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Sample records for healthy life colon

  1. Healthy Colon, Healthy Life

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Judith M.E.; Salazar, Rene; Nguyen, Tung T.; Kaplan, Celia; Nguyen, Lamkieu; Hwang, Jimmy; McPhee, Stephen J.; Pasick, Rena J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are increasing, but they are still low, particularly in ethnic minority groups. In many resource-poor settings, fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is the main screening option. Intervention Culturally tailored telephone counseling by community health advisors employed by a community-based organization, culturally tailored brochures, and customized FOBT kits. Design RCT. Participants were randomized to (1) basic intervention: culturally tailored brochure plus FOBT kit (n=765); (2) enhanced intervention: brochure, FOBT plus telephone counseling (n=768); or (3) usual care (n=256). Setting/participants Latino and Vietnamese primary care patients at a large public hospital. Main outcome measures Self-reported receipt of FOBT or any CRC screening at 1-year follow-up. Results 1358 individuals (718 Latinos and 640 Vietnamese) completed the follow-up survey. Self-reported FOBT screening rates increased by 7.8 % in the control group, by 15.1 % in the brochure group, and by 25.1 % in the brochure/telephone counseling group (p<0.01 for differences between each intervention and usual care and for the difference between brochure/telephone counseling and brochure alone). For any CRC screening, rates increased by 4.1 % in the usual care group, by 11.9 % in the FOBT/brochure group, and by 21.4 % in the brochure/telephone counseling group (p<0.01 for differences between each intervention and usual care and for the difference between the basic and the enhanced intervention). Conclusions An intervention that included culturally tailored brochures and tailored telephone counseling increased CRC screening in Latinos and the Vietnamese. Brochure and telephone counseling together had the greatest impact. Future research should address replication and dissemination of this model for Latinos and Vietnamese in other communities, and adaptation of the model for other groups. PMID:20547275

  2. Staphylococcus aureus colonization in healthy horses in Atlantic Canada

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Shelly; Reid-Smith, Richard; McClure, J. Trenton; Weese, J. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization was not identified in any of 497 horses from Atlantic Canada. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was isolated from a subsample of 19/242 (7.9%) horses. Colonization with MSSA is relatively common in healthy horses in Atlantic Canada, but MRSA is currently rare or absent. PMID:18978975

  3. Healthy Aging with Go4Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Contents Go4Life from the National Institute on Aging at NIH is a national exercise and physical activity campaign aimed at people over ... gives you more freedom of movement for other exercises as well as for your everyday activities. ... More "Healthy Aging" Articles Healthy Aging with Go4Life ® / Making Smart Food ...

  4. Analysis of the Chaotic Characteristics of Human Colonic Activities and Comparison of Healthy Participants to Costive Subjects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Constipation is a common yet distressing disease that has high rates of morbidity and impacts patients' quality of life. However, there is no perfect method to distinguish costive patients from healthy subjects. Is there chaos in human colonic activities? Are there any differences for the chaos indicators of colonic activities between healthy and costive subjects? Can these indicators distinguish patients with constipation from healthy subjects? To answer these questions, colonic pressure data from 16 healthy subjects and 48 patients with constipation were analyzed using the chaos theory. Three chaotic indicators [i.e., the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE), correlation dimension (CorDim), and Kolmogorov entropy (KoEn)] were calculated and compared between groups with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. As a result, the LyE was greater than zero and the CorDim was fractioned, which showed that human colonic activities have clear chaotic characteristics. Statistically significant differences were observed between groups for CorDim (p < 0.05), whereas LyE did not show statistically significant differences between groups. The chaotic indicator of CorDim was able to differentiate between patients with constipation and healthy subjects. The chaos theory provides a new method for learning the nonlinear dynamics of human gastrointestinal activities. PMID:25420272

  5. Performance Analysis of Network Model to Identify Healthy and Cancerous Colon Genes.

    PubMed

    Roy, Tanusree; Barman, Soma

    2016-03-01

    Modeling of cancerous and healthy Homo Sapiens colon gene using electrical network is proposed to study their behavior. In this paper, the individual amino acid models are designed using hydropathy index of amino acid side chain. The phase and magnitude responses of genes are examined to screen out cancer from healthy genes. The performance of proposed modeling technique is judged using various performance measurement metrics such as accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, etc. The network model performance is increased with frequency, which is analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic curve. The accuracy of the model is tested on colon genes and achieved maximum 97% at 10-MHz frequency. PMID:25730835

  6. The origins of polarimetric image contrast between healthy and cancerous human colon tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, T.; Pierangelo, A.; Manhas, S.; Benali, A.; Validire, P.; Gayet, B.; De Martino, A.

    2013-06-01

    Experimentally measured spectral Mueller matrix images of ex vivo human colon tissue revealed the contrast enhancement between healthy and cancerous zones of colon specimen compared to unpolarized intensity images. Cancer development starts with abnormal changes which being not yet visible macroscopically may alter the polarization of reflected light. We have shown with experiments and modeling that light scattering by small (sub wavelength) scatterers and light absorption (mainly due to blood hemoglobin) are the key factors for observed polarimetric image contrast. These findings can pave the way for the alternative optical technique for the monitoring and early detection of cancer.

  7. Effect of pinaverium bromide on jejunal motility and colonic transit time in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Bouchoucha, M; Salles, J P; Fallet, M; Frileux, P; Cugnenc, P H; Barbier, J P

    1992-01-01

    Pinaverium bromide is a specific calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) for its spasmolytic activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of orally administered pinaverium bromide on jejunal motility and total and segmental colonic transit time in control subjects. Gastrointestinal studies were performed in 10 healthy volunteers (30 +/- 3 years), before and after a treatment phase of 14 days (150 mg/d). Jejunal motility was measured by prolonged manometry (14 h) and colonic transit time by a multiple ingestion, single marker technique. No significant modification of phase III of the migrating motor complexes was demonstrated. On the contrary, a significant (p < 0.01) but weak decrease of the frequency of contraction was found. Unlike previous studies, no decrease of total or segmental colonic transit time was demonstrated. PMID:1421047

  8. Predicting future years of healthy life for older adults.

    PubMed

    Diehr, P; Patrick, D L; Bild, D E; Burke, G L; Williamson, J D

    1998-04-01

    Cost-effectiveness studies often need to compare the cost of a program to the lifetime benefits of the program, but estimates of lifetime benefits are not routinely available, especially for older adults. We used data from two large longitudinal studies of older adults (ages 65-100) to estimate transition probabilities from one health state to another, and used those probabilities to estimate the mean additional years of healthy life that an older adult of specified age, sex, and health status would experience. We found, for example, that 65-year-old women in excellent health can expect 16.8 years of healthy life in the future, compared to only 8.5 years for women in poor health. We also provide estimates of discounted years of healthy life and future life expectancy. These estimates may be used to extend the effective length of the study period in cost-effectiveness studies, to examine the impact of chronic diseases or risk factors on years of healthy life, or to investigate the relationship of years of life to years of healthy life. Several applications are described. PMID:9539891

  9. [Healthy life expectancy to Brazilian elders, 2003].

    PubMed

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Rodrigues, Roberto do Nascimento; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The increase of the percentage of elderly population in Brazil and the increase in longevity incite a demand for information on the quantity of years spent in good health. The aim of the present study is to measure the life expectancy for the elderly of 60 years and above, by sex and age, in the year of 2003. The Sullivan method was used, which combined the life-table with the current experience of mortality and the self-perceived health. The mortality information was obtained from the life tables published by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), 2003. The self-perceived health was used and it was dichotomized in good and bad. This information came from the National Research of Household Sample (PNAD), 2003. The results indicate that women live longer, but spend a higher number of years perceiving their health as bad, as compared to men. The results also highlights to the need of considering the differences between sexes in relation to the demand for health care. It is also important to consider the need to have policies designed to allow the increase in the number of years that the elderly can live in good health conditions. PMID:19851603

  10. Scintigraphic evaluation of colon targeting pectin-HPMC tablets in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hodges, L A; Connolly, S M; Band, J; O'Mahony, B; Ugurlu, T; Turkoglu, M; Wilson, C G; Stevens, H N E

    2009-03-31

    The in vivo evaluation of colon-targeting tablets was conducted in six healthy male volunteers. A pectin-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose coating was compressed onto core tablets labelled with 4MBq (99m)Tc-DTPA. The tablets released in the colon in all subjects; three in the ascending colon (AC) and three in the transverse colon (TC). Tablets that released in the TC had reached the AC before or just after food (Group A). The other three tablets released immediately upon AC entry at least 1.5h post-meal (Group B). Release onset for Group B was earlier than Group A (343min vs 448min). Group B tablets exhibited a clear residence period at the ileocaecal junction (ICJ) which was not observed in Group A. Prolonged residence at the ICJ is assumed to have increased hydration of the hydrogel layer surrounding the core tablet. Forces applied as the tablets progressed through the ICJ may have disrupted the hydrogel layer sufficiently to initiate radiolabel release. Conversely, Group A tablets moved rapidly through the AC to the TC, possibly minimising contact times with water pockets. Inadequate prior hydration of the hydrogel layer preventing access of pectinolytic enzymes and reduced fluid availability in the TC may have retarded tablet disintegration and radiolabel diffusion. PMID:19114096

  11. Colonic wall thickness measured by ultrasound: striking differences in patients with cystic fibrosis versus healthy controls.

