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1

Evaluating the Environmental Health Work Force. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains all materials pertinent to an intensive evaluation of the environmental health work force conducted in 1986 and 1987. The materials relate to a workshop that was one of the key tools used in conducting the study to estimate environmental health personnel supply, demand, and need. The report begins with an overview and…

Levine Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD.

2

The health work force, generalism, and the social contract.  

PubMed Central

Since 1990, society has been evolving through a period of significant transformation. In response to an increasingly information-rich and knowledge-based environment, the work force for most of society is becoming more specialized. Medicine is one of the few areas developing a work force which emphasizes generalism. For our current needs, the transitional work force has overproduced physicians. Because the overproduction has been uneven by specialty, it is deceptive to evaluate growth collectively rather than by individual subspecialty. Future shifts in age and types of illness combined with enhanced technology will transform the public's expectations of the American health care system. The type and number of physicians that will be needed in the future will be substantially different than in the past, so current patterns in physician education may not address the population's future demands. Images Figure 1.

Sheldon, G F

1995-01-01

3

Indiana Department of Mental Health and Work Force Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The collaborative sharing of knowledge about training among Indiana mental health agencies to strengthen the individual efforts of each separate agency was defined. The mental health worker is referred to as a generalist mental health practitioner, demons...

1981-01-01

4

Observations on work force and training needs for assessing environmental health risks  

SciTech Connect

The continuing discoveries of hazardous waste sites have stimulated environmental health risk assessment efforts in State and local environmental health agencies. Elements of risk assessment are defined, showing how risk assessment interfaces with risk management. Environmental health risk assessment involves work components (tasks, activities, and technologies), the worker (position, classification, and occupation), and work organization (purpose, outputs, and objectives). Information from six State agencies was used to describe current State government experiences with environmental health risk assessment. Education and risk assessment are described, particularly as they relate to schools of public health and the role of continuing education for the public health work force.

DeRoos, R.L.; Anderson, P.N.; Berberich, N.J.; Maugans, B.; Omenn, G.S.; Rentos, P.G.

1988-07-01

5

Employer-based health insurance in a changing work force.  

PubMed

The loss of manufacturing jobs and the expansion of service jobs and part-time employment have contributed to a decline in the rate of employer-sponsored health insurance among workers. Not only does manufacturing provide more of its own workers with coverage compared with other industry groups, but it also is a significant net "exporter" of coverage to dependent workers in other industries. In 1991 the net export of coverage represented a 20 percent tax on manufacturing employers per covered worker, while professional services--the fastest-growing industry group-collected a subsidy from other industry groups equal to more than 12 percent per covered worker. Similarly, larger firms--those that employed 100 workers or more--paid a self-imposed tax of as much as 13 percent per covered worker to support dependent workers employed in smaller firms. PMID:8188151

Chollet, D

1994-01-01

6

Work Place Health Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the question of whether and how much workplace health promotion measures have infiltrated the working world and which factors determined the results of health promotion programs for the enterprises. To answer this question we conducted a longitudinal study (measuring times: 1997 and 2003) in 150 enterprises in Hessen and Thueringen of the service sector and metal

Jutta Ulmer; Ferdinand Groeben

2005-01-01

7

America's Changing Work Force: Statistics in Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides information about the demographics of the changing work force. It offers an at-a-glance profile of workers age 45 and older and considers likely changes in the work force of the future. The document includes topics such as the composition of the work force of today and tomorrow by age and sex, labor force participation rates,…

American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

8

Mental Health Task Force Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recommendations of a task force charged with examining conditions of mental health operatios in western Massachusetts are contained in this report. The greatest needs in the region were found to be crisis intervention, childrens' services, community-parti...

D. A. Allen

1974-01-01

9

Markov Models and Reductions in Work Force.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A decision support application based on the Markov analytic model is described, and its use in the formation of policy concerning reduction in force and work force distribution is illustrated through the comparative modeling of two personnel management policies. (MSE)

Feldt, James A.

1986-01-01

10

When do magnetic forces do work?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All of the introductory physics texts in my library tell me at some point that magnetic forces cannot do work, but about half go on to present examples in which it is claimed that magnetic forces can do work. One should not be surprised, therefore, if many of us are confused about what magnetic forces can and cannot do. I hope to provide clarity on this issue.

Mitschele, Jonathan

2007-10-01

11

America's Changing Work Force. Statistics in Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides information about the changing work force. It offers a profile of workers aged 45 and older, as well as likely changes in the work force of the future. Tables and graphs illustrate the following: profile of Americans aged 50 and older, by employment status; employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by age…

American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

12

The Work, the Workplace, and the Work Force of Tomorrow.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ann McLaughlin, a former secretary of labor, discusses her views on the future of the workplace. She feels that to solve the impending problem of educational deficits among the work force, employers will begin their own educational programs, improving both employee loyalty and work force mobility. Includes predictions for future growth fields.…

Allen, Claudia

1995-01-01

13

Work Stress and Employee Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review and summarize the literature on work stress with particular emphasis on those studies that examined the effects of work characteristics on employee health. Although there is not convincing evidence that job stressors cause health effects, the indirect evidence is strongly suggestive of a work stress effect. This evidence comes from occupational studies that show differences in health and

Daniel C. Ganster; John Schaubroeck

1991-01-01

14

Magnetic force and work: an accessible example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite their physics instructors’ arguments to the contrary, introductory students can observe situations in which there seems to be compelling evidence for magnetic force doing work. The counterarguments are often highly technical and require physics knowledge beyond the experience of novice students, however. A simple example is presented which can illustrate that all may not be what it seems when energy transfer and the magnetic force are involved. Excel and Python simulations of the process are also provided.

Gates, Joshua

2014-05-01

15

Health Consequences of Shift Work.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This 30-month study, conducted by SRI and sponsored by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, investigated the effect of working unconventional hours, i.e., afternoon, night, and rotating shifts, on the psychological and physiological ...

D. L. Tasto M. J. Colligan E. W. Skjei S. J. Polly

1978-01-01

16

Health Literacy and Social Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Low health literacy is a societal problem, the significance of which has been increasingly recognized in recent years by the United States healthcare community and the federal government. However, its implications have thus far garnered little attention in the field of social work. This paper examines commonly accepted definitions of health

Singleton, Kate

17

Making the Future Total Force Work.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Force is implementing Future Total Force (FTF) as one method of transformation. Through FTF the Air Force will better meet the challenges of a shrinking budget aging aircraft fleet and emerging missions by integrating (or associating) different co...

S. G. Buckman

2006-01-01

18

Work of gravediggers and health.  

PubMed

Gravediggers have death as object of their work. Their activities are painful, physically and mental demanding, as well as unhealthy. Literature is scarce about this theme. The aim of this study is to evaluate gravediggers' work activities and health consequences. The methodological frame which guided this study was Dejours' psychic suffering and its association with the psychodynamic aspects of work. Data collection took place in April-May 2011 in one public and one private cemetery of São Paulo, Brazil. Four male workers, aged between 45 to 60 years old were interviewed. Their work activities were observed during a workday. Participants reported their life dreams, defense mechanisms and frustration. The discourse of gravediggers showed serious problems associated to physical and mental demands, public invisibility and/ or social devaluation of work. The most important physical symptom was body pain. In spite this is a preliminary study, it was possible to raise a number of work stressors and health outcomes of gravediggers, an "invisible" worker of our society. PMID:22317698

Pinheiro, Fernando; Fischer, Frida Marina; Cobianchi, Claudio José

2012-01-01

19

Task Force Report for Revision of State Plan for Mental Health Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

State planning for mental health services is addressed in a report prepared by the South Central Connecticut Regional Mental Health Planning Council. A task force was established to work on an ongoing basis to obtain information about mental health resour...

1972-01-01

20

The Multicultural Work Force. Trends and Issues Alerts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

White males represent only 46 percent of the U.S. work force. Within a few years, 75 percent of those entering the labor force will be women and minorities, according to the U.S. Department of Labor. The work force is getting smaller as well as changing in nature. To attract and keep the most qualified and productive workers, businesses must make…

Lankard, Bettina A.

21

Roles for Social Work in Community Mental Health Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The findings of a task force convened by the National Conference on Social Welfare to consider the potential role of social work in community mental health programs are reported. The report, one of several presented at a series of institutes on health and...

1975-01-01

22

Interstate Migrant Education Task Force: Migrant Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because ill-clothed, sick, or hungry migrant children learn poorly, the Task Force has emphasized the migrant health situation in 1979. Migrant workers have a 33% shorter life expectancy, a 25% higher infant mortality rate, and a 25% higher death rate from tuberculosis and other communicable diseases than the national average. Common among…

Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

23

Putting Robots to Work with Force & Friction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the concept of pushing, as well as the relationship between force and mass. Students practice measurement skills using pan scales and rulers to make predictions about mass and distance. A LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robot is used to test their hypotheses. By the end of the activity, students have a better understanding of robotics, mass and friction and the concept of predicting.

Applying Mechatronics to Promote Science (AMPS) GK-12 Program,

24

The Culture-Work-Health Model and Work Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the role of organizational culture in the etiology of workplace stress through the framework of the Culture-Work- Health model. A review of relevant business and health literature indicates that culture is an important component of work stress and may be a key to creating effective organizational stress interventions. (SM)

Peterson, Michael; Wilson, John F.

2002-01-01

25

Honeywell's Working Parents Task Force. Final Report and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides a summary of the Honeywell Working Parent Task Force's recommendations on how to solve problems experienced by working parents. The Task Force consisted of three committees: the Employment Practices Committee (EPC); the Parent Education Committee (PEC); and the Child Care Facilities Committee (CCFC). After examining a…

Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

26

Tips for Training a World-Class Work Force.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines trends in work force training needs and innovative approaches to meeting those needs (e.g., business incubators, small business development centers, 2+2 programs, and cooperative education programs). Suggests ways in which community colleges can become more involved in work force development. (DMM)

Waddell, Geneva

1990-01-01

27

Staffing, Training, and Funding Issues for FAA's Major Work Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We appreciate the opportunity to testify on major work force issues affecting FAA operations. Several times over the past few years GAO has reported that FAA needs to improve its hiring and training of three work forces critical for air traffic safety--ai...

1990-01-01

28

Masked symptoms: mid-life women, health, and work.  

PubMed

Data from the Canadian Labour Force Survey (1997) reveal that relatively few mid-life women offer ill health as a reason for leaving their job or downshifting to part-time employment, implying that the role of ill health may be inconsequential in effecting changing patterns in mid-life women's labour force activity. In contrast, interviews with 30 mid-life women (aged 40 to 54 years) illustrate that, although they do not offer illness as their main reason for leaving their job or working part-time, health is a determining factor. This research also maps the complex relationship between work and ill health, showing that stressful working conditions (due to funding cuts and policy changes) affected the mental and physical health of this group of mid-life women, which, in turn, influenced their decision to change their labour force activity. The author concludes that policy makers must recognize that ill health may be under-reported among mid-life women in large surveys and that research is needed that specifically examines women's working conditions as they relate to health. Such research should not be based solely on large surveys but must also include qualitative studies that capture women's experiences. PMID:18304918

Abramson, Zelda

2007-01-01

29

Thailand's Work and Health Transition  

PubMed Central

Thailand has experienced a rapid economic transition from agriculture to industry and services, and from informal to formal employment. It has much less state regulation and worker representation relative to developed nations, who underwent these transitions more slowly and sequentially, decades earlier. We examine the strengthening of Thai government policy and legislation affecting worker’s health, responding to international norms, a new democratic constitution, fear of foreign importer embargos and several fatal workplace disasters. We identify key challenges remaining for Thai policy makers, including legislation enforcement and the measurement of impacts on worker’s mental and physical health.

Kelly, Matthew; Strazdins, Lyndall; Dellora, Tarie; Khamman, Suwanee; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

2011-01-01

30

NCCN Bone Health Task Force: Key Recommendations.  

PubMed

For patients with advanced cancers involving bone, the standard of care for maintaining bone health is the use of antiresorptive therapies such as bisphosphonates, selective estrogen-receptor modulators, and denosumab. However, although long-term adverse events are rare and the risk-benefit ratio of these agents is usually markedly in favor of treatment, clinicians should be aware that they can occur. At the NCCN 19th Annual Conference, Dr. Azeez Farooki presented the key findings of the NCCN Bone Health Task Force, focusing on such topics as screening for osteoporosis; the controversial use of drug holidays from chronic bisphosphonate therapy; the provocative yet unclear story surrounding the potential anticancer benefits of antiresorptive agents; imaging for metastatic bone disease; and safety considerations linked to calcium supplements, vitamin D, and bone-strengthening agents. PMID:24853223

Farooki, Azeez

2014-05-01

31

Improving the Health of Working Families: Research Connections Between Work and Health. NPA Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains two papers on connections between work and health and policy options for improving the health of working families. "Foreword" (James A. Auerbach) places the two papers in the context of recent research on the connections between work, family, and health. Chapter 1's overview addresses the changing nature of work, the new…

Yen, Irene H.; Frank, John W.

32

Effects of Shift Work on Air Force Security Police Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

US Air Force security police duties involve the potential necessity for making split second life and death decisions which could well affect national security. Since previous studies have clearly documented that shift work has a significant effect on thos...

M. L. Goslin

1986-01-01

33

Tomorrow's Work Force: New Values in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new generation of workers is entering the work force. The "computer babies," fiercely independent, will demand autonomy on the job and will brush aside many of the values of the older baby-boom generation. (RM)

Deutsch, R. Eden

1985-01-01

34

Social Work in Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two sources of literature in social work-one from academics and the other from practitioners. Each group is driven by different motivations to write. Academics seek a ‘scientific rationality’ for the field, while practitioners assume practical and intuitive reasoning, experience aligned with theory, and the ‘art of practice’ to guide them. It has been said that practitioners do not

Helen Rehr; Gary Rosenberg; Nancy Showers; Susan Blumenfield

1998-01-01

35

Pilot mental health: expert working group recommendations.  

PubMed

Following a March 27, 2012, incident in which a pilot of a major commercial airline experienced a serious disturbance in his mental health, the Aerospace Medical Association formed an Ad Hoc Working Group on Pilot Mental Health. The working group met several times and analyzed current medical standards for evaluating pilot mental health. The result of the working group was a letter sent to the FAA and other organizations worldwide interested in medical standards. The Committee found that it is neither productive nor cost effective to perform extensive psychiatric evaluations as part of the routine pilot aeromedical assessment. However it did recommend greater attention be given to mental health issues by aeromedical examiners, especially to the more common and detectable mental health conditions and life stressors that can affect pilots and flight performance. They encouraged this through increased education and global recognition of the importance of mental health in aviation safety. PMID:23316549

2012-12-01

36

Air Force Working Capital Fund: Budgeting and Management of Carryover Work and Funding Could Be Improved.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three Air Force depots support combat readiness by providing repair services to keep Air Force units operating worldwide. To the extent that the depots do not complete work at year end, the work and related funding will be carried into the next fiscal yea...

2011-01-01

37

Flextime: A Modified Work Force Scheduling Technique for Selected Headquarters Air Force Logistics Command Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The thesis discusses the advantages and disadvantages of one work force scheduling technique--flextime. The authors were interested in determining if a flextime schedule could be put into effect in a governmental organization such as Headquarters Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC). The study objectives were to determine the feasibility,…

Kimzey, Reed T.; Prince, Samuel M. O.

38

Is Work Beneficial to Good Health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unemployment and insecurity at work are a source of stress and may create a threat to individual physical and psychological health. The purpose of this study was to examine the connection between personal, functional, and professional variables and reports of how the health of hospital patients is impacted by financial status in Israel. One hundred and forty three hospitalized patients

Roni Gagin; Shiri Shinan-Altman

2012-01-01

39

Air Force Selection Model for the Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes results of an effort to develop a decision aid that would assist the Air Force Military Personnel Center Surgeon General (AFMPC/SG) in selecting medical students for the Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship Program. The purpos...

J. P. McGarrity

1988-01-01

40

FLEXTIME: A Modified Work Force Scheduling Technique for Selected Headquarters Air Force Logistics Command Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis discusses the advantages and disadvantages of one work force scheduling technique--flextime. The authors were interested in determining if a flextime schedule could be put into effect in a governmental organization such as Headquarters AFLC. Th...

R. T. Kimzey S. M. O. Prince

1974-01-01

41

Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group is a community of practice that recognizes the interconnections between the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and humans and meets to facilitate the exchange of ideas, data, and research opportunities. Membership includes the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Sea Life Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

Shasby, Mark

2009-01-01

42

Bad Jobs, Bad Health? How Work and Working Conditions Contribute to Health Disparities  

PubMed Central

In this review, we touch on a broad array of ways that work is linked to health and health disparities for individuals and societies. First focusing on the health of individuals, we discuss the health differences between those who do and do not work for pay, and review key positive and negative exposures that can generate health disparities among the employed. These include both psychosocial factors like the benefits of a high status job or the burden of perceived job insecurity, as well as physical exposures to dangerous working conditions like asbestos or rotating shift work. We also provide a discussion of the ways differential exposure to these aspects of work contributes to social disparities in health within and across generations. Analytic complexities in assessing the link between work and health for individuals, such as health selection, are also discussed. We then touch on several contextual level associations between work and the health of populations, discussing the importance of the occupational structure in a given society, the policy environment that prevails there, and the oscillations of the macroeconomy for generating societal disparities in health. We close with a discussion of four areas and associated recommendations that draw on this corpus of knowledge but would push the research on work, health and inequality toward even greater scholarly and policy relevance.

Burgard, Sarah A.; Lin, Katherine Y.

2013-01-01

43

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group (TPHCWG) Field Demonstration Report: Air Force Plant Number 6 Fuel Farm Dobbins AFB, Georgia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A demonstration of the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group (TPHCWG) approach for assessing human health risk at weathered petroleum release sites was performed at a former above ground storage fuel farm (FF) located at Dobbins Air Force Bas...

D. A. Reed T. R. Sterner

2002-01-01

44

Effects of female labour force attachment on health in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of female labour force attachment on health in Australia, where health care is socially provided. Longitudinal panel data from Women’s Health Australia is used in a metric analysis to capture the impact of labour market attachment on the physical component health score of relatively young and older female workers. After controlling for the healthy worker

Robert M. LaJeunesse

2010-01-01

45

Community Colleges, Work Force Training, and the Clinton Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposals for work force training put forth by the Clinton Administration offer unprecedented opportunities as well as risks for community colleges, particularly for community colleges in Illinois. These proposals are grounded in a world view that recognizes the need for public investment in employment and training, although this agenda for…

Katsinas, Stephen G.

46

Enhanced oil recovery. Reservoir engineer suggests working with capillary forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) production results have been disappointing not only because of the low domestic prices that used to prevail, but also because technology has not been good enough. An entirely new EOR technology based on working with rather than against the natural capillary forces within a reservoir must be developed. There is a natural tendency of hydrocarbon fluids

1981-01-01

47

Delivering Alert Messages to Members of a Work Force  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global Alert Resolution Network (GARNET) is a software system for delivering emergency alerts as well as less-urgent messages to members of the Goddard Space Flight Center work force via an intranet or the Internet, and can be adapted to similar use in other large organizations.

Loftis, Julia; Nickens, Stephanie; Pell, Melissa; Pell, Vince

2008-01-01

48

Health status of air force veterans occupationally exposed to herbicides in Vietnam: I. Physical health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Health Study is a 20-year comprehensive assessment of the health of Air Force veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam. The study compares the health and noncombat mortality of Ranch Hand veterans with a comparison group of Air Force veterans primarily involved with cargo missions in Southeast Asia but

W. H. Wolfe; J. E. Michalek; J. C. Miner; A. Rahe; J. Silva; W. F. Thomas; M. B. Lustik; W. D. Grubbs; R. H. Roegner; T. G. Karrison; D. E. Williams

1990-01-01

49

Effect of force and acoustic feedback on teleoperation work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been reported that the operation efficiency during teleoperation under stereoscopic video images is inferior to that of using the naked eye on the spot in real working environments. One of the reasons to explain this might be the smaller amount of information which is provided to the subject when working under stereoscopic images compared with that gotten by direct viewing in the real working environment. In our daily lives, we obtain information through various senses; the visual sense, acoustical sense, tactile sense and so on. The smaller amount of information causes a low working performance in the teleoperation. Some papers showed the improvement of operation efficiency when the subject got acoustic and/or tactile feedback as well as visual feedback in a simulated environment. We investigated to clarify the effects of force and acoustic feedback information with stereoscopic video images to subjects on the performance of the teleoperation using an actual robot. In experiment 1, we used the teleoperated system in which subjects could control the robot arm (the slave manipulator) to pick up cylindrical objects and to insert them in a hole by operating the input-and-tactile-information-display-system (the master manipulator). The results of experiment 1 showed that the force and acoustic information did not improve the working performance, and rather interfered with it. In experiment 2, we investigated the operation efficiency under conditions that force or acoustic feedback was given in the teleoperated work by eliminating contact information acquirable from vision. As a result of the experiment, force and acoustic information was not an effective way to shorten the completion time when the actual teleoperated robot was used.

Cui, Zhenglie; Matsunaga, Katsuya; Shidoji, Kazunori

2003-06-01

50

Parents' work patterns and adolescent mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research demonstrates that non-standard work schedules undermine the stability of marriage and reduce family cohesiveness. Limited research has investigated the effects of parents working non-standard schedules on children's health and wellbeing and no published Australian studies have addressed this important issue. This paper contributes to bridging this knowledge gap by focusing on adolescents aged 15–20 years and by including

Alfred Dockery; Jianghong Li; Garth Kendall

2009-01-01

51

Work against an Electric Force: The Van De Graaff generator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page illustrates the concept of work against an electric force using the examples of the Van de Graaff generator and lightening. There are also shorter examples of the Xerox machine and electric charge on transparency sheets as well as links to sites relating to the Van de Graaff machine or lightening. This is an optional section of "From Stargazers to Starships". French and Italian translations are available.

Stern, David

2005-01-04

52

The World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ).  

PubMed

This report describes the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ), a self-report instrument designed to estimate the workplace costs of health problems in terms of reduced job performance, sickness absence, and work-related accidents-injuries. Calibration data are presented on the relationship between individual-level HPQ reports and archival measures of work performance and absenteeism obtained from employer archives in four groups: airline reservation agents (n = 441), customer service representatives (n = 505), automobile company executives (n = 554), and railroad engineers (n = 850). Good concordance is found between the HPQ and the archival measures in all four occupations. The paper closes with a brief discussion of the calibration methodology used to monetize HPQ reports and of future directions in substantive research based on the HPQ. PMID:12625231

Kessler, Ronald C; Barber, Catherine; Beck, Arne; Berglund, Patricia; Cleary, Paul D; McKenas, David; Pronk, Nico; Simon, Gregory; Stang, Paul; Ustun, T Bedirhan; Wang, Phillip

2003-02-01

53

Why do health labour market forces matter?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Human resources for health have been recognized as essential to the development of responsive and effective health systems. Low- and middle-income countries seeking to achieve universal health coverage face human resource constraints – whether in the form of health worker shortages, maldistribution of workers or poor worker performance – that seriously undermine their ability to achieve well-functioning health systems. Although much has been written about the human resource crisis in the health sector, labour economic frameworks have seldom been applied to analyse the situation and little is known or understood about the operation of labour markets in low- and middle-income countries. Traditional approaches to addressing human resource constraints have focused on workforce planning: estimating health workforce requirements based on a country’s epidemiological and demographic profile and scaling up education and training capacities to narrow the gap between the “needed” number of health workers and the existing number. However, this approach neglects other important factors that influence human resource capacity, including labour market dynamics and the behavioural responses and preferences of the health workers themselves. This paper describes how labour market analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the factors behind human resource constraints in the health sector and to a more effective design of policies and interventions to address them. The premise is that a better understanding of the impact of health policies on health labour markets, and subsequently on the employment conditions of health workers, would be helpful in identifying an effective strategy towards the progressive attainment of universal health coverage.

McPake, Barbara; Araujo, Edson Correia; Lemiere, Christophe; El Maghraby, Atef; Cometto, Giorgio

2013-01-01

54

Why do health labour market forces matter?  

PubMed

Human resources for health have been recognized as essential to the development of responsive and effective health systems. Low- and middle-income countries seeking to achieve universal health coverage face human resource constraints - whether in the form of health worker shortages, maldistribution of workers or poor worker performance - that seriously undermine their ability to achieve well-functioning health systems. Although much has been written about the human resource crisis in the health sector, labour economic frameworks have seldom been applied to analyse the situation and little is known or understood about the operation of labour markets in low- and middle-income countries. Traditional approaches to addressing human resource constraints have focused on workforce planning: estimating health workforce requirements based on a country's epidemiological and demographic profile and scaling up education and training capacities to narrow the gap between the "needed" number of health workers and the existing number. However, this approach neglects other important factors that influence human resource capacity, including labour market dynamics and the behavioural responses and preferences of the health workers themselves. This paper describes how labour market analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the factors behind human resource constraints in the health sector and to a more effective design of policies and interventions to address them. The premise is that a better understanding of the impact of health policies on health labour markets, and subsequently on the employment conditions of health workers, would be helpful in identifying an effective strategy towards the progressive attainment of universal health coverage. PMID:24347708

McPake, Barbara; Maeda, Akiko; Araújo, Edson Correia; Lemiere, Christophe; El Maghraby, Atef; Cometto, Giorgio

2013-11-01

55

Women's work and health in Iran: a comparison of working and non-working mothers.  

PubMed

This paper analyses research on the impact of work on mothers' health in Tehran (Iran) within a role analytic framework. A survey was conducted of a representative sample of working and non-working mothers in Tehran in 1998 (N = 1065, 710 working mothers, and 355 non-working mothers). Three main explanatory factors were examined (socio-demographic, work and work-related, and social-life context variables) alongside a range of mental and physical health outcome variables. Unlike in the West, where women's paid work is generally associated with better health, statistically significant differences between working and non-working women were not found in Tehran. It is argued that this is a result of the counter-balance of the positive and negative factors associated with paid work, such as increased stress on one hand and self-esteem on the other. Iranian society's particular socio-cultural climate has contributed to this finding, with its dominant gender-role ideology; the priority and extra weight placed on women's traditional roles as wives and mothers, and the remarkably influential impact of husbands' attitudes on women's health. PMID:11999491

Ahmad-Nia, Shirin

2002-03-01

56

Working conditions and health in hairdressing salons.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to assess the working conditions in hairdressing salons and the influence of work factors on the workers' health. Twenty randomly sampled hairdressing salons in the Helsinki, Finland, metropolitan area were selected for the study. The study was performed during winter 1994-1995; it included a survey of the hairdressing chemicals in use, the measurement of physical and chemical working conditions, and a self-administered questionnaire of the work environment and health of the workers. The air temperature varied between 16-25 degrees C, air velocity 0.02-0.3 m/s, and relative humidity, 18-42 percent. The total dust concentration varied between 66-133 micrograms/m3. The concentration of volatile organic compounds was 84-465 micrograms/m3 and the peaks rose to 25-45 mg/m3. The highest concentration of ammonia detected was 3.5 mg/m3. The long-term concentrations of thioglycolates and persulfates were at their lowest below the detection limit, and at their highest 1.8 micrograms/m3 for thioglycolates and 4.7 micrograms/m3 for persulfates, respectively, and the peaks of persulfates, 30 micrograms/m3. Hairdressing chemicals, awkward work postures, and repetitive movements were the most frequent causes of discomfort and for some had caused a work-related disease. Good general ventilation decreased the health complaints caused by hairdressing chemicals, but caused discomfort as a result of drafts. On average, the physical and chemical working conditions in the hairdressing salons were satisfactory compared with the Finnish criterion for indoor climate. However, the frequent high peak concentrations of chemicals during dyeing, bleaching, permanenting, and aerosol spraying still pose a significant health problem. Although effective general ventilation alleviated the effects of the air pollutants, it could not completely solve the problem. Therefore, local exhaust ventilation is recommended at the mixing places for hairdressing chemicals and wherever they are applied to the hair. According to our results, already increasing the air exchange rate up to 5 to 7 times per hour during the high exposure jobs would improve the situation. PMID:10730135

Leino, T; Kähkönen, E; Saarinen, L; Henriks-Eckerman, M L; Paakkulainen, H

1999-01-01

57

Health Status of Military Women in the Total Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study of Health Status of Military Women and Men in the Total Force will obtain comprehensive probability-based epidemiological data for women and men across all pay grades for active-duty Army, Air Force, and Guard/Reserve components. These data will...

R. M. Bray

1997-01-01

58

Joining Forces for Better Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a collaborative in Camden, New Jersey, that improves delivery and quality of mental health services for Head Start families. Reveals how the program addresses most of the social service and educational needs of the community through preventive intervention. Contains a description of each member's area of expertise and service. (SD)

Trott, Lauren

1996-01-01

59

Tragic choices in humanitarian health work.  

PubMed

Humanitarian healthcare work presents a range of ethical challenges for expatriate healthcare professionals, including tragic choices requiring the selection of a least-worst option. In this paper we examine a particular set of tragic choices related to the prioritization of care and allocation of scarce resources between individuals in situations of widespread and urgent health needs. Drawing on qualitative interviews with clinicians, we examine the nature of these choices. We offer recommendations to clinical teams and aid organizations for preparing and supporting frontline clinicians in their efforts to determine the least-worst option, and in their responsibility for making such choices. PMID:23469695

Hunt, Matthew R; Sinding, Christina; Schwartz, Lisa

2012-01-01

60

Flexible work in call centres: Working hours, work-life conflict & health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Call-centre workers encounter major psychosocial pressures, including high work intensity and undesirable working hours. Little is known, however, about whether these pressures vary with employment status and how they affect work-life conflict and health. Questionnaire data were collected from 179 telephone operators in Sydney, Australia, of whom 124 (69.3%) were female and 54 (30.2%) were male. Ninety-three (52%) were permanent

Philip Bohle; Harold Willaby; Michael Quinlan; Maria McNamara

2011-01-01

61

Air Force Health Study. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of the serum dioxin analysis of the Air Force Health Study 1987 examination cycle. Its purpose is to determine whether long-term health effects are associated with serum dioxin levels for the participants in the study. For...

A. S. Brockman M. B. Lustik R. H. Roegner S. C. Henderson W. D. Grubbs

1991-01-01

62

Georgia's New Health Outlook. Digest of the Report of the Community Health Task Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A digest of a task force report concerning the major health problems of the State of Georgia is provided. The Community Health Task Force was formed to study the interaction of the environment with the physical, biological, and cultural aspects of communi...

1976-01-01

63

Does Europe need immigrants? Population and work force projections.  

PubMed

European countries defined as all Northern and Western Europe including the former East Germany had a population of 498.4 million in 1990. In 1990 Western Europe had 374.4 million people. The European Community (EC) makes u 92% of the total population. Projections forecast a peak of the EC population (excluding the former East Germany) in 2005 at 334.2 million compared with 327 million in 1989, then declining to 332.5 million in 2010, 329.0 million min 2015 and 324.5 million in 2020. In Europe outside the East, the 20-24 year old work force entrance age group will drop from 29,860,000 in 1990 to 26,400,000 in 1005 and 23,480,000 in 2000: decreasing by 6,380,000 or 21.3%. Fertility rose by 22% in Sweden between 1985 and 1990, the rise of negligible in France and Belgium, but 2% in the UK and Switzerland, 4% in the Netherlands, 13% in Norway, 16% in Denmark, and even 6% in Germany and Luxembourg. The Ec labor force was 145 million in 1990 (excluding East Germany); it is projected to peak at 146.9 million in 2000, decline slowly until 2010 and decline faster up to 2025 with the steepest decline occurring in Germany and Italy. Unemployment rates would change from the 1990 estimate of 15.7 million to 15.5 million in 1995. Net migration into the 12 EC countries was on average -4,800 from 1965 to 1969; 357,000 from 1970 to 1974; 164,400 from 1980 to 1984; and 533,000/year from 1985 to 1989 as a result of the rise of asylum applicants and migration of ethnic Germans into Germany. Increased immigration is not needed to satisfy work force shortages for the next 10-20 years in Western Europe or in the EC. Other issues addressed are the economic activity forecast, the hidden labor supply, skill shortages, Eastern Europe, and teenage shortage. High-level manpower movements, immigration of asylum seekers, and illegal immigration will continue, but in the long run the conditions of employment and welfare support have to be improved for the women of Europe. PMID:12285858

Coleman, D A

1992-01-01

64

Working towards a national health information system in Australia.  

PubMed

One of the major administrative dilemmas facing the Australian national health care system is the need to reform practices associated with massive data-information overload. The current system is burdened with paper-based administrative forms, patient record files, referral notes and other manual methods of data organisation. An integrated computer-based information system may be perceived as an attractive solution to such burdens. However, computerisation must not be seen as a panacea with the possibility of exacerbating information overload and accentuating privacy concerns. Recent surveys in Australia [1] and the US [2] indicate a perceived causal link between computers and privacy invasion. Any moves toward a national health information system must counter this perception through macro-level education schemes of affected parties and micro-level mechanisms such as the establishment of hospital privacy officers. Such concerns may be viewed as a subset of the wider privacy debate, and information policy development should address such considerations to develop policies to prevent unauthorized access to personal information and to avoid the extraction and sale of sensitive health data. Conservative in nature and slow to change the health care sector may be forced to adopt more efficient work practices through the increasing proliferation of information technology (IT) in health care delivery and an escalating emphasis upon accountability and efficiency of the public health care dollar. The economic rationalist stance taken by governments in Australia and other nations generally will also force health care workers to adopt and develop more efficient information management practices, health indicators and best practice care methods than presently employed by this sector The benefits of a national health information system are far reaching, particularly in developing a more effective health care system through better identifying and understanding community health care trends and in applying IT to the efficient collection of data for the development of more appropriate performance measures and statistical indicators. A coherent and integrated approach is called for in the design of a national health information system which incorporates the necessary and requisite security features to meet privacy concerns. Protecting information privacy poses complex political, economic, technological, legal and social problems for systems developers and health care providers alike [2]. According to Brannigan [3] there are three components involved in the formulation and implementation of privacy: public policy (What level of privacy does society want?); legal structure (Does the law adequately provide for society's privacy requirements?); and technical (how much privacy can technical tools provide, at what cost, and with what effects on the system?). Examining technical tools alone, it is apparent that the necessary technologies are available in Australia to provide the security of medical records required by public policy. Such tools may include encryption, user and data authentication methods, authorisation schemes and mechanisms for the prevention of data inference. While none of these available measures are infallible, it is suitable for most applications where the encryption mechanism can provide protection for a given length of time. Australia needs to develop a coherent national health information infrastructure policy to ultimately avoid fragmented, duplicated and incompatible systems that rely on different standards and protocols. Such a policy will only work by addressing the key issue of patient privacy within a technological framework. The application of IT to health care systems is a sensitive social experiment affecting many professions including general practitioners, medical administrators, politicians, lawyers, computer specialists, privacy advocates and patients whose records will ultimately reside in the system. (abstract trun PMID:8591519

Bomba, B; Cooper, J; Miller, M

1995-01-01

65

Attitudes toward working mothers: accommodating the needs of mothers in the work force.  

PubMed

More women, including mothers, are part of the work force than ever before. In the workplace, barriers often exist that restrict promotion and advancement of mothers. Mothers often are penalized in attempting to meet the demands of parent and worker roles. Parenting practices have been considered primarily the domain of mothers. However, nurturing may be done effectively by fathers or other motivated adults. Policies of employers must change to accommodate needs of families. Examples of supportive practices may include flexible working hours, parental leave, and on-site child care. PMID:1463550

Albright, A

1992-10-01

66

Perinatal mental health: midwives and health visitors working together.  

PubMed

The Healthy Child Programme (HCP) focuses on the care offered to pregnant women and children in the first five years of life. It is delivered by a range of professionals, with the health visitor as lead. Effective delivery of the HCP depends on services for children and families being fully integrated, and partnership working between different agencies on a local level seems to be the key to success. This article focuses on how effective implementation of the HCP facilitates the recognition and care of women with anxiety, mild to moderate depression and other perinatal mental disorders during both the antenatal period and after the birth. PMID:24669519

Halnan, Bridget

2014-03-01

67

Better jobs, better care: building the home care work force.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on providing quality care in the paraprofessional home care industry. Despite government policies that have encouraged home-based care for 20 years, home health care still remains relegated to second-class status by the rest of the health care industry. Home care is unique because it relies primarily on paraprofessional care delivered by a home care aide working alone, essentially as a guest in the client's home. The resulting interpersonal dynamic between patient and caregiver--which develops far from the eyes of the primary physician, regulators, and third-party payers--is one unlike any other patient-caregiver relationship in the health care system. The quality of care received by the client is linked directly to the quality of the paraprofessional's job: "good jobs" are prerequisite for "good service." Good jobs, however, are not enough. They must be supported by paraprofessional agencies that add real value to the home care service. Part I We define quality home care as meeting the client's needs. Unfortunately, since home care is provided in dispersed, minimally supervised settings, measuring quality of service is very difficult. For this reason, we suggest that it is the front-line employee--the home care aide who is present for hours every visit--who can best determine if the client's needs are being met, and who is best positioned to respond accordingly. Part II To best meet client needs, paraprofessional home care must be built around the home care aide. This requires that home care aides (1) be carefully selected during the hiring process, (2) be well trained, and (3) be empowered with considerable responsibility and capacity to respond to the daily needs of the clients. This Model, one that emphasizes the front-line employee, is in full keeping with the "total quality management" innovations that are currently reorganizing America's service industries. Unfortunately this model is not typically reflected in current paraprofessional home health care practice. Part III Building the home care service around home care aide requires redesigning the paraprofessinal's job in 5 ways: 1. Make work pay, by providing a minimum of $7.50 per hour and a decent benefits package.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:10137491

Surpin, R; Haslanger, K; Dawson, S

1994-08-01

68

Clinical Priorities: Strengthening Social Work Practice in Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of health services, decisions regarding priorities for social work intervention and, hence, the allocation of social work expertise and resources have traditionally been based on an interaction between social work knowledge, principles and skills, historical precedence, health policy, multidisciplinary team requirements, and manager opinion. In the current context of health services, traditional practices are questioned and it

Ros Giles; Susan Gould; Christopher Hart; Jennifer Swancott

2007-01-01

69

Determinants of Health Promotion Behavior in Active Duty Air Force Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Today's health care system has increasingly focused on health promotion and disease prevention activities. Within the United States' Air Force, emphasis has also been placed on health promoting lifestyle activities. However, the Air Force has a paucity of...

