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Sample records for healthy korean population

  1. Effective population size of korean populations.

    PubMed

    Park, Leeyoung

    2014-12-01

    Recently, new methods have been developed for estimating the current and recent changes in effective population sizes. Based on the methods, the effective population sizes of Korean populations were estimated using data from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) project. The overall changes in the population sizes of the total populations were similar to CHB (Han Chinese in Beijing, China) and JPT (Japanese in Tokyo, Japan) of the HapMap project. There were no differences in past changes in population sizes with a comparison between an urban area and a rural area. Age-dependent current and recent effective population sizes represent the modern history of Korean populations, including the effects of World War II, the Korean War, and urbanization. The oldest age group showed that the population growth of Koreans had already been substantial at least since the end of the 19th century. PMID:25705160

  2. Lack of functional KL-VS polymorphism of the KLOTHO gene in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Kwon; Jeong, Byung-Hoon

    2016-06-16

    The functional variant of the Klotho "KL-VS" stretch, which includes six polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium, is reportedly associated with healthy aging and longevity in European and American populations. Among Asian populations, this variant has been observed in the Indian population but not in the Iranian population. An association between KL-VS polymorphism and aging has not been reported in Koreans. To investigate whether the KL-VS polymorphism could be associated with healthy aging and longevity in a Korean population, we analyzed genotype and allele frequencies of the KL-VS variant in a large Korean population sample. The KL-VS variant was not found in 874 Korean individuals. Thus, it is not possible to test its association to aging in the East Asian populations. PMID:27333266

  3. Lack of functional KL-VS polymorphism of the KLOTHO gene in the Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Kwon; Jeong, Byung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The functional variant of the Klotho "KL-VS" stretch, which includes six polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium, is reportedly associated with healthy aging and longevity in European and American populations. Among Asian populations, this variant has been observed in the Indian population but not in the Iranian population. An association between KL-VS polymorphism and aging has not been reported in Koreans. To investigate whether the KL-VS polymorphism could be associated with healthy aging and longevity in a Korean population, we analyzed genotype and allele frequencies of the KL-VS variant in a large Korean population sample. The KL-VS variant was not found in 874 Korean individuals. Thus, it is not possible to test its association to aging in the East Asian populations. PMID:27560364

  4. Lack of functional KL-VS polymorphism of the KLOTHO gene in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Kwon; Jeong, Byung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The functional variant of the Klotho "KL-VS" stretch, which includes six polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium, is reportedly associated with healthy aging and longevity in European and American populations. Among Asian populations, this variant has been observed in the Indian population but not in the Iranian population. An association between KL-VS polymorphism and aging has not been reported in Koreans. To investigate whether the KL-VS polymorphism could be associated with healthy aging and longevity in a Korean population, we analyzed genotype and allele frequencies of the KL-VS variant in a large Korean population sample. The KL-VS variant was not found in 874 Korean individuals. Thus, it is not possible to test its association to aging in the East Asian populations. PMID:27560364

  5. Population pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Kiem, Sungmin; Ryu, Sung-Mun; Lee, Yun-Mi; Schentag, Jerome J; Kim, Yang-Wook; Kim, Hyeon-Kuk; Jang, Hang-Jae; Joo, Yong-Don; Jin, Kyubok; Shin, Jae-Gook; Ghim, Jong-Lyul

    2016-08-01

    Levofloxacin (LVFX) has different effects depending on the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio. While AUC can be expressed as dose/clearance (CL), we measured serial concentrations of LVFX in Koreans and tried to set a Korean-specific equation, estimating the CL of the antibiotic. In total, 38 patients, aged 18-87 years, received once daily intravenous LVFX doses of 500 mg or 250 mg, depending on their renal function. Four plasma samples were obtained according to a D optimal sampling design. The population pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of LVFX were estimated using non-linear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM, ver. 7.2). The CL of LVFX was dependent on creatinine clearance (CLCR) as a covariate. The mean population PK parameters of LVFX in Koreans were as follows: CL (l/hour) = 6.19 ×  (CLCR/75)(1.32). The CL of LVFX in Koreans is expected to be lower than that in Western people. PMID:25976699

  6. Development of a Korean Diet Score (KDS) and its application assessing adherence to Korean healthy diet based on the Korean Food Guide Wheels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2013-02-01

    The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population. PMID:23424060

  7. Ultrasound Dimensions of the Rotator Cuff and Other Associated Structures in Korean Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongwon; Kim, Hong Geum; Song, Daeheon; Yoon, Jung Yoon; Chung, Myung Eun

    2016-09-01

    In evaluating patients complaining of shoulder pain, ultrasonography is an emerging imaging tool due to convenience, low cost, high sensitivity and specificity. However, normative values of ultrasound dimensions of the shoulder to be compared with pathologic findings in Korean adults are not provided yet. We evaluated the ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff, long head of biceps tendon, deltoid muscle and acromioclavicular joint in Korean healthy adults. Shoulder ultrasonography was performed on 200 shoulders from 100 healthy adults. The dimensions of the thickness of rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis tendon), deltoid muscle, long head of biceps tendon, subacromial subdeltoid bursa, and acromioclavicular joint interval were measured in a standardized manner. Differences in measurements among sex, age, and dominant arms were compared. The thickness of rotator cuff tendons (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis) and deltoid muscle were significantly different between men and women. The thickness of subacromial subdeltoid bursa was significantly different between men and women for non-dominant side. In rotator cuff tendon measurements, the differences between dominant and non-dominant shoulders were not significant, which means the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder can be used to estimate the normal reference values. When stratified by age divided by 10 years, the measurements of supraspinatus, subscapularis and deltoid thickness showed tendency of increase with the age. The acromioclavicular joint interval, on the other hand, revealed decreasing tendency. This report suggests normative values of ultrasound dimensions of healthy Korean population with varying age, and can be useful as reference values in evaluating shoulder pathology, especially in rotator cuff tendon pathology. PMID:27510393

  8. Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Healthy Korean Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Sil

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated the prevalence of sarcopenia, presarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia in healthy Korean elderly women. Methods We measured the muscle mass and muscle function of 196 ambulatory women over the age of 65 years who visited the University Hospital Menopause Clinic. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). Assessment of hand grip strength (HGS) of the dominant hand was performed to measure the muscle strength, and 4-m straight on-way path was used to measure gait speed for physical performance. The values used to define the presarcopenia, sarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia were based on the cutoff values proposed by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Results The mean age of women was 71.2 years, and the mean SMI in 196 women was 5.94 kg/m2. The average HGS was 20.3 kg, and the mean gait speed was 1.08 m/sec. In 41 out of the 196 women (20.9%), the SMI was reduced to less than 5.4 kg/m2. Fifty-nine women (30.1%) had HGS of less than 18 kg, and gait speed was less than 0.8 m/sec in 12 women (6.1%). Twenty-six women (13.3%) were classified into the presarcopenia stage, and 15 women (7.6%) were classified into the sarcopenia stage. There was no case of severe sarcopenia. Conclusions One out of five relatively healthy women aged more than 65 years showed a decrease in muscle mass, and 7.6% of women showed a decrease in muscle mass and strength. The sarcopenia stage was also intensified with aging. PMID:26713310

  9. Differentiation and healthy family functioning of Koreans in South Korea, South Koreans in the United States, and White Americans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejin; Prouty, Anne M; Smith, Douglas B; Ko, Mei-Ju; Wetchler, Joseph L; Oh, Jea-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Inconsistent results have been found in prior research on the Bowen Family Systems Theory concept of differentiation of self and its application to individuals, couples, and families of different cultural backgrounds. In this regard, this study examined the impact of differentiation of self on healthy family functioning, family communication, and family satisfaction with 277 participants including South Koreans living in South Korea, South Korean-born citizens living in the United States, and White Americans living in the United States. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis identified the measurement invariance of a differentiation scale (DSI-R) used for the three study groups. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) found significant differences between White Americans and South Koreans with regard to the level of differentiation. Results of multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses found a significant association between differentiation of self and healthy family functioning across the three groups with the American group having significantly higher differentiation than the two South Korean groups." Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:24750125

  10. Sex determination using upper limb bones in Korean populations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je-Hun; Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, U-Young; Park, Dae-Kyoon; Jeong, Young-Gil; Lee, Nam Seob; Han, Seung Yun; Kim, Kyung-Yong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to establish metric standards for the determination of sex from the upper limb bones of Korean. We took a set of eleven measurements on each of 175 right sides of adult skeletons chosen at Korean sample. Classification accuracy dropped only one or two individuals when only vertical head diameter of humerus is used. Variables in relation with maximal length were less accurate than head diameter of humerus. Two variables were selected by the stepwise procedure: maximal length of humerus, vertical head diameter of humerus. The combined accuracy was 87%. This study of modern Korean skeletons underscores the need for population-specific techniques, not only for medicolegal investigations, but also for the study of population affinities and factors affecting bone configurations. PMID:25276479

  11. Diversity and homogeneity of oral microbiota in healthy Korean pre-school children using pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Eon; Nam, Ok Hyung; Lee, Hyo-Seol; Choi, Sung Chul

    2016-07-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was designed to identify the oral microbiota in healthy Korean pre-school children using pyrosequencing. Materials and methods Dental plaque samples were obtained form 10 caries-free pre-school children. The samples were analysed using pyrosequencing. Results The pyrosequencing analysis revealed that, at the phylum level, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria showed high abundance. Also, predominant genera were identified as core microbiome, such as Streptococcus, Neisseria, Capnocytophaga, Haemophilus and Veilonella. Conclusions The diversity and homogeneity was shown in the dental plaque microbiota in healthy Korean pre-school children. PMID:26758186

  12. The Early Intestinal Microbiota of Healthy Korean Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eu Kyoung; Ahn, Young Tae; Huh, Chul Sung; Soo Kim, Hwan; Kim, Eugene; Chun, Yoon Hong; Yoon, Jong-Seo; Kim, Hyun Hee; Tack Kim, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The microflora hypothesis may be the underlying explanation for the growth of inflammatory disease. In addition to many known affecting factors, knowing the gut microbiota of healthy newborns can help to understand the gut immunity and modulate it. Objectives: This study examined the microbiota of healthy newborns from urban regions. Patients and Methods: We enrolled 128 full-term newborns, born at Seoul St. Mary and St. Paul hospital from January 2009 to February 2010. All 143 samples of feces were cultivated in six culture plates to determine the amounts of total bacteria, anaerobes, gram-positive bacteria, coliforms, lactobacilli, and bifidobacteria. The samples were evaluated with a bivariate correlation between coliforms and lactobacilli. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis with HhaI and MspI and a clustering analysis were performed for determination of diversity. Results: Bacteria were cultured in 61.5% of feces in the following order: anaerobes, gram-positive bacteria, lactobacilli, coliform, and bifidobacteria. The growth of total bacteria and lactobacilli increased in feces defecated after 24 hours of birth (P < 0.001, P = 0.008) and anaerobes decreased (P = 0.003). A negative correlation between the growth of lactobacilli and coliforms was found (r = -463, P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study confirms that bacterial colonization of healthy newborns born in cities is non-sterile, but has early diversification and inter-individuality. PMID:26495089

  13. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ji Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women) from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2). However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI. PMID:27255074

  14. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and Parkinson's disease in a Korean population: Revisited.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seo Young; Park, Suyeon; Oh, Eungseok; Park, Jinse; Youn, Jinyoung; Kim, Ji Sun; Kim, Jeong-Uk; Jang, Wooyoung

    2016-08-15

    Recently, the effect of genetic variants in the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene on Parkinson's disease (PD) has gained interest. However, the precise relationship between VDR polymorphisms and PD remains unclear. In Korea, one study reported an association between VDR gene polymorphisms and PD. However, this study was conducted with a small sample size, and only the Bsml locus was evaluated. Therefore, further investigations about the relationship between VDR polymorphisms and PD are necessary in a Korean population. A total of 300 subjects were included in this study. One hundred and forty-six PD patients were diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank (UKPDBB) criteria with abnormal dopamine transporter imaging, and 154 healthy control subjects were also enrolled. We used a TaqMan genotyping assay to identify four SNPs of the VDR gene, including BsmI, FokI, ApaI, and TaqI (rs731236, rs2228570, rs7976091, and rs731236). A significant association was not noted between the risk of PD and genetic polymorphisms in the four loci in a Korean population. However, when the genetic variants of the VDR gene were analyzed after adjusting for the serum 25-OH vitamin D3 level, the TaqI and BsmI minor allele increased the risk of PD. Our data suggest no correlation between PD and the VDR polymorphisms, including BsmI, FokI, ApaI, and TaqI, in a Korean population; however, the results should be interpreted carefully because gene-environment interactions may exist. Further investigations of the VDR and its relationship with PD are required to identify the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of PD. PMID:27345382

  15. Implication of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity on Lung Function in Healthy Elderly: Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Kong, Mi Hee; Kim, Hyeon Ju

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between obesity and decreased lung function. However, the effect of muscle and fat has not been fully assessed, especially in a healthy elderly population. In this study, we evaluated the impact of low muscle mass (LMM) and LMM with obesity on pulmonary impairment in healthy elderly subjects. Our study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Men and women aged 65 yr or older were included. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. LMM was defined as two standard deviations below the sex-specific mean for young healthy adults. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2). The prevalence of LMM in individuals aged over 65 was 11.9%. LMM and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were independently associated after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and frequency of exercise. LMM with obesity was also related to a decrease in pulmonary function. This study revealed that LMM is an independent risk factor of decreased pulmonary function in healthy Korean men and women over 65 yr of age. PMID:26539015

  16. Association of CACNA1C Variants with Bipolar Disorder in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soojin; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Geum, Dongho

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have suggested an association between CACNA1C and susceptibility of bipolar disorder. In this study, we examined the association of CACNA1C variants with bipolar disorder in the Korean population. Methods We selected 2 CACNA1C single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely, rs723672 and rs1051375, based on their functions and minor allele frequencies described in previous studies. Genotypes of these 2 SNPs were analyzed by extracting DNA from blood samples collected from 287 patients with bipolar disorder and 340 healthy controls. Results Genotype frequencies of both rs723672 and rs1051375 SNPs were significantly different in patients and controls (p=0.0462 and 1.732E-14, respectively). Dominant, recessive, and allele models showed significant differences between patients and controls with respect to the rs1051375 SNP (p=1.72E-11, 4.17E-10, 4.95E-16, respectively). Conclusion Our results suggested that CACNA1C SNPs rs723672 and rs1051375 were associated with bipolar disorder in the Korean population. In addition, our results highlighted the importance of CACNA1C in determining susceptibility to bipolar disorder. PMID:27482248

  17. Association Study between Norepinephrine Transporter Gene Polymorphism and Schizophrenia in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Mira; Hwang, Jung-A; Jeon, Sang Won; Oh, So-Young; Yoon, Ho-kyoung; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate possible associations between three norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (T182C, A3081T, and G1287A) and schizophrenia. Also, we investigated the relationships of those polymorphisms with clinical severity and characteristics of schizophrenia. Methods Participants were 220 schizophrenia patients in the acute phase and 167 healthy controls. The genotype, allele frequency, and haplotype of each group were analyzed for T182C, A3081T, and G1287A polymorphisms. Of the 220 schizophrenia patients, 163 patients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Korean version of the Calgary depression scale for schizophrenia (K-CDSS) at baseline. Results We found no significant differences between the schizophrenia patient group and the control group in genotype distribution or allele frequency of the three tested polymorphisms. Likewise, we could not find any significant differences in genotype or allele frequency by analyzing according to gender. In the haplotype study, no significant association emerged between specific haplotype combinations and schizophrenia. We also found no association between clinical scales (PANSS and K-CDSS) and the studied polymorphisms. Conclusion Our results suggest that the investigated polymorphisms of the NET gene are not associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia or its clinical features in a Korean population. However, this study remains significant because it is the first haplotype study to investigate associations between NET gene (SLC6A2) single nucleotide polymorphisms and schizophrenia in a Korean population. Future research with a larger sample size and more genetic markers is needed to replicate our results. PMID:26508968

  18. Dynamics of Gut Microbiota According to the Delivery Mode in Healthy Korean Infants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun; Kim, Byoung Ju; Kang, Mi Jin; Choi, Kil Yong; Cho, Hyun Ju; Kim, Yeongho; Yang, Song I; Jung, Young Ho; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju Hee; Kwon, Ji Won; Kim, Hyo Bin; Lee, So Yeon; Hong, Soo Jong

    2016-09-01

    Microbial colonization of the infant gut is unstable and shows a wide range of diversity between individuals. Gut microbiota play an important role in the development of the immune system, and an imbalance in these organisms can affect health, including an increased risk of allergic diseases. Microbial colonization of young infants is affected by the delivery mode at birth and the consequent alterations of gut microbiota in early life affect the development of allergic diseases. We investigated the effects of the delivery mode on the temporal dynamics of gut microbiota in healthy Korean infants. Fecal samples were collected at 1-3 days, 1 month, and 6 months after birth in six healthy infants. Microbiota were characterized by 16S rRNA shotgun sequencing. At the first and third days of life, infants born by vaginal delivery showed a higher richness and diversity of gut microbiota compared with those born by cesarean section. However, these differences disappeared with age. The Bacteroides genus and Bacteroidetes phylum were abundant in infants born by vaginal delivery, whereas Bacilli and Clostridium g4 were increased in infants born by cesarean section. The Firmicutes phylum and Bacteroides genus showed convergent dynamics with age. This study demonstrated the effect of delivery mode on the dynamics of gut microbiota profiles in healthy Korean infants. PMID:27334787

  19. Retinal Oximetry in a Healthy Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Yuki; Shimazaki, Takeru; Kobayashi, Nobuko; Miyoshi, Yukiko; Ono, Aoi; Kobayashi, Mamoru; Shiragami, Chieko; Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Tsujikawa, Akitaka

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To establish the normative database of retinal oximetry using Oxymap T1 in a healthy Japanese population, and study the reproducibility of the measurements in Japanese. Methods We measured oxygen saturation in the major retinal vessels with Oxymap T1 in 252 eyes of 252 healthy Japanese subjects. Fundus images acquired using Oxymap T1 were processed using built-in Oxymap Analyzer software. Reproducibility of retinal oximetry was investigated using 20 eyes of 20 healthy subjects. Results The mean retinal oxygen saturation of 4 quadrants in healthy Japanese was 97.0 ± 6.9% in arteries and 52.8 ± 8.3% in veins. The mean arteriovenous difference in oxygen saturation was 44.2 ± 9.2%. Both arterial and venous oxygen saturation were significantly lower in the temporal side of the retina, especially in the temporal-inferior vessels. However, the arteriovenous difference in oxygen saturation was limited in the 4 quadrants. Interphotograph, intervisit, and interevaluator intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.936–0.979, 0.809–0.837, and 0.732–0.947, respectively. In the major retinal arteries, oxygen saturation increased with age (r = 0.18, p<0.01), at a rate of 0.67% per 10 years. However, venous oxygen saturation showed no correlation with age. Conclusions This study provides the normative database for the Japanese population. The arterial saturation value appears to be higher than other previous studies. Mean retinal oximetry in 4 quadrants with Oxymap T1 has high reproducibility. PMID:27434373

  20. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognized as one of the major malignancies in Korea. Analyses of dietary patterns can provide insight into the complex interactions of foods, nutrients, and biologically active components within a diet, which vary among populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in Koreans. In a study of 923 cases and 1846 controls, principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns based on 33 predefined food groups using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ). The associations between dietary patterns and CRC risk were assessed using binary and polytomous logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three dietary patterns (traditional, Westernized, and prudent) were derived. The proportion of total variation explained by 3 patterns was 24.2% for men and 25.3% for women. The traditional and prudent patterns were inversely associated with CRC risk [OR and 95% CI for the highest intake tertile of pattern score vs. the lowest = 0.35 (0.27–0.46) and 0.37 (0.28–0.48), respectively], whereas the Westernized pattern showed a positive association, especially among women [OR = 2.13 (1.35–3.34) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest]. A decrease in CRC risk among those with the highest intake of the prudent pattern was observed in all anatomical subsites in both men [OR = 0.36 (0.19–0.68) for proximal colon; 0.21 (0.12–0.36) for distal colon; 0.28 (0.18–0.44) for rectum] and women [OR = 0.28 (0.11–0.71); 0.27 (0.13–0.54); 0.45 (0.25–0.83)]. Our results indicate that individuals who prefer the Westernized dietary pattern should be made aware of their increased CRC risk. The traditional dietary pattern and the prudent pattern, which are rich in fruits and dairy products, are recommended for the Korean population to prevent CRC. PMID:27336862

  1. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age—Z-score of the birthweight; r = −0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086–12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure

  2. Two-point discrimination of the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20's.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ja-Pung; Kim, Soon-Hee; An, Ho-Jung; Moon, Ok-Gon; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yun, Young-Dae; Park, Joo-Hyun; Min, Kyoung-Ok

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The present study attempted to measure two-point discrimination in the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20's. [Subjects and Methods] Using a three-point esthesiometer, we conducted an experiment with a group of 256 college students (128 male and 128 female), attending N University in Chonan, Republic of Korea. [Results] Females showed two-point discrimination at a shorter distance than males at the following points: (i) 5 cm above the elbow joint, the middle part, and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the anterior upper arm; (ii) 5 cm above the elbow joint and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the posterior upper arm; (iii) 5 cm above the front of the wrist joint of the forearm; 5 cm below the elbow joint, the palmar part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the thumb, the dorsal part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the middle and little fingers. It was also found that females showed greater two-point discrimination than males in distal regions rather than proximal regions. [Conclusion] The findings of this study will help establish normal values for two-point discrimination of upper extremities of young Koreans in their 20's. PMID:27134375

  3. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of udenafil, a novel PDE-5 inhibitor, in healthy young Korean subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo-Hyung; Lim, Hyeong-Seok; Chung, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Sohn, Dong-Ryul; Cho, Joo-Youn; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Shin, Sang-Goo; Paick, Jae-Seung; Jang, In-Jin

    2008-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of udenafil, a novel phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor. METHODS A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-rising, parallel-group, single- and multiple-dose study was conducted in healthy Korean subjects. The subjects were allocated to single-dose groups of 25, 50, 100, 200 or 300 mg (eight subjects in each dose group, including two placebos), or to multiple-dose groups of 100 or 200 mg (once-daily dosing for 7 days; nine subjects in each dose group, including three placebos). Serial samples of blood and urine were collected after oral administration and the drug concentrations in plasma and urine were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Safety and tolerability were evaluated by monitoring clinical laboratory parameters and adverse events. RESULTS Udenafil reached peak plasma concentrations at 0.8–1.3 h, and then declined mono-exponentially with a terminal half-life of 7.3–12.1 h in the single-dose study. The area under the time–concentration curves (AUC) and maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) increased supraproportionally with increasing dose in the single-dose study. During multiple dosing, a steady state was reached at 5 days and little accumulation occurred after repeated dosing for 7 days. Udenafil was generally well tolerated in these healthy subjects, and no serious adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS Udenafil was safe and well tolerated in healthy volunteers. The AUC and Cmax of udenafil increased supraproportionally with increasing dose upon single administration, but there was no significant drug accumulation upon multiple administrations. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT The phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 5 inhibitor is a widely used agent that facilitates penile erection. Udenafil is newly developed as a PDE-5 inhibitor. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS This is the first study to determine the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of udenafil in

  4. Novel Anthropometry-Based Calculation of the Body Heat Capacity in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Pham, Duong Duc; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Young Boum; Park, Eun Seok; Kim, Ka Yul; Song, Ji Yeon; Kim, Ji Eun; Leem, Chae Hun

    2015-01-01

    Heat capacity (HC) has an important role in the temperature regulation process, particularly in dealing with the heat load. The actual measurement of the body HC is complicated and is generally estimated by body-composition-specific data. This study compared the previously known HC estimating equations and sought how to define HC using simple anthropometric indices such as weight and body surface area (BSA) in the Korean population. Six hundred participants were randomly selected from a pool of 902 healthy volunteers aged 20 to 70 years for the training set. The remaining 302 participants were used for the test set. Body composition analysis using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to access body components including body fat, water, protein, and mineral mass. Four different HCs were calculated and compared using a weight-based HC (HC_Eq1), two HCs estimated from fat and fat-free mass (HC_Eq2 and HC_Eq3), and an HC calculated from fat, protein, water, and mineral mass (HC_Eq4). HC_Eq1 generally produced a larger HC than the other HC equations and had a poorer correlation with the other HC equations. HC equations using body composition data were well-correlated to each other. If HC estimated with HC_Eq4 was regarded as a standard, interestingly, the BSA and weight independently contributed to the variation of HC. The model composed of weight, BSA, and gender was able to predict more than a 99% variation of HC_Eq4. Validation analysis on the test set showed a very high satisfactory level of the predictive model. In conclusion, our results suggest that gender, BSA, and weight are the independent factors for calculating HC. For the first time, a predictive equation based on anthropometry data was developed and this equation could be useful for estimating HC in the general Korean population without body-composition measurement. PMID:26529594

  5. Novel Anthropometry-Based Calculation of the Body Heat Capacity in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Duong Duc; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Young Boum; Park, Eun Seok; Kim, Ka Yul; Song, Ji Yeon; Kim, Ji Eun; Leem, Chae Hun

    2015-01-01

    Heat capacity (HC) has an important role in the temperature regulation process, particularly in dealing with the heat load. The actual measurement of the body HC is complicated and is generally estimated by body-composition-specific data. This study compared the previously known HC estimating equations and sought how to define HC using simple anthropometric indices such as weight and body surface area (BSA) in the Korean population. Six hundred participants were randomly selected from a pool of 902 healthy volunteers aged 20 to 70 years for the training set. The remaining 302 participants were used for the test set. Body composition analysis using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to access body components including body fat, water, protein, and mineral mass. Four different HCs were calculated and compared using a weight-based HC (HC_Eq1), two HCs estimated from fat and fat-free mass (HC_Eq2 and HC_Eq3), and an HC calculated from fat, protein, water, and mineral mass (HC_Eq4). HC_Eq1 generally produced a larger HC than the other HC equations and had a poorer correlation with the other HC equations. HC equations using body composition data were well-correlated to each other. If HC estimated with HC_Eq4 was regarded as a standard, interestingly, the BSA and weight independently contributed to the variation of HC. The model composed of weight, BSA, and gender was able to predict more than a 99% variation of HC_Eq4. Validation analysis on the test set showed a very high satisfactory level of the predictive model. In conclusion, our results suggest that gender, BSA, and weight are the independent factors for calculating HC. For the first time, a predictive equation based on anthropometry data was developed and this equation could be useful for estimating HC in the general Korean population without body-composition measurement. PMID:26529594

  6. Serum ferritin levels are associated with arterial stiffness in healthy Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ji Yoon; Kim, Min Kyung; Kang, Shinae; Nam, Ji Sun; Ahn, Chul Woo; Kim, Kyung Rae; Park, Jong Suk

    2016-08-01

    Although an association between serum ferritin and atherosclerosis has been suggested, limited epidemiologic data are available regarding the association between ferritin and arterial stiffness in healthy adults. A total of 2932 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and biochemical profiles including ferritin were measured. The arterial stiffness was measured using brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Serum ferritin levels were classified into quartiles and baPWV values gradually increased with each ferritin quartile. Multiple regression analysis showed that ferritin levels were independently correlated with baPWV. After adjusting for multiple risk factors, as compared with the lowest quartile, the odds ratios for high baPWV (>75(th) percentile) were 1.15 (0.84-1.56), 1.37 (0.97-1.73), and 1.46 (1.29-2.17) among men (p for trend < 0.05) and 1.24 (0.87-1.79), 1.53 (1.09-2.16), and 1.80 (1.25-2.82) among women (p for trend < 0.05), for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of ferritin, respectively. In conclusion, serum ferritin levels are independently associated with arterial stiffness in healthy Korean adults. PMID:26926288

  7. Fertility of the Korean population in Japan influenced by a folk superstition in 1966.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y S

    1979-10-01

    The influence of the Japanese superstition that females born in the year of Hinoe-Uma (Elder Fire Horse) possess undesirable characters and should not marry on the fertility of the Korean immigrant population in Japan was examined and compared with the influence of this superstition on the Japanese in Japan and the Korean population in Korea. The year of Hinoe-Uma occurs once in every 60 years according to the ancient Sino-Japanese almanac. For both the Koreans in Japan and the Japanese a remarkable drop in crude birthrates and a sharp increase in stillbirth rates was found for 1966. In contrast, Koreans in Korea showed only a steady decline in the crude birthrate. Clearly, the Japanese folk superstition played an important part in discouraging Koreans in Japan from having a child in 1966. The fact that no such effect was apparent among Koreans living in Korea suggests that this phenomenon is due to either the adoption or the mimicry of cultural practices on the part of the immigrant population. PMID:511872

  8. Inter-Arm Difference in Brachial Blood Pressure in the General Population of Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bo Mi; Shim, Jee-Seon; Lee, Myung Ha; Choi, Dong Phil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We investigated the inter-arm difference in blood pressure of the general Korean population to identify associated factors. Subjects and Methods A total of 806 participants aged 30 to 64 years without history of major cardiovascular disease were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. They participated in the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center cohort study that began in 2013. Brachial blood pressure was measured simultaneously for both arms using an automated oscillometric device equipped with two cuffs in seated position. After five minutes of rest, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured three times. The average of the three measurements was used for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with inter-arm differences in blood pressure. Results The mean inter-arm difference was 3.3 mmHg for SBP and 2.0 mmHg for DBP. Large inter-arm differences (≥10 mmHg) in SBP and in DBP were found in 3.7% and 0.9% of subjects, respectively. A large inter-arm difference in SBP was associated with mean SBP (p=0.002) and C-reactive protein (p=0.014) while a large inter-arm different in DBP was only associated with body mass index (p=0.015). Sex, age, and anti-hypertensive medication use were not associated with differences in inter-arm blood pressure. Conclusion Large inter-arm difference in blood pressure is only present in a small portion of healthy Korean adults. Our findings suggest that high SBP, chronic inflammation, and obesity may be associated with larger difference in inter-arm blood pressure. PMID:27275174

  9. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. Methods The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. Results The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits—eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking—was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. Conclusion We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for

  10. Prescription of resistance training for healthy populations.

    PubMed

    Hass, C J; Feigenbaum, M S; Franklin, B A

    2001-01-01

    Although there are well documented protective health benefits conferred by regular physical activity, most individuals of all ages are not physically active at a level for sufficient maintenance of health. Consequently, a major public health goal is to improve the collective health and fitness levels of all individuals. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and other international organisations have established guidelines for comprehensive exercise programmes composed of aerobic, flexibility and resistance-exercise training. Resistance training is the most effective method available for maintaining and increasing lean body mass and improving muscular strength and endurance. Furthermore, there is an increasing amount of evidence suggesting that resistance training may significantly improve many health factors associated with the prevention of chronic diseases. These health benefits can be safely obtained by most segments of the population when prescribed appropriate resistance-exercise programmes. Resistance-training programmes should be tailored to meet the needs and goals of the individual and should incorporate a variety of exercises performed at a sufficient intensity to enhance the development and maintenance of muscular strength and endurance, and lean body mass. A minimum of 1 set of 8 to 10 exercises (multi-joint and single joint) that involve the major muscle groups should be performed 2 to 3 times a week for healthy participants of all ages. More technical and advanced training including periodised multiple set regimens and/or advanced exercises may be more appropriate for individuals whose goals include maximum gains in strength and lean body mass. However, the existing literature supports the guidelines as outlined in this paper for children and adults of all ages seeking the health and fitness benefits associated with resistance training. PMID:11735680

  11. Population genetic structure of endangered Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) from the Korean Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Park, Han-Chan; Suk, Ho Young; Jeong, Eu-Jin; Park, Dae-Sik; Lee, Hang; Min, Mi-Sook

    2014-11-01

    The Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) is a small lacertid lizard species, and its distribution range encompasses the Korean Peninsula, Mongolia, China and Russia. Eremias argus is widespread, but populations on the Korean Peninsula are small and declining, provoking concerns that genetic diversity is being lost. This species is currently listed under the Protection of Wild Fauna and Flora Act in South Korea. In this study, nine novel microsatellites for E. argus were developed with a biotin-enrichment method and used to understand its population genetic structure and delineate conservation units on the Korean Peninsula. Overall, low intrapopulation genetic diversity was observed (mean number of alleles per locus = 2.463; mean H E = 0.398) from 10 populations investigated (n = 110). Two populations (among five with n≥ 10) showed an excess of heterozygosity expected under HWE relative to that expected at mutation-drift equilibrium, indicating severe reduction in population sizes. With only a few exceptions, the overall genetic differentiation among populations was substantial with the high levels of pairwise-F ST (0.006-0.746) and -R ST (0.034-0.940) values. The results of Bayesian STRUCTURE analysis showed that E. argus populations on the Korean Peninsula were most likely partitioned into three genetic clusters. Taken all together, such low levels of gene flow and strong genetic structuring have critical implications for the conservation of this endangered species and its management. PMID:25086619

  12. Local food systems for a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Creamer, Nancy G; Dunning, Rebecca D

    2012-01-01

    Working together across disciplines and organizational boundaries, North Carolina is leading national efforts to foster environments that increase access to healthy foods and raise awareness about the complexity and benefits of local food systems. PMID:23033726

  13. Scrub Typhus Seroprevalence in Healthy Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Mallika; Anandan, Shalini; Daniel, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, a zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an important cause of acute febrile illness in India. This preliminary study determines the seroprevalence of scrub typhus in healthy Indian adults by measuring IgM and IgG antibodies to scrub typhus by ELISA in 100 healthy blood donors. Our study demonstrates a 15% seroprevalence of scrub typhus in adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings especially in children. PMID:26557523

  14. Bioequivalence study of two imatinib formulations after single-dose administration in healthy Korean male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Jung, J A; Kim, N; Yang, J-S; Kim, T-e; Kim, J-R; Song, G-S; Kim, H; Ko, J W; Huh, W

    2014-12-01

    Imatinib mesylate is effective for chronic myeloid leukaemia and gastrointestinal tumours. We aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a 200-mg imatinib tablet compared to 2×100-mg imatinib tablets in order to meet the regulatory requirements for marketing in Korea.An open-label, randomized, single-dose, 2-period, 2-treatment cross-over study was conducted in 28 healthy Korean male volunteers. Subjects were administered a 200-mg imatinib tablet and 2×100-mg imatinib tablets under a fasting state according to a randomly assigned order with a 2-week wash-out period. Serial blood samples were collected up to 72 h post-dose. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental methods.A total of 28 subjects were enrolled and 23 subjects completed the study. There were no serious adverse events during the study. 23 mild to moderate adverse events were reported (11 events with 200-mg imatinib vs. 12 events with 2×100-mg imatinib) and subjects recovered without sequelae. The Cmax value was 922.8±318.8 μg/L at 3.15 h for 200-mg imatinib tablet, and 986.3±266.0 μg/L at 2.91 h for the 2×100-mg imatinib tablet. The AUClast of 200-mg and 2×100-mg tablets were 13 084.3±39.1 and 14 131.7±3 826.2 h · μg/L, respectively. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals) for Cmax and AUClast were 0.9121 (0.8188, 1.0161) and 0.9558 (0.8685, 1.0519), respectively.A newly developed 200-mg imatinib tablet was bioequivalent to 2×100-mg imatinib tablets in healthy Korean subjects. A single-dose of either of the 2 formulations was generally well tolerated. PMID:24549963

  15. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate against pathogen populations in poultry litters

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Tae Ho; Park, Chul; Choi, In Hag

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate as litter amendments on ammonia, soluble reactive phosphorus, and pathogen populations in poultry litters. Methods Increasing levels of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate were applied onto the surface of rice hull as a top-dress application; untreated rice hulls served as controls. Results: Treatment with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alone resulted in lower litter pH (p < 0.05), as compared with that of the controls. There were some differences (p < 0.05) between treatments with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alone and controls at 2–4 wk (not at 1 wk). Ammonia levels reduced on an average by 29%, 30%, and 32% for 10 g, 20 g Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate, and aluminum sulfate alone, respectively, as compared with controls at 4 wk. During the experiment, Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate treatment had an effect (p < 0.05) on soluble reactive phosphorus content, as compared with the controls (not at 4 wk). A decrease in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli was observed (p < 0.05) in litter amended with both Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate and aluminum sulfate alone, as compared with the control, except at 1–3 wk for Salmonella enterica and 1 wk and 4 wk for Escherichia coli, respectively. Conclusion The results showed that using Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate (blends), which act as acidifying agents by reducing the pH of the litter, was equally effective as aluminum sulfate in reducing the environmental impact. PMID:26869836

  16. Replication of the results of genome-wide and candidate gene association studies on telomere length in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Do, Sook Kyung; Yoo, Seung Soo; Choi, Yi Young; Choi, Jin Eun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Lee, Won Kee; Lee, Shin Yup; Lee, Jaehee; Cha, Seung Ick; Kim, Chang Ho; Park, Jae Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: A number of genome-wide and candidate gene association studies have identified polymorphisms associated with telomere length in Caucasian populations. This study was conducted to determine the impacts of 17 polymorphisms identified in Caucasians on telomere length in a Korean population. Methods: Ninety-four healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Relative telomere length of chromosomes from peripheral blood samples was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Two polymorphisms, rs10936599 of MYNN and rs412658 of ZNF676, were found to be associated w ith telomere length (under dominant model, p = 0.04; under recessive model, p = 0.001). Three polymorphisms, rs2853669, rs7705526, and rs2736108, at the TERT locus were also associated with telomere length (under recessive model, p = 0.01, p = 0.02, and p = 0.01, respectively). The genotypes of the five polymorphisms associated with short telomere length were considered bad genotypes; telomere length was significantly decreased with increasing number of bad genotypes (p= 1.7 × 10–5). Conclusions: We have identified polymorphisms associated with telomere length in a Korean population. PMID:26354067

  17. Estimated intakes of isoflavones and coumestrol in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Surh, Jeonghee; Kim, Min-Jeong; Koh, Eunmi; Kim, Young-Kyung L; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2006-01-01

    The dietary intakes and sources of isoflavones and coumestrol were estimated for each age group of Koreans based on data from the Korean Nutrition Survey conducted in 1998. For quantitative data on the levels of isoflavones and coumestrol, our previous study monitoring phytoestrogens in 220 Korean leguminous foodstuffs was employed and the median value for each food was adopted. The total isoflavones and coumestrol intake per capita was estimated as 23.3 mg/day, which constituted 14.2 mg daidzein, 6.7 mg genistein, 0.9 mg glycitein, 1.0 mg formononetin, 0.2 mg biochanin A, and 0.3 mg coumestrol. The top five foods arrowroot, soybean paste, tofu, soybean, and soybean sprout contributed to 88.2% of isoflavone intake, with the corresponding intake from each food being 8.3 mg/day, 4.9 mg/day, 2.6 mg/day, 2.5 mg/day, and 2.0 mg/day, respectively. Starting at age 3-6, the contributions of fermented soy products to the isoflavones intakes were around 30%. Soybean sprout was a major source of coumestrol intake in Koreans. Slight differences in the preference of these foods were observed among the various age groups. As regards the total isoflavone intakes, the highest value was 33.6 mg/day for people age 30-49, followed by age 50-64 (26.4 mg/day), 20-29 (21.0 mg/day), >or=65 (18.8 mg/day), 1-2 (14.5 mg/day), 7-12 (12.4 mg/day), 13-19 (10.1 mg/day), and 3-6 (8.9 mg/day). The intake levels are likely to be exceeded in groups who have preferably consumed high phytoestrogen-containing foods such as soy-protein-based infant formula and arrowroot. PMID:17135023

  18. Population structure of the Korean gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae) using multivariate morphometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myoung, Se Hun; Kim, Jin-Koo

    2016-03-01

    The gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus, is one of the most important fish species in Korea, China, Japan and Taiwan, and therefore the implementation of an appropriate population structure analysis is both necessary and fitting. In order to clarify the current distribution range for the two lineages of the Korean gizzard shad (Myoung and Kim 2014), we conducted a multivariate morphometric analysis by locality and lineage. We analyzed 17 morphometric and 5 meristic characters of 173 individuals, which were sampled from eight localities in the East Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Korean Strait. Unlike population genetics studies, the canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) results showed that the two morphotypes were clearly segregated by the center value "0" of CAN1, of which morphotype A occurred from the Yellow Sea to the western Korean Strait with negative values, and morphotype B occurred from the East Sea to the eastern Korean Strait with positive values even though there exists an admixture zone in the eastern Korean Strait. Further studies using more sensitive markers such as microsatellite DNA are required in order to define the true relationship between the two lineages.

  19. Genetic diversity and population structure of Korean and Chinese soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Korean and Chinese cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] populations are major soybean gene pools. Information has been reported comparing genetic diversity between soybeans from the two countries using an unequal number of accessions and only 6 to 35 genetic markers. This study compares diffe...

  20. Estimation of carrier frequencies of six autosomal-recessive Mendelian disorders in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Jung; Lee, Seung-Tae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Ji, Yongick; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2012-02-01

    Although many studies have been performed to identify mutations in Korean patients with various autosomal-recessive Mendelian disorders (AR-MDs), little is known about the carrier frequencies of AR-MDs in the Korean population. Twenty common mutations from six AR-MDs, including Wilson disease (WD), non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL), glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia), phenylketonuria (PKU), congenital hypothyroidism (CH), and congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) were selected to screen for based on previous studies. A total of 3057 Koreans were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry followed by confirmation using the Sanger sequencing. We found 201 and 8 carriers with either one or two mutations in different genes, respectively, yielding a total carrier frequency of 1 in 15 (6.7%). Of the six AR-MDs, NSHL has the highest carrier frequency followed by WD, CH, CLAH, GSD Ia, and PKU. As carrier screening tests are becoming prevalent and the number of mutations known and tested is rising, a priori data on the carrier frequencies in different ethnic groups is mandatory to plan a population screening program and to estimate its efficiency. In light of this, the present results can be used as a basis to establish a screening policy for common AR-MRs in the Korean population. PMID:22170460

  1. Association of CFTR gene variants with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in a Korean population with a low prevalence of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi-Ae; Kim, Su-Young; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok; Koh, Won-Jung

    2013-05-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that in Caucasian populations, mutations in the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene are associated with susceptibility to lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). However, there is little data available in Asian populations, in which the prevalence of CF is very low. Therefore, we investigated this potential relationship in a Korean population. Sixty patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for NTM lung disease were screened for genetic alterations in the CFTR gene by whole-exon resequencing. For all identified CFTR gene variants, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) genotyping was performed. Genotype and haplotype data were compared between 360 patients with NTM lung disease and 446 healthy controls. Among 13 CFTR genetic variants that were found by whole-exon resequencing, Q1352H showed a significantly higher frequency in NTM patients than in controls, giving an odds ratio (OR) of 4.27 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.43-12.78). A haplotype with Q1352H showed the strongest association with the disease, with an OR of 3.73 (95% CI, 1.50-9.25). Furthermore, all Q1352H alleles were associated with the V allele of the V470M variant. Our results suggest that CFTR gene variants may increase susceptibility to NTM lung disease in the Korean population. Q1352H appears to be strongly related to NTM lung disease susceptibility in the Korean population. PMID:23514810

  2. Genetic analysis of ABCG2 and SLC2A9 gene polymorphisms in gouty arthritis in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun Sung; Kim, Yunsuek; Park, Geon; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Park, Byung Lae; Kim, Hyun Sook

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Gout is a common inf lammatory arthritis triggered by the crystallization of uric acid in the joints. Serum uric acid levels are highly heritable, suggesting a strong genetic component. Independent studies to confirm the genetic associations with gout in various ethnic populations are warranted. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in the ABCG2 and SLC2A9 genes with gout in Korean patients and healthy individuals. Methods: We consecutively enrolled 109 patients with gout and 102 healthy controls. The diagnosis of gout was based on the preliminary criteria of the America College of Rheumatology. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples. We identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) changes in the ABCG2 and SLC2A9 genes using a direct sequencing technique. rs2231142 in ABCG2 and rs6449213 and rs16890979 in SLC2A9 and nearby regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Results: Patients with gout had significantly higher A/A genotype (29.3% vs. 4.9%, respectively) and A allele (52.8% vs. 26.5%, respectively) frequencies of rs2231142 in ABCG2 than did controls (χ2 = 29.42, p < 0.001; odds ratio, 3.32; 95% confidence interval, 2.11 to 5.20). We found novel polymorphisms (c.881A>G and c.1002+78G>A) in the SLC2A9 gene. The univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the c.881A>G and c.1002+78G>A SNPs were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Conclusions: We demonstrated a significant association between rs2231142 in the ABCG2 gene and gout and identified novel SNPs, c.881A>G and c.1002+78G>A, in the SLC2A9 gene that may be associated with gout in a Korean population. PMID:26552468

  3. Associations of visceral adiposity and exercise participation with C-reactive protein, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction in Korean healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kijin; Valentine, Rudy J; Shin, Yoonjung; Gong, Kyungmin

    2008-09-01

    correlated with BMI and percentage body fat (P < .05). Therefore, the relative importance of central adiposity as opposed to total body fatness in endothelial dysfunction is unclear. Compared with the nonexercise group, exercise participants had significantly lower (P < .05) WHR, visceral fat area, ratio of visceral fat area to subcutaneous area, hsCRP, hemoglobin A(1c), and HOMA, with no significant differences in BMI, percentage body fat, and physical fitness. Central obesity with high visceral fat is strongly associated with blood level of hsCRP, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction-related factors in healthy Korean adults. In addition, exercise participation, even in the absence of difference in physical fitness, may be protective against development of central obesity and insulin resistance in this understudied Korean population. PMID:18702942

  4. The Relationship between Religion and Mental Disorders in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Ik; Hong, Jin Pyo; Park, Subin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The question of whether religion has beneficial or detrimental effects on the mental well-being of the adult individual is debatable. Because most Korean citizens are free to select their own religion, there is a higher proportion of non-believers than believers among the Korean population. The aim of this research was to investigate the association between spiritual values and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition mental disorders in Korea across all types of belief systems, including Koreans not affiliated with a particular religion. Methods The Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 was used to interview 6,275 people across South Korea in 2001. While controlling for age and sex, we used logistic regression to analyze the relationship between mental disorders (both current and past) and the types of religion and spiritual values. Results Strong spiritual values were positively associated with increased rates of current depressive disorder and decreased rates of current alcohol use disorder. Using "atheist" as the reference category, Catholics had higher lifetime odds of single episodes of depression whilst Protestants had higher lifetime odds of anxiety disorder and lower lifetime odds of alcohol use disorders. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that depressive episodes often lead to a search for spirituality and that religion may be helpful in overcoming depression or becoming less vulnerable to relapsing. The associations between religion, spiritual values, and mental health have not been fully elucidated and warrant further exploration. PMID:22396682

  5. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  6. A Randomized-Controlled, Pilot Intervention on Diabetes Prevention and Healthy Lifestyles in the New York City Korean Community

    PubMed Central

    Zanowiak, Jennifer M.; Wyatt, Laura C.; Chun, Kay; Lee, Linda; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2014-01-01

    Asian Americans experience diabetes at a higher rate than non-Hispanic whites. Diabetes prevention programs using lifestyle interventions have been shown to produce beneficial results, yet there have been no culturally-tailored programs for diabetes prevention in the Korean community. We explore the impact and feasibility of a pilot Community Health Worker (CHW) intervention to improve health behaviors and promote diabetes prevention among Korean Americans using a randomized controlled trial. Between 2011 and 2012, a total of 48 Korean Americans at risk for diabetes living in New York City (NYC) participated in the intervention. Participants were allocated to treatment or control groups. A community-based participatory research approach guided development of the intervention, which consisted of 6 workshops held by CHWs on diabetes prevention, nutrition, physical activity, diabetes complications, stress and family support, and access to health care. Changes over 6 months were examined for clinical measurements (weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol); health behaviors (physical activity, nutrition, food behaviors, diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, and mental health); and health access (insurance and self-reported health). In this small pilot study, changes were seen in weight, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, physical activity nutrition, diabetes knowledge, and mental health. Qualitative findings provide additional contextual information that inform ways in which CHWs may influence health outcomes. These findings demonstrate that a diabetes prevention program can be successful among a Korean American population in NYC, and important insight is provided for ways that programs can be tailored to meet the needs of vulnerable populations. PMID:23813322

  7. Background and Data Configuration Process of a Nationwide Population-Based Study Using the Korean National Health Insurance System

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sun Ok; Jung, Chang Hee; Song, Young Duk; Park, Cheol-Young; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Cha, Bong Soo; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up

    2014-01-01

    Background The National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) recently signed an agreement to provide limited open access to the databases within the Korean Diabetes Association for the benefit of Korean subjects with diabetes. Here, we present the history, structure, contents, and way to use data procurement in the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) system for the benefit of Korean researchers. Methods The NHIS in Korea is a single-payer program and is mandatory for all residents in Korea. The three main healthcare programs of the NHI, Medical Aid, and long-term care insurance (LTCI) provide 100% coverage for the Korean population. The NHIS in Korea has adopted a fee-for-service system to pay health providers. Researchers can obtain health information from the four databases of the insured that contain data on health insurance claims, health check-ups and LTCI. Results Metabolic disease as chronic disease is increasing with aging society. NHIS data is based on mandatory, serial population data, so, this might show the time course of disease and predict some disease progress, and also be used in primary and secondary prevention of disease after data mining. Conclusion The NHIS database represents the entire Korean population and can be used as a population-based database. The integrated information technology of the NHIS database makes it a world-leading population-based epidemiology and disease research platform. PMID:25349827

  8. Construction and Validation of Brain MRI Templates from a Korean Normal Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunna; Yoo, Byung Il; Han, Ji Won; Lee, Jung Jae; Oh, San Yeo Wool; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Jae Hyoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to construct a Korean normal elderly brain template (KNE96) using Korean elderly individuals for use in brain MRI studies and to validate it. Methods We used high-resolution 3.0T T1 structural MR images from 96 Korean normal elderly individuals (M/F=48/48), aged 60 years or older (M=69.5±6.2 years, F=70.1±7.0 years), for constructing the KNE96 template. The KNE96 template was validated by comparing the registration-induced deformations between the KNE96 and ICBM152 templates using different MR images from 48 Korean normal elderly individuals (M/F=24/24), aged 60 years or older (M=71.5±5.9 years, F=72.8±5.1 years). We used the magnitude of displacement vectors (mag-displacement) and log of Jacobian determinants (log-Jacobian) to quantify the deformation produced during registration process to templates. Results The mag-displacement and log-Jacobian of the registration were much smaller using the KNE96 template than with the ICBM152 template in most brain regions. There was a prominent difference in the significant averaged differences (SADs) of the mag-displacement and log-Jacobian between the KNE96 and ICBM152 at the superior, medial, and middle frontal gyrus, the lingual, inferior, middle, and superior occipital gyrus, and the caudate and thalamus. Conclusion This study suggests that templates constructed from Asian populations, such as the KNE96, may be more desirable than those from Caucasian populations, like the ICBM152, in computational neuroimaging studies that measure and compare anatomical features of the frontal and occipital lobe, thalamus and caudate. PMID:26766956

  9. Healthy worker effect in the total Finnish population.

    PubMed Central

    Vinni, K; Hakama, M

    1980-01-01

    The selection due to the "healthy worker effect" was estimated from a random sample of the total Finnish population. The sample of 20 000 people was followed for changes in occupations from 1960 to 1970 and for deaths in 1971-5. Those entering the active work force had a standard mortality ratio of 70, indicating a healthy population selection effect. Those staying in the same occupational category from 1960 to 1970 had a 20% lower mortality than those who did not. This survivor population effect was due to changes to another occupational group and to early retirement. These factors had an inverse effect on the survival history of an occupational group. PMID:7426468

  10. Exploring Religious Mechanisms for Healthy Alcohol Use: Religious Messages and Drinking Among Korean Women in California*

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Kang Sim, D. Eastern; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research identifies social reinforcers within religious institutions associated with alcohol consumption among Korean women in California. Method: Data were drawn from telephone interviews with female adults (N = 591) selected from a random sampling of persons in California with Korean surnames during 2007. Approximately 70% of attempted interviews were completed, with 92% conducted in Korean. Respondents were asked about any lifetime drinking (yes/no), drinking rate (typical number of drinks consumed on drinking days among current drinkers), and messages discouraging “excessive drinking” from religious leaders or congregants. Bivariable and multivariable regressions were used for analysis. Results: Approximately 70.4% of women reported any lifetime drinking, and drinkers drank a mean (SD) of 1.10 (1.22) drinks on drinking days. About 30.8%reported about 30.8% reported any exposure to religious leaders' messages discouraging excessive drinking, and 28.2% reported any exposure to similar messages from congregants. Each congregant's message was statistically significantly associated with a 5.1% lower probability (odds ratio = 0.775, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.626, 0.959) of any lifetime drinking. Also, each congregant's message was associated with a 13.8% (B = -0.138; 95% CI: -0.306, 0.029) lower drinking rate, which was statistically significant after adjusting for covariates using a one-tailed test. Exposure to leaders' messages was not statistically significantly associated with any lifetime drinking or drinking rate. Conclusions: Social reinforcement in the form of religious messages may be one mechanism by which religious institutions influence drinking behaviors. For Korean women, messages from congregants had a unique impact beyond the traditional religiosity indicators. These social mechanisms provide public health interventionists with religious pathways to improve drinking behaviors. PMID:19895765

  11. Health-related quality of life in Korean lymphoma survivors compared with the general population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Im-Ryung; Kim, So Hee; Lee, Suyeon; Ok, Onam; Kim, Won Seog; Suh, Cheolwon; Lee, Moon Hee

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of lymphoma survivors, to compare it with that of the general population, and to identify its predictors in lymphoma survivors. We enrolled 837 participants (mean age, 54.6 years; mean time since diagnosis, 6.3 years) with a history of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) (n = 58) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (n = 779) who had been treated at any of three Korean hospitals from 1989 through 2010. For controls, we selected 1,000 subjects randomly from a representative Korean population. We administered the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Overall, the HRQOL in both groups of survivors and the general population were comparable, but we observed clinically meaningful worse social functioning in NHL survivors (p < 0.001) and more severe fatigue in HL survivors (p < 0.001) than in the general population. Analysis of covariance revealed no clinically meaningful difference in HRQOL associated with age or sex. Survivors who received peripheral blood stem cell transplants showed clinically meaningful worse role (p = 0.001) and social (p < 0.001) functioning than those who were treated with first-line chemotherapy alone. In multivariate analyses, fatigue, depression, and financial difficulties emerged as the strongest predictors for almost all subscales of functioning and global quality of life. Interventions for alleviating fatigue, depression, and financial difficulties are needed to enhance the HRQOL of Korean lymphoma survivors. PMID:24947794

  12. Two-point discrimination of the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20’s

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Ja-Pung; Kim, Soon-Hee; An, Ho-Jung; Moon, Ok-Gon; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yun, Young-Dae; Park, Joo-Hyun; Min, Kyoung-Ok

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study attempted to measure two-point discrimination in the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20’s. [Subjects and Methods] Using a three-point esthesiometer, we conducted an experiment with a group of 256 college students (128 male and 128 female), attending N University in Chonan, Republic of Korea. [Results] Females showed two-point discrimination at a shorter distance than males at the following points: (i) 5 cm above the elbow joint, the middle part, and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the anterior upper arm; (ii) 5 cm above the elbow joint and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the posterior upper arm; (iii) 5 cm above the front of the wrist joint of the forearm; 5 cm below the elbow joint, the palmar part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the thumb, the dorsal part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the middle and little fingers. It was also found that females showed greater two-point discrimination than males in distal regions rather than proximal regions. [Conclusion] The findings of this study will help establish normal values for two-point discrimination of upper extremities of young Koreans in their 20’s. PMID:27134375

  13. Assessment of the dietary intake of propylene glycol in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ho Soo; Hwang, Ju Young; Choi, EunA; Lee, Gun Young; Yun, Sang Soon; Kang, TaeSeok

    2016-08-01

    An improved method for the analysis of propylene glycol (PG) in foods using a gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID), with confirmation by GC-MS, was validated by measuring several analytical parameters. The PG concentrations in 1073 products available in Korean markets were determined. PG was detected in 74.1% of the samples, in a concentration range from the limit of detection (n.d., 0.39 μg ml(-1)) to 12,819.9 mg kg(-1). The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2011-2013 reported the mean intake levels of PG from all sources by the general population and consumers were 26.3 mg day(-1) (0.52 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 34.3 mg day(-1) (0.67 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively. The 95th percentile intake levels of the general population and consumers were 123.6 mg day(-1) (2.39 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 146.3 mg day(-1) (2.86 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively. In all groups of the general population, breads were the main contributors to the total PG intake. These reports provide a current perspective on the daily intake of PG in the Korean population. PMID:27389111

  14. Reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets in healthy Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) and Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Mi; Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Bong-Joo; Suh, Guk-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    There are no accurate reference ranges for hematology parameters and lymphocyte subsets in Korean native beef cattle (Hanwoo). This study was performed to establish reliable reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets using a large number of Hanwoo cattle (n = 350) and to compare differences between Hanwoo and Holstein dairy cattle (n = 334). Additionally, age-related changes in lymphocyte subsets were studied. Bovine leukocyte subpopulation analysis was performed using mono or dual color flow cytometry. The leukocyte subpopulations investigated in healthy cattle included: CD2(+) cells, sIgM(+) cells, MHC class II(+) cells, CD3(+) CD4(+) cells, CD3(+) CD8(+) cells, and WC1(+) cells. Although Hanwoo and Holstein cattle are the same species, results showed several differences in hematology and lymphocyte subsets between Hanwoo and Holstein cattle. This study is the first report to establish reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets in adult Hanwoo cattle. PMID:26419947

  15. An analysis of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and its significance on osteoarthritis in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun-Tae; Kim, Hyun-Je; Ahn, Hee-Yun; Hong, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study was conducted in order to analyze the effects of sarcopenia on age-related osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee in a Korean population. Methods: All the Korean subjects who visited the Yeungnam University Medical Center Health Promotion Center between 2008 and 2012 in order to undergo a routine medical examination were enrolled. A total of 5,723 young, healthy people (2,959 males, 2,764 females) enrolled as normal subjects and 23,473 subjects (13,006 males and 10,467 females) were included for evaluation of the effects of sarcopenia on OA. There were 266 subjects who followed-up bioelectrical impedance analysis at a 4-year interval. Of 327 subjects enrolled in this study, knees with anteroposterior X-rays were assessed according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L) grade. Results: Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) showed a steady decrease with the advance of age (p < 0.01), but SMI showed strong positive correlation with BMR (r = 0.72, β = 30.96, p < 0.01). During the 4-year interval, BMR showed a significant decrease with aging (p < 0.01), consistently with the decrease of SMI. Knees with normal SMI were prone to be designated as K/L grade 0 or 1; however, subjects with sarcopenia showed a trend toward the higher K/L grade, classified as knee radiological osteoarthritis (ROA) (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results of this study may indicate that sarcopenia as age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass is interactively correlated with the presence and severity of age-related OA. PMID:26976151

  16. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among healthy Korean women: implications of multiplex PCR pathogen detection on antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoonjung; Kim, Juwon; Lee, Kyung-A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using multiplex real-time PCR assay in healthy Korean women. We also evaluated the risk factors of STIs, and compared the various factors between the STI-positive and the STI-negative groups. A total of 799 endocervical swab samples from healthy Korean women who visited our hospital for general medical check-ups during January 2012 to October 2012 were included. Eight STIs including Human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Ureaplasma parvum (UP), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) were detected using Anyplex II STI-7 Detection assay Detection (Seegene, Seoul, Korea) and Hybrid Capture 2 High-Risk HPV DNA test (Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) according manufacture's protocols. Ninety-seven (12.1%) subjects were positive for HPV. Of 393 (49.2%) subjects were infected with at least one microorganism and a total of 499 STIs were identified. Among the 393 STI-positive subjects, the proportion of single, double and triple infection was 76.3%, 20.4% and 3.3%, respectively. The median age of the STI-positive group (47 years, range 42-52) was younger than the STI-negative group (49 years, range 43-56; P < 0.001). The infection rate of HPV was significantly higher in the STI-positive group (15.8%, 62/393) than the STI-negative group (8.6%, 35/406) (P = 0.002). PMID:24462432

  17. Associations of Pulmonary Function with Dementia and Depression in an Older Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Suelin; Kang, Hee-Ju; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies reported an association between pulmonary function and cognitive function. However, not much has been investigated in this regard concerning dementia in a community population, taking depression into account. We aimed to examine the associations of pulmonary function with dementia and depression in a community-dwelling elderly population. Methods A total of 1,038 participants were evaluated for dementia and depression using the Korean version of the Geriatric Mental State Schedule B3 (GMS B3-K), the Community Screening Interview for Dementia-Korean version (CSID-K) and a modified 10-item Word List Learning from the Consortium to Establish a Registry of Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD). Pulmonary function was measured as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) from a forced expiratory maneuver. Results Prevalence rates of dementia and depression were 11.0% and 10.4%, respectively. Individuals who were diagnosed with dementia manifested a lower mean FEV1, as compared to those without dementia after adjusting for potential confounders, including disability and depression [OR=1.34 (1.05-1.72)]. Following gender-stratified analysis, the association was only statistically significant in women [OR=1.40 (1.04-1.89)]. The association between depression and mean FEV1 was less significant compared to dementia [OR=1.32 (1.10-1.58)]. However, the association was no longer significant after adjusting for age and years of education. No association was significant in the gender-stratified analysis. Conclusion Decreased pulmonary function was associated with dementia status only in an older female Korean population. Pulmonary function and depression were not significantly associated in either gender. PMID:26508954

  18. Genetic variations in VDR associated with prostate cancer risk and progression in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jong Jin; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun; Hong, Sung Kyu; Jeong, Chang Wook; Kim, Dokyoon; Kim, Hae Jong; Myung, Soon Chul

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of vitamin D are implicated as a potential risk factor for prostate cancer, and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene may be important in the onset and progression of prostate cancer. In this study, sequence variants in the VDR gene were investigated in a Korean study cohort to determine whether they are associated with prostate cancer risk. We evaluated the association between 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VDR gene and prostate cancer risk as well as clinical characteristics (prostate-specific antigen level, clinical stage, pathological stage and Gleason score) in Korean men (272 prostate cancer patients and 173 benign prostatic hyperplasia patient who underwent a prostate biopsy, which was negative for malignancy) using unconditional logistic regression. The statistical analysis suggested that two VDR sequence variants (rs2408876 and rs2239182) had a significant association with prostate cancer risk (odds ratio [OR]. 1.41; p=0.03; OR, 0.73; p=0.05, respectively). Logistic analyses of the VDR polymorphisms with several prostate cancer related factors showed that several SNPs were significant; nine SNPs to PSA level, three to clinical stage, two to pathological stage, and three SNPs to the Gleason score. The results suggest that some VDR gene polymorphisms in Korean men might not only be associated with prostate cancer risk but also significantly related to prostate cancer-related risk factors such as PSA level, tumor stage, and Gleason score. However, current limitation for small cohort with not-healthy control group might have false positive effects; therefore it should be overcome via further large-scale validating studies. PMID:24120391

  19. DUOX2 Mutations Are Frequently Associated With Congenital Hypothyroidism in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Young-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Ryul; Park, Jong-Ho; Park, June-Hee; Park, Hyung-Doo; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2016-01-01

    Background Most cases with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) are usually sporadic, while about 20% of the cases are caused by genetic defects. Little information is available regarding the mutation incidence and genetic heterogeneity of CH in Koreans. We aimed to determine the mutation incidence of CH in newborn screenings (NBS) and to evaluate the frequency and spectrum of mutations underlying CH. Methods A total of 112 newborns with thyroid dysfunction were enrolled from 256,624 consecutive NBS. Furthermore, 58 outpatients with primary CH were added from an endocrine clinic. All coding exons of TSHR, PAX8, TPO, DUOX2, DUOXA2, and SCL5A5 were sequenced. Results The mutation incidence of CH was estimated to be 1 in 6,580 newborns. A total of 36 different mutations were identified in 53 cases. The overall mutation positive rate was 31%. The DUOX2 mutations were the most prevalent in both newborns and outpatients. Seven different recurrent mutations [p.G488R (n=13), p.A649E (n=3), p.R885Q (n=3), p.I1080T (n=2), and p.A1206T (n=2) in DUOX2; p.Y138X (n=9) in DUOXA2; and p.R450H (n=5) in TSHR) were identified as the mutations underlying CH. Conclusions The mutation incidence of CH was considerably higher than expected in the Korean newborn population. This study revealed seven different recurrent mutations underlying CH. We conclude that DUOX2 mutations are a frequent cause of CH in the Korean population. PMID:26709262

  20. Novel genetic variations associated with salt sensitivity in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Moo-Yong; Yang, Soo Jin; Oh, Sang Woo; Park, Yongsoon; Kim, Cho-il; Park, Hye-Kyung; Park, Sung Woo; Park, Cheol-Young

    2011-05-01

    Salt sensitivity is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To date, only a few genetic variations have been identified as being associated with salt sensitivity. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of salt sensitivity in the Korean population and to identify genetic variants affecting its development. A total of 101 Korean participants consumed a low-salt diet for 7 days followed by a high-salt diet for 7 additional days. Salt sensitivity was determined by noting any significant elevation in the 24-h mean arterial blood pressure. To determine genetic variants affecting salt sensitivity, 36 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were previously reported to be associated with hypertension were tested for any associations with salt sensitivity. Of the 101 subjects, 28 (27.7%) were determined to have salt sensitivity. Out of the 36 SNPs tested, four were significantly associated with salt sensitivity after adjusting for confounding factors: rs2681472 in ATPase, Ca(++) transporting, plasma membrane 1 (ATP2B1), rs7961152 in branched chain aminotransferase 1 (BCAT1), rs16998073 in fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) and rs2398162 in LOC100132798. For rs3754777 in serine threonine kinase 39 (STK39) and rs1937506, associations with salt sensitivity were observed before adjusting for confounding factors. Haplotype analysis revealed that the A-C haplotype of rs3754777-rs6749447 in STK39 was more frequent in the salt-sensitive group compared with the salt-resistant group, and was associated with salt sensitivity. This study estimates the prevalence of salt sensitivity in the Korean population and demonstrates a novel association between salt sensitivity and the ATP2B1, BCAT1, FGF5, LOC100132798 and STK39 genetic variations. PMID:21228780

  1. Association between Expression Quantitative Trait Loci and Metabolic Traits in Two Korean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Myungguen; Cho, Seong Beom