    PubMed Central

    Haber, H P; Benda, N; Fitzke, G; Lang, A; Langenberg, M; Riethmüller, J; Stern, M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colonic strictures represent an advanced stage of fibrosing colonopathy in patients with cystic fibrosis. AIMS: To clarify whether ultrasonography can identify patients with an early stage of fibrosing colonopathy and to determine clinical factors that influence bowel wall thickening. PATIENTS: Ninety patients with cystic fibrosis, median age 10 years, and 46 healthy controls, median age 13 years, were investigated. METHODS: Bowel wall thickness was measured by ultrasound in a prospective study. RESULTS: In cystic fibrosis, wall thickness of both small intestine and colon was significantly (p < 0.0001) higher than in controls; 81% of patients with cystic fibrosis had a maximum colon wall thickness at any site of 2 mm or more, a value that was never reached by controls. The maximum colon wall thickness was 6.5 mm. Bowel wall thickness was unchanged at re-examination after one year. There was no progression even with high dose pancreatic supplements. There was no association between bowel wall thickness and clinical features such as previous meconium ileus, intestinal resection, distal intestinal obstruction syndrome, abdominal pain, or pancreatic enzyme dose. CONCLUSIONS: There is genuine intestinal involvement in cystic fibrosis; in a few cases this could lead to fibrosing colonopathy. Images PMID:9135533

  12. Twenty four hour manometric recording of colonic motor activity in healthy man.

    PubMed Central

    Narducci, F; Bassotti, G; Gaburri, M; Morelli, A

    1987-01-01

    The motor activity of the transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon was recorded for 24 hours in 14 healthy volunteers with a colonoscope positioned catheter. During the study the patients ate two 1000 kcal mixed meals and one continental breakfast. Colonic motor activity was low before meals and minimal during sleep; the motility index increased significantly after meals and at morning awakening. Most of the motor activity was represented by low amplitude contractions present singly or in bursts, which showed no recognisable pattern. All but two subjects also showed isolated high amplitude (up to 200 mmHg) contractions that propagated peristaltically over long distances at approximately 1 cm/sec. Most of these contractions occurred after morning awakening, and some in the late postprandial period, with a mean of 4.4/subject/24 h. The peristaltic contractions were often felt as an urge to defecate or preceded defecation, and could represent the manometric equivalent of the mass movements. PMID:3817580

  13. Risk Factors for Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization of Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Babak; Taghavi Ardakani, Abbas; Moravveji, Alireza; Erami, Mahzad; Haji Rezaei, Mostafa; Moniri, Rezvan; Namazi, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nasal colonization of healthy children with Staphylococcus aureus is an important risk factor for different infections. Detection of colonized individuals with methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and its eradication is the proper prevention strategy for infection spread in the community and health-care centers. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, associated risk factors and antibiotic resistance pattern among healthy children who were nasal carriers of S. aureus. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 350 one month to 14-year-old healthy children living in Kashan/Iran. The nasal specimens were cultured in blood agar medium for S. aureus. Positive cultures were evaluated for cephalothin, co-trimoxazole, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, oxacillin and vancomycin susceptibility by the disc diffusion method and E-test. Risk factors for nasal carriage of S. aureus and MRSA were evaluated. Results: Frequency of S. aureus nasal carriage was 92 from 350 cases (26.2%), amongst which 33 (35.9%) were MRSA. Isolates indicated an overall resistance of 52.2% to cephalothin, 33.7% to co-trimoxazol, 26.1% to ciprofloxacin, 26.1% to clindamycin, 35.9% to oxacillin and 4.3% to vancomycin. Factors associated with MRSA nasal carriage included gender (P value 0.001), age of less than four years (P value 0.016), number of individuals in the family (P value < 0.001), antibiotic use (P value < 0.001) and admission (P value < 0.001) during the previous three months, parental smoking (P value < 0.001) and sleeping with parents (P value 0.022). Conclusions: Age of less than four years, male sex, family size being more than four, antibiotic use and admission during the previous three months, parental smoking and sleeping with parents were independent risk factors for nasal colonization with MRSA. PMID:25485071

  14. FT-IR microimaging spectroscopy: A comparison between healthy and neoplastic human colon tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, C.; Ferraris, P.; Giorgini, E.; Rubini, C.; Sabbatini, S.; Tosi, G.; Anastassopoulou, J.; Arapantoni, P.; Boukaki, E.; Konstadoudakis, S.; Theophanides, T.; Valavanis, C.

    2008-06-01

    FT-IR microimaging was performed on colon tissues with the aim to characterize spectral 'markers' to distinguish healthy from pathological tissues. Evidences of spectral peculiarities were mainly found in the finger print region even in the presence of a low grade adenocarcinoma. The occurrence of inflammation and necrotic states can also be demonstrated. Through statistical analysis as well as custom map procedures it was possible to reconstruct the topological distribution of different biochemical states and to verify results from the histopathological analysis. Preliminary results from FT-NIR analysis are in substantial agreement with those in the mid infrared region.

  15. [Healthy nutrition - prerequisite for life enjoyment and quality of life].

    PubMed

    Ritzel, G

    1978-12-01

    Bad nutritional habits can cause or enhance various, especially chronic, diseases. The right amount of calories, an adequate composition and the distribution of the meals over the day are the basis of good nutrition. A coordinating office could improve the information of our population, since many different professions must cooperate. Nutritions education must be improved. Industry, professional organisations, nutritionists, consumer organisations and specialists for communication must cooperate to solve the difficult problem of nutritional habits and to demonstrate that good nutrition can--as the gastrotonomy of the future--help to enjoy life. PMID:735436

  16. Past, Present, and Future of Healthy Life Expectancy.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Soneji, Samir; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2015-11-01

    The success of the current biomedical paradigm based on a "disease model" may be limited in the future because of large number of comorbidities inflicting older people. In recent years, there has been growing empirical evidence, based on animal models, suggesting that the aging process could be delayed and that this process may lead to increases in life expectancy accompanied by improvements in health at older ages. In this review, we explore past, present, and future prospects of healthy life expectancy and examine whether increases in average length of life associated with delayed aging link with additional years lived disability-free at older ages. Trends in healthy life expectancy suggest improvements among older people in the United States, although younger cohorts appear to be reaching old age with increasing levels of frailty and disability. Trends in health risk factors, such as obesity and smoking, show worrisome signs of negative impacts on adult health and mortality in the near future. However, results based on a simulation model of delayed aging in humans indicate that it has the potential to increase not only the length of life but also the fraction and number of years spent disability-free at older ages. Delayed aging would likely come with additional aggregate costs. These costs could be offset if delayed aging is widely applied and people are willing to convert their greater healthiness into more years of work. PMID:26525456

  17. Lower Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status Associated with Reduced Diversity of the Colonic Microbiota in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gregory E; Engen, Phillip A; Gillevet, Patrick M; Shaikh, Maliha; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, there are persistent and widening socioeconomic gaps in morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Although most disparities research focuses on person-level socioeconomic-status, mounting evidence suggest that chronic diseases also pattern by the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Yet the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. There is increasing recognition that chronic diseases share common pathogenic features, some of which involve alterations in the composition, diversity, and functioning of the gut microbiota. This study examined whether socioeconomic-status was associated with alpha-diversity of the colonic microbiota. Forty-four healthy adults underwent un-prepped sigmoidoscopy, during which mucosal biopsies and fecal samples were collected. Subjects' zip codes were geocoded, and census data was used to form a composite indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic-status, reflecting household income, educational attainment, employment status, and home value. In unadjusted analyses, neighborhood socioeconomic-status explained 12-18 percent of the variability in alpha-diversity of colonic microbiota. The direction of these associations was positive, meaning that as neighborhood socioeconomic-status increased, so did alpha-diversity of both the colonic sigmoid mucosa and fecal microbiota. The strength of these associations persisted when models were expanded to include covariates reflecting potential demographic (age, gender, race/ethnicity) and lifestyle (adiposity, alcohol use, smoking) confounds. In these models neighborhood socioeconomic-status continued to explain 11-22 percent of the variability in diversity indicators. Further analyses suggested these patterns reflected socioeconomic variations in evenness, but not richness, of microbial communities residing in the sigmoid. We also found indications that residence in neighborhoods of higher socioeconomic-status was associated with a

  18. Lower Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status Associated with Reduced Diversity of the Colonic Microbiota in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gregory E.; Engen, Phillip A.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Shaikh, Maliha; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Mutlu, Ece; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, there are persistent and widening socioeconomic gaps in morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Although most disparities research focuses on person-level socioeconomic-status, mounting evidence suggest that chronic diseases also pattern by the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Yet the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. There is increasing recognition that chronic diseases share common pathogenic features, some of which involve alterations in the composition, diversity, and functioning of the gut microbiota. This study examined whether socioeconomic-status was associated with alpha-diversity of the colonic microbiota. Forty-four healthy adults underwent un-prepped sigmoidoscopy, during which mucosal biopsies and fecal samples were collected. Subjects’ zip codes were geocoded, and census data was used to form a composite indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic-status, reflecting household income, educational attainment, employment status, and home value. In unadjusted analyses, neighborhood socioeconomic-status explained 12–18 percent of the variability in alpha-diversity of colonic microbiota. The direction of these associations was positive, meaning that as neighborhood socioeconomic-status increased, so did alpha-diversity of both the colonic sigmoid mucosa and fecal microbiota. The strength of these associations persisted when models were expanded to include covariates reflecting potential demographic (age, gender, race/ethnicity) and lifestyle (adiposity, alcohol use, smoking) confounds. In these models neighborhood socioeconomic-status continued to explain 11–22 percent of the variability in diversity indicators. Further analyses suggested these patterns reflected socioeconomic variations in evenness, but not richness, of microbial communities residing in the sigmoid. We also found indications that residence in neighborhoods of higher socioeconomic-status was associated with