B. J. Grabowski

1997-01-01

70

Health Management Issues and Strategy for Air Force Missiles (POSTPRINT).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As so-called 'wooden rounds,' which are intended to sit stably in storage for extended periods and then function precisely as desired, at a moment's notice, Air Force missiles would appear to be an ideal application for health monitoring. However, solid r...

G. Ruderman

2005-01-01

71

Practice guidelines for preventive care: the Canadian experience. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.  

PubMed Central

The work of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination is described in the historical context of its creation and of its evolution. The initial mandate of the task force is presented and the methodology it created to examine scientific information and formulate practice recommendations is reviewed. The complexity of the implementation of practice guidelines in preventive care is examined by reviewing the several determinants of implementation: cognitive, sociodemographic and organizational factors. The actions taken in Canada to implement the guidelines since the publication of the first task force report are described. The importance of better coordinated clinical and population-based approaches to prevention is emphasized.

Battista, R N

1993-01-01

72

A Health Education Program That Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recounts a successful implementation of the School Health Curriculum Project in an elementary school. Development of the program has been supported by the federal Bureau of Health Education, Center for Disease Control, and the National Clearinghouse for Smoking and Health. (Author/IRT)

Albino, Joseph; Davis, Roy

1975-01-01

73

Exposure assessment and the health of deployed forces.  

PubMed

The risk assessment process is a critical function for military Deployment Toxicology research objectives, emphasizing improved health protection of deployed forces. Reliable risk assessment methodology is essential for decision making related to risk reduction procedures during combat deployment, as well as during routine occupational activities. Such decision making must be based upon quality science that both guides sound judgments in risk characterization and management, and provides necessary health protection tools. The health and fitness of deployed forces must be considered for both acute and long-term issues. Exposure assessment specifies populations that might be exposed to injurious agents, identifies routes of exposure, and estimates the magnitude, duration, and timing of the doses that personnel may receive as a result of their exposure. Acute or short-term catastrophic risks for deployed forces are of immediate concern and must be addressed on a risk prioritization basis using Operational Risk Management (ORM) procedures. However, long-term effects of exposure to the same agents must be considered as part of the overall health concerns for deployed forces. In response to these needs, a number of military, federal government, academic and private sector organizations are currently developing new classes of biologically-based biosensors with the programmed capacity to detect the presence of virtually any environmental chemical or biological stressor with the capacity to induce health consequences in deployed personnel. A major objective of this engineering effort is development of biosensor systems that detect novel (previously unresearched) chemical or biological agents that might be used during international combat or terrorist attacks to induce acute or long-term health effects on military or civilian populations. A large portion of the discussion in this paper is devoted to describing the development, testing, and implementation of tissue-based biosensors (TBBs) that utilize small samples of living tissue from laboratory small animals for a wide range of human risk assessment applications. PMID:12378949

Still, Kenneth R; Jederberg, Warren W; Ritchie, Glenn D; Rossi, John

2002-11-01

74

The Quality of Work and Youth Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the Youth Development Study on adolescents who worked in high school were used to examine mental health, work stress, and work/school interactions. The quality of high school work experiences had significant consequences for mental states during high school, but had little effect on long-term mental health. (Contains 70 references.) (SK)

Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Harley, Carolyn; Staff, Jeremy

2002-01-01

75

[Work and health state of working population in Moscow].  

PubMed

The article shows changes in employed population of Moscow over a period of economic changes, in employment structure by economicbranches withsubsequent reduction of individuals employed in industrial branches. Based on analysis of health parameters of employed population according to official statistics, the authors demonstrated trends in those parameters change, with the accent that those changes are less negative in Moscow than generally in Russia. PMID:16813226

Subbotin, V V; Zhavoronok, L G; Novokhatskaia, E A

2006-01-01

76

Health status of air force veterans occupationally exposed to herbicides in Vietnam: I. Physical health  

SciTech Connect

The Air Force Health Study is a 20-year comprehensive assessment of the health of Air Force veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam. The study compares the health and noncombat mortality of Ranch Hand veterans with a comparison group of Air Force veterans primarily involved with cargo missions in Southeast Asia but who were not exposed to herbicides. This report summarizes the health of these veterans as determined at the third in a series of physical examinations. Nine hundred ninety-five Ranch Hands and 1,299 comparison subjects attended the second follow-up examination in 1987. The two groups were similar in reported health problems, diagnosed skin conditions, and hepatic, cardiovascular, and immune profiles. Ranch Hands have experienced significantly more basal cell carcinomas than comparison subjects. The two groups were not different with respect to melanoma and systemic cancer.

Wolfe, W.H.; Michalek, J.E.; Miner, J.C. (School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, TX (USA)); Rahe, A. (QuesTech Inc., San Antonio, TX (USA)); Silva, J. (Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Thomas, W.F.; Lustik, M.B.; Grubbs, W.D.; Roegner, R.H. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA)); Karrison, T.G. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA)); Williams, D.E. (Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation, La Jolla, CA (USA))

1990-10-10

77

3 CFR - White House Task Force on Middle-Class Working Families  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false White House Task Force on Middle-Class Working...Memorandum of January 30, 2009 White House Task Force on Middle-Class Working...the following: Section 1. White House Task Force on Middle-Class...

2010-01-01

78

Mental Health and Work: Issues and Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Australia, there is increasing attention being paid to the promotion of mental health and the prevention of serious mental disorder by policymakers, funders, academics and service providers. This has required a shift in thinking to focus on health and well being, not just on illness and treatment. The National Action Plan for Promotion,…

Morrow, Lou, Ed.; Verins, Irene, Ed.; Willis, Eileen, Ed.

79

Women, Work and Health: Issues and Implications for Worksite Health Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies issues related to worksite health promotion programs for women by examining ways that work factors, health behaviors, family roles and responsibilities, and women's health are linked. Work conditions may affect women uniquely, as in the case of chemical exposure affecting reproductive health; disproportionately, such as the interaction between work and family roles; or differently from men, as

Barbara S. Collins; Roberta B. Hollander; Dyann Matson Koffman; Rebecca Reeve; Susan Seidler

1997-01-01

80

Forced migration and child health and mortality in Angola.  

PubMed

This study investigates the effects of forced migration on child survival and health in Angola. Using survey data collected in Luanda, Angola, in 2004, just two years after the end of that country's prolonged civil war, we compare three groups: migrants who moved primarily due to war, migrants whose moves were not directly related to war, and non-migrants. First, we examine the differences among the three groups in under-five mortality. Using an event-history approach, we find that hazards of child death in any given year were higher in families that experienced war-related migration in the same year or in the previous year, net of other factors. To assess longer-term effects of forced migration, we examine hazards of death of children who were born in Luanda, i.e., after migrants had reached their destinations. We again observe a disadvantage of forced migrants, but this disadvantage is explained by other characteristics. When looking at the place of delivery, number of antenatal consultations, and age-adequate immunization of children born in Luanda, we again detect a disadvantage of forced migrants relative to non-migrants, but now this disadvantage also extends to migrants who came to Luanda for reasons other than war. Finally, no differences across the three groups in child morbidity and related health care seeking behavior in the two weeks preceding the survey are found. We interpret these results within the context of the literature on short- and long-term effects of forced migration on child health. PMID:19879027

Avogo, Winfred Aweyire; Agadjanian, Victor

2010-01-01

81

Multicultural Group Work: A Force for Developing and Healing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multicultural group work represents a powerful tool for helping and healing in the context of human diversity. This article summarizes multicultural group work, including task, psychoeducational, counseling, and psychotherapy groups, and describes a group work model for multicultural assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning. Group work

Anderson, Donald

2007-01-01

82

Depression in the work of British health visitors: Clinical facets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary health care setting has been established as a key venue for identifying and working with depression. Despite this, and the high risk of depression experienced by women in the post-natal period, maternal depression has been little examined in the work of health visitors. This study focuses on clinical facets of this work, including the rate and content of

Michael Sheppard

1996-01-01

83

Do employee health management programs work?  

PubMed

Current peer review literature clearly documents the economic return and Return-on-Investment (ROI) for employee health management (EHM) programs. These EHM programs are defined as: health promotion, self-care, disease management, and case management programs. The evaluation literature for the sub-set of health promotion and disease management programs is examined in this article for specific evidence of the level of economic return in medical benefit cost reduction or avoidance. The article identifies the methodological challenges associated with determination of economic return for EHM programs and summarizes the findings from 23 articles that included 120 peer review study results. The article identifies the average ROI and percent health plan cost impact to be expected for both types of EHM programs, the expected time period for its occurrence, and caveats related to its measurement. PMID:19288852

Serxner, Seth; Gold, Daniel; Meraz, Angela; Gray, Ann

2009-01-01

84

Flexible work schedules and mental and physical health. A study of a working populationwithnon-traditionalworkinghours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The relationship between health complaints and flexible work schedules was studied in a patient population selected by general practitioners. Four hundred and eighty patients between 20 and 60 years, currently employed or on sick leave, completed questionnaires which compiled data on their work situation, subjective physical health, psychological well-being, and quality of sleep. Subjective health measurements were performed by

M. F. J. MARTENS; F. J. N. NIJHUIS; M. P. J. VAN BOXTEL

85

[Perspectives of work, age, health, and labor market participation in Germany].  

PubMed

The German population is aging and shrinking. This will have a significant impact on the labor market, because labor supply will start to shrink. Consequently, there is a need to develop additional labor market resources. In this setting, a crucial issue is the health and employment of the older working population. This article discusses--on the basis of nine articles in this special issue--the health of the working population in the context of work, age, and labor participation. It shows the diversity of morbidity in the work force in general and particularly in older age, and it identifies older labor force groups with good health and those with bad health. The latter shows that "working while having a bad state of health" is today's reality. Labor market participation is less dependent on health than on the "work ability" and/or the "motivation to work" of older workers. The employment dynamics of an aging population will be a key issue in future political debate. A reliable knowledge base is needed for proper discussion, judgment, and action in the economic, political, and social fields. Current research is often focused on subtopics or on subgroups; however, a network of all the related scientific disciplines and the establishment of new comprehensive research approaches are needed in this area. PMID:23455551

Hasselhorn, H M; Rauch, A

2013-03-01

86

Reduction-in-Force: Working Policies and Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reduction-in-force (RIF) policies presented here are intended to represent the variety of approaches currently being used throughout the nation. They were obtained through inquiries to personnel in more than 100 U.S. school districts. They are presented to give principals and assistant principals information to allow them to play an…

National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.

87

Educating the Military Work Force: A Worldwide Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Defense, in cooperation with a number of colleges and universities, offers a variety of higher education opportunities to military personnel: the Community College of the Air Force, the Army and Navy's Servicemembers Opportunity Colleges, and Defense Activity for Nontraditional Education Support (DANTES). (SK)

Jones, Donald W.; Saltman, Lenore E.

1989-01-01

88

Postattack Medical Care Impact on Survivors' Work Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Research Triangle Institute (RTI), has developed two computer simulation models that can be applied to health related problems in a range of geographic resource areas in a post nuclear weapon detonation environment. After the basic research was done, ...

R. O. Lyday J. N. Pyecha E. L. Hill

1976-01-01

89

Forced migration and child health and mortality in Angola  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the effects of forced migration on child survival and health in Angola. Using survey data collected in Luanda, Angola, in 2004, just two years after the end of that country's prolonged civil war, we compare three groups: migrants who moved primarily due to war, migrants whose moves were not directly related to war, and non-migrants. First, we examine the differences among the three groups in under-five mortality. Using an event-history approach, we find that hazards of child death in any given year were higher in families that experienced war-related migration in the same year or in the previous year, net of other factors. To assess longer-term effects of forced migration, we examine hazards of death of children who were born in Luanda, i.e., after migrants had reached their destinations. We again observe a disadvantage of forced migrants, but this disadvantage is explained by other characteristics. When looking at the place of delivery, number of antenatal consultations, and age-adequate immunization of children born in Luanda, we again detect a disadvantage of forced migrants relative to non-migrants, but now this disadvantage also extends to migrants who came to Luanda for reasons other than war. Finally, no differences across the three groups in child morbidity and related healthcare seeking behavior in the two weeks preceding the survey are found. We interpret these results within the context of the literature on short- and long-term effects of forced migration on child health.

Agadjanian, Victor

2009-01-01

90

Some Ruminations about Prison Mental Health Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes incidents involving mental health services in prison facilities that illustrate "Catch-22" situations, in many of which inmates perceive clinicians as people who "come to watch you drown instead of throwing you a rope." Proposes a supplementation of "administrative clinical" thinking with nonbureaucratic, collaborative efforts to assist…

Toch, Hans

1995-01-01

91

Literacy-Health Partnerships That Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The approaches taken by two separate family literacy programs on Chicago's South Side to create unique literacy-health projects demonstrate the fluid nature of partnerships; the essential but time-consuming building of trust and credibility; and recognition of mutual benefits. (JOW)

Geissler, Barbara

1994-01-01

92

Work roles and definitions of patient health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking its starting point from Berger and Luckmann's (1967) sociology of knowledge and Schutz's (1962) phenomenology, this research explored the social construction of definitions of patient health made by nurses, physicians and social workers in a large American geriatric care facility. The study focused on one patient unit and was based on a content analysis of the notes made in

Ellen Annandale

1985-01-01

93

Impact of Work Organization on Women's Postpartum Health.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research addressed the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) priority area of Work Environment and Workforce: Organization of Work. This award provided R03 funding for Dr. Marshall, an established investigator of employment and health, for sec...

N. L. Marshall

2008-01-01

94

Social work and Koranic mental health healers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The healing activities of six Arab Muslim Koranic healers working in the Negev desert, West Bank and the Gaza Strip are analysed with respect to healer characteristics, the process of becoming a healer, and the stages of treating mental illness, including pre-diagnosis, diagnosis, and treatment. Prospects are considered for mutual integration, observation, and dissemination between social work and Koranic healing.

Alean Al-Krenawi; John R. Graham

1999-01-01

95

Stress, Coping, Health Practices, and Health Status in Enlisted and Officer Air Force Women with Dependent Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stress, Coping, Health Practices, and Health Status in Enlisted and Officer Air Force Women with Dependent Children. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the demographic and psychological variables associated with the health status and hea...

J. C. Mayne

1989-01-01

96

On-call work and health: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many professions in the fields of engineering, aviation and medicine employ this form of scheduling. However, on-call work has received significantly less research attention than other work patterns such as shift work and overtime hours. This paper reviews the current body of peer-reviewed, published research conducted on the health effects of on-call work The health effects studies done in the

Anne-Marie Nicol; Jackie S Botterill

2004-01-01

97

Will Better Access to Health Care Change How Much Older Men Work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The move toward universal health coverage in the United States is likely to impact the labor force deci­sions of older workers, but the size and direction of the effect is unclear. On the one hand, access to affordable insurance that is not tied to an employer may reduce work by encouraging workers to leave a current job, perhaps shifting to

Melissa A. Boyle; Joanna N. Lahey

2010-01-01

98

Knowledge and Attitudes of Health Care Providers Working in Primary Health Care Units Concerning Emergency Contraception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The aim of the current study was to explore the extent of knowledge health care providers working in primary health care units in Aydin, Turkey, had about emergency contraception (EC), to determine whether they provide EC counseling, and to understand the barriers and misconceptions in this context. Methods: A total of 120 health care professionals working in primary health

Hilmiye Aksu; Mert Kucuk; Banu Karaoz

2010-01-01

99

Health issues at work: Opportunities for industrial\\/organizational psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: The workplace provides an excellent setting for addressing issues of health, and industrial\\/organiza- tional psychologists have a great deal to contribute to this effort. Five models for addressing health at work are pre- sented along with the recommendation,to use the broader systems approach. A set of criteria for health research and practice is introduced, and the potential contributions of

Daniel R. Ilgen

1990-01-01

100

Health Issues at Work: Opportunities for Industrial\\/Organizational Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The workplace provides an excellent setting for addressing issues of health, and industrial\\/organizational psychologists have a great deal to contribute to this effort. Five models for addressing health at work are presented along with the recommendation to use the broader systems approach. A set of criteria for health research and practice is introduced, and the potential contributions of industrial–organizational psychology

Daniel R. Ilgen

1990-01-01

101

Community Health Workers and Their Value to Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community health workers (CHWs) play a vital and unique role in linking diverse and underserved populations to health and social service systems. Despite their effectiveness, as documented by empirical studies across various disciplines including public health, nursing, and biomedicine, the value and potential role of CHWs in the social work

Spencer, Michael S.; Gunter, Kathryn E.; Palmisano, Gloria

2010-01-01

102

Manning the Force Through Immigration: Making the American Dream Work for the Armed Forces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Force struggles with recruitment and retention. Focused recruitment on legal permanent resident immigrants, assisted by new national immigration legislation giving eligible service members the right to accelerate immigrant visa petition interviews for...

A. S. Kong

2001-01-01

103

Participatory-democratic work and adolescents mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five arguments are advanced for the proposition that participatorydemocratic workplaces best promote the mental health of adolescents. These arguments are based on (a) adolescent development theory, (b) research on adolescent work, (c) the goal of preparing adolescents to assume optimally healthful adult jobs, (d) the proposition that participatory-democratic work is optimal for all workers, and (e) the trend toward increased

Stephen F. Hamilton; Michael Basseches; Francis A. Richards

1985-01-01

104

The Implicit Contract: Implications for Health Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifying common patient dynamics is useful for developing social work practice sensitivity in health social work. This article draws on findings from a study of women who terminated desired pregnancies because of fetal anomalies and identifies dynamics that may be applicable to many health settings. Data suggest that women have expectations…

McCoyd, Judith L. M.

2010-01-01

105

Work Commitment among Young Women: Its Relation to Labor Force Participation, Marriage, and Childbearing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research analyzes the relations between young women's attitudes and preferences about market work and their labor force and family-building experiences in early adulthood, focusing on the causal relations between early employment and work-related atti...

G. D. Spitze

1979-01-01

106

Integrating the disabled into the work force: A survey of fortune 500 company attitudes and practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full participation in the work force continues to be an elusive goal for disabled individuals. One common explanation for this state of affairs is that employers tend to have negative attitudes about what the handicapped have to offer as employees and what is required to integrate them into the work force. Unfortunately, relatively little recent data is available about such

Dean B. McFarlin; James Song; Michelle Sonntag I

1991-01-01

107

NCCN Task Force Report: Bone Health in Cancer Care  

PubMed Central

Bone health and maintenance of bone integrity are important components of comprehensive cancer care in both early and late stages of disease. Risk factors for osteoporosis are increased in patients with cancer, including women with chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure, those treated with aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer, men receiving androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer, and patients undergoing glucocorticoid therapy. The skeleton is a common site of metastatic cancer recurrence, and skeletal-related events are the cause of significant morbidity. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) convened a multidisciplinary task force on Bone Health in Cancer Care to discuss the progress made in identifying effective screening and therapeutic options for management of treatment-related bone loss; understanding the factors that result in bone metastases; managing skeletal metastases; and evolving strategies to reduce bone recurrences. This report summarizes presentations made at the meeting.

Gralow, Julie R.; Biermann, J. Sybil; Farooki, Azeez; Fornier, Monica N.; Gagel, Robert F.; Kumar, Rashmi N.; Shapiro, Charles L.; Shields, Andrew; Smith, Matthew R.; Srinivas, Sandy; Van Poznak, Catherine H.

2011-01-01

108

Women's Health. Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health Issues. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report identifies a broad spectrum of issues affecting women's health and is divided into four sections: (1) social factors affecting women's health; (2) women's physical health and well-being; (3) health concerns of older women; and (4) issues related to alcohol, drug use and abuse, and the mental health of women. The Public Health Service…

Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

109

It Takes All Kinds: Creativity in the Work Force.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the various approaches to creativity taken by various corporations and whether there is a difference between creativity and problem solving. Distinguishes between adaptive creativity--whereby employees find better ways to do their work--and innovative creativity--the ability to produce really big or strange ideas. (JOW)

Filipczak, Bob

1997-01-01

110

The burden of health care costs for working families.  

PubMed

Health care spending represents a growing share of our national income, and based on current projections, will increase from 16% of the gross domestic product today to 20% by 2018. What does this mean for typical working families with private health insurance, who shoulder the financial burden of maintaining the current system? In this Issue Brief, Polsky and Grande construct a typical health care budget for working families of various income levels, calculate the percentage of total compensation devoted to health care over time, and project how rising health care costs will affect standards of living in the future. Their findings remind us that what works today also has to work tomorrow. Sustainability depends critically on successful cost containment. PMID:19795545

Polsky, Daniel; Grande, David

2009-07-01

111

After the Baby: Work-Family Conflict and Working Mothers' Psychological Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines work and family characteristics and depressive symptomatology among over 700 working mothers of infants. Working mothers in poorer quality jobs, as well as working mothers who were single or whose infant's health was poorer than that of other infants, reported greater depressive symptomatology. The effect of job quality on…

Marshall, Nancy L.; Tracy, Allison J.

2009-01-01

112

Health effects of forced evictions in the slums of Mumbai.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the effects of forced evictions on the health of the people living in the slum areas of Mumbai, India. The media has remained silent on issues regarding the refugee crisis in the developing world, which concerns mainly, the forced eviction of people to make way for development projects. These projects included many urban development schemes, which displace 10 million people a year in less developed countries. In Mumbai, there has been a systematic program of slum clearance. Slum dwellers in Ambedkar Nagar epitomize the plight of the slum dwellers in Mumbai. Over the past 10 years, these slum dwellers have faced eviction 45 times and the repeated evictions have had profound effects on the health of the residents, some of which are protracted deprivation, widespread infections, hypovitaminosis, and wasting. Evictions in India have continuously been carried out despite Article 21 of the Constitution, which recognizes the right to life. However, despite the legal framework, it is evident that the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation, in its efforts to achieve a vision of modern Mumbai, is ignoring the plight of the poor. PMID:10509519

Emmel, N D; D'Souza, L

1999-09-25

113

Relationship between Work-Life Conflict/Work-Life Balance and Operational Effectiveness in the Canadian Forces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews studies that have been conducted on work-life conflict/work-life balance and its relationship to operational effectiveness. The majority of studies that are reviewed in this report focus on this issue within the Canadian Forces (CF). W...

D. I. Pickering

2006-01-01

114

A Statistical Portrait of Working at Home in the U.K.: Evidence from the Labour Force Survey. Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The patterns, extent, and problems of working at home in the United Kingdom were examined through a multivariate analysis of data from the Labour Force Survey, which has questioned respondents about the location of their workplace since 1992. The numbers of people working "mainly" at home increased from 345,920 (1.5%) in 1981 to 680,612 (2.5%) in…

Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick; Phizacklea, Annie; Walters, Sally

115

Association of Returning to Work With Better Health in Working-Aged Adults: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We systematically reviewed the literature on the impact of returning to work on health among working-aged adults. Methods. We searched 6 electronic databases in 2005. We selected longitudinal studies that documented a transition from unemployment to employment and included a comparison group. Two reviewers independently appraised the retrieved literature for potential relevance and methodological quality. Results. Eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria, including 1 randomized controlled trial. Fifteen studies revealed a beneficial effect of returning to work on health, either demonstrating a significant improvement in health after reemployment or a significant decline in health attributed to continued unemployment. We also found evidence for health selection, suggesting that poor health interferes with people’s ability to go back to work. Some evidence suggested that earlier reemployment may be associated with better health. Conclusions. Beneficial health effects of returning to work have been documented in a variety of populations, times, and settings. Return-to-work programs may improve not only financial situations but also health.

Chambers, Lori; Wilson, Mike; Mustard, Cameron; Rourke, Sean B.; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Raboud, Janet; Lavis, John

2012-01-01

116

Health Effects of Children's Work: Evidence from Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

We test whether work in childhood impacts on health. We distinguish between urban and rural settings and focus on agricultural work, which is the dominant form of child work worldwide. We use a particularly rich two-wave panel data set – the 1993 and 1998 Vietnam Living Standards Surveys. The panel nature of the data and the availability of good instruments,

O. ODonnell; F. Rosati; E. van Doorslaer

2003-01-01

117

The mental health effects of multiple work and family demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

j Abstract Background Individuals who experience work stress or heavy family demands are at elevated risk of poor mental health. Yet, the cumulative effects of multiple work and family demands are not well known, particularly in men. Methods We studied the association between multiple work and family de- mands and sickness absence due to non-psychotic psychiatric disorders in a longitudinal

Maria Melchior; Lisa F. Berkman; Isabelle Niedhammer; Marie Zins; Marcel Goldberg

118

Health status, work limitations, and return-to-work trajectories in injured workers with musculoskeletal disorders  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to describe the health status and work limitations in injured workers with musculoskeletal disorders at 1 month post-injury, stratified by return-to-work status, and to document their return-to-work trajectories 6 months post-injury. Methods A sample of 632 workers with a back or upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder, who filed a Workplace Safety and Insurance Board lost-time claim injury, participated in this prospective study. Participants were assessed at baseline (1 month post-injury) and at 6 months follow-up. Results One month post-injury, poor physical health, high levels of depressive symptoms and high work limitations are prevalent in workers, including in those with a sustained first return to work. Workers with a sustained first return to work report a better health status and fewer work limitations than those who experienced a recurrence of work absence or who never returned to work. Six months post-injury, the rate of recurrence of work absence in the trajectories of injured workers who have made at least one return to work attempt is high (38%), including the rate for workers with an initial sustained first return to work (27%). Conclusions There are return-to-work status specific health outcomes in injured workers. A sustained first return to work is not equivalent to a complete recovery from musculoskeletal disorders.

Franche, Renee-Louise; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Cote, Pierre; Lee, Hyunmi; Severin, Colette; Vidmar, Marjan; Carnide, Nancy

2007-01-01

119

Insomnia and Its Relationship to Work and Health in a Working-Age Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because sleep may directly or indirectly be related to disability, we examined the prevalence of sleep problems in working-age people in the general population and explored the relationship among sleep, health, and work. A cross-sectional survey, mailed to 3,000 people aged 20–60, was employed, featuring criteria to define sleep problems and standardized items to assess work and health. Although the

Steven J. Linton; Ing-Liss Bryngelsson

2000-01-01

120

Work stress and health in primary health care physicians and hospital physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In order to understand the reasons for the low priority given to work in primary health care among physicians, we studied differences in work stress, health and health related lifestyles between general practitioners (GPs) and hospital physicians. Method: A cohort of 226 GPs and 523 consultants from Finland responded to a questionnaire survey. The responses were linked to data

P Virtanen; T Oksanen; M Kivimaki; M Virtanen; J Pentti; J Vahtera

2008-01-01

121

One Health in action: the work of the HAIRS group.  

PubMed

The Human Animal Infections and Risk Surveillance (HAIRS) group is a collaboration between a number of human and animal health organisations within the UK government. The group aims to provide a 'joined-up' response to emerging diseases that threaten the health of people or animals. Here, Dilys Morgan, who chairs the group, discusses its work, highlighting its response to Schmallenberg virus, and shows how a One Health approach can improve government responses to potential crises. PMID:25034681

Morgan, Dilys

2014-07-19

122

Changing Work, Changing Health: Can Real Work-Time Flexibility Promote Health Behaviors and Well-Being?  

PubMed Central

This article investigates a change in the structuring of work time, using a natural experiment to test whether participation in a corporate initiative (Results Only Work Environment; ROWE) predicts corresponding changes in health-related outcomes. Drawing on job strain and stress process models, we theorize greater schedule control and reduced work-family conflict as key mechanisms linking this initiative with health outcomes. Longitudinal survey data from 659 employees at a corporate headquarters shows that ROWE predicts changes in health-related behaviors, including almost an extra hour of sleep on work nights. Increasing employees’ schedule control and reducing their work-family conflict are key mechanisms linking the ROWE innovation with changes in employees’ health behaviors; they also predict changes in well-being measures, providing indirect links between ROWE and well-being. This study demonstrates that organizational changes in the structuring of time can promote employee wellness, particularly in terms of prevention behaviors.

Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L.; Tranby, Eric; Huang, Qinlei

2012-01-01

123

Use of Health and Social Services Following Work Injuries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent research documents the consequences of workplace injuries, and the resulting time off work, on the mental health and quality of workers and their families. This study examines several social and economic consequences of workplace injury for an enti...

H. S. Shannon C. Mustard P. McDonough J. Brown

2005-01-01

124

A model of social work classification in health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of casemix funding for Australian acute health care services has challenged Social Work to demonstrate clear reporting mechanisms, demonstrate effective practice and to justify interventions provided. The term ‘casemix’ is used to describe the mix and type of patients treated by a hospital or other health care services. There is wide acknowledgement that the procedure-based system of Diagnosis

Helen Cleak

2002-01-01

125

Community Mental Health: Issues for Social Work Practice and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles by social work educators on some of the critical issues in community mental health are presented. Examined are some conceptual and program developments related to coordination, continuity of care, and the use of teams in planning and service delivery for community mental health (Lawrence K. Berg). The issue of civil commitment to and…

Katz, Arthur J., Ed.

126

Incorporating Integrative Health Services in Social Work Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than one third of Americans practice complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Social workers continue to provide most first-line health, mental health, and psychological referral and direct practice services in the United States, despite a lack of systematic education and training opportunities in CAM. Schools of social work are…

Gant, Larry; Benn, Rita; Gioia, Deborah; Seabury, Brett

2009-01-01

127

Accreditation of Health Educational Programs. Part 1: Staff Working Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains the first set of working papers concerned with structure, financing, research, and expansion as they relate to the accreditation of health education programs conducted by professional agencies. Texts of these papers are included: (1) "Historical Introduction to Accreditation of Health Educational Programs" by W.K. Selden,…

Study of Accreditation of Selected Health Educational Programs, Washington, DC.

128

Work, health, and welfare: the association between working conditions, welfare states, and self-reported general health in Europe.  

PubMed

This article is the first to examine the association between self-reported general health and a wide range of working conditions at the European level and by type of welfare state regime. Data for 21,705 men and women ages 16 to 60 from 27 European countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. The influence of individual-level sociodemographic, physical, and psychosocial working conditions and of the organization of work were assessed in multilevel logistic regression analyses, with additional stratification by welfare state regime type (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Eastern European, Scandinavian, and Southern). At the European level, we found that "not good" general health was more likely to be reported by workers more exposed to hazardous working conditions. Most notably, tiring working positions, job strain, and temporary job contracts were strongly associated with a higher likelihood of reporting "not good" health. Analysis by welfare state regime found that only tiring or painful working conditions were consistently associated with worse self-reported health in all regimes. There was no evidence that the Scandinavian welfare regime protected against the adverse health effects of poor working conditions. The article concludes by examining the implications for comparative occupational health research. PMID:24684087

Bambra, Clare; Lunau, Thorsten; Van der Wel, Kjetil A; Eikemo, Terje A; Dragano, Nico

2014-01-01

129

Simultaneous current-, force-, and work-function measurement with atomic resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local work function of a surface determines the spatial decay of the charge density at the Fermi level normal to the surface. Here, we present a method that enables simultaneous measurements of local work-function and tip-sample forces. A combined dynamic scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope is used to measure the tunneling current between an oscillating tip and the sample in real time as a function of the cantilever's deflection. Atomically resolved work-function measurements on a silicon (111)-(7×7) surface are presented and related to concurrently recorded tunneling current and force measurements.

Herz, M.; Schiller, Ch.; Giessibl, F. J.; Mannhart, J.

2005-04-01

130

When work calls-associations between being contacted outside of regular working hours for work-related matters and health.  

PubMed

Boundaries between work and private life are diminishing, but little is known on how this influences worker health. Therefore, we examined the association between work-related contacts outside of regular working hours by e-mail or phone and self-reported health in a representative sample of European employees (n?=?23 760). The risk of reporting ?1 health problem(s) was increased in workers contacted sometimes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.27) or often (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.12-1.34) as compared with never, controlling for several demographic and workplace characteristics. Further research is needed to quantify work and nonwork patterns and their health effects. PMID:23898880

Arlinghaus, Anna; Nachreiner, Friedhelm

2013-11-01

131

Women, Work and Health Hazards: A Fact Sheet and Cosmetologists: Health Risks at Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of this document is a fact sheet that provides information on health hazards faced by employed women. It covers the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), job-related diseases suffered by workers in female-dominated occupations, employer responsibilities under OSHA, and the lack of statistical reporting on job-related disease.…

National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.

132

Strengthening health workforce capacity through work-based training  

PubMed Central

Background Although much attention has been given to increasing the number of health workers, less focus has been directed at developing models of training that address real-life workplace needs. Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH) with funding support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed an eight-month modular, in-service work-based training program aimed at strengthening the capacity for monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and continuous quality improvement (CQI) in health service delivery. Methods This capacity building program, initiated in 2008, is offered to in-service health professionals working in Uganda. The purpose of the training is to strengthen the capacity to provide quality health services through hands-on training that allows for skills building with minimum work disruptions while encouraging greater involvement of other institutional staff to enhance continuity and sustainability. The hands-on training uses practical gaps and challenges at the workplace through a highly participatory process. Trainees work with other staff to design and implement ‘projects’ meant to address work-related priority problems, working closely with mentors. Trainees’ knowledge and skills are enhanced through short courses offered at specific intervals throughout the course. Results Overall, 143 trainees were admitted between 2008 and 2011. Of these, 120 (84%) from 66 institutions completed the training successfully. Of the trainees, 37% were Social Scientists, 34% were Medical/Nursing/Clinical Officers, 5.8% were Statisticians, while 23% belonged to other professions. Majority of the trainees (80%) were employed by Non-Government Organizations while 20% worked with the public health sector. Trainees implemented 66 projects which addressed issues such as improving access to health care services; reducing waiting time for patients; strengthening M&E systems; and improving data collection and reporting. The projects implemented aimed to improve trainees’ skills and competencies in M&E and CQI and the design of the projects was such that they could share these skills with other staff, with minimal interruptions of their work. Conclusions The modular, work-based training model strengthens the capacity of the health workforce through hands-on, real-life experiences in the work-setting and improves institutional capacity, thereby providing a practical example of health systems strengthening through health workforce capacity building.

2013-01-01

133

Effects of ergonomic and health training on work interest, work ability and health in elderly public urban transport drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public urban transport drivers of the Munich Transportation Authority (n=122) with an average age of 50 years participated in 20 health days with full paid worktime over one year. The training consisted of physical exercise, professional skills training and self-experience in groups. The evaluation instruments were the work ability index (WAI) developed by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health and

Rudolf Karazman; Irene Kloimüller; Heinrich Geissler; Inge Karazman-Morawetz

2000-01-01

134

Training America's Work Force: A Private Sector Base Line and Its Impact on National Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Throughout its history, the United States has remained economically strong and secure through a productive work force powering its industries. Low skill jobs provided high wages and supported a high standard of living. In recent decades, however, foreign ...

S. J. Apple

1993-01-01

135

The Competitiveness and Productivity of Tomorrow's Work Force: Compelling Reasons for Investing in Healthy Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet outlines some demographic trends that are influencing the cost and availability of health care for children and making it increasingly necessary to take action to improve the health of the nation's children. In recent years children, as a group, are more likely to be poor, lack health insurance, have working mothers, receive…

National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

136

Barriers to Partnership Working in Public Health: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. Methodology/Principal Findings 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. Conclusions The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions.

Taylor-Robinson, David Carlton; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Orton, Lois; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

2012-01-01

137

Critically Reflective Work Behavior of Health Care Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Better understanding of critically reflective work behavior (CRWB), an approach for work-related informal learning, is important in order to gain more profound insight in the continuing development of health care professionals. Methods: A survey, developed to measure CRWB and its predictors, was distributed to veterinary…

de Groot, Esther; Jaarsma, Debbie; Endedijk, Maaike; Mainhard, Tim; Lam, Ineke; Simons, Robert-Jan; van Beukelen, Peter

2012-01-01

138

Recreation and Health Agencies: Working Together to Promote Physical Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Colorado Department of Health formed the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Prevention Coalition to address Colorado's problem with CVD. The article describes the work of the Coalition's Physical Activity Subcommittee, the Subcommittee's Exer-Deck tool to promote increased physical activity, and the training of professionals to work collaboratively…

Phillipp, JoAnn; Dusenbury, Linda J.

1994-01-01

139

e-Labs and Work Objects: Towards Digital Health Economies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimal provision of healthcare and public health services requires the synthesis of evidence from multiple disciplines. It is necessary to understand the genetic, environmental, behavioural and social determinants of disease and health-related states; to balance the effectiveness of interventions with their costs; to ensure the maximum safety and acceptability of interventions; and to provide fair access to care services for given populations. Ever expanding databases of knowledge and local health information, and the ability to employ computationally expensive methods, promises much for decisions to be both supported by best evidence and locally relevant. This promise will, however, not be realised without providing health professionals with the tools to make sense of this information rich environment and to collaborate across disciplines. We propose, as a solution to this problem, the e-Lab and Work Objects model as a sense-making platform for digital health economies - bringing together data, methods and people for timely health intelligence.

