of chromosomes as they are organized before segregation and as they are pulled apart, using this data to investigate the force-response behavior of this cytoskeleton-chromosome polymer system.

  14. Children of Working Mothers, March 1975: Summary, Special Labor Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The following are some of the findings based on the results of the annual survey of marital and family characteristics of workers: (1) about 27.6 million of 62.7 million children had mothers in the labor force (over 2 million more than in March 1970); (2) 1.1 million of 6.5 million children under six were in families headed by women (71 percent…

  15. Effects of war exposure on Air Force personnel’s mental health, job burnout and other organizational related outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Vinokur, Amiram D.; Pierce, Penny F.; Lewandowski-Romps, Lisa; Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal data from a stratified representative sample of U.S. Air Force personnel (N = 1009) deployed to the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other locations were analyzed in this study. Using structural equation models, we examined the effects of war exposure on traumatic experiences, Post Traumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms, resource loss, and on subsequent functioning, perceived health, and on job and organizationally relevant outcomes. The job and organizational outcomes included job burnout, job involvement, job strain, job satisfaction, work-family conflict, organizational commitment, deployment readiness, and intention to reenlist. We found that deployment to the theater of the war increased risk of exposure to trauma, which in turn, predicted elevated PTS symptoms and resource loss. PTS symptoms predicted later loss of resources and deterioration in perceived health and functioning. In turn, resource loss predicted negative job and organizational outcomes. Exposure to trauma fully mediated the effects of deployment to the theater of war on PTS symptoms and resource loss and had additional significant indirect effects on several job and organizational relevant outcomes. For returning veterans, deployment to the theater of war, exposure to trauma, PTS symptoms, and resource loss represents a ‘cascading’ chain of events that over time results in a decline of health and functioning as well as in adverse job and organizationally relevant outcomes that may affect organizational effectiveness. PMID:21280941

  16. Genomic information as a behavioral health intervention: can it work?

    PubMed

    Bloss, Cinnamon S; Madlensky, Lisa; Schork, Nicholas J; Topol, Eric J

    2011-11-01

    Individuals can now obtain their personal genomic information via direct-to-consumer genetic testing, but what, if any, impact will this have on their lifestyle and health? A recent longitudinal cohort study of individuals who underwent consumer genome scanning found minimal impacts of testing on risk-reducing lifestyle behaviors, such as diet and exercise. These results raise an important question: is personal genomic information likely to beneficially impact public health through motivation of lifestyle behavioral change? In this article, we review the literature on lifestyle behavioral change in response to genetic testing for common disease susceptibility variants. We find that only a few studies have been carried out, and that those that have been done have yielded little evidence to suggest that the mere provision of genetic information alone results in widespread changes in lifestyle health behaviors. We suggest that further study of this issue is needed, in particular studies that examine response to multiplex testing for multiple genetic markers and conditions. This will be critical as we anticipate the wide availability of whole-genome sequencing and more comprehensive phenotyping of individuals. We also note that while simple communication of genomic information and disease susceptibility may be sufficient to catalyze lifestyle changes in some highly motivated groups of individuals, for others, additional strategies may be required to prompt changes, including more sophisticated means of risk communication (e.g., in the context of social norm feedback) either alone or in combination with other promising interventions (e.g., real-time wireless health monitoring devices). PMID:22199991

  17. Genomic information as a behavioral health intervention: can it work?

    PubMed Central

    Bloss, Cinnamon S; Madlensky, Lisa; Schork, Nicholas J; Topol, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    Individuals can now obtain their personal genomic information via direct-to-consumer genetic testing, but what, if any, impact will this have on their lifestyle and health? A recent longitudinal cohort study of individuals who underwent consumer genome scanning found minimal impacts of testing on risk-reducing lifestyle behaviors, such as diet and exercise. These results raise an important question: is personal genomic information likely to beneficially impact public health through motivation of lifestyle behavioral change? In this article, we review the literature on lifestyle behavioral change in response to genetic testing for common disease susceptibility variants. We find that only a few studies have been carried out, and that those that have been done have yielded little evidence to suggest that the mere provision of genetic information alone results in widespread changes in lifestyle health behaviors. We suggest that further study of this issue is needed, in particular studies that examine response to multiplex testing for multiple genetic markers and conditions. This will be critical as we anticipate the wide availability of whole-genome sequencing and more comprehensive phenotyping of individuals. We also note that while simple communication of genomic information and disease susceptibility may be sufficient to catalyze lifestyle changes in some highly motivated groups of individuals, for others, additional strategies may be required to prompt changes, including more sophisticated means of risk communication (e.g., in the context of social norm feedback) either alone or in combination with other promising interventions (e.g., real-time wireless health monitoring devices). PMID:22199991

  18. The social gradient in work and health: a cross-sectional study exploring the relationship between working conditions and health inequalities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social inequalities in health are widely examined. But the reasons behind this phenomenon still remain unclear in parts. It is undisputed that the work environment plays a crucial role in this regard. However, the contribution of psychosocial factors at work is unclear and inconsistent, and most studies are limited with regard to work factors and health outcomes. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the role and contribution of various physical and psychosocial working conditions to explaining social inequalities in different self-reported health outcomes. Methods Data from a postal survey among the workforces of four medium-sized and large companies from diverse industries of the secondary sector in Switzerland were used and analysed. The study sample covered 1,846 employees aged 20 and 64 and included significant proportions of unskilled manual workers and highly qualified non-manual workers. Cross tabulations and logistic regression analyses were performed to study multiple associations between social status, work factors and health outcomes. Combinations of educational level and occupational position wee used as a measure of social status or class. Results Clear social gradients were observed for almost all adverse working conditions and poor health outcomes studied, but in different directions. While physical workloads and other typical blue-collar job characteristics not suprisingly, were found to be much more common among the lower classes, most psychosocial work demands and job resources were more prevalent in the higher classes. Furthermore, workers in lower classes, i.e. with lower educational and occupational status, were more likely to report poor self-rated health, limited physical functioning and long sickness absence, but at the same time were less likely to experience increased stress feelings and burnout symptoms showing a reversed health gradient. Finally, blue-collar job characteristics contributed substantially to the social

  19. Globalisation, rural restructuring and health service delivery in Australia: policy failure and the role of social work?

    PubMed

    Alston, Margaret

    2007-05-01

    The impacts of globalisation and rural restructuring on health service delivery in rural Australia have been significant. In the present paper, it is argued that declining health service access represents a failure of policy. Rural communities across the world are in a state of flux, and Australia is no different: rural communities are ageing at faster rates than urban communities and young people are out-migrating in large numbers. During the past 5 years, rural Australia has also experienced a severe and widespread drought that has exacerbated rural poverty, and impacted on the health and well-being of rural Australians. Australian governments have responded to globalising forces by introducing neoliberal policy initiatives favouring market solutions and championing the need for self-reliance among citizens. The result for rural Australia has been a withdrawal of services at a time of increased need. This paper addresses the social work response to these changes. PMID:17444982

  20. Deriving the Work Done by an Inverse Square Force in Non-Calculus-Based Introductory Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    I describe a method of evaluating the integral of 1/r[superscript 2] with respect to r that uses only algebra and the concept of area underneath a curve, and which does not formally employ any calculus. This is useful for algebra-based introductory physics classes (where the use of calculus is forbidden) to derive the work done by the force of one…

  1. Health Workforce and International Migration: Can New Zealand Compete? OECD Health Working Papers No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurn, Pascal; Dumont, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines health workforce and migration policies in New Zealand, with a special focus on the international recruitment of doctors and nurses. The health workforce in New Zealand, as in all OECD countries, plays a central role in the health system. Nonetheless, maybe more than for any other OECD country, the health workforce in New…

  2. Working towards Men's Health: Findings from the Sefton Men's Health Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve; McCullagh, Jo; Hacking, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a health improvement initiative aimed at enhancing the health of men in deprived areas. Design: A healthy lifestyle programme was undertaken with men to increase their health knowledge, and encourage behaviour modification and access to health improvement services. A peer mentoring programme was implemented and a training…

  3. Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force White Paper #2 -- Uses of Uncensored Data

    SciTech Connect

    MacQueen, D H

    2007-10-10

    statistical comparisons described in the TS could be better implemented if analytical results, even when below a reporting limit, were to be reported by analytical laboratories. See Appendix 1 for a review of terminology related to reporting limits. The Beryllium Health and Safety Committee (BHSC) formed a Sampling and Analysis Subcommittee (SAS) in 2003. The SAS established a working group on accreditation and reporting limits. By 2006 it had become evident that the issues extended to data reporting as a whole. The SAS proposed to the BHSC the formation of a Data Reporting Task Force (DRTF) to consider issues related to data reporting. The BHSC Board agreed, and requested that the DRTF generate a white paper, to be offered by the BHSC to potential interested parties such as the DOE policy office that is responsible for beryllium health and safety policy. It was noted that additional products could include detailed guidance and potentially a journal article in the future. The SAS proposed that DRTF membership represent the affected disciplines (chemists, industrial hygiene professionals and statisticians, and the DOE office that is responsible for beryllium health and safety policy). The BHSC Board decided that DRTF membership should come from DOE sites, since the focus would be on reporting in the context of the TS and the Rule. The DRTF came into existence in late 2006. The DRTF membership includes industrial hygienists, analytical chemists and laboratory managers, members of the regulatory and oversight community, and environmental statisticians. A first White Paper, ''Summary of Issues and Path Forward'', was reviewed by the BHSC in March 2007 and issued by the DRTF in June 2007. It describes the charter of the DRTF, introduces some basic terminology (reproduced here in Appendix 1), lays out the issues the DRTF is expected to address, and describes a path forward for the DRTF's work. This first White Paper is available through the BHSC web site. This White Paper presents

  4. Returning Social Security Beneficiaries to the Work Force: A Proactive Disability Management Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrey, Donald E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Used multidisciplinary disability management model to assist Social Security Disability Insurance beneficiaries to return to work. The model, which emphasized multidisciplinary disability management, marketing and public relations, work incentives training, networking, and job-seeking skills training, facilitated 27 job placements out of the 107…

  5. Soft Skills and the Minority Work Force: A Guide for Informed Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Cecilia A.

    This publication analyzes issues that lead to a working definition of soft working skills. Data come from research by the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies. At a workshop, scholars, practitioners, and representatives from various job sites discussed the impact of soft skills on access to jobs and long-term employment among minority…

  6. Rethinking work-health models for the new global economy: a qualitative analysis of emerging dimensions of work.

    PubMed

    Polanyi, Michael; Tompa, Emile

    2004-01-01

    Technology change, rising international trade and investment, and increased competition are changing the organization, distribution and nature of work in industrialized countries. To enhance productivity, employers are striving to increase innovation while minimizing costs. This is leading to an intensification of work demands on core employees and the outsourcing or casualization of more marginal tasks, often to contingent workers. The two prevailing models of work and health - demand-control and effort-reward imbalance - may not capture the full range of experiences of workers in today's increasingly flexible and competitive economies. To explore this proposition, we conducted a secondary qualitative analysis of interviews with 120 American workers [6]. Our analysis identifies aspects of work affecting the quality of workers' experiences that are largely overlooked by popular work-health models: the nature of social interactions with customers and clients; workers' belief in, and perception of, the importance of the product of their work. We suggest that the quality of work experiences is partly determined by the objective characteristics of the work environment, but also by the fit of the work environment with the worker's needs, interests, desires and personality, something not adequately captured in current models. PMID:15328458

  7. Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Work-Rest Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    BHP Program Element Goal: Identify, characterize, and prevent or reduce behavioral health and performance risks associated with space travel, exploration and return to terrestrial life. BHP Requirements: a) Characterize and assess risks (e.g., likelihood and consequences). b) Develop tools and technologies to prevent, monitor, and treat adverse outcomes. c) Inform standards. d) Develop technologies to: 1) reduce risks and human systems resource requirements (e.g., crew time, mass, volume, power) and 2) ensure effective human-system integration across exploration mission.