  19. Luminal Microbes Promote Monocyte–Stem Cell Interactions Across a Healthy Colonic Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Skoczek, Dagmara A.; Walczysko, Petr; Horn, Nikki; Parris, Alyson; Clare, Simon; Williams, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms a vital barrier between luminal microbes and the underlying mucosal immune system. Epithelial barrier function is maintained by continuous renewal of the epithelium and is pivotal for gut homeostasis. Breaching of the barrier causes mobilization of immune cells to promote epithelial restitution. However, it is not known whether microbes at the luminal surface of a healthy epithelial barrier influence immune cell mobilization to modulate tissue homeostasis. Using a mouse colonic mucosal explant model, we demonstrate that close proximity of luminal microbes to a healthy, intact epithelium results in rapid mucus secretion and movement of Ly6C+7/4+ monocytes closer to epithelial stem cells. These early events are driven by the epithelial MyD88-signaling pathway and result in increased crypt cell proliferation and intestinal stem cell number. Over time, stem cell number and monocyte–crypt stem cell juxtapositioning return to homeostatic levels observed in vivo. We also demonstrate that reduced numbers of tissue Ly6C+ monocytes can suppress Lgr5EGFP+ stem cell expression in vivo and abrogate the response to luminal microbes ex vivo. The functional link between monocyte recruitment and increased crypt cell proliferation was further confirmed using a crypt–monocyte coculture model. This work demonstrates that the healthy gut epithelium mediates communication between luminal bacteria and monocytes, and monocytes can modulate crypt stem cell number and promote crypt cell proliferation to help maintain gut homeostasis. PMID:24907348

  20. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria colonization of healthy US military personnel in the US and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The US military has seen steady increases in multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections in casualties from Iraq and Afghanistan. This study evaluates the prevalence of MDR GNB colonization in US military personnel. Methods GNB colonization surveillance of healthy, asymptomatic military personnel (101 in the US and 100 in Afghanistan) was performed by swabbing 7 anatomical sites. US-based personnel had received no antibiotics within 30 days of specimen collection, and Afghanistan-based personnel were receiving doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis at time of specimen collection. Isolates underwent genotypic and phenotypic characterization. Results The only colonizing MDR GNB recovered in both populations was Escherichia coli (p=0.01), which was seen in 2% of US-based personnel (all perirectal) and 11% of Afghanistan-based personnel (10 perirectal, 1 foot+groin). Individuals with higher off-base exposures in Afghanistan did not show a difference in overall GNB colonization or MDR E. coli colonization, compared with those with limited off-base exposures. Conclusion Healthy US- and Afghanistan-based military personnel have community onset-MDR E. coli colonization, with Afghanistan-based personnel showing a 5.5-fold higher prevalence. The association of doxycycline prophylaxis or other exposures with antimicrobial resistance and increased rates of MDR E. coli colonization needs further evaluation. PMID:23384348

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius colonizing healthy dogs in Saskatoon, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Priyantha, Roshan; Gaunt, Mathew C.; Rubin, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carried by healthy dogs in Saskatoon, and describes changes in antimicrobial resistance since a 2008 study. One hundred healthy dogs presenting to the wellness service at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine were screened for S. pseudintermedius by culturing rectal and pharyngeal swabs. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was identified biochemically and antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by broth microdilution. Methicillin resistance was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the mecA gene. Of 221 S. pseudintermedius isolates from 78 dogs, 7 were methicillin resistant. No resistance to the fluoroquinolones, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, vancomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, or daptomycin was identified. Of the 78 positive dogs, isolates resistant to penicillin were found in 78%, to ampicillin in 61% and to tetracycline in 26%; resistance to oxacillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin was found in < 10% of dogs. Compared to the 2008 study, the frequency of resistance to all drugs increased, and the frequency of colonization with pan-susceptible isolates decreased from 46% to 30%. PMID:26740701

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius colonizing healthy dogs in Saskatoon, Canada.

    PubMed

    Priyantha, Roshan; Gaunt, Mathew C; Rubin, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    This study reports antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carried by healthy dogs in Saskatoon, and describes changes in antimicrobial resistance since a 2008 study. One hundred healthy dogs presenting to the wellness service at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine were screened for S. pseudintermedius by culturing rectal and pharyngeal swabs. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was identified biochemically and antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by broth microdilution. Methicillin resistance was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the mecA gene. Of 221 S. pseudintermedius isolates from 78 dogs, 7 were methicillin resistant. No resistance to the fluoroquinolones, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, vancomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, or daptomycin was identified. Of the 78 positive dogs, isolates resistant to penicillin were found in 78%, to ampicillin in 61% and to tetracycline in 26%; resistance to oxacillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin was found in < 10% of dogs. Compared to the 2008 study, the frequency of resistance to all drugs increased, and the frequency of colonization with pan-susceptible isolates decreased from 46% to 30%. PMID:26740701

  3. Quality of life in epileptic patients compared with healthy people

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Ali; Salarilak, Shaker; Lotfabadi, Pegah; Kiani, Fereshte; Rajabi, Abdolhalim; Mansori, Kamyar; Moosavi Jahromi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder that has a great impact on people’s lives. Patients with epilepsy are at increased risk for poor Quality of Life (QoL). The objective of this study was to evaluate the QoL of epileptic patients in comparison to healthy persons. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 52 epileptic patients from Golbu region in Neyshabur (a city in northeast of Iran). Using Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) scale, the data were collected between April and Jun 2012. Every patient were compared with two healthy persons. Epileptic and healthy persons were similar for age, sex and local residence. Pearson’s correlation coefficient and t-independent test applied for data analysis through SPSS v. 16 software. Results: Of 52 epileptic patients, 24 were female (46.2%) and 28 were male (53.8%). The mean±SD age of epileptic patients was 40.92±20.33yr (Rang: 15-86yr). The total mean score of SF- 36 in patient group was 55.88 and in healthy group 68.52and this difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Among the different subscales of SF-36 in epileptic patients, the highest and the lowest mean scores were found for social functioning and general health subscales, respectively. The mean scores in patient group in comparison to healthy group were lower in all subscales of SF-36 and these differences were statistically significant in all domains (except role limitations due to physical problems domain and role limitations due to emotional problems domain). Conclusion: The study showed that epilepsy disease has an important role in QoL of patients, thus some interventional programs are necessary to improve their QOL. PMID:27493932

  4. Developmental aspects of a life course approach to healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    Hanson, M A; Cooper, C; Aihie Sayer, A; Eendebak, R J; Clough, G F; Beard, J R

    2016-04-15

    We examine the mechanistic basis and wider implications of adopting a developmental perspective on human ageing. Previous models of ageing have concentrated on its genetic basis, or the detrimental effects of accumulated damage, but also have raised issues about whether ageing can be viewed as adaptive itself, or is a consequence of other adaptive processes, for example if maintenance and repair processes in the period up to reproduction are traded off against later decline in function. A life course model places ageing in the context of the attainment of peak capacity for a body system, starting in early development when plasticity permits changes in structure and function induced by a range of environmental stimuli, followed by a period of decline, the rate of which depends on the peak attained as well as the later life conditions. Such path dependency in the rate of ageing may offer new insights into its modification. Focusing on musculoskeletal and cardiovascular function, we discuss this model and the possible underlying mechanisms, including endothelial function, oxidative stress, stem cells and nutritional factors such as vitamin D status. Epigenetic changes induced during developmental plasticity, and immune function may provide a common mechanistic process underlying a life course model of ageing. The life course trajectory differs in high and low resource settings. New insights into the developmental components of the life course model of ageing may lead to the design of biomarkers of later chronic disease risk and to new interventions to promote healthy ageing, with important implications for public health. PMID:26518329

  5. Neighborhood analysis of low magnification structures (glands) in healthy, adenomatous, and carcinomatous colon mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kayser, K; Shaver, M; Modlinger, F; Postl, K; Moyers, J J

    1986-05-01

    A new algorithm analyzing neighborhood conditions of adenomatous tissue is is introduced. Using O'Callaghan's definition of neighborhoods, a graph theory approach for measuring histomorphological structures can be created as follows: glands are defined as vertices and the coherence of neighboring glands as edges. The procedure leads to an unoriented, well-defined graph which contains information usually not measurable by conventional morphometric analysis. Measurements on healthy mucosa, tubulo-villous adenoma and highly to moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of colon revealed statistically significant differences (p less than or equal to 0.05) for the following parameters: number of vertices, number of edges, frequency distribution of n-stars and of n-closed paths. Correct separation and reclassification of 83% of cases could be carried out using discriminant analysis. 11/15 cases (73%) could be classified correctly in a prospective group based upon the learning set. The significance of these findings for automatic pattern recognition in histopathology is discussed. PMID:3737471

  6. Early-Life Intranasal Colonization with Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Exacerbates Juvenile Airway Disease in Mice.