    2014-01-01

    Most genome-wide association studies consider genes that are located closest to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are highly significant for those studies. However, the significance of the associations between SNPs and candidate genes has not been fully determined. An alternative approach that used SNPs in expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) was reported previously for Crohn’s disease; it was shown that eQTL-based preselection for follow-up studies was a useful approach for identifying risk loci from the results of moderately sized GWAS. In this study, we propose an approach that uses eQTL SNPs to support the functional relationships between an SNP and a candidate gene in a genome-wide association study. The genome-wide SNP genotypes and 10 biochemical measures (fasting glucose levels, BUN, serum albumin levels, AST, ALT, gamma GTP, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol) were obtained from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) consortium. The eQTL SNPs were isolated from the SNP dataset based on the RegulomeDB eQTL-SNP data from the ENCODE projects and two recent eQTL reports. A total of 25,658 eQTL SNPs were tested for their association with the 10 metabolic traits in 2 Korean populations (Ansung and Ansan). The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by eQTL and non-eQTL SNPs showed that eQTL SNPs were more likely to be associated with the metabolic traits genetically compared with non-eQTL SNPs. Finally, via a meta-analysis of the two Korean populations, we identified 14 eQTL SNPs that were significantly associated with metabolic traits. These results suggest that our approach can be expanded to other genome-wide association studies. PMID:25493549

  2. Sterile Inflammation after Intravitreal Injection of Aflibercept in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju Young; You, Yong Sung; Kwon, Oh Woong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the frequency and clinical features of sterile inflammation after intravitreal aflibercept injection in a Korean population. Methods A single-center, retrospective study was performed in patients who received intravitreal aflibercept from July 2013 through January 2015. Results A total of four cases of post-injection sterile inflammation were identified from 723 aflibercept injections in 233 patients. Patients presented 1 to 13 days after intravitreal aflibercept injection (mean, 5 days). The mean baseline visual acuity was 20 / 60, which decreased to 20 / 112 at diagnosis but ultimately recovered to 20 / 60. Three cases had inflammatory cells in the anterior chamber (mean, 2.25+; range, 0 to 4+), and all cases had vitritis (mean, 3+; range, 2+ to 4+). No patients had pain. Only one patient underwent anterior chamber sampling (culture negative) and injection of antibiotics. Three of four patients were treated with a topical steroid, and all experienced improvement in their symptoms and signs of inflammation. Conclusions The overall incidence of sterile inflammation after intravitreal aflibercept injection in a Korean population was 4 of 723 injections (0.55%), or 4 of 233 patients (1.79%). Sterile inflammation after intravitreal aflibercept injection typically presents without pain, and the visual outcomes are generally favorable. PMID:26457038

  3. Magnetic resonance image-based cerebellar volumetry in healthy Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, I J; Cho, T H; Lee, N J; Uhm, C S; Kim, H; Suh, Y S

    1999-08-01

    The effects of age and gender on cerebellar size have not been established yet. To understand these effects, the area of cerebellar vermis and the volume of cerebellum were measured using serial magnetic resonance images of 124 Korean adults free of neurologic symptoms and signs. Cerebellar volume of male was significantly larger than that of female, although the size of vermis did not show significant gender difference. Correlation analysis revealed that cerebellar volume was not affected by aging. Regressional analysis demonstrated that female vermis had a tendency to shrink after age of 50, whereas male vermis and total cerebellar volume in both sexes were not altered with aging. The different response of vermis with aging and maintenance of cerebellum volume need to be more explored. PMID:10462116

  4. Working Memory Training in Schizophrenia and Healthy Populations

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor-Savage, Linette; Goghari, Vina M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are consistently demonstrated in individuals with schizophrenia. Cognitive training involves structured exercises prescribed and undertaken with the intention of enhancing cognitive abilities such as attention, memory, and problem solving. Thus, cognitive training represents a potentially promising intervention for enhancing cognitive abilities in schizophrenia. However, cognitive training programs are numerous and heterogeneous, hence, the generalizability of training related outcomes can be challenging to assess. This article will provide a brief overview of current literature on cognitive training and explore how knowledge of working memory training in healthy populations can potentially be applied to enhance cognitive functioning of individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:25379283

  5. Macular Choroidal Thickness and Volume Measured by Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography in Healthy Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Wook; Song, In Seok; Lee, Ju-hyang; Shin, Yong Un; Lim, Han Woong; Lee, Won June

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the thickness and volume of the choroid in healthy Korean children using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Methods We examined 80 eyes of 40 healthy children and teenagers (<18 years) using swept-source optical coherence tomography with a tunable long-wavelength laser source. A volumetric macular scan protocol using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid was used to construct a choroidal thickness map. We also examined 44 eyes of 35 healthy adult volunteers (≥18 years) and compared adult measurements with the findings in children. Results The mean age of the children and teenagers was 9.47 ± 3.80 (4 to 17) vs. 55.04 ± 12.63 years (36 to 70 years) in the adult group (p < 0.001, Student's t-test). Regarding the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study subfields, the inner temporal subfield was the thickest (247.96 µm). The inner and outer nasal choroid were thinner (p = 0.004, p = 0.002, respectively) than the surrounding areas. The mean choroidal volumes of the inner and outer nasal areas were smaller (p = 0.004, p = 0.003, respectively) than those of all the other areas in each circle. Among the nine subfields, all areas in the children, except the outer nasal subfield, were thicker than those in adults (p < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that age, axial length, and refractive error correlated with subfoveal choroidal thickness (p < 0.05). Conclusions Overall macular choroidal thickness and volume in children and teenagers were significantly greater than in adults. The nasal choroid was significantly thinner than the surrounding areas. The pediatric subfoveal choroid is prone to thinning with increasing age, axial length, and refractive error. These differences should be considered when choroidal thickness is evaluated in children with chorioretinal diseases. PMID:26865801

  6. Population and forensic genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA control region variation from six major provinces in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Beom; Kim, Ki Cheol; Kim, Wook

    2015-07-01

    We generated complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 704 unrelated individuals residing in six major provinces in Korea. In addition to our earlier survey of the distribution of mtDNA haplogroup variation, a total of 560 different haplotypes characterized by 271 polymorphic sites were identified, of which 473 haplotypes were unique. The gene diversity and random match probability were 0.9989 and 0.0025, respectively. According to the pairwise comparison of the 704 control region sequences, the mean number of pairwise differences between individuals was 13.47±6.06. Based on the result of mtDNA control region sequences, pairwise FST genetic distances revealed genetic homogeneity of the Korean provinces on a peninsular level, except in samples from Jeju Island. This result indicates there may be a need to formulate a local mtDNA database for Jeju Island, to avoid bias in forensic parameter estimates caused by genetic heterogeneity of the population. Thus, the present data may help not only in personal identification but also in determining maternal lineages to provide an expanded and reliable Korean mtDNA database. These data will be available on the EMPOP database via accession number EMP00661. PMID:25900647

  7. Clinical features and outcomes of idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Byun, Min Kwang; Kim, Dong Soon; Kim, Young Whan; Chung, Man Pyo; Shim, Jae Jeong; Cha, Seung Ick; Uh, Soo-Taek; Park, Choon Sik; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Park, Yong Bum; Lee, Hong Lyeol; Park, Moo Suk

    2010-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disorder in which lipoproteinaceous material accumulates within alveoli. There were few reports on Asian populations with idiopathic PAP. We retrospectively reviewed 38 patients with idiopathic PAP in Korea. We assessed clinical features, therapeutic efficacy and outcomes of whole lung lavage in patients with idiopathic PAP. The mean age at diagnosis was 52 yr. Eighty six percent of patients were symptomatic at diagnosis. Dyspnea and cough were the most common symptoms. Crackles were the most common physical examination finding. On pulmonary function test, a mild restrictive ventilatory defect was common, with a predicted mean forced vital capacity (FVC) of 77% and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) of 84.6%. Diffusing capacity was disproportionately reduced at 67.7%. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed hypoxemia with a decreased PaO2 of 69.0 mmHg and an increased D(A-a)O2 of 34.2 mmHg. After whole lung lavage, PaO2, D(A-a)O2 and DL(CO) were significantly improved, but FVC and total lung capacity (TLC) were not different. This is the first multicenter study to analyze 38 Korean patients with idiopathic PAP. The clinical features and pulmonary parameters of Korean patients with idiopathic PAP are consistent with reports in other published studies. Whole lung lavage appears to be the most effective form of treatment. PMID:20191038

  8. The influence of waist circumference on insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in apparently healthy Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Deok Yun; Choe, Young Gil; Shin, Dong Suk; Yoo, Su Hyeon; Yim, Seo Hyoung; Lee, Ji Yong; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Hong Joo; Park, Dong Il; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Waist circumference (WC) is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and is related to insulin resistance (IR) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The purpose of this study was to determine the association between WC and IR and NAFLD in apparently healthy Korean adults. Methods The volunteers included in this cross-sectional study comprised 9,159 adults (5,052 men, 4,107 women) who participated in a comprehensive health checkup program. IR was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) and was considered to be present when the HOMA-IR score was >2. NAFLD was evaluated by ultrasound examination. Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was defined as >40 IU/L in men and >35 IU/L in women. Logistic regression was performed to determine the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for NAFLD, IR, and ALT according to categorized levels of WC. Results NAFLD was found in 2,553 (27.9%) of the participants (82.6% men, 17.4% women), while IR and elevated ALT were found in 17.2% (68.1% men, 31.9% women) and 10% (83% men, 17% women), respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, the prevalence of NAFLD, IR, and elevated ALT was significantly associated with increases in WC quartile: highest quartile for NAFLD in men, OR=15.539, 95% CI=12.687-19.033; highest quartile for NAFLD in women, OR=48.732, 95% CI=23.918-99.288 (P<0.001); and highest quartile for IR in men, OR=17.576, 95% CI=13.283-23.255; highest quartile for IR in women, OR=11.078, 95% CI=7.813-15.708 (P<0.001); highest quartile for elevated ALT in men, OR=7.952, 95% CI=6.046-10.459; and highest quartile for elevated ALT in women, OR=8.487, 95% CI=4.679-15.395 (P<0.001). Conclusions WC contributes to IR and NAFLD in apparently healthy Korean adults, and thus may be an important factor in the development of IR and NAFLD. PMID:23837138

  9. Prevalence of immediate-type food allergy in Korean schoolchildren: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Hahm, Myung-Il; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Chae, Yoomi; Park, Yong Mean; Han, Man Yong; Lee, Kee-Jae; Kim, Ja Kyoung; Yang, Eun Seok; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2012-01-01

    Although the prevalence and causes of food allergy (FA) vary by geographic location, large well-designed epidemiological studies in Asia are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of immediate-type FA in the general population of Korean schoolchildren. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 using a stratified two-stage cluster-sampling design. In this survey, children aged 6-7 years and 12-13 years were randomly selected, and the presence of FA was determined by a questionnaire survey and assessment of specific IgE. After adjustment for missing data, 3907 children aged 6-7 years and 3975 students aged 12-13 years who completed the questionnaire were included in this study. In children aged 6-7 years, the prevalence of confirmed immediate-type FA was 0.3%, and the prevalence of possible immediate-type FA was 0.3%. By contrast, 0.6 and 1.0% of children aged 12-13 years had confirmed immediate-type FA and possible immediate-type FA, respectively. In 6- to 7-year-old children, egg was the most frequent causative food associated with a confirmed or possible immediate-type FA. In 12- to 13-year-old children, crustaceans were the most frequent cause of confirmed immediate-type FA, and fruit was most frequently involved in possible immediate-type FA. This is the first nationwide population-based study of FA in Korean schoolchildren. Unlike in western countries, the prevalence of immediate-type FA seems to be low. In 12- to 13 year-old children with confirmed immediate-type FA, peanuts/tree nuts are not common causes, whereas crustaceans are frequent triggers. PMID:23394505

  10. Insulin resistance is associated with intraocular pressure elevation in a non-obese Korean population.

    PubMed

    Chun, Yoon Hong; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Shin Hae; Park, Kyung-Min; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Based on reports of an association between elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the major role of insulin resistance (IR) in MetS pathogenesis, a positive association between IOP and IR has been hypothesized. Although Asian populations tend to have lower body mass indices (BMIs) than Western populations, they tend to have a higher risk of developing MetS. This study examined the hypothesis that the association between IOP and IR differs by obesity status in an Asian population, by examining a nationally representative sample of South Korean adults. Data collected from 4,621 South Korean adults regarding demographic, lifestyle, and laboratory parameters by the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were subjected to linear regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between IOP and metabolic profiles. After adjusting for confounding factors, the data were subjected to multiple linear regression analysis to examine the association between IR, as measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and IOP. Obesity was defined as BMI≥27.5 kg/m2, and the subjects were divided into obese vs. non-obese groups for investigation of the association between IR and IOP according to obesity status. IOP was found to correlate with fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, insulin, and HOMA-IR values in non-obese men; and with BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HOMA-IR, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values in non-obese women, whereas no association between IOP and IR was found in obese men or women. IOP was significantly associated with IR in non-obese men and women after adjusting for age, and in non-obese men after adjusting for age, BMI, and lifestyle and demographic factors. These findings indicate that a positive and independent relationship exists between IOP and IR in non-obese individuals only, suggesting that other factors likely contribute to IOP

  11. Risk Factors of Bone Mass Loss at the Lumbar Spine: A Longitudinal Study in Healthy Korean Pre- and Perimenopausal Women Older than 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungsu; Jung, Jaehoon; Jung, Jung Hwa; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Kim, Rock-Bum; Hahm, Jong Ryeal

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies on bone mass decline for healthy women are sparse. We performed a retrospective longitudinal study to evaluate the factor associated with bone mass changes at the lumbar spine in healthy Korean pre- and perimenopausal women over the age of 40. We examined the relation of blood tests including thyroid function tests at baseline and follow-up to the annual percentage changes in average BMD of L2-L4 (A%ΔLSBMD). Four hundred and forty-three subjects without diseases or medications pertaining to bone metabolism were analyzed. The mean A%ΔLSBMD in these subjects was -0.45%/year. Though a significant correlation was observed between the A%ΔLSBMD and age, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level, total cholesterol (TC) level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and follow-up, there was a weak correlation between A%ΔLSBMD and these variables. From multiple linear regression analyses, the percent body fat, age, serum TSH level, serum uric acid level, and the menopause at follow-up were showed to have a significant association with the A%ΔLSBMD. Unlike age, percent body fat, and menopause at follow-up, which had a negative association with the A%ΔLSBMD, serum TSH level and serum uric acid level, had a positive association with the A%ΔLSBMD. The results from our study showed that the notable risk factors of BMD loss at the lumbar spine in population of our study were advancing age, menopause, higher percent body fat, lower normal TSH, and lower serum uric acid levels. PMID:26317525

  12. Population Pharmacokinetic Meta-Analysis of Vortioxetine in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Areberg, Johan; Petersen, Kamilla B; Chen, Grace; Naik, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to describe the pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine and evaluate the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the healthy population. Data from 26 clinical pharmacology studies were pooled. A total of 21,758 vortioxetine quantifiable plasma concentrations were collected from 887 subjects with corresponding demography. The doses ranged from 2.5 to 75 mg (single dose) and 2.5–60 mg (multiple QD doses). The pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine was best characterised by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption, lag-time and linear elimination, with interindividual error terms for absorption rate constant, oral clearance and central volume of distribution. The population mean was 32.7 L/hr for oral clearance and 1.97·103 L for the central volume of distribution. The average elimination half-life was 65.8 hr. CYP2D6 inferred metabolic status (ultra, extensive, intermediate or poor metabolisers) and age on oral clearance and height on central volume of distribution were identified as statistically significant covariate–parameter relationships. For CYP2D6 poor metabolisers, CL/F was approximately 50% to that seen in CYP2D6 extensive metabolisers. The impact of height on V2/F and age on CL/F was low and not considered to be clinically relevant. The final model was found to be reliable, stable and predictive. A reliable, stable and predictive pharmacokinetic model was developed to characterise pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine in the healthy population. PMID:24766668

  13. Population pharmacokinetic meta-analysis of vortioxetine in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Areberg, Johan; Petersen, Kamilla B; Chen, Grace; Naik, Himanshu

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to describe the pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine and evaluate the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the healthy population. Data from 26 clinical pharmacology studies were pooled. A total of 21,758 vortioxetine quantifiable plasma concentrations were collected from 887 subjects with corresponding demography. The doses ranged from 2.5 to 75 mg (single dose) and 2.5-60 mg (multiple QD doses). The pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine was best characterised by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption, lag-time and linear elimination, with interindividual error terms for absorption rate constant, oral clearance and central volume of distribution. The population mean was 32.7 L/hr for oral clearance and 1.97∙10(3)  L for the central volume of distribution. The average elimination half-life was 65.8 hr. CYP2D6 inferred metabolic status (ultra, extensive, intermediate or poor metabolisers) and age on oral clearance and height on central volume of distribution were identified as statistically significant covariate-parameter relationships. For CYP2D6 poor metabolisers, CL/F was approximately 50% to that seen in CYP2D6 extensive metabolisers. The impact of height on V2/F and age on CL/F was low and not considered to be clinically relevant. The final model was found to be reliable, stable and predictive. A reliable, stable and predictive pharmacokinetic model was developed to characterise pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine in the healthy population. PMID:24766668

  14. Vulnerability of Korean water resources to climate change and population growth.

    PubMed

    Chang, H; Franczyk, J; Im, E-S; Kwon, W-T; Bae, D-H; Jung, I-W

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater availability is affected by changes in climate and growth. We assessed the freshwater vulnerability for five major Korean river basins for 2015 and 2030. We used a regional climate model based on the IPCC SRES A2 scenario, US Geological Survey's Precipitation Rainfall Simulation Model, and population and industrial growth scenarios for impact assessment. The model simulation results suggest increasing spatial and temporal variations of water stress for the basins that are already developed. While freshwater is more vulnerable to growth scenarios than the climate change scenario, climate change alone could decrease mean annual runoff by 10% in four major river basins by 2030. As the first national assessment of climate change, we suggest possible adaptive water resource management and policy strategies for reducing climate related risks in Korea. PMID:17851205

  15. Analysis of population structure among Korean and Japanese Legionella pneumophila isolates using hsp60 sequences.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Geun; Kim, Byoung Jun; Kim, Hee-Youn; Yun, Yeo-Jun; Ko, Kwan Soo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Kim, Bum-Joon; Kook, Yoon-Hoh

    2012-08-01

    The population structure of Korean (150 strains) and Japanese (92 strains) Legionella pneumophila isolates along with 18 reference strains were investigated using hsp60 sequence (1647 bp) analysis. Twelve clonal subgroups (hsP-I to hsP-X and hsF-I and hsF-II) were designated on the hsp60 tree, inferred from representative sequences using the neighbor-joining method. Some of the isolates showed unique subgroups depending on the source of isolates, including hsP-I, hsF-I, and hsF-II from cooling tower water, and subgroups hsP-VIII and hsP-X from circulating hot water bath. These subgroups may be useful for epidemiological studies to chase or specify sources of infection in Korea and Japan. PMID:22672106

  16. Cordyceps militaris Enhances Cell-Mediated Immunity in Healthy Korean Men.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ho Joon; Baik, Hyun Wook; Kim, Sang Jung; Lee, Seong Gyu; Ahn, Hong Yup; Park, Ju Sang; Park, Sang Jong; Jang, Eun Jeong; Park, Sang Woon; Choi, Jin Young; Sung, Ji Hee; Lee, Seung Min

    2015-10-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a mushroom traditionally used for diverse pharmaceutical purposes in East Asia, including China, and has been found to be effective for enhancing immunity through various types of animal testing. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of C. militaris for enhancing cell-mediated immunity and its safety in healthy male adults. Healthy male adults were divided into the experimental group (n = 39), given 1.5 g/day of ethanol treated C. militaris in capsules, and the control group (n = 40), given the same number of identical placebo capsules filled with microcrystalline cellulose and lactose for 4 weeks from February 13 to March 14, 2012; the natural killer (NK) cell activity, lymphocyte proliferation index (PI), and T-helper cell 1 (Th1) cytokine cluster (interferon [IFN]-γ, interleukin [IL]-12, IL-2, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) were measured, along with stability test, at weeks 0, 2, and 4. The C. militaris group showed a statistically significant greater increase in NK200 (P = .0010), lymphocyte PI (P ≤ .0001), IL-2 (P = .0096), and IFN-γ (P = .0126), compared with the basal level, than the placebo group. There was no statistically significant adverse reaction. C. militaris enhanced the NK cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation and partially increased Th1 cytokine secretion. Therefore, C. militaris is safe and effective for enhancing cell-mediated immunity of healthy male adults. PMID:26284906

  17. Normal Echocardiographic Measurements in a Korean Population Study: Part II. Doppler and Tissue Doppler Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Oh; Shin, Mi-Seung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Jung, Hae Ok; Park, Jeong Rang; Sohn, Il Suk; Kim, Hyungseop; Park, Seong-Mi; Yoo, Nam Jin; Choi, Jung Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Lee, Mi-Rae; Park, Jin-Sun; Shim, Chi Young; Kim, Dae-Hee; Shin, Dae-Hee; Shin, Gil Ja; Shin, Sung Hee; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Jae-Hyeong; Lee, Sang Yeub; Kim, Woo-Shik

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemodynamic and functional evaluation with Doppler and tissue Doppler study as a part of comprehensive echocardiography is essential but normal reference values have never been reported from Korean normal population especially according to age and sex. Methods Using Normal echOcaRdiographic Measurements in a KoreAn popuLation study subjects, we obtained normal reference values for Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiography including tricuspid annular velocities according to current guidelines and compared values according to gender and age groups. Results Mitral early diastolic (E) and late diastolic (A) velocity as well as E/A ratio were significantly higher in women compared to those in men. Conversely, mitral peak systolic and late diastolic annular velocity in both septal and lateral mitral annulus were significantly lower in women compared to those in men. However, there were no significant differences in both septal and lateral mitral early diastolic annular (e') velocity between men and women. In both men and women, mitral E velocity and its deceleration time as well as both E/A and E/e' ratio considerably increased with age. There were no significant differences in tricuspid inflow velocities and tricuspid lateral annular velocities between men and women except e' velocity, which was significantly higher in women compared to that in men. However, changes in both tricuspid inflow and lateral annular velocities according to age were similar to those in mitral velocities. Conclusion Since there were significant differences in Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiographic variables between men and women and changes according to age were even more considerable in both gender groups, normal Doppler echocardiographic values should be differentially applied based on age and sex. PMID:27358707

  18. Urinary benzophenone concentrations and their association with demographic factors in a South Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hui-Seung; Ko, Ahra; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Kyung, Min-Sik; Moon, Gui Im; Park, Jae-Hong; Lee, Hee-Seok; Suh, Jin-Hyang; Lee, Jung-Mi; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Kim, Kisok; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Hwang, In Gyun

    2016-08-01

    Benzophenone (BP) and its derivatives are widely used in various cosmetics, personal care products, and food packaging ink. The use of BP has raised concerns about the potential health risks associated with its endocrine-disrupting effects. This study evaluated urinary concentrations of BP derivatives in a national sample of the South Koreans population aged 6-89 years. From July to September in each 2010 and 2011, 1576 urine samples were collected. Urinary concentrations of benzophenone-1 (BP-1), benzophenone-2 (BP-2), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-4 (BP-4), benzophenone-8 (BP-8), and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4-OH-BP) were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The detection rate for BP-1 and 4-OH-BP were 56% [limit of detection (LOD) 0.59ng/mL] and 88% (LOD 0.04ng/mL), respectively, whereas those for BP-2, BP-3, BP-4, and BP-8 were all below 25%. The geometric means of urinary BP-1 and 4-OH-BP concentrations were 1.24ng/mL and 0.45ng/mL, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that concentrations of BP-1 in and of 4-OH-BP in adults were associated with sex and age. The BP-1 and 4-OH-BP concentration of children and adolescents was associated with sex, age, income, and current area of residence. The correlation was observed between urinary concentrations of BP derivatives, which is an important indication of exposure biomarkers and the metabolic pathways from BP-3. This is the first national study to evaluate the presence of BP derivatives in urine samples from the South Korean population, stratified by demographic factors. PMID:27155137

  19. Diet and cancer risk in the Korean population: a meta- analysis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Park, Sohee; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyun Ja; Shin, Hae Rim; Moon, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have found links between diet and cancer. The summary estimates of the association between dietary factors and cancer risk were investigated using previously reported studies of the Korean population. Gastric cancer risk was inversely associated with the high intake of soy foods [OR (95% CI): 0.32 (0.25-0.40) for soybean, 0.56 (0.45-0.71) for soybean curd, and 0.67 (0.46-0.98) for soymilk], allium vegetables [OR (95% CI): 0.37 (0.26-0.53) for green onion, 0.54 (0.40-0.73) for garlic, and 0.54 (0.35-0.85) for onion], fruits [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.42-0.88)], and mushrooms [OR (95% CI): 0.43 (0.21-0.88)]. Salt and Kimchi were associated with an increased gastric cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 1.92 (1.52-2.43) and 2.21 (1.29-3.77), respectively]. Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with meat intake [OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.15-1.36)]. Total soy products, soybean curd, and soymilk showed an inverse association with breast cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.38-0.99), 0.47 (0.34-0.66), and 0.75 (0.57-0.98), respectively]. Green/yellow and light colored vegetables were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 0.34 (0.23-0.49) and 0.44 (0.21-0.90), respectively]. Mushroom intake was inversely associated in pre-menopausal women only [OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.26-0.86)]. In conclusion, soy foods, fruits and vegetables might reduce cancer risk in the Korean population. High salt food might be risk factor for gastric cancer, and intake of high amount of meat might cause colorectal cancer. PMID:25339056

  20. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  1. No Evidence of an Association between A218C Polymorphism of the Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1 Gene and Aggression in Schizophrenia in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Lee, Joo Young

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between the tryptohan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) gene and aggression in schizophrenia in a Korean population. Materials and Methods The sample included 61 aggressive patients as well as 104 non-aggressive patients from psychiatric hospitals and 335 healthy volunteers in Korea. Blood samples were collected from all participants for TPH1 A218C genotyping. The patients were administered standard psychiatric interviews as well as a self-report questionnaire for anger-related traits. Results In the case-control phenotypic comparisons, there was no significant association between the aggressive patients and the TPH1 A218C polymorphism. There was no significant effect of the TPH1 genotype on the anger-related traits, or no significant interaction between the genotype and group (aggressive and non-aggressive patients). Conclusion These findings suggest that TPH1 does not play a major role in aggressive behavior via anger in schizophrenic patients. PMID:20046510

  2. Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis in a healthy Korean male: the first case report in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Min; Lee, Christopher Seungkyu

    2015-03-01

    A 52-yr-old male was referred for progressive visual loss in the left eye. The decimal best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.01. Fundus examination revealed diffuse retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, focal yellow-white, infiltrative subretinal lesion with fuzzy border and a live nematode within the retina. Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) was diagnosed and the direct laser photocoagulation was performed to destroy the live nematode. During eight months after treatment, BCVA gradually improved to 0.2 along with the gradual restoration of outer retinal layers on SD-OCT. We report on the first case of DUSN in Korea. DUSN should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained unilateral visual loss in otherwise healthy subjects. PMID:25729261

  3. Evaluation of Serum Cotinine Cut-Off to Distinguish Smokers From Nonsmokers in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kiwoong; Yang, Song-Hyun; Moon, Chul-Jin; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Hyosoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Cotinine has been widely used as an objective marker to identify current smokers. We conducted this study to address the absence of Korean studies investigating the efficacy of immunoassays and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the detection of serum cotinine and to determine the optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers. Methods Serum specimens were obtained from 120 subjects. They were randomly chosen to represent a broad distribution of urine cotinine levels based on a retrospective review of questionnaires and results of urine cotinine levels. We determined serum cotinine levels using the IMMULITE 2000 XPi Immunoassay System (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., USA) and LC-MS/MS (API-4000, Applied Biosystems, USA). Correlation was analyzed between IMMULITE serum cotinine, urine cotinine, and LC-MS/MS serum cotinine levels. ROC curve was analyzed to identify the optimal IMMULITE serum cotinine cut-off level for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers. Results IMMULITE serum cotinine levels correlated with both urine cotinine and LC-MS/MS serum cotinine levels, with correlation coefficients of 0.958 and 0.986, respectively. The optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for distinguishing current smokers from nonsmokers was 13.2 ng/mL (95.7% sensitivity, 94.1% specificity) using IMMULITE. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate the use of LC-MS/MS for the measurement of serum cotinine and to determine the optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for the IMMULITE immunoassay. Our results could provide guidelines for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers in the Korean population. PMID:27374707

  4. Association between Self-Reported Smoking and Hemoglobin A1c in a Korean Population without Diabetes: The 2011–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Several Western studies have revealed that among non-diabetics, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are higher in smokers than non-smokers. While studies conducted in Western populations consistently support this association, a recent meta-analysis reported that studies carried out in non-Western populations, including studies of Chinese, Egyptian, and Japanese-Americans, did not detect any significant differences in HbA1c levels between smokers and non-smokers. Objectives We assessed the association between smoking habits and HbA1c levels in the general Korean adult population using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) performed in 2011–2012. Methods A total of 10,241 participants (weighted n=33,946,561 including 16,769,320 men and 17,177,241 women) without diabetes were divided into four categories according to their smoking habits: never smokers (unweighted n/ weighted n= 6,349/19,105,564), ex-smokers (unweighted n/ weighted n= 1,912/6,207,144), current light smokers (<15 cigarettes per day, unweighted n/ weighted n=1,205/5,130,073), and current heavy smokers (≥15 cigarettes per day, unweighted n/ weighted n=775/3,503,781). Results In age- and gender-adjusted comparisons, the HbA1c levels of each group were 5.52 ± 0.01% in non-smokers, 5.49 ± 0.01% in ex-smokers, 5.53 ± 0.01% in light smokers, and 5.61 ± 0.02% in heavy smokers. HbA1c levels were significantly higher in light smokers than in ex-smokers (p = 0.033), and in heavy smokers compared with light smokers (p < 0.001). The significant differences remained after adjusting for age, gender, fasting plasma glucose, heavy alcohol drinking, hematocrit, college graduation, and waist circumference. Linear regression analyses for HbA1c using the above-mentioned variables as covariates revealed that a significant association between current smoking and HbA1c (coefficient 0.021, 95% CI 0.003–0.039, p = 0.019). Conclusions Current smoking was

  5. Allele Frequencies of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Related to the Body Burden of Heavy Metals in the Korean Population and Their Ethnic Differences

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Lim, Ji-Ae; Kim, Yong-Dae; Choi, Byung-Sun; Hwang, Myung Sil; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to the body burden of heavy metals in Koreans, to provide Korean allele frequencies of selected SNPs, and to assess the difference in allele frequencies with other ethnicities. The candidate-gene approach method and genome-wide association screening were used to select SNPs related to the body burden of heavy metals. Genotyping analysis of the final 192 SNPs selected was performed on 1,483 subjects using the VeraCode Goldengate assay. Allele frequencies differences and genetic differentiations between the Korean population and Chinese (CHB), Japanese (JPT), Caucasian (CEU), and African (YIR) populations were tested by Fisher’s exact test and fixation index (FST), respectively. The Korean population was genetically similar to the CHB and JPT populations (FST < 0.05, for all SNPs in both populations). However, a significant difference in the allele frequencies between the Korean and CEU and YIR populations were observed in 99 SNPs (60.7%) and 120 SNPs (73.6%), respectively. Ten (6.1%) and 26 (16.0%) SNPs had genetic differentiation (FST > 0.05) among the Korean-CEU and Korean-YIR comparisons, respectively. The SNP with the largest FST value between the Korean and African populations was cystathionine-β-synthase rs234709 (FST: KOR-YIR, 0.309; KOR-CEU, 0.064). Our study suggests that interethnic differences exist in SNPs associated with heavy metals of Koreans, and it should be considered in future studies that address ethnic differences in heavy-metal concentrations in the body and genetic susceptibility to the body burden of heavy metals. PMID:27437086

  6. Fatigue in the general Korean population: application and normative data of the Brief Fatigue Inventory.

    PubMed

    Yun, Young Ho; Lee, Myung Kyung; Chun, Han Na; Lee, Young Mi; Park, Sang Min; Mendoza, Tito R; Wang, Xin Shelley; Cleeland, Charles S

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide normative data for the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) in the general Korean population so that the results for the general population could be compared with those for patients. We constructed a questionnaire that included the BFI and items on demographic characteristics and conducted a population-based, cross-sectional survey in 1,000 individuals. We used multivariate logistic analysis to investigate factors associated with "usual" and "worst" fatigue. The internal consistency was very high (Cronbach's alpha=0.96) and construct validity was confirmed by factor analysis. All patients had a mean+/-SD BFI score of 4.33+/-2.48 for "worst" fatigue and of 4.07+/-2.27 for "usual" fatigue, and the global BFI score was 3.44+/-2.05. The prevalence of each moderate-to-severe fatigue type was similar in severity of fatigue, with 55.2% in "usual" fatigue, and 57.3% in "worst" fatigue. Among the types of fatigue, the prevalence of severe fatigue was lowest for "usual" fatigue (16.5%). In multivariate analyses, the group aged 40-59 years had greater levels of "usual" and "worst" fatigue compared with the group aged 20-29 years. Poor general health and the presence of comorbidities were also associated with increased "usual" and "worst" fatigue. Regular physical activity was associated with reduced levels of "worst" fatigue. The normal values of BFI with proper psychometric properties may help us to better understand the correlates of fatigue in the general population and patients. Our findings indicate that comorbidities should be considered when comparing fatigue data from the general population with data from patients. PMID:18411013

  7. The prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Korean population: recent update of the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunyoung; Seong, Moon-Woo; Park, Sue K; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jihyoun; Kim, Lee Su; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Sung Yong; Jeong, Joon; Han, Sang Ah; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-05-01

    The Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study was established to evaluate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutations in Korean breast cancer patients at risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. A total of 2953 subjects (2403 index patients and 550 family members of affected carriers) from 36 centers participated in this study between May 2007 and December 2013. All participants received genetic counseling and BRCA genetic testing. In total, 378 mutation carriers among 2403 index patients were identified. The prevalence of BRCA mutations in specific subgroups was as follows: 22.3 % (274/1228) for breast cancer patients with a family history of breast/ovarian cancers, 8.8 % (39/441) for patients with early-onset (<35 years) breast cancer without a family history, 16.3 % (34/209) for patients with bilateral breast cancer, 4.8 % (1/21) for male patients with breast cancer, and 37.5 % (3/8) for patients with both breast and ovarian cancer. From an analysis of the mutation spectrum, 63 BRCA1 and 90 BRCA2 different mutations, including 44 novel mutations, were identified. The c.7480 (p.Arg2494Ter) mutation in BRCA2 (10.1 %) was the most commonly identified in this cohort. The KOHBRA study is the largest cohort to identify BRCA mutation carriers in Asia. The results suggest that the prevalence of BRCA mutations in familial breast cancer patients is similar to that among Western cohorts. However, some single risk factors without family histories (early-onset breast cancer, male breast cancer, or multiple organ cancers) may limit the utility of BRCA gene testing in the Korean population. PMID:25863477

  8. Effect of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of udenafil in healthy Korean subjects

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kwang-Hee; Chung, Yong-ju; Kim, Bo-Hyung; Kim, Tae-Eun; Kim, Hwa-Sook; Cho, Joo-Youn; Jang, In-Jin; Shin, Sang-Goo; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2010-01-01

    AIMS Udenafil is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. It is metabolized to DA-8164, a major metabolite, by CYP3A4. This study was performed to investigate the effect of ketoconazole, a known CYP3A4 inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of udenafil. METHODS An open-label, two-period, fixed-sequence crossover study was performed in 12 healthy male volunteers. They received a single 100-mg oral dose of udenafil. Following a 5-day interval, 400 mg of ketoconazole was administered once a day for three consecutive days. On day 3 of ketoconazole treatment, a second 100 mg of udenafil was dosed concomitantly. Blood samples were collected at time points up to 48 h without ketoconazole treatment and up to 72 h with ketoconazole co-administration. The plasma concentration of udenafil was determined using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS Following ketoconazole co-administration, the mean Cmax and AUClast of udenafil (95% confidence interval) increased 1.9-fold (1.60, 2.27) and 3.2-fold (2.82, 3.63), respectively. The median time to reach the Cmax was delayed in the co-administrated treatment, while the mean terminal elimination half-life (t1/2) remained relatively unchanged regardless of ketoconazole co-administration. The metabolic AUC ratio (AUClast of DA-8164/AUClast of udenafil) was 1.71 when udenafil was administered alone, and the value decreased to 0.19 when udenafil was dosed in the presence of ketoconazole. Regarding safety assessments, no clinically significant difference or serious adverse event was observed. CONCLUSIONS The systemic exposure of udenafil increased significantly when it was administered with ketoconazole. Dose adjustment may be required when these drugs are used together. PMID:20233203

  9. Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; Duque-López, María Ximena; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cortés-Núñez, Alma Rosa; Reyes-Beaman, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Background Anthropometric evaluation is an essential feature of geriatric nutritional evaluation for determining malnutrition, being overweight, obesity, muscular mass loss, fat mass gain and adipose tissue redistribution. Anthropometric indicators are used to evaluate the prognosis of chronic and acute diseases, and to guide medical intervention in the elderly. We evaluated anthropometric measurements and nutritional status as they relate to age and gender in healthy elderly people. Methods The study analyzed data from the national survey "Health needs and health service use by older-than-60-year-old beneficiaries of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS)". The present study included only individuals who reported no chronic disease in the last 20 years and had no hospital admission in the two months prior to the survey. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), body circumference (arm, waist, hip and calf), waist to hip ratio (WHR), elbow amplitude and knee-heel length. Results Application of the inclusion criteria resulted in a study population elderly of 1,968, representing 12.2% of the original number in the national survey in urban areas beneficiaries of the IMSS. The study population comprised 870 women and 1,098 men, with a mean age of 68.6 years. The average weights were 62.7 kg for women and 70.3 kg for men (p < 0.05), and the mean heights were 1.52 m for women and 1.63 m for men (p < 0.05). Age related changes in anthropometric values were identified. BMI values indicated that 62.3% of the population was overweight, and 73.6% of women and 16.5% of men had high fat tissue distribution. Conclusion Our findings suggest that applying the BMI thresholds that identify being overweight in the general adult population may lead to an overestimation in the number of overweight elderly Similar problems appear to exist when assessing waist circumference and WHR values. Prospective studies are required to determine the

  10. Smoking and Chronic Kidney Disease in Healthy Populations

    PubMed Central

    Noborisaka, Yuka

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this review is to explore the link between smoking and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in generally healthy populations without pre-existing renal dysfunction such as diabetic nephropathy. Twenty-eight epidemiological studies concerning the renal effects of smoking in the general population were collected from the MEDLINE database and were reviewed for indications of proteinuria and/or the decline of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and evaluated on the level of evidence and the quality of the study. Sixteen of the 28 studies were cross-sectional in design. Most articles had some weakness in scope, such as the 6 articles which did not fully exclude DM patients from the subjects, the 4 that did not consider the effects of ex-smoking, and the 3 that focused on only a small number of subjects. From these cases, it is difficult to draw firm conclusions. However, proteinuria or microalbuminuria was persistently high in current smokers; as much as 5-8% or 8-15% respectively, which was up to 2 to 3-times the rate of lifelong non-smokers. On the other hand, only 5 studies broader in scope detected any decline of GFR in smokers, while 9 other studies suggested a higher GFR in smokers than in non-smokers. Two good quality studies showed an even a significantly lower risk of a decreased GFR in smokers. These paradoxical CKD markers in smokers, i.e., a higher appearance of proteinuria with a higher GFR, could be a focus for further studies to reveal the underlying reasons for smoking-induced CKD. Workplaces may be an excellent place to study this subject since the long-term changes in renal function of smokers can be observed by collecting data in the annual health check-ups mandated at places of employment. PMID:23577327

  11. The Functionality of Facial Appearance and Its Importance to a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Jun; Park, Jang Wan; Kim, Jeong Min; Park, Sun Hyung; Hwang, Jae Ha; Lee, Sam Yong; Shin, Jun Ho

    2013-01-01

    Background Many people have an interest in the correction of facial scars or deformities caused by trauma. The increasing ability to correct such flaws has been one of the reasons for the increase in the popularity of facial plastic surgery. In addition to its roles in communication, breathing, eating, olfaction and vision, the appearance of the face also plays an important role in human interactions, including during social activities. However, studies on the importance of the functional role of facial appearance. As a function of the face are scare. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the importance of the functions of the face in Korea. Methods We conducted an online panel survey of 300 participants (age range, 20-70 years). Each respondent was administered the demographic data form, Facial Function Assessment Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and standard gamble questionnaires. Results In the evaluation on the importance of facial functions, a normal appearance was considered as important as communication, breathing, speech, and vision. Of the 300 participants, 85% stated that a normal appearance is important in social activities. Conclusions The results of this survey involving a cross-section of the Korean population indicated that a normal appearance was considered one of the principal facial functions. A normal appearance was considered more important than the functions of olfaction and expression. Moreover, a normal appearance was determined to be an important facial function for leading a normal life in Korea. PMID:24286044

  12. 'Healthy skin': significance and results of an Italian study on healthy population with particular regard to 'sensitive' skin.

    PubMed

    Sparavigna, A; Di Pietro, A; Setaro, M

    2005-12-01

    There is an increasing demand in general population regarding skin healthiness and improvement of aesthetical appearance, indicating that people require more information about how to treat healthy skin and to prevent skin disease. This study is the result of a campaign on healthy skin organized by the International Society of Plastic Dermatology. This campaign was at the same time an occasion to perform an epidemiological study on Italian population and was conducted during only one month (March 2004) throughout Italy. In total, 462 dermatologists all over Italy joined the project. Study protocol and diagnostic kits were provided to all adhering dermatologists. After signing an informed consent, subjects were assigned to undergo anamnesis, medical examination and stinging test with 10% lactic acid at the level of nasolabial fold. A total of 2101 duly compiled case record forms were sent back by the dermatologists. The analysis of the demographic features and lifestyle of the subjects who were attracted by the campaign allows us to draw the identikit of people interested in the maintenance of a healthy skin, i.e. mainly young women, who already lead a healthy life and took care of their skin. Sensitive skin was common in this healthy population. PMID:18492170

  13. Genetic Analysis of Genes Related to Tight Junction Function in the Korean Population with Non-Syndromic Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Sagong, Borum; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Bae, Jae Woong; Kim, Jeongho; Lee, Jinwook; Park, Hong-Joon; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Kim, Un-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are essential components of eukaryotic cells, and serve as paracellular barriers and zippers between adjacent tissues. TJs are critical for normal functioning of the organ of Corti, a part of the inner ear that causes loss of sensorineural hearing when damaged. To investigate the relation between genes involved in TJ function and hereditary loss of sensorineural hearing in the Korean population, we selected the TJP2 and CLDN14 genes as candidates for gene screening of 135 Korean individuals. The TJP2 gene, mutation of which causes autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL), lies at the DFNA51 locus on chromosome 9. The CLDN14 gene, mutation of which causes autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL), lies at the DFNB29 locus on chromosome 21. In the present study, we conducted genetic analyses of the TJP2 and CLDN14 genes in 87 unrelated patients with ADNSHL and 48 unrelated patients with either ARNSHL or potentially sporadic hearing loss. We identified two pathogenic variations, c.334G>A (p.A112T) and c.3562A>G (p.T1188A), and ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TJP2 gene. We found eight non-pathogenic variations in the CLDN14 gene. These findings indicate that, whereas mutation of the TJP2 gene might cause ADNSHL, CLDN14 is not a major causative gene for ARNSHL in the Korean population studied. Our findings may improve the understanding of the genetic cause of non-syndromic hearing loss in the Korean population. PMID:24752540

  14. Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass and Insulin Resistance in an Elderly Korean Population: The Korean Social Life, Health and Aging Project-Health Examination Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Won; Youm, Yoosik; Lee, Won Joon; Choi, Wungrak; Chu, Sang Hui; Park, Yeong-Ran

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence supports an association between age-related loss of muscle mass and insulin resistance. However, the association has not been fully investigated in the general population. Thus, we investigated the association between appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and insulin resistance in an elderly Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study included 158 men (mean age, 71.8) and 241 women (mean age, 70.6) from the Korean Social Life, Health and Aging Project, which started in 2011. In this study, ASM was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and was analyzed in three forms: ASM (kg), ASM/height2 (kg/m2), and ASM/weight (%). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used as a measure of insulin resistance. The relationships between the ASM values and the HOMA-IR were investigated by multiple linear regression models. Results The HOMA-IR was positively associated with ASM (β=0.43, P<0.0001) and ASM/height2 (β=0.36, P<0.0001) when adjusted for sex and age. However, after additional adjustment for body weight, HOMA-IR was inversely associated with ASM (β=-0.43, P<0.001) and ASM/height2 (β=-0.30, P=0.001). Adjustment for other potential confounders did not change these associations. Conversely, HOMA-IR was consistently and inversely associated with ASM/weight before and after adjustment for other potential confounders. Conclusion Our results support the idea that lower skeletal muscle mass is independently associated with insulin resistance in older adults. When evaluating sarcopenia or muscle-related conditions in older adults, their whole body sizes also need to be considered. PMID:25729711

  15. Sarcopenia is associated with Framingham risk score in the Korean population: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Chae-Hwa; Kang, Kee-Young; Kang, Se-Hun; Bae, Eun-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is a risk factor for metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease, but the association between sarcopenia and cardiovascular risk factors according to age and obesity status in the general population remains unknown. We thus investigated these associations in the Korean population. Methods We included 8,958 and 8,518 subjects from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (from 2010 and 2011, respectively). The study was restricted to participants ≥ 20 years old who had completed the health examination survey, including whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. After exclusion, 7,366 subjects (3,188 men, 4,178 women) were included in our final analysis. Age was categorized according to three age groups (20–39, 40–59, and ≥ 60 years), and subjects were categorized according to their sarcopenic and obesity status. Cardiovascular risk was assessed with Framingham risk score (FRS). Results The sarcopenic obese group had a higher FRS than the non-sarcopenic obese group, which had a higher FRS than the non-sarcopenic non-obese group. Age-wise, the 20–39 year-old group showed a non-significant association between sarcopenia and FRS. In the 40–59 year-old group, regardless of obesity status, sarcopenic subjects had a higher FRS than non-sarcopenic subjects. In the ≥ 60 year-old group, sarcopenic subjects had a higher FRS than non-sarcopenic subjects for the non-obese group. Conclusions Sarcopenia was associated with cardiovascular disease and may be an early predictor of its susceptibility in both elderly and middle-aged subjects. Thus, management of sarcopenia is necessary to prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:26346573

  16. A Large Population Genetic Study of 15 Autosomal Short Tandem Repeat Loci for Establishment of Korean DNA Profile Database

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seong Yeon; Cho, Nam Soo; Park, Myung Jin; Seong, Ki Min; Hwang, Jung Ho; Song, Seok Bean; Han, Myun Soo; Lee, Won Tae; Chung, Ki Wha

    2011-01-01

    Genotyping of highly polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers is widely used for the genetic identification of individuals in forensic DNA analyses and in paternity disputes. The National DNA Profile Databank recently established by the DNA Identification Act in Korea contains the computerized STR DNA profiles of individuals convicted of crimes. For the establishment of a large autosomal STR loci population database, 1805 samples were obtained at random from Korean individuals and 15 autosomal STR markers were analyzed using the AmpFlSTR Identifiler PCR Amplification kit. For the 15 autosomal STR markers, no deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed. The most informative locus in our data set was the D2S1338 with a discrimination power of 0.9699. The combined matching probability was 1.521 × 10-17. This large STR profile dataset including atypical alleles will be important for the establishment of the Korean DNA database and for forensic applications. PMID:21597912

  17. Polymorphism of Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Affects the Clinical Phenotypes of Ischemic Stroke in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung Don; Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Hee-Sang; Kim, Su Kang; Kim, Dong Hwan; Chon, Jinmann; Je, Goun; Kim, Yoon-Seong; Chung, Joo-Ho; Chung, Seung Joon; Yeo, Jin Ah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2293054 [Ile734Ile], rs1047735 [His902His], rs2293044 [Val1353Val], rs2682826 (3'UTR) of nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) are associated with the development and clinical phenotypes of ischemic stroke. Methods We enrolled 120 ischemic stroke patients and 314 control subjects. Ischemic stroke patients were divided into subgroups according to the scores of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Survey (NIHSS, <6 and ≥6) and Modified Barthel Index (MBI, <60 and ≥60). SNPStats, SNPAnalyzer, and HelixTree programs were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and p-values. Multiple logistic regression models were performed to analyze genetic data. Results No SNPs of the NOS1 gene were found to be associated with ischemic stroke. However, in an analysis of clinical phenotypes, we found that rs2293054 was associated with the NIHSS scores of ischemic stroke patients in codominant (p=0.019), dominant (p=0.007), overdominant (p=0.033), and log-additive (p=0.0048) models. Also, rs2682826 revealed a significant association in the recessive model (p=0.034). In allele frequency analysis, we also found that the T alleles of rs2293054 were associated with lower NIHSS scores (p=0.007). Respectively, rs2293054 had a significant association in the MBI scores of ischemic stroke in codominant (p=0.038), dominant (p=0.031), overdominant (p=0.045), and log-additive (p=0.04) models. Conclusion These results suggest that NOS1 may be related to the clinical phenotypes of ischemic stroke in Korean population. PMID:26949676

  18. Seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) in a Korean population: comparison of two commercial anti-HEV assays

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged as an important cause of epidemic and sporadic acute viral hepatitis worldwide. This study investigated the seroprevalence of anti-HEV in a Korean population and compared the performance of two commercially available anti-HEV assays. Methods A total 147 health-check examinees were randomly sampled as matched to the age- and sex- adjusted standard population based on the Korean National Census of 2007. Serum immunoglobulin G anti-HEV was determined by using the Genelabs assay (Genelabs, Singapore) and the Wantai assay (Wantai, Beijing, China). Results The overall anti-HEV seroprevalence was 23.1% (95% CI, 16.1-30.1%) using the Wantai assay and 14.3% (95% CI, 8.3-20.3%) using the Genelabs assay. Only 12 samples (8.1%) were positive for anti-HEV as measured by both assays; agreement between the two assays was poor (kappa value of 0.315). The anti-HEV seroprevalence increased with age from 2% and 3% in the people younger than 20-years-of-age to 34.6% and 42.3% in those over 59-years-of-age by the Genelabs and Wantai assay, respectively. Conclusions The HEV seroprevalence in Korean population is about 20% overall, with seroprevalence increasing in this population with increasing age. There was poor concordance in the results of the Genelabs and Wantai assays, which warrants further study concerning a reliable diagnostic test for the diagnosis of hepatitis E. PMID:22726615

  19. Comparison of arch forms between Korean and North American white populations.

    PubMed

    Kook, Yoon-Ah; Nojima, Kunihiko; Moon, Hong-Beom; McLaughlin, Richard P; Sinclair, Peter M

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate morphologic differences in the mandibular arches of Korean and North American white subjects. The subjects were grouped according to arch form (tapered, ovoid, and square) to compare the frequency distribution of the 3 arch forms between the ethnic groups in each Angle classification. The sample included 160 white (60 Class I, 50 Class II, and 50 Class III) and 368 Korean (114 Class I, 119 Class II, and 135 Class III) subjects. The most facial portion of 13 proximal contact areas was digitized from photocopied images of the mandibular dental arches. Clinical bracket points were calculated for each tooth according to mandibular tooth thickness data, and then 4 linear and 2 proportional measurements were taken. Arch width was statistically significantly smaller in the white group than in the Korean group, but arch depth did not differ. In the Korean group, the most frequent arch form was square, whereas in the white group the tapered arch form predominated. When the subjects were regrouped by arch form, the Korean arches had a tendency to be larger and deeper than the white arches within each of the 3 arch form types. PMID:15592215

  20. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following single- and multiple-dosing of oral artesunate in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The population pharmacokinetics of artesunate (AS) and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) were studied in healthy subjects receiving single- or multiple-dosing of AS orally either in combination with pyronaridine (PYR) or as a monotherapy with or without food. Methods Data from 118 concentration-time profiles arising from 91 healthy Korean subjects were pooled from four Phase I clinical studies. Subjects received 2-5 mg/kg of single- and multiple-dosing of oral AS either in combination with PYR or as a monotherapy with or without food. Plasma AS and DHA were measured simultaneously using a validated liquid chromatography- mass spectrometric method with a lower limit of quantification of 1 ng/mL for both AS and DHA. Nonlinear mixed-effect modelling was used to obtain the pharmacokinetic and variability (inter-individual and residual variability) parameter estimates. Results A novel parent-metabolite pharmacokinetic model consisting of a dosing compartment, a central compartment for AS, a central compartment and a peripheral compartment for DHA was developed. AS and DHA data were modelled simultaneously assuming stoichiometric conversion to DHA. AS was rapidly absorbed with a population estimate of absorption rate constant (Ka) of 3.85 h-1. The population estimates of apparent clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V2/F) for AS were 1190 L/h with 36.2% inter-individual variability (IIV) and 1210 L with 57.4% IIV, respectively. For DHA, the population estimates of apparent clearance (CLM/F) and central volume of distribution (V3/F) were 93.7 L/h with 28% IIV and 97.1 L with 30% IIV, respectively. The population estimates of apparent inter-compartmental clearance (Q/F) and peripheral volume of distribution (V4/F) for DHA were 5.74 L/h and 18.5 L, respectively. Intake of high-fat and high-caloric meal prior to the drug administration resulted in 84% reduction in Ka. Body weight impacted CLM/F, such that a unit change in weight resulted in 1

  1. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    PubMed

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet. PMID:18296301

  2. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination. PMID:23011092

  3. Putamen volume correlates with obsessive compulsive characteristics in healthy population.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yasutaka; Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Sawada, Reiko; Sakihama, Morimitsu; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-03-30

    Obsessions and compulsions (OCs) are frequent in healthy subjects; however neural backgrounds of the subclinical OCs were largely unknown. Results from recent studies suggested involvement of the putamen in the OC traits. To investigate this issue, 49 healthy subjects were assessed using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). Anatomical delineation on MRI yielded the global volume and local shape of the putamen. Other striatal structures (the caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) were also examined for exploratory purpose. The relationship between volume/shape of each structures and MOCI measure was analyzed, with sex, age, state anxiety, trait anxiety, and full-scale Intelligence Quotient regressed out. The volume analysis revealed a positive relationship between the MOCI total score and the bilateral putamen volumes. The shape analysis demonstrated associations between the higher MOCI total score and hypertrophy of the anterior putamen in both hemispheres. The present study firstly revealed that the volume changes of the putamen correlated with the manifestation of subclinical OC traits. The dysfunctional cortico-anterior striatum networks seemed to be one of the neuronal subsystems underlying the subclinical OC traits. PMID:26849956

  4. Mu-Opioid Receptor Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer in a Korean Female Adult Population: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chung-Sik; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Yoo, Young-Bum; Yang, Jung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Distribution of A118G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the mu-opioid receptor 1 gene (OPRM1) differs with ethnicity. We assessed the distribution of this SNP in Korean women with breast cancer and compared it with that in women of other ethnicities with breast cancer. Distribution of SNP genotypes was as follows: 49.8% for AG genotype, 40.6% for AA genotype, and 9.6% for GG genotype. Logistic regression analysis showed a negative association between the presence of the G allele at position 118 of OPRM1 and breast cancer in the studied population (odds ratios [OR], 0.635; p=0.002). However, the AG and GG genotypes were not associated with breast cancer in the studied population (OR, 0.719; p=0.130). The proportions of the AG and GG genotypes of the OPRM1 SNP were higher in Korean women with breast cancer than in those of other ethnicities. PMID:27382398

  5. New circulating biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular death in healthy population

    PubMed Central

    Melander, Olle; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, Jose J; Santos-Sancho, Juana M; Lahera, Vicente; López-Farré, Antonio J

    2015-01-01

    There is interest to analyse newer biomarkers to identify healthy individuals at risk to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidents and death. To determine in healthy individuals new circulating protein biomarkers, whose systemic levels may be associated with the risk of future development of CVD incidents and death. The study was performed in 82 individuals from the Malmö Diet and Cancer study cohort, free from CVD of whom 41 developed CVD and 41 did not. Plasma proteins related to inflammation and thrombo-coagulating processes were analysed. α1-antitrypsin isotype 3 plasma levels were significantly higher while apolipoprotein J plasma levels were lower in participants that developed CVD incidents than those that did not develop acute cardiovascular episode. Of 82 participants, 17 died by CVD causes. There were proteins whose expression in plasma was significantly higher in participants suffering CVD death as compared with those that did not die by CVD. These proteins included: fibrinogen β-chain isotypes 1 and 3, fibrinogen-γ-chain isotype 2, vitamin D-binding protein isotypes 1, 2 and 3, α1-antitrypsin isotypes 3 and 6, haptoglobin isotypes 3,4,5 and 5, haemopexin isotypes 1 and 2, and Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2. Moreover, apolipoprotein J plasma levels were found lower in participants that died by cardiovascular cause. Association between plasma levels of proteins and CVD death was independent of age, gender, conventional risk factors and plasma C-reactive protein levels. Several protein plasma levels and protein isotypes related to inflammation and thrombo-coagulating phenomena were independently associated with the risk of future CVD death. PMID:26258425

  6. Fostering Healthy Lifestyles in the African American Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…

  7. Application of Short Screening Tools for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Korean Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yu Jin; Chung, Hae Gyung; Choi, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Yong; So, Hyung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often missed or incorrectly diagnosed in primary care settings. Although brief screening instruments may be useful in detecting PTSD, an adequate validation study has not been conducted with older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the primary care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD) and single-item PTSD screener (SIPS) in elderly veterans. Methods The PC-PTSD and SIPS assessments were translated into Korean, with a back-translation to the original language to verify accuracy. Vietnamese war veterans [separated into a PTSD group (n=41) and a non-PTSD group (n=99)] participated in several psychometric assessments, including the Korean versions of the PC-PTSD (PC-PTSD-K), SIPS (SIPS-K), a structured clinical interview from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(SCID), and PTSD checklist(PCL). Results The PC-PTSD-K showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.76), and the test-retest reliability of the PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K were also high (r=0.97 and r=0.91, respectively). A total score of 3 from the PC-PTSD-K yielded the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. The 'bothered a lot' response level from the SIPS-K showed the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that both PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K have good psychometric properties with high validity and reliability for detecting PTSD symptoms in elderly Korean veterans. However, further research will be necessary to increase our understanding of PTSD characteristics in diverse groups with different types of trauma. PMID:27482241

  8. [Spatial autocorrelation of genetic structure of Prunus padus population in broadleaved Korean pine forest of Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiao-Min; Shi, Shuai; Wang, Zheng-Feng; Ye, Wan-Hui; Hao, Zhan-Qing

    2014-02-01

    All 396 Prunus padus individuals of the population with DBH (diameter at breast height) > or = 1 cm were sampled in a 25 hm2 broadleaved Korean pine forest plot of Changbai Mountains and divided into three DBH classes: 1-3 cm, 3-10 cm, and >10 cm. They were then genotyped using microsatellite loci. The spatial autocorrelation of their genetic structure was analyzed at different distance classes and life stages. The results showed that positive autocorrelation mainly occurred at scales less than 70 m, while negative autocorrelation occurred at scales larger than 110 m. The spatial genetic structure (SGS) at different life stages was similar due to limited pollen/seed dispersal and asexual reproduction. No significant self-thinning occurred in the studied population. PMID:24830226

  9. Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male = 1,994; female = 1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 μg/L in men and 3.7 μg/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved. PMID:24884916

  10. Etiology and Features of Eyes with Rubeosis Iridis among Korean Patients: A Population-Based Single Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yun Cheol; Hwang, Young Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the etiology and features of the eyes with rubeosis iridis among Korean patients. Materials and Methods This study is a retrospective review of 533 Korean patients with rubeosis iridis who visited an eye hospital in Seoul, Korea. We defined rubeosis iridis as visible blood vessels on the iris surface detected during a slit-lamp examination. All cases were reviewed for age at the time of diagnosis, medical history, the most likely cause of rubeosis iridis, visual acuity, and intraocular pressure. Results The most commonly observed cause of rubeosis iridis was diabetic retinopathy (DR; n = 337, 63.2%), followed by retinal vein occlusion (RVO; n = 101, 18.9%), ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS; n = 24, 4.5%), retinal detachment (n = 17, 3.2%), and uveitis (n = 15, 2.8%). The cause was classified as miscellaneous in 18 cases (3.4%); in 21 eyes (3.9%), the cause was not clear. Age at the time of rubeosis iridis diagnosis was lower in patients with DR (56.5 years) than in those with RVO (61.0 years) and OIS (64.8 years; P < 0.01). Intraocular pressure of the eyes with DR (37.3 mmHg) and RVO (39.5 mmHg) was higher than that of the eyes with OIS (25.8 mmHg; P < 0.01). Conclusion In our population-based single center study, DR was the leading cause of rubeosis iridis followed by RVO and OIS among Korean patients. The clinical characteristics of the eyes with rubeosis iridis differed according to etiology. This finding may be useful when assessing eyes with rubeosis iridis. PMID:27490797

  11. Correlation Between Personality Traits and Testosterone Concentrations in Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Bayón, Camila; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: High plasma testosterone levels have been associated with aggression, sexual behaviour and social status. The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and personality variables in healthy participants. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four participants were randomly enrolled into this study. Basal plasma testosterone levels were measured between 8:30 am and 10 am. After 24 hours of blood drawing, each subject completed personality questionnaires. Results: Positive correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and anti-social personality traits in both genders was observed (r = 0.336 and P < 0.018). Also, a positive correlation was observed between basal plasmatestosterone levels and criminal thinking traits (r = 0. 376, P < 0.05) and Millon compulsive (r = 0.386, P < 0.010) in both genders. In female participants, a positive correlation between basal plasmatestosterone levels and psychoticism (r = 0. 25, P < 0.019) and Cloninger AUTO TCI (r = 0.507, P < 0.004) was observed. In males participants positive correlation between baseline plasmatic Testosterone levels and Millon Antisocial trait (r = 0. 544, P < 0.19) and Millon Hypomania trait (r = 0. 485, P < 0.41) and Millon Drug Abuse trait (r = 0.632, P < 0.05) was reported. Conclusion: Our results suggest gender differences in clinical and personality variables related with basal plasma testosterone level. In men, high plasma testosterone levels were associated with clinical traits, substance abuse and hypomania. Women with higher basal testosterone levels showed higher scores on personality self-direction traits. PMID:26664080

  12. Reference ranges for urinary levels of testosterone and epitestosterone, which may reveal gonadal function, in a Korean male population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ju-Yeon; Kwon, Woonyong; Suh, Sungill; Cheong, Jae Chul; In, Moon Kyo; Chung, Bong Chul; Kim, Jin Young; Choi, Man Ho

    2014-03-01

    Cannabis, or marijuana, the most commonly used illicit drug in the world, has been shown to be responsible for suppressing the production and secretion of androgens, particularly testosterone. However, despite such findings in animals, the chronic effects of marijuana use on human endocrine systems have proved to be inconsistent. Here, we investigated the reference ranges of urinary levels of testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E) as well as their metabolic ratio of T/E in a Korean male population (n=337), which would enable an evaluation of abnormal changes in steroid metabolism induced by habitually administered cannabis. The T/E ratio was significantly decreased in the marijuana group (n=18), while the urinary testosterone concentrations were also tended to decrease. This study is the first to provide data for the reference values of two urinary androgens and T/E values among control Korean males, and, furthermore, suggests that the T/E ratio, though not testosterone levels, might be used to understand the suppression of human male gonadal function affected by smoking marijuana. PMID:24333796

  13. Pharmacokinetic interaction of flecainide and paroxetine in relation to the CYP2D6*10 allele in healthy Korean subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kyoung Soo; Cho, Joo-Youn; Jang, In-Jin; Kim, Bo-Hyung; Kim, JaeWoo; Jeon, Ji-Young; Tae, Yu-Mi; Yi, SoJeong; Eum, SoYoung; Shin, Sang-Goo; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2008-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT The only existing study of CYP2D6*10-associated alterations in flecainide pharmacokinetics was retrospective. Paroxetine has been known as a strong inhibitor of CYP2D6. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS This study reports that the extent of drug interaction between flecainide and paroxetine is influenced by the CYP2D6*10 allele in healthy subjects, which is frequent in Asians. AIMS The objectives were to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of flecainide, and also on the extent of drug interaction with paroxetine as a CYP2D6 inhibitor after a single oral administration in healthy subjects. METHODS An open-label, two-period, single-sequence, cross-over study was performed in 21 healthy Korean male volunteers (seven for CYP2D6*1/*1 or *1/*2, group 1; seven for CYP2D6*1/*10, group 2; seven for CYP2D6*10/*10 or *10/*36, group 3). Subjects were administered 200 mg of flecainide on day 1. After a 7-day wash-out period, subjects were administered 20 mg of paroxetine from day 8 to 14, and 200 mg of flecainide on day 15. Blood sampling was performed up to 72 h after flecainide administration. RESULTS Terminal elimination half-life and mean residence time (MRT) were significantly different among three genotype groups after a single oral administration of flecainide (P = 0.021, 0.011, respectively). Area under the concentration–time curve, terminal elimination half-life and MRT increased significantly after paroxetine co-administration only in groups 1 and 2. CONCLUSIONS This study reports that the extent of drug interaction between flecainide and paroxetine is influenced by the CYP2D6*10 allele in healthy subjects, which is frequent in Asians. PMID:18754843

  14. No Association of Functional Polymorphisms in Methlylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase and the Risk and Minor Physical Anomalies of Schizophrenia in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Gyeong; Song, Joo Yun; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Kim, Se Hyun; Lee, Kyu Young; Lee, Nam Young; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2011-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in folate metabolism, plays an important role in DNA methylation. It has been suggested that abnormal DNA methylation contributes to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and congenital anomalies. The previous findings regarding the genetic relationship between MTHFR and schizophrenia are controversial. This study investigated the association of the two functional polymorphisms of MTHFR, C677T and A1298C, with the risk for schizophrenia. Furthermore, we conducted an updated meta-analysis on the two polymorphisms. In addition, we investigated the relationship between the polymorphisms and minor physical anomaly (MPA), which may represent neurodevelopmental aberrations in 201 schizophrenia patients and 350 normal control subjects. There was no significant association between either of the two polymorphisms and the risk of schizophrenia (chi-square = 0.001, df = 1, P = 0.971 for C677T; chi-square = 1.319, df = 1, P = 0.251 for A1298C). However, in meta-analysis, the C677T polymorphism showed a significant association in the combined and Asian populations (OR = 1.13, P = 0.005; OR = 1.21, P = 0.011, respectively) but not in the Korean and Caucasian populations alone. Neither polymorphism was associated with MPAs measured by the Waldrop scale (chi-square = 2.513, df = 2, P = 0.285). In conclusion, the present findings suggest that in the Korean population, the MTHFR polymorphisms are unlikely to be associated with the risk for schizophrenia and neurodevelopmental abnormalities related to schizophrenia. PMID:22022190