  8. What is a health worker? How spa therapists in a Norwegian health hotel understand their work.

    PubMed

    Anderssen, Jorid

    2016-04-01

    In Norway, as in many other wealthy countries, the number of health-related services that are being offered outside of the health sector is increasing. The present paper is based on qualitative interviews that were conducted with providers of health-related services at a commercial health hotel in Norway. The hotel is marketed as a health hotel - that is, a place for people with health problems and for those who need relaxation and an escape from their stressful everyday lives. The paper discusses whether the providers of this kind of service consider it a health service or if they distinguish and distance themselves from the health system. The interviews showed that they consider themselves health workers and refer to themselves as therapists. Even though they use therapy in the health sector as a model, they distinguish themselves from therapists in the health sector. They do not want to treat what they call sick people. Most of their therapy is directed toward cultivating or improving people's bodies and souls. These service providers think that they contribute to improving their guests' health by teaching them how to take care of themselves; enjoying oneself (for instance, by receiving skin treatment or a massage) is an important aspect of good health. According to the therapists, modern-day women, in particular, are often worn-out, and they deserve, and are entitled, to enjoy themselves. In these ways, the therapists use health to legitimize their services, and they challenge the current understanding of health. PMID:26324995

  9. Does Occupational Mobility Influence Health among Working Women? Comparing Objective and Subjective Measures of Work Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Shippee, Tetyana P.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational mobility is highly valued in American society, but is it consequential to women's health? Previous studies have yielded inconsistent results, but most measured occupational mobility by identifying transitions across occupational categories. Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, this study (1) compares objective and subjective…

  10. Making Value-Based Payment Work for Academic Health Centers.

    PubMed

    Miller, Harold D

    2015-10-01

    Under fee-for-service payment systems, physicians and hospitals can be financially harmed by delivering higher-quality, more efficient care. The author describes how current "value-based purchasing" initiatives fail to address the underlying problems in fee-for-service payment and can be particularly problematic for academic health centers (AHCs). Bundled payments, warranties, and condition-based payments can correct the problems with fee-for-service payments and enable physicians and hospitals to redesign care delivery without causing financial problems for themselves. However, the author explains several specific actions that are needed to ensure that payment reforms can be a "win-win-win" for patients, purchasers, and AHCs: (1) disconnecting funding for teaching and research from payment for service delivery, (2) providing predictable payment for essential hospital services, (3) improving the quality and efficiency of care at AHCs, and (4) supporting collaborative relationships between AHCs and community providers by allowing each to focus on their unique strengths and by paying AHC specialists to assist community providers in diagnosis and treatment. With appropriate payment reforms and a commitment by AHCs to redesign care delivery, medical education, and research, AHCs could provide the leadership needed to improve care for patients, lower costs for health care purchasers, and maintain the financial viability of both AHCs and community providers. PMID:26266462

  11. What Can Education Teach Child Mental Health Services? Practitioners' Perceptions of Training and Joint Working

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vostanis, Panos; O'Reilly, Michelle; Taylor, Helen; Day, Crispin; Street, Cathy; Wolpert, Miranda; Edwards, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The importance of joint working between educational and child mental health professionals is well documented but there are numerous challenges and only limited training models. While the evidence base and training programmes for educationalists regarding child mental health is growing, training mental health professionals about education is more…

  12. Health promotion in the maritime work environment--training of leaders.

    PubMed

    Jezewska, Maria; Jaremin, Bogdan; Leszczyńska, Irena

    2007-01-01

    The essence of the project of pro-health attitudes promotion is the assumption that they contribute to a successful occupational career and reduce health and life hazards in the maritime work environment. The method chosen was to train students of the Maritime Academy in Gdynia, the future officers and potential health leaders among maritime employees. PMID:18350982

  13. Elucidating the Hemodynamic Origin of Ballistocardiographic Forces: Toward Improved Monitoring of Cardiovascular Health at Home.

    PubMed

    Javaid, Abdul Qadir; Ashouri, Hazar; Tridandapani, Srini; Inan, Omer T

    2016-01-01

    The ballistocardiogram (BCG), a signal describing the reaction forces of the body to cardiac ejection of blood, has recently gained interest in the research community as a potential tool for monitoring the mechanical aspects of cardiovascular health for patients at home and during normal activities of daily living. An important limitation in the field of BCG research is that while the BCG signal measures the forces of the body, the information desired (and understood) by clinicians and caregivers, regarding mechanical health of the cardiovascular system, is typically expressed as blood pressure or flow. This paper aims to explore, using system identification tools, the mathematical relationship between the BCG signal and the better-understood impedance cardiography (ICG) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveforms, with a series of human subject studies designed to asynchronously modulate cardiac output and blood pressure and with different magnitudes. With this approach, we demonstrate for 19 healthy subjects that the BCG waveform more closely maps to the ICG (flow) waveform as compared with the finger-cuff-based ABP (pressure) waveform, and that the BCG can provide a more accurate estimate of stroke volume ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) as compared with pulse pressure changes ([Formula: see text]). We also examined, as a feasibility study, for one subject, the ability to calibrate the BCG measurement tool with an ICG measurement on the first day, and then track changes in stroke volume on subsequent days. Accordingly, we conclude that the BCG is a signal more closely related to blood flow than pressures, and that a key health parameter for titrating care-stroke volume-can potentially be accurately measured with BCG signals at home using unobtrusive and inexpensive hardware, such as a modified weighing scale, as compared with the state-of-the-art ICG and ABP devices, which are expensive and obtrusive for use at home. PMID:27620621

  14. An Exploration of the Themes and Content on Family Health in the Social Work Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard; Pardeck, John T.

    2000-01-01

    Examined abstracts reported in the "Social Work Abstracts" from 1977 to the present to identify articles pertaining to the physical, mental, emotional, social, economic, cultural, and spiritual dimensions of family health. Found that the social work literature offers an extensive number of articles on topics related to family health. Explored…

  15. The Primary Health Worker, Working Guide, Guidelines for Training, Guidellnes for Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This working guide outlines the structure and content of training for the primary health worker (PHW) on the basis of the most common health problems of communities in developing countries. Part 1 is intended for use by the PHW as a learning text and reference in his work. It covers thirty-four problems considered to be most common which are…

  16. Impact of School Staff Health on Work Productivity in Secondary Schools in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alker, Heather J.; Wang, Monica L.; Pbert, Lori; Thorsen, Nancy; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy, productive employees are an integral part of school health programs. There have been few assessments of work productivity among secondary school staff. This study describes the frequency of 3 common health risk factors--obesity, depressive symptoms, and smoking--and their impact on work productivity in secondary school…

  17. Day laborers' life satisfaction: the role of familismo, spirituality, work, health, and discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Lizette; Piña-Watson, Brandy

    2013-07-01

    Limited research exists on day laborers' mental health. This study identifies relevant factors that influence the life satisfaction of 143 predominantly undocumented Latino male day laborers. Findings demonstrated the importance of familismo, spirituality, work satisfaction, perceived health, and perceived discrimination on life satisfaction. Given the deleterious impact discrimination can have on mental health, we examined whether perceived discrimination's role on life satisfaction would be buffered by familismo, spirituality, work satisfaction, and perceived health. Among these variable, spirituality and perceived health were identified as protective factors against the role of perceived discrimination on life satisfaction. Implications for research and practice with Latino male day laborers are discussed. PMID:23875852

  18. Periodic health examination, 1995 update: 2. Prevention of dental caries. The Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, D W; Ismail, A I

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To make recommendations, based on current evidence, for practising physicians and dentists on interventions for the prevention of dental caries in their patients. OPTIONS: Systemic fluoride administration, professionally administered fluoride, use of fluoride mouth rinses, fissure sealants, oral-hygiene practices, dietary practices, identification of groups at a high risk of dental caries, and early diagnosis and treatment. OUTCOMES: Reduced prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis, longer retention of teeth and lower treatment costs. EVIDENCE: Several MEDLINE searches were conducted for articles published from January 1980 to December 1992, including relevant review articles. VALUES: Relevant clinical findings were evaluated and categorized with the use of the evidence-based methods and values of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. Recommendations were developed for each method of caries prevention, with reduced incidence of dental caries and improved prevalence of caries-free teeth given high values. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: The potential benefits of these measures in the long-term are a lower incidence of tooth decay, longer retention of teeth and prevention of fluorosis. The cost saving can be considerable for patients and insurers; however, implementation of some recommendations will be difficult, since the traditional preventive practices of dentists and dental hygienists are not easily changed. RECOMMENDATIONS: There is good evidence that the following manoeuvres are effective in preventing dental caries: use of dentifrices containing fluoride, fluoridation of drinking water, fluoride supplements for patients in areas where there is a low level (0.3 ppm or less) of fluoride in the drinking water, professionally applied topical fluoride and the use of fluoride mouth rinses for patients with very active decay or at a high risk of dental caries and selective use of professionally applied fissure sealants on permanent molar

  19. Effect of a changing health care environment on social work leaders: obstacles and opportunities in hospital social work.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, T; Berger, C S

    2001-04-01

    The health care system is undergoing dramatic change in auspice, structure, and services delivery in response to an emphasis on market-driven, cost-containment strategies. Consequently, many hospital social work directors either have lost some of their administrative responsibilities or have expanded their span of control beyond social work services. This article examines the responses of social work administrators to the breadth of changes occurring throughout their hospitals; the major accomplishments of social work services within their facilities; and the failures, frustrations, and obstacles in the delivery of social work services. As a result of examining the relationship between their actual and anticipated behavior and changes in the hospital and external environment, the authors found that social work leaders in hospitals understand the complexities and challenges of the world around them. Overall, they have exhibited commitment, competence, and confidence in shaping organizational change. PMID:11329646

  20. The Effect of Educational Disequilibrium in Field Work on Graduate Social Work Students' Self-Concept and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Yu-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The author used a mixed methods design to assess field work-related educational disequilibrium and its effect on the self-concept and mental health of MSW students. Twenty-eight advanced, fourth-semester MSW students were compared with 37 entering, first-semester MSW students in practice-related sense of accomplishment. Compared with first-year…

  1. [Health surveillance and suitability: the role of the company physician in maintaining work ability].

    PubMed

    Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Di Lello, Matteo; Violante, Francesco S

    2014-01-01

    The ageing workforce is one of the major issues in Europe. Ageing has an important effect on work ability, especially in manual jobs where physical demand is high. Musculoskeletal disorders are the most common health problems among European workers and are able to affect work ability. In order to increase the employment rate of people aged 45-65, measures to sustain work ability and proper age management should be promoted: return to work strategies include adjustment of the job to the worker's health conditions and abilities. The contribution of health surveillance.programs in the management of workers affected by musculoskeletal disorders is discussed. PMID:25558720

  2. Special operations forces and counterproliferation: The interagency process at work. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Bakken, H.L.

    1996-04-01

    The threat of use of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) in the United States or against American vital interests overseas is real. Combating the proliferation of WMD has become a high priority for the U.S. Government. Within Department of Defense Counterproliferation Initiative (DOD CPI) of 1993 Special Operations Forces (SOF) have become pivotal players in the creation of a full range of military options to counter this threat. SOF provides the National Command Authority (NCA) with flexible and responsive options. In order to successfully execute any type of CP related special operation, the interagency process must be fully engaged and synchronized. This study assesses the nature of the threat, reviews the evolution of the DOD CPI, and focuses on the use of SOF as an instrument of U.S. policy. Specifically this study explores the connectivity of the interagency process to support a U.S. SOF Counterproliferation mission.