Ainsworth, John D.; Buchan, Iain E.

140

Psychosocial work environment and mental health among construction workers.  

PubMed

We assessed psychosocial work environment, the prevalence of mental health complaints and the association between these two among bricklayers and construction supervisors. For this cross-sectional study a total of 1500 bricklayers and supervisors were selected. Psychosocial work characteristics were measured using the Dutch Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation of Work and compared to the general Dutch working population. Mental health effects were measured with scales to assess fatigue during work, need for recovery after work, symptoms of distress, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. The prevalence of self-reported mental health complaints was determined using the cut-off values. Associations between psychosocial work characteristics and self-reported mental health complaints were analysed using logistic regression. Total response rate was 43%. Compared to the general working population, bricklayers experienced statistically significant worse job control, learning opportunities and future perspectives; supervisors experienced statistically significant higher psychological demands and need for recovery. Prevalence of self-reported mental health effects among bricklayers and supervisors, respectively, were as follows: high need for recovery after work (14%; 25%), distress (5%, 7%), depression (18%, 20%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (11%, 7%). Among both occupations, high work speed and quantity were associated with symptoms of depression. Further, among construction supervisors, low participation in decision making and low social support of the direct supervisor was associated with symptoms of depression. The findings in the present study indicate psychosocial risk factors for bricklayers and supervisors. In each occupation a considerable proportion of workers was positively screened for symptoms of common mental disorders. PMID:23380530

Boschman, J S; van der Molen, H F; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W

2013-09-01

141

Working on Sundays–effects on safety, health, and work-life balance.  

PubMed

Several attributes of the work schedule can increase the risk of occupational injuries and accidents, health impairments, and reduced social participation. Although previous studies mainly focused on the effects of shiftwork and long working hours on employee health and safety, there is little evidence of a potential negative impact of working Sundays on the incidence of occupational accidents, health impairments, and work-life balance. A representative sample of employed workers in 31 member and associated states of the European Union (n?=?23,934) served as the database for a cross-sectional analysis. The sample was collected via face-to-face interviews in the year 2005. The association of the risks of occupational accidents, health impairments, and decreases in work-life balance with working Sundays was calculated using logistic regression models, controlling for potential confounders, such as shiftwork, workload, and demographic characteristics. The results indicated that working one or more Sundays/month was associated with increase both in the risk of reporting one or more health impairments (odds ratio [OR]: 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.29) and poorer work-life balance (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.02-1.28). These effects remained after controlling for potentially confounding factors, such as other work schedule attributes, intensity of physical and mental workload, and individual characteristics. Furthermore, working Sundays was also related to increased risk of occupational accidents within the last year (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.73). Controlling again for individual, workload, and working-time characteristics, a significant association with accident risk, however, remained only in work sectors with low a priori risk of occupational accidents (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.02-1.91), although the increased risk could be observed for both medium and high a priori risk sectors working Sundays (without controlling for additional confounders). The results thus indicate that the detrimental effects of working Sundays on safety, health, and social well-being should be taken into account when designing work schedules. The potential hazards to employees' safety, health, and work-life balance, in particular, should be considered in discussions concerning extending work on Sundays in certain sectors, e.g., retail. PMID:21539428

Wirtz, Anna; Nachreiner, Friedhelm; Rolfes, Katharina

2011-05-01

142

Collaborative work in public health? Reflections on the experience of public health networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to stimulate critical reflection and debate on the future development of multidisciplinary and collaborative public health practice. Focusing on the early experience of public health networks, it suggests that various processes of professional boundary maintenance combined with perceptions of public health amongst the wider community of practitioners may constrain the establishment of new ways of collaborative working

Sara Mallinson; Jennie Popay; Ute Kowarzik

2006-01-01

143

Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center: Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System, FY 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC) was created to centralize Department of Defense (DoD) domestic and international healthcare surveillance efforts. The organization provides relevant, timely, actionable, and comprehensive health informat...

2010-01-01

144

Work organization and the health of bank employees.  

PubMed

The Brazilian banking sector has undergone an intense restructuring process and taken a leading position in the incorporation of new technologies and organizational innovations. Computerization in the industry, in association with forms of work organization, has resulted in changes that reflect on the workers' health. Based on the theoretical and methodological frameworks of historical and dialectical materialism, this qualitative study investigates the work conditions of bank employees in order to identify the extent to which changes in work organization interfere with these workers' health. Data were collected through interviews held with 11 bank employees. In addition to physical sickening due to occupational diseases directly related to work intensification, the results also show an increased incidence of mental suffering and a feeling of loss of professional identity. Work-related frustration, instability and concerns related to psychological pressure resulting from the need to achieve goals predominated in the reports. PMID:22699722

Silva, Juliana Lemos; Navarro, Vera Lucia

2012-01-01

145

Social work management in emerging health care systems.  

PubMed

An overview of the health care industry's trend toward multihealth systems is presented and specific adaptive strategies for social work managers in health care are suggested. The challenges to social work leaders during this transition from largely free-standing, privately owned health care institutions to corporately owned, horizontally and vertically integrated delivery systems are discussed in terms of identity, style, and substance. Directors of social work departments in multihealth corporations will need to resolve issues of institutional versus corporate identity as well as those of corporate versus professional identity. A multioptional management style that incorporates networking and political expertise should be cultivated. Substantive demands in the areas of management information systems, productivity, quality assurance, and budgeting also must be addressed. The emergence of multihealth systems poses major challenges and unique opportunities to the social work profession. Awareness of managerial strategies and critical content areas can help social work leaders enhance the role and contribution of social work in these exciting and complex health care delivery systems. PMID:2318461

Kenney, J J

1990-02-01

146

Community health workers and their value to social work.  

PubMed

Community health workers (CHWs) play a vital and unique role in linking diverse and underserved populations to health and social service systems. Despite their effectiveness, as documented by empirical studies across various disciplines including public health, nursing, and biomedicine, the value and potential role of CHWs in the social work practice and research literature has been largely absent. Thus, this article introduces social workers to CHWs, their role in promoting culturally appropriate practice, and their utility in collaboration with social workers in community settings. This integrative review also discusses current challenges identified by the CHW literature, including potential barriers to the expansion of CHW programs, as well as issues of training, certification, and sustainability. The review also discusses the close alignment of CHWs with social work values and principles of social justice, suggesting opportunities for enhanced social work practice and research. PMID:20408358

Spencer, Michael S; Gunter, Kathryn E; Palmisano, Gloria

2010-04-01

147

Return to work, economic hardship, and women's postpartum health.  

PubMed

This study followed a sample of 217 new mothers in a North Carolina county as they returned to work full-time, measuring their mental and physical health-related quality of life through 16 months postpartum. In general, working mothers of infants had mental health scores that were comparable to the general population of U.S. women, and physical health that was slightly better than women in general. Using ANCOVA and controlling for important demographic characteristics, health-related quality of life was compared between mothers experiencing low and high levels of economic hardship. Across the study period, women with high economic hardship, who constituted 30.7% of the sample, had levels of mental and physical health below those of women with low economic hardship. Mothers with high economic hardship also had less stable health trajectories than mothers with low economic hardship. The findings highlight the importance of reconsidering the traditionally accepted postpartum recovery period of six weeks and extending benefits, such as paid maternity and sick leave, as well as stable yet flexible work schedules. PMID:21104566

Tucker, Jenna N; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Leng, Iris; Clinch, C Randall; Arcury, Thomas A

2010-10-01

148

Health problems of Nepalese migrants working in three Gulf countries  

PubMed Central

Background Nepal is one of the largest suppliers of labour to countries where there is a demand for cheap and low skilled workers. In the recent years the Gulf countries have collectively become the main destinations for international migration. This paper aims to explore the health problems and accidents experienced by a sample of Nepalese migrant in three Gulf countries. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 408 Nepalese migrants who had at least one period of work experience of at least six months in any of three Gulf countries: Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE). Face to face questionnaire interviews were conducted applying a convenience technique to select the study participants. Results Nepalese migrants in these Gulf countries were generally young men between 26-35 years of age. Unskilled construction jobs including labourer, scaffolder, plumber and carpenter were the most common jobs. Health problems were widespread and one quarter of study participants reported experiencing injuries or accidents at work within the last 12 months. The rates of health problems and accidents reported were very similar in the three countries. Only one third of the respondents were provided with insurance for health services by their employer. Lack of leave for illness, cost and fear of losing their job were the barriers to accessing health care services. The study found that construction and agricultural workers were more likely to experience accidents at their workplace and health problems than other workers. Conclusion The findings suggest important messages for the migration policy makers in Nepal. There is a lack of adequate information for the migrants making them aware of their health risks and rights in relation to health services in the destination countries and we suggest that the government of Nepal should be responsible for providing this information. Employers should provide orientation on possible health risks and appropriate training for preventive measures and all necessary access to health care services to all their workers.

2011-01-01

149

Shift work and health: current problems and preventive actions.  

PubMed

The paper gives an overview of the problems to be tackled nowadays by occupational health with regards to shift work as well as the main guidelines at organizational and medical levels on how to protect workers' health and well-being. Working time organization is becoming a key factor on account of new technologies, market globalization, economic competition, and extension of social services to general populations, all of which involve more and more people in continuous assistance and control of work processes over the 24 hours in a day. The large increase of epidemiological and clinical studies on this issue document the severity of this risk factor on human health and well being, at both social and psychophysical levels, starting from a disruption of biological circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycle and ending in several psychosomatic troubles and disorders, likely also including cancer, and extending to impairment of performance efficiency as well as family and social life. Appropriate interventions on the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria and careful health surveillance and social support for shift workers are important preventive and corrective measures that allow people to keep working without significant health impairment. PMID:22953171

Costa, Giovanni

2010-12-01

150

Shift Work and Health: Current Problems and Preventive Actions  

PubMed Central

The paper gives an overview of the problems to be tackled nowadays by occupational health with regards to shift work as well as the main guidelines at organizational and medical levels on how to protect workers' health and well-being. Working time organization is becoming a key factor on account of new technologies, market globalization, economic competition, and extension of social services to general populations, all of which involve more and more people in continuous assistance and control of work processes over the 24 hours in a day. The large increase of epidemiological and clinical studies on this issue document the severity of this risk factor on human health and well being, at both social and psychophysical levels, starting from a disruption of biological circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycle and ending in several psychosomatic troubles and disorders, likely also including cancer, and extending to impairment of performance efficiency as well as family and social life. Appropriate interventions on the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria and careful health surveillance and social support for shift workers are important preventive and corrective measures that allow people to keep working without significant health impairment.

2010-01-01

151

Travel-to-Work Characteristics of Different Labour-Force Groups: A Survey in Manchester.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Employment and travel-to-work characteristics of different sections of the work-force of three areas of Manchester (England) were examined. Age, sex, and socio-economic grouping were associated with significant variations in employment and in the transpor...

M. Dasgupta

1983-01-01

152

Air Force Health Study. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Introduction, Background and Conclusions (Chapters 1-5, 18, 19).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of the serum dioxin analysis of the Air Force Health Study 1987 examination cycle. Its purpose is to determine whether long-term health affects are associated with serum dioxin levels for the participants in the study. For...

R. H. Roegner W. D. Grubbs M. B. Lustik A. S. Brockman S. C. Henderson

1991-01-01

153

The work function of doped polyaniline nanoparticles observed by Kelvin probe force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work function of polyaniline nanoparticles in the emeraldine base state was determined by Kelvin probe force microscopy to be ˜270 meV higher than that of similar nanoparticles in the emeraldine salt state. Normal tapping mode atomic force microscopy could not be used to distinguish between the particles due to their similar morphologies and sizes. Moreover, other potential measurement systems, such as using zeta potentials, were not suitable for the measurement of surface charges of doped nanoparticles due to their encapsulation by interfering chemical groups. Kelvin probe force microscopy can be used to overcome these limitations and unambiguously distinguish between the bare and doped polyaniline nanoparticles.

Park, Jinsung; Bang, Doyeon; Jang, Kuewhan; Haam, Seungjoo; Yang, Jaemoon; Na, Sungsoo

2012-09-01

154

Work engagement, work commitment and their association with well-being in health care.  

PubMed

The aim was to examine whether work engagement and work commitment can be empirically discriminated and how they are associated with well-being. The terminology used in literature and in practice is confused by the interchangeable use of these terms. Only few studies, like Hallberg and Schaufeli's study, have examined the relationships between work engagement and work commitment systematically by using empirical data. In this study, the data were gathered via self-reported questionnaire from the healthcare staff working in 14 health centres and four hospitals in Finland. The data consisted of 435 responses. The material was analysed by using structural equation modelling (SEM) and correlations. The items of work engagement and work commitment dimensions (identification with organization, willingness to exert in organization's favour, occupational commitment and job involvement) loaded on their own latent variables in SEM analysis, so the data supported this five-factor model. Work engagement and work commitment dimensions were positively related, sharing between 2 and 33% of their variances. These constructs also displayed different correlations with some indicators of well-being measured as personal accomplishment, psychological well-being, mental resources, internal work motivation and willingness to stay on at work. Work engagement had moderate positive correlation to personal accomplishment (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). Identification with organization (r = 0.40, p < 0.001), willingness to exert in organization's favour (r =0.44, p < 0.001) and occupational commitment (r =0.37, p < 0.001) had low correlations to personal accomplishment. The results support the notion that work engagement can be empirically discriminated from work commitment. They are distinct, yet related constructs that complement each other, describing different aspects of positive attitudes towards work. The results can be utilized in interventions aimed at quality of working life in health care as well as in studies investigating discriminant and construct validity. PMID:21564150

Kanste, Outi

2011-12-01

155

Managing professional work: three models of control for health organizations.  

PubMed Central

Three arrangements for structuring the work of professional participants in professional organizations are described, contrasted and evaluated. Arguments are illustrated by application to the organization of physicians within hospitals. The primary rationale, the support structures that have fostered its development, the key structural features and the advantages and disadvantages of each arrangement are described. The effect on these arrangements of structures and forces external to any particular professional organization is emphasized.

Scott, W R

1982-01-01

156

Private and Public Initiatives: Working Together for Health and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The World Bank helps countries to arrive at whatever combination of public and private control is best for their particular economic circumstances. This booklet describes that work and summarizes examples of private-sector involvement in health and education provision in the developing world today. The examples also illustrate what the World Bank…

Gaag, Jacques van der

157

Walking and Working Surfaces. Module SH-06. Safety and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student module on walking and working surfaces is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module describes safety requirements for floors, stairways, ladders, and scaffolds, as well as OSHA standards for the construction, use, and maintenance of each of these. Following the introduction, nine objectives (each keyed to a…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

158

Justice at Work, Job Stress, and Employee Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A small but growing literature has documented an association between justice at work and employee health. However, the pathways and mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. This article proposes a conceptual framework that bridges the organizational justice, occupational stress, and occupational epidemiology literatures.…

Fujishiro, Kaori; Heaney, Catherine A.

2009-01-01

159

Accreditation of Health Educational Programs. Part II: Staff Working Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains a second set of working papers concerned with procedures of the accrediting agencies in the health fields, the accountability and social responsibility of accreditation, and the relationship of accreditation to certification, licensure, and registration. Texts of these papers are included: (1) "Dilemmas of Accreditation…

Study of Accreditation of Selected Health Educational Programs, Washington, DC.

160

Measuring the work function of TiO2 nanotubes using illuminated electrostatic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The varying nature of TiO2 nanotube work function as a function of illumination wavelength has been determined using illuminated electrostatic force microscopy. The dark work function was found to be 4.902 eV, with the largest change in work function due to illumination being at 300 nm, which was higher than the work function for bulk TiO2 (4.899 eV). The change in work function due to illumination arises from the flattening of the energy bands at the surface due to charge migration.

Smith, Graham X. R.; Crook, Rolf; Wadhawan, Jay D.

2013-11-01

161

Monitoring health in Sweden: on the rationale for working environment regulations.  

PubMed

The quality of the working environment affects the health status of a population. In the absence of government intervention this quality would be determined by market forces, but the market outcome is generally not accepted. Instead public policy attempts to carefully monitor the level of occupational hazards, which are invariably subject to regulation in industrialized countries. However, this study demonstrates that the welfare implications of this monitoring of health are not self-evident. In the presence of a tax on labour and, for example, a tax-financed social insurance system, it is shown that market forces may lead either to excessive or to sub-optimal investments in injury prevention. Both private and (local) public safety goods are considered. PMID:8142994

Lyttkens, C H

1993-12-01

162

USAF Civil Engineering Work Force Productivity: An Analysis of Non-Behavioral Factors Affecting Planning Technician Labor Manhour Estimates for In-House Work Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors investigated how work requirement manhour estimates affect Air Force Civil Engineering productivity ratios by gathering standard and adusted estimates for five hypothetical work requirements and selected planner and work center data from a sam...

W. F. Hanley F. C. Smith

1976-01-01

163

The mental health effects of multiple work and family demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Individuals who experience work stress or heavy family demands are at elevated risk of poor mental health. Yet, the cumulative\\u000a effects of multiple work and family demands are not well known, particularly in men.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We studied the association between multiple work and family demands and sickness absence due to non-psychotic psychiatric\\u000a disorders in a longitudinal study conducted among members of

Maria Melchior; Lisa F. Berkman; Isabelle Niedhammer; Marie Zins; Marcel Goldberg

2007-01-01

164

Migration and mental health in Europe (the state of the mental health in Europe working group: appendix 1)  

PubMed Central

Background This paper is a part of the work of the group that carried out the report "The state of the mental health in Europe" (European Commission, DG Health and Consumer Protection, 2004) and deals with the mental health issues related to the migration in Europe. Methods The paper tries to describe the social, demographical and political context of the emigration in Europe and tries to indicate the needs and (mental) health problems of immigrants. A review of the literature concerning mental health risk in immigrant is also carried out. The work also faces the problem of the health policy toward immigrants and the access to health care services in Europe. Results Migration during the 1990s has been high and characterised by new migrations. Some countries in Europe, that have been traditionally exporters of migrants have shifted to become importers. Migration has been a key force in the demographic changes of the European population. The policy of closed borders do not stop migration, but rather seems to set up a new underclass of so-called "illegals" who are suppressed and highly exploited. In 2000 there were also 392.200 asylum applications. The reviewed literature among mental health risk in some immigrant groups in Europe concerns: 1) highest rate of schizophrenia; suicide; alcohol and drug abuse; access of psychiatric facilities; risk of anxiety and depression; mental health of EU immigrants once they returned to their country; early EU immigrants in today disadvantaged countries; refugees and mental health Due to the different condition of migration concerning variables as: motivation to migrations (e.g. settler, refugees, gastarbeiters); distance for the host culture; ability to develop mediating structures; legal residential status it is impossible to consider "migrants" as a homogeneous group concerning the risk for mental illness. In this sense, psychosocial studies should be undertaken to identify those factors which may under given conditions, imply an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and influence seeking for psychiatric care. Comments and Remarks Despite in the migrants some vulnerable groups were identified with respect to health problems, in many European countries there are migrants who fall outside the existing health and social services, something which is particularly true for asylum seekers and undocumented immigrants. In order to address these deficiencies, it is necessary to provide with an adequate financing and a continuity of the grants for research into the multicultural health demand. Finally, there is to highlight the importance of adopting an integrated approach to mental health care that moves away from psychiatric care only.

2005-01-01

165

Opportunities for health and safety professionals in environmental restoration work  

SciTech Connect

The safety of workers in waste management and in environmental restoration work is regulated in large part by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Many of the OSHA rules are given in Part 1910, Occupational Safety and Health Standards, of Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Section 120 of 29 CFR 1910 specifically addresses hazardous waste operations and emergency response operations. The remainder of this discussion focuses on clean-up operations. The purpose of this paper is to review areas of employment opportunity in environmental restoration work for health and safety professionals. Safety and health risk analyses are mentioned as one area of opportunity, and these analyses are required by the standards. Site safety and health supervisors will be needed during field operations. Those who enjoy teaching might consider helping to meet the training needs that are mandated. Finally, engineering help both to separate workers from hazards and to improve personal protective equipment, when it must be worn, would benefit those actively involved in environmental restoration activities.

Norris, A.E.

1991-01-01

166

How society shapes the health gradient: work-related health inequalities in a comparative perspective.  

PubMed

Analyses in comparative political economy have the potential to contribute to understanding health inequalities within and between societies. This article uses a varieties of capitalism approach that groups high-income countries into coordinated market economies (CME) and liberal market economies (LME) with different labor market institutions and degrees of employment and unemployment protection that may give rise to or mediate work-related health inequalities. We illustrate this approach by presenting two longitudinal comparative studies of unemployment and health in Germany and the United States, an archetypical CME and LME. We find large differences in the relationship between unemployment and health across labor-market and institutional contexts, and these also vary by educational status. Unemployed Americans, especially of low education or not in receipt of unemployment benefits, have the poorest health outcomes. We argue for the development of a broader comparative research agenda on work-related health inequalities that incorporates life course perspectives. PMID:22429159

McLeod, Christopher B; Hall, Peter A; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Hertzman, Clyde

2012-04-01

167

Health status, work limitations, and return-to-work trajectories in injured workers with musculoskeletal disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The purpose of this study was to describe the health status and work limitations in injured workers with musculoskeletal disorders\\u000a at 1 month post-injury, stratified by return-to-work status, and to document their return-to-work trajectories 6 months post-injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A sample of 632 workers with a back or upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder, who filed a Workplace Safety and Insurance\\u000a Board lost-time claim injury, participated

Ute Bültmann; Renée-Louise Franche; Sheilah Hogg-Johnson; Pierre Côté; Hyunmi Lee; Colette Severin; Marjan Vidmar; Nancy Carnide

2007-01-01

168

Burnout and work environments of public health nurses involved in mental health care  

PubMed Central

Aims: (1) To examine whether prevalence of burnout is higher among community psychiatric nurses working under recently introduced job specific work systems than among public health nurses (PHNs) engaged in other public health services. (2) To identify work environment factors potentially contributing to burnout. Methods: Two groups were examined. The psychiatric group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in public mental health services at public health centres (PHCs) that had adopted the job specific work system. The control group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in other health services. Pines' Burnout Scale was used to measure burnout. Respondents were classified by burnout score into three groups: A (mentally stable, no burnout); B (positive signs, risk of burnout); and C (burnout present, action required). Groups B and C were considered representative of "burnout". A questionnaire was also prepared to investigate systems for supporting PHNs working at PHCs and to define emergency mental health service factors contributing to burnout. Results: Final respondents comprised 785 PHNs. Prevalence of burnout was significantly higher in the psychiatric group (59.2%) than in the control group (51.5%). Responses indicating lack of job control and increased annual frequency of emergency overtime services were significantly correlated with prevalence of burnout in the psychiatric group, but not in the control group. Conclusions: Prevalence of burnout is significantly higher for community psychiatric nurses than for PHNs engaged in other services. Overwork in emergency services and lack of job control appear to represent work environment factors contributing to burnout.

Imai, H; Nakao, H; Tsuchiya, M; Kuroda, Y; Katoh, T

2004-01-01

169

Human Resources in Humanitarian Health Working Group Report.  

PubMed

Humanitarian responses to conflict and disasters due to natural hazards usually operate in contexts of resource scarcity and unmet demands for healthcare workers. Task shifting is one avenue for delivering needed health care in resource poor settings, and on-the-ground reports indicate that task shifting may be applicable in humanitarian contexts. However, a variety of obstacles currently restrict the ability to employ task shifting in these situations, including issues of regulation, accreditation, funding, and a lack of commonly agreed-upon core competencies for different categories of humanitarian health workers. The Human Resources in Humanitarian Health (HRHH) Working Group during the 2009 Humanitarian Action Summit evaluated the potential strengths and weaknesses of task shifting in humanitarian relief efforts, and proposed a range of strategies to constructively integrate task shifting into humanitarian response. PMID:19806538

Janneck, Laura; Cooper, Nicholas; Frehywot, Seble; Mowafi, Hani; Hein, Karen

2009-01-01

170

Astronomy Resources for Intercurricular Elementary Science (ARIES): Exploring Motion and Forces. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"ARIES: Exploring Motion and Forces" is a physical science curriculum for students in grades 5-8 that employs 18 inquiry-centered, hands-on lessons called "explorations." The curriculum draws upon students' curiosity to explore phenomena, allowing for a discovery-based learning process. Group-centered lab work is designed to help students build an…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

2012-01-01

171

The Hired Farm Working Force of 1983: A Statistical Profile. Agricultural Economic Report No. 554.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1983, about 2.6 million people 14 years of age and older did hired farmwork. Most of the woekers were White (73%), under 25 years old (50%), and male (78%). Hispanics made up 13% of the work force, and Blacks and other minority groups made up 14%. There were significant regional differences in racial/ethnic composition. Hispanic workers were…

Pollack, Susan L.

172

Study of the Job Satisfaction of Professional Air Force Social Work Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The job satisfaction levels of 149 Air Force Social Work Officers were studied by using the Professional Satisfaction Inventory originally developed by Jayaratne and Chess (1982) to study the job satisfaction and job stress of a sample of members of the N...

D. W. Jablonski

1984-01-01

173

The Hired Farm Working Force of 1974. A Statistical Report. Agricultural Economic Report No. 297.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information is given on the number, characteristics, employment, and earnings of persons 14 years of age and over who performed hired farm wagework at any time during 1974. The brief analysis highlights some of the most pertinent changes and trends in the size and composition of the hired farm working force. Data were obtained through a survey…

Rowe, Gene A.

174

Strategy for Educating the Department of Defense Acquisition Work Force in Total Quality Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this strategy is to provide broad guidelines for planning and coordinating a Total Quality Management (TQM) education and training program for the DoD acquisition work force. The strategy is organized around long-, mid-, and short-term goal...

C. Greebler G. Suarez

1989-01-01

175

Preparing the Work Force for the 21st Century: 1998 Community Based Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help determine the community's work force training needs, Spartanburg Technical College (STC) completed an extensive research study. It included a survey of 1,501 high school juniors in Cherokee, Union, and Spartanburg counties in South Carolina; a survey of 293 area businesses and industries; focus groups representing 63 companies, elected…

Quinley, John W.; Cantrell, Jo Ellen

176

My Family's Work: United States Air Force Child Care Program Activity Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This child care program activity guide is designed to help teachers and caregivers in Air Force preschools and child care centers plan activities for increasing young children's understanding and appreciation of their parents' work in military and defense related occupations. Recommended teaching methods, concepts, group activities, and activity…

von Matthiessen, Priscilla; Brant, Linda

177

Secondary Work Force Movement into Energy Industry Employment in Areas Affected by "Boom Town" Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A labor market study of implications of rapid energy development in the West examined the dimensions of work force movement from secondary occupations to primary energy occupations in areas affected by "boom town" growth. (Secondary occupations were defined as those in all industries not categorized as primary energy industries.) Focus was on the…

Jurado, Eugene A.

178

Public Policy and Primary Health Care: Issues and Recommendations Report of the Health Advisory Council Primary Care Task Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Primary health care was the focus of a 1980 task force which examined the provision of accessible, affordable, and high-quality care to all New York residents. The task force studied methods for planning, developing, financing, and regulating primary care...

1981-01-01

179

The impact of a worker health study on working conditions.  

PubMed

A research partnership of representatives from labor, academia, and public health enabled unionized San Francisco hotel workers to achieve important policy changes in workplace health and safety. Known as the "Housekeeping Study," the project took sixteen months to complete. A unique aspect of the project was that it utilized participatory action research methods, involving workers themselves as full participants in the study. A core group of 25 hotel room cleaners was involved in each phase of the project. The study developed health data which enabled room cleaners and their union to formulate and justify a contract proposal calling for a significant reduction in housekeeping workloads. The employer association agreed to a contract which reduced the maximum required room assignment from 15 rooms to 14 rooms per day in 14 San Francisco hotels. By lowering the maximum work assignment, these workers set a new standard which can potentially protect the health of room cleaners across the country. The project can serve as a model for worker and union participation in academic research, as well as for the application of research to improving working conditions, particularly for low-wage immigrant workers. PMID:12325285

Lee, Pam Tau; Krause, Niklas

2002-01-01

180

Discrimination, work and health in immigrant populations in Spain.  

PubMed

One of the most important social phenomena in the global context is the flow of immigration from developing countries, motivated by economic and employment related issues. Discrimination can be approached as a health risk factor within the immigrant population's working environment, especially for those immigrants at greater risk from social exclusion and marginalisation. The aim of this study is to research perceptions of discrimination and the specific relationship between discrimination in the workplace and health among Spain's immigrant population. A qualitative study was performed by means of 84 interviews and 12 focus groups held with immigrant workers in five cities in Spain receiving a large influx of immigrants (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Alicante and Huelva), covering representative immigrant communities in Spain (Romanians, Moroccans, Ecuadorians, Colombians and Sub-Saharan Africans). Discourse narrative content analysis was performed using pre-established categories and gradually incorporating other emerging categories from the immigrant interviewees themselves. The participants reported instances of discrimination in their community and working life, characterised by experiences of racism, mistreatment and precarious working conditions in comparison to the Spanish-born population. They also talked about limitations in terms of accessible occupations (mainly construction, the hotel and restaurant trade, domestic service and agriculture), and described major difficulties accessing other types of work (for example public administration). They also identified political and legal structural barriers related with social institutions. Experiences of discrimination can affect their mental health and are decisive factors regarding access to healthcare services. Our results suggest the need to adopt integration policies in both the countries of origin and the host country, to acknowledge labour and social rights, and to conduct further research into individual and social factors that affect the health of the immigrant populations. PMID:19328608

Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Gil-González, Diana; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria; Paramio-Pérez, Gema; García, Ana M; Garí, Aitana

2009-05-01

181

[Work-site health promotion in Germany. Results of the IAB--establishment panel 2002 and 2004].  

PubMed

According to the answers of employers to the representative IAB establishment panel 2004, one-fifth of the companies in Germany voluntarily carried out or financially supported measures for the protection or promotion of the health and well-being of their work force. The proportion of health-promoting companies was above average in all East German federal states as well as in Bavaria, in Saarland and in Lower Saxony. North Rhine-Westphalia was precisely average. In East Germany, almost one-fourth and in West Germany just under one-fifth of all companies surveyed carry out health-promoting measures.Work-site health promotion varies considerably depending on the corresponding federal states, industrial branches and company sizes. Work-site health promotion has ,up to now, been concentrated in big companies and groups. An under-representation of work-site health promotion is observed above all in small and very small companies and particularly in the catering trade. Work-site health promotion was principally determined by analyses of sickness leaves and surveys on health protection in the work place which were mentioned in about 9% and 8% of the companies interviewed. 6% of the companies provided courses on health-relevant ways of behaviour. About 4% of the companies maintain health circles and 5% realised other health promoting measures. Further correlation analyses reveal that in companies with a workers council/staff council, work-site health promotion was significantly much more common. This correlation is especially strong in small and medium-size companies. The longitudinal analysis of the IAB establishment panel 2002 and 2004 reveals much dynamism in work-site health promotion. On the one hand, half of the companies involved in work-site health promotion in 2002 had stopped their commitment to work-site health promotion by 2004. Sustainability remains one of the biggest challenges in work-site health promotion. On the other hand, a bit more than one tenth of the repeatedly interviewed companies started health-promoting activities in 2004. According to the longitudinal data set, altogether 29% of the companies were reached by work-site health promotion measures (for the years 2002 and 2004). PMID:17405078

Hollederer, A

2007-02-01

182

[Work as a basic human need and health promoting factor].  

PubMed

The Italian Constitution (1948) defines 'work' as the founding value of the Italian Republic. This choice was not motivated by mere economic reasons, but rather stemmed from the recognition that work is the most appropriate tool for the expression of the human personality in society, that it is an asset and a right that will increase the dignity of every person, and which corresponds to a fundamental human desire to fulfil oneself in relationship with other persons and the entire world This view of work, including its technical and manual aspects, was unknown to the ancient mentality and became familiar to us through the monastic orders of the early middle ages, which began to conceive and practise human work as a means of participating in the work of creation and transmitted this value over the centuries. As we experience today, if occupation is lacking, a basic condition for the development of the person and for his/her contribution to the growth of society is lost. Given the meaning of work in human experience, it is not surprising that unemployment represents not only a worrisome economic indicator, but also the cause of ill health. At the end of 2009 unemployment in the European Union reached 10%, similar to the rate in the US; in Italy it was estimated at 8.5% in December 2009 and is expected to reach 10% in 2010. In Lombardy, although employment had been constantly increasing between 1995 and 2008, and the current unemployment rate is as low as 4.9%, 100,000 jobs were lost in 2009. Several scientific papers have demonstrated the association between lack of occupation and lack of physical and mental health. In the present period of crisis, increases of 30% in cases of anxiety syndrome and of 15% in cases of depression have been reported. An increase in suicides among unemployed persons has been documented in several countries even if there are still problems of interpretation of the causal chain of events. Mortality among the unemployed increased, not only that due to violent causes, but also mortality for all causes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. A survey in the Turin area, Northern Italy, showed a twofold increase in mortality among unemployed men. Women were affected both by husbands' unemployment and by their own unemployment because of the previous increasing rate of female occupation. The worse the occupational condition (from "seeking work" to "temporary employment" down to "unemployed and no longer seeking work") the higher the mortality: in the latter category, where the most evident problem is marginalization and social exclusion, the increase in mortality was fourfold. The role of occupational health physicians is to recognize the possible negative effects of working conditions and at the same time promote a positive approach to work, even in difficult conditions. This makes prevention more effective and promotes health. To be aware of the meaning of work makes work itself more liveable and more productive. This is how health promotion contributes to the wellbeing of the individual and, at the same time, to the development of the economy and society at large. PMID:21298870

Bertazzi, P A

2010-01-01

183

Maternity rights, work, and health in France and Italy.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the principles and the implementation of maternity rights (MR) in France and Italy. Results show that MR are well established in both countries, where about 80% of women employed during pregnancy were back to work 1 year after childbirth. Nevertheless, social inequalities were found. Less-educated women and those who had manual jobs or worked in small firms in the private sector or off-the-books were less likely to take an extended leave and to return to work. Despite differences in child care provisions, quality and accessibility of child care were common concerns for both French and Italian mothers. Employment was not related to any health problem in Italy 1 year after birth; in France, unemployed new mothers had high rates of psychological distress. Financial worries and marital problems were associated with several health problems in both countries. In conclusion, combining work and motherhood is possible in these 2 countries without too many costs for women, at least for the more privileged among them. However, this relative ease could vanish if social and economic conditions changed for the worse. PMID:11905492

Romito, Patrizia; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta

2002-01-01

184

[Alternative experiences rescuing knowledge for working processes in health].  

PubMed

This descriptive study was performed using a qualitative approach, with the objective to understand the working process of nurses and physicians of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) in João Pessoa-PB, and identify the alternative strategies and procedures they developed. The material was analyzed according to the discourse analysis technique. It was shown that the elements of the working process were disconnected, allied with a possibility of change by overcoming the invisibility of the subjects and their knowledge in healthcare services. In conclusion, the identified alternative strategies and procedures are in the embryonic stage in terms of the transformation of working processes and overcoming of hegemonic healthcare models, therefore demanding a continuous problematization of concepts and practices. PMID:23018407

de Oliveira, Ana Karla Sousa; Bezerra, Italla Maria Pinheiro; da Silva, Cesar Cavalcanti; Lima Neto, Eufrásio de Andrade; da Silva, Ana Tereza Medeiros Cavalcanti

2012-08-01

185

Working at the check-in: consequences for health.  

PubMed

No body of literature exists related specifically to the occupational health of airport check-in workers. The problems encountered by airport check-in workers are typical of other service-sector occupations with similar work-related health hazards, particularly those characterized by a high level of demand with low worker control, performed predominantly by women. The knowledge gap could be narrowed by broadening the scope in both traditional occupational health and ergonomics studies to take into equal consideration jobs performed by women. In an attempt to reduce the knowledge gap specific to airport check-in workers, literature was reviewed on several other worker populations whose job characteristics include elements similar to airport check-in work: computer clerical workers, supermarket check-in workers, and airport baggage handlers. This cross-population review identified the major elements that have been studied in the comparison groups, compared with the factors examined in a study of check-in workers. The review demonstrates that jobs that may appear completely different from the outside, might, upon closer examination, have numerous common exposures from a variety of sources. Thus, knowledge about one job may be useful for another that has not been investigated. The literature review reveals that it would be useful to extend to airport check-in workers recommendations from studies of the three comparison populations. PMID:17208832

Rosskam, Ellen

2005-01-01

186

Career History Archival Medical and Personnel System (CHAMPS): An Epidemiological Data Resource for Force Health Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concept of force health protection depends on the ability to readily ascertain environmental factors that may be related to deployments or occupational exposures and examine subsequent medical and personnel outcomes, including hospitalizations (1). Th...

E. D. Gorham F. C. Garland M. Miller E. K. Gunderson

2004-01-01

187

Labor Market Work and Home Care's Unpaid Caregivers: A Systematic Review of Labor Force Participation Rates, Predictors of Labor Market Withdrawal, and Hours of Work  

PubMed Central

As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for “intensive” caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers.

Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

2007-01-01

188

Health Care Reform and Farm Women’s Off-Farm Labor Force Participation: Evidence from Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do non-wage fringe benefits affect women’s off-farm work decisions? We test the impact of the 1995 introduction of universal National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan on off-farm labor force participation (LFP) among farm wives. Our results, based on a difference-in- differences approach, indicate that employment-delinked NHI reduced farm wives’ off-farm LFP by 9.6 to 13.6 percentage points. The larger impact

Pei-An Liao; J. Edward Taylor

2010-01-01

189

Health Hazard Evaluation Report, HETA-2000-0061-2885, United States Air Force, Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, Goldsboro, North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a health hazard evaluation (HHE) request from the management of the United States Air Force Institute for Environmental, Safety, and Occupational Risk Analysis (AFIERA), Brooks Air...

