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Sample records for healthy danish caucasian

  1. Pharmacokinetics of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers following intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Toublanc, Nathalie; Okagaki, Takuya; Boyce, Malcolm; Chan, Robert; Mugitani, Ayumi; Watanabe, Shikiko; Yamamoto, Katsumi; Yoshida, Katsumi; Andreas, Jens-Otto

    2015-12-01

    The intravenous (iv) formulation of levetiracetam has been available in clinical practice worldwide for several years, but not in Japan. Two open-label studies were conducted: Study A evaluated the bioequivalence of iv and oral tablet formulations in healthy Japanese volunteers; and Study B subsequently compared the pharmacokinetics of iv levetiracetam in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Study A had a randomised, two-way crossover design; a single 1,500 mg levetiracetam dose was administered as a 15-min iv infusion and as 3 × 500 mg oral tablets to Japanese volunteers. In Study B, 1,500 mg levetiracetam was administered as single and repeated 15-min iv infusions to Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Overall, 26/27 volunteers completed Study A and 32/32 (16 Japanese; 16 Caucasian) completed Study B. In Study A, the point estimate and 90 % confidence interval (CI) for the geometric least squares mean (LSM) ratio (iv vs oral) were fully included within the acceptance range for bioequivalence (0.85-1.25) for the area under plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to last quantifiable observation (AUClast 0.97 [0.95, 0.99]), but not for the maximum plasma concentration (C max 1.64 [1.47, 1.83]). In Study B, after a single iv infusion, the point estimates (90 % CI) for the geometric LSM ratio (Japanese vs Caucasian) for body weight-normalised C max and AUClast were 1.21 (1.07, 1.36) and 0.97 (0.90, 1.04), respectively. Corresponding values after repeated iv infusions were C max,ss 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) and AUCτ,ss 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). Levetiracetam was well tolerated in both studies. Study A did not demonstrate the bioequivalence of single doses of levetiracetam 1,500 mg administered as an iv infusion and as oral tablets in healthy Japanese adults. Study B, however, showed that pharmacokinetic profiles were generally similar between Japanese and Caucasian adults after single and repeated iv infusions of levetiracetam 1,500 mg. PMID:25283522

  2. Pharmacokinetics of dapoxetine hydrochloride in healthy Chinese, Japanese, and Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, An; Sharma, Om; Tianmei, Si; Aquilina, Joseph W; Vandebosch, An; Wang, Shean-Sheng; Mudumbi, Ramagopal; Hsiao, Hsiu-Ling

    2010-12-01

    Dapoxetine is a short-acting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor developed for the on-demand treatment of premature ejaculation and is approved in some European Union countries, as well as Mexico and Korea, for this indication. The pharmacokinetics of dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg in healthy Chinese (single dose), Japanese, and Caucasian men (single and multiple dose) were assessed in 2 studies. In the 3 ethnic groups, dapoxetine was rapidly absorbed following oral administration, with peak plasma concentrations evident approximately 1 hour after dosing, independent of dose, dosing frequency (single or multiple dosing), or ethnicity. Dapoxetine was eliminated in a biphasic manner with an apparent mean terminal half-life of 14 to 17 hours. There was a dose-proportional increase in dapoxetine maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under concentration-time curves (AUCs). The single-dose pharmacokinetic parameters of dapoxetine metabolites were also similar for the 3 ethnic groups, as were the pharmacokinetics of dapoxetine and its metabolites following single and multiple dosing in Caucasian and Japanese men. Dapoxetine was well tolerated by all 3 ethnic groups. PMID:20097934

  3. Pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy African-American and Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Jee; Christoph, Kathy; Yu, Zhangsheng; Eigen, Howard; Tepper, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy children primarily focused upon Caucasian (C) subjects. Since lung volumes in African-Americans (AA) are smaller than lung volumes in C subjects of the same height, diffusing capacity values in AA children might be interpreted as low or abnormal using currently available equations without adjusting for race. Healthy AA (N = 151) and C (N = 301) children between 5 and 18 years of age performed acceptable measurements of single breath pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ) and alveolar volume (VA ) according to current ATS/ERS guidelines. The natural log of DLCO and VA were associated with height, gender, age, and race; AA children had lower DLCO and VA compared to C children. Adjustment of DLCO for Hemoglobin (Hgb) resulted in no significant difference in DLCO among these healthy subjects with normal Hgb. In summary, we report prediction equations for DLCO and VA that include adjustment for race (C; AA) demonstrating that AA have lower DLCO and VA compared to C children for the same height, gender, and age. PMID:25906836

  4. Lack of racial differences in the pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous golimumab in healthy Japanese and Caucasian male subjects.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jie; Lyn, Sally; Xu, Zhenhua; Achira, Meguru; Bouman-Thio, Esther; Shishido, Akira; Ford, Joyce; Shankar, Gopi; Wagner, Carrie; Kim, Kenneth T; Davis, Hugh M; Zhou, Honghui

    2010-07-01

    This phase 1 study evaluated the single-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of subcutaneous golimumab, a human anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha monoclonal antibody, in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects. Eligible subjects were males, aged 20 to 45 years, weighing 50 to 90 kg with a body mass index of 19 to 30 kg/m(2). Japanese and Caucasian subjects were matched by body weight and dose group. Blood samples were collected through day 50 following a single subcutaneous injection of golimumab 50 or 100 mg. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental method. All 51 subjects (24 Japanese, 27 Caucasian) were included in the safety analysis; 47 completed the study and were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacokinetics of golimumab were comparable in both race groups. Peak concentrations were observed approximately 4 to 6 days after administration. No significant differences in exposure or mean half-life (range, 11-13 days) were observed between Japanese and Caucasian subjects at the same dose level. Regardless of race, serum golimumab exposure increased with increasing dose. Mean apparent clearance ranged from 12 to 19 mL/kg/d. Mean apparent volume of distribution (224-262 mL/kg) remained constant with an increase in dose. No antibodies to golimumab were detected. Single subcutaneous injections of golimumab 50 mg or 100 mg were generally well tolerated in these healthy male Japanese and Caucasian subjects. PMID:20133508

  5. Bioequivalence study of 8 mg ondansetron film-coated tablets in healthy Caucasian volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rudzki, P J; Kaza, M; Leś, A; Gilant, E; Ksycińska, H; Serafin-Byczak, K; Troć, M; Raszek, J; Piątkowska-Chabuda, E; Skowrońska-Smolak, M; Tarasiuk, A; Wilkowska, E; Łazowski, T

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the bioequivalence of a generic product of 8 mg film-coated tablets (test) to the branded product (reference) at the same strength in order to apply for regulatory approval. The secondary objective of the study was to compare the tolerability of both products. A double blinded, randomized, cross-over, 2-period, comparative study was conducted in healthy Caucasian volunteers under fasting conditions. A single oral dose administration of the test or reference product was followed by a 7-day wash-out period. The ondansetron concentration was determined using a validated high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detection method. The 90% confidence interval of the point estimate (test over reference products) for C(max) and AUC(0-t) fell within the 80.00-125.00% acceptance range. The results of the study indicate that the film-coated tablets of Ondatron 8 mg manufactured by Tarchomińskie Zakłady Farmaceutyczne Polfa S.A. (test product) are bioequivalent to those of Zofran manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline Export Ltd (reference product). Both products were well tolerated. PMID:24132707

  6. The Effect of BCMO1 Gene Variants on Macular Pigment Optical Density in Young Healthy Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Kyle-Little, Zachary; Zele, Andrew J.; Morris, C. Phillip; Feigl, Beatrix

    2014-01-01

    Background: Serum lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) positively correlate with macular pigment optical density (MPOD); hence, the latter is a valuable indirect tool for measuring L and Z content in the macula. L and Z have been attributed antioxidant capacity and protection from certain retinal diseases but their uptake within the eye is thought to depend on genetic, age, and environmental factors. In particular, gene variants within beta-carotene monooxygenase (BCMO1) are thought to modulate MPOD in the macula. Objectives: To determine the effect of BCMO1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs11645428, rs6420424, and rs6564851 on MPOD in a cohort of young healthy participants of Caucasian origin with normal ocular health. Design: In this cohort study, MPOD was assessed in 46 healthy participants (22 male and 24 female) with a mean age of 23.8 ± 4.0 years (range 19–33). The three SNPs, rs11645428, rs6420424, rs6564851 that have established associations with MPOD were determined using MassEXTEND (hME) Sequenom assay. One-way analysis of variance was performed on groups segregated into homozygous and heterozygous BCMO1 genotypes. Correlations between body mass index (BMI), iris color, gender, central retinal thickness (CRT), diet, and MPOD were investigated. Results: Macular pigment optical density neither significantly varied with BCMO1 rs11645428 (F2,41 = 0.70, p = 0.503), rs6420424 (F2,41 = 0.21, p = 0.801) nor rs6464851 homozygous or heterozygous genotypes (F2,41 = 0,13, p = 0.88), in this young healthy cohort. The combination of these three SNPs into triple genotypes based on plasma conversion efficiency did not affect MPOD (F2,41 = 0.07, p = 0.9). There was a significant negative correlation with MPOD and CRT (r = −0.39, p = 0.01) but no significant correlation between BMI, iris color, gender, and MPOD. Conclusion: Our results indicate that macular pigment deposition within the central retina is not dependent on

  7. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of rotigotine transdermal system in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects following multiple-dose administration.

    PubMed

    Cawello, Willi; Kim, Seong Ryul; Braun, Marina; Elshoff, Jan-Peer; Masahiro, Takeuchi; Ikeda, Junji; Funaki, Tomoo

    2016-08-01

    Rotigotine is a dopamine receptor agonist indicated for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and moderate-to-severe restless legs syndrome. Continuous transdermal delivery of rotigotine via a silicon-based patch maintains stable plasma concentrations over 24 h. The objective of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of a multiple-dose schedule of rotigotine transdermal patch in Japanese and Caucasian subjects. In this open-label, repeated-dose, parallel-group study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01854216), healthy male and female subjects of Japanese or Caucasian ethnic origin were matched by gender, body mass index, and age. Subjects underwent a 9-day patch application period. 12 Japanese and 12 Caucasian subjects were included in the pharmacokinetic analyses. Mean apparent doses (actual amount of drug delivered) increased proportionally with rotigotine nominal dosages (1, 2, and 4 mg/24 h) and were similar for both ethnic groups, with large inter-individual variability. Mean plasma concentration-time profiles for unconjugated rotigotine were similar in both ethnic groups at day 3 for each dosage. Peak concentrations (C max,ss) and area under the concentration-time curves from pre-dose to the concentration measured 24 h after administration of patch (AUC(0-24,ss)) showed similar exposure in both groups; higher values in Japanese subjects were explained by differences in body weight. For total rotigotine, C max,ss and AUC(0-24,ss) values were higher in Caucasian subjects and could be explained by small differences in apparent dose. Rotigotine was generally well tolerated following multiple applications up to 4 mg/24 h. These findings suggest similar dosage requirements for rotigotine transdermal system in Japanese and Caucasian populations. PMID:25773763

  8. Physiological changes due to mild cooling in healthy lean males of white Caucasian and South Asian descent: A metabolomics study.

    PubMed

    Nahon, Kimberly J; Boon, Mariëtte R; Bakker, Leontine E H; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; Jazet, Ingrid M; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Rensen, Patrick C N; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O

    2016-01-01

    During mild cold exposure, non-shivering thermogenesis increases to maintain core body temperature by increasing utilization of substrates, especially fatty acids (FA), ultimately affecting lipid-associated metabolites. We aimed to investigate whether mild cooling induces changes in other metabolites and whether this response differs between white Caucasians and South Asians, who have a disadvantageous metabolic phenotype. 12 lean male Dutch white Caucasians and 12 matched Dutch South Asians were exposed to mild cold. Before and after 100 min exposure, serum samples were collected for analysis of 163 metabolites and 27 derived parameters using high throughput metabolomics. The overall response to mild cooling between both ethnicities was not different, therefore the data were pooled. After Bonferroni correction, mild cooling significantly changed 44 of 190 (23%) metabolic parameters. Specifically, cooling increased 19 phosphatidylcholine (PC) species, only those containing very long chain FAs, and increased the total class of PC containing mono-unsaturated FAs (+12.5%). Furthermore, cooling increased 10 sphingomyelin species as well as the amino acids glutamine (+18.7%), glycine (+11.6%) and histidine (+10.6%), and decreased short-chain (C3 and C4) acylcarnitines (-17.1% and -19.4%, respectively). In conclusion, mild cooling elicits substantial effects on serum metabolites in healthy males, irrespective of white Caucasian or South Asian ethnicity. PMID:26384768

  9. Two independent apolipoprotein A5 haplotypes modulate postprandial lipoprotein metabolism in a healthy Caucasian population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) plays an important role in plasma triacylglycerol (TG) homeostasis. Five polymorphisms (1131T>C, c.-3A>G, c.56C>G, IVS3+476G>A, c.1259T>C) in the APOA5 gene define three common haplotypes (APOA5'1, APOA5'2 and APOA5'3) in Caucasian individuals. Our aim was to de...

  10. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…

  11. Age and sex differences in tibia morphology in healthy adult Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D.; Bemben, Debra A.; Bemben, Michael G.; Anderson, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) measurement sites limits direct comparisons of results between studies. Further, it is unclear what estimates of bone strength are most indicative of changes due to aging, disease, or interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine age group and sex differences in tibia morphology. Additional purposes of this study were to determine which tibia site or sites are most sensitive for detecting age and sex differences. Methods Self-identifying Caucasian men (n=55) and women (n=59) ages 20-59 years and separated by decades had their non-dominant tibias measured with pQCT (Stratec XCT 3000) at every 10% of the limb length from 5%-85% (distal to proximal). Volumetric BMD and BMC of the total, cortical and trabecular bone were determined, as well as periosteal (PeriC) and endosteal (EndoC) circumferences, and cortical thickness (CTh). Results There were significant (p<0.01) site effects for all BMC, vBMD, PeriC and EndoC measures. Large sex differences (men>women) in Tot.BMC (21-28%) were paralleled by differences in Cort.BMC (21-25%) (p<0.01). Site*sex interaction effects were significant (p<0.05) for BMC (peak sex difference: 5%, 15%, 25%, 85% sites) and circumference (peak sex difference: 65% site) variables. CTh and total vBMD were lowest (p<0.05) in 50-59 yr group, and EndoC was highest in the 50-59 yr group. Site*age interactions existed for Cort.vBMD, Tot.BMC (85% site), and EndoC (25%, 35%, 55%-85% sites). Correcting for bone free lean body mass (BFLBM) greatly reduced sex differences, eliminating sex*site interaction effects, but sex main effects remained significant. Correcting for BFLBM did not eliminate age effects. Conclusion The magnitude of age and sex differences in tibia variables varied by measurement site demonstrating the need for standardization of measurement sites. PMID:22449446

  12. Sleep and Respiration in 100 Healthy Caucasian Sleepers—A Polysomnographic Study According to American Academy of Sleep Medicine Standards

    PubMed Central

    Mitterling, Thomas; Högl, Birgit; Schönwald, Suzana Veiga; Hackner, Heinz; Gabelia, David; Biermayr, Marlene; Frauscher, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    T, Högl B, Schönwald SV, Hackner H, Gabelia D, Biermayr M, Frauscher B. Sleep and respiration in 100 healthy Caucasian sleepers—a polysomnographic study according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine standards. SLEEP 2015;38(6):867–875. PMID:25515109

  13. Common Variants in CYP2R1 and GC Genes Predict Vitamin D Concentrations in Healthy Danish Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Janna; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Hansen, Bettina; Andersen, Rikke; Mejborn, Heddie; Madsen, Katja Howarth; Vogel, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors such as diet, intake of vitamin D supplements and exposure to sunlight are known to influence serum vitamin D concentrations. Genetic epidemiology of vitamin D is in its infancy and a better understanding on how genetic variation influences vitamin D concentration is needed. We aimed to analyse previously reported vitamin D-related polymorphisms in relation to serum 25(OH)D concentrations in 201 healthy Danish families with dependent children in late summer in Denmark. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations and a total of 25 SNPs in GC, VDR, CYP2R1, CYP24A1, CYP27B1, C10or88 and DHCR7/NADSYN1 genes were analysed in 758 participants. Genotype distributions were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium for the adult population for all the studied polymorphisms. Four SNPs in CYP2R1 (rs1562902, rs7116978, rs10741657 and rs10766197) and six SNPs in GC (rs4588, rs842999, rs2282679, rs12512631, rs16846876 and rs17467825) were statistically significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations in children, adults and all combined. Several of the SNPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium, and the associations were driven by CYP2R1-rs10741657 and rs10766197, and by GC-rs4588 and rs842999. Genetic risk score analysis showed that carriers with no risk alleles of CYP2R1-rs10741657 and rs10766197, and/or GC rs4588 and rs842999 had significantly higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations compared to carriers of all risk alleles. To conclude, our results provide supporting evidence that common polymorphisms in GC and CYP2R1 are associated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations in the Caucasian population and that certain haplotypes may predispose to lower 25(OH)D concentrations in late summer in Denmark. PMID:24587115

  14. A risky occupation? (Un)healthy lifestyle behaviors among Danish seafarers.

    PubMed

    Hjarnoe, Lulu; Leppin, Anja

    2014-12-01

    Sedentary working conditions, smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lack of exercise are some of the lifestyle risk factors that form a potentially growing problem for seafarers within certain parts of the maritime sector creating a heightened risk for chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Health promotion initiatives to combat this negative development requires as a first step identifying the magnitude of the different risk factors. A survey was conducted in 2007-08 with two Danish shipping companies on seafarers' health, wellbeing, diet, smoking and physical activity. In addition, a health profile was offered to the respondents, consisting of physiological measurements, such as fitness rating, body mass index (BMI), cholesterol measurement and blood pressure. The response rate in the questionnaire study was 57% (n = 360) of which 76% (n = 272) of the respondents received a health profile. Results (males) showed 44% daily smokers compared with 32% in the general Danish adult male population. Twenty-five percent of the seafarers were obese with a BMI > 30 compared with 12% of the Danish adult male population. Fifty-one percent of the respondents were defined as having metabolic syndrome, compared with 20% of the Danish adult male population. Seafaring is a risky occupation when looking at the seafarers' health and wellbeing. The results of this survey confirm the need for health promotion interventions such as smoking cessation courses, healthy cooking courses and physical exercise programs, etc. that can enable healthier lifestyle. The challenge will be to take into account the special seafaring conditions when implementing the interventions. PMID:23630132

  15. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18-83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D₂O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry). High metabolic rate organs (HMR) summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM) in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels) explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i) decreases in fat free mass; (ii) a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii) decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the REE

  16. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18–83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D2O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry). High metabolic rate organs (HMR) summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM) in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels) explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i) decreases in fat free mass; (ii) a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii) decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the REE

  17. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Penny; Whitnell, Jasmine; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot). Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%). Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18–56) years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92–0.95; pain rating r = 0.93–0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87–0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%). Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add validity

  18. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    PubMed

    Moss, Penny; Whitnell, Jasmine; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot). Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%). Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56) years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%). Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add validity and

  19. The inhibition by levocetirizine and fexofenadine of the histamine-induced wheal and flare response in healthy Caucasian and Japanese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Schoepke, Nicole; Church, Martin K; Maurer, Marcus

    2013-05-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study compared inhibition by one 5 mg dose of levocetirizine with two 60 mg doses of fexofenadine separated by 12 h of histamine-induced wheal and flare responses in 9 Caucasian and 9 Japanese healthy male volunteers. Levocetirizine was more inhibitory than fexofenadine on wheal, flare and pruritus (p < 0.005). Variability, evaluated from the standard deviation of inhibition, ranged from 14% to 23.2% for levocetirizine and 65.4% to 112.4% for fexofenadine. Levocetirizine had a faster onset of action (30-90 min versus 2 h), shorter time to maximum effect (3-4 versus 3-6 h) and longer duration of action (at least 24 h versus ~12 h) than fexofenadine. The plasma levels of levocetirizine rose more quickly, reached higher levels, were more consistent and decreased slower than those of fexofenadine. There were no clinically significant ethnic differences in responsiveness to the drugs. PMID:23147964

  20. Searching for Lower Female Genital Tract Soluble and Cellular Biomarkers: Defining Levels and Predictors in a Cohort of Healthy Caucasian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kyongo, Jordan K.; Jespers, Vicky; Goovaerts, Odin; Michiels, Johan; Menten, Joris; Fichorova, Raina N.; Crucitti, Tania; Vanham, Guido; Ariën, Kevin K.

    2012-01-01

    Background High concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been previously observed in the genital fluids of women enrolled in microbicide trials and may explain observed increased HIV transmission in some of these trials. Although the longitudinal nature of these studies allows within-subject comparisons of post-product levels to baseline levels, the fact that the physiologic variations of these cytokines and other markers of immune activation are not fully defined in different populations, makes it difficult to assess changes that can be directly attributed to microbicide use as opposed to other biological and behavioural factors. Methods Cervicovaginal lavage samples were collected from 30 healthy Caucasian and assayed for concentrations of ten cytokines/chemokines, total protein content and two antimicrobial proteins using a multiplex immunoassay and ELISA. Cellular markers were characterized by flow cytometry on mononuclear cells collected from the endocervix using flocked swabs. Bacterial quantification was performed using quantitative PCR. Results Ectopy, menstrual cycle phase, prostate-specific antigen and presence of leucocytes in endocervical cells' supernatant were associated with the concentrations of cyto-/chemokines in cervicovaginal secretions. Approximately 3% of endocervical cells collected were monocytes of which a median of 52% (SD  = 17) expressed both CD4 and CCR5 markers. Approximately 1% of the total cells were T-cells with a median of 61% (SD  = 10) CD4 and CCR5 expression. Around 5% of the monocytes and 16% of the T-cells expressed the immune activation marker HLA-DR. Higher percentages of T-cells were associated with greater quantities of IL-1RA, GM-CSF and elafin. Conclusion We demonstrate the presence of selected soluble and cellular immune activation markers and identify their predictors in the female genital tract of healthy women. Future clinical trials should consider ectopy, sexual activity, menstrual cycle phase and

  1. Microbial and dietary factors associated with the 8-prenylnaringenin producer phenotype: a dietary intervention trial with fifty healthy post-menopausal Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Bolca, Selin; Possemiers, Sam; Maervoet, Veerle; Huybrechts, Inge; Heyerick, Arne; Vervarcke, Stefaan; Depypere, Herman; De Keukeleire, Denis; Bracke, Marc; De Henauw, Stefaan; Verstraete, Willy; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2007-11-01

    Hop-derived food supplements and beers contain the prenylflavonoids xanthohumol (X), isoxanthohumol (IX) and the very potent phyto-oestrogen (plant-derived oestrogen mimic) 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN). The weakly oestrogenic IX can be bioactivated via O-demethylation to 8-PN. Since IX usually predominates over 8-PN, human subjects may be exposed to increased doses of 8-PN. A dietary intervention trial with fifty healthy post-menopausal Caucasian women was undertaken. After a 4 d washout period, participants delivered faeces, blank urine and breath samples. Next, they started a 5 d treatment with hop-based supplements that were administered three times per d and on the last day, a 24 h urine sample was collected. A semi-quantitative FFQ was used to estimate fat, fibre, alcohol, caffeine and theobromine intakes. The recoveries of IX, 8-PN and X in the urine were low and considerable inter-individual variations were observed. A five-fold increase in the dosage of IX without change in 8-PN concentration resulted in a significant lower IX recovery and a higher 8-PN recovery. Classification of the subjects into poor (60%), moderate (25%) and strong (15%) 8-PN producers based on either urinary excretion or microbial bioactivation capacity gave comparable results. Recent antibiotic therapy seemed to affect the 8-PN production negatively. A positive trend between methane excretion and 8-PN production was observed. Strong 8-PN producers consumed less alcohol and had a higher theobromine intake. From this study we conclude that in vivo O-demethylation of IX increases the oestrogenic potency of hop-derived products. PMID:17521469

  2. Phthalate Excretion Pattern and Testicular Function: A Study of 881 Healthy Danish Men

    PubMed Central

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Lauritsen, Mette Petri; Olesen, Inge Ahlmann; Lassen, Tina Harmer; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Background: In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function. Objectives: We aimed to provide estimates of the effects of phthalate exposure on reproductive hormone levels and semen quality in healthy men. Methods: A total of 881 men gave urine, serum, and semen samples. Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and inhibin-B; semen quality; and urinary concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites, including metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), were assessed. The proportions of DEHP and DiNP excreted as their respective primary metabolites [mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP)] were calculated and expressed as percentages (%MEHP and %MiNP, respectively). Results: The free androgen index was 15% lower [95% confidence interval (CI): –23, –8%] for men in the highest %MiNP quartile compared to the lowest quartile (p < 0.001) after adjusting for confounders, and 9% lower (95% CI: –16, –1%) in the highest %MEHP quartile (p = 0.02). %MEHP and %MiNP were negatively associated with the ratio of testosterone/LH and testosterone/FSH. %MEHP was negatively associated with total testosterone, free testosterone, and ratio of testosterone/E2. %MiNP was positively associated with SHBG. There was little evidence of associations between urinary phthalate metabolites or sums of phthalates with reproductive hormones or semen quality Conclusion: Our data suggest that both testosterone production and pituitary–hypothalamic feedback may be compromised in individuals excreting a high proportion of primary metabolites of long-chained phthalates relative to the proportion of secondary metabolites. PMID:22832070

  3. Studies of mefloquine bioavailability and kinetics using a stable isotope technique: a comparison of Thai patients with falciparum malaria and healthy Caucasian volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Looareesuwan, S; White, N J; Warrell, D A; Forgo, I; Dubach, U G; Ranalder, U B; Schwartz, D E

    1987-01-01

    1 A mefloquine hydrochloride tablet (250 mg base equivalent to 4.8 +/- 0.6 mg kg-1; mean +/- s.d.) and deuterium labelled mefloquine hydrochloride solution (250 mg base) were given to six adult male Thai patients with acute falciparum malaria and six healthy Swiss adult male volunteers (equivalent to 3.5 +/- 0.1 mg kg-1). 2 The relative bioavailability of the tablet formulation derived from comparison of the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves was similar in both groups; 87 +/- 11% and 89 +/- 10% (mean +/- s.d.). 3 The rate of drug absorption appeared to be similar in the two groups but peak plasma mefloquine concentrations were approximately three times higher in the Thai patients (1004 +/- 276 ng ml-1 for the tablet and 1085 +/- 280 ng ml-1 for the suspension) compared with the Swiss volunteers (319 +/- 73 ng ml-1 for the tablet, and 369 +/- 121 ng ml-1 for the suspension). 4 Estimates of the oral clearance CLpo of unlabelled mefloquine were significantly lower (17.5 +/- 4.4 ml h-1 kg-1) in the Thai patients compared with 28.8 +/- 3.5 ml h-1 kg-1 in the Swiss volunteers; P less than 0.05). Terminal elimination half-lives were significantly shorter in the patients (10.3 +/- 2.5 days) than in the volunteers (16.7 +/- 1.9 days; P less than 0.005). Differences of a similar magnitude were observed when comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters derived from the deuteromefloquine plasma concentrations. 5 Both genetic and disease related factors are likely to account for the large pharmacokinetic differences between the two groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3304385

  4. Effect of organic school meals to promote healthy diet in 11-13 year old children. A mixed methods study in four Danish public schools.