    PubMed

    McCann, Jessica R; Mason, Stanley N; Auten, Richard L; St Geme, Joseph W; Seed, Patrick C

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a connection between asthma development and colonization with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Specifically, nasopharyngeal colonization of human infants with NTHi within 4 weeks of birth is associated with an increased risk of asthma development later in childhood. Monocytes derived from these infants have aberrant inflammatory responses to common upper respiratory bacterial antigens compared to those of cells derived from infants who were not colonized and do not go on to develop asthma symptoms in childhood. In this study, we hypothesized that early-life colonization with NTHi promotes immune system reprogramming and the development of atypical inflammatory responses. To address this hypothesis in a highly controlled model, we tested whether colonization of mice with NTHi on day of life 3 induced or exacerbated juvenile airway disease using an ovalbumin (OVA) allergy model of asthma. We found that animals that were colonized on day of life 3 and subjected to induction of allergy had exacerbated airway disease as juveniles, in which exacerbated airway disease was defined as increased cellular infiltration into the lung, increased amounts of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-13 in lung lavage fluid, decreased regulatory T cell-associated FOXP3 gene expression, and increased mucus production. We also found that colonization with NTHi amplified airway resistance in response to increasing doses of a bronchoconstrictor following OVA immunization and challenge. Together, the murine model provides evidence for early-life immune programming that precedes the development of juvenile airway disease and corroborates observations that have been made in human children. PMID:27113355

  7. Life as a planetary phenomenon: the colonization of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Guerrero, R.

    1995-01-01

    Life is a planet-wide phenomenon in which its components incessantly move and interact. Life imperatively recycles its parts at the surface of the Earth in a chemical transformation and physical transport that depends utterly on the energy from a recent star, the Sun. Humanity, entirely dependent on other beings, plays a recent and relatively small part in the great phenomenon of life that transports and transforms the surface of the Earth. Our species accelerates but does not dominate the metabolism of the Earth system. Ironically, during the Apollo days of the sixties, fears were rampant that Martian or other extraterrestrial "germs" might "contaminate" our planet. After Viking, such fears are seen as the manifestation of cultural paranoia. The Viking missions complemented ground-based astronomical observation and yielded definitive evidence for the lack of life on the red planet. The Gaia hypothesis states that the surface temperature, composition of the reactive gases, oxidation state, alkalinity-acidity on today's Earth are kept homeorrhetically at values set by the sum of the activities of the current biota. Life, in other words, not only produces and maintains its immediate environment, but appears on Earth only as a planetary phenomenon. Since the natural tendency of all life is to grow exponentially to fill proximal volume, the question now "can life ecopoietically expand to Mars?" is entirely equivalent to the query of "can Gaia reproduce?".

  8. Life as a planetary phenomenon: the colonization of Mars.

    PubMed

    Margulis, L; Guerrero, R

    1995-01-01

    Life is a planet-wide phenomenon in which its components incessantly move and interact. Life imperatively recycles its parts at the surface of the Earth in a chemical transformation and physical transport that depends utterly on the energy from a recent star, the Sun. Humanity, entirely dependent on other beings, plays a recent and relatively small part in the great phenomenon of life that transports and transforms the surface of the Earth. Our species accelerates but does not dominate the metabolism of the Earth system. Ironically, during the Apollo days of the sixties, fears were rampant that Martian or other extraterrestrial "germs" might "contaminate" our planet. After Viking, such fears are seen as the manifestation of cultural paranoia. The Viking missions complemented ground-based astronomical observation and yielded definitive evidence for the lack of life on the red planet. The Gaia hypothesis states that the surface temperature, composition of the reactive gases, oxidation state, alkalinity-acidity on today's Earth are kept homeorrhetically at values set by the sum of the activities of the current biota. Life, in other words, not only produces and maintains its immediate environment, but appears on Earth only as a planetary phenomenon. Since the natural tendency of all life is to grow exponentially to fill proximal volume, the question now "can life ecopoietically expand to Mars?" is entirely equivalent to the query of "can Gaia reproduce?" PMID:11539563

  9. How colonization by microbiota in early life shapes the immune system.

    PubMed

    Gensollen, Thomas; Iyer, Shankar S; Kasper, Dennis L; Blumberg, Richard S

    2016-04-29

    Microbial colonization of mucosal tissues during infancy plays an instrumental role in the development and education of the host mammalian immune system. These early-life events can have long-standing consequences: facilitating tolerance to environmental exposures or contributing to the development of disease in later life, including inflammatory bowel disease, allergy, and asthma. Recent studies have begun to define a critical period during early development in which disruption of optimal host-commensal interactions can lead to persistent and in some cases irreversible defects in the development and training of specific immune subsets. Here, we discuss the role of early-life education of the immune system during this "window of opportunity," when microbial colonization has a potentially critical impact on human health and disease. PMID:27126036

  10. Paradoxes of a Healthy Way of Life for Young People in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belova, Natal'ia Il'inichna

    2009-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005 the author and her colleagues conducted a survey among first-year students at Moscow State University of the Humanities titled "College Students' Attitudes Toward Health and a Healthy Way of Life," to determine students' perceptions and knowledge about a healthy way of life as well as habits fostering and promoting health. The…

  11. Healthy Aging with Go4Life® | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Healthy Aging with Go4Life ® Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Go4Life from the National Institute on Aging at NIH is a national exercise and physical ...

  12. The Impact of Dietary Energy Intake Early in Life on the Colonic Microbiota of Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinyu; Galley, Jeffrey D; Bailey, Michael T; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Clinton, Steven K; Olivo-Marston, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    The complex and dynamic interactions between diet, gut microbiota (GM) structure and function, and colon carcinogenesis are only beginning to be elucidated. We examined the colonic microbiota and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in C57BL/6N female mice fed various dietary interventions (control, energy restricted and high-fat) provided during two phases (initiation and progression) of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced early colon carcinogenesis. During progression (wks. 22-60), a high-fat diet enhanced ACF formation compared to a control or energy restricted diet. In contrast, energy restriction during initiation phase (wks. 3-21) enhanced ACF burden at 60 weeks, regardless of the diet in progression phase. Alterations in GM structure during the initiation phase diet were partially maintained after changing diets during the progression phase. However, diet during the progression phase had major effects on the mucosal GM. Energy restriction in the progression phase increased Firmicutes and reduced Bacteroidetes compared to a high-fat diet, regardless of initiation phase diet, suggesting that diet may have both transient effects as well as a lasting impact on GM composition. Integration of early life and adult dietary impacts on the colonic microbial structure and function with host molecular processes involved in colon carcinogenesis will be key to defining preventive strategies. PMID:26744222

  13. The Impact of Dietary Energy Intake Early in Life on the Colonic Microbiota of Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinyu; Galley, Jeffrey D.; Bailey, Michael T.; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M.; Clinton, Steven K.; Olivo-Marston, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    The complex and dynamic interactions between diet, gut microbiota (GM) structure and function, and colon carcinogenesis are only beginning to be elucidated. We examined the colonic microbiota and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in C57BL/6N female mice fed various dietary interventions (control, energy restricted and high-fat) provided during two phases (initiation and progression) of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced early colon carcinogenesis. During progression (wks. 22–60), a high-fat diet enhanced ACF formation compared to a control or energy restricted diet. In contrast, energy restriction during initiation phase (wks. 3–21) enhanced ACF burden at 60 weeks, regardless of the diet in progression phase. Alterations in GM structure during the initiation phase diet were partially maintained after changing diets during the progression phase. However, diet during the progression phase had major effects on the mucosal GM. Energy restriction in the progression phase increased Firmicutes and reduced Bacteroidetes compared to a high-fat diet, regardless of initiation phase diet, suggesting that diet may have both transient effects as well as a lasting impact on GM composition. Integration of early life and adult dietary impacts on the colonic microbial structure and function with host molecular processes involved in colon carcinogenesis will be key to defining preventive strategies. PMID:26744222

  14. The role of the colonic flora in maintaining a healthy large bowel mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chapman, M A

    2001-03-01

    This work explores the intricate relationships between bacterial products of fermentation, the short chain fatty acids and the effect that these have on the colonic epithelium and the immune system. It confirms that butyrate is a major energy source for the colonic epithelium and there may be a minor epithelial abnormality in the metabolism of butyrate in patients with ulcerative colitis. Immunological studies suggest that butyrate has an effect on lymphocyte activation and inhibits cell proliferation. Possibly, butyrate induces anergy in lymphocytes via an effect on the TCR receptor. This may represent a mechanism whereby colonic bacteria are able to regulate the host immune response. An abnormal response to butyrate may upset the homeostasis between the gut immune system and the colonising bacteria resulting in epithelial unrest and inflammation. PMID:11320933

  15. Glycosylation and sulphation of colonic mucus glycoproteins in patients with ulcerative colitis and in healthy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Morita, H; Kettlewell, M G; Jewell, D P; Kent, P W

    1993-01-01

    Studies have been made of mucus glycoprotein biosynthesis in different regions of the lower gastrointestinal tract in normal patients and those with ulcerative colitis (UC), active or inactive, by means of 3H-glucosamine (3H-GlcNH2)--35S-sulphate double labelling of epithelial biopsy specimens under culture conditions. The time based rate of 3H-GlcNH2 labelling of mucus in rectal tissue was similar to that in active or inactive UC whereas the rate of 35SO4(2) labelling was significantly increased in active disease. The 3H specific activities measuring the amount of isotopic incorporation into surface and tissue mucus glycoproteins were increased in patients with active UC compared with normal or inactive subjects. The 35S specific activities did not differ significantly between patients with active UC and those in remission. In the rectum, glycosylation of mucus glycoproteins decreases with the increasing age of the patient. Regional differences in 3H-labelling of mucus components are reported for ascending colon, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. Sulphation (35S-labelling) was higher in all parts of the colon in left sided UC. Results point to accelerated glycosylation of core proteins in the active phase of UC. PMID:8344580

  16. Healthy soil as a necessary condition of human life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, M. S.; Dorodnykh, Yu. L.; Marchenko, A. I.

    2010-07-01

    The extent of soil degradation and soil pathology in Russia is discussed. The concept of a federal target program “National System of the Chemical and Biological Security of the Russian Federation (2009-2013)” is examined. A definition is given to healthy soil of agrocenoses and its main functional characteristic—ecological stability (including balanced biodiversity, self-cleaning capacity, and suppressive activity of the phytopedocenosis). Urgent applied scientific problems of regional soil sanitation are formulated. Criteria and modern methods of ecological monitoring and assessment of soil quality and health are considered. A systems approach to sanitation of soils infected by highly harmful phytopathogens—the causative agents of root rots of cereal crops—is demonstrated using the induction of soil suppressiveness as an example.