A. Krake J. McCullough B. King

2002-01-01

190

Health Status of Military Women and Men in the Total Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study of Health Status of Military Women and Men in the Total Force obtains comprehensive probability-based epidemiological data for women and men across all pay grades for active-duty Army, Air Force, and Guard/Reserve components. These data have bee...

R. M. Bray

1999-01-01

191

Achievable Vision: Report of the Department of Defense Task Force on Mental Health.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Section 723 of the National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 2006 directed the Secretary of Defense to 'establish within the Department of Defense a task force to examine matters relating to mental health and the Armed Forces' and produce 'a repo...

2007-01-01

192

The underdevelopment of health of working America: causes, consequences and possible solutions.  

PubMed Central

This article presents the health conditions of working America, and provides an analysis of the causes of that situation. It is postulated that the main health problems in the U.S. are due not to prevalent life styles-as the behavioralists indicate-but to the dramatic maldistribution of economic and political power in our society, with the absence of control by the majority of the U.S. population-the working and lower-middle classes-over the work process with which they are involved, the economic wealth that they produce, and the political institutions that they pay for. The production of goods and wealth as well as the political institutions of the United States are dominated and controlled by a minority of our population-the corporate and upper-middle classes. Empirical information is presented to support this postulate. In light of this explanation, it is asserted that a major public health task is to deliberately and actively contribute to the political mobilization of forces aimed at bringing about profound changes in the pattern of control of our working insitutions and of the distribution of wealth and political power, changes which seek to shift that control from the few to the many.

Navarro, V

1976-01-01

193

Health and Turnover of Working Mothers After Childbirth Via the Work-Family Interface: An Analysis Across Time  

PubMed Central

This study examined organizational levers that impact work–family experiences, participant health, and subsequent turnover. Using a sample of 179 women returning to full-time work 4 months after childbirth, we examined the associations of 3 job resources (job security, skill discretion, and schedule control) with work-to-family enrichment and the associations of 2 job demands (psychological requirements and nonstandard work schedules) with work-to-family conflict. Further, we considered subsequent impact of work-to-family conflict and enrichment on women’s health (physical and mental health) 8 months after women returned to work and the impact of health on voluntary turnover 12 months after women returned to work. Having a nonstandard work schedule was directly and positively related to conflict, whereas schedule control buffered the effect of psychological requirements on conflict. Skill discretion and job security, both job resources, directly and positively related to enrichment. Work-to-family conflict was negatively related to both physical and mental health, but work-to-family enrichment positively predicted only physical health. Physical health and mental health both negatively influenced turnover. We discuss implications and opportunities for future research.

Carlson, Dawn S.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Ferguson, Merideth; Hunter, Emily M.; Clinch, C. Randall; Arcury, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

194

Health and turnover of working mothers after childbirth via the work-family interface: an analysis across time.  

PubMed

This study examined organizational levers that impact work-family experiences, participant health, and subsequent turnover. Using a sample of 179 women returning to full-time work 4 months after childbirth, we examined the associations of 3 job resources (job security, skill discretion, and schedule control) with work-to-family enrichment and the associations of 2 job demands (psychological requirements and nonstandard work schedules) with work-to-family conflict. Further, we considered subsequent impact of work-to-family conflict and enrichment on women's health (physical and mental health) 8 months after women returned to work and the impact of health on voluntary turnover 12 months after women returned to work. Having a nonstandard work schedule was directly and positively related to conflict, whereas schedule control buffered the effect of psychological requirements on conflict. Skill discretion and job security, both job resources, directly and positively related to enrichment. Work-to-family conflict was negatively related to both physical and mental health, but work-to-family enrichment positively predicted only physical health. Physical health and mental health both negatively influenced turnover. We discuss implications and opportunities for future research. PMID:21604833

Carlson, Dawn S; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Ferguson, Merideth; Hunter, Emily M; Clinch, C Randall; Arcury, Thomas A

2011-09-01

195

Health@Home: The Work of Health Information Management in the Household (HIMH): Implications for Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) Innovations  

PubMed Central

Objective: Contemporary health care places enormous health information management demands on laypeople. Insights into their skills and habits complements current developments in consumer health innovations, including personal health records. Using a five-element human factors model of work, health information management in the household (HIMH) is characterized by the tasks completed by individuals within household organizations, using certain tools and technologies in a given physical environment. Design: We conducted a descriptive-exploratory study of the work of HIMH, involving 49 community-dwelling volunteers from a rural Midwestern community. Measurements: During in-person interviews, we collected data using semistructured questionnaires and photographs of artifacts used for HIMH. Results: The work of HIMH is largely the responsibility of a single individual, primarily engaged in the tasks of acquiring, managing, and organizing a diverse set of health information. Paper-based tools are most common, and residents develop strategies for storing information in the household environment aligned with anticipated use. Affiliative relationships, e.g., parent-child or spousal, within the household serve as the organization that gives rise to health information management practices. Synthesis of these findings led to identification of several storage strategies employed in HIMH. These strategies are labeled “just-in-time,” “just-because,” “just-in-case,” and “just-at-hand,” reflecting location of the artifacts of health information and anticipated urgency in the need to retrieve it. Conclusion: Laypeople develop and employ robust, complex strategies for managing health information in the home. Capitalizing on these strategies will complement and extend current consumer health innovations to provide functional support to people who face increasing demands to manage personal health information.

Moen, Anne; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

2005-01-01

196

76 FR 63927 - Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance (ITFAR): An Update on A Public Health Action...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Resistance (ITFAR): An Update on A Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial...accomplishing activities outlined in A Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial...increasing importance of AR as a public health threat. The Task Force is...

2011-10-14

197

Report of the Task Force on the Planning and Coordination of Mental Health Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The establishment of a task force was authorized by the United Way to investigate the extent of coordinated mental health service planning and delivery in Summit County, Ohio. Historical developments in the field of mental health at the Federal, State, an...

E. W. Haley

1977-01-01

198

Exploring core competencies for mental health and addictions work within a Family Health Team setting  

PubMed Central

Approximately 200 Family Health Teams (FHTs) have been implemented in Ontario to improve access to primary healthcare, including mental health and addiction. The objectives of this project were to examine, through a focus group and qualitative methodology with three FHTs, the profile of patients' mental health and addiction-related needs and to identify the implications for the development of core competencies in these innovative organisations. A spectrum of needs and service trajectories was identified, as well as the importance of a wide range of clinical skills and knowledge. The results indicate that ‘core’ competencies for mental health work in the context of an FHT go well beyond those required for an embedded mental health ‘programme’ or specialised mental health counsellors, but rather they relate to the core and discipline-specific competencies of members of the entire team. In addition to specific knowledge and skills, competencies include common attitudes and values relating to teamwork, good communication and collaboration. Challenges were noted with regard to working with some community service providers, especially addiction services. Implications for core competencies at the individual and organisational level were identified.

2013-01-01

199

Health Care Reform and Medical Education: Forces toward Generalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health care reforms will dramatically change the culture of medical schools in areas of patient care, research, and education programs. Academic medical centers must construct mutually beneficial partnerships that will position them to take advantage of the opportunities rather than leave them without the diversity of resources needed to make…

O'Neil, Edward H.; Seifer, Sarena D.

1995-01-01

200

Partnerships for better mental health worldwide: WPA recommendations on best practices in working with service users and family carers  

PubMed Central

WPA President M. Maj established the Task Force on Best Practice in Working with Service Users and Carers in 2008, chaired by H. Herrman. The Task Force had the remit to create recommendations for the international mental health community on how to develop successful partnership working. The work began with a review of literature on service user and carer involvement and partnership. This set out a range of considerations for good practice, including choice of appropriate terminology, clarifying the partnership process and identifying and reducing barriers to partnership working. Based on the literature review and on the shared knowledge in the Task Force, a set of ten recommendations for good practice was developed. These recommendations were the basis for a worldwide consultation of stakeholders with expertise as service users, families and carers, and the WPA Board and Council. The results showed a strong consensus across the international mental health community on the ten recommendations, with the strongest agreement coming from service users and carers. This general consensus gives a basis for Task Force plans to seek support for activities to promote shared work worldwide to identify best practice examples and create a resource to assist others to begin successful collaboration.

WALLCRAFT, JAN; AMERING, MICHAELA; FREIDIN, JULIAN; DAVAR, BHARGAVI; FROGGATT, DIANE; JAFRI, HUSSAIN; JAVED, AFZAL; KATONTOKA, SYLVESTER; RAJA, SHOBA; RATAEMANE, SOLOMON; STEFFEN, SIGRID; TYANO, SAM; UNDERHILL, CHRISTPHER; WAHLBERG, HENRIK; WARNER, RICHARD; HERRMAN, HELEN

2011-01-01

201

Assessing human resources for health: what can be learned from labour force surveys?  

PubMed Central

Background Human resources are an essential element of a health system's inputs, and yet there is a huge disparity among countries in how human resource policies and strategies are developed and implemented. The analysis of the impacts of services on population health and well-being attracts more interest than analysis of the situation of the workforce in this area. This article presents an international comparison of the health workforce in terms of skill mix, sociodemographics and other labour force characteristics, in order to establish an evidence base for monitoring and evaluation of human resources for health. Methods Profiles of the health workforce are drawn for 18 countries with developed market and transitional economies, using data from labour force and income surveys compiled by the Luxembourg Income Study between 1989 and 1997. Further descriptive analyses of the health workforce are conducted for selected countries for which more detailed occupational information was available. Results Considerable cross-national variations were observed in terms of the share of the health workforce in the total labour market, with little discernible pattern by geographical region or type of economy. Increases in the share were found among most countries for which time-trend data were available. Large gender imbalances were often seen in terms of occupational distribution and earnings. In some cases, health professionals, especially physicians, were overrepresented among the foreign-born compared to the total labour force. Conclusions While differences across countries in the profile of the health workforce can be linked to the history and role of the health sector, at the same time some common patterns emerge, notably a growing trend of health occupations in the labour market. The evidence also suggests that gender inequity in the workforce remains an important shortcoming of many health systems. Certain unexpected patterns of occupational distribution and educational attainment were found that may be attributable to differences in health care delivery and education systems; however, definitional inconsistencies in the classification of health occupations across surveys were also apparent.

Gupta, Neeru; Diallo, Khassoum; Zurn, Pascal; Dal Poz, Mario R

2003-01-01

202

AGU's new task force on scientific ethics and integrity begins work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In support of the new strategic plan, AGU has established a new task force to review, evaluate, and update the Union's policies on scientific misconduct and the process for investigating and responding to allegations of possible misconduct by AGU members. As noted by AGU president Michael McPhaden, “AGU can only realize its vision of ‘collaboratively advancing and communicating science and its power to ensure a sustainable future’ if we have the trust of the public and policy makers. That trust is earned by maintaining the highest standards of scientific integrity in all that we do. The work of the Task Force on Scientific Ethics is essential for defining norms of professional conduct that all our members can aspire to and that demonstrate AGU's unwavering commitment to excellence in Earth and space science.”

Gleick, Peter; Townsend, Randy

2011-11-01

203

Protocol Optimisation For Work-Function Measurements Of Metal Gates Using Kelvin Force Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the work-functions of metal gates are determined using capacitance-versus-gate-voltage measurements of a dedicated MOS capacitor structure. Alternatively, Kelvin Force Microscopy (KFM) is a promising technique which allows the work-function to be measured with high spatial resolution (<100 nm) coupled with a high sensitivity (10 meV). Nevertheless, before becoming a standard technique, there are still challenges facing a reliable operating protocol such as careful specimen preparation and environmental control to avoid surface artifacts. In the paper we show that the presence of an oxide, confirmed by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), on a WSix metallic layer surface have a detrimental effect on the work-function measurement using KFM.

Mariolle, D.; Kaja, K.; Bertin, F.; Martinez, E.; Martin, F.; Gassilloud, R.

2007-09-01

204

Perception of weight and health status among women working at health centres of Tehran.  

PubMed

Perception of body-weight status is an important determinant of weight-related behaviours and may affect the burden of weight disturbances as a public-health problem. No study has assessed self-perception of the weight status regarding body-fat distribution among health workers to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the perception of weight and health status among 542 women working at health centres of Tehran. We assessed their perceived body-weight and health status and measured waist- and hip-circumference, weight, and height to calculate waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) as a measure of fat distribution and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2). Women reported their sociodemographic information, and the perceived weight and health status were compared with their actual fatness status, defined based on WHR and BMI, to determine misperception of weight status. Multivariate logistic regression models were performed to assess the predictive effects of various sociodemographic factors and actual fatness on the perception of weight and health status. The results showed that more than 40% of women with normal BMI overestimated their body-weight status while only 15.8% of these women had central obesity. BMI was the most important variable associated with misperceived weight status as normal-weight women had significantly more misperception (OR 8.16, 95% CI 4.82-13.82) than overweight/obese women. WHR did not show any significant relationships with perceived weight status. In addition, perception of health status was not associated with actual fatness indices. It is concluded, BMI was the main predictor of the perception of weight status in female employees. The importance of using body-fat distribution in the perceptions of weight and health status should be emphasized. PMID:24847594

Dorosty, Ahmad Reza; Mehdikhani, Sepideh; Sotoudeh, Gity; Rahimi, Abbas; Koohdani, Fariba; Tehrani, Parastoo

2014-03-01

205

75 FR 52355 - Draft National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Work Group Reports...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Draft National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Work Group...The National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures is a collaborative...the following cross-cutting public health and chemical exposures...

2010-08-25

206

[Social determinants of health: community features and nurse work in family health care].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to identify the Social Determinants of Health Care which emerge in nurses' statements as they characterize the community, analyzing its relation to the work carried out by them. It is an exploratory and descriptive study containing a qualitative analysis in the theoretical categories of the determinants. We used a semi-structured interview, recorded with the permission of the 65 nurses of the Family Health Care, members of the 3rd Regional Health Care Coordination of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It has been shown the inter- and intra-relation in the health determinant factors, obtaining 104 citations for the anatomo-physiological features of the corresponding individuals/community to the proximal correspondents and in association, mainly, to the work carried out by the nurses. For intermediate determinants there were 27 citations and, for distals, 166, with predominant reference to the territorial localization of communities in rural areas and peripheries. The nurses have stated a narrow relation between the proximal features and the work carried out by them, as well as the connection with other determinants in the relation with the process of getting sick. PMID:20839542

Sant'Anna, Cynthia Fontella; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Cardoso, Leticia Silveira; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Soares, Jorgana Fernanda de Souza

2010-03-01

207

An America that Works: The Life-Cycle Approach to a Competitive Work Force. A Statement by the Research and Policy Committee of the Committee for Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive life-cycle framework is offered for examining demographic changes and the world of work. This document establishes connections among the social and economic issues that relate to demographic change and priorities. The document also identifies the changes taking place in the work force, the problems of poor basic education and work

Committee for Economic Development, New York, NY. Research and Policy Committee.

208

Audit of work force restructuring at the Fernald Environmental Management Project  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (Department) restructured its work force at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (Fernald Project) to reduce staffing levels and to modify the mix of workers` skills in response to budget cuts, facility closures, and changes in the Fernald Project`s mission. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the work force restructurings were effective in reducing staffing levels and in changing the mix of workers` skills. As of September 30, 1995, the restructurings were not effective in reducing staffing levels or in improving the mix of workers` skills. The Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) spent $2.9 million to separate 255 employees in October 1993. However, by September 30, 1994, all but 14 of the employees separated were either rehired or replaced by new employees with similar skills. The second restructuring began in October 1994 and is not expected to be completed until May 1996. The Department expects the second restructuring to reduce FERMCO`s work force by 476 employees at a cost of $12.9 million. However, since the second restructuring began, FERMCO has hired 265 new employees and at September 30, 1995, had open job announcements seeking 82 additional employees. Many of these new employees have essentially the same skills as employees who separated under the two restructurings. The Department`s objectives were not met because the Fernald Area Office did not (1) require FERMCO to perform the skills analysis necessary to identify which employees were needed to perform the Fernald Project`s current mission, and (2) effectively monitor FERMCO`s restructuring efforts to ensure that the Department`s objectives were met.

NONE

1996-04-23

209

NIOSH Conference Grant: 5th International Congress on Women, Work, and Health, Mexico, October 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Researchers and women's health advocates over the years have highlighted the importance of the relationship between work and women's health. This complex area of investigation includes the impact of women's work in the unpaid private and paid public spher...

C. Becerril L. Delp

2010-01-01

210

Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health

Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

2013-01-01

211

The effect of work cycle frequency on the potentiation of dynamic force in mouse fast twitch skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the potentiation of concentric twitch force during work cycles is dependent upon both the speed and direction of length change. Concentric and eccentric forces were elicited by stimulating muscles during the shortening and lengthening phases, respectively, of work cycles. Work cycle frequency was varied in order to vary the speed of muscle shortening and/or lengthening; all forces were measured as the muscle passed though optimal length (L(o)). Both concentric and eccentric force were assessed before (unpotentiated control) and after (potentiated) the application of a tetanic conditioning protocol known to potentiate twitch force output. The influence of the conditioning protocol on relative concentric force was speed dependent, with forces increased to 1.19±0.01, 1.25±0.01 and 1.30±0.01 of controls at 1.5, 3.3 and 6.9 Hz, respectively (all data N=9-10 with P<0.05). In contrast, the conditioning protocol had only a limited effect on eccentric force at these frequencies (range: 1.06±0.01 to 0.96±0.03). The effect of the conditioning protocol on concentric work (force × distance) was also speed dependent, being decreased at 1.5 Hz (0.84±0.01) and increased at 3.3 and 6.9 Hz (1.05±0.01 and 1.39±0.01, respectively). In contrast, eccentric work was not increased at any frequency (range: 0.88±0.02 to 0.99±0.01). Thus, our results reveal a hysteresis-like influence of activity-dependent potentiation such that concentric force and/or work were increased but eccentric force and/or work were not. These outcomes may have implications for skeletal muscle locomotor function in vivo. PMID:22071182

Caterini, Daniel; Gittings, William; Huang, Jian; Vandenboom, Rene

2011-12-01

212

A perspective on the Air Force's mental health response to the Pentagon.  

PubMed

This article describes efforts to coordinate the Air Force mental health response to the Pentagon disaster of September 11, 2001. The successes and challenges of Air Force teams that provided Critical Incident Stress Management and outreach efforts at both the Pentagon and Family Assistance Center will be discussed. Lessons learned from this experience and recommendations for future Department of Defense responses to large-scale disasters follow. PMID:12363134

Tarpley, Alice A

2002-09-01

213

Disparities in the Geography of Mental Health: Implications for Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews recent theory and research on geographic disparities in mental health and their implications for social work. It focuses on work emerging from the fields of mental health geography, psychiatric epidemiology, and social work, arguing that a wide range of spatial disparities in mental health are important to understand but that…

Hudson, Christopher G.

2012-01-01

214

Relationships between psychological, physical, and behavioural health and work performance: A review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between health and job performance problems have received increased attention in business and scientific communities. This paper attempts to synthesize theoretical and empirical work in this arena. First, the theoretical links between health and work performance are presented. This is followed by a meta-analysis of the relations between psychological, physical, and behavioural health variables and work performance criteria.

Michael T. Ford; Christopher P. Cerasoli; Jennifer A. Higgins; Andrew L. Decesare

2011-01-01

215

Public Health Works: Blood Donation in Urban China  

PubMed Central

Recent shifts in the global health infrastructure warrant consideration of the value and effectiveness of national public health campaigns. These shifts include the globalization of pharmaceutical research, the rise of NGO-funded health interventions, and the rise of biosecurity models of international health. We argue that although these trends have arisen as worthwhile responses to actual health needs, it is important to remember the key role that public health campaigns can play in the promotion of national health, especially in developing nations. Focusing on an example set by China in response to a public health crisis surrounding the national need for a clean and adequate blood supply and the inadvertent spread of HIV by way of blood donation in the early 19902, we argue that there is an important role for strong national public health programs. We also identify the key factors that enabled China’s response to this bourgeoning epidemic to be, in the end, largely successful.

Adams, Vincanne; Erwin, Kathleen; Le, Phuoc V

2009-01-01

216

Phthalate Exposure and Health-Related Outcomes in Specific Types of Work Environment  

PubMed Central

Many toxic substances in the workplace can modify human health and quality of life and there is still insufficient data on respiratory outcomes in adults exposed to phthalates. The aim of this work was to assess in waste management workers from the Nitra region of Slovakia (n = 30) the extent of exposure to phthalates and health-related outcomes. Four urinary phthalate metabolites mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), monobutyl phthalate (MnBP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Urinary concentration of MEHP was positively associated with ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity % (FEV1/FVC) (r = 0.431; p = 0.018) and MiNP with fat free mass index (FFMI) (r = 0.439; p = 0.015). The strongest predictor of pulmonary function was the pack/year index as smoking history that predicted a decrease of pulmonary parameters, the FEV1/FVC, % of predicted values of peak expiratory flow (PEF % of PV) and FEV1 % of PV. Unexpectedly, urinary MEHP and MINP were positively associated with pulmonary function expressed as PEF % of PV and FEV1/FVC. We hypothesize that occupational exposure to phthalates estimated from urinary metabolites (MEHP, MiNP) can modify pulmonary function on top of lifestyle factors.

Kolena, Branislav; Petrovicova, Ida; Pilka, Tomas; Pucherova, Zuzana; Munk, Michal; Matula, Bohumil; Vankova, Viera; Petlus, Peter; Jenisova, Zita; Rozova, Zdenka; Wimmerova, Sona; Trnovec, Tomas

2014-01-01

217

Phthalate exposure and health-related outcomes in specific types of work environment.  

PubMed

Many toxic substances in the workplace can modify human health and quality of life and there is still insufficient data on respiratory outcomes in adults exposed to phthalates. The aim of this work was to assess in waste management workers from the Nitra region of Slovakia (n = 30) the extent of exposure to phthalates and health-related outcomes. Four urinary phthalate metabolites mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), monobutyl phthalate (MnBP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Urinary concentration of MEHP was positively associated with ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity % (FEV1/FVC) (r = 0.431; p = 0.018) and MiNP with fat free mass index (FFMI) (r = 0.439; p = 0.015). The strongest predictor of pulmonary function was the pack/year index as smoking history that predicted a decrease of pulmonary parameters, the FEV1/FVC, % of predicted values of peak expiratory flow (PEF % of PV) and FEV1 % of PV. Unexpectedly, urinary MEHP and MINP were positively associated with pulmonary function expressed as PEF % of PV and FEV1/FVC. We hypothesize that occupational exposure to phthalates estimated from urinary metabolites (MEHP, MiNP) can modify pulmonary function on top of lifestyle factors. PMID:24865398

Kolena, Branislav; Petrovicova, Ida; Pilka, Tomas; Pucherova, Zuzana; Munk, Michal; Matula, Bohumil; Vankova, Viera; Petlus, Peter; Jenisova, Zita; Rozova, Zdenka; Wimmerova, Sona; Trnovec, Tomas

2014-01-01

218

Inter-operability of health services of the coalition forces: the Hungarian Military Hospital's experience in the Persian Gulf War.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to study the inter-operability of allied-nation health service support systems working together in support of a combined operation. The Republic of Hungary contributed a military hospital to the Coalition Forces' Health Service Support in Operation Desert Storm. The experience of this hospital was unique. This hospital was incorporated into a western military health service system, which was alien to its organization and doctrines. The hospital's organization was based on the requirements of the former Warsaw Pact and followed Soviet doctrine. The author summarizes the experience of medical professionals and non-medical operational conditions during Operation Desert Storm and highlights the similarities and differences of the two systems. He also makes recommendations to promote military medical inter-operability. PMID:8202256

Svéd, L

1994-02-01

219

Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force  

SciTech Connect

On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: {sm_bullet} reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors, {sm_bullet} minimize the levels of, and potential for, expos exposure to beryllium, and {sm_bullet} establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease.

MacQueen, D H

2007-02-21

220

Work, Stress, and Health 2009: Global Concerns and Approaches.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The American Psychological Association (APA), in collaboration with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and the Society for Occupational Health Psychology (SOHP), convened the eighth international conference on occupational ...

G. P. Keita

2010-01-01

221

Measurement of forces exerted on pedal and crank during work on a bicycle ergometer at different loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Force measurements on the pedal and crank during work on a bicycle ergometer revealed that:1. \\u000aForce exertion is maximal when the position of the pedal is in the front at about 90 ° to the vertical line.\\u000a2. \\u000aThe passive (hind) leg is lifted partly by the active (force exerting) leg. This effect diminishes at higher loads.\\u000a3. \\u000aPeak loads

M. J. A. J. M. Hoes; R. A. BINKHOtCST; A. E. M. C. Smeekes-Kuyl; A. C. A. Vissers

1968-01-01

222

Multiple vaccinations, health, and recall bias within UK armed forces deployed to Iraq: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the relation between self reported number of vaccinations received and health, and between numbers of vaccinations recorded from individuals’ medical records and health.Design First phase of a cohort study.Setting UK armed forces personnel.Participants 4882 randomly selected military personnel deployed to Iraq since 2003 and a subset of 378 whose vaccination records were accessed.Main outcome measures Psychological distress,

Dominic Murphy; Matthew Hotopf; Simon Wessely

2008-01-01

223

Family Support & Health Care: Working Together for Healthy Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report of the Family Resource Coalition of America examines partnerships between family support programs and health care providers, forged to ensure that the comprehensive needs of families are met. The report begins with two articles, "Family Support and the Emerging Health System" and "Social and Economic Issues Affecting Health--A…

Lalley, Jacqueline, Ed.; Ahsan, Nilofer, Ed.

1998-01-01

224

Health Literacy: Critical Opportunities for Social Work Leadership in Health Care and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One-third of U. S. adults do not have adequate health literacy to manage their health care needs; and low health literacy is a major concern due to its association with poor health outcomes, high health care costs, and health communication problems. Low health literacy is a potential driver of health disparities, and its alleviation is central to…

Liechty, Janet M.

2011-01-01

225

Health and Turnover of Working Mothers after Childbirth via the Work-Family Interface: An Analysis across Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined organizational levers that impact work-family experiences, participant health, and subsequent turnover. Using a sample of 179 women returning to full-time work 4 months after childbirth, we examined the associations of 3 job resources (job security, skill discretion, and schedule control) with work-to-family enrichment and the…

Carlson, Dawn S.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Ferguson, Merideth; Hunter, Emily M.; Clinch, C. Randall; Arcury, Thomas A.

2011-01-01

226

Toward Standardized, Comparable Public Health Systems Data: A Taxonomic Description of Essential Public Health Work  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify taxonomy of task, knowledge, and resources for documenting the work performed in local health departments (LHDs). Data Sources Secondary data were collected from documents describing public health (PH) practice produced by organizations representing the PH community. Study Design A multistep consensus-based method was used that included literature review, data extraction, expert opinion, focus group review, and pilot testing. Data Extraction Methods Terms and concepts were manually extracted from documents, consolidated, and evaluated for scope and sufficiency by researchers. An expert panel determined suitability of terms and a hierarchy for classifying them. This work was validated by practitioners and results pilot tested in two LHDs. Principal Findings The finalized taxonomy was applied to compare a national sample of 11 LHDs. Data were obtained from 1,064 of 1,267 (84 percent) of employees. Frequencies of tasks, knowledge, and resources constitute a profile of PH work. About 70 percent of the correlations between LHD pairs on tasks and knowledge were high (>0.7), suggesting between-department commonalities. On resources only 16 percent of correlations between LHD pairs were high, suggesting a source of performance variability. Conclusions A taxonomy of PH work serves as a tool for comparative research and a framework for further development.

Merrill, Jacqueline; Keeling, Jonathan; Gebbie, Kristine

2009-01-01

227

Characteristics of personal health records: findings of the Medical Library Association/National Library of Medicine Joint Electronic Personal Health Record Task Force  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The Medical Library Association (MLA)/National Library of Medicine (NLM) Joint Electronic Personal Health Record Task Force examined the current state of personal health records (PHRs). Methods: A working definition of PHRs was formulated, and a database was built with fields for specified PHR characteristics. PHRs were identified and listed. Each task force member was assigned a portion of the list for data gathering. Findings were recorded in the database. Results: Of the 117 PHRs identified, 91 were viable. Almost half were standalone products. A number used national standards for nomenclature and/or record structure. Less than half were mobile device enabled. Some were publicly available, and others were offered only to enrollees of particular health plans or employees at particular institutions. A few were targeted to special health conditions. Conclusions: The PHR field is very dynamic. While most PHR products have some common elements, their features can vary. PHRs can link their users with librarians and information resources. MLA and NLM have taken an active role in making this connection and in encouraging librarians to assume this assistance role with PHRs.

Shipman, Jean P; Plaut, Daphne A; Selden, Catherine R

2010-01-01

228

Home Health Care: An Alternative in Institutionalization (Home Health Care Task Force Program Implementation Committee).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inflation, increasing costs of health care delivery in institutions, and the increasing need to be more cost efficient in matching needs with services, indicate that home health care may have a critical role in the '80s. Emphasis on providing home health ...

1981-01-01

229

Pharmacy Concept for Hazardous Materials Management: Effect on Productivity of the Base Civil Engineering Operations Flight Work Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research was to determine if implementing a hazardous material pharmacy has an impact on the productivity of the Base Civil Engineering Operations Flight work force. Statistical tests were used to meet the following research objectives...

D. K. Nelson

1994-01-01

230

Work time control and mental health of workers working long hours: the role of gender and age.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between work time control and mental health in workers working long hours. The study also attempted to show how that relationship depended on age and gender. Three hundred and six white-collar workers doing clerical work for over 8 h daily were diagnosed on work time control and mental health with the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. The results of an analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that participants working long hours but having high control over their work time had a significantly higher level of their mental health with regard to somatic complaints and anxiety and marginally higher with regard to social dysfunction than workers with low control over their work time. Male and female workers reported different problems with their mental health depending on what age (stage of life) they were at. It is hypothesized that the work-family conflict, inability to fulfil social commitments and poor working conditions can influence those effects. PMID:22995130

Zo?nierczyk-Zreda, Dorota; Bedy?ska, Sylwia; Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena

2012-01-01

231

Do stigma and other perceived barriers to mental health care differ across Armed Forces?  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives Military organizations are keen to address barriers to mental health care yet stigma and barriers to care remain little understood, especially potential cultural differences between Armed Forces. The aim of this study was to compare data collected by the US, UK, Australian, New Zealand and Canadian militaries using Hoge et al.'s perceived stigma and barriers to care measure (Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems and barriers to care. New Engl J Med 2004;351:13–22). Design Each member country identified data sources that had enquired about Hoge et al.'s perceived stigma and perceived barriers to care items in the re-deployment or immediate post-deployment period. Five relevant statements were included in the study. Setting US, UK Australian, New Zealand and Canadian Armed Forces. Results Concerns about stigma and barriers to care tended to be more prominent among personnel who met criteria for a mental health problem. The pattern of reported stigma and barriers to care was similar across the Armed Forces of all five nations. Conclusions Barriers to care continue to be a major issue for service personnel within Western military forces. Although there are policy, procedural and cultural differences between Armed Forces, the nations studied appear to share some similarities in terms of perceived stigma and barriers to psychological care. Further research to understand patterns of reporting and subgroup differences is required.

Gould, Matthew; Adler, Amy; Zamorski, Mark; Castro, Carl; Hanily, Natalie; Steele, Nicole; Kearney, Steve; Greenberg, Neil

2010-01-01

232

Scientific and popular health knowledge in the education work of community health agents in Rio de Janeiro shantytowns.  

PubMed

Health education for socially marginalized populations challenges the efficacy of existing strategies and methods, and the pertinence of the educational and philosophical principles that underpin them. The Brazilian Community Health Agents Initiative (CHAI) hires residents of deprived marginalized communities to undertake health promotion and education in their communities. The ultimate goal of the CHAI is to connect populations with the public healthcare system by promoting social re-affiliation, protecting civil rights and enhancing equity of access to health services. In this article, we present the education work of community health agents through interplay between popular and scientific health knowledge in nine Rio de Janeiro shantytowns. A critical ethnographic research design, using thematic analysis, allowed us to explore agents' education work to enhance family health literacy in shantytowns. Local culture and social practices inspire Agents to create original strategies to reconcile forms of health knowledge in their work. PMID:22717941

Zanchetta, M S; Kolawole Salami, B; Perreault, M; Leite, L C

2012-08-01

233

Promoting Positive Emotional Health of Children of Transient Armed Forces Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this research was to promote emotional health in a small primary school (n = 180), with a highly transient pupil population of armed forces children (Service children). Negative effects of pupil mobility have been found to relate to academic attainment (Dobson, Henthorne, & Lynas, 2000; Mott, 2002), but its effect on social and…

Eodanable, Miranda; Lauchlan, Fraser

2012-01-01

234

Investigation of Reproductive Health Outcomes and Potential Risk Factors in Air Force Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reproductive health outcomes and potential risk factors have not been studied among Active Duty Air Force (ADAF) women. Phase I describes natality and adverse outcome rates among women over a 20-year period (1975-1994) by age, race, rank, occupation, mari...

D. Echeverria

2000-01-01

235

Effects of Experimental Parameters on the Work Function Measurement: A Kelvin Force Microscopy Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of the Work Function measurements, of different materials, using the Kelvin Force Microscopy technique (KFM) is not trivial. Various artifacts can alter the interpretation of KFM results. Thus a good understanding of experimental conditions effects, involved in a measurement procedure, is essential to provide a reliable interpretation and avoid false conclusions. In this paper, we present an experimental study of the most relevant parameters influencing KFM measurements performed alternatively under air and nitrogen conditions. We investigate the effects of the tip-sample separation, the tip shape, the relative humidity and the modulation signal applied to the probe. We provide arguments and discussions in order to explain experimentally observed behaviors. We also propose experimental settings and protocols by providing the most convenient conditions for reliable KFM results.

Kaja, K.; Chevalier, N.; Mariolle, D.; Bertin, F.; Feuillet, G.; Chabli, A.

2009-09-01

236

Health status of Air Force veterans occupationally exposed to herbicides in Vietnam: II. Mortality  

SciTech Connect

The Air Force Health Study is a 20-year comprehensive assessment of the current health of Air Force veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam. This report compares the noncombat mortality of 1261 Ranch Hand veterans to that of a comparison population of 19,101 other Air Force veterans primarily involved in cargo missions in Southeast Asia but who were not exposed to herbicides. The indirectly standardized all-cause death rate among Ranch Hands is 2.5 deaths per 1,000 person-years, the same as that among comparison subjects. After adjustment for age, rank, and occupation, the all-cause standardized mortality ratio was 1.0. In adjusted cause-specific analyses, the authors found no significant group differences regarding accidental, malignant neoplasm, and circulatory deaths. These data are not supportive to a hypothesis of increases mortality among Ranch Hands.

Michalek, J.E.; Wolfe, W.H.; Miner, J.C. (School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, TX (USA))

1990-10-10

237

Oral health in the Japan self-defense forces - a representative survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The oral health of military populations is usually not very well characterized compared to civilian populations. The aim of\\u000a this study was to investigate two physical oral health characteristics and one perceived oral health measure and their correlation\\u000a in the Japan self-defense forces (JSDF).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Number of missing teeth, denture status, and OHRQoL as evaluated by the Japanese 14-item version of

Yuka Kudo; Mike T John; Yoko Saito; Shachi Sur; Chisako Furuyama; Hiroaki Tsukasaki; Kazuyoshi Baba

2011-01-01

238

Spanning the Chasm: Corporate and Academic Cooperation To Improve Work-Force Preparation. Task Force on High-Performance Work and Workers: The Academic Connection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, conducted by a task force that interviewed corporate and campus officials at 10 corporations and 12 universities and colleges during 1994-96, examined how well undergraduate, graduate, and professional students in the United States are being prepared to meet the demands of the modern high-performance workplace. The study found…

Business-Higher Education Forum, Washington, DC.

239

Health consumption as work: the home pregnancy test as a domesticated health tool.  