    PubMed

    He, Chen; Breiting, Soren; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether organic school meals can be an effective strategy to provide healthy food to children and promote their healthy eating habits. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine pupils' attitudes predicting intention and behaviours in relation to organic food and health. An observational cross-sectional study was designed, and the participants were 6th grade Danish pupils from two schools with organic food provision and two schools with non-organic food provision. The pupils were asked to complete an online adapted food frequency questionnaire, after which selected pupils were invited to focus group interviews. More positive school lunch habits were observed in pupils in the organic schools than in the non-organic schools. Generally all the pupils had positive attitudes towards organic food and health and this had a significant impact on their intention to consume organic food but not on their behaviour. In addition, all participants were willing to adopt healthier eating habits in the future both at school and in the home. These findings suggest that children attending schools where meals include organic ingredients might be more aware of healthy foods, organic foods and healthy eating habits. PMID:22963739

  5. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type-2 Diabetes—The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lacoppidan, Sandra Amalie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Loft, Steffen; Helnæs, Anne; Christensen, Jane; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type-2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Lifestyle factors, in particular obesity, diet, and physical activity play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. Of dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet has been studied, and generally a protective association has been identified. However, other regional diets are less explored. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and the risk of T2D. The index consists of six food items: fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables. Methods: Data was obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50–64 years, at baseline, of whom 7366 developed T2D (median follow-up: 15.3 years). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between the healthy Nordic food index and risk of T2D, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Greater adherence to the healthy Nordic food index was significantly associated with lower risk of T2D after adjusting for potential confounders. An index score of 5−6 points (high adherence) was associated with a statistically significantly 25% lower T2D risk in women (HR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.61–0.92) and 38% in men (HR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.53–0.71) compared to those with an index score of 0 points (poor adherence). Conclusion: Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was found to be inversely associated with risk of T2D, suggesting that regional diets other than the Mediterranean may also be recommended for prevention of T2D. PMID:26506373

  6. Desipramine pharmacokinetics in Chinese and Caucasian volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Rudorfer, M V; Lane, E A; Chang, W H; Zhang, M D; Potter, W Z

    1984-01-01

    In order to better define the role of pharmacokinetic variation in reported cross-ethnic differences in dosing patterns of some psychoactive drugs, single dose kinetics of the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine (DMI) were studied in 14 Chinese and 16 Caucasian healthy volunteers. DMI and 2-OH-DMI concentrations were assayed with h.p.l.c. in serial plasma and 24 h urine samples over 5 days following an oral 100 mg dose of DMI. Mean total clearance of DMI ( CLDMI ) from plasma was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in the Caucasians (123 +/- 57 l/h) than in the Chinese (73.5 +/- 38.8 l/h). There was no significant difference in the apparent clearance of DMI by hydroxylation, fraction of dose metabolized to the hydroxy metabolite, DMI t1/2 or plasma protein binding between the two groups. Trimodal distribution of CLDMI was found, with 4/14 (29%) Chinese demonstrating slow CL (less than 33 l/h) and 4/16 (25%) Caucasians rapid CL (greater than 195 l/h). Correcting CL values for the greater mean weight of the Caucasians did not alter the pattern of distribution. CLDMI did not correlate with body weight. Although environmental factors cannot be ruled out, these results are consistent with genetically based differences in hepatic metabolism, probably affecting pathways in addition to hydroxylation, and suggest that 30% of Orientals would be at risk for toxicity from routine doses of tricyclics or similarly metabolized drugs. PMID:6721989

  7. Combined Oral Contraception and Obesity Are Strong Predictors of Low-Grade Inflammation in Healthy Individuals: Results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS)

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Cecilie J.; Pedersen, Ole B.; Petersen, Mikkel S.; Sørensen, Erik; Kotzé, Sebastian; Thørner, Lise W.; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rigas, Andreas S.; Møller, Bjarne; Rostgaard, Klaus; Riiskjær, Mads; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI), is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors. Methods We measured plasma CRP levels in 15,684 participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study. CRP was measured by a commercial assay. Furthermore, all participants completed a standard questionnaire on smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet, and various body measurements. Female participants also reported the use of contraception, childbirth, and menopausal status. The relationship between LGI (defined here as a plasma CRP level between 3 mg/L and 10 mg/L) and predictors was explored by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results were presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We found LGI in a total of 1,561 (10.0%) participants. LGI was more frequent in women using combined oral contraception (OC) (29.9%) than in men (6.1%) and women not using OC (7.9%). Among premenopausal women, OC was the strongest predictor of LGI (odds ratio = 8.98, p<0.001). Additionally, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were positively associated with LGI. Conclusion High BMI and abdominal obesity strongly predicted LGI among healthy individuals. However, the most striking finding was the high prevalence of LGI among premenopausal women who used combined oral contraception. Although the significance of CRP as a marker of inflammation is well known, the role of CRP in pathogenesis is still uncertain. The impact of oral contraception on CRP levels should nevertheless be considered when CRP is used in risk assessment. PMID:24516611

  8. The dermatoglyphics of American Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Plato, C C; Cereghino, J J; Steinberg, F S

    1975-03-01

    Digital and palmar dermatoglyphics were collected from 360 male and 360 female seven year old Caucasians from the greater Boston area. All participants were screened and found to be free of minor anomalies or chronic diseases. All individuals with I. Q. scores below 70 were also excluded. The results were presented in such a way as to give information on bilateral symmetry as well as overall frequencies of the various dermatoglyphic features. The results were compared with those of the corresponding sample of seven year old normal male and female Negroes of the accompanying report. A review of the distribution of the dermatoglyphic features in different Caucasian populations has also been presented and the overall dermatoglyphics of the Caucasians were discussed in reference to the distribution of the same features in the other major "racial" groups. The method of collection and selection of the subjects, described in the text, makes this set of data unique and one of the most suitable for use as controls in studying the dermatoglyphics of the individuals with diseases or congenital anomalies. PMID:1119541

  9. New Nordic Diet versus Average Danish Diet: A Randomized Controlled Trial Revealed Healthy Long-Term Effects of the New Nordic Diet by GC-MS Blood Plasma Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco; Acar, Evrim; Gürdeniz, Gözde; Larsen, Thomas M; Astrup, Arne; Dragsted, Lars O; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-06-01

    A previous study has shown effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) to stimulate weight loss and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obese Danish women and men in a randomized, controlled dietary intervention study. This work demonstrates long-term metabolic effects of the NND as compared with an Average Danish Diet (ADD) in blood plasma and reveals associations between metabolic changes and health beneficial effects of the NND including weight loss. A total of 145 individuals completed the intervention and blood samples were taken along with clinical examinations before the intervention started (week 0) and after 12 and 26 weeks. The plasma metabolome was measured using GC-MS, and the final metabolite table contained 144 variables. Significant and novel metabolic effects of the diet, resulting weight loss, gender, and intervention study season were revealed using PLS-DA and ASCA. Several metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects, higher levels of vaccenic acid and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic, and N-aspartic acids and 1,5-anhydro-d-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy diets high in fish, vegetables, fruit, and whole grain facilitated weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity by increasing ketosis and gluconeogenesis in the fasting state. PMID:27146725

  10. Abundance of Hepatic Transporters in Caucasians: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Burt, Howard J; Riedmaier, Arian Emami; Harwood, Matthew D; Crewe, H Kim; Gill, Katherine L; Neuhoff, Sibylle

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to derive quantitative abundance values for key hepatic transporters suitable for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation within a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework. A meta-analysis was performed whereby data on abundance measurements, sample preparation methods, and donor demography were collated from the literature. To define values for a healthy Caucasian population, a subdatabase was created whereby exclusion criteria were applied to remove samples from non-Caucasian individuals, those with underlying disease, or those with subcellular fractions other than crude membrane. Where a clinically relevant active genotype was known, only samples from individuals with an extensive transporter phenotype were included. Authors were contacted directly when additional information was required. After removing duplicated samples, the weighted mean, geometric mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and between-study homogeneity of transporter abundances were determined. From the complete database containing 24 transporters, suitable abundance data were available for 11 hepatic transporters from nine studies after exclusion criteria were applied. Organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 showed the highest population abundance in healthy adult Caucasians. For several transporters, the variability in abundance was reduced significantly once the exclusion criteria were applied. The highest variability was observed for OATP1B3 > OATP1B1 > multidrug resistance protein 2 > multidrug resistance gene 1. No relationship was found between transporter expression and donor age. To our knowledge, this study provides the first in-depth analysis of current quantitative abundance data for a wide range of hepatic transporters, with the aim of using these data for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, and highlights the significance of investigating the background of tissue(s) used in quantitative transporter proteomic studies. Similar

  11. Craniofacial characteristics of Caucasian and Afro-Caucasian Brazilian subjects with normal occlusion

    PubMed Central

    JANSON, Guilherme; QUAGLIO, Camila Leite; PINZAN, Arnaldo; FRANCO, Eduardo Jacomino; de FREITAS, Marcos Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the skeletal, dental and soft tissue characteristics of Caucasian and Afro-Caucasian Brazilian subjects with normal occlusion and to evaluate sexual dimorphism within the groups. Material and Methods The sample comprised lateral cephalograms of untreated normal occlusion subjects, divided into 2 groups. Group 1 included 40 Caucasian subjects (20 of each sex), with a mean age of 13.02 years; group 2 included 40 Afro-Caucasian subjects (20 of each sex), with a mean age of 13.02 years. Groups 1 and 2 and males and females within each group were compared with t tests. Results Afro-Caucasian subjects presented greater maxillary protrusion, smaller upper anterior face height and lower posterior face height, larger upper posterior face height, greater maxillary and mandibular dentoalveolar protrusion as well as soft tissue protrusion than Caucasian subjects. The Afro-Caucasian female subjects had less mandibular protrusion and smaller total posterior facial height and upper posterior facial height than males. Conclusions Brazilian Afro-Caucasian subjects have greater dentoalveolar and soft tissue protrusion than Brazilian Caucasian subjects, with slight sexual dimorphism in some variables. PMID:21552712

  12. Vitamin D status and its determinants during autumn in children at northern latitudes: a cross-sectional analysis from the optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads F; Ritz, Christian; Kjølbæk, Louise; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2016-01-28

    Sufficient summer/autumn vitamin D status appears important to mitigate winter nadirs at northern latitudes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate autumn vitamin D status and its determinants in 782 Danish 8-11-year-old children (55°N) using baseline data from the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, a large randomised controlled trial. Blood samples and demographic and behavioural data, including 7-d dietary recordings, objectively measured physical activity, and time spent outdoors during school hours, were collected during September-November. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was 60·8 (sd 18·7) nmol/l. Serum 25(OH)D levels ≤50 nmol/l were found in 28·4 % of the children and 2·4 % had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Upon multivariate adjustment, increasing age (per year) (β -2·9; 95 % CI -5·1, -0·7 nmol/l), female sex (β -3·3; 95 % CI -5·9, -0·7 nmol/l), sampling in October (β -5·2; 95 % CI -10·1, -0·4 nmol/l) and November (β -13·3; 95 % CI -17·7, -9·1), and non-white ethnicity (β -5·7; 95 % CI -11·1, -0·3 nmol/l) were negatively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). Likewise, immigrant/descendant background was negatively associated with 25(OH)D, particularly in females (β -16·3; 95 % CI -21·9, -10·7) (P<0·001) (P interaction=0·003). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (min/d) (β 0·06; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·12), outdoor walking during school hours (min/week) (β 0·4; 95 % CI 0·1, 0·6) and intake of vitamin D-containing supplements ≥3 d/week (β 8·7; 95 % CI 6·4, 11·0) were positively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). The high proportion of children with vitamin D status below the recommended sufficiency level of 50 nmol/l raises concern as levels expectedly drop further during winter months. Frequent intake of vitamin D supplements was strongly associated with status. MVPA and outdoor activity during school

  13. Assessing inflammatory bowel disease-associated antibodies in Caucasian and First Nations cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Charles N; El-Gabalawy, Hani; Sargent, Michael; Landers, Carol J; Rawsthorne, Patricia; Elias, Brenda; Targan, Stephan R

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: First Nation populations in Canada have a very low incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Based on typical infections in this population, it is plausible that the First Nations react differently to microbial antigens with a different antibody response pattern, which may shed some light as to why they experience a low rate of IBD. OBJECTIVE: To compare the positivity rates of antibodies known to be associated with IBD in Canadian First Nations compared with a Canadian Caucasian population. METHODS: Subjects with Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis (UC), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (as an immune disease control) and healthy controls without a personal or family history of chronic immune diseases, were enrolled in a cohort study aimed to determine differences between First Nations and Caucasians with IBD or RA. Serum from a random sample of these subjects (n=50 for each of First Nations with RA, First Nations controls, Caucasians with RA, Caucasians with Crohn’s disease, Caucasians with UC and Caucasians controls, and as many First Nations with either Crohn’s disease or UC as could be enrolled) was analyzed in the laboratory for the following antibodies: perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA), and four Crohn’s disease-associated antibodies including anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the outer membrane porin C of Escherichia coli, I2 – a fragment of bacterial DNA associated with Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the bacterial flagellin CBir-1. The rates of positive antibody responses and mean titres among positive results were compared. RESULTS: For pANCA, First Nations had a positivity rate of 55% in those with UC, 32% in healthy controls and 48% in those with RA. The pANCA positivity rate was 32% among Caucasians with RA. The rates of the Crohn’s disease-associated antibodies for the First Nations and Caucasians were comparable. Among First Nations, up to one in four healthy controls were positive for any one of the Crohn

  14. Large D-Dimer Fluctuation in Normal Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of 4,117 Samples from 714 Healthy Danish Women

    PubMed Central

    Hedengran, Katrine K.; Andersen, Malene R.; Stender, Steen; Szecsi, Pal B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. D-dimer levels increase throughout pregnancy, hampering the usefulness of the conventional threshold for dismissing thromboembolism. This study investigates the biological fluctuation of D-dimer in normal pregnancy. Methods. A total of 801 healthy women with expected normal pregnancies were recruited. D-dimer was repeatedly measured during pregnancy, at active labor, and on the first and second postpartum days. Percentiles for each gestational week were calculated. Each individual D-dimer was normalized by transformation into percentiles for the relevant gestational age or delivery group. The range in percentage points during the pregnancy and the delivery was calculated, and reference intervals were calculated for each pregnancy trimester, during vaginal delivery and scheduled and emergency cesarean section, and for the first and second day postpartum. Results. D-dimer increased during pregnancy; the maximal fluctuation was approximately 20 percentile points in approximately half of the women. In one out of ten women, the D-dimer values fluctuated by more than 50 percentile points. Conclusions. Due to the biological variation in D-dimer within each individual woman during normal pregnancy, repeated D-dimer measurements are of no clinical use in the evaluation of thromboembolic events during pregnancy. PMID:27190521

  15. Diet-induced changes in iron and n-3 fatty acid status and associations with cognitive performance in 8-11-year-old Danish children: secondary analyses of the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise Bergmann; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Petersen, Rikke Agnete; Egelund, Niels; Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Stark, Ken D; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim Fleisher; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-11-28

    Fe and n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) have both been associated with cognition, but evidence remains inconclusive in well-nourished school-aged children. In the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, the 3-month intervention increased reading performance, inattention, impulsivity and dietary intake of fish and Fe. This study investigated whether the intervention influenced n-3 LCPUFA and Fe status and, if so, explored how these changes correlated with the changes in cognitive performance. The study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial comparing school meals with packed lunch (control). At baseline and after each treatment, we measured serum ferritin, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA and Hb, and performance in reading, mathematics and d2-test of attention. Data were analysed using mixed models (n 726) and principal component analysis of test performances (n 644), which showed two main patterns: 'school performance' and 'reading comprehension'. The latter indicated that children with good reading comprehension were also more inattentive and impulsive (i.e. higher d2-test error%). The intervention improved 'school performance' (P=0·015), 'reading comprehension' (P=0·043) and EPA+DHA status 0·21 (95% CI 0·15, 0·27) w/w % (P<0·001), but it did not affect serum ferritin or Hb. At baseline, having small Fe stores was associated with poorer 'school performance' in girls, but with better 'reading comprehension' in both boys and girls. Both baseline EPA+DHA status and the intervention-induced increase in EPA+DHA status was positively associated with 'school performance', suggesting that n-3 LCPUFA could potentially explain approximately 20 % of the intervention effect. These exploratory associations indicate that increased fish intake might explain some of the increase in reading performance and inattention in the study. PMID:26359192

  16. Detection and characterization of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Balcells, Georgina; Pozo, Oscar J; Garrostas, Lorena; Esquivel, Argitxu; Matabosch, Xavier; Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; Joglar, Jesús; Ventura, Rosa

    2016-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic testosterone derivatives which undergo extensive metabolism in man. Differences in the excretion of phase II metabolites are strongly associated with inter-individual and inter-ethnic variations. Sulfate metabolites have been described as long-term metabolites for some AAS. Clostebol is the 4-chloro derivative of testosterone and the aim of the present study was the evaluation of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population by LC-MS/MS technology. Clostebol was orally administered to four healthy Caucasian male volunteers, and excretion study urines were collected up to 31 days. Several analytical strategies (neutral loss scan, precursor ion scan and selected reaction monitoring acquisitions modes) were applied to detect sulfate metabolites in post-administration samples. Sixteen sulfate metabolites were detected, five of them having detectability times above 10 days (S1a, S2a, S3b, S3g and S4b). Interestingly, metabolite S1a could be detected up to the last collected sample of all excretion studies and it was characterized by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS as 4ξ-chloro-5α-androst-3β-ol-17-one 3β-sulfate. Thus, monitoring of S1a improves the detection time of clostebol misuse with respect to the commonly monitored metabolites, excreted in the glucuronide fraction. Importantly, this new metabolite can be incorporated into recently developed LC-MS/MS screening methods base on the direct detection of phase II metabolites. PMID:27085012

  17. Japanese vs. Caucasian Intelligence and Social Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagoshi, Craig T.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a series of studies from the Hawaii Family Study of Cognition on possible genetic and social environmental determinants of individual differences in and racial/ethnic differences between groups on intelligence and attainment. These studies, which focused on Japanese and Caucasian Americans, illustrate the complex, interactive, and…

  18. Bathing Epilepsy: Report of Three Caucasian Cases

    PubMed Central

    Dashi, Florian; Seferi, Arsen; Rroji, Arben; Enesi, Eugen; Petrela, Mentor

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bathing epilepsy is a specific type of reflex epilepsy triggered by domestic bathing in water. It is a geographically specific epilepsy syndrome that is more prevalent in India Cases in Caucasian population are very rarely reported. These cases share many similar clinical features and a similar prognosis to the Indian cases. Case report: We describe three cases of bathing epilepsy in Albanian population; two cases with well controlled seizures and one with drug-resistant seizures. PMID:26005279

  19. The Caucasian oil and gas province

    SciTech Connect

    Adamia, S.H.; Akhvlediani, K.; Chabukiant, A. ); Kilasonia, V. )

    1991-08-01

    The Caucasus lies between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east. The main morphological elements of the Caucasus are the mountain ranges of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, which are divided by the Rioni (Colchis) and Kura intermontane troughs and the pre-Caucasian plain and Araks Depression. The tectonic features of the region result from its position between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. Two tectonic units of the highest order are distinguished within its limits, the young Scythian platform in the north and the Alpine fold belt in the south. Oil and gas deposits have been found only in the lowlands of the Caucasus, in the pre-Caucasian foreland, and within the Transcaucasian intermontane depressions. The North Caucasian province is made up of the Scythian platform and the marginal troughs of the Alpine Greater Caucasus. Oil and gas accumulations occur at all levels within the sedimentary cover from Triassic the Neogene. In the South Caspian oil and gas subprovince, oil and gas occurs within reservoirs range in age from Late Cretaceous to the Apsheronian stage of the Neogene. The Black Sea subprovince comprises the northwestern part of the sea and the western part of Georgia. The bulk of the explored oil reserves lies within the Neogene and Upper Cretaceous units. The potential in this region is associated with Jurassic terrigenous, Upper Cretaceous carbonate, and Paleogene terrigenous sediments.

  20. Influence of ethnic origin (Asian v. Caucasian) and background diet on the bioavailability of dietary isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Vergne, Sébastien; Sauvant, Patrick; Lamothe, Valérie; Chantre, Philippe; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Durand, Marlène; Moore, Nicholas; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Soya isoflavones: genistein and daidzein are increasingly consumed in Western countries. Their beneficial effects are discussed considering nutrition and health in Asia. The present study aimed to check whether chronic ingestions, ethnic origin and dietary context can influence soya phyto-oestrogen bioavailability. Two prospective trials were carried out to blindly assess the pharmacokinetics after acute and chronic intake of soya-based cheese (45.97 (sd1.57) mg isoflavones) taken once a day for 10 d. Twelve healthy young Asians immersed for 2 months in France were randomised in a cross-over design to compare the influence of a Western v. Asian dietary context. The second trial partly nested in the first one, compared Asians under the Western diet to twelve healthy young male Caucasians under the same diet. All volunteers were non-equol producers. After an acute intake of soya in Western diet, Asians exhibited higher maximum concentration measured in plasma (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for genistein and daidzein than Caucasians (P = 0.005, 0.006, 0.032 and 0.008, respectively). In Caucasians under Western diet, AUC and Cmax values significantly increased after chronic intake. This was not the case for daidzein in Asians whatever the dietary context. For the first time, it is evidenced that on acute intake of soya cheese, Asians absorb soya phyto-oestrogens better than Caucasians, regardless of whether the background diet is Western or Asian. On chronic ingestions, AUC and Cmax values were increased for daidzein and genistein in Caucasians but not in Asians. There are ethnic differences in isoflavone pharmacokinetic and bioavailability. This may influence health outcomes. PMID:19622188

  1. Distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors genes in the Italian Caucasian population

    PubMed Central

    Bontadini, A; Testi, M; Cuccia, MC; Martinetti, M; Carcassi, C; Chiesa, A; Cosentini, E; Dametto, E; Frison, S; Iannone, AM; Lombardo, C; Malagoli, A; Mariani, M; Mariotti, L; Mascaretti, L; Mele, L; Miotti, V; Nesci, S; Ozzella, G; Piancatelli, D; Romeo, G; Tagliaferri, C; Vatta, S; Andreani, M; Conte, R

    2006-01-01

    Background Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are a family of inhibitory and activatory receptors that are expressed by most natural killer (NK) cells. The KIR gene family is polymorphic: genomic diversity is achieved through differences in gene content and allelic polymorphism. The number of KIR loci has been reported to vary among individuals, resulting in different KIR haplotypes. In this study we report the genotypic structure of KIRs in 217 unrelated healthy Italian individuals from 22 immunogenetics laboratories, located in the northern, central and southern regions of Italy. Methods Two hundred and seventeen DNA samples were studied by a low resolution PCR-SSP kit designed to identify all KIR genes. Results All 17 KIR genes were observed in the population with different frequencies than other Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations; framework genes KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR2DL4 and KIR3DL2 were present in all individuals. Sixty-five different profiles were found in this Italian population study. Haplotype A remains the most prevalent and genotype 1, with a frequency of 28.5%, is the most commonly observed in the Italian population. Conclusion The Italian Caucasian population shows polymorphism of the KIR gene family like other Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations. Although 64 genotypes have been observed, genotype 1 remains the most frequent as already observed in other populations. Such knowledge of the KIR gene distribution in populations is very useful in the study of associations with diseases and in selection of donors for haploidentical bone marrow transplantation. PMID:17069649

  2. Autonomic Recovery Is Delayed in Chinese Compared with Caucasian following Treadmill Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M.; Lane, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Baynard, Tracy; Hu, Min; Li, Shichang; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Caucasian populations have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) when compared with their Chinese counterparts and CVD is associated with autonomic function. It is unknown whether autonomic function during exercise recovery differs between Caucasians and Chinese. The present study investigated autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise in healthy Caucasians and Chinese. Sixty-two participants (30 Caucasian and 32 Chinese, 50% male) performed an acute bout of treadmill exercise at 70% of heart rate reserve. Heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were obtained during 5-min epochs at pre-exercise, 30-min, and 60-min post-exercise. HRV was assessed using frequency [natural logarithm of high (LnHF) and low frequency (LnLF) powers, normalized high (nHF) and low frequency (nLF) powers, and LF/HF ratio] and time domains [Root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), natural logarithm of RMSSD (LnRMSSD) and R–R interval (RRI)]. Spontaneous BRS included both up-up and down-down sequences. At pre-exercise, no group differences were observed for any HR, HRV and BRS parameters. During exercise recovery, significant race-by-time interactions were observed for LnHF, nHF, nLF, LF/HF, LnRMSSD, RRI, HR, and BRS (up-up). The declines in LnHF, nHF, RMSSD, RRI and BRS (up-up) and the increases in LF/HF, nLF and HR were blunted in Chinese when compared to Caucasians from pre-exercise to 30-min to 60-min post-exercise. Chinese exhibited delayed autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise. This delayed autonomic recovery may result from greater sympathetic dominance and extended vagal withdrawal in Chinese. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-IPR-15006684 PMID:26784109

  3. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  4. Evaluation of Markers of Bone Turnover During Lactation in African-Americans: A Comparison With Caucasian Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Raquel M.; Prebehalla, Linda; Tedesco, Mary Beth; Sereika, Susan M.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Stewart, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The African-American skeleton is resistant to PTH; whether it is also resistant to PTHrP and the hormonal milieu of lactation is unknown. Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess bone turnover markers in African-Americans during lactation vs Caucasians. Design and Participants: A prospective cohort study with repeated measures of markers of bone turnover in 60 African-American women (3 groups of 20: lactating, bottle feeding, and healthy controls), compared with historic Caucasian women. Setting: The study was conducted at a university medical center. Outcome Measures: Biochemical markers of bone turnover and calcium metabolism were measured. Results: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and PTH were similar among all 3 African-American groups, but 25-OHD was 30%–50% lower and PTH 2-fold higher compared with Caucasians (P < .001, P < .002), with similar 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] values. Formation markers [amino-terminal telopeptide of procollagen-1 (P1NP) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP)] increased significantly (2- to 3-fold) in lactating and bottle-feeding African-American women (P1NP, P < .001; BSAP, P < .001), as did resorption [carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen-1 (CTX) and serum amino-terminal telopeptide of collagen 1 (NTX), both P < .001]. P1NP and BSAP were comparable in African-American and Caucasian controls, but CTX and NTX were lower in African-American vs Caucasian controls. African-American lactating mothers displayed quantitatively similar increases in markers of bone formation but slightly lower increases in markers of resorption vs Caucasians (P = .036). Conclusions: Despite reported resistance to PTH, lactating African-American women have a significant increase in markers of bone resorption and formation in response the hormonal milieu of lactation. This response is similar to that reported in Caucasian women despite racial differences in 25-OHD and PTH. Whether this is associated with similar bone

  5. Comparison of Scheimpflug imaging parameters between steep and keratoconic corneas of Caucasian eyes

    PubMed Central

    Huseynova, Tukezban; Abdulaliyeva, Farah; Lanza, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the keratometric and pachymetric parameters of healthy eyes with those affected by steep cornea and keratoconus (KC) using Scheimpflug camera. Setting Briz-L Eye Clinic, Baku, Azerbaijan. Design A cross-sectional study. Methods In this study, 49 KC (Amsler–Krumeich stage 1) eyes and 36 healthy eyes were enrolled. A complete ophthalmic evaluation and a Scheimpflug camera scan were performed in every eye included in the study. Tomographic parameters such as parameters from the front and back cornea, maximum keratometry reading (Kmax), corneal volume (CV), anterior chamber volume (ChV), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber angle (AC angle), keratometric power deviation (KPD), maximum front elevation (Max FE), and maximum back elevation (Max BE), as well as pachymetric progression indices (PPI), Ambrosio relational thickness (ART), index of surface variance (ISV), index of vertical asymmetry (IVA), center keratoconus index (CKI), index of height asymmetry (IHA), index of height decentration (IHD), and radius minimum (RM) were collected and statistically compared between the two groups. Results PPI, ART, ISV, IVA, CKI, IHA, IHD, and RM parameter values were significantly different (P<0.05) between the KC and healthy eyes. There were no significant differences in K mean and Q values of the frontal corneal parameters, as well as in Kmax, AC angle, RM, back, and front astigmatism, between stage 1 keratoconic and normal Caucasian eyes with steep cornea. All other parameters such as K mean and Q values of the back corneal parameters, Max FE, Max BE, ACD, ChV, and CV showed significant differences between the groups (P<0.05 for all). Conclusion Scheimpflug imaging is able to detect corneal morphological differences between stage 1 KC eyes and healthy eyes with steep cornea, in Caucasians. PMID:27099469

  6. Danish auroral science history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international

  7. Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  8. Eating Disorders: Explanatory Variables in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviña, Vanessa; Day, Susan X.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored Hispanic and Caucasian college women's (N = 264) behavioral and attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders after controlling for body mass index and internalization of the thinness ideal, as well as the roles of ethnicity and ethnic identity in symptomatology. Correlational analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and…

  9. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  10. Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 > Staying Healthy Font: What is Alpha-1? Emphysema Alpha-1 Symptoms Diagnosing Alpha-1 Current Treatments ... Healthy What can people with Alpha-1-related emphysema do to stay as healthy as possible? First ...