  3. Investigating shoulder muscle loading and exerted forces during wall painting tasks: influence of gender, work height and paint tool design.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Patricia M; Chopp, Jaclyn N; Dickerson, Clark R

    2014-07-01

    The task of wall painting produces considerable risk to the workers, both male and female, primarily in the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Insufficient information is currently available regarding the potential benefits of using different paint roller designs or the possible adverse effects of painting at different work heights. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender, work height, and paint tool design on shoulder muscle activity and exerted forces during wall painting. Ten young adults, five male and five female, were recruited to perform simulated wall painting at three different work heights with three different paint roller designs while upper extremity muscle activity and horizontal push force were recorded. Results demonstrated that for female participants, significantly greater total average (p = 0.007) and integrated (p = 0.047) muscle activity was present while using the conventional and curly flex paint roller designs compared to the proposed design in which the load was distributed between both hands. Additionally, for both genders, the high working height imposed greater muscular demands compared to middle and low heights. These findings suggest that, if possible, avoid painting at extreme heights (low or high) and that for female painters, consider a roller that requires the use of two hands; this will reduce fatigue onset and subsequently mitigate potential musculoskeletal shoulder injury risks. PMID:24636728

  4. To What Extent Do Financial Strain and Labour Force Status Explain Social Class Inequalities in Self-Rated Health? Analysis of 20 Countries in the European Social Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Richard J.; Benzeval, Michaela; Popham, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nordic countries do not have the smallest health inequalities despite egalitarian social policies. A possible explanation for this is that drivers of class differences in health such as financial strain and labour force status remain socially patterned in Nordic countries. Methods Our analyses used data for working age (25–59) men (n = 48,249) and women (n = 52,654) for 20 countries from five rounds (2002–2010) of the European Social Survey. The outcome was self-rated health in 5 categories. Stratified by gender we used fixed effects linear regression models and marginal standardisation to instigate how countries varied in the degree to which class inequalities were attenuated by financial strain and labour force status. Results and Discussion Before adjustment, Nordic countries had large inequalities in self-rated health relative to other European countries. For example the regression coefficient for the difference in health between working class and professional men living in Norway was 0.34 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.42), while the comparable figure for Spain was 0.15 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.22). Adjusting for financial strain and labour force status led to attenuation of health inequalities in all countries. However, unlike some countries such as Spain, where after adjustment the regression coefficient for working class men was only 0.02 (95% CI −0.05 to 0.10), health inequalities persisted after adjustment for Nordic countries. For Norway the adjusted coefficient was 0.17 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.25). Results for women and men were similar. However, in comparison to men, class inequalities tended to be stronger for women and more persistent after adjustment. Conclusions Adjusting for financial security and labour force status attenuates a high proportion of health inequalities in some counties, particularly Southern European countries, but attenuation in Nordic countries was modest and did not improve their relative position. PMID:25313462

  5. Competing conceptualizations of decent work at the intersection of health, social and economic discourses.

    PubMed

    Di Ruggiero, Erica; Cohen, Joanna E; Cole, Donald C; Forman, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), decent work is critical to economic and social progress and well-being. The ILO's Decent Work Agenda outlines four directions (creating jobs, guaranteeing rights at work, extending social protection, promoting social dialogue) (ILO, 2015). While the Agenda's existence may imply consensus about its meaning, we contend that several conceptualizations of decent work exist in the global policy arena. Different institutional perspectives must be negotiated, and political, economic, social and health considerations balanced in its pursuit. This paper reports findings from a critical discourse analysis of 10 policy texts that aimed to reveal different health, economic, and social claims about decent work and how these are shaped by the work policy agendas of the ILO, World Health Organization, and World Bank. Themes emerging from the discourse analysis include the: challenges and realities of promoting "one" agenda; complex intersection between decent work, health and health equity concepts; emphasis on economic and pro-market interests versus the social dimensions of work; and, relative emphasis on individual versus collective responsibility for decent work. To our knowledge, this is a first attempt to contrast different conceptualizations of decent work involving these institutions. Our findings suggest that decent work is a contested notion, and that more than one "agenda" is operating in the face of vested institutional interests. Broader discourses are contributing to a reframing of decent work in economic, social and/or health terms and these are impacting which dimensions of work are taken up in policy texts over others. Results show how the language of economics acts as a disciplinary and regulatory power and its role as a normalizing discourse. We call for research that deepens understanding of how a social, economic and health phenomenon like work is discursively re-interpreted through different global

  6. Constrained choices? Linking employees' and spouses' work time to health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wen; Lam, Jack; Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; King, Rosalind; McHale, Susan

    2015-02-01

    There are extensive literatures on work conditions and health and on family contexts and health, but less research asking how a spouse or partners' work conditions may affect health behaviors. Drawing on the constrained choices framework, we theorized health behaviors as a product of one's own time and spouses' work time as well as gender expectations. We examined fast food consumption and exercise behaviors using survey data from 429 employees in an Information Technology (IT) division of a U.S. Fortune 500 firm and from their spouses. We found fast food consumption is affected by men's work hours-both male employees' own work hours and the hours worked by husbands of women respondents-in a nonlinear way. The groups most likely to eat fast food are men working 50 h/week and women whose husbands work 45-50 h/week. Second, exercise is better explained if work time is conceptualized at the couple, rather than individual, level. In particular, neo-traditional arrangements (where husbands work longer than their wives) constrain women's ability to engage in exercise but increase odds of men exercising. Women in couples where both partners are working long hours have the highest odds of exercise. In addition, women working long hours with high schedule control are more apt to exercise and men working long hours whose wives have high schedule flexibility are as well. Our findings suggest different health behaviors may have distinct antecedents but gendered work-family expectations shape time allocations in ways that promote men's and constrain women's health behaviors. They also suggest the need to expand the constrained choices framework to recognize that long hours may encourage exercise if both partners are looking to sustain long work hours and that work resources, specifically schedule control, of one partner may expand the choices of the other. PMID:25531550

  7. Constrained Choices? Linking Employees' and Spouses' Work Time to Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wen; Lam, Jack; Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; King, Rosalind; McHale, Susan

    2014-01-01

    There are extensive literatures on work conditions and health and on family contexts and health, but less research asking how a spouse or partners' work conditions may affect health behaviors. Drawing on the constrained choices framework, we theorized health behaviors as a product of one's own time and spouses' work time as well as gender expectations. We examined fast food consumption and exercise behaviors using survey data from 429 employees in an Information Technology (IT) division of a U.S. Fortune 500 firm and from their spouses. We found fast food consumption is affected by men's work hours—both male employees' own work hours and the hours worked by husbands of women respondents—in a nonlinear way. The groups most likely to eat fast food are men working 50 hours/week and women whose husbands work 45-50 hours/week. Second, exercise is better explained if work time is conceptualized at the couple, rather than individual, level. In particular, neo-traditional arrangements (where husbands work longer than their wives) constrain women's ability to engage in exercise but increase odds of men exercising. Women in couples where both partners are working long hours have the highest odds of exercise. In addition, women working long hours with high schedule control are more apt to exercise and men working long hours whose wives have high schedule flexibility are as well. Our findings suggest different health behaviors may have distinct antecedents but gendered work-family expectations shape time allocations in ways that promote men's and constrain women's health behaviors. They also suggest the need to expand the constrained choices framework to recognize that long hours may encourage exercise if both partners are looking to sustain long work hours and that work resources, specifically schedule control, of one partner may expand the choices of the other. PMID:25531550

  8. Star wars and strategic defense initiatives: work activity and health symptoms of unionized bank tellers during work reorganization.

    PubMed

    Seifert, A M; Messing, K; Dumais, L

    1997-01-01

    Work activity and health symptoms of bank tellers whose work was undergoing reorganization were examined during a university-union study of the health effects of work in women's traditional jobs. Data were gathered through collective and individual interviews, analysis of work activity, and a questionnaire administered to 305 tellers. Employees worked in a standing posture over 80 percent of the time. More than two-thirds frequently suffered pain in back, legs, and feet. The average teller had been involved in 3.7 robberies as a direct victim and six as a witness. Work required feats of memory and concentration. In order to meet job demands, tellers engaged in supportive activities and teamwork. The introduction of individualized objectives threatened the employees' ability to collaborate and induced distress. More than twice as many tellers as other female workers in Québec experience psychological distress (Ilfeld scale), related to: robbery during the past two years (odds ratio = 1.7; confidence interval = 1.0-2.9); difficult relations with superiors (O.R. = 2.6; C.I. = 1.3-5.3); and full-time work (O.R. = 2.3; C.I. = 1.3-3.9). Diverse methods enriched the analysis, and union participation allowed the proposal of concrete correction measures. PMID:9285277

  9. Human health and the water environment: using the DPSEEA framework to identify the driving forces of disease.

    PubMed

    Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-15

    There is a growing awareness of global forces that threaten human health via the water environment. A better understanding of the dynamic between human health and the water environment would enable prediction of the significant driving forces and effective strategies for coping with or preventing them. This report details the use of the Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework to explore the linkage between water-related diseases and their significant driving forces. The DPSEEA frameworks indicate that a select group of driving forces, including population growth, agriculture, infrastructure (dams and irrigation), and climate change, is at the root cause of key global disease burdens. Construction of the DPSEEA frameworks also allows for the evaluation of public health interventions. Sanitation was found to be a widely applicable and effective intervention, targeting the driver/pressure linkage of most of the water-related diseases examined. Ultimately, the DPSEEA frameworks offer a platform for constituents in both the health and environmental fields to collaborate and commit to a common goal targeting the same driving forces. PMID:24036221

  10. Adaptation to Work: An Analysis of Employee Health, Withdrawal and Change. Working Paper 82-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosse, Joseph G.

    According to an employee withdrawal model suggested by Miller and Rosse (1982), workers engage in a variety of integrated behaviors that are intended to place physical and psychological distance between themselves and a noxious work environment. To investigate the relationship of job satisfaction and employee withdrawal behaviors, 48 newly hired,…

  11. The importance of work organization on workload and musculoskeletal health--Grocery store work as a model.

    PubMed

    Balogh, I; Ohlsson, K; Nordander, C; Björk, J; Hansson, G-Å

    2016-03-01

    We have evaluated the consequences of work organization on musculoskeletal health. Using a postal questionnaire, answered by 1600 female grocery store workers, their main work tasks were identified and four work groups were defined (cashier, picking, and delicatessen work, and a mixed group, who performed a mix of these tasks). The crude odds ratios (ORs) for neck/shoulder complaints were 1.5 (95% CI 1.0-2.2), 1.1 (0.7-1.5) and 1.6 (1.1-2.3), respectively, compared to mixed work. Adjusting for individual and psychosocial factors had no effect on these ORs. For elbows/hands, no significant differences were found. Technical measurements of the workload showed large differences between the work groups. Picking work was the most strenuous, while cashier work showed low loads. Quantitative measures of variation revealed for mixed work high between minutes variation and the highest between/within minutes variation. Combining work tasks with different physical exposure levels increases the variation and may reduce the risk of musculoskeletal complaints. PMID:26464034

  12. Longevity and optimal health: working toward an integrative methodology.

    PubMed

    Oz, Mehmet; Tallent, Jeremy

    2009-08-01

    Efforts to foster a research dialogue between traditions as seemingly divergent as Western biomedicine and Indo-Tibetan medical and self-regulatory practice require a carefully conceived set of methodological guidelines. To approach a useful methodology, some specific structural differences between traditions must be negotiated, for example the Indo-Tibetan emphasis on holism in medicine and ethics, which appears to run contrary to Western trends toward specialization in both clinical and research contexts. Certain pitfalls must be avoided as well, including the tendency to appropriate elements of either tradition in a reductionistic manner. However, research methods offering creative solutions to these problems are now emerging, successfully engendering quantitative insight without subsuming one tradition within the terms of the other. Only through continued, creative work exploring both the potentials and limitations of this dialogue can collaborative research insight be attained, and an appropriate and useful set of methodological principles be approached. PMID:19735253

  13. Economic and Work Force Development. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Geneva, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Among the factors reshaping the American workforce are diversity, demands of work and family, global competition, the growing importance of strategic human resource planning, the need to reeducate employees for new technologies and more demanding jobs, and renewed interest in ethics and social responsibility. This collection of articles examines…

  14. Project: Strategies for Sex Fairness. Re-Entering the Work Force--New Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mook, Corena; Legg, Marilyn

    One of a series of instructional packets to aid schools in reducing sex stereotypes, this outreach packet is designed to inform and stimulate community support and encourage women in their attempt to assess and reenter the work world. Materials are suggested for use in forty-five to sixty minutes. Contents include a leader's script (material to be…

  15. Work Force Education: Beyond Technical Skills. Trends and Issues Alert No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    This brief suggests that during the past 2 decades, the skills needed to succeed in the workplace have changed significantly. Technical skills remain important, but, increasingly, employers recognize another category of skills crucial to a worker's ability to work "smarter, not harder." These "soft,""core,""nontechnical,""essential,""generic," and…

  16. Preparing a Twenty-First Century Work Force: Innovations in Programs and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David, Ed.