PubMed

A growing array of biomedical goods and services has become central to the North American experience of navigating illness and pursuing good health. Yet despite the utility of consumption as an analytical framework within the social sciences, the selection, purchase, and use of biomedical goods and services has been understudied. By using the home pregnancy test as a case study, we suggest new approaches to thinking about the consumption of these goods and services. We chose the home pregnancy test because it is the best-known example of a mass-produced diagnostic tool used by consumers. We draw on two sources of data for this qualitative analysis: a set of stories submitted between 2003 and 2005 by women and men to an online exhibit mounted by the National Institutes of Health called "A Thin Blue Line: The History of the Pregnancy Test Kit," which we analysed between 2006 and 2007; and web sampling conducted in 2009 and 2010 of personal web and video logs of women and men who have posted stories and opinions about their experiences with contemporary home pregnancy testing products. We adapt the term "domestication" from Science and Technology Studies scholarship to describe the movement of diagnostic devices into homes for use by consumers. Specifically, we propose that the consumption of domesticated biomedical devices, goods, and services should be theorized as work performed by consumers, in two senses: as a form of tool use that allows non-experts to produce diagnostic knowledge about their own bodies and health; and as the ongoing biopolitical work that is expected of citizens to produce healthy bodies. Our paper draws attention to these understudied phenomena, while suggesting new approaches to theorizing the social and cultural elements of goods and services for health. PMID:23608088

Childerhose, Janet E; Macdonald, Margaret E

2013-06-01

240

Stress at work and mental health status among female hospital workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations between working conditions and mental health status of female hospital workers were studied in a sample of 1505 women: 43% were nurses, 32% auxiliaries, and 7% ancillary staff; 13% were other qualified health care staff, mainly head nurses; 5% had occupations other than direct health care; 63% worked on the morning, 20% on the afternoon, and 17% on the

M Estryn-Behar; M Kaminski; E Peigne; N Bonnet; E Vaichere; C Gozlan; S Azoulay; M Giorgi

1990-01-01

241

Integrating Education on Addressing Health Disparities into the Graduate Social Work Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to propose an elective social work course as a means of better preparing social workers entering practice in healthcare to meet the challenges of promoting health and reducing health disparities in minority and underserved communities. Course offerings specifically targeting health or medical social work training…

Mitchell, Jamie Ann

2012-01-01

242

Pride and confidence at work: potential predictors of occupational health in a hospital setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study focuses on determinants of a healthy work environment in two departments in a Swedish university hospital. The study is based on previously conducted longitudinal studies at the hospital (1994–2001), concerning working conditions and health outcomes among health care personnel in conjunction with downsizing processes. Overall, there was a general negative trend in relation to mental health, as

Kerstin Nilsson; Anna Hertting; Inga-Lill Petterson; Töres Theorell

2005-01-01

243

Working with young people - towards an agenda for sexual health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we outline key elements of a human rights-based framework for sexual health promotion that takes account of young people's needs and interests. This framework is located against the backdrop of a critique of the way in which negative definitions of 'sexual health' and of 'adolescence', as well as restrictions on open and appropriate sex education in schools,

Peter Aggleton; Cathy Campbell

2000-01-01

244

Invitation to Make Health Care Work for All Americans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our health care system is complicated, but there are three basic issues that we need to talk about: Cost. Quality. Access. Cost is what is paid for health care. We ALL pay one way or the other, in employer or employee contributions, in taxes, in insurance...

2005-01-01

245

Child Health Inequality: Framing a Social Work Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies acknowledge that the well-being of our nation hinges on the health of its people. There is specific concern about children because they represent the future. Ignoring children's health needs can compromise their educational preparedness, occupational pursuits, productivity, and longevity. Current science demonstrates that…

Hernandez, Virginia Rondero; Montana, Salvador; Clarke, Kris

2010-01-01

246

Mental Health Promotion and Work: Rumbalara Community's Roundtable Discussion 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between socioeconomic status and health is well established, with people at the lowest socioeconomic levels experiencing the highest rates of illnesses and death. While poverty, unemployment and limited access to adequate housing have a significant impact on the health and well being of the general population, Aboriginal people's…

Hoban, Rosemary

2002-01-01

247

Forces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts what forces are and how they can change the motion and shape of objects in an animated slide show. This resource also includes an interactive test and review of the material, and can be downloaded for offline use.

248

Mental Health Social Work And The Bureau-Medicalisation Of Mental Health Care: Identity In A Changing World  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatry in the UK is seemingly moving inexorably towards bureau-medicalisation, a potent combination of the medical model and organisational imperative. This paper looks at the causes of these developments and one consequent trajectory toward a generic mental health practitioner. This paper provides a rationale for mental health social work (MHSW), arguing against the temptation to modernise mental health care by

Jack Nathan; Martin Webber

2010-01-01

249

48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...Contracts 970.5223-1 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work...

2013-10-01

250

Physician community involvement. Working within your area to promote better health.  

PubMed

How many times have you been asked to participate in a meeting, forum, or task force to address a community health issue in the last few years? Opportunities seem to crop up almost weekly as non-profit organizations acclimate to meet changing needs and health systems continue to adapt to market forces. But participating in ongoing community projects, or even attending periodic meetings, draws time away from practice and professional obligations and limits an already modest supply of personal time. Is involvement in a community collaborative effort worth the time? And, if so, what are the benefits and challenges to physicians, health systems, and communities from this type of investment? PMID:9640946

Bizon, J G; Sprague, F R; Wilhelm, D

1998-06-01

251

The health and cost implications of high body mass index in Australian defence force personnel  

PubMed Central

Background Frequent illness and injury among workers with high body mass index (BMI) can raise the costs of employee healthcare and reduce workforce maintenance and productivity. These issues are particularly important in vocational settings such as the military, which require good physical health, regular attendance and teamwork to operate efficiently. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of injury and illness, absenteeism, productivity, healthcare usage and administrative outcomes among Australian Defence Force personnel with varying BMI. Methods Personnel were grouped into cohorts according to the following ranges for (BMI): normal (18.5???24.9?kg/m2; n?=?197), overweight (25–29.9?kg/m2; n?=?154) and obese (?30?kg/m2) with restricted body fat (?28% for females, ?24% for males) (n?=?148) and with no restriction on body fat (n?=?180). Medical records for each individual were audited retrospectively to record the incidence of injury and illness, absenteeism, productivity, healthcare usage (i.e., consultation with medical specialists, hospital stays, medical investigations, prescriptions) and administrative outcomes (e.g., discharge from service) over one year. These data were then grouped and compared between the cohorts. Results The prevalence of injury and illness, cost of medical specialist consultations and cost of medical scans were all higher (p?work days were also higher (p?work days, the rate of re-classification of Medical Employment Classification and the rate of discharge from service were similar between all four cohorts. Conclusions High BMI in the military increases healthcare usage, but does not disrupt workforce maintenance. The greater prevalence of injury and illness, greater healthcare usage and lower productivity in obese Australian Defence Force personnel is not related to higher levels of body fat.

2012-01-01

252

An Exploration of the Working Alliance in Mental Health Case Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The working alliance between clients and helpers has been identified as a common factor of treatment effectiveness, yet very little research has explored variables associated with working alliance between mental health case managers and their consumers. This study explored the potential covariates of working alliance within community mental health

Kondrat, David C.; Early, Theresa J.

2010-01-01

253

A Review of Health-Related Work Outcome Measures and Their Uses, and Recommended Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growing recognition that work can contrib- ute to the development of musculoskeletal disorders, 1,8 there are almost no data on whether and how physicians investigate the contribution of work to patients' health status or the influence of health status on work perfor- mance. This is particularly true of primary care, where much of the medical care for patients

Benjamin C. Amick; Debra Lerner; William H. Rogers; Ted Rooney; Jeffrey N. Katz

2000-01-01

254

Universal access: making health systems work for women  

PubMed Central

Universal coverage by health services is one of the core obligations that any legitimate government should fulfil vis-à-vis its citizens. However, universal coverage may not in itself ensure universal access to health care. Among the many challenges to ensuring universal coverage as well as access to health care are structural inequalities by caste, race, ethnicity and gender. Based on a review of published literature and applying a gender-analysis framework, this paper highlights ways in which the policies aimed at promoting universal coverage may not benefit women to the same extent as men because of gender-based differentials and inequalities in societies. It also explores how ‘gender-blind’ organisation and delivery of health care services may deny universal access to women even when universal coverage has been nominally achieved. The paper then makes recommendations for addressing these.

2012-01-01

255

Working Paper of Health and Medical Care Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary inventory is presented of facilities, personnel, and programs available in the Connecticut Valley Health Compact (CVHC) service areas. Ninety-two towns in southeastern Vermont and southwestern New Hampshire are included in the Connecticut Va...

1969-01-01

256

Characterization of the 1986 coal-mining work force. Information Circular/1988  

SciTech Connect

In 1986, the Bureau of Mines conducted a probability sample survey, Mining Industry Population Survey, to measure such employee characteristics as occupation; principal equipment operated; work location at the mine; present job, present company, and total mining experience; job-related training during the last 2 years; age; sex; race; and education. The population estimates are necessary to properly analyze the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) injury (includes illness and fatality data) statistics; that is, to compare and contrast injury rates for various subpopulations in order to identify those groups that are exhibiting higher than average injury rates. The report uses the survey's results to characterize the U.S. coal mining workforce from March through September 1986.

Butani, S.J.; Bartholomew, A.M.

1988-01-01

257

Sense of humor at work : assessment and associations wit health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation is about health-related sense of humor measurement and associations between a sense of humor and health. Two sense of humor measures were developed, the QOHC and the HCL. The QOHC measures four humorous coping styles, aimed at acquiring positive affective states: antecedent-focused (AFHC), response-focused (RFHC), affiliative and aggressive-manipulative. AFHC is defined as the preventive use of humor to

S. Doosje

2010-01-01

258

e-Labs and Work Objects: Towards Digital Health Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal provision of healthcare and public health services requires the synthesis of evidence from multiple disciplines.\\u000a It is necessary to understand the genetic, environmental, behavioural and social determinants of disease and health-related\\u000a states; to balance the effectiveness of interventions with their costs; to ensure the maximum safety and acceptability of\\u000a interventions; and to provide fair access to care services

John D. Ainsworth; Iain E. Buchan

2009-01-01

259

Active health monitoring in a rotating cracked shaft using active magnetic bearings as force actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the active health monitoring of rotordynamic systems in the presence of breathing shaft cracks. The shaft is assumed to be supported by conventional bearings and an active magnetic bearing (AMB) is used in a mid-shaft or outboard location as an actuator to apply specified, time-dependent forcing on the system. These forces, if properly chosen, induce a combination resonance that can be used to identify the magnitude of the time-dependent stiffness arising from the breathing mode of the shaft crack.

Mani, G.; Quinn, D. D.; Kasarda, M.

2006-06-01

260

Work Readiness: A New Promise in Minnesota's Education. Report of the Commissioner's Task Force on Education for Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains the recommendations made by Minnesota's Task Force on Education for Employment, which was established in 1986 to evaluate how well that state's K-12 educational system is preparing all students for work and whether students have equal access to work-related learning experiences. The following recommendations are made: (1) the…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

261

Distraction: an assessment of smartphone usage in health care work settings.  

PubMed

Smartphone use in health care work settings presents both opportunities and challenges. The benefits could be severely undermined if abuse and overuse are not kept in check. This practice-focused research paper examines the current panorama of health software applications. Findings from existing research are consolidated to elucidate the level and effects of distraction in health care work settings due to smartphone use. A conceptual framework for crafting guidelines to regulate the use of smartphones in health care work settings is then presented. Finally, specific guidelines are delineated to assist in creating policies for the use of smartphones in a health care workplace. PMID:22969308

Gill, Preetinder S; Kamath, Ashwini; Gill, Tejkaran S

2012-01-01

262

Managed Mental Health Care: Implications for Social Work Practice and Social Work Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managed care has rapidly developed as the most common model of delivery of health care in this country. This article examines the implications of new demands brought to bear on social workers. This research compares six managed health care plans operating regionally and nationally and demonstrates the cumbersome application process. Fee schedules for each of the plans are listed. Ethical

Howard M. Turney; Patricia G. Conway

2001-01-01

263

Oral health in the Japan self-defense forces - a representative survey  

PubMed Central

Background The oral health of military populations is usually not very well characterized compared to civilian populations. The aim of this study was to investigate two physical oral health characteristics and one perceived oral health measure and their correlation in the Japan self-defense forces (JSDF). Methods Number of missing teeth, denture status, and OHRQoL as evaluated by the Japanese 14-item version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-J14) as well as the correlation between these oral health measures was investigated in 911 personnel in the JSDF. Results Subjects did not have a substantial number of missing teeth and only 4% used removable dentures. The mean OHIP-J14 score was 4.6 ± 6.7 units. The magnitude of the correlation between the number of missing teeth with OHIP-J14 scores was small (r = 0.22, p < 0.001). Mean OHIP-J14 scores differed between subjects with and without dentures (8.6 and 4.4, p < 0.001). Conclusions Compared to Japanese civilian populations, personnel of the JSDF demonstrated good oral health. Two physical oral health characteristics were associated with perceived oral health.

2011-01-01

264

Partner violence and survivors' chronic health problems: informing social work practice.  

PubMed

Although most social work professionals may expect that women who experience partner violence will sustain acute physical injuries, social workers may be less knowledgeable about the chronic health problems with which violence survivors often struggle. To inform social work practice, we reviewed and synthesized the recently published research on health outcomes associated with partner violence victimization. We focused our review efforts on chronic physical and mental health conditions that social workers are likely to see in their practices. Using rigorous selection criteria, we selected 28 articles for review from over 3500 found in our search.The review showed that although women who experience partner violence are likely to seek health services, they have poor overall physical and mental health, and their health needs are not addressed sufficiently by current health and human service systems.We offer social work practice, policy, and research recommendations to encourage comprehensive services that promote women's health and safety. PMID:19205255

Macy, Rebecca J; Ferron, Joelle; Crosby, Carmen

2009-01-01

265

One health and force health protection during foreign humanitarian assistance operations: 2010 Pakistan flood relief.  

PubMed

Restrictions on the number of troops that could enter Pakistan in support of the 2010 flood relief efforts limited the type and number of deployed medical personnel. Although this created the potential for mission gaps, the assigned personnel were able to perform additional functions beyond those normally associated with their particular health specialty to help close these gaps, which was largely made possible due to prior cross-training and predeployment refresher training. Given the rapid and unpredictable nature of disaster response, future foreign humanitarian assistance operations may face similar issues with assigned personnel. Promotion of the One Health concept through instruction and training will help to increase awareness among US Army Medical Department personnel about the roles and functions of health specialties, facilitate the identification of critical gaps during deployments, and provide personnel with the knowledge and skills needed to address them. PMID:23277449

Burke, Ronald L

2013-01-01

266

What Works for Mental Health System Change: Evolution or Revolution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mental health system has realized significant metamorphoses in the standards and practices of quality care for people with psychiatric disability during the past decade. Now change agents are wrestling with effective strategies that help real-world systems to adopt programs reflecting these metamorphoses. Two fundamental approaches to systems change are compared and contrasted here: evolution and revolution. First, the authors

Patrick W. Corrigan; Michael G. Boyle

2003-01-01

267

How to Work With Your Health Insurance Plan  

Cancer.gov

There are ways to learn if your health plan covers routine patient care costs in a clinical trial. Here are ideas about who to contact for help, questions to ask, and information to collect and keep if you decide to take part in a trial.

268

Predicting nurses' turnover intentions by demographic characteristics, perception of health, quality of work attitudes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of demographic variables, organizational commitment levels, perception of health and quality of work on turnover intentions. A self-reported cross-sectional survey design was used to collect data from Jordanian registered nurses who were working between June 2011 and November 2011. The findings showed strong effects of the quality of work, perception of health and normative organizational commitments on turnover intentions. This study sheds the light on the important work outcomes in health-care organizations. Increasing nursing quality of work and normative organizational commitment are good strategies for reducing turnover intentions. PMID:24580978

Al-Hussami, Mahmoud; Darawad, Muhammad; Saleh, Ali; Hayajneh, Ferial Ahmed

2014-02-01

269

The social gradient in work and health: a cross-sectional study exploring the relationship between working conditions and health inequalities  

PubMed Central

Background Social inequalities in health are widely examined. But the reasons behind this phenomenon still remain unclear in parts. It is undisputed that the work environment plays a crucial role in this regard. However, the contribution of psychosocial factors at work is unclear and inconsistent, and most studies are limited with regard to work factors and health outcomes. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the role and contribution of various physical and psychosocial working conditions to explaining social inequalities in different self-reported health outcomes. Methods Data from a postal survey among the workforces of four medium-sized and large companies from diverse industries of the secondary sector in Switzerland were used and analysed. The study sample covered 1,846 employees aged 20 and 64 and included significant proportions of unskilled manual workers and highly qualified non-manual workers. Cross tabulations and logistic regression analyses were performed to study multiple associations between social status, work factors and health outcomes. Combinations of educational level and occupational position wee used as a measure of social status or class. Results Clear social gradients were observed for almost all adverse working conditions and poor health outcomes studied, but in different directions. While physical workloads and other typical blue-collar job characteristics not suprisingly, were found to be much more common among the lower classes, most psychosocial work demands and job resources were more prevalent in the higher classes. Furthermore, workers in lower classes, i.e. with lower educational and occupational status, were more likely to report poor self-rated health, limited physical functioning and long sickness absence, but at the same time were less likely to experience increased stress feelings and burnout symptoms showing a reversed health gradient. Finally, blue-collar job characteristics contributed substantially to the social gradient found in general and physical health outcomes. In contrast, white-collar job characteristics made no contribution to explaining the gradient in these health outcomes, but instead largely explained the reversed social gradient observed for the mental health outcomes. Conclusion The findings suggest a more differentiated pattern of the commonly found social gradient in health and the differential role of work in this respect.

2013-01-01

270

Health behavior, quality of work life, and organizational effectiveness in the lumber industry.  

PubMed

A major incentive for work-site health promotion activities has been the promise of increased company profitability. Some critics have challenged the economic argument based on distal outcomes such as increased employee longevity and less morbidity later in life. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between employee health behavior, quality of work life, and proximal organizationally valued outcomes. Data were collected from a stratified random sample of employees working at Pacific Lumber Company (N = 146), the largest single-site lumber mill in California. Although employee sleep patterns predicted health care utilization and psychological well-being, for the most part employee health behaviors were not strong predictors of proximal organizational effectiveness factors. However, quality-of-work-life factors significantly predicted organizational commitment, absenteeism, and tardiness frequency. The findings suggest the value of improving the system of work in which employees are embedded as part of comprehensive work-site health promotion efforts. PMID:10435239

Donaldson, S I; Sussman, S; Dent, C W; Severson, H H; Stoddard, J L

1999-08-01

271

The Impact of Child and Maternal Health Indicators on Female Labor Force Participation after Childbirth: Evidence from Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the influence of children's health and mothers' physical and mental wellbeing on female labor force participation after childbirth in Germany. Our analysis uses data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) study, which enables us to measure children's health based on the occurrence of severe health problems including mental and physical disabilities, hospitalizations, and preterm births. Since child

Annalena Dunkelberg; C. Katharina Spieß

2007-01-01

272

The Association between Childhood Abuse and Labor Force Outcomes in Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and labor force outcomes in young adults and the possible mediating effects of educational attainment, current mental health, and physical health. Data from the Ontario Child Health Study (N = 1,893), a province-wide longitudinal study were analyzed. Controlling for childhood and demographic variables, severe childhood physical abuse was significantly associated

Masako Tanaka; Ellen Jamieson; Katholiki Georgiades; Eric K. Duku; Michael H. Boyle; Harriet L. MacMillan

2011-01-01

273

Force sensor system for structural health monitoring using passive RFID tags for structural health monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

For this study, we developed a contactless loading sensor system that can measure the internal loading of an object structure through several covering materials for the purpose of structural health monitoring. The developed system can be inserted into objects without a battery because the system consists of passive RFID for data communication and a power supply. The system uses little

Yusuke Ikemoto; Shingo Suzuki; Hiroyuki Okamoto; Hiroki Murakami; Xin Lin; Hideo Itoh; Hajime Asama

2008-01-01

274

Health Workforce and International Migration: Can New Zealand Compete? OECD Health Working Papers No. 33  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines health workforce and migration policies in New Zealand, with a special focus on the international recruitment of doctors and nurses. The health workforce in New Zealand, as in all OECD countries, plays a central role in the health system. Nonetheless, maybe more than for any other OECD country, the health workforce in New…

Zurn, Pascal; Dumont, Jean-Christophe

2008-01-01

275

Information and Health. Report on a Working Group (Luxembourg, Belgium, November 4-7, 1980).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Working Group, convened by the World Health Organization (WHO), proposed a clearer definition of the essential role of health information and suggested the most appropriate means of communication between governments and the mass media, between the media and health services, and between patients and doctors. The Group urged all WHO Member States…

World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

276

Employee Health and Well-Being: The Role of Flexibility and Work–Family Balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is substantial interest in the potential health effects of workplace flexibility; however, the literature linking flexibility to health is limited. The purpose of this study was to enhance understanding of the potential benefits of flexibility for employee health and well-being. Additionally, this study determines if this association is mediated by work–family balance. Results from longitudinal data obtained from a

Patrick R. Casey; Joseph G. Grzywacz

2008-01-01

277

Substance use disorder in the context of LGBT health: a social work perspective.  

PubMed

The impacts of public and private funding of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health research, the state of integration of LGBT health issues into the academic and professional training programs of health care practitioners, and the larger social reality experienced by LGBT people profoundly affect substance use and substance use disorders in those populations. This analysis uses a social work perspective and considers the current state of research, professional training, and social oppression as they affect the health of LGBT people. Suggestions for action are offered that may improve the health of LGBT peoples and the practice of social work. PMID:23731425

Silvestre, Anthony; Beatty, Rodger L; Friedman, M Reuel

2013-01-01

278

Is Complexity of Work Associated with Risk of Dementia? The Canadian Study of Health and Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors evaluated the association of complexity of work with data, people, and things with the incidence of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, while adjusting for work-related physical activity. The Canadian Study of Health and Aging is a 10-year population study, from 1991 to 2001, of a representative sample of persons

Edeltraut Kroger; Ross Andel; Joan Lindsay; Zohra Benounissa; Danielle Laurin

2008-01-01

279

Health Behavior, Quality of Work Life, and Organizational Effectiveness in the Lumber Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major incentive for work-site health promotion activities has been the promise of increased company profitability. Some critics have challenged the economic argument based on distal outcomes such as increased employee longevity and less morbidity later in life. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between employee health behavior, quality of work life, and proximal organizationally valued

Stewart I. Donaldson; Steve Sussman; Clyde W. Dent; Herbert H. Severson; Jacqueline L. Stoddard

1999-01-01

280

Working environment and respiratory health: A case study of western coal miners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case study of 102 surface and underground coal miners in the western United States randomly selected from a telephone survey of two mining communities was conducted, examining their perceptions of working conditions and health both before and after the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969. Miners working since 1970 reported lower amounts of dust breathed in,

Susan E. Dawson; Gary E. Madsen; David S. James; William C. Hunt

1998-01-01

281

The Primary Health Worker, Working Guide, Guidelines for Training, Guidellnes for Adaptation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This working guide outlines the structure and content of training for the primary health worker (PHW) on the basis of the most common health problems of communities in developing countries. Part 1 is intended for use by the PHW as a learning text and reference in his work. It covers thirty-four problems considered to be most common which are…

World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

282

Application of a Web-Based Tailored Health Risk Assessment in a WorkSite Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an examination of the feasibility of implementing a Web-based tailored health risk assessment (HRA) as part of a University-based work-site health promotion program. Although the effectiveness of tailoring has been well established in the research literature, tailoring health messages for the purposes of health promotion and behavior change is only now starting to be used and evaluated

Joan E. Cowdery; L. Suzanne Suggs; Shandowyn Parker

2007-01-01

283

Does Occupational Mobility Influence Health among Working Women? Comparing Objective and Subjective Measures of Work Trajectories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Occupational mobility is highly valued in American society, but is it consequential to women's health? Previous studies have yielded inconsistent results, but most measured occupational mobility by identifying transitions across occupational categories. Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, this study (1) compares objective and subjective…

Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Shippee, Tetyana P.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

2012-01-01

284

Physical demands of work and health complaints among women working late in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health complaints before, during and after pregnancy were collected from 2251 women in Montreal who had been in paid employment beyond the twenty-seventh week of their first or second pregnancy. Complaints of breathlessness, fatigue, back pain, varicose veins and haemorrhoids increased during pregnancy, the proportion of women reporting these symptoms being greatest in the third trimester. Complaints at this stage

NICOLA CHERRY

1987-01-01

285

Health and Nutritional Status of Working and Non-Working Mothers in Poverty Groups.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aims were to examine health factors which determine employment status of low income women. A sample popu.ation of 469 middle-aged rural-urban fringe women in Upstate New York were studied through questionnaires, physical examination and lab tests. Current...

D. A. Roe K. R. Eickwort

1974-01-01

286

Four principles for expanding PEPFAR's role as a vital force in US health diplomacy abroad.  

PubMed

The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is the leading platform for US health diplomacy and a symbol of American capacity to achieve constructive and beneficial change. The program now faces an evolving context for its work that includes, on the one hand, domestic fiscal pressures in the United States, but on the other, the potential for substantial gains against the AIDS epidemic around the world. Continued success in advancing America's humanitarian and diplomatic interests through global health requires the United States to maintain robust investments in PEPFAR; implement a strategic plan to achieve an AIDS-free generation; use the program as a foundation to strengthen health systems generally and enable them to address broader health issues, such as chronic and noncommunicable diseases; carefully manage the transition to country "ownership" of the fight against HIV; and achieve greater coherence in US government health-related policy. PMID:22778348

Collins, Chris; Isbell, Michael; Sohn, Annette; Klindera, Kent

2012-07-01

287

Work Hours and Perceived Time Barriers to Healthful Eating Among Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe time-related beliefs and behaviors regarding healthful eating, indicators of dietary intake, and their associations with the number of weekly hours of paid work among young adults. Methods Population-based study in a diverse cohort (N=2287). Results Working > 40 hours per week was associated with time-related barriers to healthful eating most persistently among young adult men. Associations were found among females working both part-time and > 40 hours per week with both time-related barriers and dietary intake. Conclusions Findings indicate that intervention strategies, ideally those addressing time burden, are needed to promote healthful eating among young, working adults.

Escoto, Kamisha Hamilton; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.

2012-01-01

288

The obesity epidemic in Australia: can public health interventions work?  

PubMed

Background - The rapid rise in the obesity epidemic in Australia has been well documented in adults from several national surveys since 1980. The awareness of the size of this epidemic in children is low because the monitoring of obesity is non-existent, yet overweight/ obesity is undoubtedly one of the biggest health threats facing Australian children. Major public health interventions are urgently needed, and Australia has a vast experience of the successful control of other epidemics to draw upon for this latest challenge. Successful public health interventions - Several epidemics in Australia have been turned around by a concerted public health and clinical effort including cardiovascular diseases, smoking, road deaths and other injuries, HIV/AIDS, cot death and some cancers. All have had to overcome substantial barriers such as vested commercial interests, addiction, unknown causes, and strong social norms, desires, or taboos. Some have had a major clinical component (eg hypertension, cervical cancer), some have had a strong social marketing and education approach (eg cot death, HIV/AIDS), and others have had strong policy and environmental components (eg tobacco, road deaths). All have had significant, ongoing funding and political commitment and have taken as comprehensive approach as possible. The lessons for obesity are clear - if there is a similar commitment, the epidemic can be reduced. The current individual-based approaches to obesity have only a modest long-term success rate, and many potential population-based strategies have not been attempted or evaluated. This means that more comprehensive and innovative interventions are needed with a strong emphasis on evaluation so that the evidence base for effective interventions can be developed. A comprehensive program for obesity - The appropriate target groups for a comprehensive obesity program are children and high-risk adults. For the latter group, the modest weight loss (about 10%) that is achievable through lifestyle and pharmacological means has significant clinical benefits for preventing and managing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. For children, management programs in primary care are also needed but more importantly, children's food and activity environments need to be made less ' obesogenic'. A process of developing the ' Best Investments for Childhood Obesity' has been undertaken for the Department of Health and Ageing. About 50 experts around Australia contributed to the development of a framework for a comprehensive program and gave their opinion on the likely effectiveness of each of the components. This was accompanied by a review of the current evidence of effectiveness of interventions and a modelling process to fill the gaps where empirical evidence was not available. An economic analysis assessed the 'warranted investment' for reducing obesity prevalence given the cost of overweight/obesity complications in adulthood. Four action areas were considered essential: monitoring and research; whole-of-community demonstration projects; communication and education programs; coordination and training. Key settings for potential action were schools, preschools, neighbourhoods, fast food outlets, breastfeeding, and primary care. Key sectors for action were influencing the food supply towards healthier foods and reducing the huge number of television food advertisements in Australia that target young children. The home setting and parents need to be incorporated into all areas of action. Funding and policy leadership is urgently needed from Federal and State governments to implement a comprehensive program to combat this escalating epidemic. PMID:15023592

Swinburn, B A

2003-01-01

289

Kids Health: How the Body Works - Circulatory System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How the Body Works is an interactive website for children to explore the systems of the body and learn basic anatomy and physiology. In particular this link provides students and teachers to animations, videos and activities related to the cardiovascular system.

2012-11-20

290

Inequity at work: Its measurement and association with worker health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equity theory of Adams (1963, 1965) predicts that people pursue a balance between their investments in and the rewards gained from their work, such that their own investment\\/reward ratio is the same as that of similar others. Disturbance of this balance is expected to result in a range of negative outcomes, even if people are comparatively well off. The

Toon W. Taris; Raija Kalimo; Wilmar B. Schaufeli

2002-01-01

291

Kids Health: How the Body Works - Urinary System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How the Body Works is an interactive website for children to explore the systems of the body and learn basic anatomy and physiology. In particular this link provides students and teachers to animations, videos and activities related to the urinary system.

2012-11-20

292

Kids Health: How the Body Works - Immune Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How the Body Works is an interactive website for children to explore the systems of the body and learn basic anatomy and physiology. In particular this link provides students and teachers to animations, videos and activities related to the immune system.

2012-11-20

293

Stressors and supports across work and non-work domains: the impact on mental health and the workplace.  

PubMed

The main aim of this research was to investigate the impact of stressors and supports present in both work and non-work domains on occupational health. Using a multi-dimensional survey (SWS-Survey of Occupational Health), the relationships between personal and environmental stress and support was determined for a sample of stress injury claimants (n = 60) and non-claimants (n = 570). A series of regression analyses found significant differences between claimants and non-claimants for both stressors and supports. Poor mental health was best predicted by stress scales for claimants and non-claimants. However, for non-claimants, work support was found to be a significant determinant of outcome. Good mental health was best predicted by support scales for non-claimants, but only by personal support for claimants. Overall, these findings highlighted the influential role of work and personal supports in mitigating the negative impact of stress as well as promoting well-being in the workplace. Specifically, employers must recognise the impact of worker's subjective appraisal of their circumstances and focus on facilitating occupational well-being among their employees. PMID:19276523

Kendall, Elizabeth; Muenchberger, Heidi

2009-01-01

294

The Effect of Educational Disequilibrium in Field Work on Graduate Social Work Students' Self-Concept and Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author used a mixed methods design to assess field work-related educational disequilibrium and its effect on the self-concept and mental health of MSW students. Twenty-eight advanced, fourth-semester MSW students were compared with 37 entering, first-semester MSW students in practice-related sense of accomplishment. Compared with first-year…

Ying, Yu-Wen

2011-01-01

295

Microsatellite based, on-orbit servicing work at the Air Force Research Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-orbit servicing can dramatically reduce the life cycle cost, and increase the utility, of expensive space assets. However, previous servicing attempts have generally been too large, complex, and expensive to be effective. Newer, streamlined approaches, such as the Air Force's Modular On-orbit Servicing (MOS) concept, might make on-orbit servicing feasible. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is developing many of

Richard W. Madison; Kirtland AFB

2000-01-01

296

Meaningful Use of the Electronic Health Record by Rural Health Clinics. Working Paper No. 52.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of health information technology (HIT) in general, and electronic health records (EHRs) in particular, is increasingly viewed as necessary to enable hospitals, physicians groups, and other providers to manage and document the quality of care provi...

D. Hartley J. A. Gale Z. Croll

2014-01-01

297

Finnish occupational health nurses' view of work-related stress: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Occupational stress at work has been increasingly recognized as a major risk factor for chronic disease and poor quality of work life among employees. The purpose of this study was to examine how occupational health nurses in Finland manage work-related stress. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used with a sample of 354 Finnish occupational nurses who responded to the survey. No specific standardized tools to assess or handle work-related stress in occupational health services or their client companies were identified. Open-ended interviews together with burnout questionnaires were the most frequently used methods to assess the stress of employees. Interventions were directed at individual employees. A need for standardized stress assessment instruments and stress management by work organizations was found. Methods to cope with work-related stress should be developed by the occupational health team and companies' health resources departments to ensure the adoption of common protocols. PMID:24811696

Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta; Liira, Juha

2014-03-01

298

A Measurement of the Effectiveness of the Airway Science Program To Meet Federal Aviation Administration Work Force Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines why the Airway Science Program, initiated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to develop college-educated and technically prepared personnel for FAA employment (primarily for air traffic control), has failed to meet its work force goals. Research data were gathered from interviews with Airway Science Program…

Bowen, Brent D.

299

Determining the Number of Handicapped Persons in the Work Force: The Experience at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1983 the Office of Affirmative Action and Compliance at the University of Wisconsin-Madison surveyed 300 randomly chosen employees to determine the number of disabled persons in its work force. The results are discussed and the survey is appended. (MLW)

Lavin, Marilyn; Rausch, Diane

1984-01-01

300

Inspector General, DOD, Oversight of the Air Force Audit Agency Audit of the FY 1999 Working Capital Fund Financial Statements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An audit of the Air Force Working Capital Fund financial statements is required by Public Law 101-576, the 'Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990', November 15, 1990, as amended by Public Law 103-356, the 'Federal Financial Management Act of 1994', October...

F. J. Lane S. D. Guli B. M. Flynn B. B. Harbert G. P. Montoya

2000-01-01

301

Effect of filler particle size and morphology on force\\/work parameters for stickiness of unset resin-composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo investigate the effect of variation in filler particle size and morphology within an unset model series of resin-composites on two stickiness parameters: (1) maximum probe separation-force and (2) work-of-separation. This study was to complement previously reported measurements of composite stickiness in terms of a strain-parameter, ‘peak-height’.

Muhammad Kaleem; Julian D. Satterthwaite; David C. Watts

2009-01-01

302

The mental health of the UK Armed Forces in the 21st century: resilience in the face of adversity.  

PubMed

The recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have attracted considerable political and media interest in the mental health of UK military personnel. As a result of the close operational collaboration between US and UK forces, there have inevitably been many comparisons drawn between the mental health status of the two forces. Considerable research activity suggests that the mental health of UK forces appear to have remained relatively resilient in spite of their considerable exposure to traumatic events; one stark exception to this is the high rates of alcohol misuse which seem to be related to deployment. This paper explores the recently published literature relating to UK military forces and attempts to draw conclusions about the reasons for the apparent resilience shown by the majority of the regular forces. PMID:24574105

MacManus, Deirdre; Jones, N; Wessely, S; Fear, N T; Jones, E; Greenberg, N

2014-06-01

303

Serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels in Air Force health study participants - preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

In 1978, the US Air Force responded to a congressional mandate to initiate an epidemiologic study of the possible health effects of exposure to herbicides and their 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) contaminants in Air Force veterans who served in the Ranch Hand defoliation operation during the Vietnam conflict. Accordingly, the Air Force conducted a nonconcurrent prospective study, the Air Force Health Study, of all 1267 members of the Ranch Hand unit and a series of matched controls. This phase of the Air Force study focused on measuring serum TCDD levels in 150 Ranch Hand veterans and 50 controls. All participants were enlisted men; the Ranch Hand veterans had been either herbicide loaders or herbicide specialists in Vietnam. The demographic and health characteristics of Ranch Hand personnel and controls were similar; however, their serum TCDD levels differed markedly.

Not Available

1988-06-24

304

Does living and working in a hot environment induce clinically relevant changes in immune function and voluntary force production capacity?  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of living (summer vs. winter) and working (morning vs. afternoon) in a hot environment on markers of immune function and forearm strength. Thirty-one healthy male gas field employees were screened before (between 05:30 and 07:00) and after their working day (between 15:30 and 17:00) during both seasons. Body core temperature and physical activity were recorded throughout the working days. The hot condition (i.e. summer) led a higher (p?0.05) average body core temperature (~37.2 vs. ~37.4?°C) but reduced physical activity (-14.8%) during the work-shift. Our data showed an increase (p?0.05) in lymphocyte and monocyte counts in the summer. Additionally, work-shift resulted in significant (p?0.001) changes in leukocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes independently of the environment. Handgrip (p=0.069) and pinch (p=0.077) forces tended to be reduced from pre-to post-work, while only force produced during handgrip manoeuvres was significantly reduced (p?0.05) during the hot compared to the temperate season. No interactions were observed between the environment and work-shift for any marker of immune function or forearm strength. In summary, working and living in hot conditions impact on markers of immune function and work capacity; however by self-regulating energy expenditure, immune markers remained in a healthy reference range. PMID:24583514

Knez, Wade; Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sebastien; Walsh, Andrew; Gaoua, Nadia; Grantham, Justin

2014-07-01

305

The stigma of mental health problems and other barriers to care in the UK Armed Forces  

PubMed Central

Background As with the general population, a proportion of military personnel with mental health problems do not seek help. As the military is a profession at high risk of occupational psychiatric injury, understanding barriers to help-seeking is a priority. Method Participants were drawn from a large UK military health study. Participants undertook a telephone interview including the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ); a short measure of PTSD (Primary Care PTSD, PC-PTSD); a series of questions about service utilisation; and barriers to care. The response rate was 76% (821 participants). Results The most common barriers to care reported are those relating to the anticipated public stigma associated with consulting for a mental health problem. In addition, participants reported barriers in the practicalities of consulting such as scheduling an appointment and having time off for treatment. Barriers to care did not appear to be diminished after people leave the Armed Forces. Veterans report additional barriers to care of not knowing where to find help and a concern that their employer would blame them for their problems. Those with mental health problems, such as PTSD, report significantly more barriers to care than those who do not have a diagnosis of a mental disorder. Conclusions Despite recent efforts to de-stigmatise mental disorders in the military, anticipated stigma and practical barriers to consulting stand in the way of access to care for some Service personnel. Further interventions to reduce stigma and ensuring that Service personnel have access to high quality confidential assessment and treatment remain priorities for the UK Armed Forces.

2011-01-01

306

Leadership, cohesion, morale, and the mental health of UK Armed Forces in Afghanistan.  