  11. Healthy doctors, healthy communities.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Donna; Katch, Ellen; Anderson, Patricia; Furlong, Mary A

    2004-01-01

    Promoting health and eliminating disease are goals of Healthy People 2010, a national initiative for all communities. Physician-directed interventions that advance these principles are most effective when directed by clinicians who regularly participate in such healthy behaviors themselves. This pilot study describes an 8-week intervention, "Well-being for You and Your Patients," for first-year medical students to experience health behavior change. In the 2-hour sessions, students set goals for changing health behavior in 6 dimensions of wellness; report their progress; and enjoy a 30-minute change-of-pace wellness activity. The authors recommend adapting the course for medical student alumni to facilitate health behavior change with small groups of adults, school-age children, teens, and elders in churches, schools, community health centers, and other community-based organizations. Through continuing medical education and Grand Rounds, residents and physicians in practice could also be trained to implement specific behavioral change strategies. PMID:15495745

  12. Healthy pets, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Wong, S K; Feinstein, L H; Heidmann, P

    1999-08-01

    Zoonoses, diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans, can pose serious health risks to immunocompromised people. Although pets can carry zoonoses, owning and caring for animals can benefit human health. Information exists about preventing transmission of zoonoses, but not all physicians and veterinarians provide adequate and accurate information to immunocompromised pet owners. This disease prevention/health promotion project provides physicians and veterinarians with information, created specifically to share with patients and clients, about the health risks and benefits of pet ownership. Further, "Healthy Pets, Healthy People" encourages communication between veterinarians, physicians, clients, and patients and can serve as a model program for a nation-wide effort to aid health professionals in making recommendations about pet ownership for immunocompromised people. PMID:10434969

  13. Do Caucasian and black adolescents differ at psychiatric intake?

    PubMed

    Fabrega, H; Ulrich, R; Mezzich, J E

    1993-03-01

    A large sample of adolescents brought for psychiatric evaluation to a public University based facility are the subjects of the study. Material incorporated in a DSM-III multiaxial formulation plus symptoms constituted the dependent variables. Analyses concentrated on ethnic differences, with variation associated with gender and social class controlled statistically. Caucasians showed comparatively greater clinical morbidity: higher number of Axis I definite diagnoses and level of symptoms. Eating disorder diagnoses were more common in Caucasians. There were no significant differences pertaining to level of stress or social impairment. Blacks showed higher levels of symptoms scored as "social aggression" and diagnosed as conduct disorders. The pattern of results raised the question of a possible referral bias, with blacks shunted to the psychiatric facility with lower levels of standard clinical psychopathology, but higher levels of social oppositional behavior. Further research is needed to verify if such a bias does exist. PMID:8444771

  14. Genetic differences between Asian and Caucasian chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Norihiko; Moreilhon, Chimene; Saitoh, Takayuki; Karasawa, Masamitsu; Bernstein, Brian K; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Ogawa, Seishi; Raynaud, Sophie; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2013-08-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common hematological malignancy in Western countries. However, this disease is very rare in Asian countries. It is not clear whether the mechanisms of development of CLL in Caucasians and Asians are the same. We compared genetic abnormalities in Asian and Caucasian CLL using 250k GeneChip arrays. Both Asian and Caucasian CLL had four common genetic abnormalities: deletion of 13q14.3, trisomy 12, abnormalities of ATM (11q) and abnormalities of 17p. Interestingly, trisomy 12 and deletion of 13q14.3 were mutually exclusive in both groups. We also found that deletions of miR 34b/34c (11q), caspase 1/4/5 (11q), Rb1 (13q) and DLC1 (8p) are common in both ethnic groups. Asian CLL more frequently had gain of 3q and 18q. These suggest that classic genomic changes in the Asian and Caucasina CLL are same. Further, we found amplification of IRF4 and deletion of the SP140/SP100 genes; these genes have been reported as CLL-associated genes by previous genome-wide-association study. We have found classic genomic abnormalities in Asian CLL as well as novel genomic alteration in CLL. PMID:23708256

  15. Codon 219 polymorphism of PRNP in healthy caucasians and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients

    SciTech Connect

    Petraroli, R.; Pocchiari, M.

    1996-04-01

    A number of point and insert mutations of the PrP gene (PRNP) have been linked to familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease (GSS). Moreover, the methionine/valine homozygosity at the polymorphic codon 129 of PRNP may cause a predisposition to sporadic and iatrogenic CJD or may control the age at onset of familial cases carrying either the 144-bp insertion or codon 178, codon 198, and codon 210 pathogenic mutations in PRNP. In addition, the association of methionine or valine at codon 129 and the point mutation at codon 178 on the same allele seem to play an important role in determining either fatal familial insomnia or CJD. However, it is noteworthy that a relationship between codon 129 polymorphism and accelerated pathogenesis (early age at onset or shorter duration of the disease) has not been seen in familial CJD patients with codon 200 mutation or in GSS patients with codon 102 mutation, arguing that other, as yet unidentified, gene products or environmental factors, or both, may influence the clinical expression of these diseases. 17 refs.

  16. Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

  17. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Training and Jobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  18. The Danish vaccination register.

    PubMed

    Grove Krause, T; Jakobsen, S; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2012-01-01

    Immunisation information systems (IIS) are valuable tools for monitoring vaccination coverage and for estimating vaccine effectiveness and safety. Since 2009, an advanced IIS has been developed in Denmark and will be implemented during 2012–14. This IIS is based on a database existing since 2000. The reporting of all administered vaccinations including vaccinations outside the national programme will become mandatory. Citizens will get access to data about their own vaccinations and healthcare personnel will get access to information on the vaccinations of their patients. A national concept of identification, a national solution combining a personal code and a card with codes, ensures easy and secure access to the register. From the outset, the IIS will include data on childhood vaccinations administered from 1996 and onwards. All Danish citizens have a unique identifier, a so called civil registration number, which allows the linking of information on vaccinations coming from different electronic data sources. The main challenge will be to integrate the IIS with the different electronic patient record systems currently existing at general practitioner, vaccination clinic and hospital level thereby avoiding double-entry. A need has been identified for an updated international classification of vaccine products on the market. Such a classification would also be useful for the future exchange of data on immunisations from IIS between countries. PMID:22551494

  19. Low density lipoprotein subclasses in Asian and Caucasian adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Raschke, Verena; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Bermingham, Margaret A; Steinbeck, Kate

    2006-01-01

    South Asian adults are known to have very high rates of Coronary heart disease (CHD) and insulin resistance and, even as adolescents, may show higher risk factors for CHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of small, dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL) subclasses in a cohort of adolescent boys. The specific objective was to investigate the relationship between measures of fatness, ethnicity and LDL diameter in this cohort. Preformed native (non-denaturing) polyacrylamide 3-13% gradient gels and a multipurpose vertical electrophoresis system were used for the separation of LDL sub-fractions in a single school year cohort of boys aged 15-16 years (n=135). Latex beads and thyroglobulin standards were used to construct a calibration curve in order to calculate LDL particle diameters by regression (Total Lab Software v1.11). ANOVA was used to compare LDL size among different ethnic groups (SPSS and Stat View). The study sample was comprised of 45.2% Caucasians, 41.5% East Asians and 13.3% from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians). There was a non-significant trend for South Asians to have a lower LDL diameter than either Caucasians or East Asian boys which was independent of % total body fat (%TBF) and body mass index (BMI). This is the first adolescent cohort to examine sdLDL which included Caucasians, East and South Asians. It appears that the higher risk profile for CHD and diabetes noted in South Asian adults may be evident even during adolescence. PMID:17077065

  20. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis in Caucasian patients: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Pichon, Bertrand; Lidove, Olivier; Delbot, Thierry; Aslangul, Elisabeth; Hausfater, Pierre; Papo, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    Secondary hypokalemic periodic paralysis is rare. However, when it occurs, it is usually associated with Graves' disease and it is mostly diagnosed in Asiatic male patients. In this report, we analyze the diagnostic procedure in three cases of hypokalemic periodic paralysis associated with Graves' disease, diagnosed in three different emergency care units over the last 3 years. Three Caucasian men (26, 30, and 39 years of age) came to the emergency care unit for acute tetraparesia. One of them had suffered 15 stereotypical episodes of tetraparesia during the last 2 years. Goiter was present in each case. Kalemia was 1.8, 2.1, and 3 mmol/l, respectively. Triggering events such as considerable sugar intake and physical exercise were present in two cases. In all cases, low TSH levels, high FT4 levels, and anti-TSH receptor antibodies led to the diagnosis of Graves' disease. All patients were treated with potassium supplementation and neomercazole. Outcome was good with a follow-up of 6, 9, and 24 months, respectively. Emergency care practitioners should be aware of this diagnosis, which may affect Caucasian patients presenting with transient tetraparesia in a primary care unit. PMID:16137557

  1. Subjectless Sentences in Child Danish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Cornelia; Plunkett, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Examined data for two Danish children to determine subject omission, verb usage, and sentence subjects. Found that children exhibit asymmetry in subject omission according to verb type as subjects are omitted from main verb utterances more frequently than from copula utterances. Concluded that treatment of child subject omission should involve…

  2. Nature and Nationhood: Danish Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnack, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss Danish perspectives on nature, showing the interdependence of conceptions of "nature" and "nationhood" in the formations of a particular cultural community. Nature, thus construed, is never innocent of culture and cannot therefore simply be "restored" to some pristine, pre-lapsarian state. On the other hand,…

  3. Differential Post-Exercise Blood Pressure Responses between Blacks and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Huimin; Behun, Michael A.; Cook, Marc D.; Ranadive, Sushant M.; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R.; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is widely observed in Caucasians (CA) and is associated with histamine receptors 1- and 2- (H1R and H2R) mediated post-exercise vasodilation. However, it appears that blacks (BL) may not exhibit PEH following aerobic exercise. Hence, this study sought to determine the extent to which BL develop PEH, and the contribution of histamine receptors to PEH (or lack thereof) in this population. Forty-nine (22 BL, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either a combined H1R and H2R antagonist (fexofenadine and ranitidine) or a control placebo. Supine blood pressure (BP), cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance measurements were obtained at baseline, as well as at 30 min, 60 min and 90 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise at 70% heart rate reserve. Exercise increased diastolic BP in young BL but not in CA. Post-exercise diastolic BP was also elevated in BL after exercise with histamine receptor blockade. Moreover, H1R and H2R blockade elicited differential responses in stroke volume between BL and CA at rest, and the difference remained following exercise. Our findings show differential BP responses following exercise in BL and CA, and a potential role of histamine receptors in mediating basal and post-exercise stroke volume in BL. The heightened BP and vascular responses to exercise stimulus is consistent with the greater CVD risk in BL. PMID:27074034

  4. Differential Post-Exercise Blood Pressure Responses between Blacks and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huimin; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is widely observed in Caucasians (CA) and is associated with histamine receptors 1- and 2- (H1R and H2R) mediated post-exercise vasodilation. However, it appears that blacks (BL) may not exhibit PEH following aerobic exercise. Hence, this study sought to determine the extent to which BL develop PEH, and the contribution of histamine receptors to PEH (or lack thereof) in this population. Forty-nine (22 BL, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either a combined H1R and H2R antagonist (fexofenadine and ranitidine) or a control placebo. Supine blood pressure (BP), cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance measurements were obtained at baseline, as well as at 30 min, 60 min and 90 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise at 70% heart rate reserve. Exercise increased diastolic BP in young BL but not in CA. Post-exercise diastolic BP was also elevated in BL after exercise with histamine receptor blockade. Moreover, H1R and H2R blockade elicited differential responses in stroke volume between BL and CA at rest, and the difference remained following exercise. Our findings show differential BP responses following exercise in BL and CA, and a potential role of histamine receptors in mediating basal and post-exercise stroke volume in BL. The heightened BP and vascular responses to exercise stimulus is consistent with the greater CVD risk in BL. PMID:27074034

  5. What do community-dwelling Caucasian and South Asian 60–70 year olds think about exercise for fall prevention?

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Maria; Speed, Shaun; Skelton, Dawn; Todd, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Background: strategies to prevent falls often recommend regular exercise. However, 40% of over 50s in the UK report less physical activity than is recommended. Even higher rates of sedentary behaviour have been reported among South Asian older adults. Objective: to identify salient beliefs that influence uptake and adherence to exercise for fall prevention among community-dwelling Caucasian and South Asian 60–70 year olds in the UK. Methods: we undertook an ethnographic study using participant observation, 15 focus groups (n = 87; mean age = 65.7 years) and 40 individual semi-structured interviews (mean age = 64.8 years). Data analysis used framework analysis. Results: young older adults do not acknowledge their fall risk and are generally not motivated to exercise to prevent falls. Those who had fallen are more likely to acknowledge risk of future falls. Whilst many of the beliefs about falls and exercise expressed were very similar between Caucasians and South Asians, there was a tendency for South Asians to express fatalistic beliefs more often. Conclusion: fall prevention should not be the focus of strategies to increase uptake and adherence to exercise. The wider benefits of exercise, leading to an active healthy lifestyle should be encouraged. PMID:19039019

  6. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  7. Healthy Eyes

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    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  8. Healthy Sexuality

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    ... t be afraid to talk with a health care professional. Everyone can achieve the healthy and satisfying ... site at www.asrm.org Find a Health Care Provider Back to Top Home | About Us | Reproductive ...

  9. Healthy Living

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    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be ...

  10. Oral Reading Fluency and Prediction of Reading Comprehension in African American and Caucasian Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintze, John M.; Callahan, James E., III; Matthews, William J.; Williams, Stacy A.S.; Tobin, Kevin G.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the differential predictive bias of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) in reading across African American and Caucasian students. Results of this study suggest that CBM continues to appear to be a sensitive form of direct reading assessment in the local curriculum for both African American and Caucasian elementary-age students. (Contains…

  11. Blood pressure changes following aerobic exercise in Caucasian and Chinese descendants.

    PubMed

    Sun, P; Yan, H; Ranadive, S M; Lane, A D; Kappus, R M; Bunsawat, K; Baynard, T; Li, S; Fernhall, B

    2015-03-01

    Acute aerobic exercise produces post-exercise hypotension (PEH). Chinese populations have lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease compared to Caucasians. PEH may be associated cardiovascular disease through its influence on hypertension. The purpose of this study was to compare PEH between Caucasian and Chinese subjects following acute aerobic exercise. 62 (30 Caucasian and 32 Chinese, 50% male) subjects underwent measurement of peripheral and central hemodynamics as well as arterial and cardiac evaluations, 30 min and 60 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise. Caucasians exhibited significantly higher baseline BP than the Chinese. While the reduction in brachial artery systolic BP was greater in Caucasian than in the Chinese, there was no difference in changes in carotid systolic BP between the groups. The increase in cardiac output and heart rate was greater in the Chinese than Caucasians, but total peripheral resistance and leg pulse wave velocity decreased by a similar magnitude in the Chinese and Caucasian subjects. We conclude that acute aerobic exercise produces a greater magnitude of PEH in peripheral systolic BP in Caucasian compared to Chinese subjects. The different magnitude in PEH was caused by the greater increase in cardiac output mediated by heart rate, with no change in stroke volume. It is possible that initial BP differences between races influenced the findings. PMID:25329430

  12. Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor of the Pancreas: One Case with a Metastatic Evolution in a Caucasian Woman

    PubMed Central

    Lestelle, Valentin; de Coster, Claire; Sarran, Anthony; Poizat, Flora; Delpero, Jean-Robert; Raoul, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a Caucasian woman, operated on for a solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas in 2009, who recurred 4 years later with multiple liver metastases requiring liver resection. This disease is infrequent, particularly among the Caucasian population, and metastatic evolution is very rare. PMID:26557078

  13. Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor of the Pancreas: One Case with a Metastatic Evolution in a Caucasian Woman.

    PubMed

    Lestelle, Valentin; de Coster, Claire; Sarran, Anthony; Poizat, Flora; Delpero, Jean-Robert; Raoul, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a Caucasian woman, operated on for a solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas in 2009, who recurred 4 years later with multiple liver metastases requiring liver resection. This disease is infrequent, particularly among the Caucasian population, and metastatic evolution is very rare. PMID:26557078

  14. Counselling Expectations of a Sample of East Asian and Caucasian Canadian Undergraduates in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Darren M.; Glenwright, Brittni J.; Bhatia, Maneet; Drapeau, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether East Asians differ from Caucasian Canadians in their expectations about counselling. Participants in this study included 31 East Asian and 53 Caucasian Canadian university students. The East Asian participants were all first-generation East Asians living in Canada, originally from China, Korea, Japan, or Vietnam.…

  15. A Comparison of the Motor Performance of Black and Caucasian Girls Age 6-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinucci, James M.; Shows, David A.

    1977-01-01

    No significant differences in measures of flexibility, muscular endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, speed, balance, or muscular power were found between black and Caucasian girls ages six, seven, and eight. Blacks were significantly superior on two agility measurements, and Caucasians better on shuttle run and grip strength. (MJB)

  16. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  17. A Cross-Cultural Study of Anxiety among Chinese and Caucasian American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Dong; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural differences on state, trait, and social anxiety between Chinese and Caucasian American university students. Chinese students reported higher levels of social anxiety than did Caucasian American students. Correlations between trait and state anxiety were compared in light of the trait model of…

  18. In vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; Du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Jordaan, A; Du Plessis, J L

    2014-12-01

    During platinum group metals (PGMs) refining the possibility exists for dermal exposure to PGM salts. The dermal route has been questioned as an alternative route of exposure that could contribute to employee sensitisation, even though literature has been focused on respiratory exposure. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through intact Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3mg/ml of metal, K2PtCl4 and RhCl3 respectively, was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24h experiment, and analysed with high resolution ICP-MS. Skin was digested and analysed by ICP-OES. Results indicated cumulative permeation with prolonged exposure, with a significantly higher mass of platinum permeating after 24h when compared to rhodium. The mass of platinum retained inside the skin and the flux of platinum across the skin was significantly higher than that of rhodium. Permeated and skin retained platinum and rhodium may therefore contribute to sensitisation and indicates a health risk associated with dermal exposure in the workplace. PMID:25084315

  19. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Andrea; Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Omrin, Danielle S; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37) have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication. PMID:21533235

  20. Evaluation and validity of the Danish version of the Adult Strabismus Questionnaire AS-20

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Nafisa; Sørensen, Mette S; Sørensen, Torben L; Mortzos, Panteleimon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Assessing health-related quality of life in patients with strabismus is important in evaluating the clinical benefits of strabismus treatment. The purpose of this study was to translate the Adult Strabismus Quality of Life Questionnaire (AS-20) into Danish and evaluate its reliability and validity in adult patients with strabismus in Denmark. Methods The AS-20 was translated into Danish in accordance with standard international adopted methods. We presented the questionnaire to 64 adults with strabismus and to 13 non-strabismic adult controls. We tested the reliability of the Danish version by reassuring test–retest reliability, estimated the internal consistency, and analyzed the validity (discriminatory power) of the questionnaire by comparing patient scores with scores from control individuals. Results The Danish AS-20 produced high level of internal consistency (Cronbach’s α values) for both subscales (psychosocial: 0.95 and functional: 0.85). We found good discriminatory power of the AS-20. The patients scored significantly lower not only on AS-20 composite score (median =63, interquartile range [IQR] =44–79) compared to healthy individuals (median =98, IQR =93–100) (P<0.0001) but also on all individual questions in both subscales (psychosocial: 1–10 and functional: 11–20). Conclusion The Danish version of AS-20 shows high reliability and validity, and in our opinion, AS-20 is therefore a suitable instrument for evaluating self-perceived psychosocial and functional influence of strabismus. PMID:26770057

  1. Metabolic syndrome risk in black South African women compared to Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Schutte, A E; Olckers, A

    2007-09-01

    Rapid urbanisation has led African women to have an obesity prevalence double than that of Caucasian women, and this also holds true for the stroke prevalence in Africans. The study aimed to compare various metabolic syndrome (MS) criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) of body mass index and age-matched African (n=102) and Caucasian women (n=115). More Caucasian (30.4%) than African women (24.8%) had MS. Only 48% of African women had waist circumferences (WC) higher than the IDF cutoff, compared to 62.6% of Caucasians. Caucasian women were significantly taller and heavier and had higher triglycerides, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, and cortisol. African women had significantly higher blood pressure, leptin, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein, and higher odds ratios for having the MS for HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose than Caucasians. It is concluded that the IDF WC criterion needs a downward adjustment for African women due to a smaller body size. Lean African women seem to be at higher risk for MS than Caucasians. South Africa needs to stem the increasing rates of type 2 diabetes by decreasing obesity and by education (unschooled African women showed a 4.8 times higher likelihood of having MS than schooled women). PMID:17846972

  2. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preparing Food When the person with Alzheimer’s disease lives with you: • Buy healthy foods such as vegetables, fruits, and whole-grain products. ... When a person with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease lives alone, you can buy foods that the person doesn’t need to cook. ...

  3. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age. But you can make changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke and other serious diseases: Get ...

  4. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... of healthy foods, and limit calories and saturated fat Be physically active Control your blood pressure and cholesterol Don't smoke Protect yourself from too much sun Drink alcohol in moderation, or don't drink at all Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

  5. Healthy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  6. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... easy for kids to choose healthy snacks by keeping fruits and vegetables on hand and ready to eat. ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping ... Award-Winning Cafeteria Recipes Garden-Fresh Lunches Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Kid's Guide ...