    This document describes 54 successful and effective community college programs that focus on innovative strategies for meeting current and future workforce developments and requirements. This handbook was prepared in response to an initiative to work in partnership with national and international companies and agencies committed to workforce…

  17. Piezoresistive cantilever working in a shear force mode for in situ characterization of exposed micro- and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierakowski, Andrzej; Kopiec, Daniel; Janus, Paweł; Ekwińska, Magdalena; Płuska, Mariusz; Grabiec, Piotr; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a method of characterization micro- and nanostructures defined in a photolithography process. To implement this method a measurement system composed of an atomic force microscope (AFM) integrated with a system for maskless lithography was developed. This integration enables exposed patterns to be examined in situ, without any necessity for a developing process. The microscope works in a shear force mode, uses a cantilever with a piezoresistive method of detecting deflection and can be used for measuring surfaces with high aspect ratio by applying an appropriate technology of sharpening in a focused ion beam process. The cantilever fabrication process, its calibration and examination procedures are presented. Finally, the AFM images of structures scanned directly after exposure are shown.

  18. Air Force School of Health Care Science's quality of life study.

    PubMed

    Porter, R D; Buckingham, R S; Chitwood, J L; Carlsen, J S

    1998-01-01

    This was an empirically based assessment of non-prior service students' quality of life in the Air Force's School of Health Care Sciences. Analysis provided five results: (1) The overall quality of life at the school was good. (2) The variables accounting for student unhappiness were dormitory unsuitability and the students not being in their top-three career choices. (3) Structural changes were required at the dormitories. (4) The desire to succeed and how to achieve that success were the most important interests for students. (5) Loved ones and student independence were the greatest indicators of motivation. The findings resulted in three immediate corrections and two long-term recommendations to improve students' quality of life. The two long-term recommendations were to have an educational psychologist intervene when students are having significant learning problems, and to alter the selection process for recruiting. Both immediate corrections and long-term recommendations are useful for sister services. PMID:9465569

  19. Specialty Task Force: A Strategic Component to Electronic Health Record (EHR) Optimization.

    PubMed

    Romero, Mary Rachel; Staub, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Post-implementation stage comes after an electronic health record (EHR) deployment. Analyst and end users deal with the reality that some of the concepts and designs initially planned and created may not be complementary to the workflow; creating anxiety, dissatisfaction, and failure with early adoption of system. Problems encountered during deployment are numerous and can vary from simple to complex. Redundant ticket submission creates backlog for Information Technology personnel resulting in delays in resolving concerns with EHR system. The process of optimization allows for evaluation of system and reassessment of users' needs. A solid and well executed optimization infrastructure can help minimize unexpected end-user disruptions and help tailor the system to meet regulatory agency goals and practice standards. A well device plan to resolve problems during post implementation is necessary for cost containment and to streamline communication efforts. Creating a specialty specific collaborative task force is efficacious and expedites resolution of users' concerns through a more structured process. PMID:27332478

  20. The community health worker cultural mentoring project: preparing professional students for team work with health workers from urban communities.

    PubMed

    Sherwen, Laurie N; Schwolsky-Fitch, Elena; Rodriquez, Romelia; Horta, Greg; Lopez, Ivanna

    2007-01-01

    Community Health Workers or CHWs (also known by a variety of alternative titles) are health workers drawn from communities to provide access to care for members of their communities. CHWs have been documented as effective in delivering a variety of services in a culturally-sensitive manner, and in providing a bridge between health professionals and underserved or minority communities. Yet, CHWs have not been well incorporated into interdisciplinary health care teams. The majority of health professionals are not even aware of the possible role and skills of CHWs. Believing that the best time to educate professionals about this valuable health worker and ensure that CHWs become part of interdisciplinary health care teams is during the student years, the Hunter College Schools of the Health Professions, and the Community Health Worker Network of New York City developed a pilot project, the Community Health Worker Cultural Mentoring Project. Community Health Workers, who were members of the Network, served as "community mentors" for health professions students drawn from the programs of community health education, nursing, and nutrition. CHWs worked with faculty of selected courses in each of the professional programs, and served as panelists in these courses, presenting information about health beliefs and alternative health practices of diverse cultural groups in communities of New York City. Class sessions were first held in the fall of 2004; subsequent sessions were held in following semesters. Approximately 40 students participated in 7 classes, with 6 CHWs serving as mentors - two per class. At the end of the classroom presentations, students wrote reflections relating to their understanding of the CHW role and relevance for their future interdisciplinary practice. The majority of reflections met the goal of increasing professional students' understanding of the CHW role and skills. At this point, quantitative and qualitative data will need to be collected to

  1. Perceived unfairness in working conditions: The case of public health services in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The focus on the determinants of the quality of health services in low-income countries is increasing. Health workers' motivation has emerged as a topic of substantial interest in this context. The main objective of this article is to explore health workers' experience of working conditions, linked to motivation to work. Working conditions have been pointed out as a key factor in ensuring a motivated and well performing staff. The empirical focus is on rural public health services in Tanzania. The study aims to situate the results in a broader historical context in order to enhance our understanding of the health worker discourse on working conditions. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit detailed information on health workers' experience of their working conditions. The data comprise focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with administrators, clinicians and nursing staff in the public health services in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in the same part of Tanzania. Results The article provides insights into health workers' understanding and assessment of their working conditions. An experience of unsatisfactory working conditions as well as a perceived lack of fundamental fairness dominated the FGDs and IDIs. Informants reported unfairness with reference to factors such as salary, promotion, recognition of work experience, allocation of allowances and access to training as well as to human resource management. The study also revealed that many health workers lack information or knowledge about factors that influence their working conditions. Conclusions The article calls for attention to the importance of locating the discourse of unfairness related to working conditions in a broader historical/political context. Tanzanian history has been characterised by an ambiguous and shifting landscape of state regulation, economic reforms

  2. Mental health/illness and prisons as place: frontline clinicians׳ perspectives of mental health work in a penal setting.

    PubMed

    Wright, Nicola; Jordan, Melanie; Kane, Eddie

    2014-09-01

    This article takes mental health and prisons as its two foci. It explores the links between social and structural aspects of the penal setting, the provision of mental healthcare in prisons, and mental health work in this environment. This analysis utilises qualitative interview data from prison-based fieldwork undertaken in Her Majesty׳s Prison Service, England. Two themes are discussed: (1) the desire and practicalities of doing mental health work and (2) prison staff as mental health work allies. Concepts covered include equivalence, training, ownership, informal communication, mental health knowledge, service gatekeepers, case identification, and unmet need. Implications for practice are (1) the mental health knowledge and understanding of prison wing staff could be appraised and developed to improve mental healthcare and address unmet need. Their role as observers and gatekeepers could be considered. (2) The realities of frontline mental health work for clinicians in the penal environment should be embraced and used to produce and implement improved policy and practice guidance, which is in better accord with the actuality of the context - both socially and structurally. PMID:25124166

  3. Work organization research at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

    PubMed

    Rosenstock, L

    1997-01-01

    For 25 years, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has conducted and sponsored laboratory, field, and epidemiological studies that have helped define the role of work organization factors in occupational safety and health. Research has focused on the health effects of specific job conditions, occupational stressors in specific occupations, occupational difference in the incidence of stressors and stress-related disorders, and intervention strategies. NIOSH and the American Psychological Association have formalized the concept of occupational health psychology and developed a postdoctoral training program. The National Occupational Research Agenda recognizes organization of work as one of 21 national occupational safety and health research priority areas. Future research should focus on industries, occupations, and populations at special risk; the impact of work organization on overall health; the identification of healthy organization characteristics; and the development of intervention strategies. PMID:9552275

  4. A force field evaluation tool for telephone service in ambulatory health care.

    PubMed

    da Silva, V L; Steinberg, B

    1991-10-01

    The tool presented here is useful in analyzing the constraints and capabilities of a health care telephone service. It also provides a systematic method for assessing systems problems. As part of our analysis, we recommended that the manager implement the following steps. First, the manager determines whether the driving force on the unit is continuity of care by an individual provider or consistency of response. This focus directly affects how the unit's telephone service can be best organized (i.e., decentralized or centralized) and clarifies the factors most needed for success. For example, to function effectively and efficiently, a centralized phone service needs strong provider-endorsed protocols. Second, the manager should carefully examine neutral constraint factors to determine methods to transform these constraints into capabilities, such as planning for extra staff or office hours (or both) during influenza season. Planning for extra hours or staff depends largely on whether budget and resource planning is done in advance and whether value is placed on customer access and satisfaction during peak demand periods. The manager must next determine whether the service delivery format (centralized or decentralized) is consistent with the force field analysis findings. If the findings are not consistent, can the analysis present a compelling argument for using the opposite approach? Finally, the manager must create a plan of action for minimizing the constraints revealed and maximizing existing capabilities to achieve the overall goal of excellent phone service. The process of analysis and creating a plan of action is an excellent opportunity to involve staff, providers, and administrators in efforts to achieve better health care telephone service for all customers. PMID:10112997

  5. Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

  6. Health Care Mentors: A Work-Based Approach to Developing the Health Care Workforce of Tomorrow. [Fourth Edition]. Career Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GMS Partners, Inc. Silver Spring, MD.

    Designed as the final step in a carefully articulated work-readiness program, Mentors provides students interested in health care careers with an opportunity to develop superior employability skills, while striking a balance between work and school. The Mentors program links the school community, the student, and host organizations in a mutually…

  7. Demographic determinants of health care practitioners’ intentions to work with traditional healers

    PubMed Central

    Mokgobi, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the demographic determinants of health care practitioners’ intentions to work with traditional healers in South Africa. The study sampled 319 health care practitioners from State hospitals and clinics in Limpopo and Gauteng provinces, South Africa. Participants completed the Views on Traditional Healing Questionnaire (VTHQ) which was designed for the purposes of this study. Results of multiple regression analyses indicated that health care practitioners’ demographic variables (i.e. their designated roles, home language and hospital/clinic setting) did not yield significant variations in terms of their intentions to work with traditional healers in the future. Overall, health care practitioners’ attitudes towards traditional healing explained their intentions to work with traditional healers in the future. For xiTsonga and Sesotho speaking health care practitioners, their experiences with traditional healing explained their intentions to work with traditional healers in the future. PMID:26594669

  8. Empowerment in the field of health promotion: recognizing challenges in working toward equity.

    PubMed

    Berry, Nicole S; Murphy, Jill; Coser, Larissa

    2014-12-01

    Over the last 25 years, the language of empowerment has been woven into the guiding missions and descriptions of institutions, funding and projects globally. Although theoretical understandings of empowerment within the domain of health promotion remain contentious, we have little idea of how a shift toward an empowerment agenda has affected the daily work of those in the field of health promotion. A systematic examination of the implementation of the empowerment agenda is important as it can help us understand how redistributive agendas are received within the multiple institutional contexts in which health promotion work is carried out. The goal of this study, therefore, was to try to understand the empowerment agenda within the context of everyday health promotion. We conducted semi-structured interviews with health promoters from a variety of geographical regions, institutional backgrounds, and job capacities. Essentially we found that empowerment remains conceptually dear to health promoters' understanding of their work, yet at the same time, mainstreaming empowerment is at odds with central trends and initiatives that govern this work. We argue that many of the stumbling blocks that have hindered this specific agenda are actually central stumbling blocks for the wider field of health promotion. We examine some of the barriers to implementing transformational change. Overcoming the primary limitations uncovered in this exploration of empowerment is actually crucial to progressive work in health promotion in general, particularly work that would seek to lessen inequities. PMID:24812101

  9. [Integration of the handicapped into the work force using electronic data processing].