PubMed

UK Armed Forces (AF) personnel deployed to Afghanistan are frequently exposed to intense combat and yet little is known about the short-term mental health consequences of this exposure and the potential mitigating effects of military factors such as cohesion, morale, and leadership. To assess the possible modulating influence of cohesion, morale, and leadership on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and common mental disorders resulting from combat exposure among UK AF personnel deployed to Afghanistan, UK AF personnel, during their deployment to Afghanistan in 2010, completed a self-report survey about aspects of their current deployment, including perceived levels of cohesion, morale, leadership, combat exposure, and their mental health status. Outcomes were symptoms of common mental disorder and symptoms of PTSD. Combat exposure was associated with both PTSD symptoms and symptoms of common mental disorder. Of the 1,431 participants, 17.1% reported caseness levels of common mental disorder, and 2.7% were classified as probable PTSD cases. Greater self-reported levels of unit cohesion, morale, and perceived good leadership were all associated with lower levels of common mental disorder and PTSD. Greater levels of unit cohesion, morale, and good leadership may help to modulate the effects of combat exposure and the subsequent development of mental health problems among UK Armed Forces personnel deployed to Afghanistan. PMID:22397541

Jones, Norman; Seddon, Rachel; Fear, Nicola T; McAllister, Pete; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil

2012-01-01

307

Understanding Job Satisfaction and Turnover in the Home Aide Work Force.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing demands for home health aides to the frail elderly and disabled, coupled with a high rate of turnover among these aides, has led to growing concerns over worker recruitment and retention in the home care industry. This paper therefore describes a model developed to explain job satisfaction and turnover among home health aides. The model…

Feldman, Penny Hollander; Sapienza, Alice M.

308

Impact of Rural Training on Physician Work Force: The Role of Postresidency Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 53 obstetrical and rural fellowship programs found that graduates of rural health fellowships were more likely to locate in rural areas. Almost all graduates from obstetrical and rural health programs attained general hospital privileges in family practice and low-risk obstetrics, and a significant number attained privileges in…

Acosta, David A.

2000-01-01

309

Social Networks, the 'Work' and Work Force of Chronic Illness Self-Management: A Survey Analysis of Personal Communities  

PubMed Central

Self-management support forms a central aspect of chronic Illness management nationally and globally. Evidence for the success of self-management support has mainly focussed on individually-centred outcomes of behavioural change. While it is recognised that social network members play an important role there is currently a gap in knowledge regarding who provides what type of support and under what circumstances. This is relevant for understanding the division of labour and the meeting of needs for those living with a long-term condition. We therefore took a network approach to explore self-management support conceptualising it as types of illness ‘work’ undertaken within peoples’ social networks. 300 people from deprived areas and with chronic illnesses took part in a survey conducted in 2010 in the North West of England. A concentric circles diagram was used as a research tool with which participants identified 2,544 network members who contributed to illness management. The results provide an articulation of how social network members are substantially involved in illness management. Whilst partners and close family make the highest contributions there is evidence of inputs from a wide range of relationships. Network member characteristics (type of relationship, proximity, frequency of contact) impact on the amount of illness work undertaken in peoples’ networks. In networks with ‘no partner’ other people tend to contribute more in the way of illness related work than in networks with a partner. This indicates a degree of substitutability between differently constituted networks, and that the level and type of input by different members of a network might change according to circumstances. A network perspective offers an opportunity to redress the balance of an exclusively individual focus on self-management because it addresses the broader set of contributions and resources available to people in need of chronic illness management and support.

Vassilev, Ivaylo; Rogers, Anne; Blickem, Christian; Brooks, Helen; Kapadia, Dharmi; Kennedy, Anne; Sanders, Caroline; Kirk, Sue; Reeves, David

2013-01-01

310

Work-family conflict, health services and medication use among dual-income couples in Europe.  

PubMed

Combination pressure or work-life imbalance is linked to adverse health. However, it remains unclear how work-family conflict is related to healthcare utilisation. Does work-family conflict function as a barrier or as a facilitator in relation to the use of health services and prescription medication? Lack of time may prevent people from visiting a doctor when they feel unwell. However, combination pressure can also be expected to intensify the use of health services, as the need for a quick fix is prioritised. Further, do women and men differ in their susceptibility to medicalisation and time pressure resulting from work-life imbalance? This article investigates the use of health services and prescription medication of dual-income couples with children, based on data from 23 countries in the European Social Survey round 2 (N(women) = 3755; N(men) = 3142). It was found that medical services and prescription medications are used more frequently in dual-income couples experiencing work-to-family spillover, but for women only this is irrespective of their self-reported health. Family-to-work spillover does not result in increased health service or medication use for either men or women. While women opt for a medical response to work-life imbalance, men's reluctance to seek formal health support is confirmed. PMID:24111523

Christiaens, Wendy; Bracke, Piet

2014-03-01

311

Stress at work and mental health status among female hospital workers.  

PubMed

Relations between working conditions and mental health status of female hospital workers were studied in a sample of 1505 women: 43% were nurses, 32% auxiliaries, and 7% ancillary staff; 13% were other qualified health care staff, mainly head nurses; 5% had occupations other than direct health care; 63% worked on the morning, 20% on the afternoon, and 17% on the night shift. Data were collected at the annual routine medical visit by the occupational health practitioner, using self administered questionnaires and clinical assessments. Five health indicators were considered: a high score to the general health questionnaire (GHQ); fatigue; sleep impairment; use of antidepressants, sleeping pills, or sedatives; and diagnosis of psychiatric morbidity at clinical assessment. Four indices of stress at work were defined: job stress, mental load, insufficiency in internal training and discussion, and strain caused by schedule. The analysis was conducted by multiple logistic regression, controlling for type of occupation, shift, number of years of work in hospital, daily travel time to work, age, marital status, number of children, and wish to move house. Sleep impairment was mostly linked to shift and strain due to schedule. For all other indicators of mental health impairment and especially high GHQ scores, the adjusted odds ratios increased significantly with the levels of job stress, mental load, and strain due to schedule. This evidence of association between work involving an excessive cumulation of stress factors and mental wellbeing should be considered in interventions aimed at improving the working conditions of hospital workers. PMID:2310704

Estryn-Behar, M; Kaminski, M; Peigne, E; Bonnet, N; Vaichere, E; Gozlan, C; Azoulay, S; Giorgi, M

1990-01-01

312

Stress at work and mental health status among female hospital workers.  

PubMed Central

Relations between working conditions and mental health status of female hospital workers were studied in a sample of 1505 women: 43% were nurses, 32% auxiliaries, and 7% ancillary staff; 13% were other qualified health care staff, mainly head nurses; 5% had occupations other than direct health care; 63% worked on the morning, 20% on the afternoon, and 17% on the night shift. Data were collected at the annual routine medical visit by the occupational health practitioner, using self administered questionnaires and clinical assessments. Five health indicators were considered: a high score to the general health questionnaire (GHQ); fatigue; sleep impairment; use of antidepressants, sleeping pills, or sedatives; and diagnosis of psychiatric morbidity at clinical assessment. Four indices of stress at work were defined: job stress, mental load, insufficiency in internal training and discussion, and strain caused by schedule. The analysis was conducted by multiple logistic regression, controlling for type of occupation, shift, number of years of work in hospital, daily travel time to work, age, marital status, number of children, and wish to move house. Sleep impairment was mostly linked to shift and strain due to schedule. For all other indicators of mental health impairment and especially high GHQ scores, the adjusted odds ratios increased significantly with the levels of job stress, mental load, and strain due to schedule. This evidence of association between work involving an excessive cumulation of stress factors and mental wellbeing should be considered in interventions aimed at improving the working conditions of hospital workers.

Estryn-Behar, M; Kaminski, M; Peigne, E; Bonnet, N; Vaichere, E; Gozlan, C; Azoulay, S; Giorgi, M

1990-01-01

313

Health Care Mentors: A Work-Based Approach to Developing the Health Care Workforce of Tomorrow. [Fourth Edition]. Career Exploration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as the final step in a carefully articulated work-readiness program, Mentors provides students interested in health care careers with an opportunity to develop superior employability skills, while striking a balance between work and school. The Mentors program links the school community, the student, and host organizations in a mutually…

GMS Partners, Inc. Silver Spring, MD.

314

Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

2005-01-01

315

Report and Recommendations of the Governor's Task Force on the Mental Health of Juvenile Offenders. Final Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Governor's Task Force on the Mental Health of Juvenile Offenders in the state of Pennsylvania conducted a statewide survey of facilities for the care, treatment, and rehabilitation of adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age. The Task Force surveyed mental hospitals, community-based services, private psychiatric treatment centers, youth…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Welfare, Harrisburg.

316

Labor market experience, work organization, gender inequalities and health status: results from a prospective analysis of US employed women.  

PubMed

Women's labor force participation has increased dramatically over the past several decades. Although previous research has documented that a wide array of labor market characteristics affect health, more work is needed to understand how women are impacted by gender-specific employment patterns and exposures. We examine a cohort of 659 employed women from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study in the USA. Baseline and follow-up data collected 13 years apart are used to identify associations between demographic, labor market, work organization, and occupational gender inequality with four health outcomes: generalized distress, depressive syndrome, anxiety and fair or poor health. We also use gender-specific data on the workplace to create indicators of occupational gender inequality. We found wide gender inequalities in terms of pay and power in this sample of employed women. Financial strain was associated with all of our mental health outcomes with those reporting financial strain having increased odds of distress, depressive syndrome and anxiety for the 13 years prior to the interview. Workplace factors that were found to be associated with the four outcomes included experiencing a promotion or demotion in the 13 years prior to the interview; working at a large firm; and being a professional. Occupations where women compared to men had lower levels of job strain-domestic workers in private households, machine operator and transportation-showed increased risk for anxiety or fair/poor health. Our findings suggest that measuring the complexities of employment including promotion or demotion history, firm characteristics and even occupational gender inequality can yield important information about associations with health among women. PMID:14652054

O'Campo, Patricia; Eaton, William W; Muntaner, Carles

2004-02-01

317

Effects of war exposure on Air Force personnel's mental health, job burnout and other organizational related outcomes  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal data from a stratified representative sample of U.S. Air Force personnel (N = 1009) deployed to the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other locations were analyzed in this study. Using structural equation models, we examined the effects of war exposure on traumatic experiences, Post Traumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms, resource loss, and on subsequent functioning, perceived health, and on job and organizationally relevant outcomes. The job and organizational outcomes included job burnout, job involvement, job strain, job satisfaction, work-family conflict, organizational commitment, deployment readiness, and intention to reenlist. We found that deployment to the theater of the war increased risk of exposure to trauma, which in turn, predicted elevated PTS symptoms and resource loss. PTS symptoms predicted later loss of resources and deterioration in perceived health and functioning. In turn, resource loss predicted negative job and organizational outcomes. Exposure to trauma fully mediated the effects of deployment to the theater of war on PTS symptoms and resource loss and had additional significant indirect effects on several job and organizational relevant outcomes. For returning veterans, deployment to the theater of war, exposure to trauma, PTS symptoms, and resource loss represents a ‘cascading’ chain of events that over time results in a decline of health and functioning as well as in adverse job and organizationally relevant outcomes that may affect organizational effectiveness.

Vinokur, Amiram D.; Pierce, Penny F.; Lewandowski-Romps, Lisa; Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Galea, Sandro

2011-01-01

318

Persistent work-life conflict and health satisfaction - A representative longitudinal study in Switzerland  

PubMed Central

Background The objectives of the present study were (1) to track work-life conflict in Switzerland during the years 2002 to 2008 and (2) to analyse the relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction, examining whether long-term work-life conflict leads to poor health satisfaction. Methods The study is based on a representative longitudinal database (Swiss Household Panel), covering a six-year period containing seven waves of data collection. The sample includes 1261 persons, with 636 men and 625 women. Data was analysed by multi-level mixed models and analysis of variance with repeated measures. Results In the overall sample, there was no linear increase or decrease of work-life conflict detected, in either its time-based or strain-based form. People with higher education were more often found to have a strong work-life conflict (time- and strain-based), and more men demonstrated a strong time-based work-life conflict than women (12.2% vs. 5%). A negative relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction over time was found. People reporting strong work-life conflict at every wave reported lower health satisfaction than people with consistently weak work-life conflict. However, the health satisfaction of those with a continuously strong work-life conflict did not decrease during the study period. Conclusions Both time-based and strain-based work-life conflict are strongly correlated to health satisfaction. However, no evidence was found for a persistent work-life conflict leading to poor health satisfaction.

2011-01-01

319

Relationship of Work Hours with Selected Health Behaviors and Academic Progress among a College Student Cohort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 57% of college students work while attending school. Health risks related to working while in college have not been widely studied. Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to determine associations between hours worked, binge drinking, sleep habits, and academic performance among a college student cohort. Participants and…

Miller, Kim; Danner, Fred; Staten, Ruth

2008-01-01

320

Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights  

PubMed Central

Background In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. Methods A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO’s and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Results Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. Conclusion The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and policy framework should go hand in hand with both education and increased economic opportunities. Education and awareness-raising of all ages is considered essential, seeing that parents and the extended family play a huge role in marrying off girls and young women.

2013-01-01

321

Public health law, human rights and HIV: a work in progress.  

PubMed

Australia has been a global leader in balancing public health law, human rights and HIV. The first National HIV/AIDS Strategy launched in 1989 set the agenda for law reform. The Intergovernmental Committee on AIDS subsequently established a legal working party with one of its key tasks to formulate public health legislation that would protect public health and human rights. The NSW Public Health Act 1991 has provided the framework for managing HIV in NSW over the subsequent decades. Recent changes to criminal law in NSW and opportunities to redefine public health law may affect how HIV transmission risks are managed in the future. PMID:20513311

Clayton, Stevie

2010-01-01

322

How the health and community development sectors are combining forces to improve health and well-being.  

PubMed

The root causes of poor health experienced by many who live in low-income neighborhoods-such as the lack of access to health care, limited food choices, and exposure to environmental hazards-are well documented, but often go beyond the scope of the health care delivery system. But that is beginning to change. The health sector has begun to collaborate with the community development sector, which for decades has been working in low-income neighborhoods. Encouraging local and national examples of these new partnerships abound. They include an effort in Seattle, Washington, to reduce exposure to allergens and irritants among low-income asthmatic children, and a $500 million federal program to finance the operation of grocery stores in what have previously been urban "food deserts." To nurture such efforts, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Federal Reserve System, and others have sponsored a series of "healthy community" forums in US cities. In this article we explore the growing partnerships between the health and community development sectors as well as the challenges they face, and we offer policy recommendations that might help them succeed. PMID:22068394

Braunstein, Sandra; Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

2011-11-01

323

Expanding and Diversifying the Teaching Work Force. Building on Local Talent and Community Funds of Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the Model Support System for Paraprofessionals (MSSP), which is designed to diversify and expand the teaching force in one California county by supporting promising bilingual paraprofessionals enrolled in college and university programs leading to bilingual credentials. All participants are currently non-certified staff…

Reyes, Celia R.; McNabb, Eldon

324

Video: Animals; Electric Current; Force; Science Activities. Learning in Science Project. Working Papers 51-54.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four papers to be used in conjunction with video-tapes developed by the Learning in Science Project are presented. Topic areas of the papers focus on: (1) animals; (2) electric current; (3) force; and (4) science activities. The first paper presents transcripts of class discussions focusing on the scientific meaning of the word animal. The second…

Bell, Beverley; And Others

325

Labor Force Participation Rates among Working-Age Individuals with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study analyzes four consecutive years of monthly labor force participation rates reported by the Current Population Survey that included nationally representative samples of the general U.S. population and nationally representative samples of the U.S. population with specifically identified disabilities. Visual impairment is one of the…

Kelly, Stacy M.

2013-01-01

326

Time for Results: The Governors' 1991 Report on Education. Supporting Works. Task Force on Readiness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The members of this task force adopted a broad approach to readiness so that issues relating to at-risk children and youth between the preschool years and graduation might be addressed. Two papers are presented: (1) "Readiness for the New Educational Standards" (Jean G. McDonald); and (2) "State Policy for At-Risk Children: Preschool to High…

National Governors' Association, Washington, DC.

327

TPH Criteria Working Group Demonstration Field Sampling Report: Robins Air Force Base Warner-Robins GA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Underground storage tank Site 70, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, is part of a large aircraft refueling/defueling hydrant system. Site 70 was impacted by JP-4 and JP-8 jet fuels through spill, overflows and leaks dating back many years. This total pertole...

T. R. Sterner E. A. Merrill E. K. Vermulen

2000-01-01

328

Work-Family Attitudes and Beliefs: Implications for Future Air Force Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our surroundings are rich with environmental and associated paradigm shifts that influence work and family. There are many potential consequences of these shifts. These changes impact the very nucleus of work and family, and often result in conflict with ...

S. K. Johnson

2001-01-01

329

Research in the Service of Mental Health: Summary Report of the Research Task Force of the National Institute of Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a summary of the findings and recommendations of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Task Force on Research in the Service of Mental Health. Research is discussed on topics which include background and organization of NIMH research programs; biological, psychological, and sociocultural influences on behavior; role and…

Segal, Julius, Ed.; Boomer, Donald S., Ed.

330

[Health at work: harmonization of terminology, laws and practice with international standards].  

PubMed

The terminology, laws and practice of workers' health protection in Russian Federation are considered in the light of harmonization with documents of WHO, ILO, EU as well as good foreign practice. The proposals are put forward as to functions, structure and staff of workers' health protection units taking into account the new problems and risk factors. Instead of notion "labour protection" the term "health and safety at work" is proposed. PMID:23088017

2012-01-01

331

Shift Work and Health - A Symposium Held at Cincinnati, Ohio on June 12 and 13, 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a symposium which explores and identifies directions and methods needed to conduct meaningful research on the relationship between shift work and worker health. Topics include aspects of chronobiology relating to the optimization of sh...

P. G. Rentos R. D. Shepard

1976-01-01

332

Preparing Social Work Students for Interprofessional Practice in Geriatric Health Care: Insights from Two Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although several interprofessional education projects have addressed training allied health students for effective teamwork in geriatrics, few curriculum evaluation studies have examined differences in learning outcomes between interprofessional and traditional uniprofessional approaches, especially for social work students. This paper compares…

Bonifas, Robin P.; Gray, Amanda K.

2013-01-01

333

Personal Protective Equipment for Health Care Workers Who Work with Hazardous Drugs  

MedlinePLUS

... October 2008 DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 2009-106 Personal Protective Equipment for Health Care Workers Who Work with Hazardous ... reproductive disorders. NIOSH recommends that employers provide appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect workers who handle hazardous drugs ...

334

A Prospective Study of Return to Work Across Health Conditions: Perceived Work Attitude, Self-efficacy and Perceived Social Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The aim of the present study was to conduct subgroup-analyses in a prospective cohort of workers on long-term sickness absence\\u000a to investigate whether associations between perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support and time to\\u000a RTW differ across different health conditions. Methods The study was based on a sample of 926 workers on sickness absence (6–12 weeks). The participants

Sandra BrouwerMichiel; Michiel F. Reneman; Ute Bültmann; Johan W. Groothoff

2010-01-01

335

Working across Boundaries: Clinical Outcomes for an Integrated Mental Health Service for People with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Mental Health Service for People with Learning Disabilities (MHSPLD) is a service development in keeping with UK government policy that promotes cross agency working and access to mainstream mental health services for people with intellectual disabilities. We aimed to show whether the service model brought about improvements in…

Hall, I.; Parkes, C.; Samuels, S.; Hassiotis, A.

2006-01-01

336

The Health of Women at Work. A Bibliography. Occasional Papers No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both English and foreign language articles and books, most of them published since 1950, are cited in this bibliography on the health of women in the workplace. Citations were selected to represent the efforts that have been made by health professionals, statisticians, historians, and social scientists in this area. The designation "at work"…

Hunt, Vilma R.

337

Beyond Specialization: Social Work Education and Practice for Health Care and Family Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a role for social workers in all settings to play in providing assistance related to the health care needs of individuals and families. Schools of social work should prepare all students to understand and deal with the effects of evolving health policies and practices on family life. (Author/MH)

Olson, Miriam Meltzer

1986-01-01

338

The Community Health Worker. Working Guide. Guidelines for Training. Guidelines for Adaptation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a revised and enlarged edition of "The Primary Health Worker," a standard teaching text and reference manual developed for community health workers and their trainers and supervisors. The new edition has been updated with practical knowledge gained during the extensive field use of the previous work. The book also incorporates new…

World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

339

Mental Health Workforce Change through Social Work Education: A California Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2004 California Mental Health Services Act requires large-scale system change in the public mental health system through a shift to recovery-oriented services for diverse populations. This article describes an innovative strategy for workforce recruitment and retention to create and sustain these systemic changes. The California Social Work

Foster, Gwen; Morris, Meghan Brenna; Sirojudin, Sirojudin

2013-01-01

340

Job stress and coping strategies in health care professionals working with cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing stress in health care professionals working with cancer patients and the strategies used to cope with stress. The data was collected by self-report questionnaires, the Job Stress Inventory and Ways of Coping Inventory. Overall 109 health care professionals (physicians n=52, nurses n=57) employed in five Oncology Hospitals in Ankara,

Vedat Isikhan; Turhan Comez; M. Zafer Danis

2004-01-01

341

Patient care information systems and health care work: a sociotechnical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Those who face the difficulties of developing useful patient care information systems (PCISs) often stress the importance of ‘organizational issues’. Building upon recent sociological insights in the construction and use of information technologies for (health care) work, this paper underscores the importance of these insights for the development and evaluation of these systems. A sociotechnical approach to PCISs in health

Marc Berg

1999-01-01

342

Working in permanent hypoxia for fire protection--impact on health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. A new technique to prevent fires is continuous exchange of oxygen with nitrogen which leads to an oxygen concentration of between 15% and 13% in the ambient air. This paper reviews the effect of short-term, intermittent hypoxia on health and performance of people working in such atmospheres. Methods. We reviewed the effect of ambient air hypoxia on human health

Peter Angerer; Dennis Nowak

2003-01-01

343

Mental Health Status among Married Working Women Residing in Bhubaneswar City, India: A Psychosocial Survey.  

PubMed

Mental health is a major public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to assess the mental health status and its correlates among married working women residing in Bhubaneswar city of Odisha, India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 240 households involving 240 married working women following a multistage cluster random sampling design. Using the predesigned, pretested interview schedule and self-reporting questionnaire, all relevant information was collected. Our study revealed that 32.9% of study respondents had poor mental health and only about 10% of these women had sought any kind of mental health services. Logistic regression analysis showed that 3 predictors such as favourable attitude of colleagues, sharing their own problems with husband, and spending time for yoga/meditation/exercise had significant positive impact on the mental health status of married working women. A preventive program regarding various aspects of mental health for married working women at workplace as well as community level could be a useful strategy in reducing this public health problem. PMID:24800258

Panigrahi, Ansuman; Padhy, Aditya Prasad; Panigrahi, Madhulita

2014-01-01

344

Mental Health Status among Married Working Women Residing in Bhubaneswar City, India: A Psychosocial Survey  

PubMed Central

Mental health is a major public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to assess the mental health status and its correlates among married working women residing in Bhubaneswar city of Odisha, India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 240 households involving 240 married working women following a multistage cluster random sampling design. Using the predesigned, pretested interview schedule and self-reporting questionnaire, all relevant information was collected. Our study revealed that 32.9% of study respondents had poor mental health and only about 10% of these women had sought any kind of mental health services. Logistic regression analysis showed that 3 predictors such as favourable attitude of colleagues, sharing their own problems with husband, and spending time for yoga/meditation/exercise had significant positive impact on the mental health status of married working women. A preventive program regarding various aspects of mental health for married working women at workplace as well as community level could be a useful strategy in reducing this public health problem.

Panigrahi, Ansuman; Padhy, Aditya Prasad; Panigrahi, Madhulita

2014-01-01

345

Predicting the Organizational Commitment of Marketing Education and Health Occupations Education Teachers by Work Related Rewards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses from 282 of 580 marketing and 193 of 348 health occupations teachers showed that the intrinsic rewards of significance and involvement predicted commitment for both groups. Marketing educators valued extrinsic factors of supervision, promotion, and coworkers, whereas health occupations teachers chose working conditions as the most…

Richards, Beverly; And Others

1994-01-01

346

Clocking in: The Organization of Work Time and Health in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assesses the health implications of emerging patterns in the organization of work time. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we examine general mental and physical health (SF-12 scores), psychological distress (CESD score), clinical levels of obesity, and the presence of medical conditions, at age 40.…

Kleiner, Sibyl; Pavalko, Eliza K.

2010-01-01

347

The Relationships of Hassles and Uplifts to Experience of Health in Working Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swedish women are more ill than men are, often explained by women's heavier total workload. A balanced pattern of daily occupations is believed to promote health. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of aspects of the pattern of daily occupations and lifestyle factors to working mothers' health and well-being, and whether control influenced any relationships.One hundred

Lena-Karin Erlandsson; Mona Eklund

2004-01-01

348

A method to determine joint moments and force distributions in the shoulders during ceiling work -- a study on house painters.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to propose and apply a method to study the net load and the force distribution in the shoulder during sanding of a ceiling. DESIGN: Sanding of a ceiling was studied in an experimental set-up. BACKGROUND: Among painters there is a high frequency of neck and shoulder complaints and some particularly strenuous tasks are sanding and painting of ceilings with tools attached to extension handles. METHODS: A biomechanical model predicted the load pattern in the shoulder from measured external forces and body postures. Measurements were made on 40 subjects by means of a force plate, an extension handle supplied with two pairs of strain gauges and a load cell, and a 3D optoelectronic measurement system. RESULTS: Work techniques may seem to be similar at visual inspection, but nevertheless produce quite different loading patterns in the shoulder. The observed work techniques varied largely among the subjects but the intra-individual variability was rather small. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the proposed method can be used to evaluate loads and force distribution in the shoulder. Since the method involves the use of a biomechanical model that can scarcely be validated, results must be interpreted cautiously. PMID:11415755

Lindbeck, Lars; Karlsson, Dan; Kihlberg, Steve; Kjellberg, Katarina; Rabenius, Kristina; Stenlund, Berndt; Tollqvist, Jan

1997-10-01

349

Burnout: Interpreting the Perception of Iranian Primary Rural Health Care Providers from Working and Organizational Conditions  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Health care providers in the rural centers offer the primary health services in the form of proficiencies and professions to the most required target population in the health system. These services are provided in certain condition and population with a verity of limitations. This study aimed to describe and interpret the experiences of the employees from their own working condition in the rural health centers. Methods: The present study conducted in a qualitative research approach and content analysis method through individual and group interviews with 26 employed primary health care providers (including 7 family physicians, 7 midwives, and 12 health workers) in the rural health centers in Isfahan in 2009. Sampling was done using purposive sampling method. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis as constant comparative basis. Results: During the content analysis process, six themes were obtained; “instability and frequent changes”, “involved in laws and regulations”, “pressure and stress due to unbalanced workload and manpower”, “helplessness in performing the tasks and duties”, “sense of identity threat and low self-concept”, and “deprivation of professional development”. The mentioned themes indicate a main and more important theme called “burnout”. Conclusions: Health services providers in the rural health centers are working in stressful and challenging work conditions and are suffered from deprivation of something for which are responsible to the community.

Keshvari, Mahrokh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Boroujeni, Ali Zargham; Farajzadegan, Ziba

2012-01-01

350

Health inequalities among workers with a foreign background in Sweden: do working conditions matter?  

PubMed

Employment and working conditions are key social determinants of health, yet current information is lacking regarding relationships between foreign background status, working conditions and health among workers in Sweden. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU) and the Level of Living Survey for Foreign Born Persons and their Children (LNU-UFB) to assess whether or not health inequalities exist between native Swedish and foreign background workers and if exposure to adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions contributes to the risk for poor health among foreign background workers. A sub-sample of 4,021 employed individuals aged 18-65 was analyzed using logistic regression. Eastern European, Latin American and Other Non-Western workers had an increased risk of both poor self-rated health and mental distress compared to native Swedish workers. Exposure to adverse working conditions only minimally influenced the risk of poor health. Further research should examine workers who are less integrated or who have less secure labor market attachments and also investigate how additional working conditions may influence associations between health and foreign background status. PMID:23846669

Dunlavy, Andrea C; Rostila, Mikael

2013-07-01

351

The relations between psychosocial factors at work and health status among workers in home care organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable proportion of sickness absence and disability pension is caused by subjective health complaints, especially\\u000a low back pain (LBP). In recent years focus has been on psychosocial characteristics of work as potential risk factors. The\\u000a aim of this study is to examine the relations between psychosocial work aspects and subjective health complaints, LBP, and\\u000a need for recovery. A total

Hege R. Eriksen; Camilla Ihlebæk; Jeroen P. Jansen; Alex Burdorf

2006-01-01

352

Hope and despair: community health assistants' experiences of working in a rural district in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background In order to address the challenges facing the community-based health workforce in Zambia, the Ministry of Health implemented the national community health assistant strategy in 2010. The strategy aims to address the challenges by creating a new group of workers called community health assistants (CHAs) and integrating them into the health system. The first group started working in August 2012. The objective of this paper is to document their motivation to become a CHA, their experiences of working in a rural district, and how these experiences affected their motivation to work. Methods A phenomenological approach was used to examine CHAs’ experiences. Data collected through in-depth interviews with 12 CHAs in Kapiri Mposhi district and observations were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Personal characteristics such as previous experience and knowledge, passion to serve the community and a desire to improve skills motivated people to become CHAs. Health systems characteristics such as an inclusive work culture in some health posts motivated CHAs to work. Conversely, a non-inclusive work culture created a social structure which constrained CHAs’ ability to learn, to be innovative and to effectively conduct their duties. Further, limited supervision, misconceptions about CHA roles, poor prioritisation of CHA tasks by some supervisors, as well as non- and irregular payment of incentives also adversely affected CHAs’ ability to work effectively. In addition, negative feedback from some colleagues at the health posts affected CHA’s self-confidence and professional outlook. In the community, respect and support provided to CHAs by community members instilled a sense of recognition, appreciation and belonging in CHAs which inspired them to work. On the other hand, limited drug supplies and support from other community-based health workers due to their exclusion from the government payroll inhibited CHAs’ ability to deliver services. Conclusions Programmes aimed at integrating community-based health workers into health systems should adequately consider multiple incentives, effective management, supervision and support from the district. These should be tailored towards enhancing the individual, health system and community characteristics that positively impact work motivation at the local level if such programmes are to effectively contribute towards improved primary healthcare.

2014-01-01

353

The Impact of Child and Maternal Health Indicators on Female Labor Force Participation after Childbirth: Evidence for Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the influence of children's health and mothers' physical and mental well-being on female labor force participation after childbirth in Germany. Our analysis uses data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) study, which enables us to measure chil-dren's health based on the occurrence of severe health problems including mental and physi-cal disabilities, hospitalizations, and preterm births. Since child

Annalena Dunkelberg; C. Katharina Spieß

2007-01-01

354

The Palau AHEC--academizing the public health work plan: capacity development and innovation in Micronesia.  

PubMed

The Palau Area Health Education Center (AHEC)--a program of the University of Hawaii's John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) and based at Palau Community College--was established in 2001 in response to the recommendations of the 1998 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report--Pacific Partnerships for Health--Charting a New Course for the 21st Century1. One of IOM's core recommendations was to promote the training of the primary health care workforce among the U.S.-Associated Pacific Islands. Since its inception in 2001, the Palau AHEC has coordinated overall 37 postgraduate and undergraduate courses in General Practice and Public Health taught by the University of Auckland Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences and the Fiji School of Medicine's School of Public Health and Primary Care (SPH&PC) in Palau, Yap State, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Currently 139 physicians, nurses, health administrators, and environmental health workers are registered as active students in Palau (58), Yap State (22), and the RMI (59). Notably, the Palau AHEC and the SPH&PC have worked in an innovative partnership with the Palau Ministry of Health to operationalize the MOH's public health work plan to implement a comprehensive community health survey of all 4,376 households in Palau, interviewing 79% of the total population, to determine Palau's health indicators. To accomplish this, the SPH&PC developed and taught a curriculum for Palau physicians and public health nurses on how to design the survey, gather, and analyze data in order to develop and implement appropriately responsive intervention and treatment programs to address Palau's old and newer morbidities. In early FY2005, two other Micronesian AHECs--the Yap State and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands AHECs--were funded through JABSOM administered grants which will also address the primary care training needs of Micronesia's remote and isolated health workforce. PMID:18181474

Dever, Greg; Finau, Sitaleki; Kuartei, Stevenson; Durand, A Mark; Rykken, David; Yano, Victor; Untalan, Pedro; Withy, Kelley; Tellei, Patrick; Baravilala, Wame; Pierantozzi, Sandra; Tellei, Jullie

2005-03-01

355

Application of response surface methodology for determining cutting force model in turning hardened AISI H11 hot work tool steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  This experimental study is conducted to determine statistical models of cutting forces in hard turning of AISI H11 hot work\\u000a tool steel (? 50 HRC). This steel is free from tungsten on Cr–Mo–V basis, insensitive to temperature changes and having a\\u000a high wear resistance. It is employed for the manufacture of highly stressed diecasting moulds and inserts with high tool life

B FNIDES; M A YALLESE; T MABROUKI; J-F RIGAL

2011-01-01

356

Periodic health examination, 1995 update: 2. Prevention of dental caries. The Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To make recommendations, based on current evidence, for practising physicians and dentists on interventions for the prevention of dental caries in their patients. OPTIONS: Systemic fluoride administration, professionally administered fluoride, use of fluoride mouth rinses, fissure sealants, oral-hygiene practices, dietary practices, identification of groups at a high risk of dental caries, and early diagnosis and treatment. OUTCOMES: Reduced prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis, longer retention of teeth and lower treatment costs. EVIDENCE: Several MEDLINE searches were conducted for articles published from January 1980 to December 1992, including relevant review articles. VALUES: Relevant clinical findings were evaluated and categorized with the use of the evidence-based methods and values of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. Recommendations were developed for each method of caries prevention, with reduced incidence of dental caries and improved prevalence of caries-free teeth given high values. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: The potential benefits of these measures in the long-term are a lower incidence of tooth decay, longer retention of teeth and prevention of fluorosis. The cost saving can be considerable for patients and insurers; however, implementation of some recommendations will be difficult, since the traditional preventive practices of dentists and dental hygienists are not easily changed. RECOMMENDATIONS: There is good evidence that the following manoeuvres are effective in preventing dental caries: use of dentifrices containing fluoride, fluoridation of drinking water, fluoride supplements for patients in areas where there is a low level (0.3 ppm or less) of fluoride in the drinking water, professionally applied topical fluoride and the use of fluoride mouth rinses for patients with very active decay or at a high risk of dental caries and selective use of professionally applied fissure sealants on permanent molar teeth. There is poor evidence that the following manoeuvres are effective in preventing dental caries: professionally applied topical fluoride and the use of fluoride mouth rinses for patients with a low risk of caries, toothbrushing (without a dentifrice containing fluoride) and flossing, cleaning of teeth by a dentist or dental hygienist before topical application of fluoride or at a dental visit and dietary counselling for the general population. There is good evidence to recommend against the use of over-the-counter fluoride mouth rinses by the general population. VALIDATION: These guidelines are compatible with those of the US Preventive Services Task Force. SPONSOR: These guidelines were developed and endorsed by the task force, which is funded by Health Canada. Major funding was provided by the Faculty of Dentistry of the University of Toronto, Toronto and the Faculty of Dentistry of Dalhousie University, Halifax.

Lewis, D W; Ismail, A I

1995-01-01

357

A FORCED-CHOICE PROCEDURE FOR MEASUREMENT OF PUPILS' ATTITUDES TOWARD MAJOR DIMENSIONS OF WORK, REPORT NUMBER 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AN INSTRUMENT WAS DEVELOPED AND PILOT TESTED FOR MEASURING OCCUPATIONAL ATTITUDES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARD COMPONENT DIMENSIONS OF NONPROFESSIONAL-LEVEL WORK INVOLVED IN OFFICE, RETAIL, HEALTH SERVICE, AND CONSTRUCTION VOCATIONS. THE DIMENSIONS MEASURED WERE TOOLS, MATERIALS, NATURE OF TASKS, PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS, AND PHYSICAL…

HEINER, HAROLD G.; AND OTHERS

358

Working with refugees: Health education and communication issues in a child health clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To explore the views of a group of Turkish and Kurdish women refugees about child feeding issues and communication with health professionals in a child health clinic.Design This was a qualitative study using focus groups.Setting A four partner general practice surgery in North London with a large Turkish and Kurdish refugee practice population.Method Three focus groups were set up

Rhiannon England; Kathy Doughty; Sevtap Genc; Zeynep Putkeli

2003-01-01

359

The effects of a health promotion-health protection intervention on behavior change: the WellWorks Study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effects of a 2-year integrated health promotion-health protection work-site intervention on changes in dietary habits and cigarette smoking. METHODS: A randomized, controlled intervention study used the work site as the unit of intervention and analysis; it included 24 predominantly manufacturing work sites in Massachusetts (250-2500 workers per site). Behaviors were assessed in self-administered surveys (n = 2386; completion rates = 61% at baseline, 62% at final). Three key intervention elements targeted health behavior change: (1) joint worker-management participation in program planning and implementation, (2) consultation with management on work-site environmental changes, and (3) health education programs. RESULTS: Significant differences between intervention and control work sites included reductions in the percentage of calories consumed as fat (2.3% vs 1.5% kcal) and increases in servings of fruit and vegetables (10% vs 4% increase). The intervention had a significant effect on fiber consumption among skilled and unskilled laborers. No significant effects were observed for smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS: Although the size of the effects of this intervention are modest, on a populationwide basis effects of this size could have a large impact on cancer-related and coronary heart disease end points.