  15. Perceived sleep quality is associated with depression in a Korean elderly population.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ki Jung; Son, Sang Joon; Lee, Yunhwan; Back, Joung Hwan; Lee, Kang Soo; Lee, Soo Jin; Chung, Young Ki; Lim, Ki Young; Noh, Jai Sung; Kim, Hyun Chung; Koh, Sang Hyun; Roh, Hyun Woong; Park, Mi Ae; Kim, Jin Ju; Hong, Chang Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Our study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived sleep quality and depression using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Cole's model to materialize the concept of perceived sleep quality in the non-cognitively impaired elderly. Older adults aged 60+ were recruited from the baseline study of Suwon Project (SP) between 2009 and 2011 (n=2040). Perceived sleep quality was measured using the Korean version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-K), and depression was accessed using the Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (SGDS-K). We excluded the cognitively impaired elderly using the Korean version-Mini Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE) score less than or equal to 17. In multivariable adjusted logistic regression related to PSQI-K components, poor perceived sleep quality, including poor subjective sleep quality (Odds ratio (OR)=1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-1.61), longer sleep latency (OR=1.32, 95% CI=1.13-1.55) and the frequent use of sleeping medication (OR=1.30, 95% CI=1.10-1.53) were significantly associated with depression after adjusting for age, sex, education, living status, current smoking and current alcohol drinking, the number of comorbidity and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). PSQI-K global score also had greater odds of reporting depression (OR=1.12, 95% CI=1.07-1.16). These results suggested that poor perceived sleep quality was associated with a greater level of depression in the elderly. PMID:24852666

  16. Relative bioavailability of two 5-mg montelukast sodium chewable tablets: a single dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover comparison in healthy korean adult male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kim, H T; Song, Y-K; Lee, S D; Park, Y; Kim, C-K

    2012-03-01

    Montelukast sodium, cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 specific antagonist, has been marketed in Korea for the treatment of bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a test and reference formulation of montelukast 5-mg chewable tablets in healthy Korean male volunteers to meet KFDA regulatory criteria for marketing of the new generic formulation. This study was designed as a single-dose, 2-treatment, and 2-period crossover trial with 32 healthy volunteers. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive the test (Dong-Kook Montelukast Sodium Chewable Tablet 5 mg®) or reference (Singulair Chewable Tablet 5 mg®) formulation. The tablet was chewed 20 times, and then swallowed with 240 mL of water. Plasma concentrations of montelukast up to 24 h after the dose were determined using a validated UPLC-MS/MS method, and the bioequivalence between the 2 formulations was assessed by statistical analysis of mean ratios of log-transformed AUC0-24 h and Cmax. No period or sequence effects were detected. The AUC0-24 h was 1 835 ng·h/mL for the test formulation, and 1 930 ng·h/mL for the reference formulation. The respective values of AUC0-∞ were 1 917 and 2 015 ng·h/mL. The Cmax of the test and reference products (247 and 283 ng/mL, respectively) reached at 2.25 and 2.72 h, respectively. Then, they gradually decreased with the mean terminal t1/2 of 5.25 and 5.30 h for the test and reference products, respectively. The 90% CIs for the ratio of log-transformed AUC0-24 h and Cmax for the test and reference formulations were 0.92-0.99 and 0.83-0.91, respectively. No adverse events were reported in this study. This single dose study found that the test and reference products met the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence in these fasting healthy Korean male volunteers. PMID:22407900

  17. Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H. J.; Lee, I. K.; Piao, M. Y.; Gu, M. J.; Yun, C. H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K. H.; Baik, M.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to cold may affect growth performance in accordance with the metabolic and immunological activities of animals. We evaluated whether ambient temperature affects growth performance, blood metabolites, and immune cell populations in Korean cattle. Eighteen Korean cattle steers with a mean age of 10 months and a mean weight of 277 kg were used. All steers were fed a growing stage-concentrate diet at a rate of 1.5% of body weight and Timothy hay ad libitum for 8 weeks. Experimental period 1 (P1) was for four weeks from March 7 to April 3 and period 2 (P2) was four weeks from April 4 to May 1. Mean (8.7°C) and minimum (1.0°C) indoor ambient temperatures during P1 were lower (p<0.001) than those (13.0°C and 6.2°C, respectively) during P2. Daily dry matter feed intake in both the concentrate diet and forage groups was higher (p<0.001) during P2 than P1. Average daily weight gain was higher (p<0.001) during P2 (1.38 kg/d) than P1 (1.13 kg/d). Feed efficiency during P2 was higher (p = 0.015) than P1. Blood was collected three times; on March 7, April 4, and May 2. Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher on March 7 than April 4 and May 2. Blood cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ among months. Blood CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ T cell percentages were higher, while CD8+CD25+ T cell percentage was lower, during the colder month of March than during May, suggesting that ambient temperature affects blood T cell populations. In conclusion, colder ambient temperature decreased growth and feed efficiency in Korean cattle steers. The higher circulating NEFA concentrations observed in March compared to April suggest that lipolysis may occur at colder ambient temperatures to generate heat and maintain body temperature, resulting in lower feed efficiency in March. PMID:26950877

  18. The changing pattern of parasitic infection among Korean populations by paleoparasitological study of Joseon Dynasty mummies.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min; Oh, Chang Seok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Jeong, Mi Sook; Hong, Sung Woo; Seo, Young-Min; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2014-02-01

    In the coprolites of 4 recently discovered Joseon mummies of Korea, we found Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura , Metagonimus yokogawai , Paragonimus westermani , and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. The current finding was compared with previous paleoparasitological data, and with recent national survey data from Korea. For A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura , similar patterns of infection prevalence were observed between the national survey of 1961 and our current Joseon data. Some of the trematode species (C. sinenesis and P. westermani) showed much higher infection prevalences among the Joseon Koreans than among their 1960s descendants. The present results indicate that the decrease in trematode infection rates might have begun earlier than was the case for nematode infection. PMID:24011353

  19. Safety and Tolerability of Panax ginseng Root Extract: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial in Healthy Korean Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nam-Hun; Yoo, Sa-Ra; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Cho, Jung-Hyo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Panax ginseng has been extensively used as an adaptogen and is among the top 10 selling herbal supplements in the United States over the past decade. However, there have been few reports about the toxicity of P. ginseng in human studies. Given the lack of toxicological studies in human, this study investigated whether P. ginseng administration causes any noticeable toxic effects in healthy volunteers. Methods This study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel group trial in healthy volunteers. The subjects were required to be healthy, free from any significant disease, as assessed at screening by physical examination, medical history, and laboratory (hematological and biochemical) tests. Eligible subjects received P. ginseng extract (1 g/day or 2 g/day) or placebo over a 4-week period. Results Although mild adverse events, such as dyspepsia, hot flash, insomnia, and constipation, were reported in both P. ginseng and placebo group, no serious untoward reactions were reported following P. ginseng administration. Nonsignificant changes were observed in hematological and biochemical tests. Conclusions P. ginseng administration for 4 weeks was shown to be safe, tolerable, and free of any untoward toxic effect in healthy male and female volunteers. Future results from ongoing multicenter collaborative efforts to evaluate short- and long-term effects of P. ginseng may contribute to our current understanding of safety and tolerability of this herbal product. PMID:22909282

  20. Things Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Roberta

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Korean culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional Korean clothing and accessories, dolls, fans, a Korean game called "yut," tape recordings of Korean music, a "buhk" (drum), and brass eating utensils. A map of Korea, some…

  1. Comparison of humeral rotation co-activation of breast cancer population and healthy shoulders.

    PubMed

    Brookham, Rebecca L; Dickerson, Clark R

    2016-08-01

    Upper limb morbidities are common amongst the breast cancer population (BCP) and have a direct impact on independence. Comparing muscle co-activation strategies between BCP and healthy populations may assist in identifying muscle dysfunction and promote clinical interpretation of dysfunction, which could direct preventative and therapeutic interventions. The purposes of this study were to define humeral rotation muscle co-activation of a BCP and to compare it with a previously defined co-activation relationship of a healthy population. Fifty BCP survivors performed 18 isometric internal and external rotation exertions at various postures and intensities. Surface and intramuscular electrodes recorded shoulder muscle activity. BCP co-activation was predicted at r(2)=0.77 during both exertion types. Humeral abduction angle and task intensity were important factors in the prediction of co-activation in both populations. Comparisons made between populations identified differing muscle strategies used by BCP to maintain postural control. Compared to healthy co-activation, the BCP demonstrated greater activation of internal (IR) and external rotator (ER) type muscles during their respective rotation type. The BCP demonstrated increased (⩾8.7%) activation of pectoralis major. This study has provided insight into how BCP muscles compensate during dysfunction. Continued advancement of this knowledge can provide more understanding of dysfunction, promote generation of evidence-based therapies, and can be useful in biomechanical modeling. PMID:26296634

  2. Development of Seven Microsatellite Markers Using Next Generation Sequencing for the Conservation on the Korean Population of Dorcus hopei (E. Saunders, 1854) (Coleoptera, Lucanidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tae Hwa; Han, Sang Hoon; Park, Sun Jae

    2015-01-01

    We developed microsatellite markers for genetic structural analyses of Dorcus hopei, a stag beetle species, using next generation sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping for regional populations. A total of 407,070,351 base pairs of genomic DNA containing >4000 microsatellite loci except AT repeats were sequenced. From 76 loci selected for primer design, 27 were polymorphic. Of these 27 markers, 10 were tested on three regional populations: two Chinese (Shichuan and Guangxi) and one Korean (Wanju). Three markers were excluded due to inconsistent amplification, genotyping errors, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). By multi-locus genotyping, the allele number, observed heterozygosity and polymorphism information content of seven microsatellite loci were ranged 2‒10, 0.1333‒1.0000, and 0.1228‒0.8509, respectively. In an analysis on the genetic differentiation among regional populations including one Japanese population and one cross-breeding population, the individual colored bar-plots showed that both Chinese populations were closer to each other than to the Far East Asian populations. In Far East Asian populations, Wanju and Nirasaki populations could not be distinguished from each other because the frequency of genetic contents was very similar in some individuals of two populations. Moreover, the cross-breeding population contained all patterns of genetic contents shown in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese populations, compared with the genetic content frequency of each regional population. As a result, we examined whether the cross-breeding population might be a hybrid population, and might contain a possibility of interbreeding with Chinese populations in parental generations. Therefore, these markers will be useful for analyses of genetic diversity in populations, genetic relationships between regional populations, genetic structure analyses, and origin tests. PMID:26370965

  3. Joint Identification of Genetic Variants for Physical Activity in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jayoun; Kim, Jaehee; Min, Haesook; Oh, Sohee; Kim, Yeonjung; Lee, Andy H.; Park, Taesung

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research on genome-wide association with physical activity (PA). This study ascertained genetic associations between PA and 344,893 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in 8842 Korean samples. PA data were obtained from a validated questionnaire that included information on PA intensity and duration. Metabolic equivalent of tasks were calculated to estimate the total daily PA level for each individual. In addition to single- and multiple-SNP association tests, a pathway enrichment analysis was performed to identify the biological significance of SNP markers. Although no significant SNP was found at genome-wide significance level via single-SNP association tests, 59 genetic variants mapped to 76 genes were identified via a multiple SNP approach using a bootstrap selection stability measure. Pathway analysis for these 59 variants showed that maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) was enriched. Joint identification of SNPs could enable the identification of multiple SNPs with good predictive power for PA and a pathway enriched for PA. PMID:25026172

  4. Prevalence Rate and Associated Factors of Sarcopenic Obesity in Korean Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Byungkwan; Lim, Jae-Young; Lee, Joongyub; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Ahn, Yoon-Ok

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence rates and to explore associated factors of sarcopenic obesity (SO) in 2,221 Koreans over 60 yr-of age from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009). Participants were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight was used to define sarcopenia and waist circumference was used to define obesity. We estimated the prevalence rates of SO according to age-groups, sex and region. In addition, each group was compared by demographic characteristics, metabolic status, nutrition, and physical activity. The prevalence rates of SO were 6.1% (95% confidential interval [CI] = 6.1-6.2) for men and 7.3% (95% CI = 7.3-7.3) for women, respectively. SO was positively associated with no current working and the number of combined medical conditions. High serum insulin level was positively associated with SO, whereas vitamin D was negatively associated with SO in both men and women. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of SO are 6.1% in men and 7.3% in women. SO is associated with insulin resistance, inappropriate nutrition, and low physical activity. PMID:22787369

  5. Occurrence of Dechlorane compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Korean general population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongchul; Son, Min-Hui; Shin, Eun-Su; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-05-01

    Dechlorane compounds, including Dechlorane Plus (DP), mirex, and Dechlorane (Dec) 602, 603 and 604, were measured in 61 serum samples collected from a Korean urban area (Seoul) in 2013. Dechlorane Plus and Dec 602 were dominant in most samples, whereas Dec 604 was not detected in any samples. The median value of DP was 0.75 ng/g lipid, which was comparable with the levels observed in Europe and Canada, but lower than that observed in China. Statistically significant correlations among Dechlorane compounds were observed. The median anti-isomer fractional abundance (fanti) was 0.74, and a negative correlation between fanti and the DP concentration in serum samples was observed. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were also measured for comparison with Dechlorane compounds, and BDE-153 was found the most abundant congener with a median value of 1.43 ng/g lipid. A time trend of Dechlorane compounds was investigated in 7 pooled serum samples to cover the period from 2006 to 2013. A distinct trend of Dechlorane compounds was not observed, while PBDEs steadily decreased with time. PMID:26854703

  6. Reference Equation for Six Minute Walk Test in Healthy Western India Population

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Anthony Menezes; Vadala, Rohit; Dias, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT) is used to assess disease progression and survival in chronic cardiopulmonary disorders. However, variability is noted in the six minute walk test distance (6MWD) in different populations. Aim We aimed to develop a reference equation for 6MWD in healthy Western India population and compare the results with previously published Indian and Caucasian reference equations. Materials and Methods Total 174 healthy subjects between 25 to 75 years performed the 6MWT. Variables assessed were age, height, weight, body mass index and sex. Predicted equations were derived using multiple linear regression and compared with the equations for North Indian male, South Indian and Caucasian population using Bland – Altman method. Results The 6MWD mean (SD) was 512.38 (67.84) m for men and 457.27 (56.75) m for women with p=0.001. The 6MWD correlated with age (r=-0.44), height (r=0.43), weight (r=0.21) in univariate analysis. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed age and sex to be independent predictors of 6MWD, R2 =0.307. The reference equation for healthy Western India population is 553.289 + (-2.11 x age) + (45.323 x sex; men=1 and women =0). Bland Altman analysis showed that the mean bias was 50.87m (95% limits of agreement 134.77 to – 33.0) for North Indian male equation, 50.75m (95% limits of agreement 105.72 to - 4.22) for South Indian equation and 122.72m (95%limits of agreement 254.11 to – 8.67) for Enright and Sherrill’s equation. Conclusions The North Indian male, South Indian and Caucasian equations significantly over-estimated the predicted walk distance for our healthy population. Hence, there is a need to develop subgroup population specific reference equations. PMID:27437206

  7. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were <19 years of age, there were missing data in the heavy metal data set, or they had diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, asthma, depression and/or under-the-eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; p<0.05). Conclusions High blood mercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  8. Genetic diversity, population structure and relationships in indigenous cattle populations of Ethiopia and Korean Hanwoo breeds using SNP markers

    PubMed Central

    Edea, Zewdu; Dadi, Hailu; Kim, Sang-Wook; Dessie, Tadelle; Lee, Taeheon; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Jong-Joo; Kim, Kwan-Suk

    2013-01-01

    In total, 166 individuals from five indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations – Ambo (n = 27), Borana (n = 35), Arsi (n = 30), Horro (n = 36), and Danakil (n = 38) – were genotyped for 8773 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and relationships. As a representative of taurine breeds, Hanwoo cattle (n = 40) were also included in the study for reference. Among Ethiopian cattle populations, the proportion of SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) ≥0.05 ranged from 81.63% in Borana to 85.30% in Ambo, with a mean of 83.96% across all populations. The Hanwoo breed showed the highest proportion of polymorphism, with MAFs ≥0.05, accounting for 95.21% of total SNPs. The mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.370 in Danakil to 0.410 in Hanwoo. The mean genetic differentiation (FST; 1%) in Ethiopian cattle revealed that within individual variation accounted for approximately 99% of the total genetic variation. As expected, FST and Reynold genetic distance were greatest between Hanwoo and Ethiopian cattle populations, with average values of 17.62 and 18.50, respectively. The first and second principal components explained approximately 78.33% of the total variation and supported the clustering of the populations according to their historical origins. At K = 2 and 3, a considerable source of variation among cattle is the clustering of the populations into Hanwoo (taurine) and Ethiopian cattle populations. The low estimate of genetic differentiation (FST) among Ethiopian cattle populations indicated that differentiation among these populations is low, possibly owing to a common historical origin and high gene flow. Genetic distance, phylogenic tree, principal component analysis, and population structure analyses clearly differentiated the cattle population according to their historical origins, and confirmed that Ethiopian cattle populations are genetically distinct from the Hanwoo breed. PMID:23518904

  9. Genetic Variants in the Wnt Signaling Pathway Are Not Associated with Survival Outcome of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recently, genetic variants in the WNT signaling pathway have been reported to affect the survival outcome of Caucasian patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We therefore attempted to determine whether these same WNT signaling pathway gene variants had similar impacts on the survival outcome of NSCLC patients in a Korean population. A total of 761 patients with stages I–IIIA NSCLC were enrolled in this study. Eight variants of WNT pathway genes were genotyped and their association with overall survival and disease-free survival were analyzed. None of the eight variants were significantly associated with overall survival or disease-free survival. There were no differences in survival outcome after stratifying the subjects according to age, gender, smoking status, and histological type. These results suggest that genetic variants in the WNT signaling pathway may not affect the survival outcome of NSCLC in a Korean population. PMID:26955250

  10. Genetic Variants in the Wnt Signaling Pathway Are Not Associated with Survival Outcome of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in a Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung Soo; Hong, Mi Jeong; Choi, Jin Eun; Lee, Jang Hyuck; Baek, Sun Ah; Lee, Won Kee; Lee, So Yeon; Lee, Shin Yup; Lee, Jaehee; Cha, Seung Ick; Kim, Chang Ho; Cho, Sukki; Park, Jae Yong

    2016-03-01

    Recently, genetic variants in the WNT signaling pathway have been reported to affect the survival outcome of Caucasian patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We therefore attempted to determine whether these same WNT signaling pathway gene variants had similar impacts on the survival outcome of NSCLC patients in a Korean population. A total of 761 patients with stages I-IIIA NSCLC were enrolled in this study. Eight variants of WNT pathway genes were genotyped and their association with overall survival and disease-free survival were analyzed. None of the eight variants were significantly associated with overall survival or disease-free survival. There were no differences in survival outcome after stratifying the subjects according to age, gender, smoking status, and histological type. These results suggest that genetic variants in the WNT signaling pathway may not affect the survival outcome of NSCLC in a Korean population. PMID:26955250

  11. Comparison between Wild and Hatchery Populations of Korean Pen Shell (Atrina pectinata) Using Microsatellite DNA Markers

    PubMed Central

    An, Hye Suck; Kim, Byeong Hak; Lee, Jang Wook; Dong, Chun Mae; Kim, Shin Kwon; Kim, Yi Cheong

    2011-01-01

    Pen shell (Atrina pectinata) is a popular food source with a high commercial value in a number of Asian Pacific areas. The natural A. pectinata population has been declining continuously over the past several decades. Microsatellite DNA markers are a useful DNA-based tool for monitoring the genetic variation of pen shell populations. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite (MS) DNA markers were identified from a partial genomic pen shell DNA library enriched in CA repeats, and used to compare allelic variation between wild and hatchery pen shell populations in Korea. A total of 438 alleles were detected at the 20 MS loci in the two populations. All loci were easily amplified and demonstrated allelic variability, with the number of alleles ranging from 5 to 35 in the wild population and from 5 to 22 in the farmed population. The average observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.69 and 0.82, respectively, in the hatchery samples and 0.69 and 0.83, respectively, in the wild samples. Statistical analysis of fixation index (FST) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed minor, but significant, genetic differences between the wild and hatchery populations (FST = 0.0106, CI95% = 0.003–0.017). These microsatellite loci may be valuable for future aquaculture and population genetic studies for developing conservation and management plans. Further studies with additional pen shell samples are needed to conclusively determine the genetic diversity between the wild and hatchery populations. PMID:22016642

  12. Comparative morphometry of facial surface models obtained from a stereo vision system in a healthy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Leticia; Gastélum, Alfonso; Chan, Yuk Hin; Delmas, Patrice; Escorcia, Lilia; Márquez, Jorge

    2014-11-01

    Our goal is to obtain three-dimensional measurements of craniofacial morphology in a healthy population, using standard landmarks established by a physical-anthropology specialist and picked from computer reconstructions of the face of each subject. To do this, we designed a multi-stereo vision system that will be used to create a data base of human faces surfaces from a healthy population, for eventual applications in medicine, forensic sciences and anthropology. The acquisition process consists of obtaining the depth map information from three points of views, each depth map is obtained from a calibrated pair of cameras. The depth maps are used to build a complete, frontal, triangular-surface representation of the subject face. The triangular surface is used to locate the landmarks and the measurements are analyzed with a MATLAB script. The classification of the subjects was done with the aid of a specialist anthropologist that defines specific subject indices, according to the lengths, areas, ratios, etc., of the different structures and the relationships among facial features. We studied a healthy population and the indices from this population will be used to obtain representative averages that later help with the study and classification of possible pathologies.

  13. Genetic diversity and differentiation of the Korean starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) between and within cultured stocks and wild populations inferred from microsatellite DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    An, Hye Suck; Nam, Myung Mo; Myeong, Jeong In; An, Chul Min

    2014-11-01

    The Korean starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, is economically valuable coastal resident fish species. However, the annual catch of this fish has fluctuated and suffered major declines in Korea. We examined the genetic diversity and population structure for four wild populations and three hatchery stocks of Korean starry flounder to protect its genetic integrity using nine microsatellites. A group of 339 genotypes belonging to seven populations were screened. High degrees of polymorphism at the microsatellite loci were observed within both the wild and hatchery populations. Compared to the wild populations, genetic changes, including reduced genetic diversity and highly significant differentiation, have occurred in cultured stocks. Significant population differentiation was also observed in wild starry flounder populations. Similar degrees of inbreeding and significant Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviations were detected in both the wild and the hatchery populations. The genetic connectivity pattern identified four distinct metapopulations of starry flounder in Korea by clustering in the phylogenetic tree, Bayesian analyses, molecular variance analysis, PCA and multidimensional scaling analysis. A pattern of isolation-by-distance was not significant. This genetic differentiation may be the result of the co-effects of various factors, such as historic dispersal, local environment or anthropogenic activities. These results provide useful information for the genetic monitoring of P. stellatus hatchery stocks, for the genetic improvement of this species by selective breeding and for designing suitable management guidelines for the conservation of this species. PMID:25064574

  14. Wild and hatchery populations of Korean starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) compared using microsatellite DNA markers.

    PubMed

    An, Hye Suck; Byun, Soon Gyu; Kim, Yi Cheong; Lee, Jang Wook; Myeong, Jeong-In

    2011-01-01

    Starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) is an important sport and food fish found around the margins of the North Pacific. Aquaculture production of this species in Korea has increased because of its commercial value. Microsatellite DNA markers are a useful DNA-based tool for monitoring the genetic variation of starry flounder populations. In this study, 12 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified from a partial genomic starry flounder DNA library enriched in CA repeats, and used to compare allelic variation between wild and hatchery starry flounder populations in Korea. All loci were readily amplified and demonstrated high allelic diversity, with the number of alleles ranging from 6 to 18 in the wild population and from 2 to 12 in the farmed population. A total of 136 alleles were detected at the 12 microsatellite loci in the two populations. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.62 and 0.68, respectively, in the hatchery samples and 0.67 and 0.75, respectively, in the wild samples. These results indicate lower genetic variability in the hatchery population as compared to the wild population. Significant shifts in allelic frequencies were detected at eight loci, which resulted in a small but significant genetic differences between the wild and hatchery populations (F(ST) = 0.043, P < 0.05). Further studies with additional starry flounder sample collections are needed for comprehensive determinations of the genetic varieties between the wild and hatchery populations. These microsatellite loci may be valuable for future population genetic studies, monitoring the genetic variation for successful aquaculture management and the preservation of aquatic biodiversity. PMID:22272127

  15. Dried Blood Spot Testing for Seven Steroids Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry With Reference Interval Determination in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Borahm; Lee, Mi-Na; Park, Hyung-Doo; Kim, Jong Won; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) using immunoassays generates a large number of false-positive results. A more specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been introduced to minimize unnecessary follow-ups. However, because of limited data on its use in the Korean population, LC-MS/MS has not yet been incorporated into newborn screening programs in this region. The present study aims to develop and validate an LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of seven steroids in dried blood spots (DBS) for CAH screening, and to define age-specific reference intervals in the Korean population. Methods We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS method to determine the reference intervals of cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, 21-deoxycortisol, androstenedione, corticosterone, and 11-deoxycorticosterone simultaneously in 453 DBS samples. The samples were from Korean subjects stratified by age group (78 full-term neonates, 76 premature neonates, 89 children, and 100 adults). Results The accuracy, precision, matrix effects, and extraction recovery were satisfactory for all the steroids at three concentrations; values of intra- and inter-day precision coefficients of variance, bias, and recovery were 0.7-7.7%, -1.5-9.8%, and 49.3-97.5%, respectively. The linearity range was 1-100 ng/mL for cortisol and 0.5-50 ng/mL for other steroids (R2>0.99). The reference intervals were in agreement with the previous reports. Conclusions This LC-MS/MS method and the reference intervals validated in the Korean population can be successfully applied to analyze seven steroids in DBS for the diagnosis of CAH. PMID:26354345

  16. Excessive Sleep and Lack of Sleep Are Associated With Slips and Falls in the Adult Korean Population: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impacts of excessive sleep duration on falls. This study investigated the associations between sleep duration and falls among Korean adults in a wide range of age groups while adjusting for numerous confounding factors. Data collected from study participants ranging in age from 19 to 109 years old were analyzed from the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS). Sleep duration was divided into 5 groups: ≤5, 6, 7, 8, and ≥9  hours per day. The relations between sleep duration and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Age, sex, days of vigorous or moderate physical activity, income, education, alcohol use, smoking, stress, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, stroke, angina or myocardial infarction, arthritis, and asthma were controlled for as confounding factors. Associations between sleep duration and falls were analyzed in 19 to 40, 41 to 60, and 61+ year age groups. Furthermore, the relations between sleep duration and indoor versus outdoor falls were analyzed. Both ≤6 and ≥8  hours of sleep per day were significantly associated with an increased incidence of falls (≥1 time and ≥2 times per year) in the overall adult population (P < 0.001 in both instances). In a subgroup analysis, sleep durations of ≤5 and ≥9  hours were significantly associated with an increased incidence of falls (≥1 time a year) in each age group. Six hours of sleep was not significantly associated with falls (≥2 times per year) in the 61+ year age group, and 8 and 9  hours of sleep were not significantly associated with falls (≥2 times a year) in the 19 to 40 year age group. This study demonstrated that long as well as short sleep durations are associated with an increased incidence of falls. However, these relations were not evident in elderly populations with short sleep durations or in young adults with long

  17. Topographical Continuity of Bacterial Populations in the Healthy Human Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Charlson, Emily S.; Bittinger, Kyle; Haas, Andrew R.; Fitzgerald, Ayannah S.; Frank, Ian; Yadav, Anjana; Bushman, Frederic D.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Defining the biogeography of bacterial populations in human body habitats is a high priority for understanding microbial–host relationships in health and disease. The healthy lung was traditionally considered sterile, but this notion has been challenged by emerging molecular approaches that enable comprehensive examination of microbial communities. However, studies of the lung are challenging due to difficulties in working with low biomass samples. Objectives: Our goal was to use molecular methods to define the bacterial microbiota present in the lungs of healthy individuals and assess its relationship to upper airway populations. Methods: We sampled respiratory flora intensively at multiple sites in six healthy individuals. The upper tract was sampled by oral wash and oro-/nasopharyngeal swabs. Two bronchoscopes were used to collect samples up to the glottis, followed by serial bronchoalveolar lavage and lower airway protected brush. Bacterial abundance and composition were analyzed by 16S rDNA Q-PCR and deep sequencing. Measurements and Main Results: Bacterial communities from the lung displayed composition indistinguishable from the upper airways, but were 2 to 4 logs lower in biomass. Lung-specific sequences were rare and not shared among individuals. There was no unique lung microbiome. Conclusions: In contrast to other organ systems, the respiratory tract harbors a homogenous microbiota that decreases in biomass from upper to lower tract. The healthy lung does not contain a consistent distinct microbiome, but instead contains low levels of bacterial sequences largely indistinguishable from upper respiratory flora. These findings establish baseline data for healthy subjects and sampling approaches for sequence-based analysis of diseases. PMID:21680950

  18. Dietary intake of fats and fatty acids in the Korean population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Yeji; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Kirang; Moon, Hyun-Kyung; Kweon, Sanghui; Yang, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to estimate average total fat and fatty acid intakes as well as identify major food sources using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) VI-1 (2013). SUBJECTS/METHODS Total fat and fatty acid intakes were estimated using 24-hour dietary recall data on 7,048 participants aged ≥ 3 years from the KNHANES VI-1 (2013). Data included total fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA), and n-6 fatty acid (n-6 FA) levels. Population means and standard errors of the mean were weighted in order to produce national estimates and separated based on sex, age, income, as well as residential region. Major food sources of fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 FA, and n-6 FA were identified based on mean consumption amounts of fat and fatty acids in each food. RESULTS The mean intake of total fat was 48.0 g while mean intakes of SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 FA, and n-6 FA were 14.4 g, 15.3 g, 11.6 g, 1.6 g, and 10.1 g, respectively. Intakes of MUFA and SFA were each higher than that of PUFA in all age groups. Pork was the major source of total fat, SFA, and MUFA, and soybean oil was the major source of PUFA. Milk and pork were major sources of SFA in subjects aged 3-11 years and ≥ 12 years, respectively. Perilla seed oil and soybean oil were main sources of n-3 FA in subjects aged ≥ 50 years and aged < 50 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Estimation of mean fatty acid intakes of this study using nationally represented samples of the Korean population could be useful for developing and evaluating national nutritional policies. PMID:26634055

  19. Healthy Eating Habits among the Population of Serbia: Gender and Age Differences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks’ Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the ‘knowledge’ variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia. PMID:25995724

  20. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yangho; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  1. Defining Normal Liver Stiffness Range in a Normal Healthy Chinese Population without Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fung, James; Lee, Cheuk-kwong; Chan, Monica; Seto, Wai-kay; Wong, Danny Ka-ho; Lai, Ching-lung; Yuen, Man-fung

    2013-01-01

    Background For patients with chronic liver disease, different optimal liver stiffness cut-off values correspond to different stages of fibrosis, which are specific for the underlying liver disease and population. Aims To establish the normal ranges of liver stiffness in the healthy Chinese population without underlying liver disease. Methods This is a prospective cross sectional study of 2,528 healthy volunteers recruited from the general population and the Red Cross Transfusion Center in Hong Kong. All participants underwent a comprehensive questionnaire survey, measurement of weight, height, and blood pressure. Fasting liver function tests, glucose and cholesterol was performed. Abdominal ultrasound and transient elastography were performed on all participants. Results Of the 2,528 subjects, 1,998 were excluded with either abnormal liver parenchyma on ultrasound, chronic medical condition, abnormal blood tests including liver enzymes, fasting glucose, fasting cholesterol, high body mass index, high blood pressure, or invalid liver stiffness scan. The reference range for the 530 subjects without known liver disease was 2.3 to 5.9 kPa (mean 4.1, SD 0.89). The median liver stiffness was higher in males compared with females (4.3 vs 4.0 kPa respectively, p<0.001). There was also a decline in median Lliver stiffness in the older age group, from 4.2 kPa in those <25 years to 3.4 kPa for those >55 years (p=0.001). Conclusions The healthy reference range for liver stiffness in the Chinese population is 2.3 to 5.9 kPa. Female gender and older age group was associated with a lower median liver stiffness. PMID:24386446

  2. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79-5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77-5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  3. Association Study of FOS-Like Antigen-2 Promoter Polymorphisms With Papillary Thyroid Cancer in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Woo; Kim, Choon Dong; Chung, Joo Ho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives FOS-like antigen-2 (FOSL-2), a member of the FOS gene family, encode leucine zipper proteins that can heterodimerize with proteins of Jun family. Thus, activating protein (AP)-1 transcription factor is formed, has a crucial role in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of normal tissue as well as oncogenic transformation and progression. We performed an association study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FOSL-2 with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We also estimated the relationships between the SNPs and the clinicopathologic characteristics of PTC. Methods One promoter SNPs (rs925255) of FOSL-2 gene were genotyped with direct sequencing method in 94 PTC and 213 controls. PTC patients were dichotomized and compared with respect to clinical parameters of PTC. Genetic data were analyzed using Helixtree, SNPAnalyzer, SNPStats. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was fulfilled to evaluate the genetic effect with adjustment for age and sex. Results SNP (rs925255) in FOSL-2 showed a significant association (codominant 1 model [G/G vs. A/G]: odds ratio [OR], 0.531, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.293 to 0.96, P=0.036; dominant model: OR, 0.50, 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.89, P=0.015) with PTC. The frequency of allele G in rs925255 was also significantly associated with PTC (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.91; P=0.02). But we fail to prove significant association between this polymorphism (rs925255) and clinico-pathological parameters. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the rs925255 SNP and its allele G show significant association with the PTC in Korean population. PMID:24587880

  4. Vitamin D Deficiency in Healthy Male Population: Results of the Iranian Multi- Center Osteoporosis Study

    PubMed Central

    Rahnavard, Z; Eybpoosh, S; Homami, M Rezaei; Meybodi, HR Aghaei; Azemati, B; Heshmat, R; Larijani, B

    2010-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its causative factors has been estimated more frequently in elder population, women, and patients with osteoporosis in different countries, but this issue is less defined in male population within different age groups especially in Asian countries. Therefore, we studied the role of effective factors in vitamin D deficiency and its prevalence in Iranian healthy men. Methods: This study was a multi center and carried out in five metropolitans in Iran. Serum 25 Hydroxy vitamin D and other biochemical variables were determined in 2396 healthy men in late winter of 2001. Results: 68.8% of participants suffered from vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D levels were the highest in Bushehr (n= 111, 40.3%) (P< 0.05) and between Shiraz and Tabriz, Shiraz had the better values (P< 0.05). Tehran had the highest prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (n= 380, n= 85.7%). Geographical zone independently predicted vitamin D status (P< 0.05). There was not any association among age (r= 0.035, P> 0.05), physical activity (r= 0.023, P> 0.05), and exposure of face & hands to sunlight (r= 0.022, P> 0.05) with vitamin D levels. Conclusion: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Iranian male population is high, considering Iranian cultural and geographical zones, food fortification and life style modification is recommended. PMID:23113022

  5. Hematological and biochemical parameters in apparently healthy Indian population: defining reference intervals.

    PubMed

    Sairam, Shrilekha; Domalapalli, Suhasini; Muthu, Sundaram; Swaminathan, Jayanthi; Ramesh, Vivek A; Sekhar, Lalitha; Pandeya, Palak; Balasubramaniam, Udhaya

    2014-07-01

    Clinical reference intervals among Indian population are poorly defined. Therefore, there is an urgent need to establish local clinical laboratory reference intervals for healthy Indian population. The present study aimed to identify the 95 % reference interval for hematological and biochemical parameters in apparently healthy Indian population. We undertook a multicentric cross-sectional study conducted at Apollo Hospitals Educational and Research Foundation across India. Of which 10,665 reference individuals identified as healthy by physicians. The 95 % of the reference distribution was estimated using 2.5th and 97.5th percentile reference limits. The 95 % reference intervals for hemoglobin (Males: 12.3-17 g/dL; Females: 9.9-14.3 g/dL), platelet count (Males: 1.3-3.8; Females: 1.3-4.2 Lakhs/µL), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Males: 2-22; Females: 4-55 mm/h), serum uric acid in males: 3.5-8.2 mg/dL, gamma glutamyl transferase (Males: 13-61 U/L), fasting blood glucose (Males: 78-110 mg/dL), total cholesterol (Males: 115-254 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein (Males: 60-176 mg/dL) and triglycerides (Males: 55-267 mg/dL, Females: 52-207 mg/dL) were different from currently used reference values. Additionally need for gender based partitioning were observed for triglycerides and gamma glutamyl transferase. The observed findings are of clinical significance and it needs to be validated with additional community based studies. PMID:24966476

  6. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias. PMID:26488291

  7. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population.

    PubMed

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias. PMID:26488291

  8. Age- and Gender-Related Mean Hearing Threshold in a Highly-Screened Population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun Hwi; Kim, Ju Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background In evaluating hearing disability in medicolegal work, the apportionment of age- and gender-related sensorineural hearing loss should be considered as a prior factor, especially for the elderly. However, in the literature written in the English language no studies have reported on the age- and gender-related mean hearing threshold for the South Korean population. Objective This study aimed to identify the mean hearing thresholds in the South Korean population to establish reference data and to identify the age- and gender-related characteristics. Methods This study is based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2012, which was conducted by the Korean government, the data of which was disclosed to the public. A total of 15,606 participants (unweighted) representing 33,011,778 Koreans (weighted) with normal tympanic membrane and no history of regular or occupational noise exposure were selected and analyzed in this study. The relationship between the hearing threshold level and frequency, age, and gender was investigated and analyzed in a highly-screened population by considering the sample weights of a complex survey design. Results A gender ratio difference was found between the unweighted and the weighted designs: male:female, 41.0%: 59.0% (unweighted, participants) vs. 47.2%:52.8% (weighted, representing population). As age increased, the hearing threshold increased for all frequencies. Hearing thresholds of 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz showed a statistical difference between both genders for people older than 30, with the 4 kHz frequency showing the largest difference. This paper presents details about the mean hearing threshold based on age and gender. Conclusions The data from KNHANES 2010–2012 showed gender differences at hearing thresholds of 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz in a highly-screened population. The most significant gender difference in relation to hearing threshold was observed at 4 kHz. The hearing

  9. Widespread nasal carriage of Mycobacterium lepraeamong a healthy population in a hyperendemic region of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa; Frota, Cristiane Cunha; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Almeida, Rosa Livia Freitas; Pontes, Maria Araci de Andrade; Gonçalves, Heitor de Sá; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia

    2015-11-01

    A case-control study was conducted to determine the presence ofMycobacterium lepraeDNA in nasal secretions of leprosy cases and nonleprosy individuals in Fortaleza, Brazil. It included 185 cases identified by physicians at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology (CDERM). A control group (Co) (n = 136) was identified among individuals from CDERM not diagnosed as leprosy cases. To augment the spatial analysis of M. leprae specific repetitive element (RLEP) positive prevalence, an external group (EG) (n = 121), a convenience sample of healthy students, were included. Polymerase chain reaction for the RLEP sequence was conducted for all participants. Prevalence of RLEP positivity for cases and Co were 69.2% and 66.9%, respectively, significantly higher than for EG (28.1%), and reported elsewhere. Male sex, belonging to a lower socioeconomic status (D/E), history of a previous contact with a case and being older, were associated with being a leprosy case. Our geographical analysis demonstrated that the bacillus is widespread among the healthy population, with clusters of RLEP positive multibacillary cases concentrated in distinct areas of the city. Our results suggest that in endemic areas, as in Fortaleza, surveillance for both nonhousehold leprosy contacts and members of the general population living in cluster areas should be implemented. PMID:26560980

  10. Reference Values of Pulse Wave Velocity in Healthy People from an Urban and Rural Argentinean Population

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Alejandro; Galli, Cintia; Tringler, Matías; Ramírez, Agustín; Cabrera Fischer, Edmundo Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    In medical practice the reference values of arterial stiffness came from multicenter registries obtained in Asia, USA, Australia and Europe. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the gold standard method for arterial stiffness quantification; however, in South America, there are few population-based studies. In this research PWV was measured in healthy asymptomatic and normotensive subjects without history of hypertension in first-degree relatives. Normal PWV and the 95% confidence intervals values were obtained in 780 subjects (39.8 ± 18.5 years) divided into 7 age groups (10–98 years). The mean PWV found was 6.84 m/s ± 1.65. PWV increases linearly with aging with a high degree of correlation (r2 = 0.61; P < 0.05) with low dispersion in younger subjects. PWV progressively increases 6–8% with each decade of life; this tendency is more pronounced after 50 years. A significant increase of PWV over 50 years was demonstrated. This is the first population-based study from urban and rural people of Argentina that provides normal values of the PWV in healthy, normotensive subjects without family history of hypertension. Moreover, the age dependence of PWV values was confirmed. PMID:25215227

  11. Can Functional Cardiac Age be Predicted from ECG in a Normal Healthy Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd; Starc, Vito; Leban, Manja; Sinigoj, Petra; Vrhovec, Milos

    2011-01-01

    In a normal healthy population, we desired to determine the most age-dependent conventional and advanced ECG parameters. We hypothesized that changes in several ECG parameters might correlate with age and together reliably characterize the functional age of the heart. Methods: An initial study population of 313 apparently healthy subjects was ultimately reduced to 148 subjects (74 men, 84 women, in the range from 10 to 75 years of age) after exclusion criteria. In all subjects, ECG recordings (resting 5-minute 12-lead high frequency ECG) were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate up to 85 different conventional and advanced ECG parameters including beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, and signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG parameters. The prediction of functional age was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis using the best 5 univariate predictors. Results: Ignoring what were ultimately small differences between males and females, the functional age was found to be predicted (R2= 0.69, P < 0.001) from a linear combination of 5 independent variables: QRS elevation in the frontal plane (p<0.001), a new repolarization parameter QTcorr (p<0.001), mean high frequency QRS amplitude (p=0.009), the variability parameter % VLF of RRV (p=0.021) and the P-wave width (p=0.10). Here, QTcorr represents the correlation between the calculated QT and the measured QT signal. Conclusions: In apparently healthy subjects with normal conventional ECGs, functional cardiac age can be estimated by multiple linear regression analysis of mostly advanced ECG results. Because some parameters in the regression formula, such as QTcorr, high frequency QRS amplitude and P-wave width also change with disease in the same direction as with increased age, increased functional age of the heart may reflect subtle age-related pathologies in cardiac electrical function that are usually hidden on conventional ECG.

  12. Distribution of CD4 Lymphocyte Cells Among Apparently Healthy HIV Seropositive and Seronegative Populations

    PubMed Central

    Abubakar, Abdulazeez A

    2012-01-01

    Background: CD4 lymphocyte cells are often used as prognostic markers for monitoring the progression of immunosupression such as HIV infection. Aim: This study was conducted to assess the distribution of CD4 lymphocytes among apparently healthy human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seronegative and seropositive populations in a Nigerian state. Materials and Methods: A total of 1520 apparently healthy subjects aged 18–64 years, composed of 800 males and 720 females attending some selected health institutions in the state, participated in the study. Ten milliliters of blood was collected from each subject; 5 ml of this was used for HIV antibodies sero-typing while the remaining 5 ml was anticoagulated and used for CD4 lymphocytes level determination. Only samples tested positive both with Capillus and Determine HIV test kits were further differentiated into sero-types with a standard diagnostic HIV test kit. The CD4 lymphocyte levels of all the sample were determined; mean CD4 levels of 205.1±0.09 and 287.4±0.3 cells/μl were recorded among females seropositives and seronagatives respectively. Statistical analysis by the Student t-test showed a significant difference in the mean CD4 lymphocyte count by gender. Results: Findings showed a mean CD4 level of 311.7±1.2 cells/μl among seropositive males while 399.3±0.6 cells/μl was recorded among seronegatives (t=5.86). The study also recorded a CD4 lymphocyte range of 232–464 cells/μl among apparently healthy seronegative population in this locality. Conclusion: The findings showed a significantly higher mean CD4 lymphocyte count among adult male HIV seronegatives (χ2=9.22) and seropositives (χ2=15.07) than their female counterparts. Further research work using the automation technique is suggested to confirm this new range for monitoring HIV subjects on antiretroviral therapy. PMID:22454823

  13. Are We in the Same Risk of Diabetes Mellitus? Gender- and Age-Specific Epidemiology of Diabetes in 2001 to 2014 in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bo Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In the early 2000s, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years in Korea was about 9% to 10%, and it remained stable. However, a nationwide survey showed that this prevalence increased over the past few years. After age-standardization using the Korean population of the year 2010, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years was 10.0% to 10.8% between 2001 and 2012, which increased to 12.5% in 2013 and 11.6% in 2014. During that period, there have been changes in the gender- and age-specific prevalence of diabetes in Korean adults. The prevalence of diabetes in the elderly population increased significantly, while this prevalence in young adults, especially in young women, did not change significantly. The contribution of each diabetic risk factor, such as obesity, β-cell dysfunction, sarcopenia, and socioeconomic status, in developing diabetes has also changed during that period in each gender and age group. For young women, obesity was the most important risk factor; by contrast, for elderly diabetic patients, sarcopenia was more important than obesity as a risk factor. Considering the economic burden of diabetes and its associated comorbidities, a public health policy targeting the major risk factors in each population might be more effective in preventing diabetes. PMID:27273907

  14. Are We in the Same Risk of Diabetes Mellitus? Gender- and Age-Specific Epidemiology of Diabetes in 2001 to 2014 in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bo Kyung; Moon, Min Kyong

    2016-06-01

    In the early 2000s, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years in Korea was about 9% to 10%, and it remained stable. However, a nationwide survey showed that this prevalence increased over the past few years. After age-standardization using the Korean population of the year 2010, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years was 10.0% to 10.8% between 2001 and 2012, which increased to 12.5% in 2013 and 11.6% in 2014. During that period, there have been changes in the gender- and age-specific prevalence of diabetes in Korean adults. The prevalence of diabetes in the elderly population increased significantly, while this prevalence in young adults, especially in young women, did not change significantly. The contribution of each diabetic risk factor, such as obesity, β-cell dysfunction, sarcopenia, and socioeconomic status, in developing diabetes has also changed during that period in each gender and age group. For young women, obesity was the most important risk factor; by contrast, for elderly diabetic patients, sarcopenia was more important than obesity as a risk factor. Considering the economic burden of diabetes and its associated comorbidities, a public health policy targeting the major risk factors in each population might be more effective in preventing diabetes. PMID:27273907

  15. The 12-Item General Health Questionnaire as an Effective Mental Health Screening Tool for General Korean Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ju; Cho, Maeng Je; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Bae, Jae Nam; Jeon, Hong Jin; Chang, Sung Man; Lee, Hae Woo

    2013-01-01

    Objective The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has been used extensively in various settings across different cultures. This study was conducted to determine the thresholds associated with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the GHQ-12 in Korean adults. Methods Data was acquired from a sample of 6,510 Korean adults, ages 18 to 64 years old, who were selected from the 2005 Census (2,581 men and 3,929 women). Participants completed the GHQ-12 and the Korean Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted. Results The mean GHQ-12 score for the total sample was 1.63 (SD 1.98). The internal consistency of the GHQ-12 was good (Cronbach's α=0.72). Results from the ROC curve indicated that the GHQ-12 yielded greater accuracy when identifying mood and anxiety disorders than when identifying all mental disorders as a whole. The optimal threshold of the GHQ-12 was either 1/2 or 2/3 point depending on the disorder, but was mainly 2/3. Conclusion The Korean version of the GHQ-12 could be used to screen for individuals at high risk of mental disorders, namely mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:24474983

  16. Association between arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP) and lung function in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Ro, M; Kim, S; Pyun, J-A; Shin, C; Cho, N H; Lee, J-Y; Koh, I; Kwack, K

    2012-08-01

    Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP) plays a role in the 5-lipoxygenase (LO) pathway, which includes the LTC(4), LTD(4), LTE(4) and LTB(4). These leukotrienes are known causative factors of asthma, allergy, atopy and cardiovascular diseases. ALOX5AP lacks enzyme activity and acts by helping 5-LO function. In this study, healthy and general subjects who live in rural and urban areas of Korea were tested for the association of ALOX5AP polymorphisms with lung function. Lung function was also estimated by calculating the predicted values for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1) _%PRED) and the proportion of the forced vital capacity exhaled in the first second (FEV(1) /FVC_PRED). The linear regression was adjusted for residence area, gender, age, height and smoking status. The analysis revealed associations between FEV(1) and the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9506352 and the haplotype TCAC (permuted P-value < 0.05). The linkage disequilibrium block that included the significant SNPs overlapped with SNPs that were revealed previously to associate with myocardial infarction and asthma and to affect lung function. This study is the first to demonstrate the association between lung function and ALOX5AP polymorphisms in a healthy and general population. PMID:22537113

  17. Pharmacogenetic association with early response to intravitreal ranibizumab for age-related macular degeneration in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Dong Hyoun; Sagong, Min; Kim, In Taek

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether genetic factors that influence age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have an early pharmacogenetic effect on treating exudative AMD with ranibizumab in a Korean population. Methods A retrospective study of 102 patients (70 with typical neovascular AMD and 32 with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy) with exudative AMD treated with intravitreal ranibizumab monotherapy was conducted. Optical coherence tomography, fluorescein, and indocyanine green angiography were taken at the baseline. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the central subfield macular thickness (CSMT) were recorded at the baseline and at each monthly visit. The genotypes of the polymorphisms in the known AMD susceptibility loci (CFH, AMRS2, HTRA1, VEGFA, and KDR) were determined, and association between their frequencies and the changes in the BCVA and the CSMT were evaluated. Results The mean baseline visual acuity was 0.96±0.59 logMAR (approximately 20/200 in the Snellen equivalent), and the mean number of injections was 3.87 before the month 6 visit. No association was observed between the change in BCVA and each genotype. For the changes in the CSMT, a significant difference was observed only with the VEGF-A (rs833069) gene. The decrease in the CSMT at month 3 for the major allele homozygote AA genotype, the heterozygote AG genotype, and the risk allele homozygote GG genotype was 25.66±85.40, 86.93±92.31, and 85.30±105.30 μm, respectively (p=0.012, p=0.044, and p=0.002 for AG, GG, and combined AG or GG genotype, respectively, compared to the AA genotype). This trend was maintained until month 6. Conclusions The VEGF-A (rs833069) polymorphism showed a significant association with the anatomic response to intravitreal ranibizumab. No significant difference was found between the genotype of the potential risk polymorphism for development of AMD and the early visual improvement after intravitreal ranibizumab. PMID:23559864

  18. Comparison of Glucose Tolerance Categories in the Korean Population According to World Health Organization and American Diabetes Association Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyong Soo; Park, Young Joo; Kim, Sun Wook; Shin, Chan Soo; Park, Do Joon; Koh, Jae Joon; Kim, Seong Yeon; Kim, No Keyong; Lee, Hong Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To compare the prevalence and metabolic profiles of glucose tolerance categories according to World Health Organization(WHO) and 1997 American Diabetes Association (ADA) fasting criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose metabolism in the Korean population. Methods 2251 subjects without previous history of diabetes, who participated in the Yonchon diabetes epidemiology survey in 1993, were classified according to both criteria. The prevalence of glucose tolerance categories and the agreement across all categories of glucose tolerance were calculated. Metabolic characteristics of different glucose tolerance categories were compared. Results The prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) according to ADA fasting criteria was similar to those of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) according to WHO criteria, respectively. However, 35.5 % of the subjects who were diagnosed as diabetes by WHO criteria were reclassified as either IFG or normal fasting glucose (NFG), and 38.5 % of diabetic patients according to ADA fasting criteria were IGT or normal glucose tolerance (NGT) by WHO criteria. Only 31.3 % of IGT subjects remained as IFG and 62.1 % were reclassified as NFG. Similarly, 69.4 % of IFG subjects were NGT by WHO criteria. The agreement between the two criteria was poor (K =0.31). Discordant diabetes groups had higher WHR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol and triglyceride levels than concordant non-diabetes group. Non-diabetes(WHO)/diabetes(ADA) group had higher WHR than diabetes (WHO)/non-diabetes (ADA) group. There were no differences in other metabolic characteristics between the two discordant diabetes groups. IGT/NFG and NGT/IFG group showed higher BMI, WHR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol and triglyceride levels than NGT/NFG group. Metabolic characteristics of IGT/NFG group were not different from those of NGT/IFG group except IGT/NFG subjects were older than NGT

  19. Fermented food intake is associated with a reduced likelihood of atopic dermatitis in an adult population (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2013).

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Bae, Ji-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has continuously increased throughout the world in every age group, and the recent increase in AD in Korean adults may be related to changes in nutrient intakes due to westernization of dietary patterns. We hypothesized that the prevalence of AD is associated with the different dietary patterns and fermented food intakes of the Korean adult population. We examined the hypothesis using 9763 adults 19 years or older using the 2012-2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We identified 4 dietary patterns in addition to that including fermented foods using principal component analysis on data obtained from a 116-item validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire: meat and processed foods; vegetables, fruits, legumes, seafood, and seaweed; rice and grains; and coffee, chocolate, and ice cream. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for AD were calculated according to dietary patterns after adjusting for potential confounders. High levels of consumption (>92 times/month) of fermented foods such as doenjang, chungkookjang, kimchi, fermented seafood, makgeolli, and beer were associated with a lower prevalence of AD (OR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.84). In contrast, high levels of consumption of meat and processed foods were strongly associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.48-3.94). Interestingly, the consumption of coffee, chocolate, and ice cream was significantly negatively associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34-0.82). In conclusion, the hypothesis was accepted. The results can be applied to nutrition education programs for the general population to decrease risk factors for AD. PMID:26826428

  20. Korean Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pihl, Marshall R.

    While Chinese was, by and large, the formal and public literary language of the Korean court and aristocracy, native Korean literature survived as an oral tradition in the more informal and private realms of life. The Yi Dynasty which lasted until the Japanese annexation of 1910, produced and recorded a rich treasury of Chinese and Korean…

  1. Cognitive Function and Sleep Related Breathing Disorders in a Healthy Elderly Population: the Synapse Study

    PubMed Central

    Sforza, Emilia; Roche, Frédéeric; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine; Kerleroux, Judith; Beauchet, Olivier; Celle, Sébastien; Maudoux, Delphine; Pichot, Vincent; Laurent, Bernard; Barthélémy, Jean Claude

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD) are risk factors for cognitive dysfunction in middle-aged subjects, but this association has not been observed in the elderly. We assess the impact of SRBD on cognitive performance in a large cohort of healthy elderly subjects. Design: Cross-sectional study examining the association between subjective memory test, neuropsychological battery testing and SRBD in the elderly. Setting: Community-based sample in home and research clinical settings. Participants: 827 subjects, 58.5% women, aged 68 y at study entry, participated in the study. All were free of previously diagnosed SRBD, coronary heart disease, and neurological disorders, including stroke and dementia. Clinical interview, neurological assessment, polygraphy, and extensive cognitive testing were conducted for all participants. Intervention: N/A Measurement and Results: SRBD (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 15 events/h) was diagnosed in 445 (53%) subjects, 167 (37%) of them with AHI > 30. Minimal daytime sleepiness was found in the group; 9.2% of the population had an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score > 10. No significant association was found between AHI, nocturnal hypoxemia, and cognitive scores. Comparison of mild vs severe cases showed a trend toward lower cognitive scores with AHI > 30, affecting delayed recall and Stroop test. Conclusions: The impact of undiagnosed SRBD on cognitive function appeared quite limited in a generally older healthy population, and only slightly affected severe cases. The implication of undiagnosed SRBD on the cognitive impairment in elderly subjects remains hypothetical and needs to be prospectively studied. Clinical Trial Information: Autonomic Nervous System Activity, Aging and Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea (SYNAPSE); Registration #NCT 00766584 (This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants.); URL - http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00766584?term=NCT+00766584&rank=1 Citation: Sforza E; Roche F; Thomas-Anterion C

  2. Testing the limits of Rodent Sperm Analysis: azoospermia in an otherwise healthy wild rodent population.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, Lawrence V; Thran, Brandolyn H; Willams, Keith J

    2009-01-01

    By comparing the sperm parameters of small rodents trapped at contaminated terrestrial sites and nearby habitat-matched noncontaminated locations, the patent-pending Rodent Sperm Analysis (RSA) method provides a direct health status appraisal for the maximally chemical-exposed mammalian ecological receptor in the wild. RSA outcomes have consistently allowed for as definitive determinations of receptor health as are possible at the present time, thereby streamlining the ecological risk assessment (ERA) process. Here, we describe the unanticipated discovery, at a contaminated US EPA Superfund National Priorities List site, of a population of Hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), with a high percentage of adult males lacking sperm entirely (azoospermia). In light of the RSA method's role in streamlining ERAs and in bringing contaminated Superfund-type site investigations to closure, we consider the consequences of the discovery. The two matters specifically discussed are (1) the computation of a population's average sperm count where azoospermia is present and (2) the merits of the RSA method and its sperm parameter thresholds-for-effect when azoospermia is masked in an otherwise apparently healthy rodent population. PMID:18437443

  3. Composition and stability of intestinal microbiota of healthy children within a Dutch population.

    PubMed

    de Meij, Tim G J; Budding, Andries E; de Groot, Evelien F J; Jansen, Fenna M; Frank Kneepkens, C M; Benninga, Marc A; Penders, John; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A; Savelkoul, Paul H M

    2016-04-01

    Numerous diseases linked to microbial imbalance can be traced back to childhood, illustrating the impact of the juvenile microbiota development from infancy toward adulthood. However, knowledge on this subject is currently very limited. The primary aim of this study was to characterize composition and short- and long-term stability of the intestinal microbiota in healthy children. Between November 2011 and June 2014, 61 children 2 to 18 yr of age from different areas in The Netherlands were included and instructed to collect fecal samples weekly, for 6 wk, and a follow-up sample after 18 mo. The intergenic spacer profiling technique (IS-pro) was used to analyze all available fecal samples. Microbial diversity was calculated by the Shannon diversity index and individual compositional stability by comparing all collection time points. Microbial stability varied per phylum (P< 0.0005), declined rapidly in a short time period, and subsequently stabilized on the long run with very gradual variation, leading to an overall compositional stability of 70% on average over a period of 18 mo. Higher species diversity was correlated to a higher overall compositional stability (P< 0.001). We observed an age-independent bacterial shared core consisting of a limited number of species. In conclusion, in this study, we showed that microbial composition stability in children varied per phylum, at both short-term and long-term intervals. Healthy children seem to share a microbiome core consisting of a limited number of species.-De Meij, T. G. J., Budding, A. E., de Groot, E. F. J., Jansen, F. M., Kneepkens, C. M. F., Benninga, M. A., Penders, J., van Bodegraven, A. A., Savelkoul, P. H. M. Composition and stability of intestinal microbiota of healthy children within a Dutch population. PMID:26655704

  4. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of isoniazid, acetylisoniazid, and isonicotinic acid in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Hee, Kim-Hor; Soon, Gaik-Hong; Chew, Nicholas; Khoo, Saye H; Lee, Lawrence Soon-U

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we aimed to quantify the effects of the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) phenotype on isoniazid (INH) metabolism in vivo and identify other sources of pharmacokinetic variability following single-dose administration in healthy Asian adults. The concentrations of INH and its metabolites acetylisoniazid (AcINH) and isonicotinic acid (INA) in plasma were evaluated in 33 healthy Asians who were also given efavirenz and rifampin. The pharmacokinetics of INH, AcINH, and INA were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM) to estimate the population pharmacokinetic parameters and evaluate the relationships between the parameters and the elimination status (fast, intermediate, and slow acetylators), demographic status, and measures of renal and hepatic function. A two-compartment model with first-order absorption best described the INH pharmacokinetics. AcINH and INA data were best described by a two- and a one-compartment model, respectively, linked to the INH model. In the final model for INH, the derived metabolic phenotypes for NAT2 were identified as a significant covariate in the INH clearance, reducing its interindividual variability from 86% to 14%. The INH clearance in fast eliminators was 1.9- and 7.7-fold higher than in intermediate and slow eliminators, respectively (65 versus 35 and 8 liters/h). Creatinine clearance was confirmed as a significant covariate for AcINH clearance. Simulations suggested that the current dosing guidelines (200 mg for 30 to 45 kg and 300 mg for >45 kg) may be suboptimal (3 mg/liter ≤ Cmax ≤ 6 mg/liter) irrespective of the acetylator class. The analysis established a model that adequately characterizes INH, AcINH, and INA pharmacokinetics in healthy Asians. Our results refine the NAT2 phenotype-based predictions of the pharmacokinetics for INH. PMID:26282412

  5. Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Isoniazid, Acetylisoniazid, and Isonicotinic Acid in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Hee, Kim-Hor; Soon, Gaik-Hong; Chew, Nicholas; Khoo, Saye H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to quantify the effects of the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) phenotype on isoniazid (INH) metabolism in vivo and identify other sources of pharmacokinetic variability following single-dose administration in healthy Asian adults. The concentrations of INH and its metabolites acetylisoniazid (AcINH) and isonicotinic acid (INA) in plasma were evaluated in 33 healthy Asians who were also given efavirenz and rifampin. The pharmacokinetics of INH, AcINH, and INA were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM) to estimate the population pharmacokinetic parameters and evaluate the relationships between the parameters and the elimination status (fast, intermediate, and slow acetylators), demographic status, and measures of renal and hepatic function. A two-compartment model with first-order absorption best described the INH pharmacokinetics. AcINH and INA data were best described by a two- and a one-compartment model, respectively, linked to the INH model. In the final model for INH, the derived metabolic phenotypes for NAT2 were identified as a significant covariate in the INH clearance, reducing its interindividual variability from 86% to 14%. The INH clearance in fast eliminators was 1.9- and 7.7-fold higher than in intermediate and slow eliminators, respectively (65 versus 35 and 8 liters/h). Creatinine clearance was confirmed as a significant covariate for AcINH clearance. Simulations suggested that the current dosing guidelines (200 mg for 30 to 45 kg and 300 mg for >45 kg) may be suboptimal (3 mg/liter ≤ Cmax ≤ 6 mg/liter) irrespective of the acetylator class. The analysis established a model that adequately characterizes INH, AcINH, and INA pharmacokinetics in healthy Asians. Our results refine the NAT2 phenotype-based predictions of the pharmacokinetics for INH. PMID:26282412

  6. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    PubMed

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. PMID:26850856

  7. Influence of inflammatory and lipidic parameters on red blood cell distribution width in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Vayá, Amparo; Sarnago, Ana; Fuster, Oscar; Alis, Rafael; Romagnoli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a routine red blood cell count parameter which has been shown to be associated with inflammatory parameters. Recently, some authors proposed that RDW seems to be a marker of an adverse lipidic profile. In order to clarify whether RDW is related to inflammation, plasma lipids, or both, we determined anthropometric, hematimetric, inflammatory and lipidic parameters in 1111 healthy subjects. RDW correlated directly with age, body mass index (BMI), inflammatory parameters (plasma viscosity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, leukocyte and neutrophil count), and inversely with iron and hematimetric parameters (P <  0.05). When subjects were divided according to gender, RDW correlated inversely with triglycerides only in women (P <  0.05). When subjects were classified into RDW-quartiles, increased RDW values were accompanied by decreased serum iron levels and hematimetric indices (P <  0.01), whereas age and inflammatory markers increased according to RDW-quartiles (P <  0.001 and P <  0.05, respectively). However, plasma lipids did not change with increasing RDW-quartiles (P >  0.05). In the linear regression analysis, age, hemoglobin, MCV (beta coefficient: 0.202, -0.234, -0.316, P <  0.001) and fibrinogen (beta coefficient: 0.059, P = 0.048) were the only independent predictors of RDW. The present study indicates that RDW is associated with inflammatory markers and hematimetric indices, but not with plasma lipid levels in a healthy population. PMID:25159489

  8. Oat Bran as a Cholesterol-Reducing Dietary Adjunct in a Young, Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Kurt V.; Davidson, Dennis M.