  17. Dietary flaxseed modulates the colonic microenvironment in healthy C57Bl/6 male mice which may alter susceptibility to gut-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Power, Krista A; Lepp, Dion; Zarepoor, Leila; Monk, Jennifer M; Wu, Wenqing; Tsao, Rong; Liu, Ronghua

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how dietary components alter the healthy baseline colonic microenvironment is important in determining their roles in influencing gut health and gut-associated diseases. Dietary flaxseed (FS) has demonstrated anti-colon cancer effects in numerous rodent models, however, exacerbated acute colonic mucosal injury and inflammation in a colitis model. This study investigates whether FS alters critical aspects of gut health in healthy unchallenged mice, which may help explain some of the divergent effects observed following different gut-associated disease challenges. Four-week-old C57Bl/6 male mice were fed an AIN-93G basal diet (BD) or an isocaloric BD+10% ground FS diet for 3 weeks. FS enhanced colon goblet cell density, mucus production, MUC2 mRNA expression, and cecal short chain fatty acid levels, indicative of beneficial intestinal barrier integrity responses. Additionally, FS enhanced colonic regenerating islet-derived protein 3 gamma (RegIIIγ) and reduced MUC1 and resistin-like molecule beta (RELMβ) mRNA expression which may indicate altered responses in regulating microbial defense and injury repair responses. FS diet altered the fecal microbial community structure (16S rRNA gene profiling), including a 20-fold increase in Prevotella spp. and a 30-fold reduction in Akkermansia muciniphila abundance. A 10-fold reduction in A. muciniphila abundance by FS was also demonstrated in the colon tissue-associated microbiota (quantitative PCR). Furthermore, fecal branched chain fatty acids were increased by FS, indicative of increased microbial-derived putrefactive compounds. In conclusion, consumption of a FS-supplemented diet alters the baseline colonic microenvironment of healthy mice which may modify subsequent mucosal microbial defense and injury-repair responses leading to altered susceptibility to different gut-associated diseases. PMID:26878783

  18. Associations between gut microbial colonization in early life and respiratory outcomes in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hoen, Anne G.; Li, Jing; Moulton, Lisa A.; O’Toole, George A.; Housman, Molly L.; Koestler, Devin C.; Guill, Margaret F.; Moore, Jason H.; Hibberd, Patricia L.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Madan, Juliette C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of microbial colonization of the respiratory and intestinal tracts in early life in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF) and their associations with breastfeeding and clinical outcomes. Study design A comprehensive, prospective longitudinal analysis of the upper respiratory and intestinal microbiota in a cohort of infants and young children with CF followed from birth was performed. Genus-level microbial community composition was characterized using 16S-targeted pyrosequencing, and relationships with exposures and outcomes were assessed using linear mixed-effects models, time-to-event analysis and principal components analysis. Results Sequencing of 120 samples from 13 subjects collected from birth to 34 months revealed relationships between breastfeeding, microbial diversity in the respiratory and intestinal tracts and the timing of onset of respiratory complications, including exacerbations and colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fluctuations in the abundance of specific bacterial taxa preceeded clinical outcomes, including a significant decrease in bacteria of the genus Parabacteroides within the intestinal tract prior to the onset of chronic P. aeruginosa colonization. Specific assemblages of bacteria in intestinal samples, but not respiratory samples, were associated with CF exacerbation in early life, indicating that the intestinal microbiome may play a role in lung health. Conclusion Our findings relating breastfeeding to respiratory outcomes, gut diversity to prolonged periods of health, and specific bacterial communities in the gut prior to respiratory complications in CF highlight a connection between the intestinal microbiome and health and point to potential opportunities for antibiotic or probiotic interventions. Further studies in larger cohorts validating these findings are needed. PMID:25818499

  19. The association between hippocampal volume and life events in healthy twins.

    PubMed

    Bootsman, Florian; Kemner, Sanne M; Hillegers, Manon H J; Brouwer, Rachel M; Vonk, Ronald; van der Schot, Astrid C; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Nolen, Willem A; Kahn, René S; van Haren, Neeltje E M

    2016-08-01

    Hippocampal volume deficits have been linked to life stress. However, the degree to which genes and environment influence the association between hippocampal volume and life events is largely unknown. In total, 123 healthy twins from monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 57 healthy twins were interviewed with the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS), with an overlap of 54 twins undergoing both MRI and the life events interview. Hippocampal volumes were segmented with Freesurfer software. Data were analyzed with OpenMx software. Smaller hippocampal volume was associated with higher severe life event load (rph = -0.39), where shared environmental factors influencing both measures fully explained the association. Hippocampal volume was not associated with total or mild life event load. Hippocampal volume showed high heritability (range, h(2) : 57%-81%) whereas life event measures were influenced by shared (c(2) ) and unique (e(2) ) environmental factors only (range, c(2) :40%-64%, e(2) : 36%-60%). The results suggested that shared environmental factors influenced the relationship between smaller hippocampal volume and severe (but not mild) stress. This indicated that particularly severe life events that were shared between twins were associated with smaller hippocampal volume. Furthermore, it is suggested to distinguish between mild and severe life events in life event research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27010665

  20. The interaction between dietary and life goals: using goal systems theory to explore healthy diet and life goals

    PubMed Central

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Wright, Julie A.; Migneault, Jeffrey P.; Quintiliani, Lisa; Friedman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the types of life and dietary goals individuals report and how these goal domains interact as framed by goal systems theory. Methods: This work is a cross-sectional survey study. Measures included the incidence of common life and dietary goals and how these goals interact with and facilitate each other. Results: The results of a quantitative survey (n = 46 participants), which was informed by two focus groups (n = 17 participants), showed that participants are trying to achieve several different life (e.g. achieving financial success) and dietary goals (e.g. eating more fruits and vegetables, drinking more water, and losing weight) and that these two types of goals interact to both facilitate and conflict with each other. Having a life goal of exercising was significantly associated with healthy eating goals when compared with other life goals (p's < .05), suggesting these goals may be linked and help to facilitate one another. Being in the maintenance phase with the goal of healthy eating was associated with participants feeling like they were more successful in their other non-diet-related health goals (p < .05), suggesting maintenance of goals can facilitate success in achieving other goals. Conclusions: Life goals can have an impact on a person's ability to achieve and maintain dietary and other health goals. Health educators may help to facilitate long-term behavior change by examining a person's life goals as well as dietary goals. PMID:25750817

  1. Transient intestinal colonization by multiple phenotypes of Aeromonas species during the first week of life.

    PubMed Central

    Pazzaglia, G; Escalante, J R; Sack, R B; Rocca, C; Benavides, V

    1990-01-01

    The intestinal colonization rate of Aeromonas spp. was determined for 52 cesarean-born Peruvian neonates. Rectal swabs were obtained daily from newborns during their postdelivery hospitalization (mean = 5.5 days), and the gross appearances of their feces (blind determinations) were recorded. Aeromonas spp. were recovered from rectal swabs of 12 of 52 (23.1%) infants during their first week of life; the isolates were obtained from 5 of 9 (55.6%) infants with at least one stool with a watery consistency and from 7 of 43 (16.3%) neonates with no watery stools (P = 0.022). None of the infected infants became clinically ill. No other commonly recognized enteropathogens were detected in watery stools. An environmental survey indicated that hospital water was the probable source of infection. These and other data indicated that Aeromonas colonization occurs transiently at a very early age in Peruvian neonates and that in some instances, initial infection may be followed several days later by one or more watery stools of normal volume. PMID:2394805

  2. An Antimethanogenic Nutritional Intervention in Early Life of Ruminants Modifies Ruminal Colonization by Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Abecia, Leticia; Waddams, Kate E.; Martínez-Fernandez, Gonzalo; Martín-García, A. Ignacio; Ramos-Morales, Eva; Newbold, C. Jamie; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study whether feeding a methanogen inhibitor from birth of goat kids and their does has an impact on the archaeal population colonizing the rumen and to what extent the impact persists later in life. Sixteen goats giving birth to two kids were used. Eight does were treated (D+) with bromochloromethane after giving birth and over 2 months. The other 8 goats were not treated (D−). One kid per doe in both groups was treated with bromochloromethane (k+) for 3 months while the other was untreated (k−), resulting in four experimental groups: D+/k+, D+/k−, D−/k+, and D−/k−. Rumen samples were collected from kids at weaning and 1 and 4 months after (3 and 6 months after birth) and from does at the end of the treating period (2 months). Pyrosequencing analyses showed a modified archaeal community composition colonizing the rumen of kids, although such effect did not persist entirely 4 months after; however, some less abundant groups remained different in treated and control animals. The different response on the archaeal community composition observed between offspring and adult goats suggests that the competition occurring in the developing rumen to occupy different niches offer potential for intervention. PMID:24803846

  3. The impact of early life gut colonization on metabolic and obesogenic outcomes: what have animal models shown us?

    PubMed

    Wallace, J G; Gohir, W; Sloboda, D M

    2016-02-01

    The rise in the occurrence of obesity to epidemic proportions has made it a global concern. Great difficulty has been experienced in efforts to control this growing problem with lifestyle interventions. Thus, attention has been directed to understanding the events of one of the most critical periods of development, perinatal life. Early life adversity driven by maternal obesity has been associated with an increased risk of metabolic disease and obesity in the offspring later in life. Although a mechanistic link explaining the relationship between maternal and offspring obesity is still under investigation, the gut microbiota has come forth as a new factor that may play a role modulating metabolic function of both the mother and the offspring. Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiota plays a much larger role in mediating the risk of developing non-communicable disease, including obesity and metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. With the observation that the early life colonization of the neonatal and postnatal gut is mediated by the perinatal environment, the number of studies investigating early life gut microbial establishment continues to grow. This paper will review early life gut colonization in experimental animal models, concentrating on the role of the early life environment in offspring gut colonization and the ability of the gut microbiota to dictate risk of disease later in life. PMID:26399435

  4. Life cycle specialization of filamentous pathogens - colonization and reproduction in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Haueisen, Janine; Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2016-08-01