    PubMed

    Fischbach, F

    1982-08-01

    Successful settlement of disabled persons in gainful employment is closely contingent on both their training and the working environment present. For those disabled persons who cannot find jobs in the open market, it is possible to work in sheltered workshops. Founded on the initiative of parents of spastic children, the Saarbrücken Reha GmbH, a limited liability company for the sheltered employment of disabled persons, has for several years been employing disabled people in the field of text and data processing. This paper not only outlines some practical examples to illustrate suitable systems but also describes the types of tasks where good results can be achieved by the disabled employees. PMID:6215700

  10. Stress at work and mental health status among female hospital workers.

    PubMed Central

    Estryn-Behar, M; Kaminski, M; Peigne, E; Bonnet, N; Vaichere, E; Gozlan, C; Azoulay, S; Giorgi, M

    1990-01-01

    Relations between working conditions and mental health status of female hospital workers were studied in a sample of 1505 women: 43% were nurses, 32% auxiliaries, and 7% ancillary staff; 13% were other qualified health care staff, mainly head nurses; 5% had occupations other than direct health care; 63% worked on the morning, 20% on the afternoon, and 17% on the night shift. Data were collected at the annual routine medical visit by the occupational health practitioner, using self administered questionnaires and clinical assessments. Five health indicators were considered: a high score to the general health questionnaire (GHQ); fatigue; sleep impairment; use of antidepressants, sleeping pills, or sedatives; and diagnosis of psychiatric morbidity at clinical assessment. Four indices of stress at work were defined: job stress, mental load, insufficiency in internal training and discussion, and strain caused by schedule. The analysis was conducted by multiple logistic regression, controlling for type of occupation, shift, number of years of work in hospital, daily travel time to work, age, marital status, number of children, and wish to move house. Sleep impairment was mostly linked to shift and strain due to schedule. For all other indicators of mental health impairment and especially high GHQ scores, the adjusted odds ratios increased significantly with the levels of job stress, mental load, and strain due to schedule. This evidence of association between work involving an excessive cumulation of stress factors and mental wellbeing should be considered in interventions aimed at improving the working conditions of hospital workers. PMID:2310704

  11. Work-Recreation Balance, Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Suboptimal Health Status in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS)—an intermediate state between health and illness—refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work−life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15−60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency (“rarely, sometimes, or always”). Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0) were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3%) is higher than health status (18.4%) or disease status (35.3%). Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p < 0.001) after demographic adjustment. In comparison with those reporting a frequent work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically “rare” were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49–1.92), and those with infrequent work-recreation balance (“sometimes”) were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62–1.81). These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and seem to be

  12. The effects of work on the health of nurses who work in clinical surgery departments at university hospitals 1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rosângela Marion; Zeitoune, Regina Célia Gollner; Beck, Carmem Lúcia Colomé; de Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo; Prestes, Francine Cassol

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the effects of work on the health of nurses who work in clinical surgery departments at university hospitals in relation to physical, social and psychological suffering and pain. Methods: a quantitative transversal study was carried out between 2012 and 2013 in four institutions in a state located in the south of Brazil. We studied 65 nurses who responded to questions on their habits. We also obtained sociodemographical information on them as well as conducting an evaluation on work relational damage using an evaluation scale. Associations were checked through the use of the Chi-Sqaure and Fisher's exact test. Correlations were checked using the Spearmann test. Results: we found that physical ailments persisted and that there were connections between social and psychological pain/suffering and variable physical activities as well as connections with accidents in the work place and the option to work shifts. We noted correlations between social and psychological pain/suffering. Conclusion: nurses had their health compromised due to their work in clinical surgery departments. PMID:27508914

  13. Predicting mental health outcomes in female working carers: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Lyonette, C; Yardley, L

    2006-07-01

    This study investigated the factors contributing to psychological distress and positive affect over time in female working carers of older people. Questionnaires (including measures of work-related, care-related, interpersonal and psychological aspects of working and caring) were distributed to 275 female working carers in the UK, the majority of whom were working as nurses in the National Health Service. In cross-sectional analyses, higher work stress and work demands predicted higher psychological distress among respondents. Better carer health, lower external pressures to care and higher work satisfaction predicted greater positive affect. The combined effects of greater work stress and work demands also predicted higher levels of psychological distress at follow-up (after one year), whereas younger age and lower work stress predicted greater positive affect over time. We conclude that more stressful and demanding work roles appear detrimental to carers' mental health, while lower stress occupational roles may be beneficial, providing satisfaction and fulfilment outside of the caring role. Older female carers may be especially at risk of psychological distress, possibly due in part to increasing health problems of their own. PMID:16798629

  14. An Exploration of the Working Alliance in Mental Health Case Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondrat, David C.; Early, Theresa J.

    2010-01-01

    The working alliance between clients and helpers has been identified as a common factor of treatment effectiveness, yet very little research has explored variables associated with working alliance between mental health case managers and their consumers. This study explored the potential covariates of working alliance within community mental health…

  15. Persistent work-life conflict and health satisfaction - A representative longitudinal study in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objectives of the present study were (1) to track work-life conflict in Switzerland during the years 2002 to 2008 and (2) to analyse the relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction, examining whether long-term work-life conflict leads to poor health satisfaction. Methods The study is based on a representative longitudinal database (Swiss Household Panel), covering a six-year period containing seven waves of data collection. The sample includes 1261 persons, with 636 men and 625 women. Data was analysed by multi-level mixed models and analysis of variance with repeated measures. Results In the overall sample, there was no linear increase or decrease of work-life conflict detected, in either its time-based or strain-based form. People with higher education were more often found to have a strong work-life conflict (time- and strain-based), and more men demonstrated a strong time-based work-life conflict than women (12.2% vs. 5%). A negative relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction over time was found. People reporting strong work-life conflict at every wave reported lower health satisfaction than people with consistently weak work-life conflict. However, the health satisfaction of those with a continuously strong work-life conflict did not decrease during the study period. Conclusions Both time-based and strain-based work-life conflict are strongly correlated to health satisfaction. However, no evidence was found for a persistent work-life conflict leading to poor health satisfaction. PMID:21529345

  16. Self rated health and working conditions of small-scale enterprisers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Vingård, Eva; Josephson, Malin

    2007-12-01

    This study was an investigation of prevalence and associations between self-rated health and working conditions for small-scale enterprisers in a county in Sweden. A postal questionnaire was answered by 340 male and 153 female small-scale enterprisers in different sectors, with a response rate of 66%. For comparative purposes, data from a population study of 1,699 employees in private companies was included in the analyses. Differences were tested by Chi(2)-test and associations were presented as odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The frequency of health problems in male enterprisers was higher than in employees in the private sector, while the frequency of health problems in female enterprisers was equal to that of the control employees. The main findings highlighted that male enterprisers reported higher rate of health problems and female enterprisers equal rate compared with employees in the private sector. Enterprisers stated musculoskeletal pain (women 59%, men 56%) and mental health problems (women 47%, men 45%) as the most frequent health problems. Poor job satisfaction, reported by 17% of the females and 20% of the male enterprisers, revealed an OR of 10.42 (95% CI 5.78-18.77) for poor general health. For the enterprisers, the most frequent complaints, musculoskeletal pain and mental health problems, were associated with poor job satisfaction and poor physical work environment. An association between poor general health and working as an enterpriser remained after adjusting for working conditions, sex and age. PMID:18212472

  17. Elucidating the Hemodynamic Origin of Ballistocardiographic Forces: Toward Improved Monitoring of Cardiovascular Health at Home

    PubMed Central

    Ashouri, Hazar; Tridandapani, Srini; Inan, Omer T.

    2016-01-01

    The ballistocardiogram (BCG), a signal describing the reaction forces of the body to cardiac ejection of blood, has recently gained interest in the research community as a potential tool for monitoring the mechanical aspects of cardiovascular health for patients at home and during normal activities of daily living. An important limitation in the field of BCG research is that while the BCG signal measures the forces of the body, the information desired (and understood) by clinicians and caregivers, regarding mechanical health of the cardiovascular system, is typically expressed as blood pressure or flow. This paper aims to explore, using system identification tools, the mathematical relationship between the BCG signal and the better-understood impedance cardiography (ICG) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveforms, with a series of human subject studies designed to asynchronously modulate cardiac output and blood pressure and with different magnitudes. With this approach, we demonstrate for 19 healthy subjects that the BCG waveform more closely maps to the ICG (flow) waveform as compared with the finger-cuff-based ABP (pressure) waveform, and that the BCG can provide a more accurate estimate of stroke volume (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$r=0.73$ \\end{document}, \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$p < 0.05$ \\end{document}) as compared with pulse pressure changes (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage

  18. New respirator fit test panels representing the current U.S. civilian work force.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Bradtmiller, Bruce; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2007-09-01

    The fit test panels currently used for respirator research, design, and certification are 25-subject panels developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and are based on data from the 1967 and 1968 anthropometric surveys of U.S. Air Force personnel. Military data do not represent the great diversity in face size and shape seen in civilian populations. In addition, the demographics of the U.S. population have changed over the last 30 years. Thus, it is necessary to assess and refine the LANL fit test panels. This paper presents the development of new respirator fit test panels representative of current U.S. civilian workers based on an anthropometric survey of 3,997 respirator users conducted in 2003. One panel was developed using face length and face width (bivariate approach) and weighting subjects to match the age and race distribution of the U.S. population as determined from the 2000 census. Another panel was developed using the first two principal components obtained from a set of 10 facial dimensions (age and race adjusted). These 10 dimensions are associated with respirator fit and leakage and can predict the remaining face dimensions well. Respirators designed to fit these panels are expected to accommodate more than 95% of the current U.S. civilian workers. Both panels are more representative of the U.S. population than the existing LANL panel and may be appropriate for testing both half-masks and full-face piece respirators. Respirator manufacturers, standards development organizations, and government respirator certification bodies need to select the appropriate fit test panel for their particular needs. The bivariate panel is simpler to use than the principal component analysis (PCA) panel and is most similar to the LANL panel currently used. The inclusion of the eight additional facial measurements allows the PCA panel to provide better criteria for excluding extreme face sizes from being used. Because the boundaries of the two new panels are

  19. Working Conditions and Mental Health of Nursing Staff in Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; Mawn, Barbara; Gore, Rebecca

    2016-07-01

    Nursing staff in nursing homes suffer from poor mental health, probably associated with stressful working conditions. Working conditions may distribute differently among nursing assistants, licensed practical nurses, and registered nurses due to their different levels in the organizational hierarchy. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the association between working conditions and mental health among different nursing groups, and examine the potential moderating effect of job group on this association. Self-administered questionnaires were collected with 1,129 nursing staff in 15 for-profit non-unionized nursing homes. Working conditions included both physical and psychosocial domains. Multivariate linear regression modeling found that mental health was associated with different working conditions in different nursing groups: physical safety (β = 2.37, p < 0.05) and work-family conflict (β = -2.44, p < 0.01) in NAs; work-family conflict (β = -4.17, p < 0.01) in LPNs; and physical demands (β = 10.54, p < 0.05) in RNs. Job group did not moderate the association between working conditions and mental health. Future workplace interventions to improve mental health should reach to nursing staff at different levels and consider tailored working condition interventions in different nursing groups. PMID:27104634

  20. Force generation and work production by covalently cross-linked actin-myosin cross-bridges in rabbit muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Bershitsky, S Y; Tsaturyan, A K

    1995-09-01

    To separate a fraction of the myosin cross-bridges that are attached to the thin filaments and that participate in the mechanical responses, muscle fibers were cross-linked with 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide and then immersed in high-salt relaxing solution (HSRS) of 0.6 M ionic strength for detaching the unlinked myosin heads. The mechanical properties and force-generating ability of the cross-linked cross-bridges were tested with step length changes (L-steps) and temperature jumps (T-jumps) from 6-10 degrees C to 30-40 degrees C. After partial cross-linking, when instantaneous stiffness in HSRS was 25-40% of that in rigor, the mechanical behavior of the fibers was similar to that during active contraction. The kinetics of the T-jump-induced tension transients as well as the rate of the fast phase of tension recovery after length steps were close to those in unlinked fibers during activation. Under feedback force control, the T-jump initiated fiber shortening by up to 4 nm/half-sarcomere. Work produced by a cross-linked myosin head after the T-jump was up to 30 x 10(-21) J. When the extent of cross-linking was increased and fiber stiffness in HSRS approached that in rigor, the fibers lost their viscoelastic properties and ability to generate force with a rise in temperature. PMID:8519956

  1. Consumer Health: Does Advertising Work on You? and Evaluating a Product's Health Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Carolyn C.