    1988-01-01

    In a study to examine the effects of dietary oat bran on serum lipids, subjects who ate two oat bran muffins a day for 28 days showed a 5.3% reduction in serum total cholesterol and an 8.7% reduction in low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, while no changes were noted in subjects consuming wheat or mixed wheat and oat bran muffins. Similarly, those who ingested oat bran muffins showed an 8.3% reduction in serum triglyceride values as contrasted with an overall increase of 6.4% in the other groups combined. These findings suggest that oat bran taken daily can significantly lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in a young, healthy population. PMID:2834883

  9. Determinants of arterial stiffness in an apparently healthy population over 60 years.

    PubMed

    Alecu, C; Gueguen, R; Aubry, C; Salvi, P; Perret-Guillaume, C; Ducrocq, X; Vespignani, H; Benetos, A

    2006-10-01

    Arterial stiffness assessed by the pulse wave velocity (PWV), a non-invasive and reproducible method, predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The main determinants of arterial stiffness are well established in younger and middle-aged populations, but much less in the elderly. The aim of this study was to describe the determinants of arterial stiffness in elderly apparently healthy subjects. The study included 221 voluntary subjects born before 1944 (mean age 67.4+/-5.0 years), who had a standard health check-up at the 'Centre de Médecine Préventive' of Nancy. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by measuring the carotid-femoral PWV with the PulsePen automatic device. Clinical and biological parameters were evaluated at the same day. Measurements were valid and analysed in 207 subjects (94 women). Mean PWV was 9.39+/-2.64 m/s. Men showed higher PWV values than women (9.99+/-2.56 vs 8.66+/-2.56, P<0.001). In univariate analysis, PWV was correlated with age (r=0.26, P<0.001) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (r=0.40, P<0.001), and these relationships were similar in men and women. Subjects with hypertension (P<0.001), diabetes mellitus (P<0.001) and obesity (P<0.01) had higher values of PWV. In multiple regression analysis, PWV correlated positively and independently with age, male gender, MAP and diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, in an apparently healthy elderly population, the main determinants of arterial stiffness are the age, MAP, diabetes and gender. Our study also shows that the gender-related differences in arterial stiffness observed in middle-aged subjects are maintained in the elderly. PMID:16855622

  10. HLA-G allele and haplotype frequencies in a healthy population of Iran.

    PubMed

    Kuroshli, Zahra; Gourabi, Hamid; Bazrgar, Masoud; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Bahraminejad, Elmira; Anisi, Khadije

    2014-06-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G molecule is expressed in cytotrophoblast cells, adult thymic epithelial cells, erythroblasts, pancreatic islets and mesenchymal stem cells. Although, HLA-G expression in allotransplanted patients is correlated with a better allograft acceptance, it is associated with an advanced grade of the tumor in cancer. In addition to the role on the immune system, HLA-G is also involved in successful pregnancy through the embryo implantation, fetal survival and the initial steps of hematopoiesis and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was determination of HLA-G allele frequencies in a healthy population of Iran. In this research, we selected 100 samples from healthy Iranian individuals and henceforth, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing technique for exon 2, 3, 4 and intron 2 of the gene for evaluating the HLA-G alleles frequencies. Investigation of intronic (intron 2) variation is the novelty of our study. The obtained results indicated thirteen alleles of HLA-G in Iranian individuals including G*01:01:01:01, G*01:06, G*01:01:01:06, G*01:01:02, G*01:01:03, G*01:01:05, G*01:01:06, G*01:01:07, G*01:01:08, G*01:03, G*01:04:01, G*01:04:03, and G*01:04:04. According to this study, the most prevalent alleles in the Iranian population were G*01:01:01:01 (52.5%), G*01:01:02 (16%) and G*01:04:03 (14.5%) and also the lowest alleles regarding the frequency were G*01:01:01:06 (0.5%) and G*01:03 (0.5%). The results of G*01:01:01:01 and G*01:04:01 frequencies showed some similarities with the polish population. Our results were similar to the north Indian population for the frequencies of G*01:06 and G*01:01:02. PMID:24659125

  11. Defining the Limits of Normal Conjunctival Fornix Anatomy in a Healthy South Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran J.; Ghauri, Abdul-Jabbar; Hodson, James; Edmunds, Matthew R.; Cottrell, Paul; Evans, Simon; Williams, Geraint P.; Rauz, Saaeha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Quantifying the extent of conjunctival fibrosis for documentation of progression in conjunctival scarring disease is a clinical challenge. Measurement of forniceal foreshortening facilitates monitoring of these disorders. This study aims (1) to define the limits of the normal human conjunctival fornices and how these alter with age and (2) to provide normative data for upper and lower fornix depths (FDs) and fornix intercanthal distance (FICD) within a healthy South Asian, racially distinct population. Design Epidemiologic, cross-sectional study. Participants A total of 240 subjects with national origins from South Asia, with no known ocular history and normal adnexal and conjunctival examination, aged 20 to 80 years. Methods An FICD modification of a custom-designed fornix depth measurer (FDM) was validated and used for measurement of both lower and upper FDs together with FICDs in 480 healthy eyes with no ocular comorbidities. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and presented as means with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Main Outcome Measures Mean lower and upper FDs and FICD for the entire cohort, stratified according to age decade and sex. Results For this South Asian population, the overall upper and lower FDs were 15.3 mm (95% CI, 14.9–15.6) and 10.9 mm (95% CI, 10.7–11.1), respectively, with FICD defined as 32.9 mm (95% CI, 32.5–33.4) (upper) and 31.7 mm (95% CI, 31.3–32.1) (lower). With increasing age, a progressive reduction of all measured parameters (P < 0.001) was noted, with female subjects having significantly shallower fornices (upper FD, P < 0.001; lower FD, P < 0.001; upper FICD, P = 0.081; and lower FICD, P = 0.015). Conclusions This is the first study to define the limits of normal upper FD and FICDs in any population group. Our study demonstrates sex variations and progressive conjunctival shrinkage with age. Although it provides important, objective data for normal forniceal anatomy

  12. Changing Patterns of Primary Treatment in Korean Men with Prostate Cancer Over 10 Years: A Nationwide Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinsung; Suh, Beomseok; Shin, Dong Wook; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Ahn, Hanjong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated changing patterns of primary treatment in Korean men with prostate cancer (PC) and impact of sociodemographic factors on treatment choice from a nationwide cohort over 10 years. Materials and Methods We conducted a cohort study of a 2% nationwide random sample of Korean National Health Insurance. A total of 1,382 patients who had undergone active treatments for newly diagnosed PC between 2003 and 2013 were included. Time trends in primary treatment of PC, including radical surgery, radiation therapy (RT), and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were analyzed. Results Total number of patients undergoing active treatments increased significantly (162%). Surgery cases showed the most significant increase, from 22.4% in 2003 to 45.4% in 2013, while the relative proportion of ADT showed a tendency to decrease from 60.3% in 2003 to 45.4% in 2013, and the relative proportion of RT was variable over 10 years (from 7.2% to 18.4%). While treatment patterns differed significantly according to age (p < 0.001) and income classes (p=0.014), there were differences in primary treatment according to residential area. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, older patients showed significant association with ADT or RT compared to surgery, while patients with higher income showed significant association with surgery. Conclusion Treatment pattern in Korean PC patients has changed remarkably over the last 10 years. Sociodemographic factors do affect the primary treatment choice. Our results will be valuable in overviewing changing patterns of primary treatment in Korean PC patients and planning future health policy for PC. PMID:26511804

  13. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate

  14. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  15. Frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in healthy Bosniak population

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Grażyna; Valjevac, Amina; Skonieczna-Żydecka, Karolina; Mackic-Djurovic, Mirela; Parczewski, Miłosz; Urbańska, Anna; Salkic, Nermin N

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated the role of CCR5Δ32 in a variety of human diseases: from infectious and inflammatory diseases to cancer. Several studies have confirmed that genetic variants in chemokine receptor CCR5 gene are correlated with susceptibility and resistance to HIV infection. A 32-nucleotide deletion within the CCR5 reading frame is associated with decreased susceptibility to HIV acquisition and a slower progression to AIDS. Mean frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in Europe is approximately 10%. The highest allele frequency is observed among Nordic populations (about 12%) and the lowest in the regions of Southeast Mediterranean (about 5%). Although the frequency of CCR5Δ32 was determined in numerous European populations, there is a lack of studies on this variant in the Bosnia and Herzegovina population. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in the cohort of Bosniaks and compare the results with European reports. CCR5Δ32 was detected by sequence-specific PCR in a sample of 100 healthy Bosniaks (DNA collected 2011-2013). Mean age of the cohort being 58.8 (±10.7) years, with 82% of women. We identified 17 heterozygotes and one mutant homozygote in study group, with mean ∆32 allele frequency of 9.5%. CCR5∆32 allele frequency among Bosniaks is comparable to that found in Caucasian populations and follows the pattern of the north-southern gradient observed for Europe. Further studies on larger cohorts with adequate female-to-male ratio are necessary. PMID:25172974

  16. Establishment of Reference Ranges for Prostate Volume and Annual Prostate Volume Change Rate in Korean Adult Men: Analyses of a Nationwide Screening Population.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinsung; Lee, Dong-Gi; Suh, Beomseok; Cho, Sung Yong; Chang, In Ho; Paick, Sung Hyun; Lee, Hyung-Lae

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to determine normal reference ranges for prostate volume (PV) and annual PV change rate in a Korean nationwide screening population. Data from men who underwent a routine health check-up were collected from 13 university hospitals. The cohort comprised men aged ≥40 yr who had undergone 2 or more serial transrectal ultrasonographies. Men with initial PV>100 mL; serum PSA level>10 ng/mL; PV reduction>20% compared with initial PV, or who had history of prostate cancer or prostate surgery, were excluded. Linear regression and mixed effects regression analyses were used to predict mean PV and longitudinal change in PV over time. A total of 2,967 men formed the study cohort. Age, body mass index (BMI), and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level were found to be significant predictors of PV. A predicted PV table, with a 95% confidence interval (CIs), was developed after adjusting for these 3 variables. Annual PV change rate was 0.51 mL/year (95% CI, 0.47-0.55). Annual PV change rate according to age was 0.68 mL/year, 0.84 mL/year, 1.09 mL/year, and 0.50 mL/year for subjects in their 40s, 50s, 60s, and ≥70 yr, respectively. Predicted annual PV change rate differed depending on age, BMI, serum PSA level and baseline PV. From a nationwide screening database, we established age-, PSA-, and BMI-specific reference ranges for PV and annual PV change rate in Korean men. Our newly established reference ranges for PV and annual PV change rate will be valuable in interpreting PV data in Korean men. PMID:26240492

  17. The effect of obesity on kidney length in a healthy pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Pantoja Zuzuárregui, José-Rafael; Mallios, Ronna; Murphy, Jerome

    2009-10-01

    Over the past decade, the percentage of children who are obese has rapidly increased. As weight has been shown to correlate strongly with the size of various organs, we have observed that obese children have larger kidneys than their normal-weight counterparts. This study sought to quantify this observation by establishing the normal limits of renal length for this population. We examined 204 healthy patients seen for benign hematuria between January 2000 and May 2008. Both right and left kidney lengths significantly correlated with age, height, weight, body mass index and body surface area in our obese patients (n = 59). Height was also found to be a significant predictor of kidney length, in the obese group, by multiple linear regression analysis and was used to create renal length nomograms for the obese pediatric population (P < 0.01). According to this analysis, obese patients had significantly larger kidneys than those of normal-weight patients (P < 0.01). By defining the normal limits of renal length for this group, unnecessary evaluation for nephromegaly will be avoided. PMID:19475431

  18. Cephalometric norms for the upper airway in a healthy North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Shastri, Dipti; Tandon, Pradeep; Nagar, Amit; Singh, Alka

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to obtain normative data for cephalometric measurements of the upper airway in the North Indian population. Design: Observational study. Setting: University department and teaching hospital out-patient clinic. Subjects and Methods: A total of 180 healthy patients were included out of which 90 were males (age range, 8-16 years), and 90 were females (age range, 8-16 years), with normal skeletal facial profile, no history of snoring, sleep apnea, upper airway disease, tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy, obesity, or pathology in the pharynx. Twenty cephalometric airway measurements, including size of the tongue, soft palate, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and relative position of the hyoid bone and valleculae were obtained. Landmarks on cephalometric radiographs were digitized and measurements were made using a specially designed computer program. Error analysis of measurements was performed and comparison of measurements according to sex was made. Results: Significant sex dimorphism was seen for the majority of measurements, with the exception of minimal depth of the airway, oropharyngeal depth of the airway, and the soft palate angle with the hard palate. Conclusion: A minimum sagittal dimension of the upper airway was evident despite differences in measurements between sexes. Findings from this study should be a useful reference for the assessment of sleep apnea in the North Indian population. PMID:26097352

  19. Metabolically Healthy Obesity and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Koolhaas, Chantal M.; van Rossum, Elisabeth F. C.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Hofman, Albert; Kavousi, Maryam; Franco, Oscar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether being metabolically healthy obese (MHO)—defined by the presence of obesity in the absence of metabolic syndrome—is associated with subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear and may depend on the participants’ age. We examined the association of being MHO with CVD risk in the elderly. Methods and Findings This study included 5,314 individuals (mean age 68 years) from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study. We categorized our population in groups according to body mass index (BMI) and presence and absence of metabolic syndrome, and estimated the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for every group by using Cox proportional hazard models. Among 1048 (19.7%) obese individuals we identified 260 (24.8%) MHO subjects. Over 14 years of follow-up there were 861 incident CVD cases. In the multivariable adjusted analysis, we did not observe an increased CVD risk in MHO individuals (HR 1.07, 95%CI 0.75–1.53), compared to normal weight individuals without metabolic syndrome. CVD risk was increased by the presence of metabolic syndrome in normal weight (HR 1.35, 95%CI 1.02–1.80), overweight (HR 1.32, 95%CI 1.09–1.60) and obese (HR 1.33, 95%CI 1.07–1.66) individuals, compared to those with normal weight without metabolic syndrome. In a mediation analysis, 71.3% of the association between BMI and CVD was explained by the presence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions In our elderly population, we found that the presence of obesity without metabolic syndrome did not confer a higher CVD risk. However, metabolic syndrome was strongly associated with CVD risk, and was associated with an increased risk in all BMI categories. Therefore, preventive interventions targeting cardiometabolic risk factors could be considered in elderly, regardless of weight status. PMID:27100779

  20. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Blepharoptosis in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rha, Eun Young; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yongkyu; Yoo, Gyeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence of blepharoptosis in a representative South Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. In total, 17,178 Korean adults (7,261 men and 9,917 women) aged 19 years or older were enrolled. Blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance 1 (MDR 1) lower than 2 mm. Household income and education level were used as indicators of SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis. Results Household income was inversely associated with the prevalence of blepharoptosis in women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 1.894 (1.336, 2.685)], and educational level was inversely associated with blepharoptosis in both men and women [aORs and 95% CIs were 1.572 (1.113, 2.219) and 1.973 (1.153, 3.376), respectively]. After adjusting for household income and educational level, low SES was associated with a high prevalence of blepharoptosis in women only. Conclusions Socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of blepharoptosis were found among women. Indeed, future research using a prospective design to determine the causal relationship between SES and blepharoptosis may identify SES as a risk factor for this condition. PMID:26727468

  1. The Association Between Blood Mercury Levels and Risk for Overweight in a General Adult Population: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between blood mercury levels and overweight in Korean adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 9228 participants (4283 men and 4945 women) who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2013. The population was divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Blood mercury levels were analyzed using a gold amalgam method with a DMA-80 instrument, categorized into quartiles, and stratified by sex. After adjusting for all covariates, blood mercury was significantly associated with overweight in all subjects. According to the BMI criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.75 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.01) overall, 2.09 (95 % CI, 1.71-2.55) in men, and 1.58 (95 % CI, 1.32-1.89) in women. According to the WC criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.85 (95 % CI, 1.49-2.30) in men and 1.96 (95 % CI, 1.62-2.36) in women compared to the lowest quartile. Additionally, a trend in overweight across increasing blood mercury levels was observed by the p for trend test in the multiple diagnostic criteria. PMID:26458904

  2. Association between Maternal Characteristics and Neonatal Birth Weight in a Korean Population Living in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea: A Birth Cohort Study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Choi, Suk-Joo; Kim, Kyung Won; Yu, Jinho; Ahn, Kang Mo; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that maternal characteristics may be associated with neonatal outcomes. However, the influence of maternal characteristics on birth weight (BW) has not been adequately determined in Korean populations. We investigated associations between maternal characteristics and BW in a sample of 813 Korean women living in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea recruited using data from the prospective hospital-based COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) between 2007 and 2011. The mean maternal age at delivery was 32.3 ± 3.5 yr and prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) was 20.7 ± 2.5 kg/m2. The mean BW of infant was 3,196 ± 406 g. The overall prevalence of a maternal history of allergic disease was 32.9% and the overall prevalence of allergic symptoms was 65.1%. In multivariate regression models, prepregnancy maternal BMI and gestational age at delivery were positively and a maternal history of allergic disease and nulliparity were negatively associated with BW (all P < 0.05). Presence of allergic symptoms in the mother was not associated with BW. In conclusion, prepregnancy maternal BMI, gestational age at delivery, a maternal history of allergic disease, and nulliparity may be associated with BW, respectively. PMID:23579316

  3. A comparison of somatic mutational spectra in healthy study populations from Russia, Sweden and USA

    SciTech Connect

    Noori, P; Hou, S; Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Lambert, B

    2004-10-27

    Comparison of mutation spectra at the hypoxanthine-phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene of peripheral blood T lymphocytes may provide insight into the aetiology of somatic mutation contributing to carcinogenesis and other diseases. To increase knowledge of mutation spectra in healthy people, we have analyzed HPRT mutant T-cells of 50 healthy Russians originally recruited as controls for a study of Chernobyl clean-up workers (Jones et al. Radiation Res. 158, 2002, 424). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions and DNA sequencing identified 161 independent mutations among 176 thioguanine resistant mutants. Forty (40) mutations affected splicing mechanisms and 27 deletions or insertions of 1 to 60 nucleotides were identified. Ninety four (94) single base substitutions were identified, including 62 different mutations at 55 different nucleotide positions, of which 19 had not previously been reported in human T-cells. Comparison of this base substitution spectrum with mutation spectra in a USA (Burkhart-Schultz et al. Carcinogenesis 17, 1996, 1871) and two Swedish populations (Podlutsky et al, Carcinogenesis 19, 1998, 557, Podlutsky et al. Mutation Res. 431, 1999, 325) revealed similarity in the type, frequency and distribution of mutations in the four spectra, consistent with aetiologies inherent in human metabolism. There were 15-19 identical mutations in the three pair-wise comparisons of Russian with USA and Swedish spectra. Intriguingly, there were 21 mutations unique to the Russian spectrum, and comparison by the Monte Carlo method of Adams and Skopek (J. Mol. Biol. 194, 1987, 391) indicated that the Russian spectrum was different from both Swedish spectra (P=0.007, 0.002) but not different from the USA spectrum (P=0.07), when Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was made (p < 0.008 required for significance). Age and smoking did not account for these differences. Other factors causing mutational differences need to be explored.

  4. [Beverage consumption for a healthy life: recommendations for the Mexican population].

    PubMed

    Rivera, Juan A; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Popkin, Barry M; Willett, Walter C

    2008-01-01

    The Expert Committee in charge of developing the Beverage Consumption Recommendations for the Mexican Population was convened by the Secretary of Health for the purpose of developing evidence-based guidelines for consumers, health professionals, and government officials. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and diabetes have dramatically increased in Mexico; beverages contribute a fifth of all calories consumed by Mexicans. Extensive research has found that caloric beverages increase the risk of obesity. Taking into consideration multiple factors, including the health benefits, risks, and nutritional implications associated with beverage consumption, as well as consumption patterns in Mexico, the committee classified beverages into six levels. Classifications were made based on caloric content, nutritional value, and health risks associated with the consumption of each type of beverage and range from the healthier (level 1) to least healthy (level 6) options, as follows: Level 1: water; Level 2: skim or low fat (1%) milk and sugar free soy beverages; Level 3: coffee and tea without sugar; Level 4: non-caloric beverages with artificial sweeteners; Level 5: beverages with high caloric content and limited health benefits (fruit juices, whole milk, and fruit smoothies with sugar or honey; alcoholic and sports drinks), and Level 6: beverages high in sugar and with low nutritional value (soft drinks and other beverages with significant amounts of added sugar like juices, flavored waters, coffee and tea). The committee recommends the consumption of water as a first choice, followed by no or low-calorie drinks, and skim milk. These beverages should be favored over beverages with high caloric value or sweetened beverages, including those containing artificial sweeteners. Portion size recommendations are included for each beverage category and healthy consumption patterns for men and women are illustrated. PMID:18637573

  5. [Drink consumption for a healthy life: recommendations for the general population in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Rivera, Juan A; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Popkin, Barry M; Willett, Walter C

    2008-01-01

    The Expert Committee in charge of developing the Beverage Consumption Recommendations for the Mexican Population was convened by the Ministry of Health with the aim of drafting evidence-based guidelines for consumers, health professionals, and government officials. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and diabetes have dramatically increased in Mexico; beverages contribute a fifth of all calories consumed by Mexicans. Extensive research has documented that caloric beverages increase the risk of obesity. Taking into consideration multiple factors, including health benefits, risks, and nutritional implications associated with beverage consumption, as well as consumption patterns in Mexico, the committee classified beverages in six categories. Classifications were made based on caloric content, nutritional value, and health risks associated with the consumption of each type of beverage. Ranges included healthier (level 1) to least healthy (level 6) options as follows: Level 1: water; Level 2: skim or low fat (1%) milk and sugar free soy beverages; Level 3: coffee and tea without sugar; Level 4: non-caloric beverages with artificial sweeteners; Level 5: beverages with high caloric content and limited health benefits (fruit juices, whole milk, and fruit smoothies with sugar or honey; alcoholic and sports drinks), and Level 6: beverages high in sugar and with low nutritional value (soft drinks and other beverages with significant amounts of added sugar like juices, flavored waters, coffee and tea). The committee recommends the consumption of water as a first choice, followed by no or low-calorie drinks, and skim milk. These beverages should be favored over beverages with high caloric value or sweetened beverages, including those containing artificial sweeteners. Portion size recommendations are included for each beverage category together with healthy consumption patterns for men and women. PMID:19043956

  6. [Beverage consumption for a healthy life: recommendations for the Mexican population].

    PubMed

    Rivera, Juan A; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Popkin, Barry M; Willett, Walter C

    2008-01-01

    The Expert Committee in charge of developing the Beverage Consumption Recommendations for the Mexican Population was convened by the Secretary of Health for the purpose of developing evidence-based guidelines for consumers, health professionals, and government officials. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and diabetes have dramatically increased in Mexico; beverages contribute a fifth of all calories consumed by Mexicans. Extensive research has found that caloric beverages increase the risk of obesity. Taking into consideration multiple factors, including the health benefits, risks, and nutritional implications associated with beverage consumption, as well as consumption patterns in Mexico, the committee classified beverages into six levels. Classifications were made based on caloric content, nutritional value, and health risks associated with the consumption of each type of beverage and range from the healthier (level 1) to least healthy (level 6) options, as follows: Level 1: water; Level 2: skim or low fat (1%) milk and sugar free soy beverages; Level 3: coffee and tea without sugar; Level 4: non-caloric beverages with artificial sweeteners; Level 5: beverages with high caloric content and limited health benefits (fruit juices, whole milk, and fruit smoothies with sugar or honey; alcoholic and sports drinks), and Level 6: beverages high in sugar and with low nutritional value (soft drinks and other beverages with significant amounts of added sugar like juices, flavored waters, coffee and tea). The committee recommends the consumption of water as a first choice, followed by no or low-calorie drinks, and skim milk. These beverages should be favored over beverages with high caloric value or sweetened beverages, including those containing artificial sweeteners. Portion size recommendations are included for each beverage category and healthy consumption patterns for men and women are illustrated. PMID:18372998

  7. Seasonal changes of 24-hour intraocular pressure rhythm in healthy Shanghai population

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jingyi; Xiao, Ming; Xu, Huan; Fang, Shaobin; Chen, Xu; Kong, Xiangmei; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythms in winter and summer in the healthy population of Shanghai, China. This is a cross-sectional study in which 24-hour IOP measurements were taken for all eligible healthy volunteers in winter and summer, respectively, and the temperature, hours of sunlight (sunlight time), and circulatory parameters, including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, were also recorded. The 24-hour IOP curves and IOP parameters (mean, peak, trough, and fluctuation of IOP together with the diurnal-to-nocturnal IOP change) in winter and summer were obtained and compared. The magnitude of IOP changes from summer to winter was also calculated. A total of 29 participants (58 eyes), 14 (48.28%) male and 15 (51.72%) female, aged 43.66 ± 12.20 (19–61) years, were considered eligible for this study. Generally, IOP decreased progressively before noon, increased notably in the nocturnal period, and peaked at 12:00 am in winter and at 2:00 am in summer. The pattern of 24-hour IOP in winter and summer was significantly different (P = 0.002). The average IOPs from 4:00 pm to 8:00 am, except for 6:00 am, were significantly higher in winter (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were shown after adjusting for temperature and/or sunlight time. From summer to winter, the extent of IOP increase was mostly around 0 to 3 mm Hg, and the IOPs increased more significantly in the nocturnal period than in the diurnal period (P = 0.05). The 24-hour IOP rhythms were different in winter and summer, with higher IOP level in winter. Temperature and sunlight time, which are independent of heart rate and blood pressure, affected the 24-hour IOP rhythms in healthy people in Shanghai, China. Further investigations are expected for the rhythm of some endogenous substance secretion and the inner mechanism of regulation of IOP. PMID:27495076

  8. Seasonal changes of 24-hour intraocular pressure rhythm in healthy Shanghai population.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jingyi; Xiao, Ming; Xu, Huan; Fang, Shaobin; Chen, Xu; Kong, Xiangmei; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythms in winter and summer in the healthy population of Shanghai, China.This is a cross-sectional study in which 24-hour IOP measurements were taken for all eligible healthy volunteers in winter and summer, respectively, and the temperature, hours of sunlight (sunlight time), and circulatory parameters, including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, were also recorded. The 24-hour IOP curves and IOP parameters (mean, peak, trough, and fluctuation of IOP together with the diurnal-to-nocturnal IOP change) in winter and summer were obtained and compared. The magnitude of IOP changes from summer to winter was also calculated.A total of 29 participants (58 eyes), 14 (48.28%) male and 15 (51.72%) female, aged 43.66 ± 12.20 (19-61) years, were considered eligible for this study. Generally, IOP decreased progressively before noon, increased notably in the nocturnal period, and peaked at 12:00 AM in winter and at 2:00 AM in summer. The pattern of 24-hour IOP in winter and summer was significantly different (P = 0.002). The average IOPs from 4:00 PM to 8:00 AM, except for 6:00 AM, were significantly higher in winter (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were shown after adjusting for temperature and/or sunlight time. From summer to winter, the extent of IOP increase was mostly around 0 to 3 mm Hg, and the IOPs increased more significantly in the nocturnal period than in the diurnal period (P = 0.05).The 24-hour IOP rhythms were different in winter and summer, with higher IOP level in winter. Temperature and sunlight time, which are independent of heart rate and blood pressure, affected the 24-hour IOP rhythms in healthy people in Shanghai, China. Further investigations are expected for the rhythm of some endogenous substance secretion and the inner mechanism of regulation of IOP. PMID:27495076

  9. Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case–control, and intervention studies of a general healthy population in settings similar to the Nordic countries with protein intake from food-based sources were included. Out of a total of 301 abstracts, 152 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After careful scrutiny, 23 papers were quality graded as A (highest, n=1), B (n=18), or C (n=4). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement (EAR) of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance (N-balance) studies and the subsequent recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 0.83 g good-quality protein/kg BW/day representing the minimum dietary protein needs of virtually all healthy elderly persons. Regarding the optimal level of protein related to functional outcomes like maintenance of bone mass, muscle mass, and strength, as well as for morbidity and mortality, the evidence is ranging from suggestive to inconclusive. Results from particularly prospective cohort studies suggest a safe intake of up to at least 1.2–1.5 g protein/kg BW/day or approximately 15–20 E%. Overall, many of the included prospective cohort studies were difficult to fully evaluate since results mainly were obtained by food frequency questionnaires that were flawed by underreported intakes, although some studies were ‘calibrated’ to correct for under- or over-reporting. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the EAR based on N-balance studies and suggestive to inconclusive regarding an optimal protein intake higher than the estimated

  10. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Lens Opacities in a Korean Adult Population with and without Diabetes: The 2008–2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Lee, Joo Eun; Lee, Eun Ju; Won, Jong Chul; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with lens opacities in a Korean adult population with and without diabetes. Research Design and Methods Among the 11,163 adults (≥19 years old) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2009, the data from laboratory tests, nutritional surveys, and slit-lamp examinations of 10,248 persons (4,397 men, 5,851 women) were examined. Cataract was defined as the presence of any nuclear, cortical, subcapsular, or mixed cataract in at least one eye, using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. Results The weighted prevalence of cataracts were 23.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.7–25.4] in a Korean adult population (19–39 years old, 1.8% [1.3–2.5], 40–64 years old, 25.2% [22.5–28.1],≥65 years old, 87.8% [85.4–89.9])and 54.7% [50.1–59.2] in a diabetic population(19–39 years old, 11.6% [4.5–26.5], 40–64 years old, 41.1% [35.4–47.0], ≥65 years old, 88.3% [83.5–91.8]). In a logistic regression analysis, age, myopia, and the presence of diabetes were independent risk factors. For young (age 19–39 years) and middle aged (age 40–65 years) adults with diabetes, the OR of having a lens opacity is 5.04 [1.41–17.98] and 1.47 [1.11–1.94], respectively, as those without diabetes, whereas for adults aged 65 and older, there was no difference in the prevalence of cataract. Conclusions According to these national survey data, ∼ 24% of Korean adults and ∼ 55% of people with diabetes have cataracts. The presence of diabetes was independently associated with cataracts in young and middle aged adults. PMID:24718421

  11. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention for rocuronium-induced withdrawal movement in the Korean population: a meta-analysis of 41 studies including 4,742 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Geun Joo; Lee, Sangseok; Lee, Jeoung Hyuk; Park, Seul Gi

    2014-01-01

    Background We purposed to systemically review studies investigating the prophylactic effect of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological modalities against rocuronium induced withdrawal movement (RIWM) in the Korean population. Methods Literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Koreamed, KMBASE, KISS and RISS up to March 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions with placebo aimed for the Korean population were included. Outcome measures were the incidence and severity of RIWM. We conducted subgroup analyses according to each intervention method. Results Data were analyzed from 41 RCTs totaling 4,742 subjects. The overall incidence of RIWM was about 80% (range 56-100%). Incidence and severity of RIWM were significantly reduced with lidocaine (risk ratio [RR] 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.74; standardized mean difference [SMD] -0.74, 95% CI -1.05 to -0.44), opioids (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.18-0.44; SMD -1.71, 95% CI -2.09 to -1.34) and hypnotics (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.25-0.52; SMD -2.20, 95% CI -2.62 to -1.79). Regardless of tourniquet use, lidocaine showed a prophylactic effect against incidence and severity of RIWM: tourniquet (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.21-0.62; SMD -1.51, 95% CI -2.15 to -0.86); non-tourniquet (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.47-0.71; SMD -0.74, 95% CI -1.05 to -0.44). Dilution and slow injection of rocuronium decreased incidence and severity of RIWM: dilution (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.39-0.56; SMD -1.64, 95% CI -2.47 to -0.81); slow injection (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.17-0.70; SMD -2.13, 95% CI -2.74 to -1.51). Conclusions The greater part of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions showed prophylactic effect against the incidence and severity of RIWM in the Korean population. PMID:25006365

  12. Does a healthy lifestyle behaviour influence the prognosis of low back pain among men and women in a general population? A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bohman, Tony; Alfredsson, Lars; Jensen, Irene; Hallqvist, Johan; Vingård, Eva; Skillgate, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To study the influence of healthy lifestyle behaviour on the prognosis of occasional low back pain among men and women in a general population. Design Cohort study with a 4-year follow-up. Settings General population in Stockholm County, Sweden. Participants The study sample comprised 3938 men and 5056 women aged 18–84 from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort reporting occasional low back pain in the baseline questionnaire 2006. Measures Lifestyle factors and potential confounders were assessed at baseline. The lifestyle factors smoking habits, alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity and consumption of fruit and vegetables were dichotomised using recommendations for a health-enhancing lifestyle and combined to form the exposure variable ‘healthy lifestyle behaviour’. The exposure was categorised into five levels according to the number of healthy lifestyle factors met. The follow-up questionnaire in 2010 gave information about the outcome, long duration troublesome low back pain. Crude and adjusted binomial regression models were applied to estimate the association between the exposure and the outcome analysing men and women separately. Results The risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain decreased with increasing healthy lifestyle behaviour (trend test: p=0.006). 21% (28/131) among women with no healthy lifestyle factor (reference) experienced the outcome compared to 9% (36/420) among women with all four factors. Compared to the reference group, the risk was reduced by 35% (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96) for women with one healthy lifestyle factor and 52% (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77) for women with all four healthy lifestyle factors. There were no clear associations found among men. Conclusions Healthy lifestyle behaviour seems to decrease the risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain and may be recommended to improve the

  13. Population pharmacokinetics of ponesimod and its primary metabolites in healthy and organ-impaired subjects.

    PubMed

    Lott, Dominik; Krause, Andreas; Dingemanse, Jasper; Lehr, Thorsten

    2016-06-30

    Ponesimod, a selective, orally active S1P1 receptor modulator, reduces total blood lymphocyte counts by blocking the egress of lymphocytes from lymphoid organs. It is currently in clinical development for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Ponesimod has two primary metabolites, M12 and M13, that circulate in human plasma. The work presented in this paper predicts and quantifies the accumulation of ponesimod and both metabolites in healthy and organ-impaired subjects. Based on clinical data including studies in renally and hepatically impaired subjects, a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed to characterize the PK of ponesimod and its primary metabolites and to qualify and quantify the influence of organ impairment on the concentration-time profiles of these compounds. As hepatic and renal function are critical for the elimination of the majority of drugs, being able to quantify their influence is important for the treatment in these populations. The PK of ponesimod and its metabolites were characterized by 2 compartments for each of the analytes, inter-connected via a liver compartment that serves as a physiologically meaningful approach to model first-pass metabolism. Absorption and elimination were described by first-order processes whereas metabolism was found to be saturable at supratherapeutic doses. Body weight and hepatic impairment were identified as significant covariates. Whereas the effect of body weight is small and within the margins of between-subject variability, hepatic impairment markedly affects the PK of ponesimod and its metabolites with up to 9-fold higher steady-state exposure in subjects with severe hepatic impairment. PMID:27108115

  14. Population pharmacokinetics of zonisamide after oral administration in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xuewen; Dai, Qing; Sun, Fengjun; Liu, Yao; Yang, Bo; Xiang, Rongfeng; Yu, Mingjie; Xiong, Lirong; Bi, Shanshan; Lu, Wei; Chen, Yongchuan; Xia, Peiyuan

    2016-05-01

    To develop a population-based pharmacokinetic model for the oral antiepileptic drug zonisamide using a cohort of healthy (nonepileptic) subjects and evaluate the effect of individual factors on the pharmacokinetics of zonisamide. 30 young adults (21-39 years) in good health were randomly assigned to 3 equal groups (1:1 sex ratio) for single-dose administration of zonisamide at 200 mg, 300 mg, or 400 mg. An additional 9 subjects (22-24 years) were administered once daily zonisamide at 300 mg for 14 days, and comprised the multiple dosing group. Venous blood samples were collected for analysis prior to (baseline, 0 hours) and after (1-300 hours) drug administration, providing 607 total samples used to build the pharmacokinetic model. The population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by ICON's nonlinear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM) software. Validation of the final model was carried out by nonparametric bootstrapping and visual predictive check. The zonisamide pharmacokinetics was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. In the final model, the estimated value of clearance (CL) was 23.25 L/h, the volume of distribution of the central compartment (Vc) was 34.50 L, the intercompartmental clearance (Q) was 20.22 L/h, and the Ka was 0.026 h(-1). The peripheral volume of distribution (Vp) was 1,429 L for single dose and 1,003 L for multiple doses. Body weight was the significant covariate affecting CL, Vc, Vp, and Q. Otherwise, female subjects had a lower Q than male subjects. The pharmacokinetics of zonisamide after oral administration could be described using a linear first-order elimination two-compartment model, which may provide a reference for clinical use of zonisamide in Chinese adults. PMID:27007995

  15. Prevalence of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Healthy Population, Livestock and Ticks in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Fajs, Luka; Humolli, Isme; Saksida, Ana; Knap, Nataša; Jelovšek, Mateja; Korva, Miša; Dedushaj, Isuf; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute, tick borne disease often associated with hemorrhagic presentations and high case fatality rate. Kosovo is a highly endemic area for CCHF, with a significant case fatality rate. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of CCHF in Kosovo. We tested 1105 serum samples from healthy population in both endemic and non-endemic areas in the country. Our results revealed a seroprevalence of 4.0% (range 0–9.3%) which is comparable to the seroprevalence in other countries. We show that seroprevalence is correlated to the disease incidence in each studied municipality. We also tested 401 animal sera (353 cow, 30 sheep, 10 goat and 8 chicken) in four endemic municipalities in Kosovo. We detected specific antibodies in all animals except in chicken. Seroprevalence in cows is comparable to other endemic areas and correlates to the seroprevalence in humans. No CCHF RNA could be detected in 105 tick samples obtained in 2012 and 2013. Sequencing of CCHFV positive ticks from 2001 revealed that the virus is most closely related to viral strains that were detected in CCHF patients from Kosovo. Results suggest that mild CCHF cases are most probably underdiagnosed and consequently that the burden of disease is higher than reported. Our study provides key information for CCHF surveillance and raises awareness for possible imported cases in CCHF non-endemic countries. PMID:25393542

  16. Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging—Statement from an Expert Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Péter, Szabolcs; Saris, Wim H. M.; Mathers, John C.; Feskens, Edith; Schols, Annemie; Navis, Gerjan; Kuipers, Folkert; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has been illustrated, in particular for elderly and specific patient groups. The nutrient profile of individuals can be connected to phenotypes, like hypertension or obesity, as well as to socio-economic data. This approach provides information on the relationship between nutrition (nutrient intake and status) and health outcomes and, for instance, allows us to use the findings to communicate and advocate a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is complex: a broader profile of nutrients should be considered rather than focusing solely on a single nutrient. Evaluating food patterns instead of intake of individual nutrients provides better insight into relationships between nutrition and health and disease. This approach would allow us to provide feedback to individuals about their status and ways to improve their nutritional habits. In addition, it would provide tools for scientists and health authorities to update and develop public health recommendations. PMID:26694458

  17. Epitope specific T-cell responses against influenza A in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Savic, Miloje; Dembinski, Jennifer L; Kim, Yohan; Tunheim, Gro; Cox, Rebecca J; Oftung, Fredrik; Peters, Bjoern; Mjaaland, Siri

    2016-02-01

    Pre-existing human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immunity may be a useful correlate of protection against severe influenza disease. Identification and evaluation of common epitopes recognized by T cells with broad cross-reactivity is therefore important to guide universal influenza vaccine development, and to monitor immunological preparedness against pandemics. We have retrieved an optimal combination of MHC class I and class II restricted epitopes from the Immune Epitope Database (www.iedb.org), by defining a fitness score function depending on prevalence, sequence conservancy and HLA super-type coverage. Optimized libraries of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell epitopes were selected from influenza antigens commonly present in seasonal and pandemic influenza strains from 1934 to 2009. These epitope pools were used to characterize human T-cell responses in healthy donors using interferon-γ ELISPOT assays. Upon stimulation, significant CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses were induced, primarily recognizing epitopes from the conserved viral core proteins. Furthermore, the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were phenotypically characterized regarding functionality, cytotoxic potential and memory phenotype using flow cytometry. Optimized sets of T-cell peptide epitopes may be a useful tool to monitor the efficacy of clinical trials, the immune status of a population to predict immunological preparedness against pandemics, as well as being candidates for universal influenza vaccines. PMID:26489873

  18. Prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis in healthy population groups in Manitoba.

    PubMed Central

    Kordová, N.; Wilt, J. C.; Sekla, L.; Hannan, C.; Williams, T. W.; Stackiw, W.; Herchl, R.; Feltham, S.

    1983-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was determined in 1877 serum samples from healthy population groups of Caucasians, native Indians and recent Vietnamese immigrants in Manitoba. Testing was done with a commercially available immunofluorescence kit containing C. trachomatis antigen. The presence of antibodies was age-related; a progressive increase in prevalence was observed in children aged 1 to 15 years, and the overall prevalence was higher in female Caucasian blood donors and female Vietnamese immigrants than in males in both groups. However, there was no sex-related difference in prevalence among the subjects undergoing premarital testing or among the native Indians. Antibodies were more prevalent (p less than 0.001) in pregnant than in nonpregnant women matched for race and age, and a relatively high prevalence (66.6%) was found in the cord serum of newborns. The overall prevalence rate of antibodies in all Manitobans was 48.8% (44.9% in men, 55.9% in women and 35.3% in children. PMID:6627171

  19. Prevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in healthy population, livestock and ticks in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Fajs, Luka; Humolli, Isme; Saksida, Ana; Knap, Nataša; Jelovšek, Mateja; Korva, Miša; Dedushaj, Isuf; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute, tick borne disease often associated with hemorrhagic presentations and high case fatality rate. Kosovo is a highly endemic area for CCHF, with a significant case fatality rate. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of CCHF in Kosovo. We tested 1105 serum samples from healthy population in both endemic and non-endemic areas in the country. Our results revealed a seroprevalence of 4.0% (range 0-9.3%) which is comparable to the seroprevalence in other countries. We show that seroprevalence is correlated to the disease incidence in each studied municipality. We also tested 401 animal sera (353 cow, 30 sheep, 10 goat and 8 chicken) in four endemic municipalities in Kosovo. We detected specific antibodies in all animals except in chicken. Seroprevalence in cows is comparable to other endemic areas and correlates to the seroprevalence in humans. No CCHF RNA could be detected in 105 tick samples obtained in 2012 and 2013. Sequencing of CCHFV positive ticks from 2001 revealed that the virus is most closely related to viral strains that were detected in CCHF patients from Kosovo. Results suggest that mild CCHF cases are most probably underdiagnosed and consequently that the burden of disease is higher than reported. Our study provides key information for CCHF surveillance and raises awareness for possible imported cases in CCHF non-endemic countries. PMID:25393542

  20. Cut-off value of FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kyung Soo; Jung, Ji Ye; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Song, Joo Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV6) has been proposed as an alternative to FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) for detecting airway obstruction. A fixed cut-off value for FEV1/FEV6 in a Korean population is lacking. We investigated a fixed cut-off for FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction. Materials and methods We used data obtained in the 5 years of the Fifth and Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 14,978 participants aged ≥40 years who underwent spirometry adequately were the study cohort. “Airway obstruction” was a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70% according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. We also used European Respiratory Society/Global Lung Initiative 2012 equations for the FEV1/FVC lower limit of normal. Results Among the 14,978 participants (43.5% male, 56.5% female; mean age: 56.9 years for men and 57.0 years for women), 14.0% had obstructive lung function according to a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70%. Optimal FEV1/FEV6 cut-off for predicting FEV1/FVC <70% was 75% using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses (area under receiver operating characteristic curve =0.989, 95% confidence interval 0.987–0.990). This fixed cut-off of FEV1/FEV6 showed 93.8% sensitivity, 94.8% specificity, 74.7% positive predictive value, 98.9% negative predictive value, and 0.8 Cohen’s kappa coefficient. When compared with FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal, FEV1/FEV6 <75% tended to over-diagnose airflow limitation (just like a fixed cut-off of FEV1/FVC <70%). When grouped according to age and FEV1 (%), FEV1/FEV6 <75% diagnosed more airway obstruction in older participants and mild–moderate stages compared with FEV1/FVC <70%. Conclusion A valid fixed cut-off for detecting airway obstruction in a Korean population is FEV1/FEV6 of 75%, but should be used with caution in older individuals and those with

  1. Promoter Polymorphism (rs12770170, -184C/T) of Microseminoprotein, Beta as a Risk Factor for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Ju Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common prostate disease in aging men. Microseminoprotein-beta (MSMB) is abundant in semen. In this study, we investigated association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the promoter of the MSMB gene and the risk for developing BPH in a Korean population. Methods We genotyped two promoter polymorphisms (rs12770171, -184C/T and rs10993994, -2C/T) of the MSMB gene by direct sequencing. Ninety-five BPH patients and 78 control subjects were recruited for this study. SNPStats and Haploview version 4.2 were used for genetic analyses. Multiple logistic regression models (codominant, dominant, recessive, and log-additive models) were applied to determine the odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI), and P-value. Results Genotype frequency of the rs12770171 SNP showed significant difference between BPH patients and controls (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.07-4.27; P=0.032 in the codominant 1 model; OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.19-4.47; P=0.011 in the dominant model; and OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.17-3.61; P=0.009 in the log-additive model). Moreover, the SNP also showed association between the two groups (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.19-3.52; P=0.009). The rs10993994 SNP was not associated with BPH. In haplotype analysis, CC and TT haplotypes were associated with BPH (P<0.05). Conclusions This result indicates that a promoter polymorphism (rs12770170, -184C/T) in the MSMB gene may be associated with BPH development in a Korean population. PMID:24987558

  2. Analysis of C-shaped root canal configuration in maxillary molars in a Korean population using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyoung-Hoon; Min, Jeong-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of root fusion and C-shaped root canals in maxillary molars, and to classify the types of C-shaped canal by analyzing cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in a Korean population. Materials and Methods Digitized CBCT images from 911 subjects were obtained in Chosun University Dental Hospital between February 2010 and July 2012 for orthodontic treatment. Among them, a total of selected 3,553 data of maxillary molars were analyzed retrospectively. Tomography sections in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes were displayed by PiViewstar and Rapidia MPR software (Infinitt Co.). The incidence and types of root fusion and C-shaped root canals were evaluated and the incidence between the first and the second molar was compared using Chi-square test. Results Root fusion was present in 3.2% of the first molars and 19.5% of the second molars, and fusion of mesiobuccal and palatal root was dominant. C-shaped root canals were present in 0.8% of the first molars and 2.7% of the second molars. The frequency of root fusion and C-shaped canal was significantly higher in the second molar than the first molar (p < 0.001). Conclusions In a Korean population, maxillary molars showed total 11.3% of root fusion and 1.8% of C-shaped root canals. Furthermore, root fusion and C-shaped root canals were seen more frequently in the maxillary second molars. PMID:26877991

  3. Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: a birth cohort study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Kyung Won; Ahn, Kangmo; Hong, Seo-Ah; Lee, Eun; Yang, Song-I; Jung, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Suh, Dong In; Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Kim, Bong Sung; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI) during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OH)D concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods The levels of 25(OH)D in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results The median concentration of 25(OH)D in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2). One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations of 25.0-74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1%) showed concentrations of ≥75.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OH)D concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend=0.0004). Conclusion The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively). Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants. PMID:24244212

  4. Suicide Attempts and Associated Factors in Male and Female Korean Adolescents A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Chin, Young Ran; Choi, Kyungwon

    2015-10-01

    Using data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, this study seeks to investigate associations of suicide attempts with family, individual, and behavioral factors on the basis of gender. Among male adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, who had poor subjective academic achievement, depression, experiences of smoking and sexual coitus, drug abuse, suicidal ideation and plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Among the female adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, had depression, low self-rated health, experiences of drug abuse and sexual coitus, and expressed unhappiness, suicidal ideation and suicide plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Thus, the development of a suicide prevention program for Korean adolescents requires different approaches for males and females. PMID:25812547

  5. Frequency distribution of DNA repair genes ERCC1 and ERCC2 polymorphisms in South Indian healthy population.

    PubMed

    Rao, Katiboina Srinivasa; SureshKumar, Srinivasamurthy; Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Paul, Abialbon; Dubashi, Biswajit; Gunaseelan, Karunanithi; Dkhar, Steven Aibor

    2014-09-01

    DNA repair genes are crucial in maintaining the integrity of the whole genome. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes have been attributed to the development of various cancers. SNPs of DNA repair genes (ERCC1 and ERCC2) have been implicated in the causation of various cancers as well as inter-individual variability in the therapeutic outcomes of platinum based therapy. Thus establishing the frequency of these functional SNPs in the healthy population is of significance. The present study was aimed to establish the allele and genotype frequencies of ERCC1 (19007C>T, rs11615; 8092C>A, rs3212986) and ERCC2 (Asp312Asn, rs1799793) genes in South Indian healthy population and to compare the data from HapMap populations. The study population consisted of 128 healthy South Indian unrelated individuals of either sex aged between 18 and 60 years. Standard phenol-chloroform method was used to extract DNA from peripheral leukocytes. The genotype of DNA repair gene polymorphisms was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan genotyping assay. The observed frequency of the studied polymorphisms followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p>0.05). The frequencies of the minor alleles of the SNPs rs11615 (T), rs3212986 (A) and rs1799793 (A) were 43.8%, 29.3% and 35.6%, respectively. Gender-based analysis showed no significant difference in the frequency pattern. The observed allele and genotype frequencies showed significant ethnic difference between South Indians and other HapMap populations. This is the first study to provide the normative frequency data of allele and genotype distribution of three SNPs of ERCC1 and ERCC2 in South Indian healthy population. It might be useful in future genotype-phenotype association studies, especially for predicting the efficacy and adverse events of platinum based drugs. PMID:25155628

  6. High throughput sequencing reveals distinct microbial populations within the mucosal and luminal niches in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ringel, Yehuda; Maharshak, Nitsan; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar; Wolber, Elizabeth Ashley; Sartor, R Balfour; Carroll, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Background: The intestinal microbiota is associated with human health and diseases. The luminal microbiota (LM) and the mucosal-associated microbiota (MAM) are 2 distinct ecosystems with different metabolic and immunological functions. Aim: To characterize the intestinal LM and MAM in humans using high throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Methods: Fresh fecal samples and distal colonic mucosal biopsies collected from 24 healthy subjects before (fecal) and during (mucosa) a flexible sigmoidoscopy of an un-prepared bowel. High throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize bacterial communities. Sequences were processed using the QIIME pipeline. Results: LM and MAM populations were significantly different (ANOSIM: R = 0.49, P = 0.001). The LM displayed tighter clustering compared to the MAM (average weighted UniFrac distances 0.27 ± 0.05 vs. 0.43 ± 0.09, P < 0.001, respectively), and showed higher diversity (Shannon diversity index: 4.96 ± 0.37 vs 4.14 ± 0.56, respectively, P < 0.001). The dominant phyla in the LM and MAM were significantly different: Firmicutes (41.4% vs. 29.1%, FDR < 0.0001, respectively), Bacteroidetes (20.2% vs. 26.3%, FDR < 0.05, respectively), Actinobacteria (22% vs. 12.6%, FDR < 0.0001, respectively) and Proteobacteria (9.3% vs. 19.3%, FDR < 0.0001, respectively). The abundance of 56 genera differed significantly (FDR < 0.1) between the 2 niches. All of the genera in the fecal microbiota were present in the MAM while 10 genera were found to be unique to the MAM. Conclusion: The LM and MAM are distinct microbial ecosystems that differ significantly from each other in microbial diversity and composition. These two microbial niches should be investigated independently to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in health and disease. PMID:25915459

  7. Relationship between C242T polymorphism and arterial stiffness in an apparently healthy population.

    PubMed

    Ji, Y; Ge, J; Zhu, Z; Wang, F; Jiang, J; Cao, H

    2016-08-01

    Superoxide production is modulated by the C242T polymorphism of the CYBA gene. A major source of the superoxide anion that contributes to arterial stiffness is oxidase. We investigated the relationship between the C242T polymorphism and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in an apparently healthy population, while controlling for the amount of consumed cigarette. We measured baPWV non-invasively, recorded the detailed history of smoking and genotyped the C242T polymorphism in 856 participants. The CC genotype was related to a higher value of baPWV than the CT/TT genotype (1438.7±11.9 vs 1371.0±32.4 cm s(-1), β=-0.069, P=0.03) after adjustment for covariates. Further investigation showed an interaction between C242T polymorphism and smoking status with respect to baPWV (P<0.0001). For smokers, the CC genotype of C242T polymorphism was correlated with higher baPWV values compared with CT/TT genotype (1344.2±17.4 vs 1126.8±22.5 cm s(-1), β=-0.279, P<0.0001), whereas this relationship in the non-smokers was not significant (1485.5±15.1 vs 1499.0±41.5 cm s(-1), β=0.027, P=0.48). Additionally, for smokers who smoked at least 180 cigarette-years, the CC genotype participants showed higher values of baPWV compared with CT/TT polymorphism carriers (P⩽0.011). Our findings suggest that the C242T gene polymorphism is associated with arterial stiffness. Additionally, this relationship could be modified by smoking dose. PMID:26467818

  8. Five-Year Incidence of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Rate of Progression in Health Center-Based Korean Population: The Gangnam Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeoung, Jin Wook; Park, Ki Ho; Kim, Dong Myung

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the 5-year incidence and progression rate of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in a health-center-based Korean population. Methods The study population comprised 5,021 subjects who participated in standardized health screening (including non-contact tonometry and fundus photography) at the Gangnam Healthcare Center during the period from January 2005 to December 2006 and again from January 2010 to December 2011. Among these subjects, 948 (18.9%) with findings suggestive of glaucoma were subjected to a comprehensive glaucoma evaluation, which included applanation tonometry and standard automated perimetry. Based on the results, the subjects were diagnosed as POAG suspect or definite POAG. Results The 5-year incidences of POAG suspect and definite POAG were 0.84% (42 subjects) and 0.72% (36 subjects), respectively. The rate of progression from POAG suspect to definite POAG was 4.75% per year. In subjects with a baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) >21 mmHg, the incidence of POAG suspect or definite POAG was significantly higher than in those with a baseline IOP≤21 mmHg (32% vs. 1.05%; P<0.001). A multivariate analysis showed that the progression from POAG suspect to definite POAG was significantly associated with older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.10), higher baseline IOP (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01–1.24), higher body mass index (BMI) (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03–1.31), higher education level (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.05–2.17), and higher hematocrit level (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.08–1.43). Conclusions In the health-center-based Korean population, the 5-year incidence of POAG was 0.72%, and the rate of progression from POAG suspect to definite POAG was 4.75% per year. This study identified old age, high baseline IOP, high BMI, high level of education, and high hematocrit level as significant risk factors for incident POAG. PMID:25474589

  9. The Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Cancer Survivors in a Nationwide Survey of the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Myueng Guen; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that inadequate vitamin D levels are associated with a poor cancer prognosis, but data regarding actual vitamin D levels in cancer survivors are limited. This study investigated the vitamin D levels and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Korean cancer survivors compared with non-cancer controls, and identified the factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 915 cancer survivors and 29,694 controls without a history of cancer were selected. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured; vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D levels less than 20 ng/mL. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and associated factors. Results Vitamin D deficiency was observed in 62.7% of cancer survivors and 67.1% of controls. Among cancer survivors, vitamin D deficiency was most prevalent among 19–44 year olds (76.2%) and among managers, professionals, and related workers (79.3%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that younger cancer survivors and those who work indoors were predisposed to vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent among both cancer survivors and controls in Korea. The regular evaluation and management of vitamin D levels is needed for both bone health and general health in cancer survivors. PMID:26047013

  10. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Peripheral Artery Disease and Coronary Artery Disease in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Shin Yi; Ju, Eun Young; Cho, Sung-Il; Lee, Seung Wook

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The objective of this study was to analyze and compare risk factors for peripheral artery disease (PAD) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Subjects and Methods The sample included 7936 Korean patients aged ≥20 years who were hospitalized from 1994 to 2004. Of the 7936 subjects, PAD (n=415), CAD (n=3686), and normal controls (Control) (n=3835) were examined at the Health Promotion Center, Samsung Medical Center. Results The mean age (years) of PAD subjects was 64.4 (±9.3), while CAD subjects was 61.2 (±9.9), and Control subjects was 59.9 (±9.1) (p<0.01). The proportion of males was 90.6% for PAD, 71.4% for CAD, and 75.5% for Control subjects (p<0.01). The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease were significantly higher in subjects with PAD or CAD compared to those in Control. However, the ORs for high density lipoprotein, being overweight, and being obese were significantly lower in PAD subjects compared to those in Control. Conclusion We found that cardiovascular risk factors were in fact risk factors for both PAD and CAD. PMID:23755078

  11. Contributions of multiple refugia during the last glacial period to current mainland populations of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis).

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Kudureti, Ayijiamali; Bai, Weining; Chen, Rongzhang; Wang, Tianming; Wang, Hongfang; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    The northern microrefugia that existed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are a key factor in the demographic history of species. Pinus koraiensis has a unique distribution in northeast Asia. The Changbai Mountains and the Korean peninsula (CM/KP) are usually considered to be the LGM refugia for P. koraiensis. However, the Xiaoxingan Range (XR), at the northern part of this species' distribution, is another possible refugium. We used chloroplast sequencing and ten nuclear single-copy gene loci to calculate the genetic diversity pattern of P. koraiensis. The probabilities of a single LGM refugium and of multiple LGM refugia were calculated based on approximate Bayesian computation. The effect of the latitudinal gradient on genetic diversity was not significant. However, unique alleles occurred at low frequencies in CM/KP and XR. A conservative estimate of the coalescence time between CM/KP and XR is 0.4 million years ago, a time prior to the LGM. Gene flow between CM/KP and XR was estimated to be more than one in per generation, an amount that may be sufficient to limit genetic divergence between the regions. Our study strongly supports the hypothesis that XR was another LGM refugium in addition to CM/KP. PMID:26691230

  12. Contributions of multiple refugia during the last glacial period to current mainland populations of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Lei; Kudureti, Ayijiamali; Bai, Weining; Chen, Rongzhang; Wang, Tianming; Wang, Hongfang; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    The northern microrefugia that existed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are a key factor in the demographic history of species. Pinus koraiensis has a unique distribution in northeast Asia. The Changbai Mountains and the Korean peninsula (CM/KP) are usually considered to be the LGM refugia for P. koraiensis. However, the Xiaoxingan Range (XR), at the northern part of this species’ distribution, is another possible refugium. We used chloroplast sequencing and ten nuclear single-copy gene loci to calculate the genetic diversity pattern of P. koraiensis. The probabilities of a single LGM refugium and of multiple LGM refugia were calculated based on approximate Bayesian computation. The effect of the latitudinal gradient on genetic diversity was not significant. However, unique alleles occurred at low frequencies in CM/KP and XR. A conservative estimate of the coalescence time between CM/KP and XR is 0.4 million years ago, a time prior to the LGM. Gene flow between CM/KP and XR was estimated to be more than one in per generation, an amount that may be sufficient to limit genetic divergence between the regions. Our study strongly supports the hypothesis that XR was another LGM refugium in addition to CM/KP. PMID:26691230

  13. New polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Korean manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) and their application to wild populations.

    PubMed

    Kim, E M; An, H S; Kang, J H; An, C M; Dong, C M; Hong, Y K; Park, J Y

    2014-01-01

    Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) is a valuable and intensively exploited shellfish species in Korea. Despite its importance, information on its genetic background is scarce. For the genetic characterization of R. philippinarum, expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite markers were developed using next-generation sequencing. A total of 5879 tandem repeats containing di- to hexanucleotide repeat motifs were obtained from 236,746 reads (mean = 413 bp). Of the 62 loci screened, 24 (38.7%) were successfully amplified, and 10 were polymorphic in 144 individuals from 2 manila clam populations (Incheon and Geoje, Korea). The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 17 in the Incheon population and from 3 to 13 in the Geoje population (overall AR = 7.21). The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were estimated to be 0.402 and 0.555, respectively. Hence, there is less genetic variability in the Geoje population than in the Incheon population, although no significant reductions of genetic diversity were found between the populations (P > 0.05). However, significant genetic differentiation was detected between the populations (FST = 0.064, P < 0.001). Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding coefficients (mean FIS = 0.22-0.26) were detected in both populations. The 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci used in this study will be useful for future genetic mapping studies and for characterizing population structures, monitoring genetic diversity for successful aquaculture management, and developing conservation strategies for manila clam populations in Korea. PMID:25299201

  14. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction analysis of two different populations of cultured Korean catfish Silurus asotus.

    PubMed

    Yoon, J M; Kim, G W

    2001-12-01

    Genetic similarity and diversity of cultured catfish Silurus asotus populations collected from two areas in western Korea were examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Out of 20 random primers tested, 5 produced 1344 RAPD bands ranging from 8.2 to 13.6 polymorphic bands per primer. The polymorphic bands in these populations ranged from 56.4% to 59.6%. Polymorphic bands per lane within populations ranged from 4.9% to 5.3%. The similarity within the Kunsan population varied from 0.39 to 0.82 with a mean (+/- SD) of 0.56 +/- 0.08. The level of bandsharing values was 0.59 +/- 0.07 within the catfish population from Yesan. The genetic similarity in cultured catfish populations may have been caused because individuals from two populations were reared in the same environmental conditions or by inbreeding during several generations. However, in view of bandsharing values, polymorphic bands and also the specific major bands that were inter-population-specific, significant genetic differentiation between these populations were present even if bandsharing (BS) values were somewhat numerically different. Therefore, the number of RAPD polymorphisms identified in this study may be sufficient to permit estimating genetic similarity and diversity. However, in future, additional populations, sampling sites and individuals will be necessary to make up for these weak points. PMID:11807294

  15. A Population Health Approach to System Transformation for Children's Healthy Development.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Paul H; Sood, Aradhana Bela

    2016-04-01

    What if the goal of child health services was not "merely" treating, or even preventing, childhood diseases and disorders, but was expanded to that of promoting children's optimal healthy development? Pediatrics has evolved from an exclusive focus on the treatment of illness to the opportunity to promote children's healthy development. This evolution has profound implications for the content of child health services and programs, for system transformation, and for public policy. Enhanced understanding of the impact of social determinants on children's health and developmental outcomes underscores the importance of an evolving framework for system transformation with key policy implications. PMID:26980132

  16. A healthier approach to clinical trials evaluating resveratrol for primary prevention of age-related diseases in healthy populations

    PubMed Central

    Smoliga, James M.; Colombo, E. Sage; Campen, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the wealth of basic science research supporting resveratrol's potential to treat, delay, and even prevent age-related chronic diseases has led to a number of human clinical trials. While such translational research has yielded promising results in clinical populations, recently published conflicting results from studies evaluating resveratrol's potential for primary prevention of chronic disease in healthy / asymptomatic individuals have generated considerable controversy and do not initially appear consistent with findings from animal models. We argue that trials targeting healthy humans are often fundamentally flawed owing to inappropriate use of paradigms only applicable to populations with overt clinical disease and the consequent misleading (typically negative) results can severely retard advancement of drug development. To appropriately perform translational research centered on resveratrol as a primary prevention agent in non-clinical populations, it is critical to utilize study designs which can provide adequate information on clinically relevant outcome measures, avoid paradigms and assumptions from interventions which are specific to clinical populations, and maintain realistic expectations compared to interventions which provide the theoretical maximal response (e.g., caloric restriction and aerobic exercise training). PMID:24073437

  17. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and its major metabolite, salicylic acid, in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to pharmacokinetic study of Astrix in Korean healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bae, Soo Kyung; Seo, Kyung Ah; Jung, Eun Ji; Kim, Ho-Sook; Yeo, Chang-Woo; Shon, Ji-Hong; Park, Kyung-Mi; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2008-06-01

    The first liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for determination of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA) and one of its major metabolites, salicylic acid (SA), in human plasma using simvastatin as an internal standard has been developed and validated. For ASA analysis, a plasma sample containing potassium fluoride was extracted using a mixture of ethyl acetate and diethyl ether in the presence of 0.5% formic acid. SA, a major metabolite of ASA, was extracted from plasma using protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The compounds were separated on a reversed-phase column with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid (8:2, v/v). The ion transitions recorded in multiple reaction monitoring mode were m/z 179 --> 137, 137 --> 93 and 435 --> 319 for ASA, SA and IS, respectively. The coefficient of variation of the assay precision was less than 9.3%, and the accuracy exceeded 86.5%. The lower limits of quantification for ASA and SA were 5 and 50 ng/mL, respectively. The developed assay method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetics of ASA and SA after single oral administration of Astrix (entero-coated pellet, 100 mg of aspirin) to 10 Korean healthy male volunteers. PMID:18254152

  18. Significant association of periodontal disease with anti-citrullinated peptide antibody in a Japanese healthy population - The Nagahama study.