    Filamentous plant pathogens explore host tissues to obtain nutrients for growth and reproduction. Diverse strategies for tissue invasion, defense manipulation, and colonization of inter and intra-cellular spaces have evolved. Most research has focused on effector molecules, which are secreted to manipulate plant immunity and facilitate infection. Effector genes are often found to evolve rapidly in response to the antagonistic host-pathogen co-evolution but other traits are also subject to adaptive evolution during specialization to the anatomy, biochemistry and ecology of different plant hosts. Although not directly related to virulence, these traits are important components of specialization but little is known about them. We present and discuss specific life cycle traits that facilitate exploration of plant tissues and underline the importance of increasing our insight into the biology of plant pathogens. PMID:27153045

  5. Impact of healthy eating practices and physical activity on quality of life among breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Shooka; Sulaiman, Suhaina; Koon, Poh Bee; Amani, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Following breast cancer diagnosis, women often attempt to modify their lifestyles to improve their health and prevent recurrence. These behavioral changes typically involve diet and physical activity modification. The aim of this study was to determine association between healthy eating habits and physical activity with quality of life among Iranian breast cancer survivors. A total of 100 Iranian women, aged between 32 to 61 years were recruited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Eating practices were evaluated by a validated questionnaire modified from the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) study. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). A standardized questionnaire by the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life and its breast cancer module (EORTC QLQ-C30/+BR-23) were applied to determine quality of life. Approximately 29% of the cancer survivors were categorized as having healthy eating practices, 34% had moderate eating practices and 37% had poor eating practices based on nutrition guidelines. The study found positive changes in the decreased intake of fast foods (90%), red meat (70%) and increased intake of fruits (85%) and vegetables (78%). Generally, breast cancer survivors with healthy eating practices had better global quality of life, social, emotional, cognitive and role functions. Result showed that only 12 women (12%) met the criteria for regular vigorous exercise, 22% had regular moderate-intensity exercise while the majority (65%) had low-intensity physical activity. Breast cancer survivors with higher level of physical activity had better emotional and cognitive functions. Healthy eating practices and physical activity can improve quality of life of cancer survivors. Health care professionals should promote good dietary habits and physical activity to improve survivors' health and quality of life. PMID:23534778

  6. Health Inequalities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Lower Healthy Life Expectancy in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Areas

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa da Mota, Jurema; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Sardinha Pereira, Tatiana Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated deprivation and inequalities in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy by location in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods. We conducted a health survey of 576 adults in 2006. Census tracts were stratified by income level and categorization as a slum. We determined health status by degree of functional limitation, according to the approach proposed by the World Health Organization. We calculated healthy life expectancies by Sullivan's method with abridged life table. Results. We found the worst indicators in the slum stratum. The life expectancy at birth of men living in the richest parts of the city was 12.8 years longer than that of men living in deprived areas. For both men and women older than age 65 years, healthy life expectancy was more than twice as high in the richest sector as in the slum sector. Conclusions. Our analysis detailed the excess burden of poor health experienced by disadvantaged populations of Rio de Janeiro. Policy efforts are needed to reduce social inequalities in health in this city, especially among the elderly. PMID:21233437

  7. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Distance Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özkan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors in distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University. In total, 526 distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical…

  8. The Role of Purpose in Life in Healthy Identity Formation: A Grounded Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronk, Kendall Cotton

    2011-01-01

    Researchers contend that committing to an inspiring purpose in life is an important component of healthy identity development for adolescents; however, little research has focused on how identity and purpose develop together. Therefore, the study followed a sample of eight adolescent purpose exemplars for five years in order to develop a grounded…

  9. Taking up physical activity in later life and healthy ageing: the English longitudinal study of ageing

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Lavoie, Kim L; Bacon, Simon L

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated with improved overall health in those people who survive to older ages, otherwise conceptualised as healthy ageing. Previous studies have examined the effects of mid-life physical activity on healthy ageing, but not the effects of taking up activity later in life. We examined the association between physical activity and healthy ageing over 8 years of follow-up. Methods Participants were 3454 initially disease-free men and women (aged 63.7±8.9 years at baseline) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective study of community dwelling older adults. Self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline (2002–2003) and through follow-up. Healthy ageing, assessed at 8 years of follow-up (2010-2011), was defined as those participants who survived without developing major chronic disease, depressive symptoms, physical or cognitive impairment. Results At follow-up, 19.3% of the sample was defined as healthy ageing. In comparison with inactive participants, moderate (OR, 2.67, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.64), or vigorous activity (3.53, 2.54 to 4.89) at least once a week was associated with healthy ageing, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, marital status and wealth. Becoming active (multivariate adjusted, 3.37, 1.67 to 6.78) or remaining active (7.68, 4.18 to 14.09) was associated with healthy ageing in comparison with remaining inactive over follow-up. Conclusions Sustained physical activity in older age is associated with improved overall health. Significant health benefits were even seen among participants who became physically active relatively late in life. PMID:24276781

  10. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression in the epithelium and stroma of normal colon in healthy individuals in an aspirin intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sushma S; Makar, Karen W; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yingye; Yang, Peiying; Levy, Lisa; Rudolph, Rebecca Y; Lampe, Paul D; Yan, Min; Markowitz, Sanford D; Bigler, Jeannette; Lampe, Johanna W; Potter, John D

    2015-12-01

    Regular aspirin use reduces colon adenoma and carcinoma incidence. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are involved in aspirin metabolism and clearance, and variant alleles in UGT1A6 have been shown to alter salicylic acid metabolism and risk of colon neoplasia. In a randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial of 44 healthy men and women, homozygous for UGT1A6*1 or UGT1A6*2, we explored differences between global epithelial and stromal expression, using Affymetrix U133 + 2.0 microarrays and tested effects of 60-day aspirin supplementation (325 mg/d) on epithelial and stromal gene expression and colon prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. We conducted a comprehensive study of differential gene expression between normal human colonic epithelium and stroma from healthy individuals. Although no statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed in response to aspirin or UGT1A6 genotype, we have identified the genes uniquely and reproducibly expressed in each tissue type and have analyzed the biologic processes they represent. Here we describe in detail how the data, deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) - accession number GSE71571 - was generated including the basic analysis as contained in the manuscript published in BMC Medical Genetics with the PMID 25927723 (Thomas et al., 2015 [9]). PMID:26697360

  11. Analyses of the Temporal Dynamics of Fungal Communities Colonizing the Healthy Wood Tissues of Esca Leaf-Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Vines

    PubMed Central

    Bruez, Emilie; Vallance, Jessica; Gerbore, Jonathan; Lecomte, Pascal; Da Costa, Jean-Pierre; Guerin-Dubrana, Lucia; Rey, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Esca, a Grapevine Trunk Disease (GTD), is of major concern for viticulture worldwide. Our study compares the fungal communities that inhabit the wood tissues of vines that expressed or not foliar esca-symptoms. The trunk and rootstock tissues were apparently healthy, whether the 10 year-old plants were symptomatic or not. The only difference was in the cordon, which contained white rot, a typical form of esca, in 79% of symptomatic plants. Observations over a period of one year using a fingerprint method, Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP), and the ITS-DNA sequencing of cultivable fungi, showed that shifts occurred in the fungal communities colonizing the healthy wood tissues. However, whatever the sampling time, spring, summer, autumn or winter, the fungi colonizing the healthy tissues of asymptomatic or symptomatic plants were not significantly different. Forty-eight genera were isolated, with species of Hypocreaceae and Botryosphaeriaceae being the most abundant species. Diverse fungal assemblages, made up of potentially plant-pathogenic and -protective fungi, colonized these non-necrotic tissues. Some fungi, possibly involved in GTD, inhabited the non-necrotic wood of young plants, but no increase in necrosis areas was observed over the one-year period. PMID:24788412

  12. Analyses of the temporal dynamics of fungal communities colonizing the healthy wood tissues of esca leaf-symptomatic and asymptomatic vines.

    PubMed

    Bruez, Emilie; Vallance, Jessica; Gerbore, Jonathan; Lecomte, Pascal; Da Costa, Jean-Pierre; Guerin-Dubrana, Lucia; Rey, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Esca, a Grapevine Trunk Disease (GTD), is of major concern for viticulture worldwide. Our study compares the fungal communities that inhabit the wood tissues of vines that expressed or not foliar esca-symptoms. The trunk and rootstock tissues were apparently healthy, whether the 10 year-old plants were symptomatic or not. The only difference was in the cordon, which contained white rot, a typical form of esca, in 79% of symptomatic plants. Observations over a period of one year using a fingerprint method, Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP), and the ITS-DNA sequencing of cultivable fungi, showed that shifts occurred in the fungal communities colonizing the healthy wood tissues. However, whatever the sampling time, spring, summer, autumn or winter, the fungi colonizing the healthy tissues of asymptomatic or symptomatic plants were not significantly different. Forty-eight genera were isolated, with species of Hypocreaceae and Botryosphaeriaceae being the most abundant species. Diverse fungal assemblages, made up of potentially plant-pathogenic and -protective fungi, colonized these non-necrotic tissues. Some fungi, possibly involved in GTD, inhabited the non-necrotic wood of young plants, but no increase in necrosis areas was observed over the one-year period. PMID:24788412

  13. Healthy life expectancy in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China.

    PubMed Central

    Law, C. K.; Yip, P. S. F.