    This paper describes lessons for teaching middle and high school students how to determine if they are influenced by the power of advertising and how to evaluate a product's health claims. To determine the influence of advertising, teachers have high school students discuss what their latest health product/service purchase was, why they bought it,…

  2. Social Media as Catalyzer for Connected Health: Hype or Hope? Perspectives from IMIA Working Groups.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Vilmarlund, Vivian; Borycki, Elizabeth; Schulz, Stefan; Kuziemsky, Craig; Marschollek, Michael; Kulikowski, Casimir A

    2016-01-01

    The Internet and social media are becoming ubiquitous technologies that are transforming the health sector. Social media has become an avenue for accessing, creating and sharing health information among patients and healthcare professionals. Furthermore, social media has become a key feature in many eHealth solutions, including wearable technologies, Big Data solutions, eLearning systems, Serious Games, Medical imaging, etc. These hyper-connected technologies are facilitating a paradigm shift towards more connected health. In this panel, representatives of different IMIA Working Groups will explore how both hope and hype contribute to social media's catalyzing role in creating connected health solutions. PMID:27332272

  3. Public health law, human rights and HIV: a work in progress.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Stevie

    2010-01-01

    Australia has been a global leader in balancing public health law, human rights and HIV. The first National HIV/AIDS Strategy launched in 1989 set the agenda for law reform. The Intergovernmental Committee on AIDS subsequently established a legal working party with one of its key tasks to formulate public health legislation that would protect public health and human rights. The NSW Public Health Act 1991 has provided the framework for managing HIV in NSW over the subsequent decades. Recent changes to criminal law in NSW and opportunities to redefine public health law may affect how HIV transmission risks are managed in the future. PMID:20513311

  4. International experts’ perspectives on a curriculum for psychologists working in primary health care: implication for Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Setiyawati, Diana; Colucci, Erminia; Blashki, Grant; Wraith, Ruth; Minas, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing primary health care to incorporate mental health services is a key strategy for closing the treatment gap for people with mental disorders. The integration of psychological care into primary health care is a critical step in addressing poor access to mental health specialists. As the psychology profession is increasingly called upon to prepare psychologists for primary health care settings, an international experts' consensus is valuable in guiding the development of a high-quality curriculum for psychologists working in the primary health care context. A Delphi method was used to gain a consensus on the most appropriate roles and training for psychologists. Initial constructs and themes were derived from a detailed literature review and sent to 114 international experts in primary mental health care from five continents. Overall, 52 experts who participated agreed that psychologists should have wide-ranging roles and skills including clinical, health promotion and advocacy skills. This study has identified the specific roles and training needed by psychologists to enable them to work more effectively in primary health care settings. The consensus will inform the development of a curriculum for psychologists working in primary health care in Indonesia, and is part of a broader suite of studies. PMID:25750818

  5. Physicians' Plan for a healthy Minnesota. The MMA proposal for health care reform. The report of the Minnesota Medical Association Health Care Reform Task Force.

    PubMed

    2005-03-01

    The health care system in the United States, according to some, is on the verge of imploding. The rapidly rising cost of services is causing more and more Minnesotans to forego needed care. At the same time, the increasing costs are placing additional pressure on families, businesses, and state and local government budgets. The Minnesota Medical Association's (MMA) Health Care Reform Task Force has proposed a bold new approach that seeks to ensure affordable health care for all Minnesotans. The proposal is a roadmap to provide all Minnesotans with affordable insurance for essential health care services. In creating this plan, the task force strove to achieve three common reform goals: expand access to care, improve quality, and control costs. To achieve those ends, it has proposed a model built on four key features: (1) A strong public health system, (2) A reformed insurance market that delivers universal coverage, (3) A reformed health care delivery market that creates incentives for increasing value, (4) Systems that fully support the delivery of high-quality care. The task force believes that these elements will provide the foundation for a system that serves everyone and allows Minnesotans to purchase better health care at a relatively lower price. Why health care reform again? The average annual cost of health care for an average Minnesota household is about 11,000 dollars--an amount that's projected to double by 2010, if current trends continue. Real wages are not growing fast enough to absorb such cost increases. If unabated, these trends portend a reduction in access to and quality of care, and a heavier economic burden on individuals, employers, and the government. Furthermore, Minnesota and the United States are not getting the best value for their health care dollars. The United States spends 50 percent more per capita than any other country on health care but lags far behind other countries in the health measures of its population. PMID:15853031

  6. Working Atmosphere and Job Satisfaction of Health Care Staff in Kenya: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Katja; Marx, Michael; Marx, Irmgard; Brodowski, Marc; Nafula, Maureen; Prytherch, Helen; Omogi Awour, Irene K. E.; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Background. Job satisfaction and working atmosphere are important for optimal health care delivery. The study aimed to document working atmosphere and job satisfaction of health care professionals in Kenya and to explore associations between job satisfaction, staff characteristics, and working atmosphere. Methods. Data from the integrated quality management system (IQMS) for the health sector in Kenya were used. Job satisfaction was measured with 10 items and with additional 5 items adapted to job situation in Kenya. Working atmosphere was measured with 13 item questionnaire. A stepwise linear regression analysis was performed with overall job satisfaction and working atmosphere, aspects of job satisfaction, and individual characteristics. Results. Out of 832 questionnaires handed out, 435 questionnaires were completed (response rate: 52.3%). Health care staff indicated high commitment to provide quality services and low levels regarding the adequacy and functionality of equipment at their work station. The aspect “support of the ministry of health” (β = 0.577) showed the highest score of explained variance (32.9%) regarding overall job satisfaction. Conclusions. IQMS which also evaluates job satisfaction and working atmosphere of health care staff provides a good opportunity for strengthening the recruitment and retention of health care staff as well as improving the provision of good quality of care. PMID:26504793

  7. A conceptual model of work and health disparities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Loomis, Dana; McDonald, Mary Anne; Argue, Robin A; Wing, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Recent research in medicine and public health highlights differences in health related to race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender. These inequalities, often labeled "disparities," are pervasive and pertain to the major causes of morbidity, mortality, and lost life years. Often ignored in discussions of health disparities is the complex role of work, including not only occupational exposures and working conditions, but also benefits associated with work, effects of work on families and communities, and policies that determine where and how people work. The authors argue that work should be considered explicitly as a determinant of health disparities. Their conceptual model and empirical evidence, built on previous contributions, describe how work contributes to disparities in health on multiple levels. The examples focus on the United States, but many of the key conceptual features can also be applied to other countries. The model emphasizes behaviors and characteristics of institutions rather than individual workers. This approach avoids a focus on individual responsibility alone, which may lead to victim blaming and failure to emphasize policies and institutional factors that affect large populations and systematically create and maintain racial, gender, and socioeconomic disparities in health. PMID:16524164

  8. Gendered emotion work around physical health problems in mid- and later-life marriages☆

    PubMed Central

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The provision and receipt of emotion work—defined as intentional activities done to promote another’s emotional well-being—are central dimensions of marriage. However, emotion work in response to physical health problems is a largely unexplored, yet likely important, aspect of the marital experience. We analyze dyadic in-depth interviews with husbands and wives in 21 mid-to later-life couples to examine the ways that health-impaired people and their spouses provide, interpret, and explain emotion work. Because physical health problems, emotion work, and marital dynamics are gendered, we consider how these processes differ for women and men. We find that wives provide emotion work regardless of their own health status. Husbands provide emotion work less consistently, typically only when the husbands see themselves as their wife’s primary source of stability or when the husbands view their marriage as balanced. Notions of traditional masculinity preclude some husbands from providing emotion work even when their wife is health-impaired. This study articulates emotion work around physical health problems as one factor that sustains and exacerbates gender inequalities in marriage with implications for emotional and physical well-being. PMID:25661852

  9. [Problems of work world and its impact on health. Current financial crisis].

    PubMed

    Tomasina, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Health and work are complex processes. Besides, they are multiple considering the forms they take. These two processes are linked to each other and they are influenced by each other. According to this, it is possible to establish that work world is extremely complex and heterogeneous. In this world, "old" or traditional risks coexist with "modern risks", derived from the new models of work organization and the incorporation of new technologies. Unemployment, work relationships precariousness and work risks outsourcing are results of neoliberal strategies. Some negative results of health-sickness process derived from transformation in work world and current global economic crisis have been noticed in current work conditions. Finally, the need for reconstructing policies focusing on this situation derived from work world is suggested. PMID:23258747

  10. Health promotion and surveillance: the establishment of an IUHPE global working group.

    PubMed

    Campostrini, Stefano; McQueen, David V; Evans, Linnea

    2009-12-01

    Following a series of international meetings on behavioral monitoring and surveillance, in 2007 the Italian Ministry of Health (Ministerio della Salute) and the Institute for Health (Istituto Superiore della Sanità) hosted the 5(th) International Conference on Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance (BRFS) in Rome. A key focus of the conference was on how current surveillance systems could be applied to the field of health promotion, particularly in building the evidence base for health promotion practice. As a result of these discussions, the World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS), an IUHPE Global Working Group, was formed to work toward providing knowledge and expertise in surveillance as a tool for advancing health promotion. For those IUHPE members interested in participation, this article provides an overview on the strategic direction of WARFS and the newly formed sub-working groups. PMID:20028670

  11. Indonesian experts' perspectives on a curriculum for psychologists working in primary health care in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Setiyawati, Diana; Blashki, Grant; Wraith, Ruth; Colucci, Erminia; Minas, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Mental health is a critical issue in Indonesia, since its population ranks among the top five in the world and the prevalence of common mental disorders is 11.6% of the adult population. However, the need to build an effective mental health-care system that is accessible to the whole population has only been recently addressed. The Aceh tsunami in 2004 brought to the forefront an unexpected window of opportunity to build a mental health-care system. Integration of mental health care into primary health care is a key strategy to close the treatment gap for people with mental disorders. Existing integration of psychologists into primary health care is a big step to meet the shortage of mental health-care specialists. As primary mental health care is an emerging field, the perspectives of Indonesian experts on Indonesian mental health care are needed to develop a curriculum for training psychologists to work in primary health care. In this study, data have been collected through semi-structured interviews with 24 Indonesian mental health experts, and three focus group discussions with 26 psychologists. Overall, experts agreed that to be able to work in primary health-care psychologists should have roles and training ranging from clinical to advocacy skills. Participants also agreed that psychologists should work in the community and contribute to primary health care as service providers and that strong collaborations between psychologists and other primary health-care providers are the key; these can be developed partly through referral and by respecting each other's unique strengths. PMID:25750806

  12. The Role of Labor Unions in Creating Working Conditions That Promote Public Health.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Jenn; Paras, Claudia Alexandra; Greenwich, Howard; Hagopian, Amy

    2016-06-01

    We sought to portray how collective bargaining contracts promote public health, beyond their known effect on individual, family, and community well-being. In November 2014, we created an abstraction tool to identify health-related elements in 16 union contracts from industries in the Pacific Northwest. After enumerating the contract-protected benefits and working conditions, we interviewed union organizers and members to learn how these promoted health. Labor union contracts create higher wage and benefit standards, working hours limits, workplace hazards protections, and other factors. Unions also promote well-being by encouraging democratic participation and a sense of community among workers. Labor union contracts are largely underutilized, but a potentially fertile ground for public health innovation. Public health practitioners and labor unions would benefit by partnering to create sophisticated contracts to address social determinants of health. PMID:27077343