    PubMed

    Terao, Chikashi; Asai, Keita; Hashimoto, Motomu; Yamazaki, Toru; Ohmura, Koichiro; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Takahashi, Katsu; Takei, Noriko; Ishii, Takanori; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Meiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Fujii, Takao; Yamada, Ryo; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2015-05-01

    Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) is a highly specific autoantibody to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies have revealed that periodontal disease (PD) is closely associated with RA and production of ACPA in RA. Analyses of associations between PD and ACPA production in a healthy population may deepen our understandings. Here, we analyzed a total of 9554 adult healthy subjects. ACPA and IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) was quantified and PD status was evaluated using the number of missing teeth (MT), the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Loss of Attachment (LA) for these subjects. PD status was analyzed for its association with the positivity and categorical levels of ACPA and RF conditioned for covariates which were shown to be associated with PD, ACPA or RF. As a result, all of MT, CPI and LA showed suggestive or significant associations with positivity (p = 0.024, 0.0042 and 0.037, respectively) and levels of ACPA (p ≤ 0.00031), but none of the PD parameters were associated with those of RF. These association patterns were also observed when we analyzed 6206 non-smokers of the participants. The significant associations between PD parameters and positivity and levels of ACPA in healthy population support the fundamental involvement of PD with ACPA production. PMID:25819755

  19. Development of normative data of electro photonic imaging technique for healthy population in India: A normative study

    PubMed Central

    Kushwah, Kuldeep Kumar; Srinivasan, Thaiyar M; Nagendra, Hongasandra R; Ilavarasu, Judu V

    2016-01-01

    Background: Electro photonic imaging (EPI) technique is growing as a novel technique of health assessment and is being utilized in the fields of alternative medicine, conventional practices, psycho-physiology, psychology, and consciousness studies. The existing EPI norms are based mostly on European (EU) population. In order to enhance the practice and research through EPI in India, there is a need for developing norms for the healthy Indian population. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish the normative data of EPI for the healthy Indian population, to aid in the accuracy of EPI measurements and interpretations. Materials and Methods: A total of 1297 volunteers were assessed once, who represented different parts of India during December 2013 to December 2014. Among them, 880 volunteers were reported to be healthy (age mean ± standard deviation [SD], 33.55 ± 10.92), with 584 males (age mean ± SD, 33.54 ± 10.86) and 296 females (age mean ± SD, 33.56 ± 11.00). In this study activation coefficient (stress level), integral area (IA) (general health), and integral entropy (disorderliness in energy) parameters were analyzed. Results: As the data were not normally distributed, quartile based statistics was used for setting the norms. The 25th and 75th percentiles were calculated and they were further verified using a bootstrap procedure. Uniquely, the results showed a clear difference in IA parameters under both with filter (physiological) and without filter (psycho-physiological) conditions between the Indian and the EU population. Though other parameters were found almost similar to the EU population, inter quartile ranges were narrower in the Indian population as compared to the EU values. Similar trends were observed in the subgroup analyzes: That is, male versus female genders and age ranges 18–40 versus 40-60. Conclusion: As compared to EU population, Indian population had different range of Integral Area values and narrower range for values

  20. Replication of the Association of the 6q22.31c Locus near GJA1 with Pulse Rate in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Young Jin; Oh, Ji Hee; Cho, Yoon Shin

    2012-06-01

    Pulse rate is known to be related to diverse phenotypes, such as cardiovascular diseases, lifespan, arrhythmia, hypertension, lipids, diabetes, and menopause. We have reported two genomewide significant genetic loci responsible for the variation in pulse rate as a part of the Korea Association Resource (KARE) project, the genomewide association study (GWAS) that was conducted with 352,228 single nucleoride polymorphisms typed in 8,842 subjects in the Korean population. GJA1 was implied as a functionally causal gene for pulse rate from the KARE study, but lacked evidence of replication. To re-evaluate the association of a locus near GJA1 with pulse rate, we looked up this signal in another GWAS conducted in a Health Examinee-shared cohort of 3,703 samples. Not only we were able to confirm two pulse rate loci (1q32.2a near CD46 and 6q22.13c near LOCL644502) identified in the KARE GWAS, we also replicated a locus (6q22.31c) near GJA1 by the lookup in the Health Examinee GWAS. Considering that the GJA1-encoded protein is a major component of cardiac gap junctions, a functional study might be necessary to validate its genuine molecular biological role in the synchronized contraction of the heart. PMID:23105937

  1. An integrative study identifies KCNC2 as a novel predisposing factor for childhood obesity and the risk of diabetes in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Hyo Jung; Go, Min Jin; Jang, Han Byul; Park, Sang Ick; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, Hye-Ja

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. To unravel the genetic determinants of obesity-associated diabetes, we performed a genome-wide study using the 1,000 Genomes-based imputation in a Korean childhood cohort (KoCAS-1, n = 484) and carried out de novo replication in an independent population (KoCAS-2, n = 1,548). A novel variant (rs10879834) with multiple diverse associations for obesity-related traits was also found to be replicated in an adult cohort (KARE, n = 8,842). Functional annotations using integrative epigenetic analyses identified biological significance and regulatory effects with an inverse methylation-expression correlation (cg27154343 in the 5'-UTR of the KCNC2 gene), tissue-specific enhancer mark (H3K4me1), and pathway enrichment (insulin signaling). Further functional studies in cellular and mouse models demonstrated that KCNC2 is associated with anti-obesogenic effects in the regulation of obesity-induced insulin resistance. KCNC2 shRNA transfection induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatic gluconeogenesis. Overproduction of KCNC2 decreased ER stress, and treatment with metformin enhanced KCNC2 expression. Taken together, these data suggest that reduction of KCNC2 is associated with modified hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased ER stress on obesity-mediated diabetic risk. An integrative multi-omics analysis might reveal new functional and clinical implications related to the control of energy and metabolic homeostasis in humans. PMID:27623749

  2. Serum Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Levels are Associated With Concomitant Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Korean Hypertensive Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangsu; Kim, Do Hoon; Nam, Hyo Yun; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Ju, Sang-Yhun; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Choi, Jun-Seok; Lee, Jong-Eun; Sang, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies suggested that serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels were associated with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the general population. We aimed to investigate the relationship between serum GGT levels and CVD risk factors in Korean hypertensive patients. This cross-sectional study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2011 to 2012. The analysis included 1541 hypertensive participants. Study participants were divided into groups according to tertiles of serum GGT with cutoff points of 20 and 35 U/L. Serum GGT levels were positively associated with the components of MetS (P value < 0.05, except for systolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). After adjusting for possible confounders, serum GGT levels were associated with an increased risk of MetS, high waist circumference, high triglyceride level, fasting plasma glucose, DM, and the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (P = 0.001). In hypertensive patients, serum GGT levels are positively associated with major cardiovascular risk factors such as MetS, DM, and urinary albumin excretion. PMID:26683926

  3. Socioeconomic Status and Other Related Factors of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu-Chong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Jin Yong; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Shin, Koh-Eun; Lee, Anna; Ko, Byung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between seasonal influenza vaccination in South Korea and socioeconomic status (SES) as well as other potential related factors. Methods The study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2011. Education level and household income were used as indicators for SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate SES and other demographic variables as related factors for influenza vaccination, the primary outcome. Results Higher household income was positively associated with higher vaccine uptake in the younger (19–49 years) group [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.23], whereas the low-income and low-education group had increased vaccination coverage than the middle-income and middle-education group in the older (≥ 50 years) group (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09–1.69). Current smokers tend to be unvaccinated in all age groups. Among individuals aged ≥ 50, older age, mild to moderate alcohol consumption, regular exercise, and having co-morbidities were positively associated with vaccination, while those who self-reported their health status as good were less likely to be vaccinated. Conclusions The relationship between SES and seasonal influenza vaccination coverage differed between the age groups throughout the adult South Korean population. Public health policies need to address these inequalities. PMID:25646847

  4. Frequency of rs731236 (Taql), rs2228570 (Fok1) of Vitamin-D Receptor (VDR) gene in Emirati healthy population.

    PubMed

    Osman, Enas; Al Anouti, Fatme; El Ghazali, Gehad; Haq, Afrozul; Mirgani, Rajaa; Al Safar, Habiba

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin D is getting more attention everyday due to its importance in maintaining bone and calcium homeostasis, cellular proliferation, differentiation and immune response. Vitamin D is derived from diet or elicited in the skin by the activation of 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is an inert molecule that must be activated by ultraviolet light to form pre-vitamin D3. Recent studies connected the gene encoding for vitamin D (VDR) to the genetic control of bone mass and other diseases. As VDR SNPs have been associated with several disorders and diseases, it's important to investigate the allelic and genotypic distribution among populations. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) variants in healthy Emirati individuals and compare their genotype and allele distribution with other populations. In this study 282 (female, 187; male, 95) unrelated healthy UAE nationals were involved. Two hundreds and eight two DNA samples been collected to genotype rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) VDR SNPs. Our results indicate that the distribution of the alleles and genotypes of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) vary considerably in different populations. In the Emirati population the distribution of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) were AA 38%, AG 42%, GG 20% and AA 27%, AG 42%, GG 31% respectively. The Emirati population genotype and allele distribution of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) had no difference with Caucasians from USA and France. However, there was significant difference with Asian populations. PMID:26504744

  5. Frequency of rs731236 (Taql), rs2228570 (Fok1) of Vitamin-D Receptor (VDR) gene in Emirati healthy population

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Enas; Al Anouti, Fatme; El ghazali, Gehad; Haq, Afrozul; Mirgani, Rajaa; Al Safar, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is getting more attention everyday due to its importance in maintaining bone and calcium homeostasis, cellular proliferation, differentiation and immune response. Vitamin D is derived from diet or elicited in the skin by the activation of 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is an inert molecule that must be activated by ultraviolet light to form pre-vitamin D3. Recent studies connected the gene encoding for vitamin D (VDR) to the genetic control of bone mass and other diseases. As VDR SNPs have been associated with several disorders and diseases, it's important to investigate the allelic and genotypic distribution among populations. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) variants in healthy Emirati individuals and compare their genotype and allele distribution with other populations. In this study 282 (female, 187; male, 95) unrelated healthy UAE nationals were involved. Two hundreds and eight two DNA samples been collected to genotype rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) VDR SNPs. Our results indicate that the distribution of the alleles and genotypes of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) vary considerably in different populations. In the Emirati population the distribution of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) were AA 38%, AG 42%, GG 20% and AA 27%, AG 42%, GG 31% respectively. The Emirati population genotype and allele distribution of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) had no difference with Caucasians from USA and France. However, there was significant difference with Asian populations. PMID:26504744

  6. Association between muscle hydration measures acquired using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging in healthy and hemodialysis population

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Anuradha; House, Andrew A.; Chesworth, Bert M.; Connelly, Denise M.; Lindsay, Robert; Gati, Joe; Bartha, Robert; Overend, Tom J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Establishing the effect of fluctuating extracellular fluid (ECF) volume on muscle strength in people with end‐stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis (HD) is essential, as inadequate hydration of the skeletal muscles impacts its strength and endurance. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) has been a widely used method for estimating ECF volume of a limb or calf segment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)‐acquired transverse relaxation times (T2) has also been used for estimating ECF volumes of individual skeletal muscles. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between T2 (gold standard) of tibialis anterior (TA), medial (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and soleus muscles and calf BIS ECF, in healthy and in people with ESRD/HD. Calf BIS and MRI measures were collected on two occasions before and after HD session in people with ESRD/HD and on a single occasion for the healthy participants. Linear regression analysis was used to establish the association between these measures. Thirty‐two healthy and 22 participants on HD were recruited. The association between T2 of TA, LG, MG, and soleus muscles and ratio of calf BIS‐acquired ECF and intracellular fluids (ICF) were: TA: β = 0.30, P > 0.05; LG: β = 0.37, P = 0.035; MG: β = 0.43, P = 0.014; soleus: β = 0.60, P < 0.001. For the HD group, calf ECF was significantly associated with T2 of TA (β = 0.44, P = 0.042), and medial gastrocnemius (β = 0.47, P = 0.027) following HD only. Hence BIS‐acquired measures cannot be used to measure ECF volumes of a single muscle in the ESRD/HD population; however, BIS could be utilized to estimate ratio of ECF: ICF in healthy population for the LG, MG, and soleus muscles. PMID:25626863

  7. Oral microbiota distinguishes acute lymphoblastic leukemia pediatric hosts from healthy populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xue, Jing; Zhou, Xuedong; You, Meng; Du, Qin; Yang, Xue; He, Jinzhi; He, Jingzhi; Zou, Jing; Cheng, Lei; Li, Mingyun; Li, Yuqing; Zhu, Yiping; Li, Jiyao; Shi, Wenyuan; Xu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In leukemia, oral manifestations indicate aberrations in oral microbiota. Microbiota structure is determined by both host and environmental factors. In human hosts, how health status shapes the composition of oral microbiota is largely unknown. Taking advantage of advances in high-throughput sequencing, we compared the composition of supragingival plaque microbiota of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) pediatric patients with healthy controls. The oral microbiota of leukemia patients had lower richness and less diversity compared to healthy controls. Microbial samples clustered into two major groups, one of ALL patients and another of healthy children, with different structure and composition. Abundance changes of certain taxa including the Phylum Firmicutes, the Class Bacilli, the Order Lactobacillales, the Family Aerococcaceae and Carnobacteriaceae, as well as the Genus Abiotrophia and Granulicatella were associated with leukemia status. ALL patients demonstrated a structural imbalance of the oral microbiota, characterized by reduced diversity and abundance alterations, possibly involved in systemic infections, indicating the importance of immune status in shaping the structure of oral microbiota. PMID:25025462

  8. Oral Microbiota Distinguishes Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Pediatric Hosts from Healthy Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xuedong; You, Meng; Du, Qin; Yang, Xue; He, Jingzhi; Zou, Jing; Cheng, Lei; Li, Mingyun; Li, Yuqing; Zhu, Yiping; Li, Jiyao; Shi, Wenyuan; Xu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In leukemia, oral manifestations indicate aberrations in oral microbiota. Microbiota structure is determined by both host and environmental factors. In human hosts, how health status shapes the composition of oral microbiota is largely unknown. Taking advantage of advances in high-throughput sequencing, we compared the composition of supragingival plaque microbiota of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) pediatric patients with healthy controls. The oral microbiota of leukemia patients had lower richness and less diversity compared to healthy controls. Microbial samples clustered into two major groups, one of ALL patients and another of healthy children, with different structure and composition. Abundance changes of certain taxa including the Phylum Firmicutes, the Class Bacilli, the Order Lactobacillales, the Family Aerococcaceae and Carnobacteriaceae, as well as the Genus Abiotrophia and Granulicatella were associated with leukemia status. ALL patients demonstrated a structural imbalance of the oral microbiota, characterized by reduced diversity and abundance alterations, possibly involved in systemic infections, indicating the importance of immune status in shaping the structure of oral microbiota. PMID:25025462

  9. Immunophenotyping and T-cell proliferative capacity in a healthy aged population.

    PubMed

    Peres, Alessandra; Bauer, Moisés; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice; Nardi, Nance Beyer; Chies, José Artur Bogo

    2003-01-01

    The age-related decline of immunological functions is well established but it remains largely unknown which specific changes are related to disease. We analyzed peripheral blood lymphocytes of 42 healthy elderly as well as 24 healthy young subjects from southern Brazil. No differences in phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferation and CD4:CD8 ratio were found between the subjects. However, CD4 expression (considering mean fluorescence intensity) was found upregulated in elderly subjects. No changes in activation molecules CD25, CD28, CD69 and CD95 were observed. A reduced proportion of naive (CD45RA+) T cells was found in the elderly compared to young subjects. No changes in adhesion molecule expression (CD11c and CD31) were observed. However, the frequencies of CD49d-positive cells, as well as expression of CD62L, were increased in the eldery subjects. We further described two subgroups of eldery subjects with an immunological risk profile defined by lower CD4:CD8 ratio and reduced proliferative response to mitogens. These data suggest that healthy aging is associated with intact T-cell proliferation and some compensatory immunophenotypical changes. PMID:14618026

  10. Land Use in Korean Tidal Wetlands: Impacts and Management Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sun-Kee; Koh, Chul-Hwan; Harris, Richard R.; Kim, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jeom-Sook; Ihm, Byung-Sun

    2010-05-01

    The coastal landscapes in southwestern Korea include a diverse array of tidal wetlands and salt marshes. These coastal zones link the ecological functions of marine tidal wetlands and freshwater ecosystems with terrestrial ecosystems. They are rich in biological diversity and play important roles in sustaining ecological health and processing environmental pollutants. Korean tidal wetlands are particularly important as nurseries for economically important fishes and habitats for migratory birds. Diking, draining, tourism, and conversion to agricultural and urban uses have adversely affected Korean tidal wetlands. Recent large development projects have contributed to further losses. Environmental impact assessments conducted for projects affecting tidal wetlands and their surrounding landscapes should be customized for application to these special settings. Adequate environmental impact assessments will include classification of hydrogeomorphic units and consideration of their responses to biological and environmental stressors. As is true worldwide, Korean laws and regulations are changing to be more favorable to the conservation and protection of tidal wetlands. More public education needs to be done at the local level to build support for tidal wetland conservation. Some key public education points include the role of tidal wetlands in maintaining healthy fish populations and reducing impacts of nonpoint source pollution. There is also a need to develop procedures for integrating economic and environmental objectives within the overall context of sustainable management and land uses.

  11. Land use in Korean tidal wetlands: impacts and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sun-Kee; Koh, Chul-Hwan; Harris, Richard R; Kim, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jeom-Sook; Ihm, Byung-Sun

    2010-05-01

    The coastal landscapes in southwestern Korea include a diverse array of tidal wetlands and salt marshes. These coastal zones link the ecological functions of marine tidal wetlands and freshwater ecosystems with terrestrial ecosystems. They are rich in biological diversity and play important roles in sustaining ecological health and processing environmental pollutants. Korean tidal wetlands are particularly important as nurseries for economically important fishes and habitats for migratory birds. Diking, draining, tourism, and conversion to agricultural and urban uses have adversely affected Korean tidal wetlands. Recent large development projects have contributed to further losses. Environmental impact assessments conducted for projects affecting tidal wetlands and their surrounding landscapes should be customized for application to these special settings. Adequate environmental impact assessments will include classification of hydrogeomorphic units and consideration of their responses to biological and environmental stressors. As is true worldwide, Korean laws and regulations are changing to be more favorable to the conservation and protection of tidal wetlands. More public education needs to be done at the local level to build support for tidal wetland conservation. Some key public education points include the role of tidal wetlands in maintaining healthy fish populations and reducing impacts of nonpoint source pollution. There is also a need to develop procedures for integrating economic and environmental objectives within the overall context of sustainable management and land uses. PMID:18523822

  12. Association Between a Polymorphism (rs2071214) in Baculoviral IAP Repeat Containing 5 Gene (BIRC5) and Ischemic Stroke in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Jinmann; Kim, Hee-Sang; Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Dong Hwan; Kim, Su Kang; Park, Hae Jeong; Chung, Joo-Ho; Chung, Sungjoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) repeat containing 5 gene (BIRC5) polymorphisms are associated with the development and clinical phenotypes of ischemic stroke in Korea population. Methods We enrolled 121 ischemic stroke patients and 291 control subjects. Ischemic stroke patients were divided into subgroups according to the scores of National Institutes of Health Stroke Survey (<6 or ≥6) and Modified Barthel Index (<60 or ≥60). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of BIRC5 (rs3764383 and rs2071214) were selected and genotyped by direct sequencing for all subjects. Multiple logistic regression models (codominant 1 and 2, dominant, recessive, overdominant and log-additive) were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and p-values. Results In analysis of stroke susceptibility, the genotype and allele frequencies of rs3764383 exhibited no difference between the control group and the ischemic stroke group. SNP rs2071214 was associated with ischemic stroke in the codominant (p=0.003), dominant (p=0.002), overdominant (p=0.005), and log-additive (p=0.008) models, respectively. The G allele frequency of rs2071214 was significantly (p=0.009) associated with susceptibility for ischemic stroke (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.12–2.21). However, in the analysis for clinical phenotype, no SNP of the BIRC5 gene was found to be associated with ischemic stroke. Conclusion These results suggest that a missense SNP (rs2071214) of BIRC5 may be associated with the development of ischemic stroke in the Korean population. PMID:27446775

  13. Comparison of Outcomes after Device Closure and Medication Alone in Patients with Patent Foramen Ovale and Cryptogenic Stroke in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jeonggeun; Kim, Sihoon; Oh, Pyung Chun; Park, Yae Min; Chung, Wook-Jin; Choi, Deok Young; Lee, Ji Yeon; Lee, Yeong-Bae; Hwang, Hee Young; Ahn, Taehoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effectiveness of device closure and medical therapy in prevention of recurrent embolic event in the Korean population with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO). Materials and Methods Consecutive 164 patients (men: 126 patients, mean age: 48.1 years, closure group: 72 patients, medical group: 92 patients) were enrolled. The primary end point was a composite of death, stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or peripheral embolism. Results Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups, except age, which was higher in the medical group (45.3±9.8 vs. 50.2±6.1, p<0.0001), and risk of paradoxical embolism score, which was higher in the closure group (6.2±1.6 vs. 5.7±1.3, p=0.026). On echocardiography, large right-to-left shunt (81.9% vs. 63.0%, p=0.009) and shunt at rest/septal hypermobility (61.1% vs. 23.9%, p<0.0001) were more common in the closure group. The device was successfully implanted in 71 (98.6%) patients. The primary end point occurred in 2 patients (2 TIA, 2.8%) in the closure group and in 2 (1 death, 1 stroke, 2.2%) in the medical group. Event-free survival rate did not differ between the two groups. Conclusion Compared to medical therapy, device closure of PFO in patients with cryptogenic stroke did not show difference in reduction of recurrent embolic events in the real world's setting. However, considering high risk of echocardiographic findings in the closure group, further investigation of the role of PFO closure in the Asian population is needed. PMID:26996560

  14. Anti-Anisakis IgE Seroprevalence in the Healthy Croatian Coastal Population and Associated Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mladineo, Ivona; Poljak, Vedran; Martínez-Sernández, Victoria; Ubeira, Florencio M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The main objective of the study was to determine the degree of sensitization to Anisakis spp. antigens in healthy coastal population of Dalmatia given the high thermally unprocessed fish intake rate present in this area, suggested as a significant risk factor for anisakiasis. We performed a monocenter, cross-sectional pilot study stratified by geographic area of residence, conducted at the County secondary healthcare provider Medicine-biochemical Laboratory in Split (Croatia), from November 2010 till December 2011, on 500 unpaid volunteer subjects undergoing routine blood analysis and belonging to the south coast of the Adriatic Sea. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the IgE seroprevalence to Anisakis spp. Ani s l and Ani s 7 allergens by indirect ELISA in healthy subjects, which were selected at random in the region of Dalmatia (Southern Croatia), among islands, coastal urban and inland rural populations. In order to detect possible cross-reactivity to other human helminthes, serum samples were tested also for the presence of IgG antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides and Toxocara canis. The overall and coastal Anisakis seroprevalences for the sampled population were 2% and 2.5%, respectively. The logistic univariate regression analysis confirmed that regarding anti-Anisakis IgE seroprevalence, raw fish intake, daily fish intake, homemade origin of fish dish and occupational contact (professional, artisanal or hobby contact with fishery or fish industry) were risk factors associated to Anisakis spp. sensitization, but neither of the variables was exclusive for a particular seropositive population. Also, a significant difference was observed between seropositive and seronegative subjects that had stated allergy or symptoms associated with allergy (atopic dermatitis, asthma or rhinitis) in their previous history. Conclusions/Significance Being the first in Croatia, our study underlines the necessity of incorporating Anisakis spp. allergens in routine

  15. Perfusion Neuroimaging Abnormalities Alone Distinguish National Football League Players from a Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Amen, Daniel G.; Willeumier, Kristen; Omalu, Bennet; Newberg, Andrew; Raghavendra, Cauligi; Raji, Cyrus A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: National Football League (NFL) players are exposed to multiple head collisions during their careers. Increasing awareness of the adverse long-term effects of repetitive head trauma has raised substantial concern among players, medical professionals, and the general public. Objective: To determine whether low perfusion in specific brain regions on neuroimaging can accurately separate professional football players from healthy controls. Method: A cohort of retired and current NFL players (n = 161) were recruited in a longitudinal study starting in 2009 with ongoing interval follow up. A healthy control group (n = 124) was separately recruited for comparison. Assessments included medical examinations, neuropsychological tests, and perfusion neuroimaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Perfusion estimates of each scan were quantified using a standard atlas. We hypothesized that hypoperfusion particularly in the orbital frontal, anterior cingulate, anterior temporal, hippocampal, amygdala, insular, caudate, superior/mid occipital, and cerebellar sub-regions alone would reliably separate controls from NFL players. Cerebral perfusion differences were calculated using a one-way ANOVA and diagnostic separation was determined with discriminant and automatic linear regression predictive models. Results: NFL players showed lower cerebral perfusion on average (p < 0.01) in 36 brain regions. The discriminant analysis subsequently distinguished NFL players from controls with 90% sensitivity, 86% specificity, and 94% accuracy (95% CI 95-99). Automatic linear modeling achieved similar results. Inclusion of age and clinical co-morbidities did not improve diagnostic classification. Conclusion: Specific brain regions commonly damaged in traumatic brain injury show abnormally low perfusion on SPECT in professional NFL players. These same regions alone can distinguish this group from healthy subjects with high diagnostic accuracy. This

  16. Comparative analysis of the frequency, distribution and population sizes of yeasts associated with canine seborrheic dermatitis and healthy skin.

    PubMed

    Yurayart, Chompoonek; Chindamporn, Ariya; Suradhat, Sanipa; Tummaruk, Padet; Kajiwara, Susumu; Prapasarakul, Nuvee

    2011-03-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of yeast associated with the degree of canine seborrheic dermatitis (SD) by anatomical sites. Fifty-seven samples were divided as 17 healthy skin, 20 with primary seborrheic dermatitis (PSD), and 20 with secondary seborrheic dermatitis (SSD). Yeast isolation and characterization were carried out based on microscopical features and biochemical properties. DNA analysis at the internal transcribed spacer I of 26S rDNA region was utilized for species confirmation. Four species of yeast consisting Malassezia pachydermatis, Malassezia furfur, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis recovered from examined dogs. M. pachydermatis and C. parapsilosis were isolated from all dogs, but C. tropicalis and M. furfur were recovered from 3 healthy dogs and one diseased dog, respectively. The number of M. pachydermatis and C. parapsilosis in diseased dogs was higher than that of healthy specimens (P<0.01). High frequency and population size of C. parapsilosis were closely associated to PSD, while those of M. pachydermatis were associated with both PSD and SSD (P<0.01). C. parapsilosis were predominant at the perianal area. This study demonstrated the co-colonization of M. pachydermatis and C. parapsilosis in large amounts and frequency associated with stage of disease and anatomical site. PMID:20961712

  17. SMN1 gene copy number analyses for SMA healthy carriers in Italian population

    PubMed Central

    Patitucci, Alessandra; Magariello, Angela; Ungaro, Carmine; Muglia, Maria; Conforti, Francesca L.; Gabriele, Anna L.; Citrigno, Luigi; Sproviero, William; Mazzei, Rosalucia

    2012-01-01

    The routine molecular test for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) diagnosis is based on the detection of a homozygous deletion of exons 7 and 8 of the telomeric copy of the survival motor neuron gene (SMN1). The presence of the centromeric copy of the SMN gene (SMN2) does not allow the detection of the hemizygous absence of the SMN1 gene, which characterizes the disease carriers. The demand for a quantitative SMN1 test is permanently growing because there is a high incidence of carriers. The disease is severe and to date there are no effective pharmacological treatments. Here, we present a non-radioactive assay based on real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We analyzed eight SMA patients, 14 SMA relatives and 50 health individuals from Southern Italy by real time quantitative method in order to identify haploid deletion occurring in SMA carriers. SMN1 copy number was determined by the comparative threshold cycle method (ΔΔCt). The results confirmed the deletion in all homozygous patients and permitted an evaluation of the number of alleles in the healthy carriers. This method is fast, reproducible, and enables us to discriminate carriers from healthy homozygous, which is impossible with normal techniques.

  18. Effective Population Size and Signatures of Selection Using Bovine 50K SNP Chips in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Inferring the effective population size and the pattern of selection signatures is of interest both from an evolutionary perspective and to improve models for mapping of quantitative trait genes. We used DNA samples of 61 sires and 486 progeny of the Hanwoo, genotyped by the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip, to analyze the genetic structure. Our study showed a persistent decline in effective population size throughout the period considered, but suggested a marked decline at one distinctive time point (100th generation) and two sharp decline intervals (50th–25th generation and 25th–10th generation). This pattern can be explained by Hanwoo formation and the modern breeding program. Our results revealed 95 regions exhibiting the footprint of recent positive selection at a threshold level of 0.01. We found an overlap of the 11 core regions presenting top P-values and those that had previously been identified as harboring quantitative trait loci from other breeds. The information generated from this study can be used to better understand the mechanism of selection in Hanwoo breeding, and provide important implications for the design and application of association studies in the Hanwoo population. PMID:26244003

  19. Evaluation of MMP-7 A-181G and MMP-2 C-735T polymorphisms in healthy population from western Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Z; Yari, K; Rahimi, Z

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes. Variable frequency of the MMPs gene variants might affect the susceptibility to certain diseases. The aim of present study was to investigate the frequency of MMP-7 A-181G and MMP-2 C-735T variants in healthy population of Western Iran with Kurdish ethnic background. Individuals were medical students and staff members of the Medical School of Kermanshah University and blood donors that consisted of 221 females and 94 males. Control subjects were free of general and genetic diseases. Two hundred and eighty available samples including 192 females and 88 males were studied for MMP-2 C-735T polymorphism. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. The MMP-7 A-181G and MMP-2 C-735T polymorphisms were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The prevalence of MMP-7 G allele was 40% in studied individuals. The overall frequency of MMP-2 -735T allele was 15%. There was a higher frequency of MMP-2 T allele in females (16.9%) compared to males (10.8%, p=0.059). There were 30 (13.6%) women and 8 men (8.5%) with concomitant presence of MMP-7 AG and MMP-2 CT genotypes. All nine (4.1%) individuals with combined presence of MMP-7 GG and MMP-2 CT genotypes were women. The present study reports the frequency of two MMPs gene polymorphisms in healthy population of Western Iran. Our findings might be useful in evaluating the risk of MMPs in certain diseases. Also, our study suggests genetic admixture and similarities between our population with some Asian and European populations. PMID:26950446

  20. Identification of OCTN2 variants and their association with phenotypes of Crohn’s disease in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyo Jin; Jung, Eun Suk; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Park, Eun-Mi; Cheon, Jae Hee; Choi, Ji Ha

    2016-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease and a genetic variant in the OCTN2, g.-207G > C is significantly associated with CD susceptibility. This study was aimed to identify novel OCTN2 functional promoter variants and their roles in transcriptional regulation using various in vitro assays. In addition, we investigated the association between OCTN2 genotypes and CD through genetic analysis using DNA samples from 193 patients with CD and 281 healthy controls. Among the three major promoter haplotypes of OCTN2 identified, one haplotype, H3, showed a significant decrease in promoter activity: two polymorphisms in H3 were associated with a significant reduction in promoter activity. In particular, we found that the reduced transcriptional activity of those two polymorphisms results from a reduction in the binding affinity of the activators, NF-E2 and YY1, to the OCTN2 promoter. The functional haplotype of the OCTN2 promoter was associated with clinical course of CD such as the disease behavior and need for surgery. However, genetic variants or haplotypes of OCTN2 did not affect the susceptibility to CD. Our results suggest that a common promoter haplotype of OCTN2 regulates the transcriptional rate of OCTN2 and influences the clinical course of CD. PMID:26965072

  1. Widespread nasal carriage of Mycobacterium leprae among a healthy population in a hyperendemic region of northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa; Frota, Cristiane Cunha; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Almeida, Rosa Livia Freitas; Pontes, Maria Araci de Andrade; Gonçalves, Heitor de Sá; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia

    2015-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to determine the presence of Mycobacterium leprae DNA in nasal secretions of leprosy cases and nonleprosy individuals in Fortaleza, Brazil. It included 185 cases identified by physicians at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology (CDERM). A control group (Co) (n = 136) was identified among individuals from CDERM not diagnosed as leprosy cases. To augment the spatial analysis of M. leprae specific repetitive element (RLEP) positive prevalence, an external group (EG) (n = 121), a convenience sample of healthy students, were included. Polymerase chain reaction for the RLEP sequence was conducted for all participants. Prevalence of RLEP positivity for cases and Co were 69.2% and 66.9%, respectively, significantly higher than for EG (28.1%), and reported elsewhere. Male sex, belonging to a lower socioeconomic status (D/E), history of a previous contact with a case and being older, were associated with being a leprosy case. Our geographical analysis demonstrated that the bacillus is widespread among the healthy population, with clusters of RLEP positive multibacillary cases concentrated in distinct areas of the city. Our results suggest that in endemic areas, as in Fortaleza, surveillance for both nonhousehold leprosy contacts and members of the general population living in cluster areas should be implemented. PMID:26560980

  2. Anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in an adult healthy population: serosurvey and risk factors in Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Elaine Cristina; Santarém, Vamilton Alvares; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Giuffrida, Rogério

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the frequency of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in an adult healthy population. Methods The study was performed by interviewing 253 blood donors, from 19 to 65 years of age, in a hematological centre in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, southeast Brazil. A survey was applied to blood donors in order to evaluate the possible factors associated to the presence of antibodies, including individual (gender and age), socioeconomic (scholarship, familial income and sanitary facilities) and habit information (contact with soil, geophagy, onycophagy and intake of raw/undercooked meat) as well as the presence of dogs or cats in the household. ELISA test was run for detection of the anti-Toxocara spp. IgG antibodies. Bivariate analysis followed by logistic regression was performed to evaluate the potential risk factors associated to seropositivity. Results The overall prevalence observed in this study was 8.7% (22/253). Contact with soil was the unique risk factor associated with the presence of antibodies (P=0.017 8; OR=3.52; 95% CI=1.244-9.995). Conclusions The results of this study reinforce the necessity in promoting preventive public health measures, even for healthy adult individual, particularly those related to the deworming of pets to avoid the soil contamination, and hygiene education of the population. PMID:23620840

  3. Prevalence, injury rate and, symptom frequency in generalized joint laxity and joint hypermobility syndrome in a "healthy" college population.

    PubMed

    Russek, Leslie N; Errico, Deanna M

    2016-04-01

    Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) and joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) are gaining increased attention as potential sources of pain and injury. The aims of this study were to evaluate prevalence of GJH and JHS and to determine whether musculoskeletal injuries and symptoms commonly attributed to GJH and JHS were more common within a "healthy" college student population. The study involved a convenience sample of 267 college and graduate students, aged 17-26. GJH was assessed using the Beighton score with a cutoff of 5/9, while JHS was assessed using the Brighton criteria. Injury history and symptoms were assessed by recall. Prevalence of GJH was 26.2 % overall (females 36.7 %, males 13.7 %). Prevalence of JHS was 19.5 % overall (females 24.5 %, males 13.7 %). Injury rates were not significantly different for individuals who had GJH vs. those who did not have GJH. Individuals with JHS were significantly more likely to have had sprains, back pain, and stress fractures. Symptoms were no different between those with GJH and those who did not have GJH. However, individuals with JHS were significantly more likely to report clumsiness, easy bruising, and balance problems than those who did not have JHS. GJH and JHS were relatively common in this healthy college student population; GJH was not associated with increased incidence of injury or symptoms commonly attributed to JHS, but JHS was associated with increased incidence of some injuries and symptoms. PMID:25930211

  4. [Comparative study of the volume difference vs. healthy limb, morphological and population description in transfemoral amputees].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cruz, Felipe; Rodríguez-Reyes, Gerardo; Galván Duque-Gastélum, Carlos; Alvarez-Camacho, Michelín

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of the general characteristics and physical condition that keeps the transfemoral amputation stump to select and adapt appropriate type of prosthesis to restore a walking pattern amputee patient acceptable and useful design parameters set to propose new prosthetic systems. In this paper, the degree of difference between the volumes of the limb stump and healthy as well as morphological features occurred more frequently in the stumps of transfemoral amputees who were treated at the Laboratory of Orthotics and Prosthetics (LOP), Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (INR) in 2008. It captured all patients with unilateral transfemoral amputation left and right, over 18 years old, both sexes, use of hearing candidates were evaluated clinically and took three measurements of the circumferences at different wavelengths and the limb stump healthy, were calculated volumes of both sides using the mathematical model of the truncated cone and analyzed in three groups according to the level of amputation (proximal, middle and distal third). We obtained 49 patients, 39 men and 10 women, the difference stump volume compared to healthy limb volume per group were: 44.9% proximal third, middle third and distal 26.5%, 21.1%, the frequency of diagnostic data showed a stump right transfemoral amputees, due to metabolic, without use of prostheses, the most common morphological features indicate that the stump has a conical shape and size distal third, whose tissue is semi-flaccid consistency, the scar is not adhered to deep planes and shows a negative tinel, the mattress soft tissue is 2.15 ± 1.3 cm and physically presents a force level 4 in the clinical rating scale Daniels. The data are consistent with other studies comparing the percentage of the volume change with the percentages of reduced diameters transfemoral stump muscle, likewise agrees most amputees incidence of diabetes mellitus with other studies, cataloging it eat first cause amputation. The general description

  5. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies. PMID:27075031

  6. Estimation of Ochratoxin A in human blood of healthy Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Karima, Hmaissia-Khlifa; Ridha, Ghali; Zied, Aouni; Chekib, Mazigh; Salem, Machgoul; Abderrazek, Hedhili

    2010-09-01

    Human exposure to Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been investigated in many Mediterranean countries, where OTA was found with a higher frequency in foodstuffs and blood samples. The aim of this study was to assess OTA concentrations in human blood serum in Tunisia and to evaluate the impact of several factors (age, origin, sex) on these prevalence reference values. One hundred and seven blood serum samples from healthy subjects were analyzed using a solid-phase extraction linked to a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. OTA values ranged from 0 to 3.43 ng/mL with a mean value of 0.49+/-0.67 ng/mL. OTA levels were higher in the Sahal group. Our results reflect OTA concentration previously detected for human blood in Tunisia. Origin, but not age and sex, may affect the OTA reference values. PMID:19699073

  7. The semantic anatomical network: Evidence from healthy and brain-damaged patient populations.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuxing; Han, Zaizhu; Zhong, Suyu; Gong, Gaolang; Song, Luping; Liu, Fangsong; Huang, Ruiwang; Du, Xiaoxia; Sun, Rong; Wang, Qiang; He, Yong; Bi, Yanchao

    2015-09-01

    Semantic processing is central to cognition and is supported by widely distributed gray matter (GM) regions and white matter (WM) tracts. The exact manner in which GM regions are anatomically connected to process semantics remains unknown. We mapped the semantic anatomical network (connectome) by conducting diffusion imaging tractography in 48 healthy participants across 90 GM "nodes," and correlating the integrity of each obtained WM edge and semantic performance across 80 brain-damaged patients. Fifty-three WM edges were obtained whose lower integrity associated with semantic deficits and together with their linked GM nodes constitute a semantic WM network. Graph analyses of this network revealed three structurally segregated modules that point to distinct semantic processing components and identified network hubs and connectors that are central in the communication across the subnetworks. Together, our results provide an anatomical framework of human semantic network, advancing the understanding of the structural substrates supporting semantic processing. PMID:26059098

  8. Polymorphisms in the promoter regions of the CXCL1 and CXCL2 genes contribute to increased risk of alopecia areata in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, S K; Chung, J-H; Park, H J; Kang, S W; Lim, D-J; Byun, S H; Baek, D G; Ko, H Y; Lew, B-L; Baik, H H; Sim, W-Y

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a common disease, which causes hair loss in humans. AA has a genetically complex inheritance. This study investigated the possible correlations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter regions of the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha) (CXCL1) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) genes and the development of AA in the Korean population. Two hundred and thirty-five AA patients and 240 control subjects were recruited. The specific SNPs occurring in the promoter regions of the CXCL1 and CXCL2 genes (rs3117604, -429C/T and rs3806792, -264T/C, respectively) were genotyped. All data obtained was evaluated using the SNPStats, SPSS 18.0, and the Haploview v.4.2 software platforms. The Odd's ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and P values were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Analyses of the genetic sequences obtained revealed a significant correlation between the two SNPs and the development of AA (rs3117604, P = 0.0009 in co-dominant model 1, P = 0.01 in co-dominant model 2, P = 0.004 in the dominant model, P = 0.005 in the log-additive model, P = 0.012 in allele distribution; rs3806792, P = 0.036 in co-dominant model 2, P = 0.0046 in the log-additive model). The TT and CC haplotypes were also observed to show a significant association with increased risk of AA (TT haplotype, P = 0.0018; CC haplotype, P = 0.0349). Our data suggests that the CXCL1 and CXCL2 genes may be associated with AA susceptibility. PMID:26345899

  9. Association of tripartite motif family-like 2 (TRIML2) polymorphisms with late-onset Alzheimer's disease risk in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kang, Won Sub; Park, Jin Kyung; Kim, Young Jong; Cho, Ah Rang; Park, Hae Jeong; Kim, Su Kang; Paik, Jong-Woo; Lee, Kang Joon; Na, Hae Ri; Kim, Young Youl; Lim, Hyun Kook; Jeong, Hyun-Ghang; Kim, Jong Woo

    2016-09-01

    Apoptosis is a prominent feature in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), regulated in part by the activity of p53. As tripartite motif family-like 2 (TRIML2), a member of the TRIM family of proteins, has been implicated in the regulation of p53-mediated apoptosis, we hypothesized that TRIML2 polymorphisms may result in an increased AD susceptibility. Here, we investigated the association between coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms (cSNPs) in TRIML2 and AD in a Korean population. Two cSNPs (rs79698746 and rs2279551) were genotyped using the Sequenom iPLEX(®) Gold assay and direct sequencing in 162 AD patients and 191 controls. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and p-values. Significant associations were observed between AD and the allelic frequencies of two SNPs (rs79698746, p=0.007; rs2279551, p=0.01); genotype frequencies were also significantly different between the two groups [rs79698746: p=0.003 in the codominant 2 model (CC vs. TT), p=0.01 in the dominant model (TC/CC vs. TT), p=0.016 in the recessive model (CC vs. TT/TC), and p=0.0025 in the log-additive model (TC vs. CC vs. TT); rs2279551: p=0.003 in the codominant 2 model (CC vs. TT), p=0.011 in the dominant model (TC/CC vs. TT), p=0.019 in the recessive model (CC vs. TT/TC), and p=0.0028 in the log-additive model (TC vs. CC vs. TT)]. In the haplotype analyses, CC haplotypes containing two cSNPs were significantly associated with AD (p=0.013). Taken together, these findings indicate that the C allele of both SNPs was associated with an increased risk of AD. These results suggest that TRIML2 may contribute to AD susceptibility. PMID:27471163

  10. Measurement of macular pigment optical density in a healthy chinese population sample

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macular pigment may protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by its capability to absorb blue light and scavenge free radicals. Current information on human macular pigment density has been largely from studies on Caucasians populations. The purpose of this study was to assess macular ...

  11. Population-based evaluation of the 'LiveLighter' healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign.

    PubMed

    Morley, B; Niven, P; Dixon, H; Swanson, M; Szybiak, M; Shilton, T; Pratt, I S; Slevin, T; Hill, D; Wakefield, M

    2016-04-01

    The Western Australian (WA) 'LiveLighter' (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ('why' change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier ('how' to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25-49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N= 2012) and following the two media waves (N= 2005 and N= 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The 'why' message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than 'how' messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P < 0.05) and physical activity intentions (P < 0.05). Endorsement of stereotypes of overweight individuals did not increase after LL aired. LL was associated with some population-level improvements in proximal and intermediate markers of campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. PMID:26956039

  12. Resected femoral anthropometry for design of the femoral component of the total knee prosthesis in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Dai-Soon; Han, Suhyoun; Han, Chang Whan

    2010-01-01

    We measured the mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) length, height and widths of the anterior, posterior and inferior section of the resected distal femurs using three dimensional computer tomographic measurements in 200 knees from 100 cadavers. We also calculated the aspect ratio (ML/AP) and compared the measured parameters with that of six conventionally used total knee femoral prostheses. We found that the average ML (70.2±5.5 mm) and AP (53.9±3.8 mm) dimensions from our study were lower than those reported from Western populations. The aspect ratio showed a progressive decline with an increasing antero-posterior dimension. All of the compared designs showed undersizing for the mediolateral dimension distally and for the widths of the resected medial and lateral posterior femoral condyles. But some of the compared designs showed oversizing for the height of the resected medial and lateral posterior femoral condyles. This study provides guidelines for designing a suitable femoral component for total knee prostheses that fit Asian populations. PMID:21212865

  13. Population Structure and Domestication Revealed by High-Depth Resequencing of Korean Cultivated and Wild Soybean Genomes†

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Won-Hyong; Jeong, Namhee; Kim, Jiwoong; Lee, Woo Kyu; Lee, Yun-Gyeong; Lee, Sang-Heon; Yoon, Woongchang; Kim, Jin-Hyun; Choi, Ik-Young; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Kim, Namshin; Jeong, Soon-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of soybean as a major crop, genome-wide variation and evolution of cultivated soybeans are largely unknown. Here, we catalogued genome variation in an annual soybean population by high-depth resequencing of 10 cultivated and 6 wild accessions and obtained 3.87 million high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after excluding the sites with missing data in any accession. Nuclear genome phylogeny supported a single origin for the cultivated soybeans. We identified 10-fold longer linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the wild soybean relative to wild maize and rice. Despite the small population size, the long LD and large SNP data allowed us to identify 206 candidate domestication regions with significantly lower diversity in the cultivated, but not in the wild, soybeans. Some of the genes in these candidate regions were associated with soybean homologues of canonical domestication genes. However, several examples, which are likely specific to soybean or eudicot crop plants, were also observed. Consequently, the variation data identified in this study should be valuable for breeding and for identifying agronomically important genes in soybeans. However, the long LD of wild soybeans may hinder pinpointing causal gene(s) in the candidate regions. PMID:24271940

  14. Enhanced Absorption Study of Ginsenoside Compound K (20-O-β-(D-Glucopyranosyl)-20(S)-protopanaxadiol) after Oral Administration of Fermented Red Ginseng Extract (HYFRG™) in Healthy Korean Volunteers and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Il-Dong; Ryu, Ju-Hee; Lee, Dong-Eun; Lee, Myoung-Hee; Shim, Jae-Joong; Ahn, Young-Tae; Sim, Jae-Hun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Shim, Wang-Seob; Yim, Sung-Vin; Chung, Eun-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of compound K after oral administration of HYFRG and RG in humans, an open-label, randomized, single-dose, fasting, and one-period pharmacokinetic study was conducted. After oral administration of a single 3 g dose of HYFRG and RG to 24 healthy Korean males, the mean (±SD) of AUC0–t and Cmax of compound K from HYFRG were 1466.83 ± 295.89 ng·h/mL and 254.45 ± 51.20 ng/mL, being 115.2- and 80-fold higher than those for RG (12.73 ± 7.83 ng·h/mL and 3.18 ± 1.70 ng/mL), respectively; in case of Sprague Dawley rats the mean (±SD) of AUC0–t and Cmax of compound K from HYFRG was 58.03 ± 32.53 ng·h/mL and 15.19 ± 10.69 ng/mL, being 6.3- and 6.0-fold higher than those from RG (9.21 ± 7.52 ng·h/mL and 2.55 ± 0.99 ng/mL), respectively. Tmax of compound K in humans and rats was 2.54 ± 0.92 and 3.33 ± 0.50 h for HYFRG and 9.11 ± 1.45 and 6.75 ± 3.97 hours for RG, respectively. In conclusion, the administration of HYFRG resulted in a higher and faster absorption of compound K in both humans and rats compared to RG. PMID:27516803

  15. Identification of the polymorphisms in IFITM3 gene and their association in a Korean population with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Geom Seog; Lee, Jeong Kun; Yu, Ji In; Yun, Ki Jung; Chae, Soo Cheon

    2010-01-01

    Interferons play critical roles in tumor pathogenesis by controlling apoptosis and through cellular anti-proliferative and differentiation activities. Interferon inducible transmembrane protein (IFITM) family genes have been implicated in several cellular processes such as the homotypic cell adhesion functions of IFN and cellular anti-proliferative activities. Expression levels of IFITM genes have been found to be up-regulated in gastric cancer cells and colorectal tumors. IFITM3 (also known as 1-8U) is a member of the IFITM family, and has been described as a key player in specification of germ cell fate. IFITM3 was first isolated from a genetic screen aimed at identifying genes involved in acquisition of germ cell competence. It has been proposed that epiblast cells have the highest expression of IFITM3 initiated germ cell specification and that homotypic association can discriminate germ cells from their somatic neighbors. In an attempt to better understand the genetic influences of IFITM3 on ulcerative colitis, we have identified possible variation sites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) through two exons and their boundary IFITM3 intron sequences including the ~2.1 kb promoter regions. To determine whether or not these IFITM3 SNPs are associated with susceptibility to ulcerative colitis, frequencies of the genotype and allele of IFITM3 polymorphisms were analyzed on genomic DNAs isolated from patients with ulcerative colitis and from healthy controls. We also investigated the haplotype frequencies constructed by these SNPs in both groups. In this study, we also showed that expression level of IFITM3 mRNA was significantly higher in tissues of the ileum and cecum of the digestive system. We identified a total of seven SNPs and multiple variation regions in the IFITM3 gene. The genotype frequency of the g.-204T>G polymorphism in patients with ulcerative colitis was significantly different from that of the control group. Our results strongly suggest that

  16. Lack of association between COMT and working memory in a population-based cohort of healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Wardle, Margaret C; de Wit, Harriet; Penton-Voak, Ian; Lewis, Glyn; Munafò, Marcus R

    2013-06-01

    The Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is an important regulator of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, an area critical to working memory. Working memory deficits are present in several psychiatric disorders, and there is wide variation in working memory capacity in the normal population. Association studies of COMT and working memory in healthy volunteers have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of small sample sizes. Here we examine COMT in relation to N-Back working memory task performance in a large population-based cohort of young adults. We predicted individuals with one or two copies of the Met allele would perform better, and that this relationship would be more evident in males than females. Participants (N=1857-2659) tested at 18 years of age, were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We used multiple regression to examine effects of sex and COMT genotype on N-Back hits, false positives, discriminability (d'), and reaction time while controlling for important covariates. COMT genotype did not predict hits or d'. There was a nominally significant interaction between COMT and sex on false positives, but this was not in the predicted direction, and was not significant after controlling for covariates. COMT genotype was not related to working memory in this large population-based cohort. It is possible COMT is not meaningfully associated with working memory in healthy young adults, or that COMT effects are detectable only in assessments reflecting neural processes underlying cognition, such as fMRI, rather than in behavioral performance. PMID:23337869

  17. Current Scenario of Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Ostensibly Healthy Indian Population: A Hospital Based Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kirtikar; Sharma, Shikha; Gupta, Aditi; Raizada, Arun; Vinayak, Kamini

    2016-10-01

    25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) vit D] deficiency is a serious public health problem, particularly in the Indian sub-continent. The objective of the present study was to study the prevalence of 25(OH) vit D in different age groups. The data of 25(OH) vit D assay of 26,346 ostensibly healthy individuals, enrolled under executive health checkup at Medanta The Medicity, Gurgaon, over a period of 3 years, were extracted from the hospital information system and reviewed extensively. 25(OH) vit D deficiency (VDD) was defined as 25(OH) vit D < 20 ng/ml, insufficiency (VDI) as 25(OH) vit D between 20 and 40 ng/ml and 25(OH) vit D sufficiency (VDS) as 25(OH) D > 40 ng/mL. 25(OH) vit D deficiency (VDD + VDI) was observed in 93 % of the subject population. Maximum number of the subjects belonged to the age group of 41-60 years. 59 % had frank 25(OH) vit D deficiency when cut off level was <20 ng/mL. Mean value of 25(OH) vit D in our subjects was 21.4 ± 14.4 ng/mL. Significant difference in 25(OH) vit D level was observed in between male and female subjects. Simultaneously 25(OH) vit D levels were significantly lower in the patient visited hospital in winter-spring season than the summer-autumn season (p > 0.001). Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of 25(OH) vit D deficiency in an ostensibly healthy Indian population. There is a need for redefining our reference ranges according to our population and extensively improving the status of vitamin D. PMID:27605743

  18. The Effect of a Diving Mask on Intraocular Pressure in a Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Goenadi, Catherina Josephine; Law, David Zhiwei; Lee, Jia Wen; Ong, Ee Lin; Chee, Wai Kitt; Cheng, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Swimming goggles increase the intraocular pressure (IOP) via the periorbital frame pressure and suction effect. In comparison, diving masks have a larger frame rim and incorporate the nose. The exact effect(s) of diving masks on IOP is unknown. This study evaluates the influence of diving masks on IOP in normal, healthy subjects. Methods Tonometry was performed in both eyes of all subjects with an AVIA®Tono-Pen by a single investigator. Measurements were taken at baseline without the diving mask and with the subjects wearing a small-volume, double-window diving mask, but with the mask lenses removed. Two IOP readings in each eye were measured, and an additional reading was measured if the difference between the initial 2 was ≥2 mm Hg. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was also measured in each eye, using a contact pachymeter (OcuScan®Alcon). Results Forty eyes of 20 healthy volunteers (age 29.7 ± 9.3 years; range 21–52) were included. The mean CCT was 544.4 ± 43.5 µm. The mean IOP before the diving mask was worn had been 17.23 ± 2.18 mm Hg (n = 40). The IOP decreased by 0.43 mm Hg (p $1003c; 0.05) to 16.80 ± 2.57 mm Hg after the diving mask had been put on. There was no correlation between IOP change and age (r = 0.143, p = 0.337), gender (r = −0.174, p = 0.283) or CCT (r = −0.123, p = 0.445). Conclusion There was no increase in IOP after the diving mask had been worn. A small but statistically significant decrease in IOP was observed. This study demonstrates that unlike swimming goggles, the strap tension and frame pressure on the periorbital tissue from a diving mask does not increase IOP. Diving masks may be a suitable alternative to swimming goggles for patients with advanced glaucoma or glaucoma filtration surgery. PMID:27462262

  19. The epidemiology and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococci sampled from a healthy Jordanian population.

    PubMed

    Al-Bakri, A G; Al-Hadithi, H; Kasabri, V; Othman, G; Kriegeskorte, A; Becker, K

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of natural carriage and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) isolates in a Jordanian community were investigated. The MRSA nasal carriage rate in 227 healthy volunteers was 7·5% and the majority (81%) of MRSA harboured the resistance element SCCmec type IVe and were of a novel spa type t9519 (76%); other significant spa gene types were t223 (14·7%) and t044 (5·9%). All MRSA isolates were susceptible to other classes of antibiotics, and tested positive for at least three virulence factor encoding genes, but only two harboured the pvl gene. MR-CoNS carriage was 54·2% and these isolates were characterized by single, double and untypable SCCmec elements, with Staphylococcus epidermidis SCCmec type IVa predominating. Of eight subjects with nasal co-colonization of MR-CoNS + MRSA, three shared SCCmec type IV in both groups of organisms. This is the first report of methicillin-resistant staphylococci carriage in a Jordanian community and its findings are important for epidemiological study and infection control measures of these organisms. PMID:23340022

  20. The Healthy Brains and Behavior Study: objectives, design, recruitment, and population coverage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianghong; Richmond, Therese S; Raine, Adrian; Cheney, Rose; Brodkin, Edward S; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E

    2013-09-01

    Violence is increasingly viewed as a public health issue that may be ameliorated by health-based interventions. The Healthy Brains and Behavior Study (HBBS) aims to identify environmental and biological risk factors for aggression in late childhood and to reduce aggression through psychological and nutritional treatments. Utilizing a cross-disciplinary collaborative research approach, the HBBS has both human and animal components. The human component has two stages consisting of risk assessment followed by treatment. The risk assessment is based on 451 community-residing children aged 11-12 years and their caregivers, during which genetic, brain imaging, neuroendocrine, psychophysiology, environment toxicology, neurocognitive, nutrition, psychological, social and demographic risk variables are collected. Children who met criteria (N = 219) for problematic aggressive behaviors were assigned to one of four treatment groups: cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) alone, nutritional supplements alone, both CBT and nutrition, or treatment-as-usual. Treatment duration was 12 weeks and all children whether in treatment or not were followed-up at three, six, and 12 months. The animal component assessed the effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on the development of aggression. This study contributes knowledge on how biological factors interact with social factors in shaping proactive and reactive aggression and assesses the efficacy of treatment approaches to reduce childhood aggression. PMID:25931327

  1. Occupational Exposure to Aerosolized Brevetoxins during Florida Red Tide Events: Effects on a Healthy Worker Population

    PubMed Central

    Backer, Lorraine C.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Fleming, Lora E.; Cheng, Yung Sung; Pierce, Richard; Bean, Judy A.; Clark, Richard; Johnson, David; Wanner, Adam; Tamer, Robert; Zhou, Yue; Baden, Daniel G.

    2005-01-01

    Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) is a marine dinoflagellate responsible for red tides that form in the Gulf of Mexico. K. brevis produces brevetoxins, the potent toxins that cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. There is also limited information describing human health effects from environmental exposures to brevetoxins. Our objective was to examine the impact of inhaling aerosolized brevetoxins during red tide events on self-reported symptoms and pulmonary function. We recruited a group of 28 healthy lifeguards who are occupationally exposed to red tide toxins during their daily work-related activities. They performed spirometry tests and reported symptoms before and after their 8-hr shifts during a time when there was no red tide (unexposed period) and again when there was a red tide (exposed period). We also examined how mild exercise affected the reported symptoms and spirometry tests during unexposed and exposed periods with a subgroup of the same lifeguards. Environmental sampling (K. brevis cell concentrations in seawater and brevetoxin concentrations in seawater and air) was used to confirm unexposed/exposed status. Compared with unexposed periods, the group of lifeguards reported more upper respiratory symptoms during the exposed periods. We did not observe any impact of exposure to aerosolized brevetoxins, with or without mild exercise, on pulmonary function. PMID:15866778

  2. Cardiac Safety of Modified Vaccinia Ankara for Vaccination against Smallpox in a Young, Healthy Study Population

    PubMed Central

    Zitzmann-Roth, Eva-Maria; von Sonnenburg, Frank; de la Motte, Stephan; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Uebler, Nadine; Vollmar, Jens; Virgin, Garth; Chaplin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional smallpox vaccines based on replicating vaccinia virus (VV) strains (e.g. Lister Elstree, NYCBOH) are associated with a high incidence of myo-/pericarditis, a severe inflammatory cardiac complication. A new smallpox vaccine candidate based on a non-replicating Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) poxvirus has been assessed for cardiac safety in a large placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods Cardiac safety of one and two doses of MVA compared to placebo was assessed in 745 healthy subjects. Vaccinia-naïve subjects received either one dose of MVA and one dose of placebo, two doses of MVA, or two doses of placebo by subcutaneous injection four weeks apart; vaccinia-experienced subjects received a single dose of MVA. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AE) and cardiac safety parameters (recorded as Adverse Events of Special Interest, AESI) were monitored after each injection. Results A total of 5 possibly related AESI (3 cases of palpitations, 2 of tachycardia) were reported during the study. No case of myo- or pericarditis occurred. One possibly related serious AE (SAE) was reported during the 6-month follow-up period (sarcoidosis). The most frequently observed AEs were injection site reactions. Conclusions Vaccination with MVA was safe and well tolerated and did not increase the risk for development of myo-/pericarditis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00316524 PMID:25879867

  3. A cross sectional assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice towards Hepatitis B among healthy population of Quetta, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B (HB) is a serious global public health problem. This study aims to evaluate Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) towards Hepatitis B (HB) among healthy population of Quetta city, Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional, descriptive study was undertaken. One thousand healthy individuals (aged 18 years and above) were approached for the study. KAP towards HB was assessed by using a pre validated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used for elaborating patients’ demographic characteristics. Inferential statistics (Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test) were used for comparison while Spearman’s rho correlation was used to identify association between the study variables. All analyses were performed using SPSS 16.0. Results Out of 1000 distributed questionnaires, 780 were returned with a response rate of 78.0%. Four hundred and twenty (53.8%) respondents were male with mean age of 32.76 ± 9.40 year. Two hundred and eight (26.7%) had intermediate level of education and 354 (45.4%) were unemployed. Mean scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 8.74 ± 2.7, 3.72 ± 1.2 and 2.76 ± 1.1 respectively. Significant and positive linear correlations between knowledge-attitude (r = 0.296, p < 0.01) knowledge-practice (r = 0.324, p < 0.01) and attitude-practice (r = 0.331, p < 0.01) were observed. Area of residence (locality) was the only variables significantly associated with mean KAP of the study respondents. Conclusion Results from the current study heighted poor KAP of healthy population towards HB. The positive linear correlations reaffirms that better knowledge can lead to positive attitude and subsequently in good practices. This will further help in prevention and management of HB. Therefore, extensive health educational campaign should be provided to general population and especially to the residents of rural areas. PMID:22917489

  4. Associations between Physical Activity and Obesity Defined by Waist-To-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, On; Lee, Duck-chul; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the associations between physical activity and the prevalence of obesity determined by waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI). Methods This is the first study to our knowledge on physical activity and obesity using a nationally representative sample of South Korean population from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We categorized individuals into either non-obese or obese defined by WHtR and BMI. Levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were classified as ‘Inactive’, ‘Active’, and ‘Very active’ groups based on the World Health Organization physical activity guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between physical activity and the prevalence of obesity. Results Physical activity was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of obesity using both WHtR and BMI. Compared to inactive men, odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for obesity by WHtR ≥0.50 were 0.69 (0.53–0.89) in active men and 0.76 (0.63–0.91) in very active men (p for trend = 0.007). The ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by BMI ≥25 kg/m2 were 0.78 (0.59–1.03) in active men and 0.82 (0.67–0.99) in very active men (p for trend = 0.060). The ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were 0.40 (0.15–0.98) in active men and 0.90 (0.52–1.56) in very active men (p for trend = 0.978). Compared to inactive women, the ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by WHtR ≥0.50 were 0.94 (0.75–1.18) in active women and 0.84 (0.71–0.998) in very active women (p for trend = 0.046). However, no significant associations were found between physical activity and obesity by BMI in women. Conclusions We found more significant associations between physical activity and obesity defined by WHtR than BMI. However, intervention studies are warranted to investigate and compare causal associations between physical activity and different obesity measures in various populations

  5. Translating Research on Healthy Lifestyles for Children: Meeting the Needs of Diverse Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Christine; Floriani, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis This paper provides two examples of approaches nursing can take to reach diverse populations of children and their families to enhance health lifestyles. First a descriptive summary of a brief after-school intervention program aimed at influencing 8 and 9 year-old children’s media habits and the prevention of negative health behaviors will be presented. Design consideration for translating health lifestyles research findings into a Nurse managed inner city primary care practice will be reviewed in the 2nd example. PMID:18674672

  6. Distinct composition of the oral indigenous microbiota in South Korean and Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Toru; Matsuo, Kazuki; Furuta, Michiko; Shibata, Yukie; Fukami, Kaoru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Han, Dong-Hung; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of national surveys on oral health suggested that the population of South Korea has a better periodontal health status than that of Japan, despite their similar inherent backgrounds. Here, we investigated differences in oral bacterial assemblages between individuals from those two countries. To exclude potential effects of oral health condition on the microbiota, we selected 52 Korean and 88 Japanese orally healthy adults (aged 40-79 years) from the participants of two cohort studies, the Yangpyeong study in South Korea and the Hisayama study in Japan, and compared the salivary microbiomes. The microbiota of the Japanese individuals comprised a more diverse community, with greater proportions of 17 bacterial genera, including Veillonella, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium, compared to the microbiota of the Korean individuals. Conversely, Neisseria and Haemophilus species were present in much lower proportions in the microbiota of the Japanese individuals than the Korean individuals. Because higher proportions of Prevotella and Veillonella and lower proportions of Neisseria and Haemophilus in the salivary microbiome were implicated in periodontitis, the results of this study suggest that the greater proportion of dysbiotic oral microbiota in the Japanese individuals is associated with their higher susceptibility to periodontitis compared to the Korean individuals. PMID:25384884

  7. Distinct composition of the oral indigenous microbiota in South Korean and Japanese adults

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Toru; Matsuo, Kazuki; Furuta, Michiko; Shibata, Yukie; Fukami, Kaoru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Han, Dong-Hung; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of national surveys on oral health suggested that the population of South Korea has a better periodontal health status than that of Japan, despite their similar inherent backgrounds. Here, we investigated differences in oral bacterial assemblages between individuals from those two countries. To exclude potential effects of oral health condition on the microbiota, we selected 52 Korean and 88 Japanese orally healthy adults (aged 40–79 years) from the participants of two cohort studies, the Yangpyeong study in South Korea and the Hisayama study in Japan, and compared the salivary microbiomes. The microbiota of the Japanese individuals comprised a more diverse community, with greater proportions of 17 bacterial genera, including Veillonella, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium, compared to the microbiota of the Korean individuals. Conversely, Neisseria and Haemophilus species were present in much lower proportions in the microbiota of the Japanese individuals than the Korean individuals. Because higher proportions of Prevotella and Veillonella and lower proportions of Neisseria and Haemophilus in the salivary microbiome were implicated in periodontitis, the results of this study suggest that the greater proportion of dysbiotic oral microbiota in the Japanese individuals is associated with their higher susceptibility to periodontitis compared to the Korean individuals. PMID:25384884

  8. Genotyping of 22 blood group antigen polymorphisms and establishing a national recipient registry in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yun Ji; Chung, Yousun; Hwang, Sang Mee; Park, Jeong Su; Kwon, Jeong-Ran; Choi, Young Sill; Kim, Jun Nyun; Lee, Dong Han; Kwon, So-Yong; Cho, Nam-Sun; Song, Eun Young; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Han, Kyou Sup

    2016-05-01

    It is often difficult for standard blood banks in Korea to supply adequate amounts of blood for patients with rare phenotype. Moreover, the definition of a blood in need is ambiguous, and much remains to be learned. In this study, we determined the prevalence of various red blood cell (RBC) antigens from a donor viewpoint and estimated the demand for specific antigen-negative blood from a patient viewpoint. Our data will aid the establishment of a Rare Blood Program in Korea (KRBP). RBC genotyping of 419 blood donors was performed using a Lifecodes RBC/RBC-R typing kit (Immucor, Norcross, GA). A national recipient registry website has been established. Each hospital-based blood bank voluntarily enters data on antibodies detected and identified and the outcomes of specific antigen testing. We calculated the availabilities of specific antigen-negative blood components based on these registry data and predicted the prevalence of RBC antigens via RBC genotyping. The prevalences of various RBC antigens in the D-negative population were determined for the first time, and the Cartwright, Scianna, Dombrock, Colton, Landsteiner-Wiener, Cromer, and Knops blood group systems were identified. The availabilities of specific antigen-negative units differed when calculations were based on serotyping or genotyping, especially in the D-negative group. Data on the prevalences of various blood antigens are essential for estimating the availabilities of blood components that are appropriate for use by patients expressing relevant antibodies. Then, blood banks would be able to efficiently supply safe blood products. PMID:27021300

  9. Development of a population pharmacokinetic model characterizing the tissue distribution of azithromycin in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Songmao; Matzneller, Peter; Zeitlinger, Markus; Schmidt, Stephan

    2014-11-01

    Recent clinical trials indicate that the use of azithromycin is associated with the emergence of macrolide resistance. The objective of our study was to simultaneously characterize free target site concentrations and correlate them with the MIC90s of clinically relevant pathogens. Azithromycin (500 mg once daily [QD]) was administered orally to 6 healthy male volunteers for 3 days. The free concentrations in the interstitial space fluid (ISF) of muscle and subcutaneous fat tissue as well as the total concentrations in plasma and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMLs) were determined on days 1, 3, 5, and 10. All concentrations were modeled simultaneously in NONMEM 7.2 using a tissue distribution model that accounts for nonlinear protein binding and ionization state at physiological pH. The model performance and parameter estimates were evaluated via goodness-of-fit plots and nonparametric bootstrap analysis. The model we developed described the concentrations at all sampling sites reasonably well and showed that the overall pharmacokinetics of azithromycin is driven by the release of the drug from acidic cell/tissue compartments. The model-predicted unionized azithromycin (AZM) concentrations in the cytosol of PMLs (6.0 ± 1.2 ng/ml) were comparable to the measured ISF concentrations in the muscle (8.7 ± 2.9 ng/ml) and subcutis (4.1 ± 2.4 ng/ml) on day 10, whereas the total PML concentrations were >1,000-fold higher (14,217 ± 2,810 ng/ml). The total plasma and free ISF concentrations were insufficient to exceed the MIC90s of the skin pathogens at all times. Our results indicate that the slow release of azithromycin from low pH tissue/cell compartments is responsible for the long terminal half-life of the drug and thus the extended period of time during which free concentrations reside at subinhibitory concentrations. PMID:25155592

  10. The effect of geographical indices on left ventricular structure in healthy Han Chinese population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Minyi; Ge, Miao; Liu, Yonglin; Wang, Congxia; Yang, Shaofang

    2016-07-01

    The left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT) and interventricular septum thickness (IVST) are generally regarded as the functional parts of the left ventricular (LV) structure. This paper aims to examine the effects of geographical indices on healthy Han adults' LV structural indices and to offer a scientific basis for developing a unified standard for the reference values of adults' LV structural indices in China. Fifteen terrain, climate, and soil indices were examined as geographical explanatory variables. Statistical analysis was performed using correlation analysis. Moreover, a back propagation neural network (BPNN) and a support vector regression (SVR) were applied to developing models to predict the values of two indices. After the prediction models were built, distribution maps were produced. The results show that LV structural indices are characteristically associated with latitude, longitude, altitude, average temperature, average wind velocity, topsoil sand fraction, topsoil silt fraction, topsoil organic carbon, and topsoil sodicity. The model test analyses show the BPNN model possesses better simulative and predictive ability in comparison with the SVR model. The distribution maps of the LV structural indices show that, in China, the values are higher in the west and lower in the east. These results demonstrate that the reference values of the adults' LV structural indices will be different affected by different geographical environment. The reference values of LV structural indices in one region can be calculated by setting up a BPNN, which showed better applicability in this study. The distribution of the reference values of the LV structural indices can be seen clearly on the geographical distribution map.