    2003-01-01

    Sullivan's method and a regression model were used to calculate healthy life expectancy (HALE) for men and women in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong SAR) of China. These methods need estimates of the prevalence and information on disability distributions of 109 diseases and HALE for 191 countries by age, sex and region of the world from the WHO's health assessment of 2000. The population of Hong Kong SAR has one of the highest healthy life expectancies in the world. Sullivan's method gives higher estimates than the classic linear regression method. Although Sullivan's method accurately calculates the influence of disease prevalence within small areas and regions, the regression method can approximate HALE for all economies for which information on life expectancy is available. This paper identifies some problems of the two methods and discusses the accuracy of estimates of HALE that rely on data from the WHO assessment. PMID:12640475

  14. Healthy lifestyles and health-related quality of life among men living with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Uphold, Constance R; Holmes, Wanda; Reid, Kimberly; Findley, Kimberly; Parada, Jorge P

    2007-01-01

    Although healthy lifestyles are related to improved quality of life in the general population, little is known about the role of healthy lifestyles during HIV infection. The authors examined the relationships between health-promoting behaviors, risk behaviors, stress, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among 226 men with HIV infection who were attending three infectious disease clinics. As hypothesized, health-promoting behaviors were positively related and stress was negatively related with most of the HRQOL dimensions. Contrary to the hypothesis, tobacco use, recreational drug use, and unsafe sexual behaviors were not related to the HRQOL dimensions. Hazardous alcohol use was negatively associated with one HRQOL dimension--social functioning. The association of modifiable factors, such as health-promoting behaviors and stress, with HQROL offers opportunities for improving HIV-related health care. Relatively simple, straightforward changes in lifestyles such as eating well, remaining active, and avoiding stressful life events may result in improvements in HRQOL. PMID:17991599

  15. Real-life conditions of use of sodium phosphate tablets for colon cleansing before colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hagège, Hervé; Laugier, René; Nahon, Stéphane; Coulom, Pierre; Isnard-Bagnis, Corinne; Albert-Marty, Annaïck

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: The purpose of this study was to describe the real-life conditions of use, efficacy, safety, and acceptability of sodium phosphate (NaP) tablets for colon cleansing in routine medical practice in France. Patients and methods: A total of 996 patients undergoing bowel preparation were enrolled by 108 gastroenterologists in this observational, longitudinal, prospective, multicenter study. The conditions of use of NaP tablets were assessed with a composite endpoint, which included six criteria for patient compliance with the recommended administration scheme and a criterion for the absence of contraindications to NaP use. Results: Adequate use of NaP was reported for 75.1 % of the patients. The main reasons for misuse were a smaller fluid intake than expected with a dose of 4 tablets and noncompliance with age-related contraindications. The quality of cleansing was satisfactory: the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) total score was 7 or higher in 75.4 % of the patients. Gastroscopy associated with colonoscopy in 38.9 % of the patients revealed gastric lesions, which were considered as possibly related to the use of NaP tablets in 10.3 % of them. Vomiting occurred in 9.8 % of the patients, and 0.6 % discontinued bowel preparation after an adverse event. No electrolyte disorders or renal impairment was reported, even if not systematically sought. The acceptability of the NaP tablets was high, particularly among patients who previously had undergone other methods of bowel preparation. Conclusions: Despite being defined according to strict criteria, adequate use of NaP tablets was observed in a high percentage of patients. The quality of colon cleansing and the safety and acceptability of NaP tablets were satisfactory and consistent with data from randomized clinical studies. PMID:26357680

  16. Quality of life in colon cancer patients with skin side effects: preliminary results from a monocentric cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors are widely prescribed anticancer drugs. Patients treated commonly develop dermatologic adverse drugs reactions, but rarely they are involved in systematic evaluation of their quality of life. This monocentric cross sectional study is carried out to assess quality of life in colon cancer patients experienced skin side effects due to anti epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors therapy. Methods Consecutive patients with skin side effects to therapy treated at Fondazione Poliambulanza were enrolled in this study. Quality of life was evaluated with the Italian validated version of Skindex-29 questionnaire, exploring three dimensions: symptoms, emotional, and physical functioning. Skindex-29 was administered one time between the eighth and the twelfth week of the treatment. Results Forty-five consecutive patients, mainly with metastatic colon cancer (29 female, 16 male), with an average age of 59.31 years (ranging from 34-78) were included in the study and analyzed. Patients showed a great impact of skin side effects on symptoms (mean 43), followed by emotional (mean 30), and functioning (mean 26) scales. In general women, the 55-65 age class, and patients with partial remission reported the worst quality of life. Conclusions Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors' skin side effects have an important impact on quality of life in advanced colon cancer patients; symptoms scale is the most effect respect to emotional and functioning scales. PMID:20398332

  17. Quality of life and sexuality comparison between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se Ik; Lee, Yumi; Joo, Jungnam; Park, KiByung; Lee, Dong Ock; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective compare quality of life (QoL) and sexual functioning between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 103 successfully treated ovarian cancer survivors and 220 healthy women. All women had engaged in sexual activity within the previous 3 months, and ovarian cancer survivors were under surveillance after primary treatment without evidence of disease. QoL and sexual functioning were assessed using three questionnaires; the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), Ovarian Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-OV28), and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Propensity score matching was used to adjust covariates between the ovarian cancer survivor and healthy women groups. In total, 73 ovarian cancer survivors and 73 healthy women were compared. Results Poorer social functioning (mean, 82.4 vs. 90.9; p=0.010) and more financial difficulties (mean, 16.4 vs. 7.8; p=0.019) were observed among ovarian cancer survivors than among healthy women. Sexuality, both in terms of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain and in terms of interest in sex, sexual activity, and enjoyment of sex (EORTC QLQ-OV28) were similar between the groups. However, vaginal dryness was more problematic in ovarian cancer survivors, with borderline statistical significance (p=0.081). Conclusion Sexuality was not impaired in ovarian cancer survivors who were without evidence of disease after primary treatment and having sexual activities, compared with healthy women, whereas social functioning and financial status did deteriorate. Prospective cohort studies are needed. PMID:25686396

  18. [Healthy life years (HLY) comprehensive indicator of health situation--recommended by European Union].

    PubMed

    Gromulska, Lucyna; Wysocki, Mirosław J; Goryński, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    This article presents Healthy Life Years (HLY) indicator of functional health status, its application in the field of public health research and monitoring, method of calculation, idea of its construction and relation of HLY to other health status indicators e.g. life expectancy, quality adjusted life years. Current data on HLY in the EU member states are also presented. HLY indicator is one of structural indicators, recommended by European Council to deliver information on the progress of implementation of the Lisbon Strategy resolutions, which main principle is development of knowledge-based economy characterised by growth, social cohesion and respect for environment. HLY shifts the focus from quantity of years of life to its quality, full-productivity health of the population, thus conveying information not only on health status but also referring to the fields--other than medicine or social sciences--such as: finances, economy, politics, development. PMID:19209744

  19. Descriptions of suffering in connection with life values. Healthy individuals' reflections in interviews.

    PubMed

    Graneheim, U H; Lindahl, E; Kihlgren, M

    1997-01-01

    Nine semistructured interviews with attendant questions were conducted with the purpose of elucidating how healthy individuals describe suffering and life values in their reflections upon active euthanasia. In order to find the intended meaning in utterances, the interviews were interpreted step by step. The point of departure was the following question: What expressions of suffering and what expressions of life values can be found in the text? A connection was found between the interviewees' descriptions of suffering and life values in their reflections upon active euthanasia. The interviewees who considered close relations to be a value of life expressed suffering as dependence, compassion, violation, abandonment and feelings of guilt, while those to whom health was a value of life expressed suffering as torment, dependence, physical pain, feebleness, hopelessness and dying. Those who saw autonomy as a value of life expressed suffering as dependence and violation and those to whom doing good was a value of life expressed suffering as compassion. When organizing health care and deciding about the response to suffering, it seems important to strive for a response built upon the individual patient's description of suffering and life values. PMID:9349055

  20. An equity-effectiveness framework linking health programs and healthy life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Banham, David; Lynch, John; Karnon, Jon

    2011-01-01

    South Australia's Strategic Plan includes a target to improve the population's healthy life expectancy. A common question among health policy and service planners is: 'How do health programs and services in the community relate to healthy life expectancy?' In response, this paper outlines an effectiveness and equity framework (EEF) for evaluating health interventions in applied settings. Using the example of coronary heart disease (CHD) management in general practice in South Australia, the EEF: (1) applies an internally consistent approach to accounting for population healthy life expectancy at state and smaller geographic levels; (2) estimates average population health gains from health programs, and gains across different socioeconomic subgroups within the community; (3) conducts economic evaluation by equating health gains against health system costs in population subgroups; (4) summarises relevant information about candidate intervention programs within a multi-criteria performance matrix for presentation to decision makers; (5) reassesses outcomes (and processes) following the implementation of a program and iteratively adds to the relevant knowledge and evidence base. The EEF offers a practical approach to selecting and evaluating intervention programs. The challenge is to develop system culture and data capture methods clearly focussed on linking health system activities to population health outcomes. PMID:22112699

  1. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Nepomuceno, Marília Regina; Turra, Cássio Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual's current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey) of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years) and 2003-2008 (19.4 years). However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008. PMID:25741653

  2. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Nepomuceno, Marília Regina; Turra, Cássio Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual’s current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey) of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years) and 2003-2008 (19.4 years). However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008. PMID:25741653

  3. Quantification of in vivo colonic motor patterns in healthy humans before and after a meal revealed by high-resolution fiber-optic manometry