Sorensen, G; Stoddard, A; Hunt, M K; Hebert, J R; Ockene, J K; Avrunin, J S; Himmelstein, J; Hammond, S K

1998-01-01

360

Working conditions in mid-life and mental health in older ages.  

PubMed

This article illustrates the importance of previous working conditions during mid-life (between 40 and 55) for mental health among older retired men and women (60 or older) across 13 European countries. We link information on health from the second wave (2006-2007) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) with information on respondents' working life collected retrospectively in the SHARELIFE interview (2008-2009). To measure working conditions, we rely on core assumptions of existing theoretical models of work stress (the demand-control-support and the effort-reward imbalance model) and distinguish four types of unhealthy working conditions: (1) a stressful psychosocial work environment (as assessed by the two work stress models) (2) a disadvantaged occupational position throughout the whole period of mid-life, (3) experience of involuntary job loss, and (4) exposure to job instability. Health after labour market exit is measured using depressive symptoms, as measured by the EURO-D depression scale. Main results show that men and women who experienced psychosocial stress at work or had low occupational positions during mid-life had significantly higher probabilities of high depressive symptoms during retirement. Additionally, men with unstable working careers and an involuntary job loss were at higher risks to report high depressive symptoms in later life. These associations remain significant after controlling for workers' health and social position prior mid-life. These findings support the assumption that mental health of retirees who experienced poor working conditions during mid-life is impaired. PMID:24797464

Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David; Bartley, Mel; Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes

2013-03-01

361

Comprehensive periodic health examination: impact on health care utilisation and costs in a working population in Japan.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the impact of a comprehensive periodic health examination programme on health care utilisation and costs in a working population. DESIGN--A cohort method was used to observe the trends in health care utilisation and costs for a group of local government employees from 1 February 1986 until 31 January 1992, during which time (in 1988) a comprehensive periodic health examination programme had been introduced. Health care utilisation was measured by a claim rate per employee (number of claims in a year divided by number of employees) and a utilisation rate per 100 employees (number of employees who submitted at least one claim in a year divided by number of employees x 100). Health care costs were measured by claim costs per employee (total cost of claims divided by number of employees). National and prefectural changes in per capita health care costs were used for the adjustment of claim costs. Internal comparisons were made in relation to the intensiveness of the periodic health examinations administered before the introduction of the comprehensive programme. SETTING--Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. PARTICIPANTS--A total of 19,146 local government employees (12,455 men, 6691 women) who worked in small cities, towns, and villages in Fukuoka Prefecture throughout the study period participated. MAIN RESULTS--Both the claim and utilisation rates showed an increase in 1988 when the comprehensive programme was introduced. After adjustment for the national changes in per capita health care costs and the aging effect of the study participants, substantial increases in claim costs were noted after introduction of the comprehensive programme. The programme had a greater but short term effect of increasing the health care utilisation of those who had received less intensive periodic health examinations before 1988, but no similar effect on claim costs was noted. CONCLUSIONS--The comprehensive programme had some role in increasing health care utilisation and costs. Its effect on costs was confirmed when the general population or another population was used as a reference. When comparisons were made internally, the comprehensive programme was seen to have had a greater but short term effect of increasing the utilisation of those who had previously received less intensive health examinations to equalise the health care utilisation and costs within the study population.

Ren, A; Okubo, T; Takahashi, K

1994-01-01

362

Prisoner reentry: a public health or public safety issue for social work practice?  

PubMed

A significant literature identifies the policy, economic, health, and social challenges that confront released prisoners. This literature also describes the public health and public safety risks associated with prisoner reentry, provides recommendations for improving the reentry process, and describes the effectiveness of prison-based programs on recidivism rates. Public health and public safety risks are particularly significant in communities where large numbers of prisoners are released and few evidence-based services exist. The purpose of this article is to describe the public health and public safety risks that released prisoners experience when they reenter communities, and to discuss the social justice issues relevant for social work practice. PMID:23461348

Patterson, George T

2013-01-01

363

Disparities in the geography of mental health: implications for social work.  

PubMed

This article reviews recent theory and research on geographic disparities in mental health and their implications for social work. It focuses on work emerging from the fields of mental health geography, psychiatric epidemiology, and social work, arguing that a wide range of spatial disparities in mental health are important to understand but that of greatest relevance are inequities, or disparities, that violate fundamental norms of fairness and social justice. Research is reviewed on geographic variations in subjective well-being and mental health, on personality (using the five-factor model), and on psychopathology as well as several studies on the disparate implementation of mental health policy and services. Critical is the need to simultaneously assess, on the one hand, differential patterns of mental health conditions and, on the other, the services and policies designed to address them--the fact that considering only one dimension often leads to unintended consequences. Many of the most outstanding disparities have been found to exist at the local level, between towns and neighborhoods, and are based on socioeconomic conditions. This review concludes by discussing the implications of geographic disparities in mental health for allocation decisions and for social work practice, including decisions about the most efficacious mix of services at both the community and clinical practice levels. PMID:23038873

Hudson, Christopher G

2012-04-01

364

A review of United Kingdom Armed Forces' approaches to prevent post-deployment mental health problems.  

PubMed

There is now an abundance of research which has demonstrated that military personnel who deploy on operations are at increased risk of suffering a variety of mental health difficulties in the immediate and long-term post-deployment period. One consequence of these research findings has been the development of a variety of programmes which attempt to mitigate the increased psychological risk and to assist personnel who are returning from a deployment to make a smooth transition home. Using a three-tiered prevention model, this article reviews some of the key post-deployment issues facing the UK Armed Forces and highlights the recent interventions which have been put in place to promote successful adjustment in the early post-deployment period. The paper is based upon research identified through a thorough literature search for studies which focused on this area and included a recognized measure of mental health as an outcome. The paper focuses on three main areas; psychological decompression, psycho-education and screening. The current philosophical approaches to post-deployment mental health problems of some of the UK's coalition partners are also discussed. PMID:21521082

Fertout, Mohammed; Jones, Norman; Greenberg, Neil; Mulligan, Kathleen; Knight, Terry; Wessely, Simon

2011-04-01

365

A review of zoonotic disease surveillance supported by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center.  

PubMed

The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System conducts disease surveillance through a global network of US Department of Defense research laboratories and partnerships with foreign ministries of agriculture, health and livestock development in over 90 countries worldwide. In 2010, AFHSC supported zoonosis survey efforts were organized into four main categories: (i) development of field assays for animal disease surveillance during deployments and in resource limited environments, (ii) determining zoonotic disease prevalence in high-contact species which may serve as important reservoirs of diseases and sources of transmission, (iii) surveillance in high-risk human populations which are more likely to become exposed and subsequently infected with zoonotic pathogens and (iv) surveillance at the human-animal interface examining zoonotic disease prevalence and transmission within and between human and animal populations. These efforts have aided in the detection, identification and quantification of the burden of zoonotic diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, Hantaan virus, influenza, Lassa fever, leptospirosis, melioidosis, Q fever, Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever Sicilian virus, sandfly fever Naples virus, tuberculosis and West Nile virus, which are of military and public health importance. Future zoonotic surveillance efforts will seek to develop local capacity for zoonotic surveillance focusing on high risk populations at the human-animal interface. PMID:22128834

Burke, R L; Kronmann, K C; Daniels, C C; Meyers, M; Byarugaba, D K; Dueger, E; Klein, T A; Evans, B P; Vest, K G

2012-05-01

366

48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution...Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and...

2013-10-01

367

Contractual conditions, working conditions and their impact on health and well-being.  

PubMed

Given changes in the labour market in past decades, it is of interest to evaluate whether and how contractual and working conditions affect health and psychological well-being in society today. We consider the effects of contractual and working conditions on self-assessed health and psychological well-being using twelve waves (1991/1992-2002/2003) of the British Household Panel Survey. For self-assessed health, the dependent variable is categorical, and we estimate non-linear dynamic panel ordered probit models, while for psychological well-being, we estimate a dynamic linear specification. The results show that both contractual and working conditions have an influence on health and psychological well-being and that the impact is different for men and women. PMID:20499127

Robone, Silvana; Jones, Andrew M; Rice, Nigel

2011-10-01

368

A Proposed Framework for Understanding the Forces behind Legislation of Universal Health Insurance--Lessons from Ten Countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To understand the forces propelling countries to legislate universal health insurance. Data Source/Study Design Descriptive review and exploratory synthesis of historic data on economic, geographic, socio-demographic, and political factors. Data Extraction Methods We searched under “insurance, health” on MEDLINE and Google Scholar, and we reviewed relevant books and articles via a snowball approach. Principal Findings Ten countries with universal health insurance were studied. For the five countries that passed final universal insurance laws prior to 1958, we found that two forces of “historical context” (i.e., social solidarity and historic patterns), one “ongoing dynamic force” (political pressures), and “one uniqueness of the moment” force (legislative permissiveness) played a major role. For the five countries that passed final legislation between 1967 and 2010, the predominant factors were two “ongoing dynamic forces” (economic pressures and political pressures) and one “uniqueness of the moment” force (leadership). In general, countries in the former group made steady progress, whereas those in the latter group progressed in abrupt leaps. Conclusions The lessons of more recent successes—almost all of which were achieved via abrupt leaps—strongly indicate the importance of leadership in taking advantage of generalized economic and political pressures to achieve universal health insurance.

Wang, C Jason; Ellender, Stacey M; Textor, Theodora; Bauchner, Joshua H; Wu, Jen-You; Bauchner, Howard; Huang, Andrew T

2011-01-01

369

Healthy and Ready to Work - Kentucky: Incorporating Transition Into a State Program for Children with Special Health Care Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transition into the adult world for youth with special health care needs includes moving from pediatric to adult health care, from school to work, and from home to independent living. The federal Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)\\/Maternal and Child Health Bureau, through the Healthy and Ready to Work Initiative, has funded state demonstration projects. With this funding, the Kentucky

Kathleen B. Blomquist

370

Work Stressors, Health and Sense of Coherence in UK Academic Employees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study examined relationships between job-specific stressors and psychological and physical health symptoms in academic employees working in UK universities. The study also tests the main and moderating role played by sense of coherence (SOC: Antonovsky, 1987 in work stress process). SOC is described as a generalised resistance…

Kinman, Gail

2008-01-01

371

The Orthodontist, Our Friend: World of Work Project: Fifth Grade: Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is one of the teaching units developed by the Utah World of Work Project, designed to integrate career awareness into the regular curriculum at the elementary level. The fifth grade guide is tied to the health education area and focuses on the work of the orthodontist in terms of understanding what an orthodontist does, learning what…

Anderson, Nancy

372

The history and metamorphosis of the National Registry of Health Care Providers in Clinical Social Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper traces the history and metamorphosis of the National Registry of Health Care Providers in Clinical social Work. It was created in 1975 to credential qualified clinical social workers, and to identify them through a published directory. In 1987 it became the National Institute for Clinical Social Work Advancement. Its objectives and purposes moved from credentialling to advancing the

Ann F. Farwell

1988-01-01

373

Perceptions of Health Promotion and Cancer Prevention among Adults in Working-Class Occupations and Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A social-contextual approach to cancer prevention among participants associated with the working class may result in behavior-change messages that are more relevant to them and contribute to a reduction in health disparities among classes. This article reports findings from a qualitative study of adults in working-class occupations and/or living…

Goldman, Roberta E.; Barbeau, Elizabeth; Hunt, Mary Kay; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Emmons, Karen M.; Gagne, Joshua; Sorensen, Glorian

2008-01-01

374

Individual and Work-Related Factors Influencing Burnout of Mental Health Professionals: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study identifies and assesses individual and work-related factors as correlates of burnout among mental health professionals. Results of a meta-analysis indicate that age and work setting variables are the most significant indicators of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. In terms of level of personal accomplishment, the age…

Lim, Nayoung; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyunjung; Yang, Eunjoo; Lee, Sang Min

2010-01-01

375

Psychometric Examination of the Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile Among Ar Force Enlisted Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present study presents an examination of the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile (MWEP) developed by Michael Miller and David Woehr (Miller & Woehr, 1997; Woehr & Miller, 1997). The MWEP is a multidimensional measure of ...

M. J. Miller D. J. Woehr

1998-01-01

376

Work History, Labor Force Attachment, and Earnings Differences between the Races and Sexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses a new data set to investigate the extent to which differences in work history, on-the-job training, absenteeism, and self-imposed restrictions on work hours and location account for wage differences between the sexes and races. As expected, white men generally had more education and training and less absenteeism and fewer restrictions than black men and women of both

Mary Corcoran; Greg J. Duncan

1979-01-01

377

Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change: a prospective study among Danish health care workers  

PubMed Central

Background Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. Methods A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses examined change in BMI (more than +/? 2?kg/m2) as predicted by baseline psychosocial work factors (work pace, workload, quality of leadership, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, commitment, role clarity, and role conflicts) and five covariates (age, cohabitation, physical work demands, type of work position and seniority). Results Among women, high role conflicts predicted weight gain, while high role clarity predicted both weight gain and weight loss. Living alone also predicted weight gain among women, while older age decreased the odds of weight gain. High leadership quality predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. Conclusion This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models.

2013-01-01

378

Health system factors affecting communication with pediatricians: gendered work culture in primary care.  

PubMed

This qualitative study examined the roles that practice setting, education level, and gender may play in social workers' communication satisfaction with pediatricians. Taking an ethnographic approach, the researcher interviewed social workers and pediatricians who worked together to provide mental health services in primary care. The results suggested that gender at the health system level may be an issue and that gendered work culture in primary care was a factor in communication. In particular, reimbursement, an aspect of the gendered work culture, was a substantial communication barrier, and the implications for Medicaid billing are discussed. PMID:22085327

Lynch, Sean

2011-01-01

379

The implications of work organization for occupational health policy: the case of Canada.  

PubMed

This article examines occupational health and safety developments in Canada during the decade of the 1970s when most government jurisdictions replaced former factory Acts with new health and safety legislation recognizing the right of workers to be involved in work environment matters. During the latter part of the 1970s, health and safety "activists" and trade unionists began to perceive the need for a wider conception of occupational health and safety. Canadian reformers were influenced by Scandinavian developments, especially the research of Dr. Bertil Gardell and his associates. Unfortunately, during the late 1970s Canada experienced a recession and a political shift to conservatism. Consequently, during the 1980s there have been no meaningful workplace health and safety reforms. Further, the article suggests that there is strong resistance by management and government to extension of worker rights in occupational health and safety. All major political parties ground their work environment policies in utilitarian concepts that trade worker health and safety for economic considerations. The author, therefore, argues for the development of an "ethics of the work environment" based upon egalitarian principles, and the transformation of the primary work group into a community of workers who can shape the character of their work environment. Ideally, the relationship between the major "actors" in our industrial relations system ought to be based on obligation instead of the present language of worker protest based on rights. Nonetheless, there is a need to extend and deepen worker rights in the workplace. Finally, the author argues that the appropriate relationship in industry to reflect a democratic work environment is "partnership"--the coming together of the primary work groups as equals. PMID:2925299

Sass, R

1989-01-01

380

[The value of using administrative data in public health research: the Continuous Working Life Sample].  

PubMed

The use of administrative data is common practice in public health research. The present field note describes the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) and its use in health research. The CWLS is built on records generated by all contacts with the social security system (work contracts, disability, etc.), plus tax data (monetary gains, income, etc.) and census data (level of education, country of birth, etc.), but does not allow individuals to be identified. The CWLS was started in 2004 with 4% (1.1 million persons) of the total population who were either contributors to or beneficiaries of the social security system. The information on the individuals in the CWLS is updated annually and lost individuals are replaced. This continuous design allows the construction of a cohort with information on working life and financial status and evaluation of their relationship with work disability. Future connection with clinical records would enable analysis of other health-related outcomes. PMID:24698033

López, María Andrée; Benavides, Fernando G; Alonso, Jordi; Espallargues, Mireia; Durán, Xavier; Martínez, José Miguel

2014-01-01

381

Voice Problems at Work: A Challenge for Occupational Safety and Health Arrangement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern societies about one third of the labor force are working in professions in which voice is the primary tool. Voice problems are common in general, but they are even more common in professions in which there is heavy vocal loading, i.e. professions that do not only require prolonged voice use, but also involve extra loading factors such as

Erkki Vilkman

2000-01-01

382

Physicians' Plan for a healthy Minnesota. The MMA proposal for health care reform. The report of the Minnesota Medical Association Health Care Reform Task Force.  

PubMed

The health care system in the United States, according to some, is on the verge of imploding. The rapidly rising cost of services is causing more and more Minnesotans to forego needed care. At the same time, the increasing costs are placing additional pressure on families, businesses, and state and local government budgets. The Minnesota Medical Association's (MMA) Health Care Reform Task Force has proposed a bold new approach that seeks to ensure affordable health care for all Minnesotans. The proposal is a roadmap to provide all Minnesotans with affordable insurance for essential health care services. In creating this plan, the task force strove to achieve three common reform goals: expand access to care, improve quality, and control costs. To achieve those ends, it has proposed a model built on four key features: (1) A strong public health system, (2) A reformed insurance market that delivers universal coverage, (3) A reformed health care delivery market that creates incentives for increasing value, (4) Systems that fully support the delivery of high-quality care. The task force believes that these elements will provide the foundation for a system that serves everyone and allows Minnesotans to purchase better health care at a relatively lower price. Why health care reform again? The average annual cost of health care for an average Minnesota household is about 11,000 dollars--an amount that's projected to double by 2010, if current trends continue. Real wages are not growing fast enough to absorb such cost increases. If unabated, these trends portend a reduction in access to and quality of care, and a heavier economic burden on individuals, employers, and the government. Furthermore, Minnesota and the United States are not getting the best value for their health care dollars. The United States spends 50 percent more per capita than any other country on health care but lags far behind other countries in the health measures of its population. PMID:15853031

2005-03-01

383

Secondary traumatic stress among mental health providers working with the military: prevalence and its work- and exposure-related correlates.  

PubMed

Our research assessed the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) among mental health providers working with military patients. We also investigated personal, work-related, and exposure-related correlates of STS. Finally, using meta-analysis, the mean level of STS symptoms in this population was compared with the mean level of these symptoms in other groups. Participants (N = 224) completed measures of indirect exposure to trauma (i.e., diversity, volume, frequency, ratio), appraisal of secondary exposure impact, direct exposure to trauma, STS, and work characteristics. The prevalence of STS was 19.2%. Personal history of trauma, complaints about having too many patients, and more negative appraisals of the impact caused by an indirect exposure to trauma were associated with higher frequency of STS symptoms. A meta-analysis showed that the severity of intrusion, avoidance, and arousal symptoms of STS was similar across various groups of professionals indirectly exposed to trauma (e.g., mental health providers, rescue workers, social workers). PMID:24177477

Cieslak, Roman; Anderson, Valerie; Bock, Judith; Moore, Bret A; Peterson, Alan L; Benight, Charles C

2013-11-01

384

Investigating shoulder muscle loading and exerted forces during wall painting tasks: Influence of gender, work height and paint tool design.  

PubMed

The task of wall painting produces considerable risk to the workers, both male and female, primarily in the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Insufficient information is currently available regarding the potential benefits of using different paint roller designs or the possible adverse effects of painting at different work heights. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender, work height, and paint tool design on shoulder muscle activity and exerted forces during wall painting. Ten young adults, five male and five female, were recruited to perform simulated wall painting at three different work heights with three different paint roller designs while upper extremity muscle activity and horizontal push force were recorded. Results demonstrated that for female participants, significantly greater total average (p = 0.007) and integrated (p = 0.047) muscle activity was present while using the conventional and curly flex paint roller designs compared to the proposed design in which the load was distributed between both hands. Additionally, for both genders, the high working height imposed greater muscular demands compared to middle and low heights. These findings suggest that, if possible, avoid painting at extreme heights (low or high) and that for female painters, consider a roller that requires the use of two hands; this will reduce fatigue onset and subsequently mitigate potential musculoskeletal shoulder injury risks. PMID:24636728

Rosati, Patricia M; Chopp, Jaclyn N; Dickerson, Clark R

2014-07-01

385

Labor force participation and health-related quality of life in HIV-positive men who have sex with men: The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Too many people with HIV have left the job market permanently and those with reduced work capacity have been unable to keep their jobs. There is a need to examine the health effects of labor force participation in people with HIV. This study presents longitudinal data from 1,415 HIV-positive men who have sex with men taking part in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Generalized Estimating Equations show that employment is associated with better physical and mental health quality of life and suggests that there may be an adaptation process to the experience of unemployment. Post-hoc analyses also suggest that people who are more physically vulnerable may undergo steeper health declines due to job loss than those who are generally healthier. However, this may also be the result of a selection effect whereby poor physical health contributes to unemployment. Policies that promote labor force participation may not only increase employment rates but also improve the health of people living with HIV.

Rueda, Sergio; Raboud, Janet; Plankey, Michael; Ostrow, David; Mustard, Cameron; Rourke, Sean B.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Bekele, Tsegaye; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Lavis, John; Detels, Roger; Silvestre, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

386

Labor force participation and health-related quality of life in HIV-positive men who have sex with men: the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Too many people with HIV have left the job market permanently and those with reduced work capacity have been unable to keep their jobs. There is a need to examine the health effects of labor force participation in people with HIV. This study presents longitudinal data from 1,415 HIV-positive men who have sex with men taking part in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Generalized Estimating Equations show that employment is associated with better physical and mental health quality of life and suggests that there may be an adaptation process to the experience of unemployment. Post hoc analyses also suggest that people who are more physically vulnerable may undergo steeper health declines due to job loss than those who are generally healthier. However, this may also be the result of a selection effect whereby poor physical health contributes to unemployment. Policies that promote labor force participation may not only increase employment rates but also improve the health of people living with HIV. PMID:22814570

Rueda, Sergio; Raboud, Janet; Plankey, Michael; Ostrow, David; Mustard, Cameron; Rourke, Sean B; Jacobson, Lisa P; Bekele, Tsegaye; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Lavis, John; Detels, Roger; Silvestre, Anthony J

2012-11-01

387

Networking between community health programs: a team-work approach to improving health service provision  

PubMed Central

Background Networking between non-government organisations in the health sector is recognised as an effective method of improving service delivery. The Uttarakhand Cluster was established in 2008 as a collaboration of community health programs in rural north India with the aim of building capacity, increasing visibility and improving linkages with the government. This qualitative research, conducted between 2011-2012, examined the factors contributing to formation and sustainability of this clustering approach. Methods Annual focus group discussions, indicator surveys and participant observation were used to document and observe the factors involved in the formation and sustainability of an NGO network in North India. Results The analysis demonstrated that relationships were central to the formation and sustainability of the cluster. The elements of small group relationships: forming, storming, norming and performing emerged as a helpful way to describe the phases which have contributed to the functioning of this network with common values, strong leadership, resource sharing and visible progress encouraging the ongoing commitment of programs to the network goals. Conclusions In conclusion, this case study demonstrates an example of a successful and effective network of community health programs. The development of relationships was seen to be to be an important part of promoting effective resource sharing, training opportunities, government networking and resource mobilisation and will be important for other health networks to consider.

2014-01-01

388

Tricks of the Trade in Community Mental Health Research: Working With Mental Health Services and Clients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexities of research in the community mental health sector are seldom acknowledged in existing literature; this article attempts to address this void. It presents the methodological challenges experienced in the longitudinal evaluation of the Housing and Accommodation Support Initiative—a program that supports people with chronic mental illness toward long-term recovery. The evaluation provides a case study for understanding methodological

Ann Dadich; Kristy Muir

2009-01-01

389

Is living near a coking works harmful to health? A study of industrial air pollution.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine whether there was excess ill health in people living near a coking works, and if so whether it was related to exposure to coking works' emissions. DESIGN--Populations varying in proximity to the coking works were compared with control populations. Health data were correlated with available environmental data. METHODS--Analysis of routinely collected mortality, cancer registration, and birth statistics; community survey using self completed postal questionnaires; retrospective analysis of general practice (GP) records; tests of respiratory function; and analysis of available environmental data. MAIN RESULTS--Study and control populations were comparable in terms of response rates, gender, and most socioeconomic indicators. For adults, age standardised mortality and cancer rates of the population closest to the coking works were comparable with those for the district as a whole. Gender ratios, birthweight, and stillbirth rates were comparable in the study and control populations. For several indicators of respiratory health including cough, sinus trouble, glue ear, and wheeze (but not for asthma and chronic bronchitis) there was a gradient of self reported ill health, with the highest prevalence in areas closest to the works. For example, sinus trouble was reported by 20% of adults and 13% of children in the area closest to the works compared with 13% and 6% respectively in the control area. GP consultations for respiratory disorders increased when pollution (measured by SO2 levels) was high: annual consultation rates per 1000 varied from 752 in the top group of daily pollution levels to 424 in the bottom group. Analysis of locally collected smoke and SO2 data indicated that SO2 concentrations were highest closest to the works and, after closure of the coking works, the number of days on which SO2 and smoke levels exceeded 100 micrograms/m3 and 90 micrograms/m3, respectively, fell steeply. CONCLUSION--Routinely available indicators failed to provide convincing evidence that the coking works had harmed health. Self report and GP consultations indicated that respiratory ill health in the people living close to the works was worse than expected. Some of the excess probably resulted from exposure to coking works emissions. The health effects of relatively low level but intermittently high air pollution from a point source may be subtle, contributing to respiratory morbidity, but not apparent in analysis of routine health indicators.

Bhopal, R S; Phillimore, P; Moffatt, S; Foy, C

1994-01-01

390

'I'm a bad mum': pregnant presenteeism and poor health at work.  

PubMed

This paper contributes to research on women's health by challenging the 'common belief' that pregnant employees are prone to take sick leave. Conversely, it shows how some pregnant employees are so determined to appear 'well' that they remain at work when they are ill. The paper coins the phrase 'pregnant presenteeism' to describe pregnant employees who resist taking sick leave. The paper first acknowledges previous studies which show how employers associate pregnancy with incompetence and sickness absence. It then examines why (in contrast to employers' assumptions), some pregnant employees remain at work when they are ill. It does this through a qualitative study of 15 employed mothers in the UK, each of whom was working in a managerial/professional role at the time of her interview. Of these 15 women, three remained at work during pregnancy despite serious health problems. In order to understand the experiences of these 'pregnant presentees', the paper draws upon Annandale and Clark's (1996) concept of a 'binary opposition' which articulates the tendency within medicine to polarize women's and men's health as if at opposite ends of a scale, with women's health classified as 'poor' and men's health as 'good'. The paper argues that the conceptual principles of 'binary opposition' spill over into workplace contexts especially in relation to pregnancy. It then proposes that some employed pregnant women deny their own ill health due to fear of being identified with the female, 'poor health' end of the binary opposition scale. It articulates such denial as a potentially serious health issue for pregnant workers. The paper develops new and more explicit links between 'socio-cultural' feminist studies on the employed maternal body, and health research. PMID:21194818

Gatrell, Caroline Jane

2011-02-01

391

A force field evaluation tool for telephone service in ambulatory health care.  

PubMed

The tool presented here is useful in analyzing the constraints and capabilities of a health care telephone service. It also provides a systematic method for assessing systems problems. As part of our analysis, we recommended that the manager implement the following steps. First, the manager determines whether the driving force on the unit is continuity of care by an individual provider or consistency of response. This focus directly affects how the unit's telephone service can be best organized (i.e., decentralized or centralized) and clarifies the factors most needed for success. For example, to function effectively and efficiently, a centralized phone service needs strong provider-endorsed protocols. Second, the manager should carefully examine neutral constraint factors to determine methods to transform these constraints into capabilities, such as planning for extra staff or office hours (or both) during influenza season. Planning for extra hours or staff depends largely on whether budget and resource planning is done in advance and whether value is placed on customer access and satisfaction during peak demand periods. The manager must next determine whether the service delivery format (centralized or decentralized) is consistent with the force field analysis findings. If the findings are not consistent, can the analysis present a compelling argument for using the opposite approach? Finally, the manager must create a plan of action for minimizing the constraints revealed and maximizing existing capabilities to achieve the overall goal of excellent phone service. The process of analysis and creating a plan of action is an excellent opportunity to involve staff, providers, and administrators in efforts to achieve better health care telephone service for all customers. PMID:10112997

da Silva, V L; Steinberg, B

1991-10-01

392

Piezoresistive cantilever working in a shear force mode for in situ characterization of exposed micro- and nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method of characterization micro- and nanostructures defined in a photolithography process. To implement this method a measurement system composed of an atomic force microscope (AFM) integrated with a system for maskless lithography was developed. This integration enables exposed patterns to be examined in situ, without any necessity for a developing process. The microscope works in a shear force mode, uses a cantilever with a piezoresistive method of detecting deflection and can be used for measuring surfaces with high aspect ratio by applying an appropriate technology of sharpening in a focused ion beam process. The cantilever fabrication process, its calibration and examination procedures are presented. Finally, the AFM images of structures scanned directly after exposure are shown.

Sierakowski, Andrzej; Kopiec, Daniel; Janus, Pawe?; Ekwi?ska, Magdalena; P?uska, Mariusz; Grabiec, Piotr; Gotszalk, Teodor

2014-04-01

393

Social stressors at work, sleep quality and psychosomatic health complaints--a longitudinal ambulatory field study.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that occupational stress increases psychosomatic health complaints in the long run. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The present longitudinal actigraphy field study investigated the role of sleep quality--objectively assessed sleep-onset latency, sleep efficiency and sleep fragmentation, and subjectively assessed sleep quality--as a mediator in the relationship between stressful work conditions at time 1 and psychosomatic health complaints at time 2. A longitudinal hierarchical regression analysis revealed that social stressors at work were positively related to objectively assessed sleep fragmentation and to psychosomatic health complaints. Moreover, objectively assessed sleep fragmentation mediated the effect of social stressors at work on psychosomatic health complaints. Contrary to our expectations, social stressors at work were not related to other sleep quality parameters (i.e. sleep-onset latency, sleep efficiency and subjectively assessed sleep quality) during follow-up. Sleep fragmentation is discussed as an important consequence of social stressors at work that increase the risk of psychosomatic health complaints in the long run. PMID:23824588

Pereira, Diana; Elfering, Achim

2014-02-01

394

Supplementary documentation for an Environmental Impact Statement regarding the Pantex Plant: occupational work force mortality study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents work performed in support of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) regarding the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. We compared total and cause-specific mortality for Pantex Plant workers employed between 1951 and December 31, 1978, with expected mortalities based on US death rates. We observed significantly fewer deaths than expected from all causes of death:

J. F. Acquavella; L. D. Wiggs; R. J. Waxweiler; D. G. Macdonell; G. S. Wilkinson

1982-01-01

395

Characterization of the 1986 coal-mining work force. Information Circular\\/1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986, the Bureau of Mines conducted a probability sample survey, Mining Industry Population Survey, to measure such employee characteristics as occupation; principal equipment operated; work location at the mine; present job, present company, and total mining experience; job-related training during the last 2 years; age; sex; race; and education. The population estimates are necessary to properly analyze the Mine

S. J. Butani; A. M. Bartholomew

1988-01-01

396

Air Force Depot Maintenance: Management Improvements Needed for Backlog of Funded Contract Maintenance Work.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the second in a planned series of reports that discusses the Defense Working Capital Fund fiscal year-end workload funding issue, generally referred to as 'carryover.' Section 1051 of the National Defense Authorization Act For Fiscal Year 2001 (Pu...

2002-01-01

397

Physiological responses to low-force work and psychosocial stress in women with chronic trapezius myalgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Repetitive and stressful work tasks have been linked to the development of pain in the trapezius muscle, although the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. In earlier studies, it has been hypothesized that chronic muscle pain conditions are associated with imbalance in the autonomic nervous system, predominantly expressed as an increased sympathetic activity. This study investigates whether women with chronic

Anna Sjörs; Britt Larsson; Joakim Dahlman; Torbjörn Falkmer; Björn Gerdle

2009-01-01

398

Perception of Harassing Communication as a Function of Locus of Control, Work Force Participation, and Gender.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the influence of locus of control and gender on perception of sexually harassing communication across two samples: college students and adults working full-time in their chosen careers. Suggests that locus of control has little effect on females's perceptions but influences males, and full-time workers are more cognizant of harassment…

Booth-Butterfield, Melanie

1989-01-01

399

Joining Forces: Communities and Schools Working Together for a Change. A Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School and community partnerships form the very core of the Mott Foundation, as seen in its founding principles and its varied Civil Society, Flint, and Poverty programs. Although community education has evolved over the years to address increasingly serious problems, the work of today's community organizers is deeply rooted in past theories:…

Rugg, Carol D.

400

Economic and Work Force Development. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 75.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the factors reshaping the American workforce are diversity, demands of work and family, global competition, the growing importance of strategic human resource planning, the need to reeducate employees for new technologies and more demanding jobs, and renewed interest in ethics and social responsibility. This collection of articles examines…

Waddell, Geneva, Ed.

1991-01-01

401

Work force scheduling for mixture policy of preventive and corrective maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basically, scheduling concept for mixture policy of preventive with corrective maintenance is scheduled under the least assigned workers whose have high utilization of their maintenance responsibilities. Whereas, scheduling algorithm will be exploited and applied for determining the cyclic shift work and workers scheduling in according to entirely response to the activities of preventive and corrective maintenance. Additionally, every worker will

Sakon Wongmongkolrit

2008-01-01

402

Task Force Report 5. Report of the Task Force on Family Medicine's Role in Shaping the Future Health Care Delivery System  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Recognizing that the implementation of needed changes within family medicine will be enhanced through a concurrent effort to transform the broader health care system, this Future of Family Medicine task force was charged with determining family medicine’s leadership role in shaping the future health care delivery system. METHODS After reviewing the changes taking place within family medicine and the broader health care system, this task force identified 6 priorities for fostering necessary modifications in the health care system. In addressing the leadership challenge facing the discipline, the task force presents a 3-dimensional matrix that provides a useful framework for describing the audiences that should be targeted, the strategic priorities that should be pursued, and the specific recommendations that should be addressed. Noting that leadership is part of the heritage of family medicine, the task force reviewed past successes by the discipline as important lessons that can be instructive as family physicians begin advocating for needed changes. MAJOR FINDINGS Effective leadership is an essential ingredient that will determine, to a large extent, the success of family medicine in advocating for needed change in the health care system overall and in the specialty. It is vitally important to groom leaders within family medicine and to create venues where policy makers and influence leaders can look beyond their usual constituencies and horizons to a comprehensive view of health care. A central concept being proposed is that of a relationship-centered personal medical home. This medical home serves as the focal point through which all individuals—regardless of age, gender, race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status—receive a basket of acute, chronic, and preventive medical care services that are accessible, accountable, comprehensive, integrated, patient-centered, safe, scientifically valid, and satisfying to both patients and their physicians. CONCLUSION Family medicine has and will continue to have an important leadership role in health system change. It has been most successful when it has been able to identify a high-priority goal through consensus within the discipline, to focus and coordinate local and national resources, and to use a multipronged approach in addressing the priority. Although the Future of Family Medicine project has provided an important impetus for the identification of key priorities across the discipline, for the FFM project ultimately to be a success, implementation steps will need to be identified and prioritized. The leadership matrix presented in this report can provide a useful structuring tool to identify, understand, and coordinate change efforts more effectively. Strategic alliances with primary care groups and others also will be critical to the success of change initiatives.

Roberts, Richard G.; Snape, Pam S.; Burke, Kevin

2004-01-01

403

How woman and child health work is promoted in our county.  

PubMed

In Holung County, Kirin, China, by means of revolutionary criticism and reviewing the ongoing struggle since the establishment of woman and child health centers, the significance of Chairman Mao's directive, "in medical and health work, put the stress on the rural areas", was enhanced. The direction and the objective of work in woman and child health became clarified. To meet the needs of the rural areas, ideological revolutionization of medical and health workers is imperative. The Branch Party Committee of the Woman and Child Health Center frequently organize to study the works of Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Chairman Mao. With local women and child health workers, staff study to raise their consciousness. The staff of 7 of the Center work in the production teams or brigades throughout the year, propagating Party policies, investigating and studying problems. They train health workers and provide technical advice in the effort to promote woman and child health service in the area. The county Woman and Child Health Center was established in 1953 when there were only 3 midwives in the whole county. Since the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, a contingent of health workers and barefoot doctors has been developed and consolidated. Currently, each production team had 1-2 health workers and 1 midwife. Each production brigade has a cooperative medical service station and a woman and child health section with 2-3 barefoot doctors and 1-2 health care workers. In general, each commune has 1-2 medical doctors and, birth planning and woman and child health counseling station. Work essentially includes the following items. First and foremost is ideological work. Every possible opportunity is taken to educate woman and child health workers to raise their consciousness of the idoelogical and political line. Next comes training of the woman and child health personnel. Modern midwifery has been popularized in the county since 1955. At the end of 1974, 59.8% of the children of 1-3 years of age were attending nurseries and 65.5% of those 4-7 years of age were in the kindergarten. In managing these institutions special attention is paid to the following activities: training child care workers; prevention and treatment of communicable diseases; physical exercise; and physical examinations. In 1972 it was found that contraceptive use in East City Commune had increased from 26 to 60%. The Commune Party Committee had employed a strategy of combining the birth planning program with the woman and child health service. Also the health of nearly every child was so successfully safeguarded that even parents with only 1 child were free to practice contraception without fear of becoming childless. Using that commune's experience, 85.5% of the county's women have been screened since May 1972 for women's disease and treated with traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. This has greatly increased contraceptive practice. PMID:822994

1976-05-01

404

Promoting occupational safety and health for working children through microfinance programming.  