  7. Successful School Principalship in Danish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf; Krejsler, John; Kofod, Klaus Kasper; Jensen, Bent Brandt

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims at conceptualizing and investigating the meaning of good school principalship within the space for manoeuvring that is available within the context of Danish comprehensive schools. The paper aims to present findings from case studies of two Danish schools within the frame of reference. Design/methodology/approach: Outlines the…

  8. Heritability of left ventricular structure and function in Caucasian families

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yu; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Bochud, Murielle; Richart, Tom; Thijs, Lutgarde; Cusi, Daniele; Fagard, Robert; Staessen, Jan A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the heritability as well as genetic and environmental correlations of left ventricular (LV) structural and functional traits in complex pedigrees of a Caucasian population. Methods and results We randomly recruited 459 white European subjects from 52 families (50% women; mean age 45 years). LV structure was measured by M-mode and 2D echocardiography and LV function was measured by conventional Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Other measurements included blood pressure, anthropometric, and biochemical measurements. We estimated the heritability of LV traits while adjusting for covariables, including sex, age, body height and weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and heart rate. With full adjustment, heritability of LV mass was 0.23 (P= 0.025). The TDI-derived mitral annular velocities Ea and Aa showed moderate heritability (h2= 0.36 and 0.53, respectively), whereas the mitral inflow A peak had weak heritability (h2 = 0.25) and the E peak was not heritable (h2 = 0.11). We partitioned the total phenotypic correlation when it reached significance, into a genetic and an environmental component. The genetic correlations were 0.61 between the E and Ea peaks and 0.90 between the A and Aa peaks. Conclusion Our study demonstrated moderate heritability for LV mass as well as the mitral annular Ea and Aa peaks. We also found significant genetic correlations between the E and Ea peaks and between the A and Aa peaks. Our current findings support the ongoing research to map and detect genetic variants that contribute to the variation in LV mass and other LV structural and functional phenotypes. PMID:21398654

  9. Neurotic-Stable Tendencies Among Japanese-American Sanseis and Caucasian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onoda, Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    This study examines neurotic-stable tendencies among Japanese-American Sanseis and Caucasian students. An investigation was also carried out on Sansei high achievers and underachievers, and Sansei males and females. (Author)

  10. Control beliefs and faith as stress moderators for Korean American versus Caucasian American protestants.

    PubMed

    Bjorck, J P; Lee, Y S; Cohen, L H

    1997-02-01

    Examined relationships among negative life events, four locus of control attributions (Internality, Powerful Others, Chance and God Control), and psychological distress for Korean American versus Caucasian American Protestants. Negative events and Powerful Others beliefs were positively related to distress, whereas Internality was negatively related to distress. Ethnicity and God Control interacted: The relationship between God Control beliefs and anxiety was negative for Caucasians but positive for Koreans. Three-way interactions (Ethnicity x Locus of Control x Negative Events) also emerged. As Caucasians' Powerful Others beliefs increased, the positive relationship between negative events and depression became stronger; Koreans' Powerful Others beliefs had no such effect. As Caucasians' God Control beliefs increased, the negative event-depression relationship changed from positive to negative; the reverse was true for Koreans. Findings support the value of assessing ethnoculture and religiousness in stressful life events research. PMID:9231996

  11. Cultural and gender differences in coping strategies between Caucasian American and Korean American older people.

    PubMed

    Lee, HeeSoon; Mason, Derek

    2014-12-01

    Coping strategies have significant effects on older people's health. This study examined whether gender and ethnic differences influence the coping strategies chosen by older adults when they encounter daily life stressors. Data were collected from 444 community-dwelling people over the age of 65, including 238 Caucasian Americans and 206 Korean Americans. Results showed significant differences between the two groups. Korean Americans had higher scores on problem and emotion-focused coping strategies as well as avoidant coping strategies than Caucasian Americans. Caucasian older women employed more active coping, planning, and positive reframing skills; relied more on religion; and sought emotional support more than Caucasian men. For Korean Americans, older women utilized religion and denial; whereas older men employed instrumental support and substance abuse. The results suggest that practitioners should develop ethnic, gender-specific programs to help older adults cope more effectively with their daily life stressors. PMID:25260229

  12. HLA-A, B and DR in Caucasians with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Saunders, P H; Anderson, S A; Stogdill, V D; Lamm, D L

    1983-11-01

    When HLA-A, B and DR antigens in Caucasian patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder were compared with controls, no significant alterations in antigen frequencies were found. PMID:6581580

  13. Lifestyle behaviors in metabolically healthy and unhealthy overweight and obese women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To determine whether physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior and/or diet quality differ between metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Methods: Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI =25 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian women 19-35 ...

  14. Applying Grounded Theory to Weight Management among Women: Making a Commitment to Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Ivankova, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    In this study we developed a theory grounded in data from women who continued healthy eating behaviors after a weight management program. Participant recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies for focus groups and individual interviews. Inclusion criteria were: African American or Caucasian women aged 30+ who lost [greater than or…

  15. Perceived Discrimination, Coping, and Quality of Life for African-American and Caucasian Persons with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; Philip, Errol J.; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed “threshold-constraint” theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and thus may use more active coping strategies. 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p< 001) and attributed mistreatment more to race/ethnicity (p < .001). In the mistreatment-quality of life relationship, disengagement was a significant mediator for Caucasians (B = −.39;CI .13–.83) and African Americans (B = −.20;CI .07–.43). Agentic coping was a significant mediator only for Caucasians (B = −.48;CI .18–.81). Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship. PMID:25090144

  16. The functional "KL-VS" variant of KLOTHO is not associated with type 2 diabetes in 5028 UK Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Freathy, Rachel M; Weedon, Michael N; Melzer, David; Shields, Beverley; Hitman, Graham A; Walker, Mark; McCarthy, Mark I; Hattersley, Andrew T; Frayling, Timothy M

    2006-01-01

    Background Klotho has an important role in insulin signalling and the development of ageing-like phenotypes in mice. The common functional "KL-VS" variant in the KLOTHO (KL) gene is associated with longevity in humans but its role in type 2 diabetes is not known. We performed a large case-control and family-based study to test the hypothesis that KL-VS is associated with type 2 diabetes in a UK Caucasian population. Methods We genotyped 1793 cases, 1619 controls and 1616 subjects from 509 families for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) F352V (rs9536314) that defines the KL-VS variant. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between cases and controls. Family-based analysis was used to test for over- or under-transmission of V352 to affected offspring. Results Despite good power to detect odds ratios of 1.2, there were no significant associations between alleles or genotypes and type 2 diabetes (V352 allele: odds ratio = 0.96 (0.84–1.09)). Additional analysis of quantitative trait data in 1177 healthy control subjects showed no association of the variant with fasting insulin, glucose, triglycerides, HDL- or LDL-cholesterol (all P > 0.05). However, the HDL-cholesterol levels observed across the genotype groups showed a similar, but non-significant, pattern to previously reported data. Conclusion This is the first large-scale study to examine the association between common functional variation in KL and type 2 diabetes risk. We have found no evidence that the functional KL-VS variant is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in a large UK Caucasian case-control and family-based study. PMID:16753056

  17. Arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew W; Parker, Donald E

    2011-08-01

    We compared arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults, and we assessed whether demographic, body composition, and ambulatory activity measures were predictive of arterial elasticity within each group. Fifty-one American Indians and 66 Caucasians between the ages of 8 and 30 years were assessed on large artery elasticity index, small artery elasticity index, body fat percentage, and daily ambulatory activity during 7 consecutive days. American Indians had a higher percentage of body fat than Caucasians (p = 0.002), whereas daily ambulatory activity measures were similar (p > 0.05). American Indians had a 16% lower large artery elasticity index (p = 0.007) and a 19% lower small artery elasticity index (p < 0.001) than Caucasians. The regression model for large artery elasticity index included average cadence (p = 0.001), fat-free mass (p < 0.001), age component (Caucasian only) (p < 0.001), and sex (p = 0.025). The regression model for small artery elasticity index included fat-free mass (p < 0.001), maximum cadence for 30 continuous minutes (p = 0.009), race (p = 0.005), and average cadence (p = 0.049). Between 8 and 30 years of age, elasticity means for the large and small arteries is lower in American Indians than in Caucasians. A smaller difference was observed in children, with a trend to a much larger difference in young adults. Furthermore, greater fat-free mass and higher daily ambulatory cadence are associated with higher arterial elasticity in both American Indians and Caucasians. PMID:21828174

  18. Liver Transplantation Outcomes Among Caucasians, Asian Americans, and African Americans with Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Bzowej, Natalie; Han, Steven; Degertekin, Bulent; Keeffe, Emmet B.; Emre, Sukru; Brown, Robert; Reddy, Rajender; Lok, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Several previous studies found that Asians transplanted for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection had worse post-transplant outcomes than Caucasians. Data on post-transplant outcomes of African Americans and waitlist outcomes of Asian Americans and African Americans with hepatitis B are scant. The aim of this study was to compare waitlist and post-transplant outcomes among Asian Americans, African Americans, and Caucasians who had HBV-related liver disease. Data from a retrospective-prospective study on liver transplantation for HBV infection were analyzed. A total of 274 patients (116 Caucasians, 135 Asians, and 23 African Americans) from 15 centers in the United States were enrolled. African Americans were younger and more Asian Americans had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the time of liver transplant listing. The probability of undergoing transplantation and the probability of survival on the waitlist were comparable in the 3 racial groups. Of the 170 patients transplanted, 19 died during a median follow-up of 31 months. The probability of post-transplant survival at 5 years was 94% for African Americans, 85% for Asian Americans, and 89% for Caucasians (P = 0.93). HCC recurrence was the only predictor of post-transplant survival, and recurrence rates were similar in the 3 racial groups. Caucasians had a higher rate of HBV recurrence: 4-year recurrence was 19% versus 7% and 6% for Asian Americans and African Americans, respectively (P = 0.043). In conclusion, we found similar waitlist and post-transplant outcomes among Caucasians, Asian Americans, and African Americans with hepatitis B. Our finding of a higher rate of HBV recurrence among Caucasians needs to be validated in other studies. PMID:19718627

  19. Hip fracture incidence among Caucasians in Hawaii is similar to Japanese. A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ross, P D; Huang, C

    2000-10-01

    Age-specific hip fracture incidence has been increasing in some parts of the world. The incidence of hip fractures among Japanese on the island of Oahu, Hawaii in 1979-1981 was approximately half that of Caucasians in North America, but similar to the incidence in Japan. We surveyed the incidence on Oahu again in 1991-1995 for all races to compare the incidence among Japanese to the earlier rates, and to other populations, including Caucasians on Oahu. The incidence of hip fracture among Japanese in Hawaii between 1991-1995 had not changed appreciably (compared to 1979-1981), and was similar to that among Caucasians on Oahu. The incidence among Hawaii Japanese and Caucasians was similar to, or lower than Japan overall, and much lower (one-third to one-half) than that reported for Caucasians in North America and Northern Europe, suggesting that the prevalence of certain risk factors may be lower in Hawaii. These findings confirm other studies suggesting that nongenetic factors may be responsible for much of the observed differences in hip fracture incidence between countries, and between races. PMID:11126521

  20. Body Composition in Asians and Caucasians: Comparative Analyses and Influences on Cardiometabolic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Sumanto; Chia, Siok Ching; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-01-01

    Within the last four decades Asia has witnessed major transformation in its population demographics, which gave rise to changes in food availability, food habits and lifestyle. A significant consequence of these changes has been the continuing rise in overweight and obesity across Asia. In parallel, there has been a significant rise in Asians in the incidence of the major chronic diseases, particularly in cardiometabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and other cardiovascular diseases. Given that the majority of the evidence, to date, investigating the associations between adiposity and cardiometabolic disorder risk have been obtained from studies undertaken either in European or in North American Caucasians, in this chapter, we have reviewed differences in body fat content and distribution between East Asians, South Asians, and Caucasians. The evidence is consistent that the content and distribution of body fat are markedly different between the various ethnic groups. We found that Asians have a greater predisposition towards adiposity at higher BMI than in Caucasians. Moreover, at any given level of adiposity, Asians have a much greater predisposition to risk of cardiometabolic disorders than Caucasians. We therefore strongly endorse the need for different adiposity cutoffs in Asians as compared to the Caucasians. We have also reviewed the predictive abilities of the various body composition/adiposity measures in determining risk of cardiometabolic disorders in Asians. PMID:26319906

  1. Genes identified in Asian SLE GWASs are also associated with SLE in Caucasian populations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuan; Ahlford, Annika; Järvinen, Tiina M; Nordmark, Gunnel; Eloranta, Maija-Leena; Gunnarsson, Iva; Svenungsson, Elisabet; Padyukov, Leonid; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Jönsen, Andreas; Bengtsson, Anders A; Truedsson, Lennart; Eriksson, Catharina; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Sjöwall, Christopher; Julkunen, Heikki; Criswell, Lindsey A; Graham, Robert R; Behrens, Timothy W; Kere, Juha; Rönnblom, Lars; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Sandling, Johanna K

    2013-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted in Asian populations have identified novel risk loci for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we genotyped 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight such loci and investigated their disease associations in three independent Caucasian SLE case–control cohorts recruited from Sweden, Finland and the United States. The disease associations of the SNPs in ETS1, IKZF1, LRRC18-WDFY4, RASGRP3, SLC15A4, TNIP1 and 16p11.2 were replicated, whereas no solid evidence of association was observed for the 7q11.23 locus in the Caucasian cohorts. SLC15A4 was significantly associated with renal involvement in SLE. The association of TNIP1 was more pronounced in SLE patients with renal and immunological disorder, which is corroborated by two previous studies in Asian cohorts. The effects of all the associated SNPs, either conferring risk for or being protective against SLE, were in the same direction in Caucasians and Asians. The magnitudes of the allelic effects for most of the SNPs were also comparable across different ethnic groups. On the contrary, remarkable differences in allele frequencies between Caucasian and Asian populations were observed for all associated SNPs. In conclusion, most of the novel SLE risk loci identified by GWASs in Asian populations were also associated with SLE in Caucasian populations. We observed both similarities and differences with respect to the effect sizes and risk allele frequencies across ethnicities. PMID:23249952

  2. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  3. Knowledge and Attitudes in Alzheimer's Disease in a Cohort of Older African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Howell, J Christina; Soyinka, Oretunlewa; Parker, Monica; Jarrett, Thomas L; Roberts, David L; Dorbin, Cornelya D; Hu, William T

    2016-06-01

    African American participation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research studies has been historically low. To determine whether older African Americans and Caucasians had different knowledge or attitudes related to AD, we administered the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS) to 67 older African Americans and 140 older caucasians in the greater Atlanta area as well as questions targeting locus of control over general health and AD risks. Older African Americans scored slightly lower on ADKS than older caucasians, with race only accounting for 1.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-2.61, P < .001) points of difference in a multivariate model. Attitudes toward AD were also similar between the 2 groups but 1 (35.7%) in 3 adults reported control over general health but not AD risks. In addition to enhancing education content in outreach efforts, there is an urgent need to address the perception that future AD risks are beyond one's own internal control. PMID:26646115

  4. Perceived racism and alcohol consequences among African American and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Grekin, Emily R

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23046273

  5. Attitudes toward rape: a comparison between Asian and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohee; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C; Yoo, Seo-Koo; Rheinboldt, Kurt T

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in attitudes toward rape between Asian and Caucasian college students. The Attitudes Toward Rape scale was used to measure beliefs about rape in a convenience sample of 169 college students. Three items regarding stranger rape myths were added. Findings suggest that Asian students are more likely than Caucasian students to believe women should be held responsible for preventing rape and to view sex as the primary motivation for rape. Asians also have stronger beliefs than Caucasians do that victims cause the rape and that most rapists are strangers. This research suggests that outreach programs can play an important role in providing information, education, and prevention regarding rape and that males and Asian students should be target populations for such programs. PMID:16043546

  6. Comparative study of dental cephalometric patterns of Japanese-Brazilian, Caucasian and Mongoloid patients

    PubMed Central

    Sathler, Renata; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to identify the patterns of dental variables of adolescent Japanese-Brazilian descents with normal occlusion, and also to compare them with a similar Caucasian and Mongoloid sample. Methods Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to compare the groups: Caucasian (n = 40), Japanese-Brazilian (n = 32) and Mongoloid (n = 33). The statistical tests used were one-way ANOVA and ANCOVA. The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses of Steiner, Tweed and McNamara Jr. Results Statistical differences (P < 0.05) indicated a smaller interincisal angle and overbite for the Japanese-Brazilian sample, when compared to the Caucasian sample, although with similar values to the Mongoloid group. Conclusion The dental patterns found for the Japanese-Brazilian descents were, in general, more similar to those of the Mongoloid sample. PMID:25279521

  7. Association of COMT Haplotypes and Breast Cancer Risk in Caucasian Women

    PubMed Central

    PETERSON, NEERAJA B.; TRENTHAM-DIETZ, AMY; GARCIA-CLOSAS, MONTSERRAT; NEWCOMB, POLLY A.; TITUS-ERNSTOFF, LINDA; HUANG, YIFAN; CHANOCK, STEPHEN J.; HAINES, JONATHAN L.; EGAN, KATHLEEN M.

    2011-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) is an important estrogen-metabolizing enzyme, and common genetic variants in this gene could affect breast cancer risk. We conducted a large population-based case control study in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin to examine six strategically selected COMT haplotype-tagging (ht) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), including the val158met polymorphism (rs4680), in relation to breast cancer risk. Analyses were based on 1,655 Caucasian women with invasive breast cancer and 1,470 Caucasian controls. None of the six individual SNPs were associated with breast cancer risk. The global test for haplotype associations was nonsignificant (p- value=0.097), although two uncommon haplotypes present in 6% of the study population showed statistically significant inverse associations with risk. These results suggest that genetic variation in COMT has no significant association with breast cancer risk among Caucasian women. PMID:20150638

  8. The TOMM40 gene rs2075650 polymorphism contributes to Alzheimer's disease in Caucasian, and Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Biyun; Ma, Xu; Dai, Qiaoyun; Li, Taishun; Xue, Fangjing; Chen, Bingwei

    2016-08-15

    Largescale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) showed that the TOMM40 rs2075650 polymorphism is significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Caucasian ancestry and Asian population. Here, we evaluated this association with large-scale samples from selected 12 studies (N=28,515; 10,358 cases and 18,157 controls) through the PubMed, AlzGene, and Google Scholar. We identified a significant association between rs2075650 and AD with P=0.000, OR=4.178 and 95% CI 1.891-9.228. In subgroup analysis, we identified significant association between rs2075650 polymorphism and AD in both Asian and Caucasians but not mixed populations. Collectively, our analysis shows TOMM40 rs2075650 polymorphism is associated with AD susceptibility in Asian, Caucasian, and mixed populations. We believe that our analysis will be helpful for future genetic researches on AD. PMID:27328316

  9. Average heterozgosity of STRPs in the Pima Indians is lower than in Caucasians

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.B.; Norman, R.A.; Robertson, D.

    1994-09-01

    The Pima Indians of Arizona have the highest reported prevalence of non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) in the world. To localize regions of the genome which may contain genes important in the predisposition to NIDDM, we are producing a high density genetic map in this population. In contrast to previous studies in the Pima which have examined polymorphisms in single genes or small genetic regions, we are using short tandem repeated polymorphisms (STRPs) as genetic markers covering the entire genome. We have genotyped over 150 STRPs in a sample consisting of approximately 1000 individuals comprising 250 nuclear families. Many of these STRPs were originally typed in a sample of Caucasians (CEPH) thus allowing direct comparisons between populations. Our analyses indicate that the average heterozygosity of the STRPs is 11% lower in the Pima (P<0.001). A survey of 8 different blood group markers in the Pima showed a 17% difference in average heterozygosity when compared with North American Caucasians (P<0.001). In contrast, a sample of 11 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) does not show a similar difference in average heterozygosity. The average heterozygosity is 3% higher in the Pima as compared to Caucasians for these 11 RFLPs (P<0.001). There is a significant correlation between estimates of heterozygosity based on the sample of STRP markers in Pima and Caucasians (R=0.48 P<0.001), but less than 25% of the variance is explained by this relationship, presumably reflecting different evolutionary histories for each group since divergence of these two populations. In addition to differences in allele frequencies between the two populations, we have tentatively identified a number of markers which differ from Caucasians in the allele sizes. The decrease in average heterozygosity observed with STRP markers supports the view that the Pima Indians represent a more genetically homogenous population than Caucasians.

  10. Vitamin D status in Well-Controlled Caucasian HIV Patients in Relation to Inflammatory and Metabolic Markers – A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Missailidis, C; Höijer, J; Johansson, M; Ekström, L; Bratt, G; Hejdeman, B; Bergman, P

    2015-01-01

    To study vitamin D (25OH D3) in relation to (i) microbial translocation (ii) systemic inflammation and (iii) blood lipid markers, in Caucasian, well-controlled HIV patients and healthy controls, plasma and serum samples from n = 97 male, HIV patients on HAART with immeasurable viral load (<20 copies/ml) since median 6.5 years and no concurrent inflammatory or infectious disease and n = 30 healthy controls were analysed for (i) LPS; (ii) sCD14, hsCRP, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, MCP-1 and IFN-γ; as well as (iii) blood lipids. Vitamin D levels were similarly distributed and equally low in both HIV patients and controls. There was no association between vitamin D levels and markers of microbial translocation, systemic inflammation or dyslipidemia. LPS levels were similar in both groups but HIV patients expressed higher levels of sCD14 and hsCRP, with HIV as an independent risk factor. HIV patients had higher cholesterol and Apo B levels. Notably, more HIV patients smoked and smoking was associated with lower vitamin D levels. In conclusion; these well-treated Caucasian HIV patients had similar vitamin D levels as healthy controls. However, despite perfect virological control, they exhibited slightly increased inflammatory markers and disturbed blood lipids. However, neither of these parameters were associated with low vitamin D levels but appeared to be linked to the HIV-disease per se. Thus, the rationale for vitamin D substitution as a way to improve microbial translocation and systemic inflammation is not fully supported in this HIV population. PMID:25833795

  11. Vitamin D status in Well-Controlled Caucasian HIV Patients in Relation to Inflammatory and Metabolic Markers--A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Missailidis, C; Höijer, J; Johansson, M; Ekström, L; Bratt, G; Hejdeman, B; Bergman, P

    2015-07-01

    To study vitamin D (25OH D3 ) in relation to (i) microbial translocation (ii) systemic inflammation and (iii) blood lipid markers, in Caucasian, well-controlled HIV patients and healthy controls, plasma and serum samples from n = 97 male, HIV patients on HAART with immeasurable viral load (<20 copies/ml) since median 6.5 years and no concurrent inflammatory or infectious disease and n = 30 healthy controls were analysed for (i) LPS; (ii) sCD14, hsCRP, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, MCP-1 and IFN-γ; as well as (iii) blood lipids. Vitamin D levels were similarly distributed and equally low in both HIV patients and controls. There was no association between vitamin D levels and markers of microbial translocation, systemic inflammation or dyslipidemia. LPS levels were similar in both groups but HIV patients expressed higher levels of sCD14 and hsCRP, with HIV as an independent risk factor. HIV patients had higher cholesterol and Apo B levels. Notably, more HIV patients smoked and smoking was associated with lower vitamin D levels. In conclusion; these well-treated Caucasian HIV patients had similar vitamin D levels as healthy controls. However, despite perfect virological control, they exhibited slightly increased inflammatory markers and disturbed blood lipids. However, neither of these parameters were associated with low vitamin D levels but appeared to be linked to the HIV-disease per se. Thus, the rationale for vitamin D substitution as a way to improve microbial translocation and systemic inflammation is not fully supported in this HIV population. PMID:25833795

  12. Evidence for association of two variants of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor gene OPRL1 with vulnerability to develop opiate addiction in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Briant, Judith A.; Nielsen, David A.; Proudnikov, Dmitri; Londono, Douglas; Ho, Ann; Ott, Jurg; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The OPRL1 gene encodes the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor (NOP-R), which plays a role in regulating tolerance and behavioral responses to morphine. However, there is limited information on whether variants of OPRL1 are associated with vulnerability to develop opiate addiction. In this study, we examined five variants of OPRL1 and their role in determining vulnerability to develop opiate addiction. Methods We recruited 447 subjects: 271 former severe heroin addicts and 176 healthy controls. Using a 5′-fluorogenic exonuclease assay (TaqMan®), we genotyped subjects at five variants in OPRL1. It was then determined whether there was a significant association of allele, genotype, or haplotype frequency with vulnerability to develop opiate addiction. Results When the cohort was stratified by ethnicity, we found that, in Caucasians but not in African Americans or Hispanics, the allele frequency of rs6090041 and rs6090043 were significantly associated point-wise with opiate addiction (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Of the haplotypes formed by these two variants, one haplotype was found to be associated with protection from developing opiate addiction in both African Americans (point-wise P = 0.04) and Caucasians (point-wise P = 0.04), and another haplotype with vulnerability to develop opiate addiction in Caucasians only (P = 0.020). Conclusions This study provides evidence for an association of two variants of the OPRL1 gene, rs6090041 and rs6090043, with vulnerability to develop opiate addiction, suggesting a role for NOP-R in the development of opiate addiction. PMID:20032820

  13. Recurrent simple tandem repeat mutations during human Y-chromosome radiation in Caucasian subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Ciminelli, B M; Pompei, F; Malaspina, P; Hammer, M; Persichetti, F; Pignatti, P F; Palena, A; Anagnou, N; Guanti, G; Jodice, C

    1995-12-01

    The haplotypes at four polymorphic loci of the Y chromosome were determined in 245 Caucasian males from 12 subpopulations. The data show that haplotype radiation occurred among Caucasians. Haplotype radiation was accompanied by recurrent mutations at STR loci that caused partial randomization of haplotype structure. The present distribution of alleles at short tandem repeats (STRs) can be explained by a mutation pattern similar to those described for autosomal STRs. The degree of variation among groups of subpopulations was assayed by using the Analysis of Molecular Variance. The results confirm a faster divergence of the Y chromosome as compared to the rest of the genome. PMID:8587142

  14. Postprandial Lipemia is Modified by the Presence of the APOB-516C/T Polymorphism in a Healthy Caucasian Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apolipoprotein (apoB) plays a fundamental role in the transport and metabolism of plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs) and cholesterol. Several apoB polymorphic sites have been studied for their potential use as markers for coronary heart disease in the population. In view of the importance of apoB in pos...

  15. Screening of Danish blood donors for hepatitis B surface antigen using a third generation technique.

    PubMed Central

    Wantzin, P; Nielsen, J O; Tygstrup, N; Soerensen, H; Dybkjaer, E

    1985-01-01

    The profit to be gained by testing Danish blood donors for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with a third generation technique instead of the currently used immunoelectrophoresis was investigated by additional screening of 48 750 blood units by radioimmunoassay three weeks after donation. Twenty nine units were positive for HBsAg on radioimmunoassay (0.059%). Only six of these were found by immunoelectrophoresis (0.012%). Most of the 23 donors positive on radioimmunoassay and negative on immunoelectrophoresis were healthy carriers of HBsAg (20) or had asymptomatic chronic liver disease (two). One donor had acute hepatitis B. Fifteen of the 23 blood units were transfused. The 15 recipients were monitored biochemically and serologically for up to nine months. One recipient developed fulminant hepatitis B, three developed acute hepatitis B, and one became a healthy carrier of HBsAg. All these patients had received blood from healthy carriers of HBsAg. Two recipients were immunised against HBsAg, and in one patient no seroconversion was observed. The remaining recipients died soon after transfusion or were protected by antibodies to HBsAg that had been present before the transfusion. Testing of Danish blood donors using a third generation technique identified a substantial number of donors positive for HBsAg overlooked by immunoelectrophoresis. Most of these donors were healthy carriers of HBsAg. Blood taken from such carriers is highly infectious when transfused, probably because of the large amount of material transmitted. PMID:3929937

  16. Mogens Jansen: An Interview with a Danish Reading Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, Eva

    1985-01-01

    The president of the Danish Association of Reading Teachers discusses the positive effects of international cooperation on reading education, the influence of society's demands on curriculum, and the instinctive features and benefits of Danish Reading instruction. (FL)

  17. The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) database

    PubMed Central

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Arpi, Magnus; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Østergaard, Christian; Søgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) research database includes microbiological data obtained from positive blood cultures from a geographically and demographically well-defined population serviced by three clinical microbiology departments (1.7 million residents, 32% of the Danish population). The database also includes data on comorbidity from the Danish National Patient Registry, vital status from the Danish Civil Registration System, and clinical data on 31% of nonselected records in the database. Use of the unique civil registration number given to all Danish residents enables linkage to additional registries for specific research projects. The DACOBAN database is continuously updated, and it currently comprises 39,292 patients with 49,951 bacteremic episodes from 2000 through 2011. The database is part of an international network of population-based bacteremia registries from five developed countries on three continents. The main purpose of the DACOBAN database is to study surveillance, risk, and prognosis. Sex- and age-specific data on background populations enables the computation of incidence rates. In addition, the high number of patients facilitates studies of rare microorganisms. Thus far, studies on Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, computer algorithms for the classification of bacteremic episodes, and prognosis and risk in relation to socioeconomic factors have been published. PMID:25258557

  18. Elemental content of anagen hairs in a normal Caucasian population studies with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Forslind, B.; Li, H.K.; Malmqvist, K.G.; Wiegleb, D.