  13. Information needs and seeking behaviour among health professionals working at public hospital and health centres in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Universal access to information for health professionals is a need to achieve “health for all strategy.” A large proportion of the population including health professionals have limited access to health information in resource limited countries. The aim of this study is to assess information needs among Ethiopian health professionals. Methods A cross sectional quantitative study design complemented with qualitative method was conducted among 350 health care workers in Feburary26-June5/2012. Pretested self-administered questionnaire and observation checklist were used to collect data on different variables. Data entry and data analysis were done using Epi-Info version 3.5.1 and by SPSS version19, respectively. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analyses were applied to describe study objectives and identify the determinants of information seeking behaviours respectively. Odds ratio with 95% CI was used to assess the association between a factor and an outcome variable. Results The majority of the respondents acknowledged the need of health information to their routine activities. About 54.0% of respondents lacked access to health information. Only 42.8% of respondents have access to internet sources. Important barriers to access information were geographical, organizational, personal, economic, educational status and time. About 58.0% of the respondents accessed information by referring their hard copies and asking senior staff. Age, sex, income, computer literacy and access, patient size, work experience and working site were significantly associated with information needs and seeking behaviour. Conclusions The health information seeking behaviour of health professional was significant. The heaklth facilities had neither informationcenter such as library, nor internet facilities. Conducting training on managing health information, accessing computer and improving infrastructures are important interventions to facilitate evidence based

  14. Work Environment and Its Relationship to Quality Improvement: Health Care Providers' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Azza Hassan Mohamed; Abou Hashish, Ebtsam Aly

    2016-01-01

    There is a gap in understanding how work environment contributes to hospitals' readiness for quality improvement (QI) in developing countries; thus, diagnosing work environment problems in health care organizations is the initial step in designing strategies for QI in organizations. This study examines the relationship between nurses' and physicians' perspectives of the work environments and hospitals' climate for QI. Study results indicate that work environment is positively associated with hospitals' readiness for QI. PMID:27191372

  15. Risk perception in family health work: study with workers in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Soares, Jorgana Fernanda de Souza; Figueiredo, Paula Pereira de; Azambuja, Eliana Pinho de; Sant'anna, Cynthia Fontella; Costa, Valdecir Zavarese da

    2009-01-01

    This analytical and qualitative study aimed to identify how workers in the Family Health Strategy perceive the risks they are exposed to at work. Thematic analysis and the reference framework of the work process were used to examine the contents of interviews with 48 subjects (community health agents, nurses, nursing auxiliaries and physicians). The workers noticed the following risks: physical and moral violence, typical work accident, emotional exhaustion, lack of problem-solving ability and occupational disease. The results predominantly show the connection with the object / subject of the work and the social environmental characteristics of the related communities. The study adds to the body of knowledge and can systemize collective and individual technological processes for occupational health risk management in primary health care. PMID:20126937

  16. Specialized Field Work for International Health Education Students: A Survey of Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Joyce W.

    1977-01-01

    Data are presented drawn from a questionnaire exploring field work programs at nearly 200 colleges and universities offering undergraduate and graduate degrees in health education as these relate to the needs of international students registered with those institutions. (MJB)

  17. Reproductive Health in the United States: A Review of the Recent Social Work Literature.

    PubMed

    Wright, Rachel L; Bird, Melissa; Frost, Caren J

    2015-10-01

    Reproductive health is an important area affecting a woman's overall health and well-being. The examination of reproductive health and barriers to care is pertinent to the social work profession and should be a focus of social work practice, education, research, and advocacy. The authors conducted a literature search of articles published in the social work literature from 2010 to 2014. The findings reveal important published articles that increase our knowledge of the reproductive health of women in the United States. Most published articles focused on pregnancy and birth outcomes. Articles also addressed sexually transmitted infections; abortion; intimate partner violence; prostitution; access to care; cancer screening; views toward contraception; hysterectomies; breastfeeding; menopause; and the intersection of reproductive rights, religion, and social justice. This review also identified unexamined areas that require further social work attention and consideration. PMID:26489350

  18. Preparing Social Work Students for Interprofessional Practice in Geriatric Health Care: Insights from Two Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonifas, Robin P.; Gray, Amanda K.

    2013-01-01

    Although several interprofessional education projects have addressed training allied health students for effective teamwork in geriatrics, few curriculum evaluation studies have examined differences in learning outcomes between interprofessional and traditional uniprofessional approaches, especially for social work students. This paper compares…

  19. Health effects of supplemental work from home in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Arlinghaus, Anna; Nachreiner, Friedhelm

    2014-12-01

    Internationalization and technological developments have changed the work organization in developed and developing industrial economies. Information and communication technologies, such as computers and smartphones, are increasingly used, allowing more temporal and spatial flexibility of work. This may lead to an increase in supplemental work, i.e. constant availability or working in addition to contractually agreed work hours. This in turn extends work hours and leads to work hours in evenings and weekends, causing interferences of work hours with biological and social rhythms for sleep, recovery and social interaction. However, empirical findings on the effects of supplemental work and work hours on occupational health are rather scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between (1) work-related contacts outside of regular work hours and (2) working in the free time with self-reported work-related health impairments in the fourth and fifth European Working Conditions Surveys (EWCS 2005, EWCS 2010). Out of these cross-sectional, large-scale surveys, data on n = 22 836 and n = 34 399 employed workers were used for weighted logistic regression analyses. About half of the sample reported at least occasional supplemental work. The results showed an increased risk of reporting at least one health problem for employees who had been contacted by their employer (EWCS 2005), or worked in their free time to meet work demands (EWCS 2010) in the last 12 months, compared to those reporting no supplemental work or work-related contacts during free time. These results were controlled for demographic variables, physical and mental work load, worker autonomy, and several work hours characteristics (e.g. hours per week, unusual and variable hours). The risk of reporting health problems was increased by being contacted both sometimes (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.26, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.14-1.39) and often (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1

  20. Using high-performance work practices in health care organizations: a perspective for nursing.

    PubMed

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Robbins, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest that the use of high-performance work practices (HPWPs) may help improve quality in health care. We interviewed 67 administrators and clinicians across 5 health care organizations and found that the use of HPWPs was valued and salient for nurses. Communication appeared particularly important to facilitate HPWP use. Enhancing our understanding of HPWP use may help improve the work environment for nurses while also increasing care quality. PMID:24052139

  1. Work-Related Health Limitations, Education, and the Risk of Marital Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Despite progress in identifying the covariates of divorce, there remain substantial gaps in the knowledge. One of these gaps is the relationship between health and risk of marital dissolution. I extend prior research by examining the linkages between work-related health limitations and divorce using 25 years of data (N = 7919) taken from the 1979…

  2. Clocking in: The Organization of Work Time and Health in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiner, Sibyl; Pavalko, Eliza K.

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the health implications of emerging patterns in the organization of work time. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we examine general mental and physical health (SF-12 scores), psychological distress (CESD score), clinical levels of obesity, and the presence of medical conditions, at age 40.…

  3. The Community Health Worker. Working Guide. Guidelines for Training. Guidelines for Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This book is a revised and enlarged edition of "The Primary Health Worker," a standard teaching text and reference manual developed for community health workers and their trainers and supervisors. The new edition has been updated with practical knowledge gained during the extensive field use of the previous work. The book also incorporates new…

  4. Bachelor of Social Work Students and Mental Health Stigma: Understanding Student Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellmann, Karen T.; Madden, Elissa E.; Aguiniga, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor-level social work students (n = 198) at a midsized Midwestern public university were surveyed to evaluate their attitudes toward those with mental health concerns. Additionally, students were surveyed regarding their willingness to seek treatment for their own mental health needs. Results of the analyses suggest that the majority of…

  5. Mental Health Status among Married Working Women Residing in Bhubaneswar City, India: A Psychosocial Survey

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Ansuman; Padhy, Aditya Prasad; Panigrahi, Madhulita

    2014-01-01

    Mental health is a major public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to assess the mental health status and its correlates among married working women residing in Bhubaneswar city of Odisha, India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 240 households involving 240 married working women following a multistage cluster random sampling design. Using the predesigned, pretested interview schedule and self-reporting questionnaire, all relevant information was collected. Our study revealed that 32.9% of study respondents had poor mental health and only about 10% of these women had sought any kind of mental health services. Logistic regression analysis showed that 3 predictors such as favourable attitude of colleagues, sharing their own problems with husband, and spending time for yoga/meditation/exercise had significant positive impact on the mental health status of married working women. A preventive program regarding various aspects of mental health for married working women at workplace as well as community level could be a useful strategy in reducing this public health problem. PMID:24800258

  6. Developing the Health Care Workforce: A Comparison of Two Work-Based Learning Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barbara Alice; Harte, Jacqui; Warnes, Anne-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to share practice on how two approaches to work-based learning (WBL) are used to develop the knowledge and skills of health care staff with different levels of experience and educational attainment within the Department of Nursing and the Department of Allied Health Professions at a post-1992 university…

  7. The Health of Women at Work. A Bibliography. Occasional Papers No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Vilma R.

    Both English and foreign language articles and books, most of them published since 1950, are cited in this bibliography on the health of women in the workplace. Citations were selected to represent the efforts that have been made by health professionals, statisticians, historians, and social scientists in this area. The designation "at work"…

  8. Work-related factors of presenteeism: The mediating role of mental and physical health.

    PubMed

    Pohling, Rico; Buruck, Gabriele; Jungbauer, Kevin-Lim; Leiter, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Even though work-related factors have been found to play a crucial role in predicting presenteeism, studies investigating established theoretical frameworks of job design features and, in particular, underlying mechanisms are still very scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the areas of work life according to the Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS; Leiter & Maslach, 2004) on presenteeism. We examined mental and physical health as the underlying process of this relationship and assessed 2 presenteeism outcome measures and their relationship to each other-that is, the frequency of acts of presenteeism and work productivity. Using a cross-sectional design, the study was conducted in a sample of 885 employees from German public service. Results showed that the influence of some, but not all, areas of work life (workload, control, reward, and values) on both acts of presenteeism and health-related lost productivity was mediated by health indicators (well-being and musculoskeletal complaints). Moreover, we found a relationship between health-related lost productivity and acts of presenteeism. The present research clarifies the importance of work-related factors as antecedents of sickness presenteeism. The findings of our study also emphasize the necessity to include both acts of presenteeism and health-related lost productivity in presenteeism research and prevention. Presenteeism should be included as a measure in health prevention interventions because it reflects a crucial part of employee health that is not covered by other measures. PMID:26322439

  9. Towards a Unified Taxonomy of Health Indicators: Academic Health Centers and Communities Working Together to Improve Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed; Franco, Zeno; Kissack, Anne; Gabriel, Davera; Hurd, Thelma; Ziegahn, Linda; Bates, Nancy J.; Calhoun, Karen; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Eder, Milton “Mickey”; Ferrans, Carol; Hacker, Karen; Rumala, Bernice B.; Strelnick, A. Hal; Wallerstein, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program represents a significant public investment. To realize its major goal of improving the public’s health and reducing health disparities, the CTSA Consortium’s Community Engagement Key Function Committee has undertaken the challenge of developing a taxonomy of community health indicators. The objective is to initiate a unified approach for monitoring progress in improving population health outcomes. Such outcomes include, importantly, the interests and priorities of community stakeholders, plus the multiple, overlapping interests of universities and of the public health and health care professions involved in the development and use of local health care indicators. The emerging taxonomy of community health indicators that the authors propose supports alignment of CTSA activities and facilitates comparative effectiveness research across CTSAs, thereby improving the health of communities and reducing health disparities. The proposed taxonomy starts at the broadest level, determinants of health; subsequently moves to more finite categories of community health indicators; and, finally, addresses specific quantifiable measures. To illustrate the taxonomy’s application, the authors have synthesized 21 health indicator projects from the literature and categorized them into international, national, or local/special jurisdictions. They furthered categorized the projects within the taxonomy by ranking indicators with the greatest representation among projects and by ranking the frequency of specific measures. They intend for the taxonomy to provide common metrics for measuring changes to population health and, thus, extend the utility of the CTSA Community Engagement Logic Model. The input of community partners will ultimately improve population health. PMID:24556775

  10. The importance of communication for clinical leaders in mental health nursing: the perspective of nurses working in mental health.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Gary; Happell, Brenda; Broadbent, Marc; Reid-Searl, Kerry