PubMed

Microfinance programs are recognized as a way of improving incomes and creating employment for large numbers of low-income families, but there are concerns that working conditions within these informal microenterprises are far from ideal. For example, when families receive loans to expand a microenterprise, children may make up the labor shortfall until the family can afford to hire adult workers. Through the Promoting and Protecting the Interests of Children who Work (PPIC-Work) project being carried out in Egypt, a set of interventions that can not only improve working conditions, but can also be integrated into standard microfinance programs has been developed. By working with and through self-financing microfinance programs, the PPIC-Work approach provides a way of improving occupational safety and health not only for children working in microenterprises but also for large numbers of children and adults working in the informal sector more generally. PMID:20465063

Carothers, Richard; Breslin, Curtis; Denomy, Jennifer; Foad, Mamdouh

2010-01-01

405

Team-level flexibility, work-home spillover, and health behavior  

PubMed Central

Drawing on two waves of survey data conducted six months apart in 2006, this study examined the impacts of a team-level flexibility initiative (ROWE – Results Only Work Environment) on changes in the work-home spillover and health behavior of employees at the Midwest headquarters of a large US corporation. Using cluster analysis, we identified three distinct baseline spillover constellations: employees with high negative spillover, high positive spillover, and low overall spillover. Within-team spillover measures were highly intercorrelated, suggesting that work teams as well as individuals have identifiable patterns of spillover. Multilevel analyses showed ROWE reduced individual- and team-level negative work-home spillover but not positive work-home spillover or spillover from home-to-work. ROWE also promoted employees’ health behaviors: increasing the odds of quitting smoking, decreasing smoking frequency, and promoting perceptions of adequate time for healthy meals. Trends suggest that ROWE also decreased the odds of excessive drinking and improved sleep adequacy and exercise frequency. Some health behavior effects were mediated via reduced individual-level negative work-home spillover (exercise frequency, adequate time for sleep) and reduced team-level negative work-home spillover (smoking frequency, exercise frequency, and adequate time for sleep). While we found no moderating effects of gender, ROWE especially improved the exercise frequency of singles and reduced the smoking frequency of employees with low overall spillover at baseline.

Moen, Phyllis; Fan, Wen; Kelly, Erin L.

2013-01-01

406

Walking to work in Canada: health benefits, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight\\/obesity among children and adult in\\u000a Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper\\u000a is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults\\u000a in Canada.

Peter Kitchen; Allison Williams; James Chowhan

2011-01-01

407

The mental health benefits of work: do they apply to poor single mothers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The relationship between employment and improved mental health is well documented. However, no research has examined whether\\u000a this relationship applies to poor single mothers. Given recent changes in the labor market where poor women are disproportionately\\u000a employed in unstable jobs, the competing demands of work and childcare may operate to prevent poor women from reaping the\\u000a mental health benefits of

Denise Zabkiewicz

2010-01-01

408

The Relationships among Mother’s Resilience, Family Health Work, and Mother’s Health-Promoting Lifestyle Practices in Families with Preschool Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypotheses derived from the Developmental Model of Health and Nursing were tested by examining relationships among mothers’ resilience (health potential), family health-promoting activity (health work), and mothers’ health-promoting lifestyle practices (competence in health behavior) in 67 families with preschool children. Mothers completed a mailed survey containing self-report measures of the study variables and a demographic form. As hypothesized, both mother’s

Bonnie Monteith; Marilyn Ford-Gilboe

2002-01-01

409

[Comparison of shift work and night shifts: impacts on health and wellbeing among sanitary workers].  

PubMed

The generally agreed view is that there is no ideal shift system, and that most systems will have both advantages and disadvantages. As such, attention has been placed on trying to identify good and bad features of shift systems, with a view to minimising the possible ill health as a consequence of shiftwork. The present study focuses on the quality of the shift and looks at the implications for individual health and wellbeing, during the wellbeing, during the shift. Three groups of sanitary workers, one working in the morning, one working two shifts, and the other working three, took part. All completed a version of the standard shiftwork index (SSI), a set of self reported questionnaires related to health and wellbeing. The three groups differed on many outcome measures, although the differences that did exist didn't suggested advantages for one shift system over the others. PMID:23393869

Della Betta, F; Martinellit, R; Del Re, C; Tarquini, M; Fantasia, D; Paoletti, A

2011-01-01

410

Health-Related Factors Associated with Mode of Travel to Work  

PubMed Central

Active commuting (AC) to the workplace is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and is associated with health benefits. This study examined the association between health-related factors and mode of travel to the workplace. Methods. A volunteer convenience sample of employed adults completed an online survey regarding demographics, health-related factors, and the number of times/week walking, biking, driving, and using public transit to work (dichotomized as no walk/bike/drive/PT and walk/bike/drive/PT 1 + x/week). Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of each mode of transport and meeting PA recommendations from AC according to demographics and health-related factors. Results. The sample (n = 1175) was aged 43.5 ± 11.4 years and was primarily White (92.7%) and female (67.9%). Respondents reported walking (7.3%), biking (14.4%), taking public transit (20.3%), and driving (78.3%) to work at least one time/week. Among those reporting AC, 9.6% met PA recommendations from AC alone. Mode of travel to work was associated with several demographic and health-related factors, including age, number of chronic diseases, weight status, and AC beliefs. Discussion. Mode of transportation to the workplace and health-related factors such as disease or weight status should be considered in future interventions targeting AC.

Bopp, Melissa; Kaczynski, Andrew T.; Campbell, Matthew E.

2013-01-01

411

Health-related factors associated with mode of travel to work.  

PubMed

Active commuting (AC) to the workplace is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and is associated with health benefits. This study examined the association between health-related factors and mode of travel to the workplace. Methods. A volunteer convenience sample of employed adults completed an online survey regarding demographics, health-related factors, and the number of times/week walking, biking, driving, and using public transit to work (dichotomized as no walk/bike/drive/PT and walk/bike/drive/PT 1 + x/week). Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of each mode of transport and meeting PA recommendations from AC according to demographics and health-related factors. Results. The sample (n = 1175) was aged 43.5 ± 11.4 years and was primarily White (92.7%) and female (67.9%). Respondents reported walking (7.3%), biking (14.4%), taking public transit (20.3%), and driving (78.3%) to work at least one time/week. Among those reporting AC, 9.6% met PA recommendations from AC alone. Mode of travel to work was associated with several demographic and health-related factors, including age, number of chronic diseases, weight status, and AC beliefs. Discussion. Mode of transportation to the workplace and health-related factors such as disease or weight status should be considered in future interventions targeting AC. PMID:23533450

Bopp, Melissa; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Campbell, Matthew E

2013-01-01

412

Mental health nurses' perceptions of good work in an acute setting.  

PubMed

Frequently, research and conference papers explore difficult or problematic areas of practice that can inadvertently render daily nursing accomplishments invisible and create the perception of a discipline in crisis. In this qualitative study, we explore the views of registered nurses about achievements in the workplace and good nursing work in an acute inpatient mental health setting in Sydney, Australia. Mental health nurses were asked a series of questions about their experiences and understanding of what constitutes good nursing work as well as their sense of optimism about their work. A total of 40 structured face-to-face interviews were completed. Among the responses to questions about achievements and good nursing practice, five broad themes were identified: i) teamwork; (ii) interpersonal interactions with patients; (iii) providing practical and holistic support to patients; (iv) patients' mental health improvements; and (v) optimism-pessimism continuum. Findings contribute to a discussion of good nursing work in acute mental health settings, as well as self-perceptions of optimism and hopefulness, which are important contributors to positive, supportive health-care settings and patient recovery. PMID:22583567

Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; O'Hara-Aarons, Maureen; Jackson, Debra; Hunt, Glenn E

2012-10-01

413

Walking a fine line: Forensic mental health practitioners' experience of working with correctional officers.  

PubMed

This paper explores mental health professionals' experiences working with correctional staff--one aspect of an interdisciplinary phenomenological study of ethical practice in forensic psychiatry. Professionals describe this relationship as coexisting within the system, despite their often conflicting roles. In correctional officers' overt concern for custody and control, practitioners can perceive a "paramilitary mentality" with which they struggle to work. Conversely, practitioners can experience conflict with security personnel for appearing "too caring" or "too sympathetic" to offenders--being "con-lovers." The balance practitioners establish between working with inmates and working alongside facility security is one of walking a fine line. PMID:21884398

Lazzaretto-Green, Danille; Austin, Wendy; Goble, Erika; Buys, Lisa; Gorman, Tom; Rankel, Marlene

2011-09-01

414

Health and safety problems associated with long working hours: a review of the current position.  

PubMed

The European Community Directive on Working Time, which should have been implemented in member states of the European Community by November 1996, contains several requirements related to working hours, including the right of employees to refuse to work more than 48 hours a week. The United Kingdom government attempted to oppose the Directive, arguing that there is no convincing evidence that hours of work should be limited on health and safety grounds. Much of the research in this area has focused on the problems of shiftworking and previous reviews have therefore tended to emphasise this aspect of working hours. However, there is much less information about the effects of overtime work, which is a central element of the terms of the Directive. This paper reviews the current evidence relating to the potential effects on health and performance of extensions to the normal working day. Several gaps in the literature are identified. Research to date has been restricted to a limited range of health outcomes--namely, mental health and cardiovascular disorders. Other potential effects which are normally associated with stress--for example, gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and problems associated with depression of the immune system, have received little attention. Also, there have been few systematic investigations of performance effects, and little consideration of the implications for occupational exposure limits of extensions to the working day. Existing data relate largely to situations where working hours exceed 50 a week and there is a lack of information on hours below this level, which is of direct relevance to the European Community proposal. Finally, it is clear from investigations relating to shiftwork that a range of modifying factors are likely to influence the level and nature of health and performance outcomes. These include the attitudes and motivation of the people concerned, the job requirements, and other aspects of the organisational and cultural climate. It is concluded that there is currently sufficient evidence to raise concerns about the risks to health and safety of long working hours. However, much more work is required to define the level and nature of those risks. PMID:9245942

Spurgeon, A; Harrington, J M; Cooper, C L

1997-06-01

415

Symbolic capital and health: the case of women's sex work in Antananarivo, Madagascar.  

PubMed

Public health research on sex work has been criticized both for representing sex work as a monolithic entity and for focusing only on individual behavioral determinants of health. When broader determinants are acknowledged, they are often described in solely economic terms (ie, comparing health risks of higher class versus lower class sex workers). Drawing from Pierre Bourdieu, I describe women's sex work in Antananarivo, Madagascar as a social 'field' and demonstrate that this field is both highly complex and highly structured. Fourteen months of ethnographic fieldwork (December 2002-December 2003; May-June 2004) in Antananarivo with women sex workers (n approximately 60) and community members (n approximately 85) informed a description of the community's understanding of the sex work field and its contrast to the lived experience of key informant sex workers. Women who sell sex were categorized by their communities into three social positions--ambony (high), antonony (middle) and ambany (low)--which were differentiated by economic capital (earnings per sexual exchange) and symbolic capital (prestige associated with race, ethnicity and moral demeanor). Women who occupied the antonony social position held the greatest volumes of symbolic capital both because they were identified as belonging to the local dominant ethnic group, and because they demonstrated discretion and shame in their sex work practice. Alternatively, women who occupied the ambony and ambany positions openly practiced their sex work and were associated with ethnic or racial minority identities, contributing to their lower volumes of symbolic capital. Symbolic capital influenced unique health vulnerabilities, such as to sexually transmitted disease, by social position through mechanisms operating from the institutional to the interpersonal level. This analysis illustrates the value of examining sex work as a social field, specifically the importance of capturing more than economic capital in order to understand sex workers' unique health vulnerabilities and concerns. PMID:19362403

Stoebenau, Kirsten

2009-06-01

416

Working condition and health hazards in beedi rollers residing in the urban slums of Mumbai  

PubMed Central

Background: Beedi rollers are exposed to unburnt tobacco dust through cutaneous and pharyngeal route. They are not aware of their rights. Studies have been conducted on beedi workers but not many studies are carried out in urban areas. Thus, study was carried out to understand working condition and health hazards in beedi workers residing in the urban slums of Mumbai and to know whether beedi roller are in better condition in urban areas. Aim: To study working condition and health hazard in beedi rollers in the urban slums. Materials and Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional, community based study was carried in the urban slums of Mumbai with population of 8985 from April 2011 to June 2011. With snow balling sampling technique, 52 beedi workers were interviewed regarding their socio-economic status, working conditions and health problems after informed consent. Data entry and statistical analysis were performed using the SPSS windows version 14.0 software. Results: The mean age was 45 years with SD of 12 years. All were Hindu females. Around 42.31% were illiterate. Mean years of service were 30 years and they work on an average for eight hours. Children were not involved in beedi rolling. Most common morbidity was fatigue. None were aware of the benefits provided for them. Awareness regarding health hazard and safety measures was poor. Conclusions: The working condition of beedi rollers in the urban areas is not favourable.

Sabale, Rupali V.; Kowli, Shobha S.; Chowdhary, Padmaja H.

2012-01-01

417

The public health nursing work environment: review of the research literature.  

PubMed

Public health nurses (PHNs) work to address critical health issues at the individual, family, and population levels. In recent years, a global nursing shortage has posed a significant challenge to the recruitment and retention of PHNs. Hospital-based research has shown that a healthy and productive work environment is vital to successful nursing recruitment and retention. Specific organizational characteristics have been linked to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job vacancies, and turnover rates. Although it is presumed that similarities exist between the public health and acute care nursing work environments, further evaluation is required. This literature review was conducted to identify studies that characterize the PHN work environment. An online database search was conducted to identify prospective PHN studies published between 2000 and 2010. Definitions were established for screening purposes. Twenty-nine PHN studies in the United States and abroad met criteria for inclusion in this review. Satisfaction with teamwork and job autonomy generally was reported. However, inadequate PHN staffing was described as a concern, with problems magnified during prolonged response to public health emergencies. Insufficient control over PHN practice was reported as well. Perceptions regarding other work environment characteristics were mixed or were not measured in detail. More in-depth research is recommended with the ultimate goal of improving PHN recruitment and retention. PMID:23392207

Dingley, Jacquelyn; Yoder, Linda

2013-01-01

418

Migration status, work conditions and health utilization of female sex workers in three South African cities.  

PubMed

Intersections between migration and sex work are underexplored in southern Africa, a region with high internal and cross-border population mobility, and HIV prevalence. Sex work often constitutes an important livelihood activity for migrant women. In 2010, sex workers trained as interviewers conducted cross-sectional surveys with 1,653 female sex workers in Johannesburg (Hillbrow and Sandton), Rustenburg and Cape Town. Most (85.3%) sex workers were migrants (1396/1636): 39.0% (638/1636) internal and 46.3% (758/1636) cross-border. Cross-border migrants had higher education levels, predominately worked part-time, mainly at indoor venues, and earned more per client than other groups. They, however, had 41% lower health service contact (adjusted odds ratio = 0.59; 95% confidence interval = 0.40-0.86) and less frequent condom use than non-migrants. Police interaction was similar. Cross-border migrants appear more tenacious in certain aspects of sex work, but require increased health service contact. Migrant-sensitive, sex work-specific health care and health education are needed. PMID:23238581

Richter, Marlise; Chersich, Matthew F; Vearey, Jo; Sartorius, Benn; Temmerman, Marleen; Luchters, Stanley

2014-02-01

419

Determinants of Health Promotion Behavior In Active Duty Air Force Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increased attention has been given to health promotion and disease prevention activities within today's ever-changing health care system. Health continues to be a valued personal commodity. Several researchers have identified health promotion, disease pre...

B. J. Grabowski

1997-01-01

420

Hazarding health: experiences of body, work, and risk among factory women in Malaysia.  

PubMed

In the 1970s, Malaysia launched an export-oriented development strategy as a means of financing the nation's modernization. The success of the strategy hinged significantly on intensive recruitment of women for factory employment. I draw on descriptive qualitative research, including interviews (51), surveys (106), and ethnography in Malaysia to investigate factory women's experiences of work and work-related health risks. Discourse analysis surfaced a latent consciousness of bodily changes in relation to work. A grounded theory analysis showed a compromised access to occupational risk knowledge that may bear negatively on women's well-being and the role women's new labor identities played in mediating the meanings of work and risks. Given the predominance of women workers in low-end manufacturing globally, I aimed to contribute to theoretical and applied understandings of gender, globalization, and health. PMID:19742364

Root, Robin

2009-10-01

421

Job autonomy, its predispositions and its relation to work outcomes in community health centers in Taiwan.  

PubMed

It has been debated that employees in a government or public ownership agency may perceive less need for growth opportunities or high-powered incentives than is the case for employees in private organizations. This study examined employees' job autonomy in government-run community health centers, its predispositions and its relation to their work outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Taiwan. From 230 responding community health centers, 1380 staff members responded to the self-completed, structured questionnaire. Structural equation modeling revealed that employees' job autonomy has positive work outcomes: greater work satisfaction, and less intent to transfer and intentions to leave. In addition, job autonomy was related to employees' higher education levels, medical profession, permanent employment and serving smaller populations. Moreover, employees' age, educational levels, medical profession and employment status were found to be related to their work satisfaction, intent to transfer and intent to leave. PMID:22200896

Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Yung-Kai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lin, Tien-Tse

2013-06-01

422

Public Health Assessment for Eielson Air Force Base (EAFB), Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska, June 14, 2006. EPA Facility ID: AK1570028646.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepared this public health assessment (PHA) to evaluate potential health hazards from past, current, and future exposures to contaminants originating from Eielson Air Force Base (EAFB). EAFB is...

2006-01-01

423

European Working Time Directive and doctors' health: a systematic review of the available epidemiological evidence  

PubMed Central

Objective To summarise the available scientific evidence on the health effects of exposure to working beyond the limit number of hours established by the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) on physicians. Design A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE. Study selection, quality appraisal and data extraction were carried out by independent pairs of researchers using pre-established criteria. Setting Physicians of any medical, surgical or community specialty, working in any possible setting (hospitals, primary healthcare, etc), as well as trainees, residents, junior house officers or postgraduate interns, were included. Participants The total number of participants was 14?338. Primary and secondary outcome measures Health effects classified under the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Results Over 3000 citations and 110 full articles were reviewed. From these, 11 studies of high or intermediate quality carried out in North America, Europe and Japan met the inclusion criteria. Six studies included medical residents, junior doctors or house officers and the five others included medical specialists or consultants, medical, dental, and general practitioners and hospital physicians. Evidence of an association was found between percutaneous injuries and road traffic accidents with extended long working hours (LWH)/days or very LWH/weeks. The evidence was insufficient for mood disorders and general health. No studies on other health outcomes were identified. Conclusions LWH could increase the risk of percutaneous injuries and road traffic accidents, and possibly other incidents at work through the same pathway. While associations are clear, the existing evidence does not allow for an established causal or ‘dose–response’ relationship between LWH and incidents at work, or for a threshold number of extended hours above which there is a significantly higher risk and the hours physicians could work and remain safe and healthy. Policymakers should consider safety issues when working on relaxing EWTD for doctors.

Rodriguez-Jareno, Maria Cruz; Demou, Evangelia; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Sanati, Kaveh A; Skerjanc, Alenka; Reis, Pedro G; Helimaki-Aro, Ritva; Macdonald, Ewan B; Serra, Consol

2014-01-01

424

Women’s Changing Work Roles: Impact on Health, Family, and Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women’s work roles have changed enormously. This article describes the long-term and short-term changes in women’s paid employment. It also introduces a set of Public Forum articles that discuss the consequences of these changes for women’s health and for their families and delineate the government’s responses to women’s changing work roles. The impetus for this Public Forum section came from

Karen A. Matthews; Judith Rodin

1989-01-01

425

The Social Patterning of Work-Related Insecurity and its Health Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the association between work-related insecurity and health, with a focus on how this relationship is moderated\\u000a by social location (gender, age and race). Drawing on longitudinal data from a Canadian labour market survey (1999–2004) the\\u000a findings show that certain groups have a higher prevalence of exposure to certain types of work-related insecurity including\\u000a (among others) low earnings,

Heather Scott-Marshall

2010-01-01

426

Flexible workspace design and ergonomics training: impacts on the psychosocial work environment, musculoskeletal health, and work effectiveness among knowledge workers.  

PubMed

A macroergonomics intervention consisting of flexible workspace design and ergonomics training was conducted to examine the effects on psychosocial work environment, musculoskeletal health, and work effectiveness in a computer-based office setting. Knowledge workers were assigned to one of four conditions: flexible workspace (n=121), ergonomics training (n=92), flexible workspace+ergonomics training (n=31), and a no-intervention control (n=45). Outcome measures were collected 2 months prior to the intervention and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Overall, the study results indicated positive, significant effects on the outcome variables for the two intervention groups compared to the control group, including work-related musculoskeletal discomfort, job control, environmental satisfaction, sense of community, ergonomic climate, communication and collaboration, and business process efficiency (time and costs). However, attrition of workers in the ergonomics training condition precluded an evaluation of the effects of this intervention. This study suggests that a macroergonomics intervention is effective among knowledge workers in office settings. PMID:18462704

Robertson, Michelle M; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; O'Neill, Michael J; Schleifer, Lawrence M

2008-07-01

427

Report on Premature Death in Oxnard Prepared for the Oxnard Health Status Task Force of the Ventura-Santa Barbara Health Systems Agency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Health Status Task Force undertook a study of mortality from 1975-1979. A staff report in 1980 indicated there were more deaths in the City of Oxnard than expected, given the city's age composition. Potential years of life lost (PYLL) was calculated f...

1981-01-01

428

Pride and confidence at work: potential predictors of occupational health in a hospital setting  

PubMed Central

Background This study focuses on determinants of a healthy work environment in two departments in a Swedish university hospital. The study is based on previously conducted longitudinal studies at the hospital (1994–2001), concerning working conditions and health outcomes among health care personnel in conjunction with downsizing processes. Overall, there was a general negative trend in relation to mental health, as well as long-term sick leave during the study period. The two departments chosen for the current study differed from the general hospital trend in that they showed stable health development. The aim of the study was to identify and analyse experiential determinants of healthy working conditions. Methods Thematic open-ended interviews were carried out with seventeen managers and key informants, representing different groups of co-workers in the two departments. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and an inductive content analysis was made. Results In the two studied departments the respondents perceived that it was advantageous to belong to a small department, and to work in cooperation-oriented care. The management approaches described by both managers and co-workers could be interpreted as transformational, due to a strain of visionary, delegating, motivating, confirmative, supportive attitudes and a strongly expressed solution-oriented attitude. The daily work included integrated learning activities. The existing organisational conditions, approaches and attitudes promoted tendencies towards a work climate characterised by trust, team spirit and professionalism. In the description of the themes organisational conditions, approaches and climate, two core determinants, work-pride and confidence, for healthy working conditions were interpreted. Our core determinants augment the well-established concepts: manageability, comprehensiveness and meaningfulness. These favourable conditions seem to function as a buffer against the general negative effects of downsizing observed elsewhere in the hospital, and in the literature. Conclusion Research illuminating health-promoting aspects is rather unusual. This study could be seen as explorative. The themes and core dimensions we found could be used as a basis for further intervention studies in similar health-care settings. The result could also be used in future health promotion studies in larger populations. One of the first steps in such a strategy is to formulate relevant questions, and we consider that this study contributes to this.

Nilsson, Kerstin; Hertting, Anna; Petterson, Inga-Lill; Theorell, Tores

2005-01-01

429

The relationships between work characteristics and mental health: examining normal, reversed and reciprocal relationships in a 4-wave study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study examined the causal relationships between job demands, job control and supervisor support on the one hand and mental health on the other. Whereas we assumed that work characteristics affect mental health, we also examined reversed causal relationships (mental health influences work characteristics). Further, the topic of the appropriate time lag for testing causal relationships was addressed. Our

Annet H. De Lange; Toon W. Taris; Michiel A. J. Kompier; Irene L. D. Houtman; Paulien M. Bongers

2004-01-01

430

The Check Bus Project and its effectiveness on health promotion at work.  

PubMed

Employees of two large companies in Switzerland took part in a nationwide health information and promotion campaign at work, which included various physical examinations. A total of 5,849 consecutive participants were sent a questionnaire to determine whether changes had been made in their lifestyles and if they had benefited from participation; 2,361 (40.4%) responded. The campaign was rated highly at 8.3 on a scale from 1 to 10. Respondents reported benefiting most from the personal examination results, in particular the measurement of bone density, examination of the carotid arteries and discussions with the staff. Of the respondents, 921 stated they changed their lifestyle in the area of physical activity (64.4%) and nutrition (63.6%). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed the variables predictive of responding were age, hierarchy, diet and smoking. Health promotion at work and the choice of offered examinations may influence the effects of health care promotion at the workplace and the readiness of participants to improve their attitudes to health. Health promotion at work is highly regarded by employees who pay more attention to diet, smoke less and in particular those over 50 yr of age. High-tech equipment in a mobile unit may attract employers and employees may profit most from the individual examination results; 39% of the respondents stated they changed their lifestyle as a consequence of the Check Bus campaign. PMID:15824478

Schilling, Julian; Faisst, Karin; Lee, Chung-Yol; Candinas, Brigitte; Gutzwiller, Felix

2005-03-01

431

Climate change and rising heat: population health implications for working people in Australia.  

PubMed

The rapid rise in extreme heat events in Australia recently is already taking a health toll. Climate change scenarios predict increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme heat events in the future, and population health may be significantly compromised for people who cannot reduce their heat exposure. Exposure to extreme heat presents a health hazard to all who are physically active, particularly outdoor workers and indoor workers with minimal access to cooling systems while working. At air temperatures close to (or beyond) the core body temperature of 37°C, body cooling via sweating is essential, and this mechanism is hampered by high air humidity. Heat exposure among elite athletes and the military has been investigated, whereas the impacts on workers remain largely unexplored, particularly in relation to future climate change. Workers span all age groups and diverse levels of fitness and health status, including people with higher than "normal" sensitivity to heat. In a hotter world, workers are likely to experience more heat stress and find it increasingly difficult to maintain productivity. Modeling of future climate change in Australia shows a substantial increase in the number of very hot days (>35°C) across the country. In this article, the authors characterize the health risks associated with heat exposure on working people and discuss future exposure risks as temperatures rise. Progress toward developing occupational health and safety guidelines for heat in Australia are summarized. PMID:21159698

Hanna, Elizabeth G; Kjellstrom, Tord; Bennett, Charmian; Dear, Keith

2011-03-01

432

Effects of War Exposure on Air Force Personnel's Mental Health, Job Burnout and Other Organizational Related Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longitudinal data from a stratified representative sample of U.S. Air Force personnel (N = 1009) deployed to the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other locations were analyzed in this study. Using structural equation models, we examined the effects of war exposure on traumatic experiences, Post Traumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms, resource loss, and on subsequent functioning, perceived health, and on job

Amiram D. Vinokur; Penny F. Pierce; Lisa Lewandowski-Romps; Stevan E. Hobfoll; Sandro Galea

2011-01-01

433

Attitudes, Power, and Ability to Care among U.S. Air Force Mental Health Nurses: A Descriptive Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Air Force mental health nurses provide care for patients in an environment differing from most civilian hospital settings. On an in-patient unit, which consists mainly of active duty military patients, there is a strong emphasis placed on evaluating the a...

M. M. Higgins

1993-01-01

434

Primary health care for a civilian population: the experience of the Israel Defense Forces in southern Lebanon.  

PubMed

Since May 1976, the Medical Corps of the Israel Defense Forces has provided primary medical care for a population of more than 100,000 in southern Lebanon. The project of the "Good Fence" clinics is discussed in relation to primary health care problems encountered in rural southern Lebanon during the period of the Lebanese civil war and the Litani Operation. PMID:6735712

Eisenberg, E; Danon, Y L

1984-04-01

435

Youth with Disabilities in Transition: Health Insurance Options and Obstacles. Healthy & Ready To Work (HRTW) Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights the public and private health insurance options for young people with disabilities or chronic health conditions including several recent Federal initiatives to increase access to health care for working adults with disabilities. Discussion of public health insurance eligibility and coverage focuses on aspects of Medicaid and…

Schulzinger, Rhoda

436

Work and safety, 1-98: Chemical abstracts, health and safety science abstracts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to introduce safety-at-work experts to the main sources, harmful effects on health and biological monitoring of occupational exposure to the toxic metals lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, chromium and nickel. There are various sources of exposure to these metals in the metallurgical, machine and metal industry, electrical engineering industry, construction, motor and aviation industry, as well as in other industries, and to a small extent also in the organic industry. Special emphasis is given to the basic principles of biological monitoring and its advantages in relation to the monitoring of the working environment from the standpoint of health protection of workers. Characteristic biological indicators of exposure are critically evaluated for each metal. Biological exposure indices of the chosen biological indicators of exposure are determined, the implementation of which, according to the present knowledge and experience, should not cause health impairment to the workers exposed.

NONE

1998-04-01

437

Occupational health literacy and work-related injury among U.S. adolescents.  

PubMed

Building on the concept of 'health literacy' used in the U.S., we developed an analogous measure specific to safety in the workplace labeled 'occupational health literacy' (OHL) and investigated whether OHL is a protective factor against work-related injury (WRI) among adolescents. Using cross-sectional survey data from 2262 14 to 18-year olds in five high schools across the US, we found that OHL (level of occupational safety and health (OSH) information and training received combined with knowledge and awareness of OSH information and concepts) is positively associated with WRI prevalence. This association appears to be largely driven by the OHL subscale on respondents' receipt of safety training, which likely represents job hazardousness and may be overwhelming any protective effect of OHL on work injury. This exploratory study has shown that more precise measurement of OHL and confounding variables (job hazardousness) will be crucial in further studies exploring a OHL-WRI relationship. PMID:23679156

Rauscher, Kimberly J; Myers, Douglas J

2014-01-01

438

Social work and adverse childhood experiences research: implications for practice and health policy.  

PubMed

Medical research on "adverse childhood experiences" (ACEs) reveals a compelling relationship between the extent of childhood adversity, adult health risk behaviors, and principal causes of death in the United States. This article provides a selective review of the ACE Study and related social science research to describe how effective social work practice that prevents ACEs and mobilizes resilience and recovery from childhood adversity could support the achievement of national health policy goals. This article applies a biopsychosocial perspective, with an emphasis on mind-body coping processes to demonstrate that social work responses to adverse childhood experiences may contribute to improvement in overall health. Consistent with this framework, the article sets forth prevention and intervention response strategies with individuals, families, communities, and the larger society. Economic research on human capital development is reviewed that suggests significant cost savings may result from effective implementation of these strategies. PMID:24188292

Larkin, Heather; Felitti, Vincent J; Anda, Robert F

2014-01-01

439

Mentoring and organisational constraints as predictors of attitudes to work in the Nigerian public health sector.  

PubMed

The present study examines work attitudes in the public health sector using the relative impact of mentoring and organisational constraints on job satisfaction and organisational commitment. Data was collected from 161 employees in a large government-owned hospital in south western Nigeria. Results of the hierarchical regression analysis (which controlled for the effects of relevant covariates) showed that when informal mentoring and perceived organisational constraints were entered in the second step, R2 for organisational commitment and job satisfaction increased from .17 to .45 (p = < .001), and from .15 to .49 (p = < .001), respectively. These findings suggest that work attitudes in the public health sector can be improved by facilitating mentoring relationships and removing organisational obstacles. The implications of these findings for policy formulation and effective health care delivery are explained. PMID:20099584

Okurame, David E

2009-01-01

440

Social Work and Public Health: Comparing Graduates from a Dual-Degree Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared dual-degree master of social work/master of public health (MSW/MPH) and MSW-only graduates with 3 or more years of postgraduate experience. Thirty graduates from an MSW/MPH program were matched with 30 MSW-only graduates. All subjects were randomly selected from the alumni directory and interviewed via telephone. Results showed…

Ruth, Betty J.; Wyatt, Jamie; Chiasson, Emily; Geron, Scott Miyake; Bachman, Sally

2006-01-01

441

Counteracting Bureaucratic Resistance in Welfare and Mental Health--A Working Agreement Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed the working agreement and the spectrum of linkage mechanisms as useful administrative tools for mental health and public welfare administrators in assessing the interorganizational environment and in identifying potentially useful linkages between the administrator's respective organization and other interdependent organizations.…

McRae, John; And Others

1984-01-01

442

WORKSHOP TO IDENTIFY CRITICAL WINDOWS OF EXPOSURE FOR CHILDREN'S HEALTH: CARDIOVASCULAR AND ENDOCRINE WORK GROUP SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

The work group on cardiovascular and endocrine effects was asked to review the current state of knowledge about children's windows of vulnerability to developmental toxicants and to recommend how that information may be used to improve risk assessment and public health. We consi...

443

Cancer prevention for working class, multi-ethnic populations through health centers: the healthy directions study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This paper presents the study design and baseline data from Healthy Directions-Health Centers (HCs), a study designed to address social contextual factors in cancer prevention interventions for working class, multi-ethnic populations. This study is part of the Harvard Cancer Prevention Program Project. Methods: Ten community HCs were paired and randomly assigned to intervention or control. Patients who resided in

Karen M. Emmons; Anne M. Stoddard; Caitlin Gutheil; Elizabeth Gonzalez Suarez; Rebecca Lobb; Robert Fletcher

2003-01-01

444

Non-Production Benefits of Education: Crime, Health, and Good Citizenship. NBER Working Paper No. 16722  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of work suggests that education offers a wide-range of benefits that extend beyond increases in labor market productivity. Improvements in education can lower crime, improve health, and increase voting and democratic participation. This chapter reviews recent developments on these "non-production" benefits of education with an…

Lochner, Lance

2011-01-01

445

Dream Work With Children: Perceptions and Practices of School Mental Health Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 49 public school mental health practitioners (school counselors, school psychologists, and school social workers) completed a survey about working with students’ dreams. The majority of these practitioners reported having at least one student bring up dreams during counseling, more frequently with troubling dreams and nightmares or when coping with grief. Results showed that practitioners were less likely

Rosalia Huermann; Rachel E. Crook Lyon; Melissa Allen Heath; Kirti Potkar

2009-01-01

446

"Joined on Rather than Joined up?" Primary Mental Health Work in Scottish Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Primary mental health workers have been based in West Lothian schools since 2003 to act as links between the community and hospital-based services. The research programme this paper describes aimed to examine how this model worked and its impact for children and their families. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on interviews…

Huddart, Paula

2007-01-01

447

Evaluation of School Health Programmes. Report on a Working Group. Bucharest, 2-5 August 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the health services in the schools of eight European countries is presented in this report. The care of the preschool child is also examined. The working group assigned to this task considered different methods of evaluation, including those measuring quantity and quality of services and, in addition, discussed statistical means…

World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

448

Learning and Recognition in Health and Care Work: An Inter-Subjective Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of recognition in learning processes among female nurses, social and health care assistants and occupational therapists working with people with dementia and other age-related illnesses. Design/methodology/approach: The paper highlights the need to experience recognizing learning spaces…

Liveng, Anne

2010-01-01

449

Health care costs and the socioeconomic consequences of work injuries in Brazil: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Work injuries are a worldwide public health problem but little is known about their socioeconomic impact. This prospective longitudinal study estimates the direct health care costs and socioeconomic consequences of work injuries for 406 workers identified in the emergency departments of the two largest public hospitals in Salvador, Brazil, from June through September 2005. After hospital discharge workers were followed up monthly until their return to work. Most insured workers were unaware of their rights or of how to obtain insurance benefits (81.6%). Approximately half the cases suffered loss of earnings, and women were more frequently dismissed than men. The most frequently reported family consequences were: need for a family member to act as a caregiver and difficulties with daily expenses. Total costs were US$40,077.00 but individual costs varied widely, according to injury severity. Out-of-pocket costs accounted for the highest proportion of total costs (50.5%) and increased with severity (57.6%). Most out-of-pocket costs were related to transport and purchasing medicines and other wound care products. The second largest contribution (40.6%) came from the public National Health System - SUS. Employer participation was negligible. Health care funding must be discussed to alleviate the economic burden of work injuries on workers. PMID:23803496

Santana, Vilma Sousa; Souza, Luis Eugênio Portela Fernandes de; Pinto, Isabela Cardoso de Matos

2013-01-01

450

A Survey of 63 Australian Occupational Therapists Working in Youth Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe the demographic and employment characteristics of Australian occupational therapists working in youth mental health and explore the relationship between these characteristics and the occupational therapist's role. Sixty-three occupational therapists completed a postal survey during 2006–2007. Numerical data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The majority

Laura Hardaker; Elizabeth Halcomb; Rhonda Griffiths; Natalie Bolzan; Karen Arblaster

2011-01-01

451

Barriers to Maternal Workforce Participation and Relationship between Paid Work and Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Families of children with disabilities experience extra financial strains, and mothers are frequently unable to participate in paid work because of caregiving obligations. Methods: A mailed survey and follow-up phone calls were used to gather data about mother's health, workforce participation and barriers to inclusion in the workplace…

Bourke-Taylor, H.; Howie, L.; Law, M.

2011-01-01

452

Work Attitudes, Employment Barriers, and Mental Health Symptoms in a Sample of Rural Welfare Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the extant research on welfare reform has neglected to consider the experiences of families in rural settings. Fifty women receiving welfare for their dependent children in a rural community were interviewed about their work experiences and aspirations, barriers to employment and service use, as well as mental health and social support. The findings indicate that the majority of

Lorraine C. Taylor

2001-01-01

453

A Web-Based Mental Health Program: Reaching Parents at Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The purpose of the project was to test a web-based program providing working