    1986-01-01

    The elemental content of anagen hair fibers in a Caucasian population of healthy females and males in the age range 10-69 years was performed to constitute a baseline for further studies of pathological conditions. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analyses were performed on single hair fibers in triplicate from 103 individuals in order to determine sulfur, zinc, calcium, and chlorine content. The hair fibers were all anagen hairs collected from a site little influenced by genetic and hormonal influences 1.5 cm above the right ear of the probands. An area 5-8 mm from the follicle bottom was chosen for the analysis in all cases to minimize effect of hair-do contamination. The average sulfur content was 0.049 g/g and the average zinc content 170 micrograms/g. These results were not significantly influenced by chloroform/ethanol rinsing before analysis. The calcium and chlorine contents were 330 micrograms/g and 0.0033 g/g respectively. The latter data are expected to be more seriously influenced by external factors (e.g., contamination) than sulfur and zinc. No correlation between elemental concentration and sex was found for sulfur and zinc in the present material. PIXE analysis of single hair fibers yields valuable information on the elemental composition of hair fibers and can be rapidly and efficiently performed after simple mounting procedures.

  19. The Danish Communicative Developmental Inventories: Validity and Main Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Slott, Malene; Wehberg, Sonja; Thomsen, Pia; Madsen, Thomas O.; Basboll, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale cross-sectional study of Danish children's early language acquisition based on the Danish adaptation of the "MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories" (CDI). Measures of validity and reliability imply that the Danish adaptation of the American CDI has been adjusted linguistically and culturally in…

  20. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... please turn Javascript on. 7 Smart Steps to Aging Well 1. Control Blood Pressure You can have ...

  1. Healthy Family 2009: Practicing Healthy Adult Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Practicing Healthy Adult Living Past Issues / Winter ... diabetes, or if heart disease runs in your family, begin checking cholesterol at age 20. Colorectal Cancer : ...

  2. Partnership for Healthy Mouths Healthy Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Dentist Campaign Overview Press Releases About the Partnership Our Supporters Contact Us Partner Profile Page Learn ... others in the general population. OUR SOLUTION The Partnership for Healthy Mouths, Healthy Lives (PHMHL) is helping ...

  3. Biomarkers of Coronary Artery Disease Differ Between Asians and Caucasians in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Gijsberts, Crystel M; den Ruijter, Hester M; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Chan, Mark Y; de Kleijn, Dominique P V; Hoefer, Imo E

    2015-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) markers have not been thoroughly investigated among Asians. The incidence of CAD, however, is rising rapidly in Asia. In this review, we systematically discuss publications that compare CAD biomarkers between Asians and Caucasians in the general population. A PubMed search yielded 5,570 hits, containing 59 articles describing 47 unique cohorts that directly compare Asians with Caucasians. Ten biomarkers were taken into account for this review: total cholesterol; triglycerides; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; C-reactive protein; glucose; insulin; glycated hemoglobin; fibrinogen; and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Triglycerides were 1.13-fold higher in South Asians than in Caucasians, and insulin levels were 1.33-fold higher. In Japanese and Chinese subjects, lower C-reactive protein levels were reported: 0.52 and 0.36-fold, respectively. Ethnicity-specific prognostic measures of CAD biomarkers were rarely reported. CAD biomarker levels differ between Asians and Caucasians and among Asian ethnic groups in population-based cohorts. The ethnicity-specific prognostic value of CAD biomarkers is yet to be determined. PMID:26014657

  4. Male/Female Role Values: A Comparison of Caucasian and Japanese American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Research in America on sex role attitudes and beliefs tends to neglect the views of minorities. While there is some research on the sex role attitudes of Chinese Americans, little is known about Japanese American attitudes and beliefs. To assess and compare Japanese and Caucasian American college students' attitudes, a questionnaire assessing…

  5. The Educational Attainment of Minority Learners Who Attended 2-Year Colleges Compared to Caucasian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Angel N.

    2013-01-01

    In this educational study, Caucasian and minority learners' grade point averages and overall academic success were examined at learning institutions. Several minorities experienced problems with completing college courses at universities and community colleges. Individuals from various racial backgrounds had school enrollment issues compared…

  6. Theory of planned behavior and multivitamin supplement use in Caucasian college females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of the use of multivitamin supplements among Caucasian college females utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the self-reported use of multivitamin supplements were measured by two separate surv...

  7. Photoprotection by melanin--a comparison of black and Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Kaidbey, K H; Agin, P P; Sayre, R M; Kligman, A M

    1979-09-01

    The photoprotective role of melanin was evaluated by comparing the transmission of ultraviolet (UV) radiation through skin samples of blacks and Caucasians, using both biologic and spectroscopic techniques. UVA transmission was measured using fluoranthene, which causes a phototoxic response to UVA wavelength. UVB was measured by monitoring erythema produced by either a 150-watt xenon arc or FS-20 sunlamps. It was found that on the average, five times as much ultraviolet light (UVB and UVA) reaches the upper dermis of Caucasians as reaches that of blacks. Differences in transmission between the stratum corneum of blacks and of Caucasians were far less striking. The main site of UV filtration in Caucasians is the stratum corneum, whereas in blacks it is the malpighian layers. Melanin acts as a neutral density filter, reducing all wavelengths of light equally. The superior photoprotection of black epidermis is due not only to increased melanin content but also to other factors related to packaging and distribution of melanosomes. Not only are these data consistent with epidemiologic evidence, but they also may indicate why blacks are less disposed to phototoxic drug responses as well as less susceptible to acute and chronic actinic damage. PMID:512075

  8. Sex-biased gene flow in African Americans but not in American Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, V F; Prosdocimi, F; Santos, L S; Ortega, J M; Pena, S D J

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown evidence of strong sex-biased genetic blending in the founding and ongoing history of the Brazilian population, with the African and Amerindian contribution being highest from maternal lineages (as measured by mitochondrial DNA) and the European contribution foremost from paternal lineages (estimated from Y-chromosome haplogroups). The same phenomenon has been observed in several other Latin American countries, suggesting that it might constitute a universal characteristic of the Iberian colonization of the Americas. However, it has also recently been detected in the Black population of the United States. We thus wondered if the same could be observed in American Caucasians. To answer that question, we retrieved 1387 hypervariable I Caucasian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the FBI population database and established their haplogroups and continental geographical sources. In sharp contrast with the situation of the Caucasian population of Latin American countries, only 3.1% of the American Caucasian sequences had African and/or Amerindian origin. To explain this discrepancy we propose that the finding of elevated genomic contributions from European males and Amerindian or African females depends not only on the occurrence of directional mating, but also on the "racial" categorization of the children born from these relations. In this respect, social practices in Latin America and in the United States diverge considerably; in the former socially significant "races" are normally designated according to physical appearance, while in the latter descent appears to be the most important factor. PMID:17573655

  9. Noninvasive Screening for Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in Young, Rural, Caucasian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sharon; Sheffer, Sarah; Long Roth, Sara; Bennett, Paul A.; Lloyd, Les

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play an important role in identifying students who are at risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Few studies have screened Caucasian students, and none have targeted rural, low-income, elementary children. The five noninvasive risk factors used for this study were family history, high body mass index (BMI) for age/sex,…

  10. Brief Daily Exposures to Asian Females Reverses Perceptual Narrowing for Asian Faces in Caucasian Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins during infancy. The current study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants' visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate…

  11. Income Parity through Different Paths: Chinese Americans, Japanese Americans, and Caucasians in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukada, Mamoru

    1988-01-01

    A sample of 277 Caucasian, Chinese American, and Japanese American men at the University of Hawaii was surveyed in 1969, and again in 1979. Analysis of variables from the human capital and the labor market formulations reveals that race/ethnicity remains an important factor in explaining income attainment. (BJV)

  12. Reliability and Validity of the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories in Caucasian Americans and Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Sandra; Fernandez, Senaida; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Ingram, Rick E.; Vaccarino, Vivian Ruiz

    2004-01-01

    Although the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory are two of the most widely used instruments for assessing depressive and anxious symptoms in both clinical and nonclinical populations, their cross-cultural reliability and validity have yet to be fully established. In this study, 2,703 Caucasian American and 1,110 Latino college…

  13. Cross-Cultural Validity of Alcohol Dependence across Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Caucasians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Adam C.

    2008-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analyses for ordered-categorical measures probed for differential item functioning on a standardized measure of alcohol dependence across Hispanics (n = 834) and non-Hispanic Caucasians (n = 14,001) in a nationally representative survey of alcohol use in the United States conducted in 1992. Analyses investigated whether 30…

  14. Physical Activity Attitudes, Preferences, and Practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B.; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundly among minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in…

  15. [Struggle against typhus in the Caucasian front during the 1st World War].

    PubMed

    Karatepe, Mustafa

    2002-01-01

    As an infectious disease, typhus has triggered many epidemics during the course of wars and caused thousands of death all through the ages. The French physician Charles Nicolle (1886-1936) defined its agent as a louse transferring the disease from man to man in 1909 and was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1928. Many cases were reported during the 1st World War both in the European and the Ottoman armies; and one of the most severe epidemics broke in the Caucasian front; a great number of civilians and soldiers died at winter in 1914 and 1915. Lice had to be destroyed in order to prevent the epidemic, but etuves in the Caucasian front was too few to achieve it. Clothes were cleansed in ovens by means of a method proposed by Dr. Abdülkadir Noyan (1886-1977). On March 28, 1915 the first typhus vaccination, obtained from the infected blood of the patients, was applied by Dr. Tevfik Salim (Saklam) (1882-1963). In 1916 Dr. Ahmet Fikri Tüzer discovered a disinfection apparatus called "buğu sandiği" (vapour box) which was widely used in the Caucasian front after 1917. This apparatus was highly useful in controlling the typhus epidemics. 164 health officers lost their lifes in the Caucasian front between 1914-1918, in addition, 7310 military casualties were recorded from 1915 to the end of the war. PMID:17152154

  16. Attitudes toward Rape: Gender and Ethnic Differences across Asian and Caucasian College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Lisa; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined 302 Asian and Caucasian college students' attitudes towards rape victims and belief in rape myths. Results show significant differences between both groups. Asians more often endorsed negative attitudes toward rape victims than whites, and males endorsed more negative attitudes and more acceptance of rape myths than females. Results are…

  17. Instructor Reaction to Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Styles: An Example of Navajo and Caucasian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.

    1979-01-01

    Holds that differences observed in instructor attention to Navajo and Caucasian children are due to the contrasting verbal and nonverbal-visual styles displayed by the two groups. Offers an evaluation program which attempts to offset teachers' tendencies to attend differentially to children displaying diverse behavioral styles in the classroom.…

  18. Navajo and Caucasian Children's Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Behavior in the Urban Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.

    1978-01-01

    A formal observation technique was used in an urban classroom context to assess the verbal and nonverbal-visual behavior of 17 Navajo and 7 Caucasian children. Two statistical techniques revealed significant intergroup differences in verbal and nonverbal-visual style. ( Author)

  19. Visible Minority, Aboriginal, and Caucasian Children Investigated by Canadian Protective Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavergne, Chantal; Dufour, Sarah; Trocme, Nico; Larrivee, Marie-Claude

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this descriptive study was to compare the report profiles of Caucasian, Aboriginal, and other visible minority children whose cases were assessed by child protective services in Canada. The results show that children of Aboriginal ancestry and from visible minority groups are selected for investigation by child protective services 1.77…

  20. Cross-Cultural Variations in Stress and Adjustment among Asian and Caucasian Graduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined cross-cultural variations in stress among Asian and Caucasian graduate students (N=204). Analyzed surveys measuring life stress, physical health complaints, and psychological health. Findings indicated some cross-cultural variations in stress and adjustment among graduate students, with Asian graduate students experiencing fewer stressful…

  1. Alcohol Use and Depression among African-American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; Irvin, Deborah M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent…

  2. Nonsuicidal self-injury in Asian versus Caucasian university students: who, how, and why?

    PubMed

    Turner, Brianna J; Arya, Shalini; Chapman, Alexander L

    2015-04-01

    The correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among Asian and Caucasian university students; differences in the rates, frequency, forms, severity, and emotional contexts of NSSI among self-injuring students; and whether Asian students who are highly oriented toward Asian culture differed from those less oriented toward Asian culture in NSSI characteristics were investigated. University students (N = 931), including 360 Caucasian students (n = 95, 26.4%, with a history of ≥ 1 episode of NSSI) and 571 Asian students (n = 107, 18.7%, with a history of NSSI), completed questionnaires assessing NSSI, acculturation, and putative risk factors for NSSI. Caucasian students were more likely to report NSSI, particularly cutting behavior, self-injured with greater frequency and versatility, and reported greater increases in positively valenced, high arousal emotions following NSSI, compared to Asian students. Among Asian students, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, experiential avoidance, and anger suppression increased the likelihood of reporting a history of NSSI. Among Caucasian students, lack of emotional clarity and anger suppression increased likelihood of NSSI. Finally, some tentative findings suggested potentially important differences in rates and frequency of NSSI among Asian students who were highly oriented toward Asian culture compared with those less oriented toward Asian culture. PMID:25157829

  3. Comparative Validity of MMPI-2 Scores of African American and Caucasian Mental Health Center Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, John L.; Graham, John R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Stein, L. A. R.

    1997-01-01

    The comparative validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scores for 123 African American and 561 Caucasian clients from a community mental health center was studied by contrasting mean MMPI-2 scores and correlations between these scores and therapists' ratings. Correlations were not significantly different for racial…

  4. Information Processed by Negro and Caucasian Children Engaged in Problem-Solving Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felen, Barbara K.

    The memory model, based on information theory proposed by Moser (see SE 013 578), was used to compare the cognitive processing patterns of second and eighth grade Negro and Caucasian students in solving the "parallel circuits" problem. (Connecting two light bulbs and a dry cell so that when both bulbs light, one bulb can be unscrewed, leaving the…

  5. Melodies in Motherese in Tonal and Nontonal Languages: Mandarin Chinese, Caucasian American, and German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papousek, Mechthild

    In a comparison of the melodies in the speech of Mandarin Chinese and Caucasian American mothers, striking similarities were found: (1) in the overall distribution and average structure of melodic contours; (2) in close contextual links to given forms of intuitive parental care; and (3) in a tendency to neglect lexical tones in favor of pitch…

  6. Cultural Differences in Optimism, Pessimism, and Coping: Predictors of Subsequent Adjustment in Asian American and Caucasian American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Edward C.

    1996-01-01

    Cultural differences were examined between 111 Asian American and 111 Caucasian American students matched on age and sex in a prospective design study. Using separate optimism and pessimism scores, Asian Americans were found to be more pessimistic than Caucasian Americans. Asian Americans were also found to use more problem avoidance and social…

  7. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  8. Comparing Judgements of Social, Behavioural, Emotional and School Adjustment Functioning for Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Woo Sik; Stinnett, Terry A.

    2005-01-01

    Social, emotional, behavioural and school adjustment functioning among Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American children was examined with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Self-Report of Personality (SRP) and the Parent Rating Scale (PRS). One hundred and twenty Korean, Korean-American and Caucasian-American children, ages…

  9. Atrial fibrillation among African Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians: clinical features and outcomes from the AFFIRM trial.

    PubMed Central

    Bush, David; Martin, Lisa W.; Leman, Robert; Chandler, Mary; Haywood, L. Julian

    2006-01-01

    The Atrial Fibrillation Follow-Up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) study concluded that rate control with anticoagulation was equivalent overall to rhythm control with cardioversion for long-term survival and that anticoagulation reduced the risk of stroke. We compared baseline and follow-up data for three ethnic groups: Caucasians (n=3,599), African Americans (n=265) and Hispanics (n=132). Caucasians were older and more likely male, African Americans were more likely female and hypertensive, and Hispanics had higher prevalence of cardiomyopathy. Survival was better for rate control than rhythm control in Caucasians, equivalent in African Americans and better for rhythm control in Hispanics. Outcomes may be influenced by differential baseline characteristics, but low numbers of African Americans and Hispanics warrant caution in data interpretation. BACKGROUND: The AFFIRM study compared a rate-control strategy to a rhythm-control strategy for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients at high risk for stroke or death. It concluded that the rhythm-control strategy offered no survival advantage, and it also confirmed the value of anticoagulation to prevent complications of AF. Data have not previously been available for specific racial ethnic populations. METHODS: We compared baseline and follow-up data for the patients randomized to rate-control versus rhythm-control in three population groups-Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic. RESULTS: Among 4,060 total patients, 3,599 were Caucasian, 265 were African-American and 132 were Hispanic. At baseline, Caucasians were older and had a higher percentage of males, normal ejection fractions, AF as their only cardiac diagnosis, a prior antiarrhythmic drug failure and less congestive heart failure. African Americans were more likely to be female, had more hypertension and qualified for the study with a first episode of AF, compared to Caucasians. Hispanics had more cardiomyopathy at baseline than

  10. Say "adios" to the American dream? The interplay between ethnic and national identity among Latino and Caucasian Americans.

    PubMed

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1-3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. PMID:20099963

  11. HLA disease association and protection in HIV infection among African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Cruse, J M; Brackin, M N; Lewis, R E; Meeks, W; Nolan, R; Brackin, B

    1991-01-01

    In a previous investigation, we demonstrated an increased progression of overt AIDS in the African American population compared to the Caucasian population as reflected by the significantly lower absolute number of CD4+ lymphocytes detected in the African American population in an earlier study. The present study elucidates some of the possible genetic factors which may contribute to disease association or protection against HIV infection. The HLA phenotypes expressed as A, B, C, DR and DQw antigens were revealed by the Amos-modified typing procedure. NIH scoring was utilized to designate positive cells taking up trypan blue. A test of proportion equivalent to the chi 2 approximation was used to compare the disease population (n = 62; 38 African Americans, 24 Caucasians) to race-matched normal heterosexual local controls (323 African Americans, 412 Caucasians). Significant p values were corrected for the number of HLA antigens tested. HLA markers associated with possible protection from infection for African Americans were Cw4 and DRw6, whereas Caucasians expressed none. Disease association markers present in the African American population were A31, B35, Cw6, Cw7, DR5, DR6, DRw11, DRw12, DQw6 and DQw7, whereas in the Caucasian population A28, Aw66, Aw48, Bw65, Bw70, Cw7, DRw10, DRw12, DQw6 and DQw7 were demonstrated. The highest phenotypic frequency for a disease association marker in the study was for HLA-DR5 (62.9%) in the HIV-infected African American population without Kaposi's sarcoma compared to a frequency of 28.9% for the regional control group (p = 0.0012). We conclude that genetic factors do have a role in HIV infection since only 50-60% of those exposed to the AIDS virus will become infected. PMID:1910527

  12. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  13. The Danish Free School Tradition under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations; they could recruit teachers and students according to their own value base, and were…

  14. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  15. Escherichia vulneris in a Danish soccer wound.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, C F; Klebe, T M; Prag, J

    1997-01-01

    Escherichia vulneris was isolated from an infected soccer wound, a finding which has not apparently been described in Europe before, but by questioning Danish clinical microbiological laboratories a further 12 cases were discovered. Treatment with simple debridement and cefuroxime quickly eradicated the bacteria in our case. PMID:9255899

  16. Evaluating University Continuing Education: A Danish Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thune, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The Danish Evaluation Institute is conducting systematic assessments of three master's programs in public administration, public policy, and public management. They have found that explicit criteria have advantages and disadvantages. Development of criteria attempts to meet the following demands: uniformity, relevance of level, scope, precision,…

  17. Care and Education in the Danish Creche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to identify the relation between policy and lived life, for the small child in the Danish creche. To accomplish this, the article integrates demography, traditions, national curriculum and psychological, educational, and recent developments in research. It is an attempt to reveal knowledge and consequences, by conducting the…

  18. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-10-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  19. Digital Technology Ownership, Usage, and Factors Predicting Downloading Health Apps Among Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans: The Digital Link to Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions using mobile health (mHealth) apps have been effective in promoting healthy lifestyle behavior change and hold promise in improving health outcomes to thereby reduce health disparities among diverse racial/ethnic populations, particularly Latino and Asian American subgroups (Filipinos and Koreans) at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Latinos and Asian Americans are avid digital technology owners and users. However, limited datasets exist regarding digital technology ownership and use, especially among specific racial/ethnic subgroups. Such information is needed to inform development of culturally tailored mHealth tools for use with lifestyle interventions promoting healthy behaviors for these at-risk racial/ethnic populations. Objective The intent of the study was to examine (1) digital technology ownership and usage, and (2) factors predicting downloading health apps for Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino American subgroups. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted in August 2013 through December 2013 recruited 904 participants (Caucasians n=172, Filipinos n=250, Koreans n=234, and Latinos n=248), age >18 years, from California community events, clinics, churches, and online. English, Spanish, and Korean surveys were administered via paper or online. Descriptive statistics characterized the sociodemographics and digital technology ownership/usage of the 904 participants. Differences among groups in categorical variables were examined using chi-square statistics. Logistic regression was used to determine factors predicting downloading health apps. Results Overall, mean age was 44 years (SD 16.1), with 64.3% (581/904) female. Only 44.7% (404/904) of all participants reported English as their primary language (Caucasian 98.3%, 169/172; Filipino 67.6%, 169/250; Korean 9.4%, 22/234, and Latino 17.7%, 44/248. Overall, mobile phone ownership was 92.8% (839/904). Compared to all groups, Koreans were more likely to own a

  20. Disordered eating in African American and Caucasian women: the role of ethnic identity.

    PubMed

    Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne

    2011-01-01

    The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:22073427

  1. Brief daily exposures to Asian females reverses perceptual narrowing for Asian faces in Caucasian infants

    PubMed Central

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins in infancy. The present study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants’ visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate between novel and familiarized Asian faces at the beginning of testing were given brief daily experience with Asian female faces in the experimental condition and Caucasian female faces in the control condition. At the end of three weeks, only infants who received daily experience with Asian females showed above-chance recognition of novel Asian female and male faces. Further, infants in the experimental condition showed greater efficiency in learning novel Asian females compared to infants in the control condition. Thus, visual experience with a novel stimulus category can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing in infancy via improved stimulus recognition and encoding. PMID:22625845

  2. Optimization of lactobionic acid production by Acetobacter orientalis isolated from Caucasian fermented milk, "Caspian Sea yogurt".

    PubMed

    Kiryu, Takaaki; Yamauchi, Kouhei; Masuyama, Araki; Ooe, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    We have reported that lactobionic acid is produced from lactose by Acetobacter orientalis in traditional Caucasian fermented milk. To maximize the application of lactobionic acid, we investigated favorable conditions for the preparation of resting A. orientalis cells and lactose oxidation. The resting cells, prepared under the most favorable conditions, effectively oxidized 2-10% lactose at 97.2 to 99.7 mol % yield. PMID:22313756

  3. A comparison of African-American and Caucasian college students' attitudes toward computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckett, Pamela Gail

    1997-09-01

    As computer usage becomes mandatory on college campuses across the world, the issue of examining students' attitudes toward computers becomes very important. The major goal of this study was to examine the relationship between gender and ethnicity and African American and Caucasian college students attitudes toward computers. The Computer Attitude Scale instrument was used to measure the students' attitudes. During the Summer of the 1996 academic year, a university in the southeastern United States was selected to participate in this study. A total of 230 African American and Caucasian undergraduate students participated in the study. The students were pre-tested during the first week of the semester to access their initial computer attitudes. The students were enrolled in one of the mandatory computer literacy courses (Computer Literacy Awareness Course or C, Pascal or FORTRAN Programming Course) for 12 weeks. There were a total of seven different instructors for the courses. During the 12th week of class, the students were post-tested to access their computer attitudes after completing one of the computer literacy courses. Results were analyzed using ANCOVA. While both African Americans and Caucasian students showed a slight increase in their attitudes toward computers after completing the course, no significant difference between the groups was found. However, all groups were found to have positive attitudes toward computers in general. Data analysis also indicated no significant gender difference among African American and Caucasian undergraduate students. This confirmed findings of previous studies in which no significant gender difference was found to exist among college students.