    2013-11-01

    Communication has been identified as an important attribute of clinical leadership in nursing. However, there is a paucity of research on its relevance in mental health nursing. This article presents the findings of a grounded theory informed study exploring the attributes and characteristics required for effective clinical leadership in mental health nursing, specifically the views of nurses working in mental health about the importance of effective communication in day to day clinical leadership. In-depth interviews were conducted to gain insight into the participants' experiences and views on clinical leadership in mental health nursing. The data that emerged from these interviews were constantly compared and reviewed, ensuring that any themes that emerged were based on the participants' own experiences and views. Participants recognized that effective communication was one of the attributes of effective clinical leadership and they considered communication as essential for successful working relationships and improved learning experiences for junior staff and students in mental health nursing. Four main themes emerged: choice of language; relationships; nonverbal communication, and listening and relevance. Participants identified that clinical leadership in mental health nursing requires effective communication skills, which enables the development of effective working relationships with others that allows them to contribute to the retention of staff, improved outcomes for clients, and the development of the profession. PMID:24131413

  11. Working toward financial sustainability of integrated behavioral health services in a public health care system.

    PubMed

    Monson, Samantha Pelican; Sheldon, J Christopher; Ivey, Laurie C; Kinman, Carissa R; Beacham, Abbie O

    2012-06-01

    The need, benefit, and desirability of behavioral health integration in primary care is generally accepted and has acquired widespread positive regard. However, in many health care settings the economics, business aspects, and financial sustainability of practice in integrated care settings remains an unsolved puzzle. Organizational administrators may be reluctant to expand behavioral health services without evidence that such programs offer clear financial benefits and financial sustainability. The tendency among mental health professionals is to consider positive clinical outcomes (e.g., reduced depression) as being globally valued indicators of program success. Although such outcomes may be highly valued by primary care providers and patients, administrative decision makers may require demonstration of more tangible financial outcomes. These differing views require program developers and evaluators to consider multiple outcome domains including clinical/psychological symptom reduction, potential cost benefit, and cost offset. The authors describe a process by which a pilot demonstration project is being implemented to demonstrate programmatic outcomes with a focus on the following: 1) clinician efficiency, 2) improved health outcomes, and 3) direct revenue generation associated with the inclusion of integrated primary care in a public health care system. The authors subsequently offer specific future directions and commentary regarding financial evaluation in each of these domains. PMID:22563727

  12. Hope and despair: community health assistants’ experiences of working in a rural district in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to address the challenges facing the community-based health workforce in Zambia, the Ministry of Health implemented the national community health assistant strategy in 2010. The strategy aims to address the challenges by creating a new group of workers called community health assistants (CHAs) and integrating them into the health system. The first group started working in August 2012. The objective of this paper is to document their motivation to become a CHA, their experiences of working in a rural district, and how these experiences affected their motivation to work. Methods A phenomenological approach was used to examine CHAs’ experiences. Data collected through in-depth interviews with 12 CHAs in Kapiri Mposhi district and observations were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Personal characteristics such as previous experience and knowledge, passion to serve the community and a desire to improve skills motivated people to become CHAs. Health systems characteristics such as an inclusive work culture in some health posts motivated CHAs to work. Conversely, a non-inclusive work culture created a social structure which constrained CHAs’ ability to learn, to be innovative and to effectively conduct their duties. Further, limited supervision, misconceptions about CHA roles, poor prioritisation of CHA tasks by some supervisors, as well as non- and irregular payment of incentives also adversely affected CHAs’ ability to work effectively. In addition, negative feedback from some colleagues at the health posts affected CHA’s self-confidence and professional outlook. In the community, respect and support provided to CHAs by community members instilled a sense of recognition, appreciation and belonging in CHAs which inspired them to work. On the other hand, limited drug supplies and support from other community-based health workers due to their exclusion from the government payroll inhibited CHAs’ ability to deliver services

  13. Work demands are related to mental health problems for older engine room officers.

    PubMed

    Rydstedt, Leif W; Lundh, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the main and interaction effects of age and psychosocial work demands on mental wellbeing in a sample (N = 685; age M = 47 years) of engine room officers in the Swedish merchant fleet. As expected, work demands were highly related to general mental health as well as to perceived stress, while the main effect of age only related significantly to perceived stress. The interaction effects between high work demands and high age significantly explained the variance of general mental health as well as perceived stress. The results can be understood as a consequence of the rapid technological and organisational development in the shipping industry and suggest that it ought be of high priority to provide older employees with work-related resources to support their long-term work performance as well as their health and wellbeing. PMID:24595972

  14. Electron work functions of ferrite and austenite phases in a duplex stainless steel and their adhesive forces with AFM silicon probe.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liqiu; Hua, Guomin; Yang, Binjie; Lu, Hao; Qiao, Lijie; Yan, Xianguo; Li, Dongyang

    2016-01-01

    Local electron work function, adhesive force, modulus and deformation of ferrite and austenite phases in a duplex stainless steel were analyzed by scanning force microscopy. It is demonstrated that the austenite has a higher electron work function than the ferrite, corresponding to higher modulus, smaller deformation and larger adhesive force. Relevant first-principles calculations were conducted to elucidate the mechanism behind. It is demonstrated that the difference in the properties between austenite and ferrite is intrinsically related to their electron work functions. PMID:26868719

  15. Electron work functions of ferrite and austenite phases in a duplex stainless steel and their adhesive forces with AFM silicon probe

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liqiu; Hua, Guomin; Yang, Binjie; Lu, Hao; Qiao, Lijie; Yan, Xianguo; Li, Dongyang

    2016-01-01

    Local electron work function, adhesive force, modulus and deformation of ferrite and austenite phases in a duplex stainless steel were analyzed by scanning force microscopy. It is demonstrated that the austenite has a higher electron work function than the ferrite, corresponding to higher modulus, smaller deformation and larger adhesive force. Relevant first-principles calculations were conducted to elucidate the mechanism behind. It is demonstrated that the difference in the properties between austenite and ferrite is intrinsically related to their electron work functions. PMID:26868719

  16. Effects of extended work shifts on employee fatigue, health, satisfaction, work/family balance, and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Estryn-Béhar, Madeleine; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M

    2012-01-01

    12-hour shifts are quickly spreading in Europe. From our multivariate analysis concerning 25,924 European nurses, including twenty explanatory variables simultaneously, we found that work schedule itself is not a major determinant factor. Nurses aim to choose or accept night shifts or 12-hour shift in order to reduce their work/home conflicts, however, at the expense of the patient's safety, as well as their own health and safety. Therefore, it is important to develop measures, such as extended child care, association of nurses to the elaboration of their rota, 9- or 10-hour shifts in the afternoon, allowing naps during night shifts, and reduction of changing shifts with short notice. Work schedules must be organized in order to allow time for shift handover, social support and team building. PMID:22317378

  17. The effects of a health promotion-health protection intervention on behavior change: the WellWorks Study.

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, G; Stoddard, A; Hunt, M K; Hebert, J R; Ockene, J K; Avrunin, J S; Himmelstein, J; Hammond, S K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effects of a 2-year integrated health promotion-health protection work-site intervention on changes in dietary habits and cigarette smoking. METHODS: A randomized, controlled intervention study used the work site as the unit of intervention and analysis; it included 24 predominantly manufacturing work sites in Massachusetts (250-2500 workers per site). Behaviors were assessed in self-administered surveys (n = 2386; completion rates = 61% at baseline, 62% at final). Three key intervention elements targeted health behavior change: (1) joint worker-management participation in program planning and implementation, (2) consultation with management on work-site environmental changes, and (3) health education programs. RESULTS: Significant differences between intervention and control work sites included reductions in the percentage of calories consumed as fat (2.3% vs 1.5% kcal) and increases in servings of fruit and vegetables (10% vs 4% increase). The intervention had a significant effect on fiber consumption among skilled and unskilled laborers. No significant effects were observed for smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS: Although the size of the effects of this intervention are modest, on a populationwide basis effects of this size could have a large impact on cancer-related and coronary heart disease end points. PMID:9807537

  18. Understanding the bond-energy, hardness, and adhesive force from the phase diagram via the electron work function

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hao; Huang, Xiaochen; Li, Dongyang

    2014-11-07

    Properties of metallic materials are intrinsically determined by their electron behavior. However, relevant theoretical treatment involving quantum mechanics is complicated and difficult to be applied in materials design. Electron work function (EWF) has been demonstrated to be a simple but fundamental parameter which well correlates properties of materials with their electron behavior and could thus be used to predict material properties from the aspect of electron activities in a relatively easy manner. In this article, we propose a method to extract the electron work functions of binary solid solutions or alloys from their phase diagrams and use this simple approach to predict their mechanical strength and surface properties, such as adhesion. Two alloys, Fe-Ni and Cu-Zn, are used as samples for the study. EWFs extracted from phase diagrams show same trends as experimentally observed ones, based on which hardness and surface adhesive force of the alloys are predicted. This new methodology provides an alternative approach to predict material properties based on the work function, which is extractable from the phase diagram. This work may also help maximize the power of phase diagram for materials design and development.

  19. Working conditions in mid-life and mental health in older ages.

    PubMed

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David; Bartley, Mel; Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes

    2013-03-01

    This article illustrates the importance of previous working conditions during mid-life (between 40 and 55) for mental health among older retired men and women (60 or older) across 13 European countries. We link information on health from the second wave (2006-2007) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) with information on respondents' working life collected retrospectively in the SHARELIFE interview (2008-2009). To measure working conditions, we rely on core assumptions of existing theoretical models of work stress (the demand-control-support and the effort-reward imbalance model) and distinguish four types of unhealthy working conditions: (1) a stressful psychosocial work environment (as assessed by the two work stress models) (2) a disadvantaged occupational position throughout the whole period of mid-life, (3) experience of involuntary job loss, and (4) exposure to job instability. Health after labour market exit is measured using depressive symptoms, as measured by the EURO-D depression scale. Main results show that men and women who experienced psychosocial stress at work or had low occupational positions during mid-life had significantly higher probabilities of high depressive symptoms during retirement. Additionally, men with unstable working careers and an involuntary job loss were at higher risks to report high depressive symptoms in later life. These associations remain significant after controlling for workers' health and social position prior mid-life. These findings support the assumption that mental health of retirees who experienced poor working conditions during mid-life is impaired. PMID:24797464

  20. The Palau AHEC--academizing the public health work plan: capacity development and innovation in Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Dever, Greg; Finau, Sitaleki; Kuartei, Stevenson; Durand, A Mark; Rykken, David; Yano, Victor; Untalan, Pedro; Withy, Kelley; Tellei, Patrick; Baravilala, Wame; Pierantozzi, Sandra; Tellei, Jullie

    2005-03-01

    The Palau Area Health Education Center (AHEC)--a program of the University of Hawaii's John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) and based at Palau Community College--was established in 2001 in response to the recommendations of the 1998 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report--Pacific Partnerships for Health--Charting a New Course for the 21st Century1. One of IOM's core recommendations was to promote the training of the primary health care workforce among the U.S.-Associated Pacific Islands. Since its inception in 2001, the Palau AHEC has coordinated overall 37 postgraduate and undergraduate courses in General Practice and Public Health taught by the University of Auckland Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences and the Fiji School of Medicine's School of Public Health and Primary Care (SPH&PC) in Palau, Yap State, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Currently 139 physicians, nurses, health administrators, and environmental health workers are registered as active students in Palau (58), Yap State (22), and the RMI (59). Notably, the Palau AHEC and the SPH&PC have worked in an innovative partnership with the Palau Ministry of Health to operationalize the MOH's public health work plan to implement a comprehensive community health survey of all 4,376 households in Palau, interviewing 79% of the total population, to determine Palau's health indicators. To accomplish this, the SPH&PC developed and taught a curriculum for Palau physicians and public health nurses on how to design the survey, gather, and analyze data in order to develop and implement appropriately responsive intervention and treatment programs to address Palau's old and newer morbidities. In early FY2005, two other Micronesian AHECs--the Yap State and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands AHECs--were funded through JABSOM administered grants which will also address the primary care training needs of Micronesia's remote and isolated health workforce. PMID:18181474