  11. Stigma of Mental Illnesses as Perceived by North Korean Defectors Living in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Jin-Yong; Song, In-Gyu; Bae, Jae-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to provide the information of the stigmas of mental illness such as psychosis, alcoholism, attempt suicide, and depression among North Korean defectors. Methods We examined stigma for the mental illnesses of 639 North Korean defectors aged 19 to 65 years who live in the Settlement Support Center for North Korean Refugees. The stigmas of mental illnesses were assessed using the Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination Scale We directly compared the stigma level between North Korean defectors and the general population of South Korea. Results North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Perceived stigma associated with attempted suicide was similar for North Korean defectors and South Koreans. Only marital status in sociodemographic variables had associations with higher perceived stigma of psychosis, alcoholism, and depression in the North Korean defectors. North Korean defectors, who spent more than one year in transit country, had associations with lower perceived stigma of psychosis and alcoholism. North Korean defectors, who had the experience of compulsory repatriation to North Korea or North Korean family in South Korea, had an association with higher perceived stigma of depression. Conclusion North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Further studies are needed to document serial changes in stigmas for mental illnesses associated with the receipt of education at the Settlement Support Center for North Korean defectors. PMID:25670940

  12. Bio-mimetic drug delivery systems designed to help the senior population reconstruct melatonin plasma profiles similar to those of the healthy younger population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Wang, Liuyi; Wu, Li; Zhang, Xueju; Li, Xue; Guo, Zhen; Li, Haiyan; York, Peter; Gui, Shuangying; Zhang, Jiwen

    2014-01-01

    The secretion of melatonin (MT) is obviously different in the younger and the senior sectors of the population, and the maximum plasma concentration of seniors is only half of that in the younger population group. If exogenous MT can be supplied to senior citizens based on the secretion rate and amount of endogenous MT in the younger population by a bio-mimetic drug delivery system (DDS), an improved therapeutic effect and reduced side effects can be expected. Based upon this hypothesis, the pharmacokinetic parameters of MT, namely, the absorption rate constant (ka), the elimination rate constant (ke), and the ratio of absorption rate (F) to the apparent volume of distribution (V) were obtained by a residual method depending on the plasma concentration curve of immediate release preparations in the healthy younger population. The dose-division method was applied to calculate the cumulative release profiles of MT achieved by oral administration of a controlled release drug delivery system (DDS) to generate plasma MT profiles similar to the physiological level-time profiles. The in vivo release of MT deduced from the healthy younger population physiological MT profiles as the pharmacokinetic output of the bio-mimetic DDS showed a two-phase profile with two different zero order release rates, namely, 4.919 μg/h during 0–4 h (r=0.9992), and 11.097 μg/h during 4–12 h (r=0.9886), respectively. Since the osmotic pump type of DDS generally exhibits a good correlation between in vivo and in vitro release behaviors, an osmotic pump controlled delivery system was designed in combination with dry coating technology targeting on the cumulative release characteristics to mimic the physiological MT profiles in the healthy younger population. The high similarity between the experimental drug release profiles and the theoretical profiles (similarity factor f2>50) and the high correlation between the predicted plasma concentration profiles and the theoretical plasma

  13. Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota reduces incidence of hard or lumpy stools in healthy population.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Takafumi; Makino, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Eiji; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) in a healthy population. Healthy subjects with Bristol Stool Form Scale (BS) score < 3.0 were randomized to fermented milk treatment for 3 weeks or non-intervention control. The primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects that produced hard or lumpy stools (HLS) ≥ 25% of bowel movements (H-HLS). Secondary endpoints included changes in BS score, constipation-related symptom scores and stool parameters. Efficacy was analyzed in 39 subjects. After 3 weeks of treatment the proportion of H-HLS subjects had significantly decreased from 73.7% to 36.8%, whereas in the control group the proportion had increased from 75.0% to 85.0% during the same period (P = 0.002). The BS score was significantly improved after the treatment compared with the control (P < 0.001). In conclusion, daily consumption of fermented milk containing LcS reduced the incidence of HLS. PMID:21322768

  14. A Lack of Correlation between Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Serum Level and Verbal Memory Performance in Healthy Polish Population

    PubMed Central

    Wilkosc, Monika; Markowska, Anita; Zajac-Lamparska, Ludmila; Skibinska, Maria; Szalkowska, Agnieszka; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is considered to be connected with memory and learning through the processes of long term synaptic potentiation and synaptic plasticity. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between precursor BDNF (proBNDF) and mature BDNF (mBDNF) serum levels and performance on Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in 150 healthy volunteers. In addition, we have verified the relationships between serum concentration of both forms of BDNF and RAVLT with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.We found no strong evidence for the correlation of proBDNF and mBDNF serum levels with performance on RAVLT in healthy Polish population in early and middle adulthood. We observed the mBDNF serum concentration to be higher in women compared with men. Moreover, we revealed higher mBDNF level to be connected with lower body mass index (BMI). In turn, the results of RAVLT correlated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, such as: age, education, gender, BMI and smoking. PMID:27242447

  15. A Lack of Correlation between Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Serum Level and Verbal Memory Performance in Healthy Polish Population.

    PubMed

    Wilkosc, Monika; Markowska, Anita; Zajac-Lamparska, Ludmila; Skibinska, Maria; Szalkowska, Agnieszka; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is considered to be connected with memory and learning through the processes of long term synaptic potentiation and synaptic plasticity. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between precursor BDNF (proBNDF) and mature BDNF (mBDNF) serum levels and performance on Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in 150 healthy volunteers. In addition, we have verified the relationships between serum concentration of both forms of BDNF and RAVLT with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.We found no strong evidence for the correlation of proBDNF and mBDNF serum levels with performance on RAVLT in healthy Polish population in early and middle adulthood. We observed the mBDNF serum concentration to be higher in women compared with men. Moreover, we revealed higher mBDNF level to be connected with lower body mass index (BMI). In turn, the results of RAVLT correlated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, such as: age, education, gender, BMI and smoking. PMID:27242447

  16. Population structure and uropathogenic virulence-associated genes of faecal Escherichia coli from healthy young and elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Vollmerhausen, Tara L; Ramos, Nubia L; Gündogdu, Aycan; Robinson, Wayne; Brauner, Annelie; Katouli, Mohammad

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the population structures of faecal Escherichia coli in 30 healthy young adults (13 males and 17 females) aged between 20 and 45 years and 29 elderly adults (14 females and 15 males) aged between 65 and 77 years. In all, 1566 strains were typed with the PhPlate system and grouped into biochemical phenotypes (BPTs). Strains with shared BPTs were further typed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Forty-four per cent of the strains were shared between two or more age and gender groups. Elders had a significantly higher (P<0.001) number of BPTs (mean±standard error 3.3±0.27) than younger groups (1.82±0.27). Phylogenetic affiliation and virulence-associated genes (VAGs) of the strains showed that more than 80 % of the strains belonging to dominant types belonged to phylogroups B2 and D. Amongst dominant BPTs, phylogenetic group A was significantly associated with females (P<0.0001), and elders were more likely to carry group D (P<0.0124). Elderly males had a higher prevalence of VAGs than young males (P<0.0001) and young females (P<0.0005). We conclude that there is a lower prevalence of E. coli with uropathogenic properties in healthy young adults than in elders. PMID:21292854

  17. Effects of body mass index on foot posture alignment and core stability in a healthy adult population

    PubMed Central

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S.; Kachanathu, Shaji John

    2016-01-01

    Foot biomechanics and core stability (CS) play significant roles in the quality of standing and walking. Minor alterations in body composition may influence base support or CS strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the foot posture index (FPI) and CS in a healthy adult population. A total of 39 healthy adult subjects with a mean age of 24.3±6.4 years and over-weight BMI values between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 (27.43±6.1 kg/m2) participated in this study. Foot biomechanics were analyzed using the FPI. CS was assessed using a plank test with a time-to-failure trial. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant correlation between BMI and both the FPI (r=0.504, P=0.001) and CS (r= −0.34, P=0.036). Present study concluded that an overweight BMI influences foot posture alignment and body stability. Consequently, BMI should be considered during rehabilitation management for lower extremity injuries and body balance. PMID:27419113

  18. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung-nam

    2015-08-01

    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980. PMID:25064423

  19. [Relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and C677T polymorphism of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene in a healthy Algerian population].

    PubMed

    Hambaba, L; Abdessemed, S; Yahia, M; Laroui, S; Rouabah, F

    2008-01-01

    Plasmatic homocysteine concentration depends mostly on 5,10 methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms, a key enzyme in folate metabolism. The most common point mutation C677T is associated to cardiovascular and neurological pathologies; its ethnic repartition is quite heterogenic. In the present study, we proposed to describe the genotypic and allelic frequencies of C677T polymorphism and its influence on plasmatic homocysteine level in a healthy Algerian population. The investigation was turned on 100 apparently healthy voluntary subjects. Homocysteine concentration was determined using an immunoassay by fluorescence polarisation on IMx. Genotypes were determined by RT-PCR (Light cycle 480). Mean homocysteine concentration value was 14,69 +/- 7,30 micromol/L. 41% of people sample show a moderate hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 micromol/L). For the MTHFR C677T, estimated frequency of the allele T in the 100 people sample was about 35,5% with genotypic frequency of 6%. Plasmatic homocysteine is significantly higher in people carrying allele T: (CC vs CT: 11,8 +/- 2,97 micromol/L vs 15,47 +/- 6,74 micromol/L, p = 0,0004); (CC vs TT: 11,8 +/- 2,97 micromol/L vs 30,05 +/- 13,35 micromol/L, p = 0,01) and (CT vs TT: 15,47 +/- 6,74 micromol/L vs 30,05 +/- 13,35 micromol/L, p = 0,021). Our study shows an intermediate allelic frequency that joins the North-South world gradient and a high hyperhomocysteinemia prevalence. C677T polymorphism of MTHFR seems playing a predominant role in the moderate hyperhomocyteinemia. These two observations should be taken into consideration in the evaluation of morbid and/or lethal pathologies predisposition in the Algerian population. PMID:19091662

  20. Genetic polymorphisms in homologous recombination repair genes in healthy Slovenian population and their influence on DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Goricar, Katja; Erculj, Nina; Zadel, Maja; Dolzan, Vita

    2012-01-01

    Background Homologous recombination (HR) repair is an important mechanism involved in repairing double-strand breaks in DNA and for maintaining genomic stability. Polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in this pathway may influence the capacity for DNA repair. The aim of this study was to select tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in specific genes involved in HR repair, to determine their allele frequencies in a healthy Slovenian population and their influence on DNA damage detected with comet assay. Materials and methods In total 373 individuals were genotyped for nine tag SNPs in three genes: XRCC3 722C>T, XRCC3 -316A>G, RAD51 -98G>C, RAD51 -61G>T, RAD51 1522T>G, NBS1 553G>C, NBS1 1197A>G, NBS1 37117C>T and NBS1 3474A>C using competitive allele-specific amplification (KASPar assay). Comet assay was performed in a subgroup of 26 individuals to determine the influence of selected SNPs on DNA damage. Results We observed that age significantly affected genotype frequencies distribution of XRCC3 -316A>G (P = 0.039) in healthy male blood donors. XRCC3 722C>T (P = 0.005), RAD51 -61G>T (P = 0.023) and NBS1 553G>C (P = 0.008) had a statistically significant influence on DNA damage. Conclusions XRCC3 722C>T, RAD51 -61G>T and NBS1 553G>C polymorphisms significantly affect the repair of damaged DNA and may be of clinical importance as they are common in Slovenian population. PMID:22933979

  1. Early Korean War Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Raymond S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the themes of the war front news reported in certain South Korean and United States newspapers during the first 16 days of the Korean War; attempts to determine significant differences in the themes of war front news between the Korean and United States papers. (Author/GT)

  2. Salivary cortisol concentrations and behavior in a population of healthy dogs hospitalized for elective procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hekman, Jessica P.; Karas, Alicia Z.; Dreschel, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of severe stress in hospitalized veterinary patients may improve treatment outcomes and welfare. To assess stress levels, in Study 1, we collected salivary cortisol samples and behavioral parameters in 28 healthy dogs hospitalized prior to elective procedures. Dogs were categorized into two groups; low cortisol (LC) and high cortisol (HC), based on the distribution of cortisol concentrations (< or ≥ 0.6 µg/dL). We constructed a stress research tool (SRT) based on three behaviors, (head resting, panting and lip licking) that were most strongly related to salivary cortisol concentrations. In Study 2, we collected salivary cortisol samples from 39 additional dogs, evaluated behavior/cortisol relationships, assigned each dog to an LC or HC group, and tested the ability of the SRT to predict salivary cortisol. Median (interquartile range) salivary cortisol concentrations were not different between Study 1 (0.43 µg/dL, 0.33 to 1.00 µg/dL) and Study 2 dogs (0.41 µg/dL, 0.28 to 0.52 µg/dL). The median salivary cortisol concentration was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.001) in LC versus HC dogs in each study; (Study 1 LC: 0.38 µg/dL, (0.19 to 0.44), n = 19, HC: 2.0 µg/dL, (1.0 to 2.8), n = 9, and Study 2 LC: 0.35 µg/dL, (0.25 to 0.48), n = 28, HC: 0.89 µg/dL, (0.66 to 1.4), n = 7). In Study 1, three behaviors were found to be associated with salivary cortisol concentrations. Duration of head resting was negatively associated with salivary cortisol (ρ = −0.60, P = 0.001), panting and lip licking were positively associated with cortisol (ρ = 0.39, P = 0.04, and 0.30, P = 0.05, respectively), Head resting (p = 0.001) and panting (p = 0.003) were also associated with LC/HC group assignment. In Study 2 dogs, the three behaviors correlated (but not significantly) with salivary cortisol concentration; of the three, only head resting was significantly associated with LC/HC group assignment (P = 0.03). The SRT derived from Study 1 was effective at

  3. How healthy is community-dwelling elderly population? Results from Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, Francesca; Orlando, Valentina; Tari, Daniele Ugo; Di Giorgio, Annalisa; Cittadini, Antonio; Trifirò, Gianluca; Menditto, Enrica

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To explore the frequency of polypharmacy, functional and cognitive capacity among the elderly in Southern Italy. METHODS Population-based retrospective cross-sectional study. Information were retrieved from electronic-geriatric-forms matched by record-linkage to outpatient pharmacy-records. The following domains were collected from geriatric forms: BMI, cognitive capacity (SPMSQ), functional status (Barthel-index), mobility, living condition. Polypharmacy status was categorized as non-polypharmacy (0–4), polypharmacy (5–9) and excessive-polypharmacy (≥10). Prevalence of all variables were stratified by age and polypharmacy group. RESULTS 88,878 old people received a geriatric assessment in the years 2013–2014. Mean age was 74.8 (±7.3) years, 56.6% females. Proportion of elderly in excessive-polypharmacy increased with age (18.9% in 65–75 age-group; 27.9% in >85). Referring to cognitive capacity, the proportion of lucid patients decreased with age (from 94.3% to 58.1%), while confused patient increased with age (from 4.7% to 30.9%). Proportion of subjects with a decline in cognitive status, functional status and mobility increased in polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy group. CONCLUSION Polypharmacy is common in people aged 65 years and older with difficulties in activities of daily living and impaired cognition. Furthermore, its prevalence raises with increasing age. Preventive strategies such us optimization of drug regimen should be performed routinely to reduce risk of adverse-health-events. PMID:27042434

  4. Partnership for Healthy Mouths Healthy Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Dentist Campaign Overview Press Releases About the Partnership Our Supporters Contact Us Partner Profile Page Learn ... others in the general population. OUR SOLUTION The Partnership for Healthy Mouths, Healthy Lives (PHMHL) is helping ...

  5. Mixed effects of OATP1B1, BCRP and NTCP polymorphisms on the population pharmacokinetics of pravastatin in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xue-Feng; Zhou, Yang; Bi, Kai-Shun; Chen, Xiao-Hui

    2016-09-01

    1. Pravastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor used for the treatment of hyperlipidaemia. This study aims to investigate the effects of genetic polymorphisms in OATP1B1, BCRP and NTCP on pravastatin population pharmacokinetics in healthy Chinese volunteers using a non-linear mixed-effect modelling (NONMEM) approach. A two-compartment model with a first-order absorption and elimination described plasma pravastatin concentrations well. 2. Genetic polymorphisms of rs4149056 (OATP1B1) and rs2306283 (OATP1B1) were found to be associated with a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in the apparent clearance from the central compartment (CL/F), while rs2296651 (NTCP) increased CL/F to a significant degree (p < 0.01). The combination of these three polymorphisms reduced the inter-individual variability of CL/F by 78.8%. 3. There was minimal effect of rs2231137 (BCRP) and rs2231142 (BCRP) on pravastatin pharmacokinetics (0.01 < p < 0.05), whereas rs11045819 (OATP1B1), rs1061018 (BCRP) and rs61745930 (NTCP) genotypes do not appear to be associated with pravastatin pharmacokinetics based on the population model (p > 0.05). 4. The current data suggest that the combination of rs4149056, rs2306283 and rs2296651 polymorphisms is an important determinant of pravastatin pharmacokinetics. PMID:26744986

  6. Sodium Intake of Special Populations in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span (HANDLS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cotugna, Nancy; Fanelli-Kuczmarksi, Marie; Clymer, Julie; Hotchkiss, Lawrence; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The sodium intake of participants of the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study who were in three of the special population groups identified by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 (those with hypertension, African Americans, and those ≥51 years) was analyzed to determine if they met sodium recommendations. Methods The sample included 2152 African American and White subjects, aged 30-64 years. Major dietary sources of sodium for each group were determined from two 24-hour dietary recalls, and dietary intakes were compared with sodium recommendations. Dietary potassium was also evaluated. Results The intakes of the groups studied exceeded 1500 mg sodium while their potassium intakes were lower than the Adequate Intake of 4700 mg. The major contributors of sodium included “cold cuts, sausage, and franks,” “protein foods”, and yeast breads. Conclusions Excessive sodium intake characterized the diet of an urban, socioeconomically diverse population who are hypertensive or at risk for having hypertension. These findings have implications for health professionals and the food industry. PMID:23769900

  7. Korean Translation of the AANCART Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sue

    2006-01-01

    The project described herein is the preparation of a culturally and linguistically appropriate Korean version of a core questionnaire developed by the Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research and Training. This version will assist in the design of interventions related to cancer for the Korean American population in the future. Following an extensive literature search, procedures recommended by various studies were incorporated into the translation process. Two final Korean versions were pilot tested to evaluate which way of asking a particular question was better, as perceived by respondents. The findings from this project helped enhance the linguistic and cultural competencies in both instruments. A cognitive walk-through interview achieved by probing after each question led respondents to offer feedback about the questions, resulting in a further review and revision of the questionnaire. The next step will be to administer the final Korean version of the two instruments to a large random sample. PMID:17344935

  8. A Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Disposition in Plasma, Saliva and Urine of Scopolamine after Intranasal Administration to Healthy Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND) protocol. The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trials with INSCOP. Methods: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min and 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on the likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. Results: The best structural model for INSCOP (minimal -2LL= 502.8) was established. It consisted of one compartment each for plasma, saliva and urine, respectively, which were connected with linear transport processes except the nonlinear PK process from plasma to saliva compartment. The best-fit estimates of PK parameters from individual PK compartmental analysis and Population PK model analysis were shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: A population PK model that could predict population and individual PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after dosing was developed and validated. Incorporating a non-linear transfer from plasma to saliva compartments resulted in a significantly improved model fitting. The model could be used to predict scopolamine plasma concentrations from salivary and urinary drug levels, allowing non-invasive therapeutic monitoring of scopolamine in space and other remote environments.

  9. Sex-specific association of anthropometric measures of body composition with arterial stiffness in a healthy population

    PubMed Central

    Budimir, Danijela; Jeroncic, Ana; Gunjaca, Grgo; Rudan, Igor; Polasek, Ozren; Boban, Mladen

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Anthropometric measures of body composition and arterial stiffness are commonly used as indicators of cardiovascular risk. Little is known, however, about the association of the anthropometric measures with arterial stiffness, especially in a healthy, generally non-obese population. Material/Methods In a sample of 352 healthy subjects (200 premenopausal women), 3 arterial stiffness indices were analyzed (pulse wave velocity, augmentation index and central systolic blood pressure) in relation to 5 anthropometric measures of body composition (body mass index – BMI, body fat percentage by skinfold measurements –%BF, waist circumference – WC, waist-hip ratio – WHpR, and waist-height ratio – WHtR). Data were analyzed using correlation and regression analyses, with adjustment for the following confounders: age, blood pressures, height, heart rate, blood lipids and smoking. Results Most correlations between anthropometric measures and arterial stiffness indices were significant and positive in both sex groups (r=0.14–0.40, P<0.05). After adjustment for confounding effects, BMI, WC and WHtR remained significant (but inverse) predictors of arterial stiffness (β from −0.06 to −0.16; P<0.05) in the females, while in the males BMI was the only measure inversely predicting arterial stiffness (β from −0.09 to −0.13; P<0.05). Conclusions Measures of body composition are weak and inverse predictors of arterial stiffness and their influence is sex-dependent. BMI, WC and WHtR were key predictors of arterial stiffness in the females, while BMI was the principal predictor in the males. The associations of anthropometric measures with arterial stiffness are strongly and differently confounded by various factors that have to be taken into account when explaining results of similar studies. PMID:22293879

  10. A Study of Korean EFL Learners' WTC and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yachao; Park, Hyesook

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among Willingness to Communicate (WTC), motivation and English proficiency within a population of Korean college students learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Based on previous studies, questionnaires were used to collect data. Two hundred one Korean college students of…

  11. Species-level core oral bacteriome identified by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing in a healthy young Arab population

    PubMed Central

    Al-hebshi, Nezar Noor; Abdulhaq, Ahmed; Albarrag, Ahmed; Basode, Vinod Kumar; Chen, Tsute

    2016-01-01

    Background Reports on the composition of oral bacteriome in Arabs are lacking. In addition, the majority of previous studies on other ethnic groups have been limited by low-resolution taxonomic assignment of next-generation sequencing reads. Furthermore, there has been a conflict about the existence of a ‘core’ bacteriome. Objective The objective of this study was to characterize the healthy core oral bacteriome in a young Arab population at the species level. Methods Oral rinse DNA samples obtained from 12 stringently selected healthy young subjects of Arab origin were pyrosequenced (454's FLX chemistry) for the bacterial 16S V1–V3 hypervariable region at an average depth of 11,500 reads. High-quality, non-chimeric reads ≥380 bp were classified to the species level using the recently described, prioritized, multistage assignment algorithm. A core bacteriome was defined as taxa present in at least 11 samples. The Chao2, abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE), and Shannon indices were computed to assess species richness and diversity. Results Overall, 557 species-level taxa (211±42 per subject) were identified, representing 122 genera and 13 phyla. The core bacteriome comprised 55 species-level taxa belonging to 30 genera and 7 phyla, namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Saccharibacteria, and SR1. The core species constituted between 67 and 87% of the individual bacteriomes. However, the abundances differed by up to three orders of magnitude among the study subjects. On average, Streptococcus mitis, Rothia mucilaginosa, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Neisseria flavescence/subflava group, Prevotella melaninogenica, and Veillonella parvula group were the most abundant. Streptococcus sp. C300, a taxon never reported in the oral cavity, was identified as a core species. Species richness was estimated at 586 (Chao2) and 614 (ACE) species, whereas diversity (Shannon index) averaged at 3.99. Conclusions A species

  12. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyun Kook; Hong, Seung Chul; Won, Wang Youn; Hahn, Changtae

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD-K), a scale for assessment of depression in dementia. Methods The original CSDD was translated into Korean and the content was verified through back-translation procedures. This study included 59 depressive patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 62 non-depressive patients with AD and 36 healthy elderly controls. The subjects were assessed using CSDD-K, the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17), the 15-item Korean version of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15) and the Korean version of Mini-mental Status Examination (MMSE-K). Results In the reliability test, Cronbach's α coefficient and test-retest reliabilities were 0.92 and 0.91, respectively, indicating that the CSDD-K has good internal consistency. There were significant differences in CSDD-K total scores between AD patients with depression and AD patients without depression (p<0.001). In the analysis of the concurrent validity of the CSDD-K, there were significant correlations between the CSDD-K and HAM-D17 (r=0.91, p<0.001) and between the CSDD-K and GDS15 (r=0.75, p<0.001). ROC curve analysis identified a cut-off score of 7 for the CSDD-K, where the sensitivity was 87.5% and the specificity was 100%. Factor analysis resulted in a four-factor solution accounting for 63.8% of the common variance. Conclusion The CSDD-K showed good reliability and validity for the assessment of depressive symptom severity in AD patients. The CSDD-K is a useful instrument for assessing AD patients with depressive symptoms in Korean ethnic population. PMID:23251196

  13. Oritavancin Population Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections or Bacteremia▿

    PubMed Central

    Rubino, Christopher M.; Van Wart, Scott A.; Bhavnani, Sujata M.; Ambrose, Paul G.; McCollam, Jill S.; Forrest, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Oritavancin is a novel glycopeptide antimicrobial agent with potent in vitro activity against a wide variety of gram-positive bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains of staphylococci and enterococci. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to describe the disposition of oritavancin with data from a pooled population of phase 1 healthy subjects and phase 2 and 3 patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections or Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. In addition, the potential influence of factors such as the subject's age, gender, and clinical laboratory measures on oritavancin disposition was evaluated. Oritavancin was administered as both single- and multiple-dose intravenous (i.v.) infusions in fixed doses ranging from 100 to 800 mg or weight-based doses ranging from 0.02 to 10 mg/kg of body weight, with infusion durations ranging from 0.13 to 6.5 h across all studies. The most robust fit to the data (n = 6,290 oritavancin plasma concentrations from 560 subjects) was obtained using a three-compartment model with zero-order i.v. infusion and first-order elimination. The model was parameterized using total clearance (CL), volume of central compartment (Vc), distributional clearances from the central to both the first and second peripheral compartments, and volumes of distribution for both the first and second peripheral compartments. Weight and study phase (phase 1 versus phase 2/3) were identified as significant predictors of the interindividual variability in CL, while body surface area and age were significant for Vc. These results suggest that dose modification may be warranted in patients weighing >110 kg. However, the mild nature of the observed relationships for Vc suggest that dosing adjustments are not necessary for elderly patients. PMID:19635952

  14. Fecal Microbiota in Healthy Subjects Following Omnivore, Vegetarian and Vegan Diets: Culturable Populations and rRNA DGGE Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria; Turroni, Silvia; Vannini, Lucia; Bancalari, Elena; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Neviani, Erasmo; Cocolin, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the fecal microbiota of 153 healthy volunteers, recruited from four different locations in Italy, has been studied by coupling viable counts, on different microbiological media, with ribosomal RNA Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (rRNA-DGGE). The volunteers followed three different diets, namely omnivore, ovo-lacto-vegetarian and vegan. The results obtained from culture-dependent and -independent methods have underlined a high level of similarity of the viable fecal microbiota for the three investigated diets. The rRNA DGGE profiles were very complex and comprised a total number of bands that varied from 67 to 64 for the V3 and V9 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Only a few bands were specific in/of all three diets, and the presence of common taxa associated with the dietary habits was found. As far as the viable counts are concerned, the high similarity of the fecal microbiota was once again confirmed, with only a few of the investigated groups showing significant differences. Interestingly, the samples grouped differently, according to the recruitment site, thus highlighting a higher impact of the food consumed by the volunteers in the specific geographical locations than that of the type of diet. Lastly, it should be mentioned that the fecal microbiota DGGE profiles obtained from the DNA were clearly separated from those produced using RNA, thus underlining a difference between the total and viable populations in the fecal samples. PMID:26035837

  15. Fecal Microbiota in Healthy Subjects Following Omnivore, Vegetarian and Vegan Diets: Culturable Populations and rRNA DGGE Profiling.

    PubMed

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria; Turroni, Silvia; Vannini, Lucia; Bancalari, Elena; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Neviani, Erasmo; Cocolin, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the fecal microbiota of 153 healthy volunteers, recruited from four different locations in Italy, has been studied by coupling viable counts, on different microbiological media, with ribosomal RNA Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (rRNA-DGGE). The volunteers followed three different diets, namely omnivore, ovo-lacto-vegetarian and vegan. The results obtained from culture-dependent and -independent methods have underlined a high level of similarity of the viable fecal microbiota for the three investigated diets. The rRNA DGGE profiles were very complex and comprised a total number of bands that varied from 67 to 64 for the V3 and V9 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Only a few bands were specific in/of all three diets, and the presence of common taxa associated with the dietary habits was found. As far as the viable counts are concerned, the high similarity of the fecal microbiota was once again confirmed, with only a few of the investigated groups showing significant differences. Interestingly, the samples grouped differently, according to the recruitment site, thus highlighting a higher impact of the food consumed by the volunteers in the specific geographical locations than that of the type of diet. Lastly, it should be mentioned that the fecal microbiota DGGE profiles obtained from the DNA were clearly separated from those produced using RNA, thus underlining a difference between the total and viable populations in the fecal samples. PMID:26035837

  16. Effects of Four Different Meal Types on the Population Pharmacokinetics of Single-Dose Rifapentine in Healthy Male Volunteers▿

    PubMed Central

    Zvada, Simbarashe P.; Van Der Walt, Jan-Stefan; Smith, Peter J.; Fourie, P. Bernard; Roscigno, Giorgio; Mitchison, Denis; Simonsson, Ulrika S. H.; McIlleron, Helen M.

    2010-01-01

    Rifapentine and its primary metabolite, 25-desacetyl rifapentine, are active against mycobacterium tuberculosis. The objectives of this study were to describe the population pharmacokinetics of rifapentine and 25-desacetyl rifapentine in fasting and fed states. Thirty-five male healthy volunteers were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, sequential, five-way crossover study. Participants received a single 900-mg dose of rifapentine after meals with high fat (meal A), bulk and low fat (meal B), bulk and high fat (meal C), high fluid and low fat (meal D), or 200 ml of water (meal E). Venous blood samples were collected over 72 h after each rifapentine dose, and plasma was analyzed for rifapentine and 25-desacetyl rifapentine using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic data were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effect modeling using NONMEM. Compared with the fasting state, meal A had the greatest effect on rifapentine oral bioavailability, increasing it by 86%. Meals B, C, and D resulted in 33%, 46%, and 49% increases in rifapentine oral bioavailability, respectively. Similar trends were observed for 25-desacetyl rifapentine. As meal behavior has a substantial impact on rifapentine exposure, it should be considered in the evaluation of optimal dosing approaches. PMID:20516273

  17. Population Pharmacokinetic Model Characterizing 24-Hour Variation in the Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Intravenous Midazolam in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    van Rongen, A; Kervezee, L; Brill, MJE; van Meir, H; den Hartigh, J; Guchelaar, H-J; Meijer, JH; Burggraaf, J; van Oosterhout, F

    2015-01-01

    Daily rhythms in physiology may affect the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate 24-hour variation in the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A substrate midazolam. Oral (2 mg) and intravenous (1 mg) midazolam was administered at six timepoints throughout the 24-hour period in 12 healthy volunteers. Oral bioavailability (population mean value [RSE%] of 0.28 (7.1%)) showed 24-hour variation that was best parameterized as a cosine function with an amplitude of 0.04 (17.3%) and a peak at 12:14 in the afternoon. The absorption rate constant was 1.41 (4.7%) times increased after drug administration at 14:00. Clearance (0.38 L/min (4.8%)) showed a minor 24-hour variation with an amplitude of 0.03 (14.8%) L/min and a peak at 18:50. Simulations show that dosing time minimally affects the concentration time profiles after intravenous administration, while concentrations are higher during the day compared to the night after oral dosing, reflecting considerable variation in intestinal processes. PMID:26380154

  18. Population Pharmacokinetic Model Characterizing 24-Hour Variation in the Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Intravenous Midazolam in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    van Rongen, A; Kervezee, L; Brill, Mje; van Meir, H; den Hartigh, J; Guchelaar, H-J; Meijer, J H; Burggraaf, J; van Oosterhout, F

    2015-08-01

    Daily rhythms in physiology may affect the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate 24-hour variation in the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A substrate midazolam. Oral (2 mg) and intravenous (1 mg) midazolam was administered at six timepoints throughout the 24-hour period in 12 healthy volunteers. Oral bioavailability (population mean value [RSE%] of 0.28 (7.1%)) showed 24-hour variation that was best parameterized as a cosine function with an amplitude of 0.04 (17.3%) and a peak at 12:14 in the afternoon. The absorption rate constant was 1.41 (4.7%) times increased after drug administration at 14:00. Clearance (0.38 L/min (4.8%)) showed a minor 24-hour variation with an amplitude of 0.03 (14.8%) L/min and a peak at 18:50. Simulations show that dosing time minimally affects the concentration time profiles after intravenous administration, while concentrations are higher during the day compared to the night after oral dosing, reflecting considerable variation in intestinal processes. PMID:26380154

  19. A Community-Based, Environmental Chronic Disease Prevention Intervention to Improve Healthy Eating Psychosocial Factors and Behaviors in Indigenous Populations in the Canadian Arctic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Erin L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention--Healthy Foods North--was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two…

  20. Utilization of Western and Traditional Korean Medicine for Children and Adolescents with Mental Disorders: a Nationwide Population-based Study from 2010 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    When in need of medical treatment, Korean citizens have a choice of practitioners of western medicine (WM) or Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM). However, the two branches frequently conflict with one another, particularly with regard to mental disorders. This study was designed to compare the utilization of WM and TKM, focusing on child/adolescent patients with mental disorders. We analyzed F-code (Mental and behavioral disorders) claims from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, including data from 0–18-year-old patients from 2010 to 2012. Slightly more men than women utilized WM, while TKM use was almost evenly balanced. WM claims increased with advancing age, whereas utilization of TKM was common for the 0-6 age group. In WM and TKM, the total number of claims relying on the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) was 331,154 (92.78%) and 73,282 (97.85%), respectively, and the number of claims relying on medical aid was 25,753 (7.22%) and 1,610 (2.15%), respectively. The most frequent F-coded claim in WM was F90 (Hyperkinetic disorders), with 64,088 claims (17.96%), and that in TKM was F45 (Somatoform disorders), with 28,852 claims (38.52%). The prevalence of a single disorder without comorbidities was 168,764 (47.29%) in WM and 52,615 (70.25%) in TKM. From these data, we conclude that WM takes prevalence over TKM in cases of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as in psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. On the other hand, patients utilizing TKM more commonly present with physical health problems including somatoform problems, sleep, and eating disorders. PMID:27134500

  1. Utilization of Western and Traditional Korean Medicine for Children and Adolescents with Mental Disorders: a Nationwide Population-based Study from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Young Sik; Bahn, Geon Ho

    2016-05-01

    When in need of medical treatment, Korean citizens have a choice of practitioners of western medicine (WM) or Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM). However, the two branches frequently conflict with one another, particularly with regard to mental disorders. This study was designed to compare the utilization of WM and TKM, focusing on child/adolescent patients with mental disorders. We analyzed F-code (Mental and behavioral disorders) claims from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, including data from 0-18-year-old patients from 2010 to 2012. Slightly more men than women utilized WM, while TKM use was almost evenly balanced. WM claims increased with advancing age, whereas utilization of TKM was common for the 0-6 age group. In WM and TKM, the total number of claims relying on the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) was 331,154 (92.78%) and 73,282 (97.85%), respectively, and the number of claims relying on medical aid was 25,753 (7.22%) and 1,610 (2.15%), respectively. The most frequent F-coded claim in WM was F90 (Hyperkinetic disorders), with 64,088 claims (17.96%), and that in TKM was F45 (Somatoform disorders), with 28,852 claims (38.52%). The prevalence of a single disorder without comorbidities was 168,764 (47.29%) in WM and 52,615 (70.25%) in TKM. From these data, we conclude that WM takes prevalence over TKM in cases of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as in psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. On the other hand, patients utilizing TKM more commonly present with physical health problems including somatoform problems, sleep, and eating disorders. PMID:27134500

  2. Fear of falling and quality of life of apparently-healthy elderly individuals from a Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Akosile, Christopher O; Anukam, Gabriel O; Johnson, Olubusola E; Fabunmi, Ayodeji A; Okoye, Emmanuel C; Iheukwumere, Ngozi; Akinwola, Mojisola O

    2014-06-01

    Ageing is associated with increased morbidity, increased fear of falling (FOF) and reduced activity. These may consequently impair the quality of life (QOL) of the elderly. Studies from Africa investigating FOF and its relationship with QOL among elderly individuals are rare. This study investigated the prevalence of FOF and QOL of apparently-healthy elderly residents of two Local Government Areas (LGAs) from Anambra State, Nigeria and also determined the relationship between the two variables. Two hundred and sixty-one (131 males and 130 females) volunteering elderly individuals, from three randomly-selected communities from each of the LGAs, participated in this cross-sectional survey. The Modified Fall Efficacy Scale (MFES) and the Short-Form Health Survey 36-item (SF-36) questionnaire were used to evaluate FOF and QOL respectively. Data were analysed using frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation, Chi-square, Independent t-test, Pearson correlation and multivariate regression analysis statistics. Alpha level was set at 0.05. FOF was markedly prevalent in the population at 23.4 % and the QOL score of 55.27 ± 17.28 was just modest. QOL was particularly low in the role limitations due to the physical and emotional problems domains but high in the mental health, social function and bodily pain domains. Significant relationship was found between FOF and all the QOL domains. FOF was present in nearly one of every four elderly individuals in the sample and was related to their QOL. FOF should be routinely investigated in community-dwelling elderly and strategies devised to combat it. PMID:24710949

  3. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  4. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  5. Systematic review of the measurement properties of self-report physical activity questionnaires in healthy adult populations

    PubMed Central

    Silsbury, Zoë; Goldsmith, Robert; Rushton, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Objective This systematic review evaluated the measurement properties of current self-report physical activity questionnaires (SRPAQs) completed within healthy adult populations. Design Two reviewers independently searched seven electronic databases and hand searched for articles investigating measurement properties of a SRPAQ evaluating physical activity over the previous 6 months. Articles published from 1 May 2001 to 4 December 2014 were systematically screened and eligible studies were not limited to English language sources. Articles investigating specific race, gender or socioeconomic populations were excluded. Results 10 studies investigating 10 SRPAQs were included. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) and ranged from ‘poor’ to ‘good’. The Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire, International Physical Activity Questionnaires and Physical Activity Assessment Tool demonstrated good/excellent test–retest reliability (intra-class coefficient (ICC)=0.76, p<0.0001; r=0.627–0.91; r=0.618, p<0.001, respectively), but variable criterion validity (r=0.67, p<0.0001; r=−0.02–0.43; r=0.392, p<0.01, respectively). The single-item measure showed significant criterion validity against an accelerometer (for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) k=0.23, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.41; and physical activity ≥10 min bouts 0.39 (95% CI 0.14 to 0.64). Construct validity of the six-point scale and Human Activity Profile varied significantly with age, marital status and presence of comorbidities (p<0.05, <0.01, <0.000 and p<0.05, <0.05, <0.000, respectively). The 1 week Godlin-Shephard recall demonstrated ‘moderate’ validity with the gold standard measure of accelerometry (r=0.43). Conclusions Inconclusive evidence exists. Further investigation of criterion validity of the short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire is

  6. Daily Physical Activities and Sports in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer and Healthy Controls: A Population-Based Questionnaire Survey

    PubMed Central

    Rueegg, Corina S.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Rebholz, Cornelia E.; Michel, Gisela; Zwahlen, Marcel; Grotzer, Michael; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Healthy lifestyle including sufficient physical activity may mitigate or prevent adverse long-term effects of childhood cancer. We described daily physical activities and sports in childhood cancer survivors and controls, and assessed determinants of both activity patterns. Methodology/Principal Findings The Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a questionnaire survey including all children diagnosed with cancer 1976–2003 at age 0–15 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry, who survived ≥5years and reached adulthood (≥20years). Controls came from the population-based Swiss Health Survey. We compared the two populations and determined risk factors for both outcomes in separate multivariable logistic regression models. The sample included 1058 survivors and 5593 controls (response rates 78% and 66%). Sufficient daily physical activities were reported by 52% (n = 521) of survivors and 37% (n = 2069) of controls (p<0.001). In contrast, 62% (n = 640) of survivors and 65% (n = 3635) of controls reported engaging in sports (p = 0.067). Risk factors for insufficient daily activities in both populations were: older age (OR for ≥35years: 1.5, 95CI 1.2–2.0), female gender (OR 1.6, 95CI 1.3–1.9), French/Italian Speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.1–1.7), and higher education (OR for university education: 2.0, 95CI 1.5–2.6). Risk factors for no sports were: being a survivor (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.1–1.6), older age (OR for ≥35years: 1.4, 95CI 1.1–1.8), migration background (OR 1.5, 95CI 1.3–1.8), French/Italian speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.2–1.7), lower education (OR for compulsory schooling only: 1.6, 95CI 1.2–2.2), being married (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5–2.0), having children (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.4–1.9), obesity (OR 2.4, 95CI 1.7–3.3), and smoking (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5–2.1). Type of diagnosis was only associated with sports. Conclusions/Significance Physical activity levels in survivors were lower than recommended, but

  7. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  8. Korean Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  9. A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Mead, Erin L; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-10-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention-Healthy Foods North-was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two comparison communities) in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, Canada, in 2008. The 12-month program was developed from theory (social cognitive theory and social ecological models), formative research, and a community participatory process. It included an environmental component to increase healthy food availability in local stores and activities consisting of community-wide and point-of-purchase interactive educational taste tests and cooking demonstrations, media (e.g., radio ads, posters, shelf labels), and events held in multiple venues, including recreation centers and schools. The intervention was evaluated using pre- and postassessments with 246 adults from intervention and 133 from comparison communities (311 women, 68 men; mean age 42.4 years; 78.3% retention rate). Outcomes included psychosocial constructs (healthy eating knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions), frequency of healthy and unhealthy food acquisition, healthiness of commonly used food preparation methods, and body mass index (kg/m(2)). After adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic status, and body mass index variables, respondents living in intervention communities showed significant improvements in food-related self-efficacy (β = 0.15, p = .003) and intentions (β = 0.16, p = .001) compared with comparison communities. More improvements from the intervention were seen in overweight, obese, and high socioeconomic status respondents. A community-based, multilevel intervention is an effective strategy to improve psychosocial factors for healthy nutritional behavior change to reduce chronic disease in indigenous Arctic populations

  10. A pilot exome-wide association study of age-related cataract in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Joo-Byung; Kim, Yong-Dae; Kim, Heon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Age-related cataract (ARC) is the most common cause of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. A previous study reported that genetic factors could explain approximately 50% of the heritability of cataract. However, a genetic predisposition to ARC and the contributing factors have not yet been elucidated in the Korean population. In this study, we assessed the influence of genetic polymorphisms on the risk of ARC in Koreans, including 156 cataract cases and 138 healthy adults. We conducted an exome-wide association study using Illumina Human Exome-12v1.2 platform to screen 244,770 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). No SNPs reached exome-wide significance level of association (P < 1×10−6). B3GNT4 rs7136356 showed the most significant association with ARC (P = 6.54×10−5). Two loci (MUC16 and P2RY2) among the top 20 ARC-associated SNPs were recognized as probably linked to cataractogenesis. Functions of these genes were potentially related to regulating dehydration or homeostasis of the eyes, and showed a potential association with dry eye disease. This finding suggests that mucin- and dry eye disease-related genes may play a significant role in cataractogenesis. Our study provides insight into the genetic predisposition of ARC in Koreans. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are required to confirm the results of this study. PMID:27533928

  11. A pilot exome-wide association study of age-related cataract in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Joo-Byung; Kim, Yong-Dae; Kim, Heon

    2016-05-01

    Age-related cataract (ARC) is the most common cause of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. A previous study reported that genetic factors could explain approximately 50% of the heritability of cataract. However, a genetic predisposition to ARC and the contributing factors have not yet been elucidated in the Korean population. In this study, we assessed the influence of genetic polymorphisms on the risk of ARC in Koreans, including 156 cataract cases and 138 healthy adults. We conducted an exome-wide association study using Illumina Human Exome-12v1.2 platform to screen 244,770 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). No SNPs reached exome-wide significance level of association (P < 1×10(-6)). B3GNT4 rs7136356 showed the most significant association with ARC (P = 6.54×10(-5)). Two loci (MUC16 and P2RY2) among the top 20 ARC-associated SNPs were recognized as probably linked to cataractogenesis. Functions of these genes were potentially related to regulating dehydration or homeostasis of the eyes, and showed a potential association with dry eye disease. This finding suggests that mucin- and dry eye disease-related genes may play a significant role in cataractogenesis. Our study provides insight into the genetic predisposition of ARC in Koreans. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are required to confirm the results of this study. PMID:27533928

  12. Differential diagnosis of breast masses in South Korean premenopausal women using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leproux, Anaïs; Kim, You Me; Min, Jun Won; McLaren, Christine E.; Chen, Wen-Pin; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Lee, Seung-ha; Chung, Phil-Sang; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-07-01

    Young patients with dense breasts have a relatively low-positive biopsy rate for breast cancer (˜1 in 7). South Korean women have higher breast density than Westerners. We investigated the benefit of using a functional and metabolic imaging technique, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), to help the standard of care imaging tools to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in premenopausal Korean women. DOSI uses near-infrared light to measure breast tissue composition by quantifying tissue concentrations of water (ctH2O), bulk lipid (ctLipid), deoxygenated (ctHHb), and oxygenated (ctHbO2) hemoglobin. DOSI spectral signatures specific to abnormal tissue and absent in healthy tissue were also used to form a malignancy index. This study included 19 premenopausal subjects (average age 41±9), corresponding to 11 benign and 10 malignant lesions. Elevated lesion to normal ratio of ctH2O, ctHHb, ctHbO2, total hemoglobin (THb=ctHHb+ctHbO2), and tissue optical index (ctHHb×ctH2O/ctLipid) were observed in the malignant lesions compared to the benign lesions (p<0.02). THb and malignancy index were the two best single predictors of malignancy, with >90% sensitivity and specificity. Malignant lesions showed significantly higher metabolism and perfusion than benign lesions. DOSI spectral features showed high discriminatory power for distinguishing malignant and benign lesions in dense breasts of the Korean population.

  13. Psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM-K).

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Jung, Na Young; Rauch, Sheila A M; Chae, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a Korean version of Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). A Korean version of the IPSM (IPSM-K) was produced through forward translation, reconciliation, and back translation. A total of 338 healthy, non-clinical participants were selected through screening and clinical interview, and they each were given a set of questionnaires including IPSM-K. All subscales, as well as a full-scale IPSM-K showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.73-0.83 and 0.94, respectively). Test-retest reliability at 2-week intervals was significant, with coefficient r ranging between .80 and .94. In terms of convergent validity, IPSM-K showed the significant positive correlation with sociotropy and autonomy subscale of Personal Style Inventory-II, as well as with neuroticism subscale of Neuroticism Extraversion Openness-Personality Inventory. IPSM-K had no correlation with Social Desirability Scale, thus demonstrated divergent validity with social desirability. A factor analysis of the scale was conducted and five factors emerged (low self-confidence, interpersonal awareness, lack of assertiveness/separation anxiety, interpersonal vulnerability, and need for approval). This study demonstrated that IPSM-K could be useful in assessing interpersonal sensitivity in Korean population. PMID:23642631

  14. Profile of Individuals Who Are Metabolically Healthy Obese Using Different Definition Criteria. A Population-Based Analysis in the Spanish Population

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Larrad, María Teresa; Corbatón Anchuelo, Arturo; Del Prado, Náyade; Ibarra Rueda, José María; Gabriel, Rafael; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with numerous metabolic complications such as diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and several forms of cancer. Our goal was to compare different criteria to define the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) with metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO) subjects. We applied Wildman (W), Wildman modified (WM) with insulin resistance (IR) with cut-off point ≥3.8 and levels of C- Reactive Protein (CRP) ≥3 mg/l; and Consensus Societies (CS) criteria. In these subjects cardiovascular-risk (CV-risk) was estimated by Framingham score and SCORE for MHO and MUHO. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Spanish Caucasian adults. A total of 3,844 subjects completed the study, 45% males, aged 35–74 years. Anthropometric/biochemical variables were measured. Obesity was defined as BMI: ≥30 Kg/m2. Results The overall prevalence of obesity in our population was 27.5%, (23.7%/males and 30.2%/females). MHO prevalence according to W, WM, and CS definition criteria were: 9.65%, 16.29%, 39.94% respectively in obese participants. MHO has lower waist circumference (WC) measurements than MUHO. The estimated CV-risks by Framingham and SCORE Project charts were lower in MHO than MUHO subjects. WC showed high specificity and sensitivity in detecting high estimated CV risk by Framingham. However, WHR showed high specificity and sensitivity in detecting CV risk according to SCORE Project. MHO subjects as defined by any of the three criteria had higher adiponectin levels after adjustment by sex, age, WC, HOMA IR and Framingham or SCORE risks. This relationship was not found for CRP circulating levels neither leptin levels. Conclusions MHO prevalence is highly dependent on the definition criteria used to define those individuals. Results showed that MHO subjects had less WC, and a lower estimated CV-risk than MUHO subjects. Additionally, the high adiponectin circulating levels in MHO may suggest a protective role

  15. Korean Immigrant Motherhood: Child-Rearing and Child Weight.

    PubMed

    Park, So Hyun; Patil, Crystal L; Norr, Kathleen F

    2016-01-01

    Health problems among immigrant children may persist not only throughout childhood but also into adulthood. The purpose of this study was to elicit information about Korean immigrant mothers' experiences with parenting, immigration, and raising their children in the United States. Four focus group interviews were conducted in the Chicago metropolitan area. Content analysis showed that Korean immigrant mothers practice intensive parenting and worry about it. They described the strategies they use to raise healthy children. Culturally appropriate intervention programs are needed to reduce stress, encourage a healthy lifestyle, and link this to the health of their children. PMID:26605950

  16. Free Prostate-Specific Antigen Provides More Precise Data on Benign Prostate Volume Than Total Prostate-Specific Antigen in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon; Park, Jae Young; Shim, Ji Sung; Kim, Jae Heon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the efficacy of total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) and free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA) for the estimation of prostate volume (PV) in pathologically-proven benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients. Methods From January 2010 to March 2013, 165 Korean men with a PSA less than 10 ng/mL who were diagnosed without prostate cancer by prostate biopsy were enrolled. Patients were classified into three age groups: ≤60, 61-70, and >70 years old. The results were organized to estimate and compare the ability of serum tPSA and fPSA to assess the PV. Results Enrolled patients had a median age of 63.5 years (44 to 80), a median tPSA of 5.72 ng/mL, a median fPSA of 0.98 ng/mL and a median PV of 53.68 mL, respectively. Among the associations between tPSA, fPSA, age, and PV, the highest correlation was verified between fPSA and PV (r=0.377, P<0.0001); the correlation coefficient between tPSA and PV was much lower (r=0.262, P<0.001). All stratified age cohorts showed the same findings. The ROC curves (for PV greater than 30, 40, and 50 mL) showed that fPSA (area under the curve [AUC]=0.781, 0.718, and 0.700) outperformed tPSA (AUC=0.657, 0.583, and 0.67) in its ability to predict clinically significant PV enlargement. Conclusion Both tPSA and fPSA significantly correlated with PV in Korean men, while the correlation efficiency between fPSA and PV was more powerful. fPSA may be a useful tool in making therapeutic decisions and follow-up management in BPH patients. PMID:23869271

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study of Absolute QRS Voltage Identifies Common Variants of TBX3 as Genetic Determinants of Left Ventricular Mass in a Healthy Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Motoaki; Kamitsuji, Shigeo; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Tabara, Yasuharu; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) represents a common final pathway leading to heart failure. We have searched for genetic determinants of left ventricular (LV) mass using values for absolute electrocardiographic QRS voltage in a healthy Japanese population. After adjusting for covariates, the corrected S and R wave voltages in leads V1 and V5 from 2,994 healthy volunteers in the Japan Pharmacogenomics Data Science Consortium (JPDSC) database were subjected to a genome-wide association study. Potential associations were validated by an in silico replication study using an independent Japanese population obtained from the Nagahama Prospective Genome Cohort for Comprehensive Human Bioscience. We identified a novel association between the lead V5, R wave voltage in Japanese individuals and SNP rs7301743[G], which maps near the gene encoding T-box transcription factor Tbx3. Meta-analysis of two independent Japanese datasets demonstrated a marginally significant association of SNP rs7301743 in TBX3|MED13L with a 0.071 mV (95% CI, 0.038–0.11 mV) shorter R wave amplitude in the V5 lead per minor allele copy (P = 7.635 x 10−8). The transcriptional repressor, TBX3, is proposed to suppress the development of working ventricular myocardium. Our findings suggest that genetic variation of Tbx3 is associated with LV mass in a healthy Japanese population. PMID:27195777

  18. HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 allele and haplotype frequencies in a population of 432 healthy unrelated individuals from Albania.

    PubMed

    Sulcebe, Genc; Shyti, Erkena

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 allele and haplotype polymorphism in a population of 432 healthy individuals from Albania. First-field HLA genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific priming and/or oligonucleotide methods. The data were analyzed statistically using gene counting and Arlequin software packages. No deviation from Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium was detected at any of the loci studied. The HLA genotypic data of the population sample reported here are available publicly in the Allele Frequencies Net Database and they can serve as a reference database for further HLA-based population genetics studies including the Albanian population. PMID:27262454

  19. The Impact of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms on Quality of Life, Work Productivity, Depressive Symptoms, and Sexuality in Korean Men Aged 40 Years and Older: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Heon; Han, Deok Hyun; Ryu, Dong-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean men aged ≥40 years. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional door-to-door survey was conducted among men aged ≥40 years. Individuals with LUTS were defined as men reporting at least one LUTS using 2002 International Continence Society definitions. Structuredquestionnaires were used to assess several dimensions of HRQoL, including generic health status (EuroQoL-five-dimensions questionnaire), work productivity (work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire), depressive symptoms (center for epidemiologic studies depression scale), and sexual health (sexual satisfaction and erectile dysfunction). The impact of LUTS was assessed by comparing several dimensions of HRQoL among men with and without LUTS. Results: Of the 1,842 participants, 1,536 (83.4%) reported having at least one LUTS. The prevalence of LUTS increased with age (78.3% among those aged 40–49 years to 89.6% among those aged 60 years or older). Those with LUTS reported a significantlylower level of generic health status and worse work productivity compared with those without LUTS. Significantly more individuals with LUTS reported having a higher level of major depressive symptoms compared with those without LUTS.Those with LUTS reported worse sexual activity and enjoyment, and were significantly more likely to have erectile dysfunction than those without LUTS. Conclusions: LUTS seem to have a substantial impact on several dimensions of HRQoL in Korean men aged ≥40 years. PMID:26126442

  20. A Population-Wide Screening and Tailored Intervention Platform for Eating Disorders on College Campuses: The Healthy Body Image Program

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Megan; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Glass, Alan I.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper presents a new approach to intervention for eating disorders and body image concerns on college campuses, using a model of integrated eating disorder screening and intervention. Formative data on implementation feasibility are presented. Participants College students enrolled at two universities between 2011–2012. Methods The Healthy Body Image program is an evidence-based screening and intervention platform, enacted via community and online resources. An online screen was used to identify students at varying levels of risk or eating disorder symptom status; responses were used to direct students to universal or targeted online interventions or further evaluation. Universal prevention programs to improve healthy weight regulation and body image culture were offered to all students. Results Formative data from 1,551 students illustrates the application of this model. Conclusions The Healthy Body Image program is feasible to deliver and provides a comprehensive system of screening, evidence-based intervention, and community culture change. PMID:24621000

  1. A Commentary on Cultural Influences Impacting the Education of Korean American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Adrian Woo; Stang, Kristin; Ferko, Doreen; Han, Shin-Il

    2011-01-01

    Korean American adolescents may find themselves caught between traditional Korean culture and demands for Americanization. Subsequently this population of students and parents may have very distinct needs in our schools as they are a growing population of students. This commentary discusses important considerations for teachers and administrators…

  2. The influence of gender and self-efficacy on healthy eating in a low-income urban population affected by structural changes to the food environment.

    PubMed

    Robles, Brenda; Smith, Lisa V; Ponce, Mirna; Piron, Jennifer; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Although U.S. obesity prevention efforts have begun to implement a variety of system and environmental change strategies to address the underlying socioecological barriers to healthy eating, factors which can impede or facilitate community acceptance of such interventions are often poorly understood. This is due, in part, to the paucity of subpopulation health data that are available to help guide local planning and decision-making. We contribute to this gap in practice by examining area-specific health data for a population targeted by federally funded nutrition interventions in Los Angeles County. Using data from a local health assessment that collected information on sociodemographics, self-reported health behaviors, and objectively measured height, weight, and blood pressure for a subset of low-income adults (n = 720), we compared health risks and predictors of healthy eating across at-risk groups using multivariable modeling analyses. Our main findings indicate being a woman and having high self-efficacy in reading Nutrition Facts labels were strong predictors of healthy eating (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that intervening with women may help increase the reach of these nutrition interventions, and that improving self-efficacy in healthy eating through public education and/or by other means can help prime at-risk groups to accept and take advantage of these food environment changes. PMID:24800064

  3. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and body composition changes in Korean elderly

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chorong; No, Jae-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The body composition changes in aging increased the risk of metabolic disorder. Recent dietary studies have increasingly focused on the correlations between dietary patterns and chronic diseases to overcome the limitations of traditional single-nutrient studies because nutrients in food have complex relations that interact. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted to classify a dietary pattern among Korean elderly using cluster analysis and to explore the relationships between dietary patterns and body composition changes in Korean elderly aged 65 years or older. The study subjects (n = 1,435) were individuals who participated in the Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES) in 2011. RESULTS There were three dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis in this study: 'Traditional Korean' (37.49% of total population), 'Meat and Alcohol' (19.65%) and 'Westernized Korean' (42.86%). The (1) 'Traditional Korean' pattern was characterized by high consumptions of white rice and low protein, low fat, and low milk products, while (2) 'Westernized Korean' pattern ate a Korean-style diet base with various foods such as noodles, bread, eggs and milk, (3) 'Meat and Alcohol' pattern had high consumptions of meat and alcohol. In body composition changes, compared with the 'Traditional Korean' pattern, the 'Meat & alcohol' pattern was associated with a 50% increased risk of having elevated BMI (kg/m2), 'Westernized Korean' pattern was associated with a 74% increased abnormality of ASM/Wt (kg) by logistics analysis. Most of the Korean adult population continues to follow ether a traditional Korean having beneficial effects for successful aging. However, the 'Traditional Korean' pattern showed low protein intake (0.7 g/kg), calcium intake, and vitamin D intake as well as low of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM (kg)) among 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS Considering the low ASM, consumption of protein, calcium and vitamin D should be

  4. Childhood predictors of deliberate self-harm behavior and suicide ideation in korean adolescents: a prospective population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yun Mi; Chung, Young Ki; Lim, Ki Young; Lee, Young Moon; Oh, Eun Young; Cho, Sun Mi

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of adolescence suicidality in a longitudinal study. Additionally, the prevalence of deliberate self-harm behavior and suicide ideation at age 7 and during middle school were examined. Initial assessment data was obtained from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment was performed in 2006 when the original subjects became middle school students. The addresses and names of 1,857 subjects were located from the original data; they were 910 boys and 947 girls. The subjects were evaluated with the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL), which was administered by the parents of the children, and by various demographic and psychosocial factors. They were reassessed using self reports on the Korea Youth Self Report (K-YSR); in particular, replies to items related to self-harm behavior and suicide ideation were recorded. A logistic regression analysis showed that the factors of gender, economic status, the overall amount of behavior problems, the tendency to internalizing and externalizing problems, somatic problems, thought problems, delinquent behavior, and aggressive behavior were independent predictors of adolescent suicide ideation and self-harm behavior. The importance of total behavior problems suggested that adolescent difficulty is a consequence of an accumulation of various risk factors. Accordingly, clinicians must consider a range of internalizing and externalizing issues, especially overall adaptation, for suicide intervention. PMID:19399261

  5. Korean medicine in Kazakhstan: Ideas, practices and patients.

    PubMed

    Penkala-Gawecka, Danuta

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1990s, after gaining independence by the Republic of Kazakhstan, various complementary therapies have grown rapidly there. Korean medicine in its several forms belongs among them. There is an important population of Korean deportees from Stalinist times, but this paper will show that the various forms of Korean medicine practised in Almaty, Kazakhstan's former capital, do not primarily cater for ethnic Koreans. Rather, as the paper demonstrates, it is important to see that there are different forms of Korean medicine attractive to clientele from different strata of society. Thus, there are, apart from the most traditional treatment practised at the Korean-Kazakhstani clinic in Almaty, two other newly invented modifications of Korean medicine: soo-jok and soo-ji . The paper embeds Korean medicine into the context of the drastic deterioration of the state health care system and general dissatisfaction with its services, on the one hand, and a generally supportive attitude of government authorities to complementary medicine, on the other. My empirical data suggest that in Kazakhstan people of different ethnic background, sex, age and education choose complementary therapies. The growing popularity of these therapies is not only attributed to public confidence in the methods that are perceived as 'traditional' but more importantly to the extremely difficult economic conditions which have made people search for cheaper treatment. The paper presents data that are critical of a purely culturalist interpretation of explaining the arrival of Korean medicine in Kazakhstan and suggests that it is the political economy of Korean medicine as a non-costly therapy which has made it attractive to a wide range of clients. PMID:26869122

  6. Cultural Perspectives on Korean American Cancer Control

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Hesung Chun

    2006-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the importance of sociocultural research for successful ethnic-based cancer control. The article first delineates some demographic characteristics of Korean Americans and then describes six subcultural groups within this population, illuminating that Korean Americans are a diverse people. The author emphasizes that any cancer control program needs to acknowledge these cultural differences in selecting the target population, identifying intervention strategies, and training a team of health-care professionals, as well as in determining psychological factors related to cancer. The author also suggests that the traditional Korean American notion of health, the preventive approach to illness by using food as medicine, the traditional classification of body types, and the sasang theory for the treatment of illness are all important factors worthy of further research. Finally, the synchronistic and holistic approach to health common among Korean Americans is described by citing recent studies of cancer control that combine the use of Western medicine together with proper physical exercise, diet control, and psychological and family counseling. PMID:17031420

  7. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity. PMID:26157264

  8. Determinants and Regression Equations for the Calculation of z Scores of Left Ventricular Tissue Doppler Longitudinal Indexes in a Healthy Italian Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Fibbi, Veronica; Ballo, Piercarlo; Spaziani, Gaia; Calabri, Giovanni B.; Pollini, Iva; Zuppiroli, Alfredo; Chiappa, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Aim. We investigated the predictors of tissue Doppler left ventricular (LV) longitudinal indexes in a healthy Italian pediatric population and established normative data and regression equations for the calculation of z scores. Methods and Results. A total of 369 healthy subjects aged 1–17 years (age of 6.4 ± 1.1 years, 49.1% female) underwent echocardiography. LV peak longitudinal velocity at systole (s'), early diastole (e'), and late diastole (a') was determined by tissue Doppler. The ratio of peak early diastolic LV filling velocity to e' was calculated. Age was the only independent determinant of s' (β = 0.491, p < 0.0001) and the strongest determinant of e' (β = 0.334, p < 0.0001) and E/e' (β = −0.369, p < 0.0001). Heart rate was the main determinant of a' (β = 0.265, p < 0.0001). Male gender showed no effects except for a weak association with lateral s', suggesting no need of gender-specific reference ranges. Age-specific reference ranges, regression equations, and scatterplots for the calculation of z scores were determined for each index. Conclusion. In a pediatric Italian population, age was the strongest determinant of LV longitudinal dynamics. The availability of age-specific normality data for the calculation of z scores may allow for correctly detecting LV dysfunction in pediatric pathological populations. PMID:26759729

  9. The Influences of Immigration on Health Information Seeking Behaviors among Korean Americans and Native Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary; Kim, Wonsun

    2014-01-01

    Korean Americans (KAs) have low screening rates for cancer and are often not well informed about their chronic diseases. Reduced access to health-related information is one reason for gaps in knowledge and the widening health disparities among minority populations. However, little research exists about KAs' health information seeking…

  10. Korean Basic Course. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, B. Nam

    Volume I of the Korean Basic Course provides introductory materials for the student who wishes to achieve a working command of the language currently spoken by an estimated 40 to 43 million people on the Korean Peninsula and in Japan, Manchuria, and the Soviet Union. The linguistic content is based on the speech of educated Koreans in Seoul, the…

  11. Trace element status and fatty acids metabolism during healthy ageing: an example of a population from the Tunisian eastern coast.

    PubMed

    Sfar, Sonia; El Heni, Jihen; Laporte, François; Braham, Hamadi; Jawed, Abdelhafidh; Amor, Salah; Sfar, Mohamed Tahar; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2012-03-01

    Micronutrients as well as essential fatty acids are indispensable for the correct functioning of the organism. The risk of disturbance in the associated nutrition and metabolism is expected to increase during ageing. In addition, it seems that trace elements are involved in the fatty acids metabolism. The aim of the present study was then to assess age-related changes in trace elements status and in plasma essential fatty acids composition with an emphasis on the desaturase activity estimation. Two hundred healthy Tunisian subjects (30-85 years old) were recruited and separated into two subgroups: elderly (65-85 years old) and middle-aged (30-60 years old). The findings revealed that plasma zinc and calcium concentrations significantly decreased according to age. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was therefore shown to increase in old age (over 60% of elderly subjects were deficient or at risk of deficiency). No age-related changes were obtained for copper or magnesium status. The Δ6 desaturase, involved in the EFAs conversion, was shown to decrease according to age and to be associated with the plasma zinc level. Since elderly subjects were at risk of nutritional imbalance, it would be interesting to set optimal dietary proportion. This will help to prevent age-associated alterations and diseases for a better and healthy ageing. PMID:22222317

  12. Population Pharmacokinetics of Azithromycin in Whole Blood, Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Polymorphonuclear Cells in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, M R; Dumitrescu, T P; Brouwer, K L R; Schmith, V D

    2014-01-01

    Azithromycin's extensive distribution to proinflammatory cells, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), may be important to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. The need to simultaneously predict azithromycin concentrations in whole blood (“blood”), PBMCs, and PMNs motivated this investigation. A single-dose study in 20 healthy adults was conducted, and nonlinear mixed effects modeling was used to simultaneously describe azithromycin concentrations in blood, PBMCs, and PMNs (simultaneous PK model). Data were well described by a four-compartment mamillary model. Apparent central clearance and volume of distribution estimates were 67.3 l/hour and 336 l (interindividual variability of 114 and 122%, respectively). Bootstrapping and visual predictive checks showed adequate model performance. Azithromycin concentrations in blood, PBMCs, and PMNs from external studies of healthy adults and cystic fibrosis patients were within the 5th and 95th percentiles of model simulations. This novel empirical model can be used to predict azithromycin concentrations in blood, PBMCs, and PMNs with different dosing regimens. PMID:24599342

  13. Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  14. Rapid increase of health care utilization and cost due to benign prostatic hyperplasia in Korean men: retrospective population-based analysis using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service data.

    PubMed

    Son, Hwancheol; Park, Juhyun; Song, Sang Hoon; Kang, Jung Yoon; Hong, Sung Kyu; Lee, Hyun Moo; Kim, Sun-Hee; Park, Byung-Joo; Lee, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Kyung Seop

    2015-02-01

    Using the Korean public health insurance database, we analyzed patients diagnosed as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) from 2004 to 2008. Age and year-specific amount and seasonal variation of hospital visits (HV), duration of treatment (DT), the total and per capita amount of insurance payment (TAIP, PCIP) were evaluated. A total of 12,088,995 HV were studied. Total HV increased 1.7 times and DT almost doubled in 2008 compared to those in 2004. HV, DT, and TAIP showed linearly increasing patterns year by year. In a time series analysis, HV increased in winter and demonstrated seasonality in a 12-month cycle. In a Poisson regression analysis, the annual variations of HV, DT, TAIP, and PCIP were different by age groups. In patients older than 40 yr, HV significantly increased 1.10-1.16 times compared to that of the previous year. DT markedly increased in their 60s and 80s patients. The rate of increase in PCIP was steeper in patients 50 yr and older than in the others.Health care utilization due to BPH was rapidly increasing in Korea and it was remarkable in the elderly population. Seasonal variation of HV demonstrated that health care utilization increased in winter. PMID:25653490

  15. Residential mobility across local areas in the United States and the geographic distribution of the healthy population.