  4. Current evidence on the four polymorphisms of VDR and breast cancer risk in Caucasian women☆

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Baohong; Liu, Shuzhen; Yang, Xueling; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Xianzhi; Zheng, Dejie; Gao, Jianfeng; Chen, Kaili; Gao, Yanfang; Liu, Liang; Ren, Haipeng; Wang, Wenhui; Qi, Yuanling; Yu, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    There have been a few epidemiological studies reporting VDR polymorphisms including Fok1, Bsm1, Apa1 and Taq1with breast cancer incidence and therefore risk. The results however are controversial, often due to smaller sample size. Concerning most of the studies were performed on Caucasian women, we conducted this comprehensive meta-analysis encompassing 38,151 cases and 47,546 controls (Fok1: 13,152 cases, 17,443 controls; Bsm1: 14,755 cases, 18,633 controls; Apa1: 3080 cases, 3412 controls; Taq1: 7164 cases, 8068 controls) to better understand roles of the polymorphisms in breast cancer development among Caucasian population. We did not find any association of the most controversial genotype Fok1 with breast cancer risk in Caucasian women (ff vs. FF: OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.95–1.22, P = 0.32 for heterogeneity; ff vs. Ff: OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.94–1.17, P = 0.40; ff vs. Ff + FF: OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.95–1.14, P = 0.37 and ff + Ff vs. FF: OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99–1.09, P = 0.23). For Bsm1, Apa1 and Taq1, no significant association was also not found in the homozygote comparison, heterozygote comparison, recessive and dominant models respectively. In conclusion, the current analysis suggested that the four polymorphisms (Fok1, Bsm1, Apa1 and Taq1) of VDR may be not associated with breast cancer risk in Caucasian women. PMID:25606388

  5. Risk factors for breast cancer in postmenopausal Caucasian and Chinese-Canadian women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Striking differences exist between countries in the incidence of breast cancer. The causes of these differences are unknown, but because incidence rates change in migrants, they are thought to be due to lifestyle rather than genetic differences. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to examine breast cancer risk factors in populations with different risks for breast cancer. Methods We compared breast cancer risk factors among three groups of postmenopausal Canadian women at substantially different risk of developing breast cancer - Caucasians (N = 413), Chinese women born in the West or who migrated to the West before age 21 (N = 216), and recent Chinese migrants (N = 421). Information on risk factors and dietary acculturation were collected by telephone interviews using questionnaires, and anthropometric measurements were taken at a home visit. Results Compared to Caucasians, recent Chinese migrants weighed on average 14 kg less, were 6 cm shorter, had menarche a year later, were more often parous, less often had a family history of breast cancer or a benign breast biopsy, a higher Chinese dietary score, and a lower Western dietary score. For most of these variables, Western born Chinese and early Chinese migrants had values intermediate between those of Caucasians and recent Chinese migrants. We estimated five-year absolute risks for breast cancer using the Gail Model and found that risk estimates in Caucasians would be reduced by only 11% if they had the risk factor profile of recent Chinese migrants for the risk factors in the Gail Model. Conclusions Our results suggest that in addition to the risk factors in the Gail Model, there likely are other factors that also contribute to the large difference in breast cancer risk between Canada and China. PMID:20053286

  6. Lipoprotein Profiles in Class III Obese Caucasian and African American Women with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Anna E.; Kasim, Nader; Tamboli, Robyn A.; Gonzalez, Raul S.; Antoun, Joseph; Eckert, Emily A.; Marks-Shulman, Pamela A.; Dunn, Julia; Wattacheril, Julia; Wallen, Taylor; Abumrad, Naji N.; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride content in the liver is regulated by the uptake, production and elimination of lipoproteins, and derangements in these processes contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies show a direct relationship between intrahepatic fat and production of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) containing particles, VLDL and LDL, but little consensus exists regarding changes in lipoprotein production in the development of simple steatosis (SS) versus nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Further, ethnic variations in lipoproteins among SS and NASH are unknown as is how such variations might contribute to the differential prevalence of disease among Caucasians versus African Americans. In this study, we assessed plasma lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 70 non-diabetic class III obese females recruited from the surgical weight loss clinic. Of these, 51 females were stratified by biopsy-staged NAFLD severity (histologically normal, SS, or NASH). NASH females displayed increased circulating triglycerides and increased VLDL particle number and size relative to those with histologically normal livers, while total and large LDL concentration decreased in SS versus NASH and correlated with increased insulin resistance (via HOMA2-IR). When Caucasian women were examined alone (n = 41), VLDL and triglycerides increased between normal and SS, while total LDL and apoB100 decreased between SS and NASH along with increased insulin resistance. Compared to Caucasians with SS, African American women with SS displayed reduced triglycerides, VLDL, and small LDL and a more favorable small to large HDL ratio despite having increased BMI and HOMA2-IR. These findings suggest that ApoB100 and lipoprotein subclass particle number and size can delineate steatosis from NASH in obese Caucasian females, but should be interpreted with caution in other ethnicities as African Americans with SS display relatively improved lipoprotein profiles

  7. Current evidence on the four polymorphisms of VDR and breast cancer risk in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baohong; Liu, Shuzhen; Yang, Xueling; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Xianzhi; Zheng, Dejie; Gao, Jianfeng; Chen, Kaili; Gao, Yanfang; Liu, Liang; Ren, Haipeng; Wang, Wenhui; Qi, Yuanling; Yu, Guohua

    2014-12-01

    There have been a few epidemiological studies reporting VDR polymorphisms including Fok1, Bsm1, Apa1 and Taq1with breast cancer incidence and therefore risk. The results however are controversial, often due to smaller sample size. Concerning most of the studies were performed on Caucasian women, we conducted this comprehensive meta-analysis encompassing 38,151 cases and 47,546 controls (Fok1: 13,152 cases, 17,443 controls; Bsm1: 14,755 cases, 18,633 controls; Apa1: 3080 cases, 3412 controls; Taq1: 7164 cases, 8068 controls) to better understand roles of the polymorphisms in breast cancer development among Caucasian population. We did not find any association of the most controversial genotype Fok1 with breast cancer risk in Caucasian women (ff vs. FF: OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.95-1.22, P = 0.32 for heterogeneity; ff vs. Ff: OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.94-1.17, P = 0.40; ff vs. Ff + FF: OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.95-1.14, P = 0.37 and ff + Ff vs. FF: OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99-1.09, P = 0.23). For Bsm1, Apa1 and Taq1, no significant association was also not found in the homozygote comparison, heterozygote comparison, recessive and dominant models respectively. In conclusion, the current analysis suggested that the four polymorphisms (Fok1, Bsm1, Apa1 and Taq1) of VDR may be not associated with breast cancer risk in Caucasian women. PMID:25606388

  8. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrea K.; Ford, M. Allison; Jones, Tamekia L.; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) among African-American and Caucasian college-aged women are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race. Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50) and Caucasian (n=51) females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables. Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116]) and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129]) were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098]) and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134]) were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD. Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors. PMID:26000242

  9. Geographic variation in organ availability is responsible for disparities in liver transplantation between Hispanics and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Volk, M L; Choi, H; Warren, G J W; Sonnenday, C J; Marrero, J A; Heisler, M

    2009-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether disparities in waiting list outcomes exist for Hispanics and African Americans during the post-MELD era, and to investigate interactions between disparities and geography. Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data were used to compare Hispanics and African Americans to Caucasians listed between 2003 and 2008. Endpoints included (i) receipt of a liver transplant and (ii) death or removal from the waiting list for being too sick or medically unsuitable. Adjustment for possible confounders was performed using multivariate Cox regression, with adjustment for geographic variation using a fixed-effects multilevel model. In multivariate analysis, African Americans have similar hazard of transplantation and death/removal as Caucasians during the post-MELD era. However, Hispanics are less likely to receive a transplant than Caucasians despite adjustment for potential confounders (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.77-0.83), while having a similar hazard of death/removal. This effect disappeared after adjusting for unequal regional distribution of Hispanics, who represent 8% of patients in donation service areas (DSAs) having median waiting times of < or = 155 days versus 19% in DSAs with median waiting times of >155 days. In conclusion, disparities in liver transplantation exist for Hispanics during the post-MELD era, caused by geographic variation in organ availability. PMID:19624565

  10. Looking at faces from different angles: Europeans fixate different features in Asian and Caucasian faces.

    PubMed

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Bülthoff, Isabelle; Armann, Regine

    2014-07-01

    Race categorization of faces is a fast and automatic process and is known to affect further face processing profoundly and at earliest stages. Whether processing of own- and other-race faces might rely on different facial cues, as indicated by diverging viewing behavior, is much under debate. We therefore aimed to investigate two open questions in our study: (1) Do observers consider information from distinct facial features informative for race categorization or do they prefer to gain global face information by fixating the geometrical center of the face? (2) Does the fixation pattern, or, if facial features are considered relevant, do these features differ between own- and other-race faces? We used eye tracking to test where European observers look when viewing Asian and Caucasian faces in a race categorization task. Importantly, in order to disentangle centrally located fixations from those towards individual facial features, we presented faces in frontal, half-profile and profile views. We found that observers showed no general bias towards looking at the geometrical center of faces, but rather directed their first fixations towards distinct facial features, regardless of face race. However, participants looked at the eyes more often in Caucasian faces than in Asian faces, and there were significantly more fixations to the nose for Asian compared to Caucasian faces. Thus, observers rely on information from distinct facial features rather than facial information gained by centrally fixating the face. To what extent specific features are looked at is determined by the face's race. PMID:24796509

  11. Cultural perceptions in cancer care among African-American and Caucasian patients.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Robin K.; Grange, Christina; Lyckholm, Laurie J.; Utsey, Shawn O.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: This exploratory study examined perceptions and beliefs of African Americans and Caucasians related to cancer care. Understanding belief systems and cultures optimizes cancer treatment and care delivery to ethnic minority individuals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with 39 African-American and Caucasian cancer patients. Data analysis included whole group analysis with a team of five researchers. RESULTS: Regardless of ethnicity, cancer patients share many of the same emotions and experiences, and want complete information and quality care. Differences were also apparent. African-American participants were more likely to report increased religious behaviors, believe that healthcare providers demonstrate care with simple actions and provision of practical assistance, and use church and community information sources. Caucasian participants were more likely to report spiritual but not overtly religious changes, and depend on healthcare providers for information. CONCLUSION: Understanding how culture colors perceptions, communication and information requirements is critical to providing effective care to ethnically diverse cancer patients. Findings have implications for professionals understanding ways patients seek information, the role of spirituality and religion in care, and ways healthcare providers demonstrate care. PMID:17987914

  12. Differences in legal characteristics between Caucasian and African-American women diverted into substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Scott, Melanie C; Edwards, Laurie; Lussier, Lauren R; Devine, Susan; Easton, Caroline J

    2011-01-01

    In this exploratory study, we examined differences in the legal characteristics of Caucasian and African-American female offenders (n = 122) who were diverted into substance abuse treatment, to identify any racial disparities. We also examined the differences between groups in demographics and in substance abuse, family, and violence histories. In terms of legal characteristics, the results showed that African-American female offenders were significantly more likely to have been incarcerated at the time of their substance dependency evaluation than were Caucasian female offenders. Also, African-American women were more likely to have served 13 months for the current legal charge in comparison to the 4 months served by Caucasian women, although no differences were found between groups in the severity of the current legal charge. Comparison of demographics and substance abuse, family, and violence histories indicated that African-American women were more likely to be undereducated, crack cocaine dependent, and overly exposed to violence. Overall, the sample of female offenders evidenced severe substance dependency problems, a strong need for inpatient substance abuse treatment, and chronic legal and social difficulties. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to unbalanced sentencing policies and increasing awareness of the treatment needs of this unique population. PMID:21389168

  13. The moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior. PMID:19806443

  14. Dosing Algorithms to Predict Warfarin Maintenance Dose in Caucasians and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Schelleman, Hedi; Chen, Jinbo; Chen, Zhen; Christie, Jason; Newcomb, Craig W.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Price, Maureen; Whitehead, Alexander S.; Kealey, Carmel; Thorn, Caroline F.; Samaha, Frederick F.; Kimmel, Stephen E

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine whether clinical, environmental, and genetic factors can be used to develop dosing algorithms for Caucasians and African Americans that perform better than giving empirical 5 mg/day. Methods From April 2002 through December 2005, 259 warfarin initiators were prospectively followed until they reached maintenance dose. Results The Caucasian algorithm included 11 variables (R2=0.43). This model (51% within 1 mg) performed better compared with 5 mg/day (29% within 5±1 mg). The African American algorithm included 10 variables (R2=0.28). This model predicted 37% of doses within 1 mg of the observed dose; a small improvement compared with 5 mg/day (34%). These results were similar to the results we obtained from testing other (published) algorithms. Conclusions The dosing algorithms in Caucasians explained <45% of the variability and the algorithms in African Americans performed only marginally better than giving 5 mg empirically. PMID:18596683

  15. CLU rs9331888 Polymorphism Contributes to Alzheimer's Disease Susceptibility in Caucasian But Not East Asian Populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyan; Li, Xuling; Ma, Guoda; Jiang, Yongshuai; Liao, Mingzhi; Feng, Rennan; Zhang, Liangcai; Liu, Jiafeng; Wang, Guangyu; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Qinghua; Li, Keshen; Liu, Guiyou

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms rs11136000, rs2279590, and rs9331888 in CLU gene to be significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Caucasian ancestry. Both rs11136000 and rs2279590 variants were successfully replicated in Asian population. However, previous studies reported either a weak association or no association between rs9331888 polymorphism and AD in Asian population. Here, we searched the PubMed, AlzGene, and Google Scholar databases. We selected 12 independent studies that evaluated the association between the rs9331888 polymorphism and AD using a case-control design. Using an additive model, we did not identify significant heterogeneity among these 12 studies. We observed significant association between rs9331888 polymorphism and AD in pooled populations (P = 2.26E - 07, odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.14). In subgroup analysis, we did not identify significant heterogeneity in both Asian and Caucasian populations. We identified significant association in Caucasian population (P = 1.67E - 08, OR = 1.13, 95 % CI 1.08-1.18) but not in East Asian population (P = 0.49, OR = 1.02, 95 % CI 0.96-1.10). PMID:25633098

  16. Your Guide to Healthy Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep apnea. This condition occurs more frequently in African Americans, Asians, Native Americans, and Hispanics than in Caucasians. More than one-half of all people who have sleep apnea are not diagnosed. People ...

  17. Large-scale in-vivo Caucasian facial soft tissue thickness database for craniofacial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    De Greef, S; Claes, P; Vandermeulen, D; Mollemans, W; Suetens, P; Willems, G

    2006-05-15

    A large-scale study of facial soft tissue depths of Caucasian adults was conducted. Over a 2-years period, 967 Caucasian subjects of both sexes, varying age and varying body mass index (BMI) were studied. A user-friendly and mobile ultrasound-based system was used to measure, in about 20min per subject, the soft tissue thickness at 52 facial landmarks including most of the landmarks used in previous studies. This system was previously validated on repeatability and accuracy [S. De Greef, P. Claes, W. Mollemans, M. Loubele, D. Vandermeulen, P. Suetens, G. Willems, Semi-automated ultrasound facial soft tissue depth registration: method and validation. J. Forensic Sci. 50 (2005)]. The data of 510 women and 457 men were analyzed in order to update facial soft tissue depth charts of the contemporary Caucasian adult. Tables with the average thickness values for each landmark as well as the standard deviation and range, tabulated according to gender, age and BMI are reported. In addition, for each landmark and for both sexes separately, a multiple linear regression of thickness versus age and BMI is calculated. The lateral asymmetry of the face was analysed on an initial subset of 588 subjects showing negligible differences and thus warranting the unilateral measurements of the remaining subjects. The new dataset was statistically compared to three datasets for the Caucasian adults: the traditional datasets of Rhine and Moore [J.S. Rhine, C.E. Moore, Tables of facial tissue thickness of American Caucasoids in forensic anthropology. Maxwell Museum Technical series 1 (1984)] and Helmer [R. Helmer, Schädelidentifizierung durch elektronische bildmischung, Kriminalistik Verlag GmbH, Heidelberg, 1984] together with the most recent in vivo study by Manhein et al. [M.H. Manhein, G.A. Listi, R.E. Barsley, R. Musselman, N.E. Barrow, D.H. Ubelbaker, In vivo facial tissue depth measurements for children and adults. J. Forensic Sci. 45 (2000) 48-60]. The large-scale database

  18. Obesity-related non-communicable diseases: South Asians vs White Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Misra, A; Khurana, L

    2011-02-01

    South Asians are at higher risk than White Caucasians for the development of obesity and obesity-related non-communicable diseases (OR-NCDs), including insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Rapid nutrition and lifestyle transitions have contributed to acceleration of OR-NCDs in South Asians. Differences in determinants and associated factors for OR-NCDs between South Asians and White Caucasians include body phenotype (high body fat, high truncal, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat, and low muscle mass), biochemical parameters (hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia, low levels of adiponectin and high levels of C-reactive protein), procoagulant state and endothelial dysfunction. Higher prevalence, earlier onset and increased complications of T2DM and CHD are often seen at lower levels of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in South Asians than White Caucasians. In view of these data, lower cut-offs for obesity and abdominal obesity have been advocated for Asian Indians (BMI; overweight >23 to 24.9 kg m(-2) and obesity ≥ 25 kg m(-2); and WC; men ≥ 90 cm and women ≥ 80 cm, respectively). Imbalanced nutrition, physical inactivity, perinatal adverse events and genetic differences are also important contributory factors. Other differences between South Asians and White Caucasians include lower disease awareness and health-seeking behavior, delayed diagnosis due to atypical presentation and language barriers, and religious and sociocultural factors. All these factors result in poorer prevention, less aggressive therapy, poorer response to medical and surgical interventions, and higher morbidity and mortality in the former. Finally, differences in response to pharmacological agents may exist between South Asians and White Caucasians, although these have been inadequately studied. In view of these data, prevention and management strategies should be more

  19. Validation of the danish national diabetes register.

    PubMed

    Green, Anders; Sortsø, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Emneus, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The Danish National Diabetes Register (NDR) was established in 2006 and builds on data from Danish health registers. We validated the content of NDR, using full information from the Danish National Patient Register and data from the literature. Our study indicates that the completeness in NDR is ≥95% concerning ascertainment from data sources specific for diabetes, ie, prescriptions with antidiabetic drugs and diagnoses of diabetes in the National Patient Register. Since the NDR algorithm ignores diabetes-related hospital contacts terminated before 1990, the establishment of the date of inclusion is systematically delayed for ≥10% of the registrants in general and for ≥30% of the inclusions before 1997 in particular. This bias is enhanced for ascertainment by chiropody services and by frequent measurements of blood glucose because the date of reimbursement of services, rather than the date of encounter, has been taken as the date of inclusion in NDR. We also find that some 20% of the registrations in NDR may represent false positive inclusions of persons with frequent measurements of blood glucose without having diabetes. We conclude that NDR is a novel initiative to support research in the epidemiological and public health aspects of diabetes in Denmark, but we also present a list of recommended changes for improving validity, by reducing the impact of current sources of bias and misclassifications. PMID:25565889

  20. Body composition is the main determinant for the difference in type 2 diabetes pathophysiology between Japanese and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Møller, Jonas B; Pedersen, Maria; Tanaka, Haruhiko; Ohsugi, Mitsuru; Overgaard, Rune V; Lynge, Jan; Almind, Katrine; Vasconcelos, Nina-Maria; Poulsen, Pernille; Keller, Charlotte; Ueki, Kohjiro; Ingwersen, Steen H; Pedersen, Bente K; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This cross-sectional clinical study compared the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in Japanese and Caucasians and investigated the role of demographic, genetic, and lifestyle-related risk factors for insulin resistance and β-cell response. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 120 Japanese and 150 Caucasians were enrolled to obtain comparable distributions of high/low BMI values across glucose tolerance states (normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes), which were assessed by oral glucose tolerance tests. BMI in the two cohorts was distributed around the two regional cutoff values for obesity. RESULTS Insulin sensitivity was higher in Japanese compared with Caucasians, as indicated by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and Matsuda indices, whereas β-cell response was higher in Caucasians, as measured by homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function, the insulinogenic indices, and insulin secretion ratios. Disposition indices were similar for Japanese and Caucasians at all glucose tolerance states, indicating similar β-cell response relative to the degree of insulin resistance. The main determinants for differences in metabolic indices were measures of body composition, such as BMI and distribution of adipose tissue. Differences in β-cell response between Japanese and Caucasians were not statistically significant following adjustment by differences in BMI. CONCLUSIONS Our study showed similar disposition indices in Japanese and Caucasians and that the major part of the differences in insulin sensitivity and β-cell response between Japanese and Caucasians can be explained by differences in body composition. PMID:24130359

  1. What women want: understanding obesity and preferences for primary care weight reduction interventions among African-American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed Central

    Blixen, Carol E.; Singh, Anisha; Xu, Meng; Thacker, Holly; Mascha, Edward

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore attitudes and perceptions of obesity, and identify preferences for weight-management interventions by African-American and Caucasian women who were followed in general internal medicine clinics. PROCEDURE: Surveys exploring these issues were mailed to African-American (n=240) and Caucasian (n=240) women with a BMI of > or =30. MAIN FINDINGS: Caucasian women felt past weight-loss efforts were helped by weight-loss programs significantly more than African-American women (P<0.001); African-American women were more likely to feel that their cultural background contributed to their weight gain than did Caucasian women (P=0.001). African-American women expressed a higher need for one-on-one counseling with their physician (P<0.001) as well as group meetings with the dietician, physician and other women (P=0.004) than did Caucasian women. African-American women also felt it was more important for weight-loss programs to have information on food common to their culture than did Caucasian women (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in cultural background and preferences about weight loss interventions have important policy implications for how the U.S. healthcare system provides care to an ever-increasing multicultural population with a national epidemic such as obesity. PMID:16895288

  2. Comparing the Experiential and Psychosocial Dimensions of Chronic Pain in African Americans and Caucasians: Findings from a National Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruehlman, Linda S.; Karoly, Paul; Newton, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain whether non-Hispanic African American and Caucasian chronic pain sufferers differ or converge in their self-reports of pain experience and pain adjustment. Research Design A telephone survey of U.S. English-speaking adults selected via random-digit dialing procedures and constrained to locate persons with chronic pain within selected gender by age groupings. Subjects A national sample of 2,407 participants contained a total of 214 non-Hispanic African Americans. A sample of 214 non-Hispanic Caucasians was randomly selected from the larger set of 1,935 Caucasian participants to serve as a comparison group for the present study. Measures Participants provided responses to interviewer questions that assessed pain experience (severity, interference, and emotional burden) and psychosocial outcomes (coping, attitudes and beliefs, catastrophizing, social support and hindrance, pain’s interference with daily life activities, treatment status, and medication taking). Results Although African American and Caucasian adults with chronic pain did not differ significantly in pain severity, interference, emotional burden, or current treatment status, multivariate analyses revealed differences in several domains of psychosocial functioning. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans reported greater pain-related interference with daily living, deficiencies in coping, and counterproductive attitudes and beliefs. African Americans also reported greater impatience and insensitivity from the most important person in their lives. Conclusions Psychosocial dimensions of chronic pain differed between community-residing African American and Caucasian adults surveyed as part of a national sample. PMID:15669950

  3. Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... our online catalog . Alternate Language URL Keep Your Kidneys Healthy Page Content The steps you take to ... and heart disease. Tips to help keep your kidneys healthy: Keep your blood pressure at the target ...

  4. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.; Bourne, Peter G.; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security. PMID:23385371

  5. Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism and personality traits in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Persson, M L; Wasserman, D; Geijer, T; Frisch, A; Rockah, R; Michaelovsky, E; Apter, A; Weizman, A; Jönsson, E G; Bergman, H

    2000-01-01

    An association between long alleles of a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D4 gene and the extraversion related personality traits Excitement and Novelty Seeking has been reported in healthy subjects. In an attempt to replicate the previous findings, 256 healthy Caucasian volunteers were analysed for a potential relationship between the dopamine receptor D4 exon III VNTR polymorphism and Extraversion as assessed by the Revised Neo Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). The present study did not yield evidence for an association between Extraversion and the dopamine receptor D4 polymorphism. PMID:11009073

  6. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies. PMID:23865863

  7. Health Information Seeking Among Rural African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics: It Is Built, Did They Come?

    PubMed

    Powe, Barbara D

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study examines health information-seeking behaviors and access to and use of technology among rural African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics. There was a low level of health information seeking across the sample. Few used smartphones or tablets and did not endorse receiving health information from their health care provider by e-mail. Printed materials remained a source of health information as did friends and family. Information should be shared using multiple platforms including more passive methods such as television and radio. More research is needed to ensure the health literacy, numeracy, and ability to navigate the online environment. PMID:26333608

  8. Rocuronium blockade reversal with sugammadex vs. neostigmine: randomized study in Chinese and Caucasian subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study compared efficacy and safety of the selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex (2 mg/kg) with neostigmine (50 μg/kg) for neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversal in Chinese and Caucasian subjects. Methods This was a randomized, active-controlled, multicenter, safety-assessor-blinded study (NCT00825812) in American Society of Anesthesiologists Class 1-3 subjects undergoing surgery with propofol anesthesia. Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was administered for endotracheal intubation, with 0.1–0.2 mg/kg maintenance doses given as required. NMB was monitored using TOF-Watch® SX. At second twitch reappearance, after last rocuronium dose, subjects received sugammadex 2 mg/kg or neostigmine 50 μg/kg plus atropine 10–20 μg/kg, according to randomization. Primary efficacy variable was time from sugammadex/neostigmine to recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio to 0.9. Results Overall, 230 Chinese subjects (sugammadex, n = 119, neostigmine, n = 111); and 59 Caucasian subjects (sugammadex, n = 29, neostigmine, n = 30) had evaluable data. Geometric mean (95% CI) time to recovery to TOF ratio 0.9 was 1.6 (1.5–1.7) min with sugammadex vs 9.1 (8.0–10.3) min with neostigmine in Chinese subjects. Corresponding times for Caucasian subjects were 1.4 (1.3–1.5) min and 6.7 (5.5–8.0) min, respectively. Sugammadex 2 mg/kg was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events reported. There was no residual NMB or recurrence of NMB. Conclusion Both Chinese and Caucasian subjects recovered from NMB significantly faster after sugammadex 2 mg/kg vs neostigmine 50 μg/kg, with a ~5.7 times (p < 0.0001) faster recovery with sugammadex vs neostigmine in Chinese subjects. Sugammadex was generally well tolerated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00825812. PMID:25187755

  9. [Genetics and anthropology of Caucasian nations and the problem of "caucasoids" origin].

    PubMed

    Nazarova, A F; Aslanishvili, V O; Alkhutov, S M

    2004-01-01

    Anthropological investigations have shown that representatives of European and mongoloid races lived in the river basin of Aragvi from late Stone Age. These data confirm a viewpoint of academician V.P. Alekssev (1974) that population of the Caucasus was compound in race terms from the ancient times. Situation of the Caucasian peoples on the dendrogrammes built corresponds in general to the data of national anthropologists. Clusterization of other europeoid ethnic groups also corresponds in general to the anthropological and historical data and confirms hypothesis which we have set up earlier about differentiation of europeoids, north mongoloids and amerinds of the same population which lived in Asia in palaeolith. PMID:15771089

  10. Annoying Danish Relatives: Comprehension and Production of Relative Clauses by Danish Children with and without SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen De Lopez, Kristine; Olsen, Lone Sundahl; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD…

  11. Differences in Subjective Response to Alcohol in Heavy and Light Drinking Chinese Men versus Caucasian American Men

    PubMed Central

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Hu, Hongxing; McNamara, Patrick; Cao, Dingcai; Hao, Wei; King, Andrea C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Compare subjective responses to alcohol among Han Chinese and Caucasian American males. Design Double-blinded, placebo-controlled human laboratory design. Participants completed three randomized experimental sessions with high and low alcohol, and placebo beverage. Setting Chinese participants were examined at Xinjiang Medical University, China. Caucasian participants were examined at the University of Chicago, USA. Participants 70 Han Chinese (35 heavy/35 light drinkers) and 75 Caucasian Americans (43 heavy/32 light drinkers). Measurements Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and the Stimulation and Sedation subscales of the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale were assessed at pre-drink baseline and four timepoints after beverage consumption. The Like and Want subscales of the Drug Effects Questionnaire were also assessed at the post-drink assessments. Findings Comparisons with light drinkers showed that high and low dose alcohol produced decreases in stimulation, liking, and wanting in Chinese vs. Caucasians (ps<.05), and dose-dependent increases in sedation in both groups (ps<0.001). Among heavy drinkers, high dose alcohol produced higher stimulation (p<0.001) but with concomitant higher sedation for both doses (ps<0.05) for Chinese vs. Caucasians. Alcohol also demonstrated significantly lower liking (ps<0.001) in Chinese vs. Caucasian heavy drinkers for both doses. Interestingly, both groups showed dose dependent increases in wanting relative to placebo (ps<0.05), but the magnitude of the increase was lower in Chinese. Conclusions Stimulating effects of alcohol are predominant in Chinese male binge drinkers, as has been found in Caucasians, but with less hedonic and motivational reward, potentially explaining some of the lower risk for alcohol disorders in Asian subgroups. PMID:25203488

  12. Parenting among Wealthy Danish Families: A Concerted Civilising Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Dil

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the parenting practices of wealthy Danish families and offers insight into the workings of dominant parenting norms within contemporary Danish society. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among 15 families living north of Copenhagen, Denmark, this article identifies the parenting strategies of people with ample…

  13. Educational Ambassadors in the Danish Trade Union Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keil, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The concept of Educational Ambassadors is embedded within the so-called "Danish model" of industrial relations. The Danish industrial relations system is characterised by strong collective organisations with national coverage, which conclude the collective agreements for various industries or sectors and which are mostly grouped under central…

  14. Statistical Learning in Emerging Lexicons: The Case of Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Lambertsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research explored the impact of neighborhood density (ND), word frequency (WF), and word length (WL) on the vocabulary size of Danish-speaking children. Given the particular phonological properties of Danish, the impact was expected to differ from that reported in studies on English and French. Method: The monosyllabic words in the…

  15. Screening for celiac disease in Danish adults

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Anna; Skaaby, Tea; Kårhus, Line Lund; Schwarz, Peter; Jørgensen, Torben; Rumessen, Jüri J.; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) as recorded in the Danish National Patient Registry is ∼50/100,000 persons. This is much lower than the reported prevalence of CD in other Nordic countries and underdiagnosis is suspected. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of CD in a population-based study of Danish adults. Methods. A total of 2297 adults aged 24–76 years living in the southwestern part of Copenhagen were screened for CD by immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG antibodies to transglutaminases and deamidated gliadin. IgA/IgG-positive participants were invited to a clinical evaluation, including biopsies, by a gastroenterologist. Results. Of the invited 56 participants, 40 underwent a full clinical evaluation and 8 persons were diagnosed with CD; 2 of the 16 persons, who did not complete the clinical evaluation, were considered by experts to have probable CD. None of the above 56 participants had a known history of CD or a recorded diagnosis of CD in National Patient Registry. By combining cases of biopsy-proven CD (n = 8), probable CD (n = 2), and registry-recorded CD (n = 1), the prevalence of CD was estimated to be 479/100,000 (11/2297) persons (95% CI: 197–761). Conclusion. In this general adult population, the prevalence of CD as estimated by screening and clinical evaluation was 10 times higher than the registry-based prevalence of CD. Of 11 participants diagnosed with CD in our screening study, 10 were unaware of the diagnosis prior to the study. Thus, our study suggests that CD is markedly underdiagnosed in Danish adults. PMID:25687734

  16. Interpersonal violence: patterns in a Danish community.

    PubMed Central

    Hedeboe, J; Charles, A V; Nielsen, J; Grymer, F; Møller, B N; Møller-Madson, B; Jensen, S E

    1985-01-01

    We studied all cases of assault with violence (1,639) in a Danish population of 275,000 over a one-year period. Most victims were young men. The incidence rose during evenings, nights and weekends, and assaults were often seen in or around bars and restaurants. Women accounted for 64 per cent of all victims of assault in the home. Influence of alcohol was identified in 43 per cent of all cases. The fist was the most frequent agent of assault; use of firearms was a very rare act of violence but was associated with death in three out of five cases. There were 10 deaths in all. PMID:4003631

  17. Phenotypic and clinical differences between Caucasian and South Asian patients with psoriatic arthritis living in North East London.

    PubMed

    Roussou, Euthalia; Chopra, Sunil; Ngandu, Danny Lunda

    2013-05-01

    To test for demographic and clinical differences between Caucasian and South Asian patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) living in the same environment and for differences between sexes. The demographic characteristics of patients attending outpatient clinics were obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire. Clinical parameters included disease activity (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein), function (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI)) and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for well-being and night pain (10 cm, where 10 = worst possible response). The first symptom experienced at disease onset and the main symptoms during the disease course were recorded in the questionnaire. A total of 217 patents were assessed of whom 151 were Caucasians and 66 were Asians. South Asian patients were significantly younger [(mean) 45.9 years [(SD)(±11.4)] for Asians and 53.1 years (±14.2) for Caucasians (p < 0.005)] and were diagnosed at an earlier age [40.7 years (±11.7) for Asians and 46.7 years (±15.8) for Caucasians (p < 0.05)] compared to Caucasians patients. Asian females with PsA had worse disease in terms of activity (ESR = 23.9 mmHg/h; BASDAI = 6.7), function (BASFI = 5.5), night pain (7.1 on VAS) and well-being (6.6 on VAS) compared with Asian males (13.2 mmHg/h, 5.3, 3.6, 4.1, 4.6, respectively) or Caucasian males and females (15.8 mmHg/h, 5.9, 5.3, 5.4, 5.4; 18.9 mmHg/h, 6.1, 6.1, 5.3, 5.8, respectively). There were no significant differences in symptoms at disease onset or the main symptoms during the disease course between Caucasian and Asian patients, although there was a trend towards more frequent enthesitis in Asian females during the course of disease suggested by pain with pressure compared to Asian males. South Asian patients may develop PsA earlier in life than Caucasian patients do, but their clinical characteristics are generally similar. Asian

  18. Developing and Evaluating a Multimodal Course Format: Danish for Knowledge Workers--Labour Market-Related Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Laursen, Katja Årosin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on developing the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) course "Danish for knowledge workers--labour market-related Danish." As defined by Laursen and Frederiksen (2015), knowledge workers are "highly educated people who typically work at universities, at other institutions of higher…

  19. Comparison of the dentofacial patterns for native Greek and American-Caucasian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Argyropoulos, E; Sassouni, V

    1989-03-01

    The study of the craniofacial relations and variations in man has long been used to differentiate various racial groups in physical anthropology. Morphologic features of different races and ethnic groups are not randomly distributed but appear in geographic clusters. Richardson wonders whether there is only one race, comprising ethnic groups separated by cultural, climatic, and geographic boundaries, causing subtle changes in facial morphology. Since the introduction of roentgenographic cephalometry in orthodontics, several methods of analysis have been developed for clinical diagnosis and treatment planning. Also, these methods have been used to establish the cephalometric norms of different ethnic groups: American Negro, Australian aborigine, American Mexican, Norwegian, Indian, Japanese, Swedish, and Iranian. Sassouni, Ricketts, and others have concluded that norms differ between Caucasians and other ethnic and racial groups. Ethnic differences in facial traits do exist. Awareness of the normal dentofacial pattern of each ethnic group will undoubtedly ensure better success of treatment to establish optimal facial harmony. These conclusions prompted the present investigation, which compares Greek and American-Caucasian dentofacial patterns of adolescents, and provides information on the facial characteristics of Greek adolescents. To date, no similar study has been made. PMID:2923103

  20. Burkitt-type lymphoma in France among non-Hodgkin malignant lymphomas in Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Philip, T; Lenoir, G M; Bryon, P A; Gerard-Marchant, R; Souillet, G; Philippe, N; Freycon, F; Brunat-Mentigny, M

    1982-05-01

    In a retrospective analysis of 87 cases of Caucasian childhood non-Hodgkin malignant lymphoma (NHML) from Lyon, France, all the case were diffuse lymphomas, but 47 were diagnosed as monomorphic small non-cleaved NHML, pathologically indistinguishable from Burkitt's lymphoma (BL). BL could then be the most frequent childhood lymphoma in France. This homogeneous series allows better definition of the characteristics of BL within NHML. Age distribution is similar to that of endemic BL, with a sex ratio of 3.7/1. Abdominal masses are initially present in 68% of the cases, whereas jaw is involved in only 4%. The disease is characterized by its overwhelming evolution in the absence of therapy. However, complete remission (CR) is usually obtained after the first chemtherapy regimen. Most relapses occur at 3-8 months. Death could be related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) involvement, local recurrence or secondary marrow involvement. Ninety per cent of the patients alive with no evidence of disease (NED) 8 months after CR can be considered as definitely cured. Our study on Caucasian children with NHML indicates that, from histological and clinical criteria, nearly half the cases are very similar to African BL. Even though EBV rarely associated with our cases, BL could be a worldwide lymphoma. PMID:7082553

  1. Alcohol use and depression among African-American and Caucasian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maag, John W; Irvin, Deborah M

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent Drinking Index (ADI). Extreme groups were formed using upper (> 75%) and lower (< 25%) quartiles. Three other groups were formed using each instrument's normatively derived cutoff scores: depressed only (RADS > 77), heavy drinking (ADI > 16) and mixed (RADS > 77, ADI > 16). Several results were obtained. First, Caucasians obtained significantly higher scores on the ADI than African-Americans, although no differences were obtained for the RADS. Females scored higher on the RADS but lower on the ADI than males. In terms of extreme scores, females were less likely to belong to the severe depression group, while older adolescents in general and African-Americans in particular had a greater probability of belonging to the heavy-drinking group. Finally, using RADS and ADI cutoff scores, females were less likely than males to belong to the depression only group as were African-Americans. Older adolescents, in general, and African-Americans in particular had a greater probability of belonging to the mixed group than did their counterparts. PMID:15861619

  2. Effects of the ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Martín-Alcántara, A; Hidalgo-Martínez, M

    2014-03-01

    We analyse the effects of the air ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity under different ambient temperatures using CFD simulations. A three-dimensional nasal model was constructed from high-resolution computed tomography images for a nasal cavity from a Caucasian male adult. An exhaustive parametric study was performed to analyse the laminar-compressible flow driven by two different pressure drops between the nostrils and the nasopharynx, which induced calm breathing flow rates ࣈ 5.7 L/min and ࣈ 11.3 L/min. The inlet air temperature covered the range - 10(o) C ⩽ To ⩽50(o) C. We observed that, keeping constant the wall temperature of the nasal cavity at 37(o) C, the ambient temperature affects mainly the airflow velocity into the valve region. Surprisingly, we found an excellent linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the air average temperature reached at different cross sections, independently of the pressure drop applied. Finally, we have also observed that the spatial evolution of the mean temperature data along the nasal cavity can be collapsed for all ambient temperatures analysed with the introduction of suitable dimensionless variables, and this evolution can be modelled with the help of hyperbolic functions, which are based on the heat exchanger theory. PMID:24574201

  3. Anterior Segment Dimensions in Asian and Caucasian Eyes Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Bing; Tang, Maolong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xinbo; Chu, Renyuan; Huang, David

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE To compare Asian and Caucasian anterior segment dimensions measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS Anterior segment OCT images were obtained in normal subjects. Four line scans were acquired at the 90°, 45°, 0°, and 135° meridians of each eye. Computer calipers acquired anterior segment dimensions of corneal diameter, anterior chamber width, corneal vault, and anterior chamber depth on OCT images. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess correlations. RESULTS Corneal diameter was 0.5 mm narrower (P < .01), anterior chamber width was 0.46 mm narrower (P < .01), and corneal vault was 0.22 mm lower (P < .01) in Asian eyes. All anterior segment dimensions decreased with age. CONCLUSION Asian eyes had smaller anterior segments compared to Caucasian eyes. Regardless of race, anterior segment dimensions were smaller in older subjects. Age-related changes may affect the tolerability of long-term implants such as phakic intraocular lenses. PMID:22320411

  4. Gene-environment interactions on mental development in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian Mothers and Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Chanock, Stephen; Tang, Deliang; Li, Zhigang; Edwards, Susan; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P.

    2009-01-01

    The health impact of environmental toxins has gained increasing recognition over the years. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are known to affect nervous system development in children, but no studies have investigated how polymorphisms in PAH metabolic or detoxification genes affect child cognitive development following PAH exposure during pregnancy. In two parallel prospective cohort studies of nonsmoking African American and Dominican mothers and children in New York City and of Caucasian mothers and children in Krakow, Poland, we explored the effect of gene-PAH interaction on child mental development index (MDI), as measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Revised (BSID-II). Genes known to play important roles in the metabolic activation or detoxification of PAHs were selected. Genetic variations in these genes could influence susceptibility to adverse effects of PAHs in polluted air. We explored the effects of interactions between prenatal PAH exposure and 21 polymorphisms or haplotypes in these genes on MDI at 12, 24, and 36 months among 547 newborns and 806 mothers from three different ethnic groups: African Americans, Dominicans, and Caucasians. PAHs were measured by personal air monitoring of mothers during pregnancy. Significant interaction effects between haplotypes and PAHs were observed in mothers and their newborns in all three ethnic groups after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The strongest and most consistent effect observed was between PAH and haplotype ACCGGC of the CYP1B1 gene. PMID:19860743

  5. Oculocutaneous albinism with TYRP1 gene mutations in a Caucasian patient.

    PubMed

    Rooryck, Caroline; Roudaut, Christel; Robine, Eulalie; Müsebeck, Jörg; Arveiler, Benoît

    2006-06-01

    Non-syndromic oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder with mutations identified in several genes: OCA1 (tyrosinase, TYR), OCA2 (OCA2), OCA3 (tyrosinase-related protein 1, TYRP1), and OCA4 (membrane-associated transporter protein, MATP). OCA3 was thought to be restricted to black populations, where it was clinically described as rufous or brown albinism, until the recent report of a homozygous TYRP1 mutation in Caucasian patients from a consanguineous Pakistani family. Here, we describe a German patient of Caucasian origin, with a light-yellow skin, yellow-gold hair with orange highlights, fair eyelashes, several pigmented naevi, and no tendency to tan, only to burn. Eye-colour is blue-green with substance defects of the iris. Molecular analysis did not reveal any mutation in the TYR and OCA2 genes. Two mutations were found in the TYRP1 gene: a missense mutation (c.1066G>A/p.Arg356Glu) that was inherited from the mother, and a de novo single-base deletion (c.106delT/p.Leu36X). This finding suggests that mutation screening should be extended to the TYRP1 gene in patients from all ethnic origins, at least in cases where no mutations have been identified in the other OCA genes. PMID:16704458

  6. Topical adenosine increases the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Tokuro; Ideta, Ritsuro; Ehama, Ritsuko; Yamanishi, Haruyo; Iino, Masato; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Ohyama, Manabu; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2016-05-01

    Adenosine is an effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in Japanese men and women. Adenosine exerts its effects by significantly increasing the proportion of thick hair. In this study, we assessed the clinical outcome of adenosine treatment for 6 months in 38 Caucasian men. The change in proportion of thick hair (≥60 μm) compared with baseline in the adenosine group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group (P < 0.0001). The change in vellus hair proportion (<40 μm) was significantly lower in the adenosine group than that in the placebo group (P = 0.0154). The change in hair density compared with baseline of the adenosine group was also significantly higher compared with that of the placebo group (P = 0.0470). No adverse effects due to treatment were noted during this study by dermatological evaluation. Adenosine is effective in increasing the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with AGA as well as in Japanese men and women. PMID:26508659

  7. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. PMID:24210176

  8. The vitamin D receptor polymorphism in the translation initiation codon is a risk factor for insulin resistance in glucose tolerant Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ken C; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Yoon, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Background Although vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms have been shown to be associated with abnormal glucose metabolism, the reported polymorphisms are unlikely to have any biological consequences. The VDR gene has two potential translation initiation sites. A T-to-C polymorphism has been noted in the first ATG (f allele), abolishing the first translation initiation site and resulting in a peptide lacking the first three amino acids (F allele). We examined the role of this polymorphism in insulin sensitivity and beta cell function. This study included 49 healthy Caucasian subjects (28 females, age 28 ± 1 years old, body mass index 24.57 ± 0.57 kg/m2, waist-hip ratio 0.81 ± 0.01 cm/cm). They were all normotensive (less than 140/90 mmHg) and glucose tolerant, which was determined by a standard 75-gm oral glucose tolerance test. Their beta cell function (%B) and insulin sensitivity (%S) were calculated based on the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA). Their genotypes were determined by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Phenotypes were compared between genotypic groups. Results There were 18 FF, 21 Ff, and 10 ff subjects. Since only 10 ff subjects were identified, they were pooled with the Ff subjects during analyses. The FF and Ff/ff groups had similar glucose levels at each time point before and after a glucose challenge. The Ff/ff group had higher insulin levels than the FF group at fasting (P=0.006), 30 minutes (P=0.009), 60 minutes (P=0.049), and 90 minutes (P=0.042). Furthermore, the Ff/ff group also had a larger insulin area under the curve than the FF group (P=0.009). While no difference was noted in %B, the Ff/ff group had a lower %S than the FF group (0.53 vs. 0.78, P=0.006). A stepwise regression analysis confirmed that the Fok I polymorphism was an independent determinant for %S, accounting for 29.3% of variation in %S when combined with waist-hip ratio. Conclusions We report that the Fok I polymorphism

  9. Thyroid function in Danish greenhouse workers

    PubMed Central

    Toft, Gunnar; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background From animal studies it is known that currently used pesticides can disturb thyroid function. Methods In the present study we investigated the thyroid function in 122 Danish greenhouse workers, to evaluate if greenhouse workers classified as highly exposed to pesticides experiences altered thyroid levels compared to greenhouse workers with lower exposure. Serum samples from the greenhouse workers were sampled both in the spring and the fall to evaluate if differences in pesticide use between seasons resulted in altered thyroid hormone levels. Results We found a moderate reduction of free thyroxine (FT4) (10–16%) among the persons working in greenhouses with a high spraying load both in samples collected in the spring and the fall, but none of the other measured thyroid hormones differed significantly between exposure groups in the cross-sectional comparisons. However, in longitudinal analysis of the individual thyroid hormone level between the spring and the fall, more pronounced differences where found with on average 32% higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level in the spring compared to the fall and at the same time a 5–9% lower total triiodthyroxin (TT3), free triiodthyroxine (FT3) and FT4. The difference between seasons was not consistently more pronounced in the group classified as high exposure compared to the low exposure groups. Conclusion The present study indicates that pesticide exposure among Danish greenhouse workers results in only minor disturbances of thyroid hormone levels. PMID:17147831

  10. Danish Ophthalmology - from start to 1865.

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2016-03-01

    This short paper mentioned the medical treatment using the 'holy' springs, the first 'eye doctor' in Denmark, the first picture of spectacles which was found in Viborg Cathedral of the high priest before he performs circumcisio praeputii on Jesus Christ, further cataract reclination in Denmark from around year zero and cataract extraction in 1667 in Denmark on a goose by Francisco Borri and on humans by the Danish Georg Heuermann in 1755. Epidemic military eye diseases in 1807, 1856 and 1865 are also described in this study. From 1856, a new ophthalmological period started in Denmark with the first eye hospital (lazaret only for eye diseases), and in 1864, patients with eye diseases were transported from the few beds in the surgical departments in the municipal hospital to the first civil eye department in Denmark, the eye hospital Sct. Annae in Copenhagen. The new scientific period started with Jacob Christian Bentz (ophthalmia granulosa, joint editor of the Danish Medical Journal) and Heinrich Lehmann. PMID:26899921

  11. Danish experiences on EIA of livestock projects

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Per . E-mail: pc@plan.aau.dk

    2006-07-15

    Since its introduction into Danish planning in 1989, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been widely discussed. At the centre of the debate has been the question of whether EIA actually offered anything new and there has been a great deal of scepticism about the efficacy of the instrument, especially when it comes to livestock projects. In an evaluation of the Danish EIA experience, we have looked more closely at how the EIA instruments function regarding livestock projects. This article addresses both the EIA process as well as the EIA screening. It is demonstrated that the EIA screening in its own right is a kind of regulatory instrument. Examining the assessments made during screening more closely, we conclude that there is still some way to go in order to make the assessment broader and more holistic in accordance with the ambitions set out in the EIA directive to contribute to a more sustainable development. Although the provisions laid down are the same the praxis related to the field has developed at a considerable speed. In order to understand this development we have closely examined how the decisions made by the Nature Protection Board of Appeal (NPBA) have been changed and conclude that these changes definitely address some of the shortcomings found in the evaluation.

  12. The physician's civil liability under Danish law.

    PubMed

    Fenger, N; Broberg, M

    1991-01-01

    The physician's liability in Danish law is based on negligence, which is assessed by the courts largely on the basis of expert opinions. Such opinions are provided primarily by the Medico-Legal Council rather than by experts selected by the parties. The evaluation of negligence is based on a "reasonable man" standard and the performance expected of a competent colleague; a hospital will be responsible for the negligence of its employees. The burden of proof generally lies with the plaintiff; negligence will not be presumed and the assessment of the evidence of negligence will be adapted to the individual situation, e.g. factors such as the degree of specialization involved, the time which the physician had at his disposal to make his decision and the resources available to him will be taken into consideration. The courts have shown themselves willing to allow for the fact that doctors differ, i.e. recognizing that there must be scope for reasonable discretion. Because the culpa principle is central, the standard applied to medical knowledge will be that which pertained at the time of the treatment. Where a non-specialist is confronted with a problem which may go beyond the knowledge of his limits and experience, he is under an obligation to refer the patient. The principle of informed consent to treatment is accepted in Danish law, but such consent will readily be considered to have been given tacitly. PMID:23511859

  13. Facial morphology and children's categorization of facial expressions of emotions: a comparison between Asian and Caucasian faces.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, P; Larocque, C

    2000-09-01

    The effects of Asian and Caucasian facial morphology were examined by having Canadian children categorize pictures of facial expressions of basic emotions. The pictures were selected from the Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expressions of Emotion set developed by D. Matsumoto and P. Ekman (1989). Sixty children between the ages of 5 and 10 years were presented with short stories and an array of facial expressions, and were asked to point to the expression that best depicted the specific emotion experienced by the characters. The results indicated that expressions of fear and surprise were better categorized from Asian faces, whereas expressions of disgust were better categorized from Caucasian faces. These differences originated in some specific confusions between expressions. PMID:10971913

  14. Downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern among African American and Caucasian college women.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Ellen E; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2011-06-01

    Within dominant American culture, females often learn to view themselves from an observer's perspective and to treat themselves as objects to be looked at (i.e., self-objectification), which can result in negative outcomes. Body surveillance (the indicator of self-objectification) has been found to predict concern with weight/shape in predominantly Caucasian samples, but research has not yet examined the potential reciprocal relations between body surveillance and weight/shape concern. Participants were 226 women attending a Midwestern university (70 self-identified as African American and 156 as Caucasian) who provided data at two time points, spaced about 5 months apart. Results revealed that downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern were apparent for the Caucasian but not the African American women. However, there was evidence that body surveillance helped account for change in weight/shape concern for the African American women. PMID:21596635

  15. Asian women have attenuated sympathetic activation but enhanced renal-adrenal responses during pregnancy compared to Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Best, Stuart A; Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Parker, Rosemary S; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Asians have a lower prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy than Caucasians. Since sympathetic overactivity and dysregulation of the renal-adrenal system (e.g. low aldosterone levels) have been found in preeclamptic women, we hypothesized that Asians have lower muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and greater aldosterone concentrations during normal pregnancy than Caucasians. In a prospective study, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and MSNA were measured during supine and upright tilt (30 deg and 60 deg for 5 min each) in 9 Asians (32 ± 1 years (mean ± SEM)) and 12 Caucasians (29 ± 1 years) during pre-, early (≤8 weeks of gestation) and late (32-36 weeks) pregnancy, and post-partum (6-10 weeks after delivery). Supine MSNA increased with pregnancy in both groups (P < 0.001); it was significantly lower in Asians than Caucasians (14 ± 3 vs. 23 ± 3 bursts min(-1) and 16 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 3 bursts min(-1) in early and late pregnancy, respectively; P = 0.023). BP decreased during early pregnancy (P < 0.001), but was restored during late pregnancy. HR increased during pregnancy (P < 0.001) with no racial difference (P = 0.758). MSNA increased during tilting and it was markedly lower in Asians than Caucasians in late pregnancy (31 ± 6 vs. 49 ± 3 bursts min(-1) at 60 deg tilt; P = 0.003). Upright BP was lower in Asians, even in pre-pregnancy (P = 0.006), and this racial difference persisted during pregnancy. Direct renin and aldosterone increased during pregnancy (both P < 0.001); these hormones were greater in Asians (P = 0.086 and P = 0.014). Thus, Asians have less sympathetic activation but more upregulated renal-adrenal responses than Caucasians during pregnancy. These results may explain, at least in part, why Asian women are at low risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. PMID:25545472

  16. Exercise intensity and oxygen uptake kinetics in African-American and Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Nicola; Tolentino-Silva, Fatima; Nasca, Melita M.; Silva, Marco A.; Gladden, L. Bruce; Cabrera, Marco E.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of exercise intensity on the on- and off-transient kinetics of oxygen uptake (VO2) was investigated in African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) women. African American (n=7) and Caucasian (n=6) women of similar age, body mass index and weight, performed an incremental test and bouts of square-wave exercise at moderate, heavy and very heavy intensities on a cycle ergometer. Gas exchange threshold (LTGE) was lower in AA (13.6±2.3mL·kg−1min−1) than C (18.6±5.6mL·kg−1min−1). The dynamic exercise and recovery VO2 responses were characterized by mathematical models. There were no significant differences in 1) peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) between AA (28.5±5mL kg−1min−1) and C (31.1±6.6mL kg−1min−1) and 2) VO2 kinetics at any exercise intensity. At moderate exercise, the on- and off- VO2 kinetics was described by a mono-exponential function with similar time constants τ1,on (39.4±12.5s;38.8±15s) and τ1,off (52.7±10.1s;40.7±4.4s) for AA and C, respectively. At heavy and very heavy exercise, the VO2 kinetics was described by a double-exponential function. The parameter values for heavy and very heavy exercise in the AA group were respectively: τ1,on (47.0±10.8;44.3±10s), τ2,on (289±63;219±90s), τ1,off (45.9±6.2;50.7±10s), τ2,off (259±120;243±93s) while in the C group were respectively: τ1,on (41±12;43.2±15s); τ2,on(277±81;215±36s), τ1,off (40.2±3.4;42.3±7.2s), τ2,off (215±133;228±64s). The on- and off-transients were symmetrical with respect to model order and dependent on exercise intensity regardless of race. Despite similar VO2 kinetics, LTGE and gain of the VO2 on-kinetics at moderate intensity were lower in AA than C. However, generalization to the African American and Caucasian populations is constrained by the small subject numbers. PMID:21717119

  17. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  18. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  19. Staying Healthy After Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... http://womenshealth.gov/menopause/menopause-basics/index.html Staying healthy after menopause may mean making some changes in the way you live. Don't smoke. If you do use any type of tobacco, stop—it's never too late to benefit from quitting smoking. Eat a healthy ...

  20. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  1. Choosing Healthy Restaurant Meals

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Your Plate? Smart Food Choices for Healthy Aging. Download the Tip Sheet Choosing Healthy Restaurant Meals (PDF, 513.39 KB) You Might Also Like Drinking Enough Fluids Foot Care Monthly Progress Test STAY INFORMED Follow us on Twitter Visit us ...