    PubMed

    Geronimus, Arline T; Bound, John; Ro, Annie

    2014-06-01

    Determining whether population dynamics provide competing explanations to place effects for observed geographic patterns of population health is critical for understanding health inequality. We focus on the working-age population-the period of adulthood when health disparities are greatest-and analyze detailed data on residential mobility collected for the first time in the 2000 U.S. census. Residential mobility over a five-year period is frequent and selective, with some variation by race and gender. Even so, we found little evidence that mobility biases cross-sectional snapshots of local population health. Areas undergoing large or rapid population growth or decline may be exceptions. Overall, place of residence is an important health indicator; yet, the frequency of residential mobility raises questions of interpretation from etiological or policy perspectives, complicating simple understandings that residential exposures alone explain the association between place and health. Psychosocial stressors related to contingencies of social identity associated with being black, urban, or poor in the United States may also have adverse health impacts that track with structural location even with movement across residential areas. PMID:24781651

  16. Vitamin D Receptor Gene TaqI, BsmI and FokI Polymorphisms in Korean Patients with Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tae Jin; Jin, Song Hou; Yeum, Chung-Eun; Lee, Seong Beom; Kim, Chi Hong; Lee, Sang Haak; Kim, Kwan Hyoung; Shin, Eun-Soon

    2011-01-01

    Background The active metabolite (1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) of vitamin D (25-hydroxycholecalciferol) leads to activation of macrophages and deficiency of vitamin D seems to be involved in the risk of tuberculosis. The effects of vitamin D are exerted by interaction with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and may be influenced by polymorphism in the VDR gene. In this study, variation in the VDR gene was investigated in Korean population with tuberculosis. Methods We typed three VDR polymorphisms of restriction endonuclease sites for TaqI, BsmI and FokI in 155 patients with tuberculosis and 105 healthy volunteers. Results The frequencies of FokI genotypes determined from TB patients were 29.13% for FF, 56.31% for Ff, and 14.56% for ff. We observed 1.4-fold increased prevalence of the Ff genotype in TB patients compared with normal healthy groups (p=0.0857). However, there was no significant association between the genotype groups, TB patient and normal control, for FokI polymorphism. There was also no significant association between VDR gene and tuberculosis in another polymorphism (BsmI and TaqI). Conclusion Three polymorphisms (TaqI, BsmI and FokI) in the VDR gene do not appear to be responsible for host susceptibility to human tuberculosis in Korean population. PMID:22194708

  17. An enhancement strategy for integration of population health into medical school education: employing the framework developed by the Healthy People Curriculum Task Force.

    PubMed

    Kerkering, Kathryn Waldrop; Novick, Lloyd F

    2008-04-01

    The authors describe an enhancement strategy for integration of population health content into the medical school curriculum at The Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University conducted in 2005-2006. The Clinical Prevention and Population Health Curriculum Framework developed by the Healthy People Curriculum Task Force served as the planning template for curriculum analysis. Key to success was the incorporation of population health as a "curriculum enhancement," as opposed to curricular expansion or substitution. Strategies included introduction of a Case-Based Series in Population-Oriented Prevention (C-POP) in the preclinical years; community assessments, home visits, and public health assignments in the family medicine and pediatrics clinical clerkships; and prevention history-taking. The Brody integrated curriculum included a wide range of topics and clinical experiences specific to prevention and population health; however, the coverage was uneven. Hybrid teaching cases were developed from four C-POP cases which were adapted to existing instructional materials. Students learned to define the determinants of health, disease burden in their community settings, and community strengths and obstacles specific to dealing with chronic conditions. Factors contributing to the successful integration of population health included a receptive primary care medical school, use of the Framework, analysis of gaps between the Framework and the existing curriculum, providing enhancements to the existing curriculum, employment of patient cases, and integrating population health into a variety of classroom and community medical learning experiences. This approach, as opposed to a separate and distinct course, seeks to reinforce the interconnectedness of communities, families, and individuals. PMID:18367893

  18. Comparative study of IgA VH3 gene usage in healthy TST− and TST+ population exposed to tuberculosis: deep sequencing analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Siang Tean; Ignatius, Joshua; Suraiya, Siti; Tye, Gee Jun; Sarmiento, Maria E; Acosta, Armando; Norazmi, Mohd Nor; Lim, Theam Soon

    2015-01-01

    The acquired immune response against tuberculosis is commonly associated with T-cell responses with little known about the role of B cells or antibodies. There have been suggestions that B cells and humoral immunity can modulate the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the mechanisms involving B-cell responses in M. tuberculosis are not fully understood, in particular the antibody gene preferences. We hypothesized that a preferential use of V genes can be seen associated with resistance to infection mainly in the IgA isotype, which is of prominent importance for infection by pathogens via the mucosal route. We studied healthy individuals with long-term exposure to tuberculosis, infected (TST+) and uninfected TST−) with M. tuberculosis. From a total of 22 V genes analysed, the TST− population preferred the VH3-23 and Vκ1 genes. The VH3-23 genes were subsequently subjected to 454 amplicon sequencing. The TST− population showed a higher frequency of the D3-10 segment compared with the D3-22 segment for the TST+ population. The J segment usage pattern was similar for both populations with J4 segment being used the most. A preferential pairing of J4 segments to D3-3 was seen for the TST− population. The antibodyome difference between both populations suggests a preference for antibodies with VH3-23, D3-3, JH4 gene usage by the TST− population that could be associated with resistance to infection with M. tuberculosis. PMID:25158076

  19. Comparative study of IgA VH 3 gene usage in healthy TST(-) and TST(+) population exposed to tuberculosis: deep sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Chin, Siang Tean; Ignatius, Joshua; Suraiya, Siti; Tye, Gee Jun; Sarmiento, Maria E; Acosta, Armando; Norazmi, Mohd Nor; Lim, Theam Soon

    2015-02-01

    The acquired immune response against tuberculosis is commonly associated with T-cell responses with little known about the role of B cells or antibodies. There have been suggestions that B cells and humoral immunity can modulate the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the mechanisms involving B-cell responses in M. tuberculosis are not fully understood, in particular the antibody gene preferences. We hypothesized that a preferential use of V genes can be seen associated with resistance to infection mainly in the IgA isotype, which is of prominent importance for infection by pathogens via the mucosal route. We studied healthy individuals with long-term exposure to tuberculosis, infected (TST(+) ) and uninfected TST(-) ) with M. tuberculosis. From a total of 22 V genes analysed, the TST(-) population preferred the VH 3-23 and Vκ1 genes. The VH 3-23 genes were subsequently subjected to 454 amplicon sequencing. The TST(-) population showed a higher frequency of the D3-10 segment compared with the D3-22 segment for the TST(+) population. The J segment usage pattern was similar for both populations with J4 segment being used the most. A preferential pairing of J4 segments to D3-3 was seen for the TST(-) population. The antibodyome difference between both populations suggests a preference for antibodies with VH 3-23, D3-3, JH 4 gene usage by the TST(-) population that could be associated with resistance to infection with M. tuberculosis. PMID:25158076

  20. In-Depth Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Korean American Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Jongeun; Kim, Miyong T.; Han, Hae-Ra

    2009-01-01

    While studies of immigrants have generally indicated significant dietary changes upon immigration that mirror a Western diet, previous data are limited to the dietary patterns and intakes of younger and middle-aged adults. Using a relatively large sample of Korean American elderly (KAE) immigrants, this paper offers an in-depth assessment of the nutritional status of KAE, one of the most rapidly increasing minority populations in the United States. A total of 202 KAE in a metropolitan city on the East coast participated in a comprehensive nutritional survey using 24-hour dietary recall. Despite their spending about 16 years in the U.S., the KAE consumed more than two regular meals in a day which qualified under a Korean food pattern. When compared with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, the average consumption of nutrients reported was generally lower than Americans, with the exception of carbohydrates, vegetable protein, and sodium intakes. Inadequate intakes of calcium, dietary fiber, and folate were notable when examined in comparison to the Dietary Reference Intakes. The findings can help healthcare providers and researchers to design appropriate nutritional education programs to facilitate the adoption of healthier dietary practices in this immigrant population. In particular, future interventions should consider ways to lower sodium intake and increase fruit and vegetable consumption among KAE, while encouraging them to maintain their healthy dietary pattern. PMID:19818265

  1. Development of a Population Pharmacokinetic Model To Describe Azithromycin Whole-Blood and Plasma Concentrations over Time in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Anic-Milic, T.; Oreskovic, K.; Padovan, J.; Brouwer, K. L. R.; Zuo, P.; Schmith, V. D.

    2013-01-01

    Azithromycin (AZI), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, accumulates in polymorphonuclear cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The distribution of AZI in proinflammatory cells may be important to the anti-inflammatory properties. Previous studies have described plasma AZI pharmacokinetics. The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of AZI in whole blood (concentration in whole blood [Cb]) and plasma (concentration in plasma [Cp]) of healthy subjects. In this study, 12 subjects received AZI (500 mg once a day for 3 days). AZI Cb and Cp were quantified in serial samples collected up to 3 weeks after the last dose and analyzed using noncompartmental and compartmental methods. After the last dose, Cb was greater than Cp. Importantly, Cb, but not Cp, was quantifiable in all but one subject at 3 weeks. The blood area under the curve during a 24-h dosing interval (AUC24) was ∼2-fold greater than the plasma AUC24, but simulations suggested that Cb was not at steady state by day 3. Upon exploration of numerous models, an empirical 3-compartment model adequately described Cp and Cb, but Cp was somewhat underestimated. Intercompartmental clearance (CL; likely representing cells) was lower than apparent oral CL (18 versus 118 liters/h). Plasma, peripheral, and cell compartmental volumes were 439 liters, 2,980 liters, and 3,084 liters, respectively. Interindividual variability in CL was low (26.2%), while the volume of distribution variability was high (107%). This is the first report to describe AZI Cb in healthy subjects, the distribution parameters between Cp and Cb, and AZI retention in blood for up to 3 weeks following 3 daily doses. The model can be used to predict Cb from Cp for AZI under various dosing regimens. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01026064.) PMID:23629714

  2. Phylogenetic Analysis of Astrovirus and Kobuvirus in Korean Dogs

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, Sarah; LIM, Seong-In; KIM, Yong Kwan; CHO, Yoon-Young; SONG, Jae-Young; AN, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Astroviruses and kobuviruses are frequently found in mammalian feces, including that of humans. The present study examined fecal samples from 91 Korean dogs suffering from diarrhea. Canine astroviruses (CAstVs) and canine kobuviruses (CKoVs) were identified in 2 (2.1%) and 46 (50.6%) dogs, respectively. Nucleotide sequence analysis coupled with phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining method showed that CAstVs clustered into four genetically diverse groups. Two Korean CAstVs belonged to group 2 alongside strains isolated in Italy and France. Twelve of the Korean CKoVs belonged to a single clade, along with strain UK003 identified in the UK and six CKoVs identified in the USA. Thus, the results suggest that the Korean strain of CAstV is closely related to strains isolated in Europe. Surely, CKoV in South Korea could identify the circulation among dogs population. PMID:24784439

  3. Developing Korean-specific equations of stature estimation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yangseung; Jantz, Lee Meadows

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to develop Korean-specific equations for stature estimation and compare their performance to existing techniques. Due to a lack of appropriate reference samples in Korea, equations were generated using a hybrid method on 113 Korean unknown skeletons. In this approach, estimates using the anatomical method [1] were regarded as actual stature. Results revealed that new equations produced more accurate and precise estimates than previous techniques. In addition, due to consistent body proportions of Korean populations through time and space, new equations are applicable to Korean skeletons regardless of their temporal and geographic origins. For obtaining statures at death, particularly in a forensic context, an age correction factor, 0.0426 cm/year, should be applied. PMID:26833426

  4. Postprandial Lipemia is Modified by the Presence of the APOB-516C/T Polymorphism in a Healthy Caucasian Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apolipoprotein (apoB) plays a fundamental role in the transport and metabolism of plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs) and cholesterol. Several apoB polymorphic sites have been studied for their potential use as markers for coronary heart disease in the population. In view of the importance of apoB in pos...

  5. Population-based evaluation of the ‘LiveLighter’ healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign

    PubMed Central

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) ‘LiveLighter’ (LL) mass media campaign ran during June–August and September–October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual (‘why’ change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier (‘how’ to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25–49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N = 2012) and following the two media waves (N = 2005 and N = 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The ‘why’ message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than ‘how’ messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P < 0.05) and physical activity intentions (P < 0.05). Endorsement of stereotypes of overweight individuals did not increase after LL aired. LL was associated with some population-level improvements in proximal and intermediate markers of campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. PMID:26956039

  6. Depression and Korean American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

    2008-02-01

    Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants. PMID:18207052

  7. Overview of the Development of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, So-Yeon; Myung, Hyung-Nam

    2014-01-01

    A set of exposure factors that reflects the characteristics of individual behavior capable of influencing exposure is essential for risk and exposure assessment. In 2007, the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook was, therefore, issued, driven by the need to develop reliable exposure factors representing the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to overview the development process of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook and major recommended exposure values for the Korean population to allow information exchanges and comparison of recommended values among nations. The researchers reviewed the domestic data that could be used in the development of exposure factors, confirmed a knowledge gap, and set a priority of development by phases. A methodology to measure exposure factors was established to develop measuring techniques and test their validity. Data were processed or a survey was conducted according to the availability of data. The study thus produced recommended values for 24 exposure factors grouped by general exposure factors, food ingestion factors, and activity factors by setting up a database of exposure factors and carrying out statistical analysis. The study has significantly contributed to reducing the potential uncertainty of the risk and exposure assessment derived by the application of foreign data or research findings lacking representativeness or grounds by developing a set of exposure factors reflecting the characteristics of the Korean people. It will be necessary to conduct revisions in light of the changing statistical values of national data and the exposure factors based on Korean characteristics. PMID:24570801

  8. Overview of the development of the Korean exposure factors handbook.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, So-Yeon; Myung, Hyung-Nam

    2014-01-01

    A set of exposure factors that reflects the characteristics of individual behavior capable of influencing exposure is essential for risk and exposure assessment. In 2007, the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook was, therefore, issued, driven by the need to develop reliable exposure factors representing the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to overview the development process of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook and major recommended exposure values for the Korean population to allow information exchanges and comparison of recommended values among nations. The researchers reviewed the domestic data that could be used in the development of exposure factors, confirmed a knowledge gap, and set a priority of development by phases. A methodology to measure exposure factors was established to develop measuring techniques and test their validity. Data were processed or a survey was conducted according to the availability of data. The study thus produced recommended values for 24 exposure factors grouped by general exposure factors, food ingestion factors, and activity factors by setting up a database of exposure factors and carrying out statistical analysis. The study has significantly contributed to reducing the potential uncertainty of the risk and exposure assessment derived by the application of foreign data or research findings lacking representativeness or grounds by developing a set of exposure factors reflecting the characteristics of the Korean people. It will be necessary to conduct revisions in light of the changing statistical values of national data and the exposure factors based on Korean characteristics. PMID:24570801

  9. [Plasma concentration of lipoprotein(a) and distribution of its subtypes in the healthy population of Hungary].

    PubMed

    Császár, A; Romics, L; Lackner, C; Dieplinger, H; Karádi, I; Utermann, G

    1990-09-23

    Authors determined the plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, apoprotein B-100 (apo B-100), apoprotein A-I (apo A-I) and lipoprotein(a) in 202 (139 female and 63 male) randomized blood donors. The phenotypes of lipoprotein(a) were detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis and Western blotting. The average plasma total cholesterol concentration of this Hungarian population was 5.7 +/- 1.1 mmol/l. The other lipoprotein parameters were HDL-cholesterol: 1.36 +/- 0.04 mmol/l; and the apoprotein B-100 concentration: 70 +/- 17.4 mg/dl. In these parameters no difference between males and females could be found. The average plasma apoprotein A-I in females was 156.3 +/- 23.6 mg/dl and in males 143.8 +/- 26.8 mg/dl and the difference was statistically significant (p less than 0.01). The average lipoprotein(a) concentration of this population was 10.5 +/- 13.5 mg/dl and there was no significant difference between males and females (9.0 +/- 10.7 and 13.9 +/- 17.7 mg/dl, respectively). The distribution of plasma Lp(a) was highly skewed in the direction of low concentration values. In females a moderate bimodial distribution could be demonstrated. Documented by several authors lipoprotein(a) level higher than 30 mg/dl serves as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. In this population only 9.4% of subjects had lipoprotein(a) concentrations over this limit (5.9% female and 3.5% male). The relative alle frequency of different phenotypes showed the following distribution: B 0.007, S1 0.015, S2 0.154, S3 0.231, S4 0.230 and null 0.362. In this population the F phenotype could not be detected. PMID:2145542

  10. Epigenome-Wide Scans Identify Differentially Methylated Regions for Age and Age-Related Phenotypes in a Healthy Ageing Population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tsun-Po; Pidsley, Ruth; Nisbet, James; Glass, Daniel; Mangino, Massimo; Zhai, Guangju; Zhang, Feng; Valdes, Ana; Shin, So-Youn; Dempster, Emma L.; Murray, Robin M.; Grundberg, Elin; Hedman, Asa K.; Nica, Alexandra; Small, Kerrin S.; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mill, Jonathan; Spector, Tim D.; Deloukas, Panos

    2012-01-01

    Age-related changes in DNA methylation have been implicated in cellular senescence and longevity, yet the causes and functional consequences of these variants remain unclear. To elucidate the role of age-related epigenetic changes in healthy ageing and potential longevity, we tested for association between whole-blood DNA methylation patterns in 172 female twins aged 32 to 80 with age and age-related phenotypes. Twin-based DNA methylation levels at 26,690 CpG-sites showed evidence for mean genome-wide heritability of 18%, which was supported by the identification of 1,537 CpG-sites with methylation QTLs in cis at FDR 5%. We performed genome-wide analyses to discover differentially methylated regions (DMRs) for sixteen age-related phenotypes (ap-DMRs) and chronological age (a-DMRs). Epigenome-wide association scans (EWAS) identified age-related phenotype DMRs (ap-DMRs) associated with LDL (STAT5A), lung function (WT1), and maternal longevity (ARL4A, TBX20). In contrast, EWAS for chronological age identified hundreds of predominantly hyper-methylated age DMRs (490 a-DMRs at FDR 5%), of which only one (TBX20) was also associated with an age-related phenotype. Therefore, the majority of age-related changes in DNA methylation are not associated with phenotypic measures of healthy ageing in later life. We replicated a large proportion of a-DMRs in a sample of 44 younger adult MZ twins aged 20 to 61, suggesting that a-DMRs may initiate at an earlier age. We next explored potential genetic and environmental mechanisms underlying a-DMRs and ap-DMRs. Genome-wide overlap across cis-meQTLs, genotype-phenotype associations, and EWAS ap-DMRs identified CpG-sites that had cis-meQTLs with evidence for genotype–phenotype association, where the CpG-site was also an ap-DMR for the same phenotype. Monozygotic twin methylation difference analyses identified one potential environmentally-mediated ap-DMR associated with total cholesterol and LDL (CSMD1). Our results suggest that in a

  11. A Silence That Wants to Be Heard: Suburban Korean American Students in Dialogue with Invisibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Dawan; Park, Hye-Young; Fecho, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Korean American students experience invisibility and silence as their culture and presence remain outwardly invisible in the mainstream culture of US high schools. This is further exacerbated by the silent response of the dominant population of the school towards these issues. Yet, to an extent, Korean American students find a sense of comfort…

  12. Phonological Transcribing of English Utterances in Teaching Listening Comprehension for Korean Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Yun Kul

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to discuss the importance of listening and to examine whether or not transcribing utterances in English using the Korean alphabet improved the accuracy in English sentences produced by a group of Korean college students. A total population of 120 students was divided into two groups, control and experiment. The…

  13. Communication between African Americans and Korean Americans: Before and after the Los Angeles Riots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ella

    1993-01-01

    Follows up a 1989 study of communication patterns between Korean-American merchants and African-American patrons in South Central Los Angeles (California), and expands the study to include a wider population of 58 African Americans and 21 Korean Americans. Effects of the 1992 riots on attitudes are discussed. (SLD)

  14. HPV Population Profiling in Healthy Men by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing Coupled with HPV-QUEST.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jin; Chang, Kaifen; Gardner, Brent P; Yu, Fahong; Giuliano, Anna R; Goodenow, Maureen M

    2016-02-01

    Multiple-type human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection presents a greater risk for persistence in asymptomatic individuals and may accelerate cancer development. To extend the scope of HPV types defined by probe-based assays, multiplexing deep sequencing of HPV L1, coupled with an HPV-QUEST genotyping server and a bioinformatic pipeline, was established and applied to survey the diversity of HPV genotypes among a subset of healthy men from the HPV in Men (HIM) Multinational Study. Twenty-one HPV genotypes (12 high-risk and 9 low-risk) were detected in the genital area from 18 asymptomatic individuals. A single HPV type, either HPV16, HPV6b or HPV83, was detected in 7 individuals, while coinfection by 2 to 5 high-risk and/or low-risk genotypes was identified in the other 11 participants. In two individuals studied for over one year, HPV16 persisted, while fluctuations of coinfecting genotypes occurred. HPV L1 regions were generally identical between query and reference sequences, although nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms of HPV16, 18, 31, 35h, 59, 70, 73, cand85, 6b, 62, 81, 83, cand89 or JEB2 L1 genotypes, mostly unidentified by linear array, were evident. Deep sequencing coupled with HPV-QUEST provides efficient and unambiguous classification of HPV genotypes in multiple-type HPV infection in host ecosystems. PMID:26821041

  15. HPV Population Profiling in Healthy Men by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing Coupled with HPV-QUEST

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jin; Chang, Kaifen; Gardner, Brent P.; Yu, Fahong; Giuliano, Anna R.; Goodenow, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-type human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection presents a greater risk for persistence in asymptomatic individuals and may accelerate cancer development. To extend the scope of HPV types defined by probe-based assays, multiplexing deep sequencing of HPV L1, coupled with an HPV-QUEST genotyping server and a bioinformatic pipeline, was established and applied to survey the diversity of HPV genotypes among a subset of healthy men from the HPV in Men (HIM) Multinational Study. Twenty-one HPV genotypes (12 high-risk and 9 low-risk) were detected in the genital area from 18 asymptomatic individuals. A single HPV type, either HPV16, HPV6b or HPV83, was detected in 7 individuals, while coinfection by 2 to 5 high-risk and/or low-risk genotypes was identified in the other 11 participants. In two individuals studied for over one year, HPV16 persisted, while fluctuations of coinfecting genotypes occurred. HPV L1 regions were generally identical between query and reference sequences, although nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms of HPV16, 18, 31, 35h, 59, 70, 73, cand85, 6b, 62, 81, 83, cand89 or JEB2 L1 genotypes, mostly unidentified by linear array, were evident. Deep sequencing coupled with HPV-QUEST provides efficient and unambiguous classification of HPV genotypes in multiple-type HPV infection in host ecosystems. PMID:26821041

  16. A mechanism-based model for the population pharmacokinetics of free and bound aflibercept in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Hoai-Thu; Veyrat-Follet, Christine; Vivier, Nicole; Dubruc, Catherine; Sanderink, Gerard; Mentré, France; Comets, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    AIM Aflibercept (VEGF-Trap), a novel anti-angiogenic agent that binds to VEGF, has been investigated for the treatment of cancer. The aim of this study was to develop a mechanism-based pharmacokinetic (PK) model for aflibercept to characterize its binding to VEGF and its PK properties in healthy subjects. METHODS Data from two phase I clinical studies with aflibercept administered as a single intravenous infusion were included in the analysis. Free and bound aflibercept concentration−time data were analysed using a nonlinear mixed-effects modelling approach with MONOLIX 3.1. RESULTS The best structural model involved two compartments for free aflibercept and one for bound aflibercept, with a Michaelis–Menten type binding of free aflibercept to VEGF from the peripheral compartment. The typical estimated clearances for free and bound aflibercept were 0.88 l day−1 and 0.14 l day−1, respectively. The central volume of distribution of free aflibercept was 4.94 l. The maximum binding capacity was 0.99 mg day−1 and the concentration of aflibercept corresponding to half of maximum binding capacity was 2.91 µg ml−1. Interindividual variability of model parameters was moderate, ranging from 13.6% (Vmax) to 49.8% (Q). CONCLUSION The present PK model for aflibercept adequately characterizes the underlying mechanism of disposition of aflibercept and its nonlinear binding to VEGF. PMID:21575034

  17. Associations between dietary patterns and screen time among Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Jun, Nuri

    2013-01-01

    Data are limited on the association between dietary patterns and screen time among Korean adolescents. The present study identified dietary patterns of 691 adolescents, aged 13-18 years, who had participated in the Third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III) and analyzed their associations with screen time. Screen time was defined as the time spent watching TV, using a computer, or playing video games was calculated as a sum of all these times. Dietary patterns and their factor scores were derived from a food frequency questionnaire using the factor analysis method. To analyze the association between dietary patterns and screen time, we conducted multiple linear regression analysis. We also performed multiple logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (OR) of excessive screen time (2 hours or longer per day) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We identified 2 dietary patterns labeled "the Korean healthy dietary pattern" and "the Western diet and fast foods pattern". The former included mixed grains, legumes, potatoes, red meat, eggs, fish, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, seaweeds, and mushrooms, whereas the latter included noodles, bread, red meat, poultry, fast foods, snack, and soft drinks. After controlling for potential confounding factors, factor scores for the Korean healthy dietary pattern were inversely associated (P-value for trend < 0.01) and those for the Western diet and fast foods pattern were positively associated with the screen time (P-value for trend < 0.01). Adolescents in the top tertile of the scores for the Korean healthy dietary pattern had a multivariable-adjusted OR [95% CI] of 0.44 (0.25-0.75) for excessive screen time compared with those in the lowest tertile. On the basis of these findings, adolescents who have excessive screen time may need to be encouraged to consume a more healthy diet. PMID:23964322

  18. Investigation and Functional Characterization of Rare Genetic Variants in the Adipose Triglyceride Lipase in a Large Healthy Working Population

    PubMed Central

    Coassin, Stefan; Schweiger, Martina; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Lamina, Claudia; Haun, Margot; Erhart, Gertraud; Paulweber, Bernhard; Rahman, Yusof; Olpin, Simon; Wolinski, Heimo; Cornaciu, Irina; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert; Kronenberg, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated a strong influence of rare genetic variants on several lipid-related traits. However, their impact on free fatty acid (FFA) plasma concentrations, as well as the role of rare variants in a general population, has not yet been thoroughly addressed. The adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is encoded by the PNPLA2 gene and catalyzes the rate-limiting step of lipolysis. It represents a prominent candidate gene affecting FFA concentrations. We therefore screened the full genomic region of ATGL for mutations in 1,473 randomly selected individuals from the SAPHIR (Salzburg Atherosclerosis Prevention program in subjects at High Individual Risk) Study using a combined Ecotilling and sequencing approach and functionally investigated all detected protein variants by in-vitro studies. We observed 55 novel mostly rare genetic variants in this general population sample. Biochemical evaluation of all non-synonymous variants demonstrated the presence of several mutated but mostly still functional ATGL alleles with largely varying residual lipolytic activity. About one-quarter (3 out of 13) of the investigated variants presented a marked decrease or total loss of catalytic function. Genetic association studies using both continuous and dichotomous approaches showed a shift towards lower plasma FFA concentrations for rare variant carriers and an accumulation of variants in the lower 10%-quantile of the FFA distribution. However, the generally rather small effects suggest either only a secondary role of rare ATGL variants on the FFA levels in the SAPHIR population or a recessive action of ATGL variants. In contrast to these rather small effects, we describe here also the first patient with “neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy” (NLSDM) with a point mutation in the catalytic dyad, but otherwise intact protein. PMID:21170305

  19. Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 > Staying Healthy Font: What is Alpha-1? Emphysema Alpha-1 Symptoms Diagnosing Alpha-1 Current Treatments ... Healthy What can people with Alpha-1-related emphysema do to stay as healthy as possible? First ...

  20. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  1. Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA analyses showed comparative genetic diversity between parent and offspring populations of Korean black rockfish in a hatchery facility.

    PubMed

    An, H S; Lee, J W; Park, J Y; Myeong, J I; An, C M

    2013-01-01

    The black rockfish, Sebastes inermis (Sebastidae), is an important commercial fishery resource in Korea. As a preliminary investigation into the effect of artificial reproduction in a hatchery facility, the genetic divergence between parent and offspring populations of black rockfish was accessed using 10 polymorphic nuclear microsatellite DNA loci and a mitochondrial (mt) control gene. All loci that were screened showed marked polymorphisms. mtDNA control region sequences were also highly variable. Of approximately 350 base pairs (bp) sequenced, 52 variable sites, comprising 56 base substitutions, were found among 233 individuals. Offspring populations showed less genetic variability than the parent population in terms of numbers of microsatellite alleles and mtDNA haplotypes, as well as mtDNA haplotype diversity. Statistical analysis of the fixation index (ΦST and F(ST)) and analysis of molecular variance using both DNA markers showed significant genetic differences between the parent and offspring populations. These results suggest that random genetic drift and/or inbreeding events, as well as artificial selection and founder effects, occurred when the offspring strain was reproduced in a hatchery facility despite thousands of males and females from different hatcheries being maintained for artificial reproduction. Therefore, it is necessary to improve current hatchery programs by monitoring genetic variation in both the broodstock and progeny and controlling inbreeding within stocks in commercial breeding facilities to maintain the production of high-quality black rockfish. This information will be useful for determining suitable guidelines for establishing and maintaining cultured stocks and the aquaculture industry of S. inermis. PMID:24390988

  2. Reference Ranges for Serum Total Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, and VLDL-Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Healthy Iranian Ahvaz Population.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mohammad Taha; Honomaror, Abdolhosain Mosavi; Rekabi, Abdolkarim; Latifi, Mahmod

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are recognized as major mortality causes and imposes tremendously heavy socio-economic burden worldwide. A vast variety of risk factors have been introduced in the literature known to enhance the incidence of CVD, such as hyperlipidemia. Therefore in order to make an accurate clinical decision it is essential to have appropriate reference ranges for lipids and lipoprotein particles in a particular population. Healthy female (n = 601) and male (n = 617) cases were randomly selected according to certain exclusion criteria from individuals visiting the major University hospital clinics situated in different part of Ahvaz city, Iran, from June 2010 to December 2010. Fasting blood samples (10 ml) were collected and analyzed for total cholesterol, total triglyceride and HDL-C employing enzymatic assays of CHOD-PAP, GPO-PAP and homogenous methods respectively. The samples were obtained such to include the ethnic populations of Persian, Arab. Lore leaving in this city. The data were analyzed statistically by SPSS-18 software. The obtained results were analyzed then age ethnic-wise and reference ranges (mean ± 1SD) were calculated. Remarkable differences between the obtained results for our population with other nations were seen. Also ethnic difference for HDL-C among our cases was noted. The observed significant differences among different nations and ethnicities emphasizes the need for nation-specific, local reference ranges for lipids and lipoproteins particles, to be established. PMID:24426224

  3. Comparison of microbial populations in the small intestine, large intestine and feces of healthy horses using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The composition of the microbiota of the equine intestinal tract is complex. Determining whether the microbial composition of fecal samples is representative of proximal compartments of the digestive tract could greatly simplify future studies. The objectives of this study were to compare the microbial populations of the duodenum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum (feces) within and between healthy horses, and to determine whether rectal (fecal) samples are representative of proximal segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal samples were collected from ten euthanized horses. 16S rRNA gene PCR-based TRFLP was used to investigate microbiota richness in various segments of the gastrointestinal tract, and dice similarity indices were calculated to compare the samples. Results Within horses large variations of microbial populations along the gastrointestinal tract were seen. The microbiota in rectal samples was only partially representative of other intestinal compartments. The highest similarity was obtained when feces were compared to the cecum. Large compartmental variations were also seen when microbial populations were compared between six horses with similar dietary and housing management. Conclusion Rectal samples were not entirely representative of intestinal compartments in the small or large intestine. This should be taken into account when designing studies using fecal sampling to assess other intestinal compartments. Similarity between horses with similar dietary and husbandry management was also limited, suggesting that parts of the intestinal microbiota were unique to each animal in this study. PMID:23497580

  4. Cardiac function associated with previous, current and repeated depression and anxiety symptoms in a healthy population: the HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    Gustad, L T; Bjerkeset, O; Strand, L B; Janszky, I; Dalen, H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Symptoms of anxiety and depression often co-exist with cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet little is known about the association with left ventricular (LV) subclinical dysfunction. We aimed to study the cross-sectional associations of previous, current and repeated depression or anxiety symptoms, with sensitive indices of LV systolic and diastolic function, based on tissue Doppler (TD) and speckle tracking (ST) imaging methods. Methods A random selection of 1296 individuals free from known CVD, hypertension and diabetes were examined with echocardiography at baseline of the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, (HUNT3, 2006–2008). The primary outcomes were LV diastolic function (e′) and LV systolic function (longitudinal global strain). The primary exposures were self-report on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Associations between outcomes and baseline exposures were available for 1034 (80%), and with previous and repeated exposures for 700 participants who also participated in HUNT2 (1995–1997). Results Previous and repeated depression symptoms, but not current depression, were linearly associated with a reduction in e′. The average sum of two repeated HADS-D scores 10 years apart had the strongest effect on e′ (−8.3%; 95% CI −13.9% to −2.7%) per 5 units. We observed a sex difference between depression symptoms and longitudinal global strain (p for interaction 0.019), where women had a marginal negative effect. Anxiety symptoms, neither previous, current nor repeated were associated with subclinical LV dysfunction. Conclusions In a healthy sample, confirmed free of CVD, past and repeated depression symptoms were associated with subclinical LV dysfunction. Thus, depression symptoms might represent a modifiable risk factor for future CVD. PMID:26925243

  5. Healthy doctors, healthy communities.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Donna; Katch, Ellen; Anderson, Patricia; Furlong, Mary A

    2004-01-01

    Promoting health and eliminating disease are goals of Healthy People 2010, a national initiative for all communities. Physician-directed interventions that advance these principles are most effective when directed by clinicians who regularly participate in such healthy behaviors themselves. This pilot study describes an 8-week intervention, "Well-being for You and Your Patients," for first-year medical students to experience health behavior change. In the 2-hour sessions, students set goals for changing health behavior in 6 dimensions of wellness; report their progress; and enjoy a 30-minute change-of-pace wellness activity. The authors recommend adapting the course for medical student alumni to facilitate health behavior change with small groups of adults, school-age children, teens, and elders in churches, schools, community health centers, and other community-based organizations. Through continuing medical education and Grand Rounds, residents and physicians in practice could also be trained to implement specific behavioral change strategies. PMID:15495745

  6. Healthy pets, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Wong, S K; Feinstein, L H; Heidmann, P

    1999-08-01

    Zoonoses, diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans, can pose serious health risks to immunocompromised people. Although pets can carry zoonoses, owning and caring for animals can benefit human health. Information exists about preventing transmission of zoonoses, but not all physicians and veterinarians provide adequate and accurate information to immunocompromised pet owners. This disease prevention/health promotion project provides physicians and veterinarians with information, created specifically to share with patients and clients, about the health risks and benefits of pet ownership. Further, "Healthy Pets, Healthy People" encourages communication between veterinarians, physicians, clients, and patients and can serve as a model program for a nation-wide effort to aid health professionals in making recommendations about pet ownership for immunocompromised people. PMID:10434969

  7. Choroidal vascularity index as a measure of vascular status of the choroid: Measurements in healthy eyes from a population-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Gupta, Preeti; Tan, Kara-Anne; Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Wong, Tien-Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2016-02-01

    The vascularity of the choroid has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various eye diseases. To date, no established quantifiable parameters to estimate vascular status of the choroid exists. Choroidal vascularity index (CVI) may potentially be used to assess vascular status of the choroid. We aimed to establish normative database for CVI and identify factors associated with CVI in healthy eyes. In this population-based study on 345 healthy eyes, choroidal enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography scans were segmented by modified image binarization technique. Total subfoveal choroidal area (TCA) was segmented into luminal (LA) and stromal (SA) area. CVI was calculated as the proportion of LA to TCA. Linear regression was used to identify ocular and systemic factors associated with CVI and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT). Subfoveal CVI ranged from 60.07 to 71.27% with a mean value of 65.61 ± 2.33%. CVI was less variable than SFCT (coefficient of variation for CVI was 3.55 vs 40.30 for SFCT). Higher CVI was associated with thicker SFCT, but not associated with most physiological variables. CVI was elucidated as a significant determinant of SFCT. While SFCT was affected by many factors, CVI remained unaffected suggesting CVI to be a more robust marker of choroidal diseases.

  8. A Population-based Prospective Birth Cohort Study of Childhood Neurocognitive and Psychological Functioning in Healthy Survivors of Early-life Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Khandaker, Golam M.; Stochl, Jan; Zammit, Stanley; Lewis, Glyn; Jones, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine neurocognitive, educational and psychological functioning during childhood and early-adolescence among survivors of early-life meningitis who are apparently healthy. METHODS In the general population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort, meningitis exposure was determined at age 18 months. The outcomes of IQ, short-term memory, working memory, reading and spelling abilities, psychological and behavioural problems, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and psychotic experiences at ages 9 to 13 years were compared between those exposed and unexposed to meningitis. Individuals with special educational needs were excluded. RESULTS By age 18 months, 67 out of 11,035 children were reported to have suffered from meningitis (0.61%). These children, compared with the unexposed, performed worse on all neurocognitive and educational measures; mean difference in total IQ 7.36 (95% CI 1.60-13.11). Meningitis was associated with higher depressive and anxiety symptoms (p=0.02), psychological and behavioural problems (p=0.09), and increased risk of psychotic experiences; risk ratio 2.22 (95% CI 1.12-4.38). CONCLUSIONS Exposure to meningitis in the early-life is associated with neurocognitive, educational and psychological difficulties during childhood and early-adolescence among survivors who are apparently healthy. Therefore, focusing only on serious neurologic disabilities may underestimate the true impact of early-life meningitis. PMID:25794764

  9. Choroidal vascularity index as a measure of vascular status of the choroid: Measurements in healthy eyes from a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Gupta, Preeti; Tan, Kara-Anne; Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Wong, Tien-Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The vascularity of the choroid has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various eye diseases. To date, no established quantifiable parameters to estimate vascular status of the choroid exists. Choroidal vascularity index (CVI) may potentially be used to assess vascular status of the choroid. We aimed to establish normative database for CVI and identify factors associated with CVI in healthy eyes. In this population-based study on 345 healthy eyes, choroidal enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography scans were segmented by modified image binarization technique. Total subfoveal choroidal area (TCA) was segmented into luminal (LA) and stromal (SA) area. CVI was calculated as the proportion of LA to TCA. Linear regression was used to identify ocular and systemic factors associated with CVI and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT). Subfoveal CVI ranged from 60.07 to 71.27% with a mean value of 65.61 ± 2.33%. CVI was less variable than SFCT (coefficient of variation for CVI was 3.55 vs 40.30 for SFCT). Higher CVI was associated with thicker SFCT, but not associated with most physiological variables. CVI was elucidated as a significant determinant of SFCT. While SFCT was affected by many factors, CVI remained unaffected suggesting CVI to be a more robust marker of choroidal diseases. PMID:26868048

  10. [Physical activity and healthy diet, weight perception and stress in adult population in Chile: analysis of the second quality of life and health survey 2006].

    PubMed

    Pablo Zavala, Juan; Leraç, Lydia; Vio, Fernando

    2010-12-01

    Chile had a rapid epidemiological and nutritional transition with an increase in risk factors for chronic diseases and obesity. Dietary changes have occurred, mostly an increase in consumption of foods high in fat, sugar and salt, as well as a decrease in physical activity. This has led to a marked increase in obesity rates. To learn more on these risk factors for chronic diseases, obesity and physical activity, the First Quality of Life and Health Survey (ECVS) was carried out in 2000, with a second version in 2006. The objective of this paper is to analyze, from data collected by the 2006 survey, the relationship of physical activity with the consumption of fruits, vegetables and dairy products, weight perception and stress. The 2006 survey included 6.210 subjects with a 10.8% of active population and 89.2% of sedentary people. The relationship of activity was determined with the consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, weight perception and stress, by sex and socioeconomic levels. Results show that more than 50% of the active subjects consume fruits and vegetables, and 50% consume dairy products every day, with a higher probability of active persons of consuming healthy foods than the sedentary ones. Besides, sedentary people perceive themselves with more overweight and obesity than the active subjects. There was no relationship between physical activity and stress. People with a higher socioeconomic level are more active and consume more healthy products. These results permit to elaborate targeted policies and programs to improve diet and physical activity in the Chilean population. PMID:21866680

  11. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection among the healthy population in Iran and countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: A systematic review of prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghian, Ahad

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection among the healthy asymptomatic population in Iran and countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. METHODS: A computerized English language literature search of PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar was performed in September 2013. The terms, “Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO)” and “Helicobacter pylori”, “H. pylori” and “prevalence” were used as key words in titles and/or abstracts. A complementary literature search was also performed in the following countries: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, The United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. RESULTS: In the electronic search, a total of 308 articles were initially identified. Of these articles, 26 relevant articles were identified and included in the study. There were 10 studies from Iran, 5 studies from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 4 studies from Egypt, 2 from the United Arab Emirates, and one study from Libya, Oman, Tunisia, and Lebanon, respectively. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection in Iran, irrespective of time and age group, ranged from 30.6% to 82%. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection, irrespective of time and age group, in other EMRO countries ranged from 22% to 87.6%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of H. pylori in EMRO countries is still high in the healthy asymptomatic population. Strategies to improve sanitary facilities, educational status, and socioeconomic status should be implemented to minimize H. pylori infection. PMID:25516677

  12. "Healthy Men" and High Mortality: Contributions from a Population-Based Study for the Gender Paradox Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Tássia Fraga; Canesqui, Ana Maria; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Background Inequalities between men and women in morbidity and mortality show a contrast, which has been called gender paradox. Most studies evaluating this paradox were conducted in high-income countries and, until now, few investigations have been performed in Brazil. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of inequalities between adult men and women in several dimensions: demographic and socioeconomic, health behaviors, morbidity, use of health services and mortality. Methods The data were obtained from population-based household survey carried out in Campinas (Campinas Health Survey 2008/09) corresponding to 957 people, and data from the Mortality Information System (MIS) between 2009 and 2011. Prevalences and prevalence ratios were analyzed in order to verify the differences between men and women regarding socioeconomic and demographic variables, health behaviors, morbidities and consultations in the last two weeks. Mortality rates and the ratio between coefficients considering the underlying causes of death were calculated. Results Women had a greater disadvantage in socioeconomic indicators, chronic diseases diagnosed by a health professional and referred health problems as well as make more use of health services, while men presented higher frequency of most unhealthy behaviors and excessive mortality for all causes investigated. Conclusions The findings contribute to the discussion of gender paradox and demonstrate the need to employ health actions that consider the differences between men and women in the various health dimensions analyzed. The premature male mortality from preventable causes was outstanding, making clear the need for more effective prevention and health promotion directed to this segment of the population. PMID:26641245

  13. Smoking Topography in Korean American and White Men: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sangkeun; Kim, Sun S; Kini, Nisha; Fang, Hua J; Kalman, David; Ziedonis, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This is the first study of Korean Americans’ smoking behavior using a topography device. Korean American men smoke at higher rates than the general U.S. population. Methods Korean American and White men were compared based on standard tobacco assessment and smoking topography measures. They smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes ad libitum with a portable smoking topography device for 24 hours. Results Compared to White men (N = 26), Korean American men (N = 27) were more likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes (p < 0.001) and have lower Fagerstrom nicotine dependence scores (p = 0.04). Koreans smoked fewer cigarettes with the device (p = 0.01) than Whites. Controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked, Koreans smoked with higher average puff flows (p = 0.05), greater peak puff flows (p = 0.02), and shorter interpuff intervals (p < 0.001) than Whites. Puff counts, puff volumes, and puff durations did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions This study offers preliminary insight into unique smoking patterns among Korean American men who are likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes. We found that Korean American men compensated their lower number and low nicotine-yield cigarettes by smoking more frequently with greater puff flows than White men, which may suggest exposures to similar amounts of nicotine and harmful tobacco toxins by both groups. Clinicians will need to consider in identifying and treating smokers in a mutually aggressive manner, irrespective of cigarette type and number of cigarette smoked per day. PMID:24068611

  14. Smoking habits and nicotine dependence of North Korean male defectors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sei Won; Lee, Jong Min; Ban, Woo Ho; Park, Chan Kwon; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Sang Haak

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The smoking rates and patterns in the North Korean population are not well known. More than 20,000 North Korean defectors have settled in South Korea; thus, we can estimate the current North Korean smoking situation using this group. Methods: All North Korean defectors spend their first 3 months in a South Korean facility learning to adapt to their new home. We retrospectively analyzed the results from a questionnaire conducted among North Korean male defectors in this facility from August 2012 to February 2014. Results: Of 272 men, 84.2% were current smokers, 12.5% were ex-smokers, and 3.3% were non-smokers. The mean age of this group was 35.9 ± 11.3 years, and smoking initiation occurred at a mean age of 18.2 ± 4.7 years. Among the subjects, 78.1% had a family member who smoked. Of the 221 current smokers, 67.4% responded that they intended to quit smoking. Fagerström test and Kano test for social nicotine dependence (KTSND) results for current smokers were 3.35 ± 2.26 and 13.76 ± 4.87, respectively. Question 9 on the KTSND (doctors exaggerate the ill effects of smoking) earned a significantly higher score relative to the other questions and a significantly higher score in current smokers compared with non-smokers. Conclusions: The smoking rate in North Korean male defectors was higher than that indicated previously. However, interest in smoking cessation was high and nicotine dependence was less severe than expected. Further investigation is needed to identify an efficient method for North Korean smokers to stop smoking. PMID:26951917

  15. Age-specific reference values for serum prostate-specific antigen in a community-based population of healthy Swedish men.

    PubMed

    Löfman, O; Lindahl, T; Varenhorst, E

    1997-05-01

    To establish normal reference values for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a Swedish population we investigated 878 healthy men, 56-75 years of age. They were randomly selected from a population of 9171 males in this group. Cancer of the prostate was excluded by digital rectal examination. When digital rectal examination was suspicious for carcinoma of the prostate and/or serum PSA > 4 micrograms l-1, fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed. Central values, values of variance and reference limits were defined by a non-parametric method in four age groups. A strong positive correlation between PSA values and age was found and the variance increased with age. The relationship between PSA value and age was non-linear. For the age group 56-60 the upper reference limit (95th percentile) was 4.6 micrograms l-1 (confidence interval, CI: 3.9-5.5). For the age groups 61-65, 66-70 and 71-75 the corresponding values were 4.4 (3.8-5.2), 7.6 (6.5-8.9) and 8.4 micrograms l-1 (7.2-9.8) respectively. For the age groups studied the increment over time of the PSA value was 2-8% per year depending on age, with an average increment per year over 15 years of 4.3%. Overall, 11% of our reference sample had a serum PSA level > 4 micrograms l-1. We consider our study population to be representative for a normal Swedish male population in these age groups. PMID:9238758

  16. Validation of the Korean Version of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2: Psychometric Properties and Cross-Cultural Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Shin, Mi-Yeon; Jo, Hye-Hyeon; Jung, Young-Chul; Kim, Joon-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) in Korean patients with eating disorders and healthy controls, and to investigate cultural differences of EDI-2 between a Korean group and a North American standardization sample. Materials and Methods The Korean version of the EDI-2 was prepared after comprehensive clinical assessment of Korean patients with eating disorders (n=327) as well as female undergraduates (n=176). Results were compared between eating disorder subgroups (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified) and those of a North American standardization sample and healthy controls. Results The results showed that the Korean EDI-2 had adequate internal consistency (0.77-0.93) and discriminated well between patients with eating disorders and healthy controls on all subscales. Significant differences in EDI-2 subscale scores between the eating disorder groups and the healthy control group were observed; however, there was no discernible difference among the eating disorder subgroups. When compared with a North American standardization sample, the Korean control group showed significantly higher scores for drive for thinness and asceticism. When patient groups were compared, the Korean group showed significantly lower scores for perfectionism. Conclusion As expected, the results accurately reflected psychometric properties of the Korean version of EDI-2 for eating disorder patients in Korea. These findings also suggest that common characteristics for the eating disorder exist as a whole rather than with significant difference between each subgroup. In addition, significant differences between the Korean and the North American groups for both patients and controls also demonstrated specific cultural differences. PMID:23074108

  17. Serum Proteome Changes in Healthy Subjects with Different Genotypes of NOS1AP in the Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Feng; Wang, Congrong; Li, Rongxia; Hu, Cheng; Zhang, Rong; Fang, Qichen; Bao, Yuqian; Xiang, Kunsan; Zeng, Rong; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and its chronic complications have become a worldwide epidemic nowadays. However, its molecular mechanism is still unknown. We have previously identified a novel variant rs12742393 of NOS1AP for type 2 diabetes susceptibility in the Chinese population. In this study, we analyzed the total serum profiling among three genotypes of rs12742393 to discover potential crosstalk under the variant and the disease through proteomic analyses for the first time. We used OFFGEL peptide fractionation, LC-MS/MS analysis, and label-free quantification to profile the fasting human serum samples of the genotypes in rs12742393 (n = 4, for CC, AC, and AA, resp.). Four proteins were identified, including apoA4, alpha1-ACT, HABP2, and keratin 10, with blood levels changed significantly between CC and AA homozygotes of rs12742393. Compared with AA group, the levels of apoA4 increased (P = 0.000265), whereas the concentration of alpha1-ACT, HABP2, and keratin 10 decreased in CC group (P = 0.011116, 0.021175, and 0.015661, resp.). Then we selected additional fasting serum samples for ELISA and western blot validation. However, no significant differences were identified by neither ELISA nor western blot (P > 0.05). The protein profiling changes between the genotypes of rs12742393 indicated that this SNP might play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23671866

  18. Association of Plasma Heat Shock Protein 70, Interleukin 6, and Creatine Kinase Concentrations in a Healthy, Young Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Sesvold, Carmen; Revenis, Bradley D.; O'Connor, Francis G.; Deuster, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Variations of baseline plasma concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) have been reported. We report categorical associations which may influence these protein levels. Methods. Blood was harvested for DNA and plasma protein analysis from 567 adults. Mean protein levels of CK, HSP70, and IL-6 were compared by sex, ethnicity, genetic variants—CKMM Nco1 (rs1803285), HSPA1B +A1538G (rs1061581), and IL6 G-174C (rs1800795)—self-reported history of exercise, oral contraceptive use, and dietary supplement use. Results. SNP major allele frequencies for CKMM, HSPA1B, and IL6 were 70% A, 57% A, and 60%. Mean CK statistically differed by sex, ethnicity, oral contraceptives, and caffeine. Plasma HSP70 differed by caffeine and protein. Mean IL-6 concentration differed by sex, ethnicity, and genotype. Plasma IL-6 was significantly lower (29%) in males (1.92 ± 0.08 pg/mL) and higher (29%) among African Americans (2.85 ± 0.50 pg/mL) relative to the others. IL6 G-174C GG genotype (2.23 ± 0.14 pg/mL) was 19% greater than CG or CC genotypes. Conclusion. Differences in baseline CK and IL-6 plasma protein concentrations are associated with genetics, sex, ethnicity, and the use of oral contraceptives, caffeine, and protein supplements in this young and athletic population. PMID:26664829

  19. Rivaroxaban and other novel oral anticoagulants: pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects, specific patient populations and relevance of coagulation monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Unlike traditional anticoagulants, the more recently developed agents rivaroxaban, dabigatran and apixaban target specific factors in the coagulation cascade to attenuate thrombosis. Rivaroxaban and apixaban directly inhibit Factor Xa, whereas dabigatran directly inhibits thrombin. All three drugs exhibit predictable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics that allow for fixed oral doses in a variety of settings. The population pharmacokinetics of rivaroxaban, and also dabigatran, have been evaluated in a series of models using patient data from phase II and III clinical studies. These models point towards a consistent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile, even when extreme demographic factors are taken into account, meaning that doses rarely need to be adjusted. The exception is in certain patients with renal impairment, for whom pharmacokinetic modelling provided the rationale for reduced doses as part of some regimens. Although not routinely required, the ability to measure plasma concentrations of these agents could be advantageous in emergency situations, such as overdose. Specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics must be taken into account when selecting an appropriate assay for monitoring. The anti-Factor Xa chromogenic assays now available are likely to provide the most appropriate means of determining plasma concentrations of rivaroxaban and apixaban, and specific assays for dabigatran are in development. PMID:23809871

  20. The Factors Affecting the Development of National Identity as South Korean in North Korean Refugees Living in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shi-Eun; Eom, Jin-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims to observe the factors that influence the development of national identity of North Korean refugees who have resettled in South Korea. Methods The study population was comprised of 500 North Korean refugees who immigrated to South Korea in 2007. The variables measured national identity as South Korean, a scale for discrimination perceived during daily life, a social for supporting social network, a for childhood trauma experience, traumatic experiences in North Korea, and traumatic experiences during the escape process. Factor analysis was conducted on the result from the scale for national identity as South Korean which produced 4 factors including national consciousness, positive emotions, positive values, and negative values. Multiple regression was done to identify how variables such as demographic data, discrimination, social network, and past trauma had influenced each of 4 factors. Results National identity was negatively related by traumatic experience during childhood, perceived discrimination, and positively influenced by social networks. Positive emotion was related negatively to education level in North Korea and perceived discrimination, but positively related to traumatic experiences in North Korea. Negative value was related positively age and perceived discrimination but negatively related to supporting social network. Conclusion The results of this study suggests that promoting social networks, decreasing discrimination and healing past traumas were important factors for North Korean refugees in South Korea to facilitate a new national identity as a South Korean. PMID:22993518

  1. Association Between Obesity and Falls Among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between falls and obesity using Asian body mass index (BMI) classifications. Using the data from the Korean community health survey in 2011, a total of 229,226 participants ranging from 19 to 106 years old were included in this study. The BMI groups were classified as underweight (<18.5), healthy (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23), overweight (23 ≤ BMI <25), and obese (≥25) using Asian BMI classifications. The associations between BMI groups and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted according to age (19–40, 41–60, and ≥61 years) and the location of the fall (indoor and outdoor). Physical activity, household income, education level, alcohol consumption, smoking, stress level, and medical comorbidities were adjusted as confounders. In total, 16.8% and 6.1% of the participants experienced falls ≥1 time and ≥2 times per year, respectively. Compared to the healthy weight group, the other BMI groups showed a significant U-shaped relationship with falls ≥1 time (AOR underweight = 1.12, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.05–1.19; AOR obese = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02–1.10, P < 0.001) and ≥2 times (AOR underweight = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04–1.26; AOR obese = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99–1.10, P < 0.001). Obese status was significantly associated with falls (≥1 fall per year) in all age groups, whereas being underweight was significantly associated with falls in the 19 to 40 year age group only. In conclusion, both underweight and obese statuses were significantly associated with falls in this adult Korean population. However, the relationship between BMI group and falls varied according to age and the location of the falls. PMID:27015190

  2. [Scientific evidence about the role of yogurt and other fermented milks in the healthy diet for the Spanish population].

    PubMed

    Moreno Aznar, Luis A; Cervera Ral, Pilar; Ortega Anta, Rosa M; Díaz Martín, Juan José; Baladia, Eduard; Basulto, Julio; Bel Serrat, Silvia; Iglesia Altaba, Iris; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Manera, María; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Santaliestra Pasías, Alba M; Babio, Nancy; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Milk products contain proteins of high biologic value and digestibility; they also contain fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, specially calcium and phosphorus. Diversification of milk products consumption allows a high consumptiom of the above mentioned products, optimizing nutrient intake. In Spain, food consumption of milk products lower than the recommended amounts was observed in 20 to 40 % of the children and 30 to 45 % of the adults. Milk products represent 44 to 70 % of calcium intake in the Spanish population. Milk products consumption is positively associated with a high bone mineral density. More than 35 % of children and adults in Spain had calcium intakes below the national recommendations. Yogur contains less lactose than regular milk and fermenting milk bacteries express functioning lactase. Yogur intake is recommended to improve lactose digestion in individuals having lactose maldigestion. It seems reasonable to recommend yogur to improve calcium absorption, at least in post-menopausal women, and also for decreasing incidence and duration of infectious gastrointestinal disorders in children. Fermented milk products consumption, before, during and after medical eradication of Helicobacter Pylori, increases 5 to 10 % the effect of the specific drug therapy. Its consumption before, during and after antibiotic treatment, could also reduce the risk of diarrhea associated with the use of the above mentioned drugs. The Spanish Federation of Nutrition, Feeding and Dietetic Societies (FESNAD) recommend the following consumption of milk and milk products: Adults, 2-3 portions/day; school-age children, 2-3 portions/day; adolescents, 3-4 portions/day; pregnant and lactating women and during menopause, 3-4 portions/day; elderly, 2-4 portions/day. Considering yogur and fermented milk consumption show some advantages when compared with other milk products, we can recommend yogur within a daily and varied consumption of milk products. PMID:24506386

  3. Application of non-radioactive europium (Eu3+) release assay to a measurement of human natural killer activity of healthy and patient populations.

    PubMed

    Nagao, F; Yabe, T; Xu, M; Yokoyama, K; Saito, K; Okumura, K

    1996-01-01

    Europium (Eu3+) release assay is a non-radioactive method for a measurement of cytotoxicity of lymphocytes and has several advantages compared with a conventional 51Cr release assay. However, the Eu3+ release assay has not been applied to a natural killer (NK) activity measurement of a large number of the human population mainly due to a lack of comparability with the 51Cr release assay. With some modifications of the procedures and careful manipulation of cells, constant and reproducible results were obtained by the Eu3+ release assay. NK activity of several individuals was measured by the Eu3+ release assay and was compared with data obtained by 51Cr release assay performed simultaneously. The obtained values by the two methods were almost identical. We applied the Eu3+ method to measure NK activity of a large number of individuals, including 68 apparently healthy donors and 36 autoimmune and 21 cancer patients. Some of these diseases are known to show abnormal NK activity. The obtained cytotoxicities were mostly consistent with the previously reported data obtained by the 51Cr release assay. These results indicated that the Eu3+ release assay could be used as an alternative method for a measurement of human NK activity of mass population including patients. PMID:8915687

  4. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in Chinese healthy population aged >2 years: A randomized, double-blinded, active control, phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yujia; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Zhiwei; Wang, Ling; Li, Chanjuan; Li, Yanping; Xia, Jielai

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen causing invasive diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, and pneumonia. Vaccines have become the most effective way to prevent pneumococcal infections. This phase III trial was designed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in Chinese healthy population aged >2 years. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, active-controlled, multicenter trial in which 1660 healthy population (>2 years of age) were randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 ratio to receive 2 intramuscular doses of either the treatment vaccine or the active control vaccine, PNEUMOVAX 23. The surveillance period was 30 days. The primary end point was the 2-fold increase rate of anti-pneumococcal antibody for all 23 included serotypes in each group. In the intention-to-treat cohort, the 2-fold increase rate of anti-pneumococcal antibody for 23 included serotypes varied from 62.47% to 97.01% in the treatment group, and from 51.49% to 95.77% in the control group. According to -10% non-inferiority margin and 95% confidence intervals of rate difference, almost all included serotypes of the treatment group reached non-inferiority to control group except for serotype 6B, the lower limit of rate difference of which was -10.00%, equal to the non-inferiority margin. The 2-fold increase rates of anti-pneumococcal antibody were significantly higher in the treatment group for serotype 2, 3, 4, 10A, 11A and 20. Furthermore, for all 23 serotypes, IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) at day 30 were significantly higher in treatment group for serotype 2, 3, 4, 9 V, 10A, 11A, 15 B, 18C, 19 A, 22 F and 33 F. Higher geometric mean fold increase (GMFI) were also observed in the treatment group correspondingly. Serious adverse events occurred in 3 of 830 participants in the treatment group (0.36%) and 2 of 830 participants in the control group (0.24%). No death occurred during the trial. The frequencies of both solicited and

  6. Ethnicity, health and medical care: towards a critical realist analysis of general practice in the Korean community in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Han, Gil-Soo; Davies, Carmel

    2006-11-01

    This paper investigates the use and provision of biomedicine among Korean-Australian men on the basis of interview data from all of the eight Korean-speaking doctors practising in the Korean community in Sydney in 1995. From the viewpoint of these general practitioners, an analysis is made of the processes Korean men go through in adjusting to a new country, being involved in constant hard manual work and long working hours, and explores how they make use of all available resources to stay healthy. The Korean men have fully utilized the 'freely' available medical services under government-subsidized Medicare, bearing in mind that health is a capacity to work under the current environment, although illegal migrants restrained themselves from using it until they obtained legal status. Korean-speaking medical practitioners have been able to provide their fellow Koreans with 'culturally appropriate' health care, with the key factor being the absence of a language barrier. The level of patient satisfaction is high, possibly due to the excellent understanding the doctors have of the social aspects of illnesses, although the doctors do not go beyond curative medicine in their practice. However, the increasing number of Korean-speaking doctors in the small Korean community means that there is competition for patients. Consequently, the medical care is highly entrepreneurial. Referral by Korean doctors to practitioners of Korean herbal medicine is also a notable feature of the health care sector of the Korean community, especially as this offers Korean patients 'satisfactory' health relief for problems that are not easily relieved by doctors in the biomedical system. PMID:17060035

  7. Digital Technology Ownership, Usage, and Factors Predicting Downloading Health Apps Among Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans: The Digital Link to Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions using mobile health (mHealth) apps have been effective in promoting healthy lifestyle behavior change and hold promise in improving health outcomes to thereby reduce health disparities among diverse racial/ethnic populations, particularly Latino and Asian American subgroups (Filipinos and Koreans) at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Latinos and Asian Americans are avid digital technology owners and users. However, limited datasets exist regarding digital technology ownership and use, especially among specific racial/ethnic subgroups. Such information is needed to inform development of culturally tailored mHealth tools for use with lifestyle interventions promoting healthy behaviors for these at-risk racial/ethnic populations. Objective The intent of the study was to examine (1) digital technology ownership and usage, and (2) factors predicting downloading health apps for Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino American subgroups. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted in August 2013 through December 2013 recruited 904 participants (Caucasians n=172, Filipinos n=250, Koreans n=234, and Latinos n=248), age >18 years, from California community events, clinics, churches, and online. English, Spanish, and Korean surveys were administered via paper or online. Descriptive statistics characterized the sociodemographics and digital technology ownership/usage of the 904 participants. Differences among groups in categorical variables were examined using chi-square statistics. Logistic regression was used to determine factors predicting downloading health apps. Results Overall, mean age was 44 years (SD 16.1), with 64.3% (581/904) female. Only 44.7% (404/904) of all participants reported English as their primary language (Caucasian 98.3%, 169/172; Filipino 67.6%, 169/250; Korean 9.4%, 22/234, and Latino 17.7%, 44/248. Overall, mobile phone ownership was 92.8% (839/904). Compared to all groups, Koreans were more likely to own a

  8. Changes in 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake in the Spinal Cord in a Healthy Population on Serial Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Ari; Byun, Byung-Hyun; Hong, Sun-Pyo; Min, Jung-Joon; Bom, Hee-Seung; Ha, Jung-Min; Lee, Jung-Kil

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to determine the changes in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the spinal cord on two serial positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in a healthy population. We retrospectively enrolled healthy people who underwent PET/CT twice for cancer screening. We excluded those who had degenerative vertebral disease, neurologic disease, or a history of a vertebral operation. The standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the spinal cord of each mid-vertebral body was obtained by drawing a region of interest on an axial image of PET/CT. For analysis, the cord-to-background ratio (CTB) was used (CTB=SUVmax of each level/SUVmax of L5 level). Differences in pattern, sex, age, and intervals of the two serial PET/CT scans were analyzed. A total of 60 PET/CT images of 30 people were analyzed. The mean interval between the two PET/CT imaging studies was 2.80±0.94 years. On the follow-up PET/CT, significant change was shown only at the level of the C6 and T10 vertebrae (p<0.005). Mean CTB showed a decreasing pattern from cervical to lumbar vertebrae. There were two peaks at the lower cervical level (C4-6) and at the lower thoracic level (T12). Neither sex nor age significantly affected CTB. The FDG uptake of the spinal cord changed significantly on follow-up PET/CT only at the level of the C6 and T10 vertebrae. This finding is valuable as a baseline reference in the follow-up of metabolic changes in the spinal cord. PMID:23678476

  9. EXPERIMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY : II. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF HEALTHY MICE TO A POPULATION SUFFERING FROM MOUSE TYPHOID.

    PubMed

    Amoss, H L

    1922-06-30

    1. A kind of mouse village was set up into which was introduced a small number of mice fed on a culture of so called mouse typhoid (Bacillus pestis cavice of the Bacillus paratyphosus B group) bacillus. The spread of the infection so induced to the cages, or "homes," of the other mice was left to accident through the attendant who fed the animals and cleaned the cages. That this means was likely to be sufficient was deduced from the epidemic reported by Lynch. A spot map was kept throughout the experiments which extended from 1919 into 1922. 2. The first effect of the exposure of normal mice to a much smaller number of mice fed on the culture is to set up a sporadic, not an epidemic outbreak of mouse typhoid. This is the regularly recurring incident of the experiment as shown by low mortality and low cage attack rate. Such a sporadic prevalence is self-limited in time. 3. The introduction of fresh, normal mice into a community in which sporadic deaths are occurring leads regularly, not to the further extension of the sporadic deaths, but to an epidemic spread, as shown by high mortality and high cage attack rate. The epidemic begins with deaths among the new mice, but extends to the old mice which succumb later. The spread ceases and the wave subsides before all the mice have succumbed. A state of equilibrium between the infecting bacillus and the surviving mice is reached; no more deaths occur. The epidemic outbreak, therefore, is also self-limited in time. 4. If, now, another new addition of normal mice is brought into the potentially infected community, the events are reenacted; deaths occur among the new, another epidemic wave sweeps through the population, again claiming victims among the previous survivors. Through the replacement of the destroyed mice with fresh, normal mice, epidemic wave after wave is produced, until certain groups of old survivors are entirely wiped out. There seems to be no limit to this process, as there will always be survivors at

  10. Serum calcitriol concentrations measured with a new direct automated assay in a large population of adult healthy subjects and in various clinical situations.