  2. Healthy Homes Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina; Lyon, Melinda; Russ, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Extension is focusing on healthy homes programming. Extension educators are not qualified to diagnose consumers' medical problems as they relate to housing. We cannot give medical advice. Instead, we can help educate consumers about home conditions that may affect their well-being. Extension educators need appropriate healthy homes tools to…

  3. Annoying Danish relatives: comprehension and production of relative clauses by Danish children with and without SLI.

    PubMed

    Jensen De López, Kristine; Sundahl Olsen, Lone; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD children. Eighteen children with SLI, eighteen TD age-matched (AM) and nine TD language-matched (LM) Danish-speaking children participated in a comprehension and in a production task. All children performed better on the comprehension compared with the production task, as well as on SRCs compared to ORCs and produced various avoidance strategies. In the ORC context, children with SLI produced more reversal errors than the AM children, who opted for passive ORCs. These results are discussed within current theories of SLI and indicate a deficiency with the assignment of thematic roles rather than with the structural make-up of RCs. PMID:23200200

  4. Evaluation of independence assumptions for PCR-based and protein-based genetic markers in New Jersey Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Budowle, B; Jankowski, L B; Corey, H W; Swec, N T; Freck-Tootell, S; Pino, J A; Schwartz, R; Kelley, C A; Tarver, M L

    1997-03-01

    Allele frequencies for six PCR-based loci and three protein-based (i.e., enzyme systems) loci were determined in a Caucasian sample population from New Jersey. The loci are LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, Gc, HLA-DQA1, PGM1, ESD, and EAP. All loci meet Hardy-Weinberg expectations. In addition, there is little evidence for association of alleles among the nine loci. The allelic frequency data generally are similar to another Caucasian population database. PMID:9068180

  5. Social discourses of healthy eating. A market segmentation approach.

    PubMed

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Askegaard, Søren; Grunert, Klaus G; Kristensen, Dorthe Brogård

    2010-10-01

    This paper proposes a framework of discourses regarding consumers' healthy eating as a useful conceptual scheme for market segmentation purposes. The objectives are: (a) to identify the appropriate number of health-related segments based on the underlying discursive subject positions of the framework, (b) to validate and further describe the segments based on their socio-demographic characteristics and attitudes towards healthy eating, and (c) to explore differences across segments in types of associations with food and health, as well as perceptions of food healthfulness.316 Danish consumers participated in a survey that included measures of the underlying subject positions of the proposed framework, followed by a word association task that aimed to explore types of associations with food and health, and perceptions of food healthfulness. A latent class clustering approach revealed three consumer segments: the Common, the Idealists and the Pragmatists. Based on the addressed objectives, differences across the segments are described and implications of findings are discussed. PMID:20600410

  6. Reference Equation for Six Minute Walk Test in Healthy Western India Population

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Anthony Menezes; Vadala, Rohit; Dias, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT) is used to assess disease progression and survival in chronic cardiopulmonary disorders. However, variability is noted in the six minute walk test distance (6MWD) in different populations. Aim We aimed to develop a reference equation for 6MWD in healthy Western India population and compare the results with previously published Indian and Caucasian reference equations. Materials and Methods Total 174 healthy subjects between 25 to 75 years performed the 6MWT. Variables assessed were age, height, weight, body mass index and sex. Predicted equations were derived using multiple linear regression and compared with the equations for North Indian male, South Indian and Caucasian population using Bland – Altman method. Results The 6MWD mean (SD) was 512.38 (67.84) m for men and 457.27 (56.75) m for women with p=0.001. The 6MWD correlated with age (r=-0.44), height (r=0.43), weight (r=0.21) in univariate analysis. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed age and sex to be independent predictors of 6MWD, R2 =0.307. The reference equation for healthy Western India population is 553.289 + (-2.11 x age) + (45.323 x sex; men=1 and women =0). Bland Altman analysis showed that the mean bias was 50.87m (95% limits of agreement 134.77 to – 33.0) for North Indian male equation, 50.75m (95% limits of agreement 105.72 to - 4.22) for South Indian equation and 122.72m (95%limits of agreement 254.11 to – 8.67) for Enright and Sherrill’s equation. Conclusions The North Indian male, South Indian and Caucasian equations significantly over-estimated the predicted walk distance for our healthy population. Hence, there is a need to develop subgroup population specific reference equations. PMID:27437206

  7. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Wang, Wei; Shen, Hui; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Fang; Recker, Robert R; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2006-10-01

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values=0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value=0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women. PMID:16919600

  8. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Feng; Xiong Donghai; Wang Wei; Shen Hui; Xiao Peng; Yang Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng Hongwen . E-mail: dengh@umkc.edu

    2006-10-06

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women.

  9. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Wang, Wei; Shen, Hui; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women. PMID:16919600

  10. Alar-spanning suture for tip contouring in closed approach rhinoplasty for African-Caucasian noses.

    PubMed

    Cedin, Antonio Carlos

    2013-06-01

    The alar-spanning suture is one of the easiest techniques for correcting the width of the alar complex that reduces the bulbous tip of African-Caucasian patients. This conservative technique does not weaken the lateral crura and yields long- term predictable results. Rhinoplastic surgeons should keep in mind this useful and reliable tool in their options for refinement of these challenging wide tips and not create so dramatic a change that the appearance is not consonant with the patient's ethnic heritage. Despite cosmetic surgeons usually performing it through an external columellar incision approach, it is possible, in many cases, to do it in a closed access, and thus avoid the risk of hyperpigmentation or hypertrophic scarring. PMID:23761120

  11. Eccrine Porocarcinoma of the Eyelid in a Non-Caucasian Patient.

    PubMed

    Mak, Shiu Ting; Li, Kenneth K W

    2015-01-01

    A 60-year-old lady of Chinese origin presented with a right medial canthal mass. The lesion had been present for many years but progressively increased in size a few months prior to the consultation. Clinical examination revealed a medial canthal mass measuring 1.8 cm in diameter. It was firm with an irregular crusting surface. It was not attached to underlying deep lamella, and there were overlying telangiectatic vessels with contact bleeding. Excisional biopsy of the lesion confirmed a diagnosis of eccrine porocarcinoma. Eccrine porocarcinoma rarely occurs in the eyelid, and this is the first reported case of its occurrence in non-Caucasian patient. Given the significant risk of recurrence and metastasis, long-term surveillance is warranted. Although being rare, ophthalmologists should be vigilant of this potentially life-threatening lesion in the management of eyelid tumors. PMID:24841732

  12. Type 2 diabetes in South Asians: similarities and differences with white Caucasian and other populations

    PubMed Central

    Gujral, Unjali P; Pradeepa, R; Weber, Mary Beth; Narayan, KM Venkat; Mohan, V

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. While all ethnic groups are affected, the prevalence of T2DM in South Asians, both in their home countries and abroad, is extremely high and is continuing to rise rapidly. Innate biological susceptibilities coupled with rapid changes in physical activity, diet, and other lifestyle behaviors are contributing factors propelling the increased burden of disease in this population. The large scope of this problem calls for investigations into the cause of increased susceptibility and preventative efforts at both the individual and population level that are aggressive, culturally sensitive, and start early. In this review, we outline the biological and environmental factors that place South Asians at elevated risk for T2DM, compared with Caucasian and other ethnic groups. PMID:23317344

  13. [Genetic differentiation of Caucasian wood mice: comparison of isozymic, chromosomal and molecular divergence].

    PubMed

    Chelomina, G N; Pavlenko, M V; Kartavtseva, I V; Boeskorov, G G; Liapunova, E A; Vorontsov, N N

    1998-02-01

    Data on the complex genetic analysis of three sympatric species of Caucasian wood mice, Apodemus ponticus, A. fulvipectus, and A. uralensis are presented. A high degree of genetic differentiation at the isozymic, karyological and molecular (nuclear DNA) levels was revealed. The genetic distances between each pair of species varied significantly within a wide range depending on the analyzed level of the organization of genetic material. Mean values of genetic divergence from one species to another were also variable. These findings indicated that evolution of chromosomes was slower than that of isozymes, and the degree of species divergence was similar on cytogenetic and molecular levels. They also suggested that the rates of species evolution could vary in different phyletic lineages and on different levels of organization. Some phyletic lineages of Apodemus could be distinguished by different directions of evolution. PMID:9589852

  14. Of Caucasians, Asians, and Giraffes: The Influence of Categorization and Target Valence on Social Projection.

    PubMed

    Machunsky, Maya; Walther, Eva

    2015-09-01

    Past research has indicated that social projection is moderated by categorization, with more projection onto ingroups than onto outgroups. However, a few studies have reported elevated levels of projection even onto outgroups. In line with recent evidence, we hypothesized that positive target valence is the key feature of conditions that elicit projection onto outgroups. The present research extends previous findings by testing whether the effect of valence occurs independent of categorization, with increased levels of projection onto positive ingroup and non-ingroup targets alike. We designed two experiments in which target valence was manipulated by means of evaluative conditioning. Category membership was varied by using faces of Caucasians, Asians, and giraffes. The results supported our valence hypothesis. Counter-intuitively, we also found higher levels of projection onto giraffes than onto humans. These findings suggest that current cognition-based models of projection are not sufficient to account for the whole range of projection phenomena. PMID:26160332

  15. Lateral intercrural suture in the caucasian nose: Decreased domal divergence angle in endonasal rhinoplasty without delivery

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf; Mocelin, Marcos; Soares, Caio Márcio Correia; Pasinato, Rogério; Frota, Andreia Ellery

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Several techniques can be performed to improve nasal tip definition such as cartilage resection, tip grafts, or sutures. Objctive: To evaluate the outcome of lateral intercrural suture at the lower lateral cartilage by endonasal rhinoplasty with a basic technique without delivery in decreasing the angle of domal divergence and improving the nasal tip definition. Method: This prospective study was performed in 64 patients in which a suture was made on the board head of the lower lateral cartilage in the joint between the dome and lateral crus, using polydioxanone (PDS) with sharp, curved needle. Results: In all of the cases, better definition of the nasal tip was achieved by intercrural suturing for at least 6 months postoperatively. Conclusion: Lateral intercrural suture of the lower lateral cartilage provides improved nasal tip definition and can be performed by endonasal rhinoplasty without delivery in the Caucasian nose. PMID:25991941

  16. Comparative studies on Asian and Caucasian children. 2: Nutrition, feeding practices and health.

    PubMed

    Warrington, S; Storey, D M

    1988-01-01

    The growth of children whose parents originated from the Indian subcontinent (Asians) and of indigenous, white children in Rochdale (Caucasians) has been related to dietary intake which was estimated by 3-day weighed intakes during a longitudinal study at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months of age. The use of human milk vis-à-vis infant milk formulas, the age of introduction of solid food and the effect of other environmental factors were also evaluated. Multiple regression analysis revealed the effects of diet per se on growth to be fairly minimal; a maximum of 28 per cent of the variation in growth could be explained by diet and the few individual nutrients significantly correlated with a growth index were not consistent. PMID:3371300

  17. A Case of Unexplained Cerebral Sinus Thrombosis in a 22-Year-Old Obese Caucasian Woman.

    PubMed

    Seheult, Jansen N; Chibisov, Irina

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we present the case of a 22-year old obese Caucasian woman female with no acquired thrombophilic risk factors who was diagnosed with extensive cerebral sinus thrombosis. A detailed thrombophilia workup demonstrated persistently elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) activity levels, with an elevated PAI-1 antigen concentration and homozygosity for the PAI-1 4G allele (4G/4G genotype). The patient was treated with indefinite warfarin anticoagulation medication due to the unprovoked nature of her thrombotic event. Disturbances in the fibrinolytic system, in particular PAI-1, have been related to an increased risk of arterial and venous thrombosis. In this article, we discuss the pathophysiology of hypofibrinolysis associated with elevated PAI-1 levels and the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism. PMID:27287941

  18. Features of the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan-Indonesian Convergence Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Caucasus Mountain System is a part of the Cenozoic Alpine-Himalayan-Indonesian Convergence Zone (AHICZ) which lasted throughout Eurasia from Western Mediterranean to Western Pacific. This belt has been formed after closure of the Mesozoic Tethys and is marked by mountains building processes, appearance of riftogenic structures, numerous late Cenozoic basaltic plateaus, and chain of often within-continental andesite-latite volcanic arcs, which trace suture zones of the continental plates collision. Caucasus Mountains are located in eastern part of the proper Alpine Zone in zone of Arabian-Eurasian syntaxis and appeared as a result of submeridional pressure which generated by oncoming moving of these plates. The Great Caucasus is represent the south border of the Eurasian plate, uplifted along the Main Caucasian Fault (Thrust). The latter is a part of super-regional deep-seated fault ranged from the Kopetdag through Caspian Sea, Caucasus and Crimea; very likely, that its further continuation is Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone. This superfault separates areas of Alpine convergence from Eurasian plate sensu stricto. The Caucasus occurred between Black and Caspian seas with passive margins and oceanic crust, covered by sediments of 10-15 km thick. Depressions of the seas form large "downfall", or caldrons which cut off pre-Pliocene structures of Caucasus and Kopetdag. These seas are, probably, small remnants of the Tethys which gradually shallowing in the Miocene (Zonenshain, Le Pichon, 1986). New essential deepening of the Black Sea and South-Caspian deep began in the Pliocene- Quaternary; it occurred simultaneously with uprising of Crimea and Caucasus, which were not marked in relief before (Grachev, 2000). Large positive isostatic anomaly beneath the Trans-Caucasian Transverse Uplift (TCTU) of the Great Caucasus and Lesser Caucasus, which stretch out to Arabian plate, occurred between "subsides" Black and especially Caspian seas with neutral to negative isostatic

  19. Main Stages of Geodynamic Evolution of the Caucasian Segment of the Alpine-Mediterranean Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamkrelidze, Irakli; Shengelia, David; Maisadze, Ferando; Tsutsunava, Tamara; Chichinadze, Giorgi

    2013-04-01

    Within the oceanic area of Tethys, with a typical oceanic crust, in geological past relatively small continental or subcontinental plates (terranes) were situated. The Greater Caucasian, Black Sea - Central Transcaucasian, Baiburt - Sevanian and Iran - Afghanian accretionary terranes, which in geological past represented island arcs or microcontinents, are identified in the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Mediterranean belt. They are separated by ophiolite sutures (relics of small or large oceanic basins) of different age. During the Late Precambrian, Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic these terranes underwent horizontal displacement in different directions and ultimately they joined the Eurasian continent. New LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating along with available geologic, petrologic and geochemical investigations, allow to trace with confidence the main stages of regional metamorphism, granite formation and, consequently, pre-Alpine continental crust making within the Caucasus. At the pre-Grenville stage (1200 Ma and more) between the Baltica and Gondvana ancient continents, on the oceanic crust of Prototethys accumulation mainly of terrigenous sediments and of basic volcanites took place. At the Grenville stage (1000-800 Ma) subcontinental or primitive continental crust (gneiss-migmatite complex and synmetamorphic grenitoids of sodium series) were formed in suprasubduction conditions by both sides of Proto-Paleotethys and along the northern peripheries of comparatively small oceanic basins of the Arkhiz and Southern Slope of the Greater Caucasus. At the Baikalian stage (650-550 Ma) plagiogneissic complex has been cut by Precambrian gabbroids and intruded by large bodies of quartz-diorites. The next, Late Baikalian stage (540-500 Ma) is determined by the intrusion of Cambrian basites and Late Baikalian granitoids and by manifestation of intensive suprasubduction regional metamorphism. Late Baikalian tectogenesis is accompanied by contraction of the small oceanic basin of

  20. Phenotypic Diversity in Caucasian Adults with Moderate to Severe Class II Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Uribe, Lina M.; Howe, Sara C.; Kummet, Colleen; Vela, Kaci C.; Dawson, Deborah V.; Southard, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Class II malocclusion affects about 15 % of the US population and is characterized by a convex profile and occlusion disharmonies. The specific etiological mechanisms resulting in the range of Class II dento-skeletal combinations observed is not yet understood. Most studies describing the class II phenotypic diversity have utilized moderate sample sizes or have focused on younger individuals that later in life may outgrow their class II discrepancies; such a focus may also preclude the visualization of adult class II features. The majority have utilized simple correlation methods resulting in phenotypes that may not be generalizable to different samples and thus may not be suitable for studies of malocclusion etiology. The purpose of this study is to address these knowledge gaps by capturing the maximum phenotypic variation present in a large Caucasian sample of class II individuals selected with strict eligibility criteria and rigorously standardized multivariate reduction analyses. METHODS Sixty-three lateral cephalometric variables were measured from pre-treatment records of 309 Class II Caucasian adults (82 males, 227 females; ages 16–60 years). Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were used to generate comprehensive phenotypes in an effort to identify the most homogeneous groups of individuals reducing heterogeneity and improving the power of future malocclusion etiology studies. RESULTS PCA resulted in 7 principal components that accounted for 81% of the variation. The first three components represented variation on mandibular rotation, upper incisor angulation and mandibular length, respectively. The cluster analysis identified 5 distinct Class II phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS A comprehensive spectrum of Class II phenotypic definitions was obtained that could be generalized to other samples advancing our efforts to the identification of etiological factors underlying Class II malocclusion. PMID:24582022

  1. Prevalence of daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes differs between Caucasian and Korean American women and girls.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyung Bin; Atkinson, Charlotte; Frankenfeld, Cara L; Jokela, Tuija; Wähälä, Kristiina; Thomas, Wendy K; Lampe, Johanna W

    2006-05-01

    Interindividual differences in metabolism of the soy isoflavone, daidzein, to equol and O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA) by human gut bacteria, have been associated with altered risk of cancer and other chronic diseases, according to some studies. Differences have been reported in the prevalence of the equol-producer phenotype among populations, with a higher prevalence in soy-consuming Asian populations than in Western populations. To date, prevalence of the daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes in Asians, compared with Caucasians, has not been evaluated in the context of a standardized phenotyping method. We assessed the prevalence of equol- and ODMA-producer phenotypes in 91 Korean American (KA) women and girls living in the Seattle, Washington area and compared this with previous similarly collected prevalence data in Caucasian American (CA) women and girls (n = 222). We also compared the dietary habits of the 2 groups. Isoflavonoid concentrations in first-void morning urines, collected after a 3-d soy challenge, were used to establish equol-, and ODMA-producer phenotypes (>44 microg/L). The prevalence of the equol-producer phenotype was higher (51 vs. 36%; P = 0.015) and the ODMA-producer phenotype was lower (84 vs. 92%, P = 0.03) in KA than in CA women and girls. KAs consumed approximately 3 times more soy foods than the CAs, but no significant associations were found between the consumption of soy foods and equol-producer phenotype. Our findings support the reports that, compared with Western populations, Asian populations have a higher equol-producer prevalence. The additional observation that the prevalence of the ODMA-producer phenotype is lower in KAs suggests that daidzein-metabolizing patterns in general may differ between KAs and CAs. PMID:16614428

  2. Association study between the DNMT3A -448A>G polymorphism and risk of Alzheimer’s disease in Caucasians of Italian origin

    PubMed Central

    Tannorella, Pierpaola; Stoccoro, Andrea; Tognoni, Gloria; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Migliore, Lucia; Coppedè, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to an epigenetic contribution in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. In this regard, variants and polymorphisms of DNA methyltransferase genes (DNMTs) are being investigated for their contribution to cognitive decline and dementia, but results are still scarce or controversial. In the present study we genotyped 710 Caucasian subjects of Italian descent, including 320 late-onset AD (LOAD) patients, 70 individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and 320 matched healthy controls, for the presence of a functional DNMT3A -448A>G (rs1550117) polymorphism, searching for association with disease risk. In addition, we searched for correlation between the studied polymorphism and circulating levels of folate, homocysteine (hcy) and vitamin B12, all involved in DNA methylation reactions and available from 189 LOAD patients and 186 matched controls. Both allele and genotype frequencies of rs1550117 were closely similar between MCI, LOAD and control subjects, and no association with dementia or pre-dementia conditions was observed. Plasma hcy levels were significantly higher (p = 0.04) and serum folate levels significantly lower (p = 0.01) in LOAD than in controls, but no difference in circulating folate, hcy or vitamin B12 levels was seen between carriers and non-carriers of the minor DNMT3A -448A allele. Collectively, present results confirmed previous associations of increased hcy and decreased folate with LOAD risk, but do not support an association between the DNMT3A -448A>G polymorphism and AD in our population. PMID:27073746

  3. Association study between the DNMT3A -448A>G polymorphism and risk of Alzheimer's disease in Caucasians of Italian origin.

    PubMed

    Tannorella, Pierpaola; Stoccoro, Andrea; Tognoni, Gloria; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Migliore, Lucia; Coppedè, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to an epigenetic contribution in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. In this regard, variants and polymorphisms of DNA methyltransferase genes (DNMTs) are being investigated for their contribution to cognitive decline and dementia, but results are still scarce or controversial. In the present study we genotyped 710 Caucasian subjects of Italian descent, including 320 late-onset AD (LOAD) patients, 70 individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and 320 matched healthy controls, for the presence of a functional DNMT3A -448A>G (rs1550117) polymorphism, searching for association with disease risk. In addition, we searched for correlation between the studied polymorphism and circulating levels of folate, homocysteine (hcy) and vitamin B12, all involved in DNA methylation reactions and available from 189 LOAD patients and 186 matched controls. Both allele and genotype frequencies of rs1550117 were closely similar between MCI, LOAD and control subjects, and no association with dementia or pre-dementia conditions was observed. Plasma hcy levels were significantly higher (p = 0.04) and serum folate levels significantly lower (p = 0.01) in LOAD than in controls, but no difference in circulating folate, hcy or vitamin B12 levels was seen between carriers and non-carriers of the minor DNMT3A -448A allele. Collectively, present results confirmed previous associations of increased hcy and decreased folate with LOAD risk, but do not support an association between the DNMT3A -448A>G polymorphism and AD in our population. PMID:27073746

  4. Association of a tagging single nucleotide polymorphism in the androgen receptor gene region with susceptibility to severe hypospadias in a Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Adamovic, T; Thai, H T T; Liedén, A; Nordenskjöld, A

    2013-01-01

    Hypospadias is a congenital malformation and a milder form of 46,XY disorder of sexual development (DSD). In the present study, we investigated 13 haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the steroid-5-alpha reductase (SRD5A2) and androgen receptor(AR) gene region, respectively, in a cohort consisting of 260 individuals with mild hypospadias and 77 with severe disease, in addition to 471 healthy male controls. The investigated genes are known to have an important role in the hormone-dependent stage of sexual development. Our study revealed one novel marker located in the AR gene region (rs5919436; g.67024320C>G) to be significantly associated with an increased risk of severe hypospadias (adjusted p value: 0.02; odds ratio: 2.98). In concordance with this finding, we detected an association of a haplotype tagged by the minor allele of rs5919436 (adjusted p value: 0.04). We further detected no association between the investigated disease and the haplotype tagging polymorphisms covering the SRD5A2 gene, which is of importance considering the conflicting results reported previously. In conclusion, our data implicate that the AR rs5919436 (g.67024320C>G) polymorphism may act as a novel genetic marker for increased susceptibility to severe hypospadias in Caucasians. PMID:23571770

  5. ABO and Rhesus Blood Groups and Risk of Endometriosis in a French Caucasian Population of 633 Patients Living in the Same Geographic Area

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Mélanie; Souza, Carlos; Santulli, Pietro; Lafay-Pillet, Marie-Christine; de Ziegler, Dominique; Chapron, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The identification of epidemiological factors increasing the risk of endometriosis could shorten the time to diagnosis. Specific blood groups may be more common in patients with endometriosis. Study Design. We designed a cross-sectional study of 633 Caucasian women living in the same geographic area. Study group included 311 patients with histologically proven endometriosis. Control group included 322 patients without endometriosis as checked during surgery. Frequencies of ABO and Rhesus groups in the study and control groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. We observed a higher proportion of Rh-negative women in the study group, as compared to healthy controls. Multivariate analysis showed that Rh-negative women are twice as likely to develop endometriosis (aOR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.20–2.90). There was no significant difference in ABO group distribution between patients and controls. There was no difference when taking into account either the clinical forms (superficial endometriosis, endometrioma, and deep infiltration endometriosis) or the rAFS stages. Conclusion. Rh-negative women are twice as likely to develop endometriosis. Chromosome 1p, which contains the genes coding for the Rhesus, could also harbor endometriosis susceptibility genes. PMID:25243164

  6. Demographically Corrected Norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Marc A.; Moore, David J.; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised), and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African-Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African-Americans than Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African-Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings. PMID:21547817

  7. Explicit Sex--Liberation or Exploitation: Danish "Permissiveness" Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachy, Victor

    1976-01-01

    Reviews various Danish legislative actions leading up to the lifting of the ban on pornography, and discusses possible consequences of such liberalization by analyzing police statistics from a five year period. (MH)

  8. Is the Danish wind energy model replicable for other countries?

    SciTech Connect

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Lindboe, Hans H.; Odgaard, Ole

    2008-03-15

    Though aspects of the Danish wind energy model are unique, policymakers might do well to imitate such aspects as a strong political commitment, consistent policy mechanisms, and an incremental, ''hands-on'' approach to R and D. (author)

  9. Planning For a Healthy School Year: Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Planning For A Healthy School Year Healthy Eating Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of Contents How ... federal government releases a set of guidelines on healthy eating. The guidelines suggest balancing calories with physical activity. ...

  10. Study of the International Epidemiology of Androgenetic Alopecia in Young Caucasian Men Using Photographs From the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Avital, Yaniv Shalom; Morvay, Marta; Gaaland, Magdolna; Kemény, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    Background: The epidemiological evaluation of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is based mainly on direct observation and questionnaires. The international epidemiology and environmental risk factors of AGA in young Caucasian men remain unknown. Aim: To use photographs and data from the Internet to evaluate severe AGA and generate greater understanding of the international epidemiology of the disorder in young Caucasian men. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample included 26,340 Caucasian men aged 30 to 40 years who had uploaded profiles to two dating websites. Their photographs were evaluated for AGA and graded as follows: severe AGA (Norwood type VI-VII), non-severe AGA, and unknown. Epidemiological data were collected from the sites. Logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of risk factors on the prevalence of severe AGA. Results The overall success rate for identifying severe AGA by indirect evaluation of Internet photographs was 94%. The prevalence of severe AGA was 15.33% overall and varied significantly by geographical region. The risk of having severe AGA was increased by 1.092 for every year of age between 30 and 40 years. Severe AGA was more prevalent in subjects with higher body mass index. Conclusions: Photographs from the Internet can be used to evaluate severe AGA in epidemiological studies. The prevalence of severe AGA in young Caucasian men increases with age and varies by geographical region. Body mass index is an environmental risk factor for severe AGA. PMID:26288425