    PubMed

    Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Cavalier, Etienne; Delanaye, Pierre; Massart, Catherine; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Cormier, Catherine; Borderie, Didier; Benachi, Alexandra; Chanson, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of calcitriol [1,25(OH2)D], is important for the differential diagnosis of several disorders of calcium/phosphorus metabolism but is time-consuming and tricky. We measured serum calcitriol with a new automated direct assay on the Liaison XL platform in 888 healthy French Caucasian subjects aged 18-89 years, 32 patients with a surgically-proven PHPT, 32 pregnant women at the end of the first and at the end of the third trimester, and 24 dialysis patients before and after one year of supplementation with vitamin D3 or placebo. The mean calcitriol concentration (±SD) in the healthy population was 52.9±14.5 ng/L with a 95% CI interval of 29-83.6 ng/L. In PHPT patients, calcitriol concentration was 81.6±29.0 ng/L, 15 of them (46.9%) having a concentration >83.6 ng/L. In pregnant women, calcitriol was 80.4±26.4 ng/L at the end of the first trimester, and 113.1±33.0 ng/L at the end of the third trimester, 12 (37.5%) and 26 (81.3%) of them having a calcitriol concentration >83.6 ng/L at the first and third trimesters respectively. In 14 dialysis patients, calcitriol was 9.5±7.7 ng/L and rose to 19.3 ng/L after one year of supplementation with 50,000 IU vitamin D3/month. In 10 other dialysis patients, calcitriol was 9.9±2.9 ng/L and remained stable (12.4±3.7 ng/L) after one year of placebo. In conclusion, this new automated calcitriol assay, in addition to presenting excellent analytical performances, gives the expected variations in patients compared to "normal" values obtained in an extensive reference population. PMID:26409159

  11. The influences of immigration on health information seeking behaviors among Korean Americans and Native Koreans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Zhou, Qiuping Pearl; Kreps, Gary; Kim, Wonsun

    2014-04-01

    Korean Americans (KAs) have low screening rates for cancer and are often not well informed about their chronic diseases. Reduced access to health-related information is one reason for gaps in knowledge and the widening health disparities among minority populations. However, little research exists about KAs' health information seeking behaviors. Guided by the Structural Influence Model, this study examines the influence of immigration status on KAs' trust in health information sources and health information seeking behaviors. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area as well as in the Gwangju metropolitan city in South Korea during 2006-2007. Two hundred and fifty-four KAs and 208 native Koreans who were 40 years of age or older completed the surveys. When comparing native Koreans to KAs, we found KAs were 3 times more likely to trust health information from newspapers or magazines (odds ratio [OR] = 3.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-6.54) and 11 times more likely to read the health sections of newspapers or magazines (OR = 11.35; 95% CI = 3.92-32.91) in multivariate adjusted models. However, they were less likely to look for health information from TV (OR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.12-0.72) than native Koreans. Our results indicate that immigration status has profound influences on KAs' health information seeking behaviors. Increasing the availability of reliable and valid health information from printed Korean language magazines or newspapers could have a positive influence on increasing awareness and promoting screening behaviors among KAs. PMID:23943681

  12. Korean Advanced Course, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the first of 7 readers for continuation training in Korean after the completion of the "Korean Basic Course" prepared by the Defense Language Institute. Units 1-11 are practical situation dialogues written for the course and center on topics related to sports, social events, police administration, and dialects. Interviews with key…

  13. Korean Advanced Course: Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the second of seven readers, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, for continuation training in Korean after the Basic Course. The 20 reading lessons, printed in Korean script, have been drawn from several readers published by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea in 1970. Each unit concludes with a set of questions and…

  14. Classifying Korean Adolescents' Career Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.; Hill, Roger B.

    2013-01-01

    Latent class analysis was used to examine the career preparation of 5,227 11th-grade Korean adolescents taken from the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005 (KELS:2005). Three career preparedness groups were identified, to reflecting Skorikov's ("J Vocat Behav" 70:8-24, 2007) conceptualization of career preparedness: prepared, confused, and…

  15. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  16. Voices of Korean American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Hastick, Eda F.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses issues of race, gender, and the immigrant experience, focusing on Korean-American women. Highlights myths and stereotypes surrounding Asian Americans and issues of immigrant adaptation and survival. Presents excerpts from a conversation among three Korean-American women, discussing issues related to race relations and the traditional…

  17. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Training and Jobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  18. Unpacking Parent Involvement: Korean American Parents' Collective Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Minjung

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which a group of Korean American parents perceived and responded to institutional inequalities in a family-school partnership. In their school, which had a growing Asian population, the dominant group's middle-class perspective on parent involvement became normal and operated as an overarching structure. Drawing…

  19. General factors of the Korean exposure factors handbook.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun-Ja; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Eun-Hye; Choi, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Young-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment considers the situations and characteristics of the exposure environment and host. Various physiological variables of the human body reflects the characteristics of the population that can directly influence risk exposure. Therefore, identification of exposure factors based on the Korean population is required for appropriate risk assessment. It is expected that a handbook about general exposure factors will be used by professionals in many fields as well as the risk assessors of the health department. The process of developing the exposure factors handbook for the Korean population will be introduced in this article, with a specific focus on the general exposure factors including life expectancy, body weight, surface area, inhalation rates, amount of water intake, and soil ingestion targeting the Korean population. The researchers used national databases including the Life Table and the 2005 Time Use Survey from the National Statistical Office. The anthropometric study of size in Korea used the resources provided by the Korean Agency for Technology and Standards. In addition, direct measurement and questionnaire surveys of representative samples were performed to calculate the inhalation rate, drinking water intake, and soil ingestion. PMID:24570802

  20. Korean Heritage Language Maintenance and Language Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which language ideology is linked to maintenance of Korean as a heritage language by Koreans in America. The data for this ethnographic study come from three separate sources: 1) a Korean language program at an American university; 2) a community-based ESL program for Korean seniors; and 3) a recently immigrated Korean…

  1. The Korean Americans. The New Americans Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurh, Won Moo

    The history and culture of Korean immigrants to the United States are described in the following chapters: (1) "Korean Ethnic Roots: The Land, History, People, and Culture"; (2) "Korean Immigration to the United States: A Historical Overview"; (3) "Economic Adjustment"; (4) "Cultural and Social Adaptation"; (5) "Family Life"; (6) "Korean Ethnic…

  2. The healthy human microbiome.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Price, Jason; Abu-Ali, Galeb; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Humans are virtually identical in their genetic makeup, yet the small differences in our DNA give rise to tremendous phenotypic diversity across the human population. By contrast, the metagenome of the human microbiome-the total DNA content of microbes inhabiting our bodies-is quite a bit more variable, with only a third of its constituent genes found in a majority of healthy individuals. Understanding this variability in the "healthy microbiome" has thus been a major challenge in microbiome research, dating back at least to the 1960s, continuing through the Human Microbiome Project and beyond. Cataloguing the necessary and sufficient sets of microbiome features that support health, and the normal ranges of these features in healthy populations, is an essential first step to identifying and correcting microbial configurations that are implicated in disease. Toward this goal, several population-scale studies have documented the ranges and diversity of both taxonomic compositions and functional potentials normally observed in the microbiomes of healthy populations, along with possible driving factors such as geography, diet, and lifestyle. Here, we review several definitions of a 'healthy microbiome' that have emerged, the current understanding of the ranges of healthy microbial diversity, and gaps such as the characterization of molecular function and the development of ecological therapies to be addressed in the future. PMID:27122046

  3. Long-Term Impact of Preterm Birth on Exercise Capacity in Healthy Young Men: A National Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Svedenkrans, Jenny; Henckel, Ewa; Kowalski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of survivors of preterm birth are growing into adulthood today. Long-term health-effects of prematurity are still poorly understood, but include increased risk for diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases in adult life. To test if reduced physical fitness may be a link in the causal chain of preterm birth and diseases in later life, the association of preterm birth and adult exercise capacity was investigated. The hypothesis was that preterm birth contributes independently of other risk factors to lower physical fitness in adulthood. Methods and Findings Population-based national cohort study of all males conscripting for military service in 1993–2001 and born in Sweden 1973–1983, n = 218,820. Data were retrieved from the Swedish Conscript Register, the Medical Birth Register and the Population and Housing Census 1990. Primary outcome was the results from maximal exercise test (Wmax in Watt) performed at conscription. Association to perinatal and socioeconomic risk factors, other co-variates and confounders were analysed. General linear modelling showed that preterm birth predicted low Wmax in a dose-response related pattern, with 25 Watt reduction in Wmax for the lowest gestational ages, those born ≤27 weeks. Low birth weight for gestational age also independently predicted low Wmax compared to normal and high birth weight (32 Watt reduction for those with a birth weight Standard Deviation Score <2). Low parental education was significantly associated with reduced Wmax (range 17 Watt), as well as both low and high current BMI, with severe obesity resulting in a 16 Watt deficit compared to Wmax top performance. Conclusion Being born preterm as well as being born small for gestational age predicts low exercise capacity in otherwise healthy young men. The effect size of being born preterm equal or exceed that of other known risk factors for unfitness in adults, such as low parental education and overweight. PMID:24324639

  4. Population pharmacokinetic modeling of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole for oral SUBA-itraconazole and sporanox capsule formulations in healthy subjects in fed and fasted states.

    PubMed

    Abuhelwa, Ahmad Y; Foster, David J R; Mudge, Stuart; Hayes, David; Upton, Richard N

    2015-09-01

    Itraconazole is an orally active antifungal agent that has complex and highly variable absorption kinetics that is highly affected by food. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for itraconazole and the active metabolite hydroxyitraconazole, in particular, quantifying the effects of food and formulation on oral absorption. Plasma pharmacokinetic data were collected from seven phase I crossover trials comparing the SUBA-itraconazole and Sporanox formulations of itraconazole. First, a model of single-dose itraconazole data was developed, which was then extended to the multidose data. Covariate effects on itraconazole were then examined before extending the model to describe hydroxyitraconazole. The final itraconazole model was a 2-compartment model with oral absorption described by 4-transit compartments. Multidose kinetics was described by total effective daily dose- and time-dependent changes in clearance and bioavailability. Hydroxyitraconazole was best described by a 1-compartment model with mixed first-order and Michaelis-Menten elimination for the single-dose data and a time-dependent clearance for the multidose data. The relative bioavailability of SUBA-itraconazole compared to that of Sporanox was 173% and was 21% less variable between subjects. Food resulted in a 27% reduction in bioavailability and 58% reduction in the transit absorption rate constant compared to that with the fasted state, irrespective of the formulation. This analysis presents the most extensive population pharmacokinetic model of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole in the literature performed in healthy subjects. The presented model can be used for simulating food effects on itraconazole exposure and for performing prestudy power analysis and sample size estimation, which are important aspects of clinical trial design of bioequivalence studies. PMID:26149987

  5. Interaction of obesity, metabolic syndrome and Framingham risk on steatohepatitis among healthy Taiwanese: population-based nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Kuo-Liong; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Chao, Chia-Lun; Lee, Bai-Chin; Chen, Ming-Fong; Lee, Yuan-Teh

    2006-01-01

    Background There have been scant reports on the cumulative effects of atherosclerotic risk factors on steatohepatitis. Methods We defined cases of steatohepatitis (n = 124) from one health examination center at National Taiwan University Hospital from January to December 2002. We selected controls, matched by age, gender and drinking status. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the modified ATP-III guidelines. High-dimensional interactions of risk factors for steatohepatitis were evaluated. Results Steatohepatitis cases had the highest C-reactive protein, lymphocytes, Framingham scores and predicted coronary risks. The odds ratio (OR) of metabolic syndrome for steatohepatitis was the highest (OR = 9.9), followed by high glucose status (OR = 4.5) and obesity (OR = 3.6). The highest area under the ROC curve was metabolic syndrome (area = 0.80), followed by obesity (0.75) and high glucose level (0.73). Metabolic syndrome was the highest population-attributable risk factor (0.59). Significant interaction was found with a three-factor model, including obesity, metabolic syndrome and Framingham risk status, with lesser average prediction error (22.6%), higher average cross-validation consistency (6.3) and lower average prediction error (24.3%). Compared with persons with no risk factors, OR increased as the number of risk factors increased (OR = 3.0 with one risk factor, 17.5 with two risk factors, 10.8 with three risk factors, respectively). Conclusion Metabolic syndrome, inflammation markers and atherosclerotic risk scores are significantly related to steatohepatitis status among the healthy examinee population in Taiwan. PMID:16707022

  6. Evaluation of cytochrome P450 2C9 activity in normal, healthy, adult Western Indian population by both phenotyping and genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Swar, Balkrishna D.; Bendkhale, Shital R.; Rupawala, Abbas; Sridharan, Kannan; Gogtay, Nithya J.; Thatte, Urmila M.; Kshirsagar, Nilima A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) is a member of cytochrome P450 (CYP) family that accounts for nearly 18% of the total CYP protein content in the human liver microsomes and catalyzes almost 15–20% of the drugs. Considering the paucity of data on the polymorphisms of CYP2C9 in Western Indian population, the present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of CYP2C9 polymorphisms (*1, *2 and *3) and correlate it with the activity using flurbiprofen (FLB) as a probe drug. Materials and Methods: A 100 mg FLB capsule was administered to 298 healthy adult participants. Venous blood samples were analyzed at 2 h postdose for the estimation of FLB and 4-hydroxy FLB. Metabolic ratio (MR) was calculated to determine the extent of poor metabolizer (PM) and rapid metabolizer status using probit plot. Genotyping of CYP2C9 polymorphism was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Results: Of the total 298 participants, phenotype was assessable in 288 and genotype was performed in 289 participants. The median (range) MR of the study population was 6.6 (1.65–66.05). Five participants were found to be PMs by phenotype. Of the total 289 participants, 209 (72.3%) (66.7, 77.2) had CYP2C9*1/*1, 25 (8.7%) (5.8, 12.7) with CYP2C9*1/*2, 55 (19%) (14.8, 24.1) had CYP2C9*1/*3, 3 (1%) (0.3, 3.3) had CYP2C9*2/*3 genotype. A significant association between phenotype and genotype was observed. Conclusion: To conclude, the present study found significant association of CYP2C9 activity by both phenotype and genotype and these findings have to be corroborated in different kinds of patients. PMID:27298492

  7. Associations between γ-glutamyl transferase, metabolic abnormalities and inflammation in healthy subjects from a population-based cohort: A possible implication for oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Simona; Gambino, Roberto; Durazzo, Marilena; Guidi, Sabrina; Tiozzo, Elisa; Ghione, Federica; Gentile, Luigi; Cassader, Maurizio; Pagano, Gian Franco

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationships between γ -glutamyl-transferase (GGT), alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST) and various metabolic parameters, C-reactive protein (CRP) and an oxidative stress marker (nitrotyrosine, NT) in subjects without any metabolic abnormalities from a population-based sample. METHODS: Two hundred and five subjects with normal body mass index (BMI), glucose tolerance, and without any metabolic abnormality were studied out of 1 339 subjects, without known liver diseases, alcohol abuse or use of hepatotoxic drugs, who are representative of the 45-64 aged population of Asti (north-western Italy). RESULTS: In all patients metabolic parameters and hs-CRP levels linearly increase from the lowest to the highest ALT and GGT tertiles, while in subjects without metabolic abnormalities, there is a significant association between fasting glucose, uric acid, waist circumference, hs-CRP, triglyceride values, and GGT levels. In these subjects, male sex, higher hs-CRP and glucose levels are associated with GGT levels in a multiple regression model, after adjustments for multiple confounders. In the same model, median NT levels are significantly associated with the increasing GGT tertile (β = 1.06; 95%CI 0.67-1.45), but not with the AST and ALT tertiles. In a multiple regression model, after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, waist, smoking, and alcohol consumption, both NT (β = 0.05; 95%CI 0.02-0.08) and hs-CRP levels (β = 0.09; 95%CI 0.03-0.15) are significantly associated with fasting glycemia. CONCLUSION: GGT, an easy, universally standardized and available measurement, could represent an early marker of sub-clinical inflammation and oxidative stress in otherwise healthy individuals. Prospective studies are needed to establish if GGT could predict future diabetes in these subjects. PMID:16437656

  8. Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Itraconazole and Hydroxyitraconazole for Oral SUBA-Itraconazole and Sporanox Capsule Formulations in Healthy Subjects in Fed and Fasted States

    PubMed Central

    Foster, David J. R.; Mudge, Stuart; Hayes, David

    2015-01-01

    Itraconazole is an orally active antifungal agent that has complex and highly variable absorption kinetics that is highly affected by food. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for itraconazole and the active metabolite hydroxyitraconazole, in particular, quantifying the effects of food and formulation on oral absorption. Plasma pharmacokinetic data were collected from seven phase I crossover trials comparing the SUBA-itraconazole and Sporanox formulations of itraconazole. First, a model of single-dose itraconazole data was developed, which was then extended to the multidose data. Covariate effects on itraconazole were then examined before extending the model to describe hydroxyitraconazole. The final itraconazole model was a 2-compartment model with oral absorption described by 4-transit compartments. Multidose kinetics was described by total effective daily dose- and time-dependent changes in clearance and bioavailability. Hydroxyitraconazole was best described by a 1-compartment model with mixed first-order and Michaelis-Menten elimination for the single-dose data and a time-dependent clearance for the multidose data. The relative bioavailability of SUBA-itraconazole compared to that of Sporanox was 173% and was 21% less variable between subjects. Food resulted in a 27% reduction in bioavailability and 58% reduction in the transit absorption rate constant compared to that with the fasted state, irrespective of the formulation. This analysis presents the most extensive population pharmacokinetic model of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole in the literature performed in healthy subjects. The presented model can be used for simulating food effects on itraconazole exposure and for performing prestudy power analysis and sample size estimation, which are important aspects of clinical trial design of bioequivalence studies. PMID:26149987

  9. Evaluation of Immunogenicity and Safety of the New Tetanus-Reduced Diphtheria (Td) Vaccines (GC1107) in Healthy Korean Adolescents: A Phase II, Double-Blind, Randomized, Multicenter Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rhim, Jung-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Hwang Min; Choi, Young-Youn; Ma, Sang-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-Ho; Ahn, Dong Ho

    2013-01-01

    This phase II clinical trial was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of a newly developed tetanus-reduced diphtheria (Td) vaccine (GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-T7.5) and control vaccine. This study was also performed to select the proper dose of tetanus toxoid in the new Td vaccines. Healthy adolescents aged between 11 and 12 yr participated in this study. A total of 130 subjects (44 GC1107-T5.0, 42 GC1107-T7.5 and 44 control vaccine) completed a single dose of vaccination. Blood samples were collected from the subjects before and 4 weeks after the vaccination. In this study, all subjects (100%) in both GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-T7.5 groups showed seroprotective antibody levels (≥ 0.1 U/mL) against diphtheria or tetanus toxoids. After the vaccination, the geometric mean titer (GMT) against diphtheria was significantly higher in Group GC1107-T5.0 (6.53) and GC1107-T7.5 (6.11) than in the control group (3.96). The GMT against tetanus was 18.6 in Group GC1107-T5.0, 19.94 in GC1107-T7.5 and 19.01 in the control group after the vaccination. In this study, the rates of local adverse reactions were 67.3% and 59.1% in GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-7.5, respectively. No significant differences in the number of adverse reactions, prevalence and degree of severity of the solicited and unsolicited adverse reactions were observed among the three groups. Thus, both newly developed Td vaccines appear to be safe and show good immunogenicity. GC1107-T5.0, which contains relatively small amounts of tetanus toxoid, has been selected for a phase III clinical trial. PMID:23579367

  10. Disparities in Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations for Chronic Conditions Among Korean Americans, Hawaii, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Sentell, Tetine L.; Li, Dongmei; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Miyamura, Jill; Braun, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Korean Americans are a growing but understudied population group in the United States. High rates of potentially preventable hospitalizations suggest that primary care is underutilized. We compared preventable hospitalizations for chronic conditions in aggregate and for congestive heart failure (CHF) for Korean Americans and whites in Hawaii. Methods Discharge data from 2010 to 2012 for all hospitalizations of adults in Hawaii for preventable hospitalizations in aggregate and for CHF included 4,345 among Korean Americans and 81,570 among whites. Preventable hospitalization rates for chronic conditions and CHF were calculated for Korean Americans and whites by sex and age group (18–64 y vs ≥65 y). Unadjusted rate ratios for Korean Americans were calculated relative to whites. Multivariate models, controlling for insurance type and comorbidity, provided adjusted rate ratios (aRRs). Results Korean American women and men aged 65 or older were at greater risk of preventable hospitalization overall than white women (aRR, 2.48; P = .003) and white men (aRR, 1.82; P = .049). Korean American men aged 65 or older also were at greater risk of hospitalization for CHF relative to white men (aRR, 1.87; P = .04) and for older Korean American women (aRR, 1.75; P = .07). Younger age groups did not differ significantly. Conclusion Older Korean American patients may have significant disparities in preventable hospitalizations, which suggests poor access to or poor quality of primary health care. Improving primary care for Korean Americans may prevent unnecessary hospitalizations, improve quality of life for Korean Americans with chronic illness, and reduce health care costs. PMID:26378898

  11. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). PMID:20521424

  12. Osteoporosis and milk intake among Korean women in California: relationship with acculturation to U.S. lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Irvin, Veronica L; Nichols, Jeanne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D; Song, Yoon Ju; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-12-01

    The Korean population in the US increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the US report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

  13. Osteoporosis and Milk Intake among Korean Women in California: Relationship with Acculturation to U.S. Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, Veronica L.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Song, YoonJu; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Korean population in the U.S. increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the U.S. report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Methods Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Results Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Discussion Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

  14. Relationship between vitamin D status and left ventricular geometry in a healthy population: results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ameri, Pietro; Canepa, Marco; Milaneschi, Yuri; Spallarossa, Paolo; Leoncini, Giovanna; Giallauria, Francesco; Strait, James B.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Brunelli, Claudio; Murialdo, Giovanni; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The effects of vitamin D on the heart have been studied in patients with cardiac disease, but not in healthy persons. We investigated the relation between vitamin D status and left ventricular (LV) structure and function in community-dwelling subjects without heart disease. Design The relationship between concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], a marker of vitamin D reserve, and LV transthoracic echocardiography measures was analysed in 711 participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging who were without cardiac disease. Results Mean 25(OH)D in the study population was 32.3±11.4 ng/mL; only 15.5% of subjects had moderate or severe vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <20 ng/mL]. Adjusting for age, body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk factors, physical activity, calcium and parathyroid hormone, 25(OH)D was positively correlated with LV thickness (β 0.095, SE 0.039, P<0.05) and LV mass index (β 7.5, SE 2.6, P<0.01). A significant non-linear relation between 25(OH)D and LV concentric remodelling was observed. LV remodelling was more likely in participants with 25(OH)D levels <30 ng/mL [odds ratio (OR) 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83–1.85] or ≥38 ng/mL (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.13–2.65), compared with those with 30–37 ng/mL 25(OH)D. Consistently, LV relative wall thickness was significantly lower (P for trend=0.05), and LV diastolic internal diameter index (P for trend<0.05) and end-diastolic volume index (P for trend<0.05) were significantly higher in subjects with 30–37 ng/mL 25(OH)D compared to the rest of the study population. There was a significant interaction between 25(OH)D and hypertension on the risk of LV hypertrophy (P<0.05). Conclusions In a population-based sample of predominantly vitamin D-sufficient subjects without heart disease, LV geometry was most favourable at intermediate 25(OH)D concentrations. PMID:23061475

  15. Correlates of Sense of Control among Older Korean-American Immigrants: Financial Status, Physical Health Constraints, and Environmental Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yuri; Kim, Giyeon; Chiriboga, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Responding to the need for more research on minority older populations, the present study assessed sense of control among older Korean-American immigrants. The association of sense of control with financial status, physical health constraints, and environmental challenges was examined with a sample of 230 older Korean-Americans (M[age] = 69.8,…

  16. Obesity and Metabolic Phenotypes (Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Variants) Are Significantly Associated with Prevalence of Elevated C-Reactive Protein and Hepatic Steatosis in a Large Healthy Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Shaharyar, Sameer; Roberson, Lara L.; Jamal, Omar; Younus, Adnan; Blaha, Michael J.; Ali, Shozab S.; Zide, Kenneth; Agatston, Arthur A.; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Conceição, Raquel D.; Santos, Raul D.; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Background. Among the obese, the so-called metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype is thought to confer a lower CVD risk as compared to obesity with typical associated metabolic changes. The present study aims to determine the relationship of different subtypes of obesity with inflammatory-cardiometabolic abnormalities. Methods. We evaluated 5,519 healthy, Brazilian subjects (43 ± 10 years, 78% males), free of known cardiovascular disease. Those with <2 metabolic risk factors (MRF) were considered metabolically healthy, and those with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and/or waist circumference meeting NCEP criteria for metabolic syndrome as overweight/obese (OW). High sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured to assess underlying inflammation and hepatic steatosis (HS) was determined via abdominal ultrasound. Results. Overall, 40% of OW individuals were metabolically healthy, and 12% normal-weight had ≥2 MRF. The prevalence of elevated CRP (≥3 mg/dL) and HS in MHO versus normal weight metabolically healthy group was 22% versus 12%, and 40% versus 8% respectively (P < 0.001). Both MHO individuals and metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW) phenotypes were associated with elevated hsCRP and HS. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MHO and MUNW phenotypes may not be benign and physicians should strive to treat individuals in these subgroups to reverse these conditions. PMID:25838943

  17. Healthy world, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Mcmichael, T

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the challenges to human health from environmental degradation. The environment includes the social environment as well as the physical and chemical environment. Housing quality, recreation, population growth, density and mobility, social networks, and political and distributive equity also impact on health. There are well known examples of man-made disasters, such as in Bhopal, Chernobyl, and the Love Canal. What are less understood are the general conditions of poor health, low life expectancy, and early death due to polluted air, contaminated drinking water, and pesticide and other chemical contamination. An estimated 66% of diarrhea episodes are attributed to contaminated food or water. Health and vital statistics do not measure public health problems, such as declines in intelligence from lead ingestion from auto emissions. Epidemiological tracking of cause and effect of environmental contaminants is elusive. Some key features of environmental impact are the threshold effect, indirect pathways, and long-term and systems effects. Environmental hazards may deplete or disrupt natural biophysical processes that are the basic source of sustained good health. These basic systems include the food production system, the vector borne disease routes, global hydrological cycles, and the stratosphere. Gains in life expectancy have been due to declines in infectious disease mortality in early life, food security, improved hygiene and water sanitation, vaccination, and antibiotics and other medical treatments. Rapid technological change, acquisitive consumerism, ignorance of distant and deferred environmental impacts, and a free market ethic limit social advancement and ignore public health and environmental stresses. The scale of today's environmental problems requires priority setting and socially and ecologically sustainable ways of living. PMID:12321048

  18. Skin Barrier Function and Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Vestibulum Nasi and Fauces in Healthy Infants and Infants with Eczema: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Berents, Teresa Løvold; Carlsen, Karin Cecilie Lødrup; Mowinckel, Petter; Skjerven, Håvard Ove; Kvenshagen, Bente; Rolfsjord, Leif Bjarte; Bradley, Maria; Lieden, Agne; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Gaustad, Peter; Gjersvik, Petter

    2015-01-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is associated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization and skin barrier dysfunction, often measured by increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL). In the present study, the primary aim was to see whether S. aureus colonization in the vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was associated with increased TEWL in infants with healthy skin and infants with eczema. Secondarily, we aimed to investigate whether TEWL measurements on non-lesional skin on the lateral upper arm is equivalent to volar forearm in infants. In 167 of 240 infants, recruited from the general population, TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm, using a DermaLab USB, fulfilled our environmental requirements. The mean of three TEWL measurements from each site was used for analysis. The infants were diagnosed with no eczema (n = 110), possible AE (n = 28) or AE (n = 29). DNA samples were analysed for mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG). Bacterial cultures were reported positive with the identification of at least one culture with S. aureus from vestibulum nasi and/or fauces. S. aureus colonization, found in 89 infants (53%), was not associated with increased TEWL (i.e. TEWL in the upper quartile), neither on the lateral upper arm or volar forearm (p = 0.08 and p = 0.98, respectively), nor with AE (p = 0.10) or FLG mutation (p = 0.17). TEWL was significantly higher on both measuring sites in infants with AE compared to infants with possible AE and no eczema. FLG mutation was significantly associated with increased TEWL, with a 47% difference in TEWL. We conclude that S. aureus in vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was not associated with TEWL, whereas TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm appear equally appropriate in infants. PMID:26070153

  19. Skin Barrier Function and Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Vestibulum Nasi and Fauces in Healthy Infants and Infants with Eczema: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Berents, Teresa Løvold; Carlsen, Karin Cecilie Lødrup; Mowinckel, Petter; Skjerven, Håvard Ove; Kvenshagen, Bente; Rolfsjord, Leif Bjarte; Bradley, Maria; Lieden, Agne; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Gaustad, Peter; Gjersvik, Petter

    2015-01-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is associated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization and skin barrier dysfunction, often measured by increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL). In the present study, the primary aim was to see whether S. aureus colonization in the vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was associated with increased TEWL in infants with healthy skin and infants with eczema. Secondarily, we aimed to investigate whether TEWL measurements on non-lesional skin on the lateral upper arm is equivalent to volar forearm in infants. In 167 of 240 infants, recruited from the general population, TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm, using a DermaLab USB, fulfilled our environmental requirements. The mean of three TEWL measurements from each site was used for analysis. The infants were diagnosed with no eczema (n = 110), possible AE (n = 28) or AE (n = 29). DNA samples were analysed for mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG). Bacterial cultures were reported positive with the identification of at least one culture with S. aureus from vestibulum nasi and/or fauces. S. aureus colonization, found in 89 infants (53%), was not associated with increased TEWL (i.e. TEWL in the upper quartile), neither on the lateral upper arm or volar forearm (p = 0.08 and p = 0.98, respectively), nor with AE (p = 0.10) or FLG mutation (p = 0.17). TEWL was significantly higher on both measuring sites in infants with AE compared to infants with possible AE and no eczema. FLG mutation was significantly associated with increased TEWL, with a 47% difference in TEWL. We conclude that S. aureus in vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was not associated with TEWL, whereas TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm appear equally appropriate in infants. PMID:26070153

  20. Sex Differences in the Association between Serum Levels of Testosterone and Frailty in an Elderly Population: The Toledo Study for Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Carcaillon, Laure; Blanco, Carmen; Alonso-Bouzón, Cristina; Alfaro-Acha, Ana; Garcia-García, Francisco-José; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio

    2012-01-01

    Background Age-associated decline in testosterone levels represent one of the potential mechanisms involved in the development of frailty. Although this association has been widely reported in older men, very few data are available in women. We studied the association between testosterone and frailty in women and assessed sex differences in this relationship. Methods We used cross-sectional data from the Toledo Study for Healthy Aging, a population-based cohort study of Spanish elderly. Frailty was defined according to Fried's approach. Multivariate odds-ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with total (TT) and free testosterone (FT) levels were estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Results In women, there was a U-shaped relationship between FT levels and frailty (p for FT2 = 0.03). In addition, very low levels of FT were observed in women with ≥4 frailty criteria (age-adjusted geometric means = 0.13 versus 0.37 in subjects with <4 components, p = 0.010). The association of FT with frailty appeared confined to obese women (p-value for interaction = 0.05).In men, the risk of frailty levels linearly decreased with testosterone (adjusted OR for frailty = 2.9 (95%CI, 1.6–5.1) and 1.6 (95%CI, 1.0–2.5), for 1 SD decrease in TT and FT, respectively). TT and FT showed association with most of frailty criteria. No interaction was found with BMI. Conclusion There is a relationship between circulating levels of FT and frailty in older women. This relation seems to be modulated by BMI. The relevance and the nature of the association of FT levels and frailty are sex-specific, suggesting that different biological mechanisms may be involved. PMID:22403651

  1. Fructooligosaccharides and Lactobacillus acidophilus modify gut microbial populations, total tract nutrient digestibilities and fecal protein catabolite concentrations in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Kelly S; Grieshop, Christine M; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Bauer, Laura L; Chow, JoMay; Wolf, Bryan W; Garleb, Keith A; Fahey, George C

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and (or) Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC) affected concentrations of gut microbial populations, fermentative end products and nutrient digestibilities in healthy adult dogs. Two experiments were performed using 40 adult dogs (20 dogs/experiment). Dogs in each experiment were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments. Twice daily, treatments were given orally via gelatin capsules: 1) 2 g sucrose + 80 mg cellulose; 2) 2 g FOS + 80 mg cellulose; 3) 2 g sucrose + 1 x 10(9) colony forming units (cfu) LAC; or 4) 2 g FOS + 1 x 10(9) cfu LAC. Data were analyzed by the General Linear Models procedure of SAS. In Experiment 1, FOS resulted in lower (P = 0.08) Clostridium perfringens and greater fecal butyrate (P = 0.06) and lactate (P < 0.05) concentrations. In Experiment 2, FOS supplementation increased (P < 0.05) bifidobacteria, increased lactobacilli (P = 0.08), increased fecal lactate (P = 0.06) and butyrate (P < 0.05), and decreased (P < 0.05) fecal ammonia, isobutyrate, isovalerate and total branched-chain fatty acid concentrations. Dogs fed LAC had the highest fecal concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol in Experiment 1 and dimethyl sulfide in Experiment 2, whereas dogs fed FOS had the lowest concentrations of these compounds. Overall, FOS appeared to enhance indices of gut health by positively altering gut microbial ecology and fecal protein catabolites, whereas LAC was more effective when fed in combination with FOS rather than fed alone. PMID:12468613

  2. The mental health of Korean immigrants in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sam; Razzouk, Denise; Mari, Jair Jesus de; Shirakawa, Itiro

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated the frequency of lifetime mental disorders among Korean immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Snowball sampling with multiple focuses was used to recruit Korean immigrants older than 18 years and living in São Paulo. A total of 324 Korean immigrants were selected and their mental status was evaluated using a structured interview, namely the Portuguese or the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1. The diagnoses of mental disorders were made according to the ICD-10. The frequency of any lifetime psychiatric disorder was 41.9%. The frequencies of main disorders were: anxiety disorder, 13% (post-traumatic stress disorder, 9.6%); mood disorder, 8.6%; somatoform disorders, 7.4%; dissociative disorder, 4.9%; psychotic disorder, 4.3%; eating disorder, 0.6%; any substance (tobacco, alcohol, drugs) use disorder, 23.1%. The frequency of any psychiatric disorder except alcohol and tobacco use disorders was 26.2%. Korean immigrants have more psychiatric disorders than the Korean population in Korea, particularly post-traumatic stress disorder, and almost the same rate as the Brazilian population. Mental health authorities should promote a healthier integration and the development of culturally sensitive mental health programs for Korean immigrants. PMID:19347208

  3. Validity of Demirjian's and modified Demirjian's methods in age estimation for Korean juveniles and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Seob; Kim, Dongjae; Lee, Saebomi; Lee, U-Young; Seo, Joong Seok; Ahn, Yong Woo; Han, Seung-Ho

    2011-09-10

    In estimating age of juveniles and adolescents, the teeth are employed primarily because of its low variability and less affection by endocrine and nutritional status in development. Demirjian established criteria for evaluating maturity of teeth and his method has been used throughout the world. However, several studies showed the inappropriateness of Demirjian's method on populations other than the one it is based on. Consequently some researchers modified Demirjian's method using data of several different populations. Demirjian himself also published a revised method to overcome other shortcomings of his original method. The aim of this study was to test the validity of Demirjian's and the modified methods (Demirjian's revised, Willems', Chaillet's and new Korean methods) for Korean juveniles and adolescents. 1483 digital orthopantomograms which consist of 754 males and 729 females in the age range of 3-16 years were collected. New age estimation method based on Korean population data was calculated. Dental age was estimated according to each method and the validity was evaluated using the differences between chronological and dental age. The inter- and intra-observer reliability was evaluated to be excellent. Statistically significant difference was observed between chronological and dental age in all the methods for both sexes except new Korean method for both sexes and Demirjian's revised method for males. However, when analyzing absolute and squared value of difference, Willems' method was found to be most accurate followed by new Korean method with slight difference for Korean population for both sexes. In conclusion, both Willems' method and new Korean method conducted by present study were proven to be suitable for Korean population. PMID:21561728

  4. Rates and independent correlates of Pap smear testing among Korean-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Wismer, B A; Moskowitz, J M; Chen, A M; Kang, S H; Novotny, T E; Min, K; Lew, R; Tager, I B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study reports population estimates of Pap smear testing among Korean-American women and evaluates correlates of testing. METHODS: Korean Americans in 2 California counties were surveyed by telephone. Frequencies were age-adjusted to the 1990 census to produce population estimates of testing. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent correlates of testing RESULTS: Only 50% of the Korean-American women surveyed had a Pap test in the previous 2 years. The strongest independent correlate was having had a regular check-up in the previous 2 years (odds ratio 7.2, 95% confidence interval 4.2, 12.1). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of Pap testing among Korean-American women are well below national objectives. Collaboration and community-sensitive research are essential to collect data and design programs to improve the health of ethnic minority communities. PMID:9551013

  5. The influence of obesity on the effects of spirulina supplementation in the human metabolic response of Korean elderly

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee-Jung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Spirulina, a blue-green alga, is widely produced and commercialized as a dietary supplement with bio- and immune-modulatory functions. We have previously shown that spirulina had favorable effects on lipid profiles, immune functions, and antioxidant capacity in healthy Korean elderly. Despite favorable effect of spirulina supplementation, some sub-populations have shown a poor response to supplementation. Obesity is a factor related to poor-response. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the immuno-modulation, antioxidant capacity, and lipid-lowering effect of spirulina in obese and non-obese Korean elderly. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were 78 elderly aged 60-87 years. In a randomized double blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects were fed either placebo or spirulina daily, at 8 g for 12 weeks. Subjects were divided into the non-obese group and the obese group based on body mass index (BMI) criteria for Asians suggested by the International Obesity Task Force: BMI < 25 kg/m2 (non-obese) and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (obese). RESULTS In the non-obese group, spirulina supplementation showed a significant lowering effect on plasma concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, a significant increase in interleukin (IL)-2 concentration (P < 0.01) and a significant increment (P < 0.05) in IL-2/IL-6 ratio, and a significant increase in total antioxidant status level and a significant decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level. However, these effects were not observed in the obese group. CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrated that blood lipid lowering and immune and antioxidant improving response for spirulina supplement was affected by obesity in Korean elderly. PMID:27478549

  6. Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2014-01-01

    How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

  7. Production of Korean Idiomatic Utterances Following Left- and Right-Hemisphere Damage: Acoustic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Seung-yun; Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the effects of left- and right-hemisphere damage (LHD and RHD) on the production of idiomatic or literal expressions utilizing acoustic analyses. Method: Twenty-one native speakers of Korean with LHD or RHD and in a healthy control (HC) group produced 6 ditropically ambiguous (idiomatic or literal) sentences in 2…

  8. Hereditary Cerebellar Ataxias: A Korean Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Sun; Cho, Jin Whan

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary ataxia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by progressive ataxia combined with/without peripheral neuropathy, extrapyramidal symptoms, pyramidal symptoms, seizure, and multiple systematic involvements. More than 35 autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias have been designated as spinocerebellar ataxia, and there are 55 recessive ataxias that have not been named systematically. Conducting genetic sequencing to confirm a diagnosis is difficult due to the large amount of subtypes with phenotypic overlap. The prevalence of hereditary ataxia can vary among countries, and estimations of prevalence and subtype frequencies are necessary for planning a diagnostic strategy in a specific population. This review covers the various hereditary ataxias reported in the Korean population with a focus on the prevalence and subtype frequencies as the clinical characteristics of the various subtypes. PMID:26090078

  9. Age, Sex, and Reproductive Hormone Effects on Brain Serotonin-1A and Serotonin-2A Receptor Binding in a Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Price, Julie C; Shah, Nilesh; Berga, Sarah; Sereika, Susan M; Fisher, Patrick M; Coleman, Rhaven; Becker, Carl; Mason, N Scott; Loucks, Tammy; Meltzer, Carolyn C

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for rigorous positron emission tomography (PET) and endocrine methods to address inconsistencies in the literature regarding age, sex, and reproductive hormone effects on central serotonin (5HT) 1A and 2A receptor binding potential (BP). Healthy subjects (n=71), aged 20–80 years, underwent 5HT1A and 2A receptor imaging using consecutive 90-min PET acquisitions with [11C]WAY100635 and [18F]altanserin. Logan graphical analysis was used to derive BP using atrophy-corrected distribution volume (VT) in prefrontal, mesiotemporal, occipital cortices, and raphe nucleus (5HT1A only). We used multivariate linear regression modeling to examine BP relationships with age, age2, sex, and hormone concentrations, with post hoc regional significance set at p<0.008. There were small postsynaptic 5HT1A receptor BP increases with age and estradiol concentration in women (p=0.004–0.005) and a tendency for small 5HT1A receptor BP declines with age and free androgen index in men (p=0.05–0.06). Raphe 5HT1A receptor BP decreased 4.5% per decade of age (p=0.05), primarily in men. There was a trend for 15% receptor reductions in prefrontal cortical regions in women relative to men (post hoc p=0.03–0.10). The significant decline in 5HT2A receptor BP relative to age (8% per decade; p<0.001) was not related to sex or hormone concentrations. In conclusion, endocrine standardization minimized confounding introduced by endogenous hormonal fluctuations and reproductive stage and permitted us to detect small effects of sex, age, and endogenous sex steroid exposures upon 5HT1A binding. Reduced prefrontal cortical 5HT1A receptor BP in women vs men, but increased 5HT1A receptor BP with aging in women, may partially explain the increased susceptibility to affective disorders in women during their reproductive years that is mitigated in later life. 5HT1A receptor decreases with age in men might contribute to the known increased risk for suicide in men over age 75 years. Low

  10. Clinical Utility of a Coronary Heart Disease Risk Prediction Gene Score in UK Healthy Middle Aged Men and in the Pakistani Population

    PubMed Central

    Beaney, Katherine E.; Cooper, Jackie A.; Ullah Shahid, Saleem; Ahmed, Waqas; Qamar, Raheel; Drenos, Fotios; Crockard, Martin A.; Humphries, Steve E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous risk prediction algorithms based on conventional risk factors for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) are available but provide only modest discrimination. The inclusion of genetic information may improve clinical utility. Methods We tested the use of two gene scores (GS) in the prospective second Northwick Park Heart Study (NPHSII) of 2775 healthy UK men (284 cases), and Pakistani case-control studies from Islamabad/Rawalpindi (321 cases/228 controls) and Lahore (414 cases/219 controls). The 19-SNP GS included SNPs in loci identified by GWAS and candidate gene studies, while the 13-SNP GS only included SNPs in loci identified by the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium. Results In NPHSII, the mean of both gene scores was higher in those who went on to develop CHD over 13.5 years of follow-up (19-SNP p=0.01, 13-SNP p=7x10-3). In combination with the Framingham algorithm the GSs appeared to show improvement in discrimination (increase in area under the ROC curve, 19-SNP p=0.48, 13-SNP p=0.82) and risk classification (net reclassification improvement (NRI), 19-SNP p=0.28, 13-SNP p=0.42) compared to the Framingham algorithm alone, but these were not statistically significant. When considering only individuals who moved up a risk category with inclusion of the GS, the improvement in risk classification was statistically significant (19-SNP p=0.01, 13-SNP p=0.04). In the Pakistani samples, risk allele frequencies were significantly lower compared to NPHSII for 13/19 SNPs. In the Islamabad study, the mean gene score was higher in cases than controls only for the 13-SNP GS (2.24 v 2.34, p=0.04). There was no association with CHD and either score in the Lahore study. Conclusion The performance of both GSs showed potential clinical utility in European men but much less utility in subjects from Pakistan, suggesting that a different set of risk loci or SNPs may be required for risk prediction in the South Asian population. PMID:26133560

  11. Age, sex, and reproductive hormone effects on brain serotonin-1A and serotonin-2A receptor binding in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Price, Julie C; Shah, Nilesh; Berga, Sarah; Sereika, Susan M; Fisher, Patrick M; Coleman, Rhaven; Becker, Carl; Mason, N Scott; Loucks, Tammy; Meltzer, Carolyn C

    2011-12-01

    There is a need for rigorous positron emission tomography (PET) and endocrine methods to address inconsistencies in the literature regarding age, sex, and reproductive hormone effects on central serotonin (5HT) 1A and 2A receptor binding potential (BP). Healthy subjects (n=71), aged 20-80 years, underwent 5HT1A and 2A receptor imaging using consecutive 90-min PET acquisitions with [(11)C]WAY100635 and [(18)F]altanserin. Logan graphical analysis was used to derive BP using atrophy-corrected distribution volume (V(T)) in prefrontal, mesiotemporal, occipital cortices, and raphe nucleus (5HT1A only). We used multivariate linear regression modeling to examine BP relationships with age, age(2), sex, and hormone concentrations, with post hoc regional significance set at p<0.008. There were small postsynaptic 5HT1A receptor BP increases with age and estradiol concentration in women (p=0.004-0.005) and a tendency for small 5HT1A receptor BP declines with age and free androgen index in men (p=0.05-0.06). Raphe 5HT1A receptor BP decreased 4.5% per decade of age (p=0.05), primarily in men. There was a trend for 15% receptor reductions in prefrontal cortical regions in women relative to men (post hoc p=0.03-0.10). The significant decline in 5HT2A receptor BP relative to age (8% per decade; p<0.001) was not related to sex or hormone concentrations. In conclusion, endocrine standardization minimized confounding introduced by endogenous hormonal fluctuations and reproductive stage and permitted us to detect small effects of sex, age, and endogenous sex steroid exposures upon 5HT1A binding. Reduced prefrontal cortical 5HT1A receptor BP in women vs men, but increased 5HT1A receptor BP with aging in women, may partially explain the increased susceptibility to affective disorders in women during their reproductive years that is mitigated in later life. 5HT1A receptor decreases with age in men might contribute to the known increased risk for suicide in men over age 75 years. Low

  12. Healthy Eyes

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  16. Are Korean Patients Different from Other Ethnic Groups in Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Kyoon; Seo, Min-Chul; Song, Sang-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Most of the implants used for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Asian patients have been produced based on anthropometry of Western people. Since anatomic features and life styles are different between Western and Eastern people, there would be ethnic differences in terms of conformity of implants to the patient's anatomy or clinical results after TKA. Therefore, surgeons in Asia are particularly interested in related surgical techniques and implant designs used in TKA for improved clinical results and patient satisfaction. In this review, we investigated the anthropometric differences of Koreans from Westerners. Koreans are of shorter stature, less weight, and smaller skeletal structure and have a higher incidence of constitutional varus alignment of the lower extremity. Moreover, compared to Westerner TKA populations, the proportion of female patients was large and primary osteoarthritis was prevalent in preoperative diagnosis in Korean TKA patients. Culturally, Koreans have life styles that demand high flexion positions of the knee such as squatting, kneeling, and cross-legged sitting. Although there were no notable differences in the complication and revision rates following TKA between Westerners and Koreans, the incidence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism was lower in Koreans than Westerners. We hope that further research on implant designs and more interest in TKA will improve outcomes in Korean patients. PMID:26675374

  17. Understanding Korean Families With Alcoholic Fathers in a View of Confucian Culture.

    PubMed

    Park, Sihyun; Schepp, Karen G

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to interpret the dynamics of Korean alcoholic family through the lens of Confucianism, using research conducted in South Korea. To gain an in-depth understanding of the family dynamics and the lived experiences of a certain alcoholic family having a specific ethnicity, health professionals must first understand the uniqueness of their own cultural bases and how those cultural components can shape dynamics of alcoholic family. Thus, we reviewed qualitative studies of Korean families with alcoholic fathers to investigate the unique characteristics of Korean alcoholic families in terms of Confucian thoughts and values and discuss how the Confucian thoughts affect family dynamics in those Korean alcoholic families. Relevant literature was found through Korean database Research Information Sharing Service by using several (Korean) searching terms: alcoholic, home, spouse, wife, children, and family. Articles were included if they were studies of a Korean alcoholic family and used qualitative methodology. If the studies did not include familial perspectives or not focused on alcoholism issues, those studies were excluded. Eleven qualitative studies of alcoholic family were searched. The members of alcoholic families in South Korea, including the alcoholic member, have expected roles and duties because of the influence of Confucian thoughts and values. By associating with family member's alcoholism, those expectations are a big burden on those family members. Therefore, future plans for community interventions and programs for this population should incorporate the findings from this study. PMID:26340569

  18. Korean Risk Assessment Model for Breast Cancer Risk Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Ma, Seung Hyun; Shin, Aesun; Chang, Myung-Chul; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Sungwan; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the performance of the Gail model for a Korean population and developed a Korean breast cancer risk assessment tool (KoBCRAT) based upon equations developed for the Gail model for predicting breast cancer risk. Methods Using 3,789 sets of cases and controls, risk factors for breast cancer among Koreans were identified. Individual probabilities were projected using Gail's equations and Korean hazard data. We compared the 5-year and lifetime risk produced using the modified Gail model which applied Korean incidence and mortality data and the parameter estimators from the original Gail model with those produced using the KoBCRAT. We validated the KoBCRAT based on the expected/observed breast cancer incidence and area under the curve (AUC) using two Korean cohorts: the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort (KMCC) and National Cancer Center (NCC) cohort. Results The major risk factors under the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at first full-term pregnancy, menopausal status, breastfeeding duration, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise, while those at and over the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at menopause, pregnancy experience, body mass index, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise. The modified Gail model produced lower 5-year risk for the cases than for the controls (p = 0.017), while the KoBCRAT produced higher 5-year and lifetime risk for the cases than for the controls (p<0.001 and <0.001, respectively). The observed incidence of breast cancer in the two cohorts was similar to the expected incidence from the KoBCRAT (KMCC, p = 0.880; NCC, p = 0.878). The AUC using the KoBCRAT was 0.61 for the KMCC and 0.89 for the NCC cohort. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the KoBCRAT is a better tool for predicting the risk of breast cancer in Korean women, especially urban women. PMID:24204664

  19. Effect of Korean pear (Pyruspyrifolia cv. Shingo) juice on hangover severity following alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyohi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Baik, Hyun Wook; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

    2013-08-01

    Korean pear has been used as a traditional prophylactic agent for alcohol hangover. However, its mechanism was not investigated in human yet. Therefore, we performed a randomized single blind crossover trial with 14 healthy young men to examine effects of Korean pear juice on alcohol hangover. All subjects consumed 540 ml of spirits (alcohol conc. 20.1 v/v%) after 30 min from the intervention, i.e. placebo or Korean pear juice treatment. Blood and urine specimens were collected in time-courses (9 time-points for 15 h after alcohol consumption). The total and average of hangover severity were alleviated to 16% and 21% by Korean pear juice at 15 h after the alcohol consumption, respectively (ps<0.05). Particularly, 'trouble concentrating' was significantly improved by the pear juice treatment (p<0.05). Impaired memory, and sensitivity to light and sound were significantly improved by Korean pear juice among the subjects with ALDH2*1/*1 or ALDH2*1/*2 genotypes (ps<0.05) but not in the subjects with ALDH2*2/*2 genotype. In addition, the pear juice treatment lowered levels of blood alcohol (p<0.01). Therefore, Korean pear juice may alleviate alcohol-hangover and its detoxification of alcohol seems to be modified by the genetic variation of ALDH2. PMID:23587660

  20. Koreans in America. In America Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Wayne; Kim, Hyung-chan

    The immigration of Koreans to the United States is traced from 1903, and the contributions Korean Americans have made to the United States are identified in this book which is part of a series for children. The number of Korean immigrants, small for many years, increased dramatically with the easing of government restrictions in the 1960s, until,…

  1. Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

  2. Korean Books and FRBR: An Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong-Hyen; Moon, Ji-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of Korean books by analysing their "work types" based on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) model. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 1,000 Korean books were randomly chosen from the Korean National Bibliography (KNB) 2008 at the National…

  3. Korean Experience and Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the transition of Korean education reform and to weigh Korean experience and achievement in contemporary higher education. The paper first of all illustrates a historical perspective on higher education in light of educational reform. Secondly, this study reviews the achievements of Korean higher education…

  4. Select Bibliography of the Korean War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Stanley

    2000-01-01

    Discusses various resources on the history of the Korean War that include, but are not limited to, works from the North Korean perspective, "standard" accounts from a western perspective that identify U.S. and South Korean shortcomings, and works on the secrecy around U.S. special operations. Provides a detailed bibliography. (CMK)

  5. Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analysis for Validating the Phlegm Pattern Questionnaire for Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunho; Ku, Boncho; Kim, Jong Yeol; Park, Young-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Background. Phlegm pattern questionnaire (PPQ) was developed to evaluate and diagnose phlegm pattern in Korean Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine, but it was based on a dataset from patients who visited the hospital to consult with a clinician regarding their health without any strict exclusion or inclusion. In this study, we reinvestigated the construct validity of PPQ with a new dataset and confirmed the feasibility of applying it to a healthy population. Methods. 286 healthy subjects were finally included and their responses to PPQ were acquired. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted and the model fit was discussed. We extracted a new factor structure by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and compared the two factor structures. Results. In CFA results, the model fit indices are acceptable (RMSEA = 0.074) or slightly less than the good fit values (CFI = 0.839, TLI = 0.860). Many average variances extracted were smaller than the correlation coefficients of the factors, which shows the somewhat insufficient discriminant validity. Conclusions. Through the results from CFA and EFA, this study shows clinically acceptable model fits and suggests the feasibility of applying PPQ to a healthy population with relatively good construct validity and internal consistency. PMID:27051447

  6. Radiological Analysis of Ponticulus Posticus in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Since there has been little reporting on the prevalence or morphologic characteristics of ponticulus posticus in Asians, we retrospectively reviewed cervical 3-dimensional CT scan images and plain radiographs which had been ordered by neurosurgeons or orthopaedic surgeons for evaluation of cervical spine problems to investigate the prevalence and morphologic features of the ponticulus posticus in Koreans. Patients and Methods The presence and types of ponticulus posticus were investigated on 200 consecutive cervical 3-D CT scans. Results Thirty-one patients, 48 ponticulus posticus, complete or partial, bilateral or unilateral, were identified on the 200 cervical 3-D CT scans; therefore, the prevalence was 15.5% in our patient population. In plain radiographs analysis, the prevalence was 6.95%. Conclusion The ponticulus posticus is a relatively common anomaly in Koreans. Therefore, proper identification of this anomaly on preoperative lateral radiographs should alert surgeons to avoid using the ponticulus posticus as a starting point for a lateral mass screw. Because of its size and shape have wide variation, 3-D CT scanning should be considered before lateral mass screw placement into the posterior arch if its presence is suspected or confirmed on radiographs. PMID:19259347

  7. The Korean Neonatal Network: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in the Republic of Korea, despite the very-low-birth rate, the birth rate and number of preterm infants are markedly increasing. Neonatal deaths and major complications mostly occur in premature infants, especially very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWIs). VLBWIs weigh less than 1,500 g at birth and require intensive treatment in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The operation of the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) officially started on April 15, 2013, by the Korean Society of Neonatology with support from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The KNN is a national multicenter neonatal network based on a prospective web-based registry for VLBWIs. About 2,000 VLBWIs from 60 participating hospital NICUs are registered annually in the KNN. The KNN has built unique systems such as a web-based real-time data display on the web site and a site-visit monitoring system for data quality surveillance. The KNN should be maintained and developed further in order to generate appropriate, population-based, data-driven, health-care policies; facilitate active multicenter neonatal research, including quality improvement of neonatal care; and ultimately lead to improvement in the prognosis of high-risk newborns and subsequent reduction in health-care costs through the development of evidence-based neonatal medicine in Korea. PMID:26566355

  8. Cancer information seeking behaviors and information needs among Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyejin; Park, Min Sook

    2014-01-01

    Linguistically and culturally isolated Korean Americans have less access to health service and cancer screening tests than all U.S population. Lack of adequate cancer information is one of the barriers to undergoing cancer screening tests. It is necessary to understand their current cancer information-seeking behaviors and information needs if we are to more effectively provide adequate cancer information. The purpose of the study was to identify cancer information seeking behaviors and information needs among Korean Americans. Data were collected from one of the biggest websites for the Korean community in the USA. A total of 273 free-texts from January to June 2013 were reviewed and analyzed for this study. The extracted terms were categorized based on the coding system. The primary reason for asking questions was inquiry followed by sharing experiences. The main topics of the postings were categorized as medical or non-medical. In relation to types of cancer, breast cancer was the greatest concern. The findings from this study can help in establishing more effective strategies to provide better cancer information among Korean Americans by assessing their current cancer information seeking trends and information needs. PMID:24943573

  9. Estimation of Total and Inorganic Arsenic Intake from the Diet in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mi-Na; Lee, Seul-Gi; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Jeongseon; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kim, Heon; Choi, Byung-Sun; Yu, Il-Je; Park, Jung-Duck

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a major environmental pollutant and a known human carcinogen that is widely distributed in the air, soil, and water. General population is mainly exposed to As through drinking water and food from the contaminated water and soil. Arsenic in drinking water is generally well controlled now. This study was performed to estimate total and inorganic As intake and to determine the major contributing source in the Korean adult diet. The study subjects were 2117 healthy adults (922 males and 1195 females) who had not been occupationally exposed to As. Total dietary intake was studied using the 24-h recall method, which included 138 specific food items. The estimates of total As and inorganic As intake were based on total and inorganic As contents in each food item consumed during the last 24 h. Daily dietary intake was estimated to be 1373.6 g. Total As intake was estimated to be 145.4 µg As/day. Total dietary As intake was correlated with consumption of fish/shellfish, seaweeds, and grains. Approximately 87% of total dietary As intake was attributed to seafood, such as 105.5 µg As/day from fish/shellfish and 20.5 µg As/day from seaweeds. Inorganic As intake was estimated to be 10.4 µg As per day. Inorganic As intake was mainly provided by grains (6.4 µg As/day), followed by seaweeds and fish/shellfish. Our results indicate that seafood and grains are the main As dietary sources in Korean adults and that dietary As exposure may be associated with individual dietary habits and environmental As contamination among countries. PMID:26706926

  10. Lifestyle and Dietary Factors Associated with Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Cho, BeLong

    2015-08-01

    Inadequate vitamin D status is highly prevalent in the Korean population, especially among young adults. Nonetheless, correlates of suboptimal vitamin D levels in young adults are not well defined. This study aimed to investigate potentially modifiable determinants of vitamin D levels in young adults in Korea. This cross-sectional study was based on health check-up data from 3,450 healthy male and female university students aged 18-29 yr in Seoul between April and May 2013. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were determined using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Anthropometric data were measured, and lifestyle, dietary, and sociodemographic factors were obtained through self-administered questionnaires. General linear regression was used to assess correlates of serum 25(OH)D levels. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 11.1 ng/mL, and the prevalence of 25(OH)D levels less than 10 ng/mL was 44.7% (39.5% in men, 50.2% in women). In a final multivariable model, significant positive correlates of serum 25(OH)D were older age, male sex, increased physical activity, sunlight exposure ≥ 30 min/day, eating breakfast regularly, consumption of dairy and fatty fish, and use of vitamin D-containing supplements. In contrast, significant inverse correlates were obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) or underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)), abdominal obesity, increased sedentary time, and frequent consumption of instant noodles and sugar-sweetened beverages. In conclusion, many modifiable lifestyle and dietary factors were associated with low serum 25(OH)D levels in Korean young adults. Further studies on potential mechanisms of the correlates and optimal strategies to improve vitamin D status in this vulnerable subpopulation are warranted. PMID:26240489

  11. Social and cultural construction of urinary incontinence among Korean American elderly women.

    PubMed

    Kang, Youngmi; Crogan, Neva L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the social and cultural constructions that influence help-seeking for urinary incontinence (UI) among Korean American elderly women. Many Korean American elder women do not perceive UI as a problem worthy of attention. The reason may lie in its social and cultural construction. The social construction is rooted in the collectivist nature of Korean culture, which makes UI a family, rather than an individual, problem. The cultural construction is related to Confucianism, which directs conceptions about ageism, shame, and fatalism. This article will help the gerontological nurse to better understand Korean American elderly women's sociocultural background related to UI care and could lead to appropriate family centered interventions to manage or treat UI in this population. PMID:18394511

  12. The APOB -516C/T polymorphism has no effect on lipid and apolipoprotein response following changes in dietary fat intake in a healthy population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal was to determine whether the presence of the '516C/T polymorphism in the APOB gene promoter modifies the lipid response to changes in the amount and quality of dietary fat. We studied 97 young healthy volunteers (70 males and 27 females), 62 homozygotes for the '516C allele (C/C) (47 males ...

  13. Framing risks and benefits of medical tourism: a content analysis of medical tourism coverage in Korean American community newspapers.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jungmi; Oh, Kyeung Mi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines Korean American community newspapers' representation of risks and benefits involved with medical tourism offered in Korea. Using framing theory, this research attempts to explain Korean Americans' highly positive perceptions and high willingness to use health and medical services in Korea through medical tourism rather than using such services in the United States. The result of content analyses indicated that Korean American community newspapers are rarely engaged in risk communication and lack sufficient information about potential risks of medical tourism while emphasizing diverse benefits. Korean ethnic media, as the primary source of health communication for Korean Americans, should provide more reliable health and medical information for the population's appropriate health management. PMID:25942506

  14. Association between Dietary Patterns and Blood Lipid Profiles in Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Yeon-Sook; Chang, Hak Chul; Moon, Min Kyong

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to explore the associations of dietary patterns with blood lipid profiles and obesity in adults with type 2 diabetes. The data were obtained from the Forth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. Adults 30 yr or older, from which had both biochemical and dietary data were obtained. Among them, 680 subjects were defined as having diabetes based on criteria of fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, anti-diabetic treatment, or previously diagnosed diabetes. Dietary data from a 24-hr recall were used to derive dietary patterns by factor analysis. Four dietary patterns by factor analysis were identified: 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol', 'Noodles & Seafood', 'Rice & Vegetables', and 'Korean Healthy' patterns. Serum cholesterol levels in the highest quartile of the 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol' pattern were significantly higher compared with those in the lowest quartile. In addition, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the highest quartile of the 'Korean Healthy' pattern were significantly lower after adjusting for potential confounders. Dietary patterns of adults with diabetes were found to be associated with blood lipid profiles. 'Korean Healthy' pattern including whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits could thus improve lipid profiles among those with type 2 diabetes. PMID:21935277

  15. BRACHIAL-ANKLE PULSE WAVE VELOCITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH CORONARY CALCIFICATION AMONG 1,131 HEALTHY MIDDLE-AGED MEN

    PubMed Central

    Vishnu, Abhishek; Choo, Jina; Wilcox, Bradley; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma J M; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Mackey, Rachel H; Kadota, Aya; Ahuja, Vasudha; Kadowaki, Takashi; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Miura, Katsuyuki; Rodriguez, Beatriz L; Kuller, Lewis H; Shin, Chol; Masaki, Kamal; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Sekikawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Background Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is a simple and reproducible measure of arterial stiffness and is extensively used to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in eastern Asia. We examined whether baPWV is associated with coronary atherosclerosis in an international study of healthy middle-aged men. Methods A population-based sample of 1,131 men aged 40–49 years was recruited– 257 Whites and 75 Blacks in Pittsburgh, US, 228 Japanese-Americans in Honolulu, US, 292 Japanese in Otsu, Japan, and 279 Koreans in Ansan, Korea. baPWV was measured with an automated waveform analyzer (VP2000, Omron) and atherosclerosis was examined as coronary artery calcification (CAC) by computed-tomography (GE-Imatron EBT scanner). Association of the presence of CAC (defined as ≥10 Agatston unit) was examined with continuous measure as well as with increasing quartiles of baPWV. Results As compared to the lowest quartile of baPWV, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence-interval [CI]) for presence of CAC in the combined sample was 1.70 (0.98, 2.94) for 2nd quartile, 1.88 (1.08, 3.28) for 3rd quartile, and 2.16 (1.19, 3.94) for 4th quartile (p-trend = 0.01). The odds for CAC increased by 19% per 100 cm/s increase (p<0.01), or by 36% per standard-deviation increase (p<0.01) in baPWV. Similar effect-sizes were observed in individual races, and were significant among Whites, Blacks and Koreans. Conclusion baPWV is cross-sectionally associated with CAC among healthy middle-aged men. The association was significant in Whites and Blacks in the US, and among Koreans. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine its CVD predictive ability. PMID:25885874

  16. Genetic variants at 1q32.1, 10q11.2 and 19q13.41 are associated with prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer screening in two Korean population-based cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soriul; Shin, Chol; Jee, Sun Ha

    2015-02-10

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels are affected by non-cancerous conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia, inflammations, and inherited factors. To search for genetic variants associated with PSA levels, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a two-stage design. A total of 554 men from the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II were used as a discovery stage and 1575 men collected by the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study were used as a replication stage. Analysis by Genome-wide Human single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array 5.0 was performed by using DNAs derived from venous blood. We analyzed the association between genetic variants and PSA levels using multivariate linear regression models, including age as a covariate. We detected 12 genome-wide significant signals on chromosome 1q32.1, 10q11.2, and 19q13.41 between PSA levels and SNPs. The top SNP associated with log PSA levels was rs2153904 in SLC45A3 (p values, 5.24×10(-9) to 2.00×10(-6)). We also investigated GWAS using 754 subjects from KCPS-II cohort whether our genome-wide significant loci were associated with a risk of prostate cancer (PCa) (200 PCa cases and 554 controls). Three of the SNPs on 10q11.2, rs7077830, rs2611489, and rs4631830, were associated with a risk of PCa. However, two loci, 1q32.1 and 19q13, were not significantly associated with a PCa risk. We suggest that our results for some but not all PCa risk SNPs to be associated with PSA levels could be used as an evidence for the advance of individual PCa screening strategies, such as applying a personalized cutoff value for PSA. PMID:25434496

  17. Molecular analysis of myocilin and optineurin genes in Korean primary glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joonhong; Kim, Myungshin; Park, Chan Kee; Chae, Hyojin; Lee, Seungok; Kim, Yonggoo; Jang, Woori; Chi, Hyun Young; Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Park, Shin Hae

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the underlying genetic influences of primary glaucoma in Korea, molecular analysis was performed in 112 sporadic cases, and results compared with healthy controls. The myocilin (MYOC) and optineurin (OPTN) genes were directly sequenced in 112 unrelated patients, including 17 with primary open-angle glaucoma, 19 with juvenile open-angle glaucoma, and 76 with normal tension glaucoma. Healthy unrelated Korean individuals (n=100) were used as the non-selected population control. A total of three MYOC and four OPTN variants potentially associated with primary glaucoma were identified in 4 and 18 patients, respectively. A novel variant of MYOC, p.Leu255Pro, was predicted to be potentially pathogenic by in silico analysis. Another, p.Thr353Ile, has been previously reported. These two missense variants were detected in patients with a family history of glaucoma. Combined heterozygous variants p.[Thr123=;Ile288=] were identified in 2 of 112 (2%) patients but not in healthy controls. Among OPTN variants, a novel variant p.Arg271Cys was identified. Homozygous p.[Thr34=;Thr34=] (4/112, 4%), homozygous p.[Met98Lys;Met98Lys] (4/112, 4%), or combined heterozygous p.[Thr34=;Arg545Gln] (9/112, 8%) was significantly associated with the development of primary glaucoma [odds ratio (OR)=8.768, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.972–38.988; relative risk=1.818, 95% CI=1.473–2.244; P=0.001]. The present study provides insight into the genetic or haplotype variants of MYOC and OPTN genes contributing to primary glaucoma. Haplotype variants identified in the prese