    PubMed Central

    DINNING, P. G.; WIKLENDT, L.; MASLEN, L.; GIBBINS, I.; PATTON, V.; ARKWRIGHT, J. W.; LUBOWSKI, D. Z.; O'GRADY, G.; BAMPTON, P. A.; BROOKES, S. J.; COSTA, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Until recently, investigations of the normal patterns of motility of the healthy human colon have been limited by the resolution of in vivo recording techniques. Methods We have used a new, high-resolution fiber-optic manometry system (72 sensors at 1-cm intervals) to record motor activity from colon in 10 healthy human subjects. Key Results In the fasted colon, on the basis of rate and extent of propagation, four types of propagating motor pattern could be identified: (i) cyclic motor patterns (at 2–6/min); (ii) short single motor patterns; (iii) long single motor patterns; and (iv) occasional retrograde, slow motor patterns. For the most part, the cyclic and short single motor patterns propagated in a retrograde direction. Following a 700 kCal meal, a fifth motor pattern appeared; high-amplitude propagating sequences (HAPS) and there was large increase in retrograde cyclic motor patterns (5.6±5.4/2 h vs 34.7±19.8/2 h; p < 0.001). The duration and amplitude of individual pressure events were significantly correlated. Discriminant and multivariate analysis of duration, gradient, and amplitude of the pressure events that made up propagating motor patterns distinguished clearly two types of pressure events: those belonging to HAPS and those belonging to all other propagating motor patterns. Conclusions & Inferences This work provides the first comprehensive description of colonic motor patterns recorded by high-resolution manometry and demonstrates an abundance of retrograde propagating motor patterns. The propagating motor patterns appear to be generated by two independent sources, potentially indicating their neurogenic or myogenic origin. PMID:25131177

  4. A reason to stay healthy: The role of meaning in life in relation to physical activity and healthy eating among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brassai, László; Piko, Bettina F; Steger, Michael F

    2015-05-01

    The present longitudinal study investigated the incremental contribution of meaning in life to sustaining health-promoting behaviors, after controlling for well-being and health values among East-European adolescents (N = 456). Time 1 responses on presence of meaning, search for meaning, well-being, and health values were used to predict levels of healthy eating and physical activity 13 months later. All independent variables significantly predicted engagement in healthy eating and physical activity. Presence of meaning and search for meaning were the most robust predictors, and the interaction of them predicted additional variance in healthy eating among boys and physical activity among girls. PMID:25903235

  5. Development and validation of a survey for quality of life assessment by owners of healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Lavan, R P

    2013-09-01

    Assessing and maintaining quality of life (QOL) is a growing concern in companion animal practice, as improved nutrition and healthcare have extended canine longevity. The objective of this study was to develop a validated survey for evaluating QOL in healthy dogs for use in clinical and research settings. A total of 174 dog owners completed an initial QOL survey containing 21 items grouped into seven domains (CHQLS-21). After factor analysis of the responses, a final survey was constructed containing 15 items grouped into four domains (happiness, physical functioning, hygiene and mental status), plus two questions on general health and an item asking for a direct QOL assessment (CHQLS-15). Psychometric analysis indicated that the CHQLS-15 had good validity, reliability, and internal consistency and was able to detect QOL changes affecting several domains across age groups in healthy dogs. The CHQLS-15 therefore provides a basis for dialog between clinicians and dog owners regarding the health of their pets, particularly in tracking changes in health status, evaluating response to treatment, and guiding end-of-life decisions. A validated QOL survey could be particularly useful in recognizing and managing functional decline as the healthy canine patient ages. PMID:23639368

  6. Targeted adsorption of molecules in the colon with the novel adsorbent-based medicinal product, DAV132: A proof of concept study in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    de Gunzburg, Jean; Ducher, Annie; Modess, Christiane; Wegner, Danilo; Oswald, Stefan; Dressman, Jennifer; Augustin, Violaine; Feger, Céline; Andremont, Antoine; Weitschies, Werner; Siegmund, Werner

    2015-01-01

    During antibiotic treatments, active residuals reaching the colon profoundly affect the bacterial flora resulting in the emergence of resistance. To prevent these effects, we developed an enteric-coated formulated activated-charcoal based product, DAV132, meant to deliver its adsorbent to the ileum and neutralize antibiotic residues in the proximal colon. In a randomized, control, crossover study, the plasma pharmacokinetics of the probe drugs amoxicillin (500 mg) absorbed in the proximal intestine, and sulfapyridine (25 mg) metabolized from sulfasalazine in the cecum and rapidly absorbed, were compared after a single administration in 18 healthy subjects who had received DAV132, uncoated formulated activated charcoal (FAC) or water 16 and 8 hours before, concomitantly with the probe drugs, and 8 hours thereafter. The AUC0-96 h of amoxicillin was reduced by more than 70% when it was taken with FAC, but bioequivalent when it was taken with water or DAV132. By contrast, the AUC0-96 h of sulfapyridine was reduced by more than 90% when administered with either FAC or DAV132 in comparison with water. The results show that DAV132 can selectively adsorb drug compounds in the proximal colon, without interfering with drug absorption in the proximal small intestine, thereby constituting a proof of concept that DAV132 actually functions in humans. PMID:25042595

  7. The diving reflex in healthy infants in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Fleming S; Riesgo, Rudimar S; Gatiboni, Tanira; Rotta, Newra T

    2012-02-01

    A cohort study was conducted with a random sample of 33 healthy infants evaluated at birth and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12 months to determine the frequency of respiratory rate changes in response to air blown over the face (diving reflex) in the first year of life, and to standardize the description of diving reflex occurrence. All 33 infants remained neurologically normal throughout follow-up. Diving reflex was observed in 95.3% of newborns and in 100% of infants between 2 and 6 months of age. At 6 months, it started to decrease but persisted in 90% of the infants up to 12 months. The diving reflex is highly prevalent in the first year of life and can be easily elicited by applying a flow of air over the infant's face, particularly during crying. PMID:21881008

  8. Colonization of Beef Cattle by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli during the First Year of Life: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Mir, Raies A; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Elzo, Mauricio; Ahn, Soohyoun; Driver, J Danny; Jeong, KwangCheol Casey

    2016-01-01

    Each year Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for 2.8 million acute illnesses around the world and > 250,000 cases in the US. Lowering the prevalence of this pathogen in animal reservoirs has the potential to reduce STEC outbreaks in humans by controlling its entrance into the food chain. However, factors that modulate the colonization and persistence of STEC in beef cattle remain largely unidentified. This study evaluated if animal physiological factors such as age, breed, sex, and weight gain influenced the shedding of STEC in beef cattle. A cohort of beef calves (n = 260) from a multi-breed beef calf population was sampled every three months after birth to measure prevalence and concentration of STEC during the first year of life. Metagenomic analysis was also used to understand the association between the STEC colonization and the composition of gut microflora. This study identified that beef calves were more likely to shed STEC during the first 6 months and that STEC shedding decreased as the animal matured. Animal breed group, sex of the calf, and average weight gain were not significantly associated with STEC colonization. The metagenomic analysis revealed for the first time that STEC colonization was correlated with a lower diversity of gut microflora, which increases as the cattle matured. Given these findings, intervention strategies that segregate younger animals, more likely to be colonized by STEC from older animals that are ready to be harvested, could be investigated as a method to reduce zoonotic transmission of STEC from cattle to humans. PMID:26849041

  9. Colonization of Beef Cattle by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli during the First Year of Life: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Raies A.; Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Elzo, Mauricio; Ahn, Soohyoun; Driver, J. Danny; Jeong, KwangCheol Casey

    2016-01-01

    Each year Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for 2.8 million acute illnesses around the world and > 250,000 cases in the US. Lowering the prevalence of this pathogen in animal reservoirs has the potential to reduce STEC outbreaks in humans by controlling its entrance into the food chain. However, factors that modulate the colonization and persistence of STEC in beef cattle remain largely unidentified. This study evaluated if animal physiological factors such as age, breed, sex, and weight gain influenced the shedding of STEC in beef cattle. A cohort of beef calves (n = 260) from a multi-breed beef calf population was sampled every three months after birth to measure prevalence and concentration of STEC during the first year of life. Metagenomic analysis was also used to understand the association between the STEC colonization and the composition of gut microflora. This study identified that beef calves were more likely to shed STEC during the first 6 months and that STEC shedding decreased as the animal matured. Animal breed group, sex of the calf, and average weight gain were not significantly associated with STEC colonization. The metagenomic analysis revealed for the first time that STEC colonization was correlated with a lower diversity of gut microflora, which increases as the cattle matured. Given these findings, intervention strategies that segregate younger animals, more likely to be colonized by STEC from older animals that are ready to be harvested, could be investigated as a method to reduce zoonotic transmission of STEC from cattle to humans. PMID:26849041

  10. Adjusting for dependent comorbidity in the calculation of healthy life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Mathers, Colin D; Iburg, Kim M; Begg, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Background Healthy life expectancy – sometimes called health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) – is a form of health expectancy indicator that extends measures of life expectancy to account for the distribution of health states in the population. The World Health Organization has estimated healthy life expectancy for 192 WHO Member States using information from health interview surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease Study. The latter estimates loss of health by cause, age and sex for populations. Summation of prevalent years lived with disability (PYLD) across all causes would result in overestimation of the severity of the population average health state because of comorbidity between conditions. Earlier HALE calculations made adjustments for independent comorbidity in adding PYLD across causes. This paper presents a method for adjusting for dependent comorbidity using available empirical data. Methods Data from five large national health surveys were analysed by age and sex to estimate "dependent comorbidity" factors for pairs of conditions. These factors were defined as the ratio of the prevalence of people with both conditions to the product of the two total prevalences for each of the conditions. The resulting dependent comorbidity factors were used for all Member States to adjust for dependent comorbidity in summation of PYLD across all causes and in the calculation of HALE. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out for order effects in the proposed calculation method. Results There was surprising consistency in the dependent comorbidity factors across the five surveys. The improved estimation of dependent comorbidity resulted in reductions in total PYLD per capita ranging from a few per cent in younger adult ages to around 8% in the oldest age group (80 years and over) in developed countries and up to 15% in the oldest age group in the least developed countries. The effect of the dependent comorbidity adjustment on estimated healthy life

  11. Building healthy bones throughout life: an evidence-informed strategy to prevent osteoporosis in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ebeling, Peter R; Daly, Robin M; Kerr, Deborah A; Kimlin, Michael G

    2013-10-01

    Osteoporosis imposes a tremendous burden on Australia: 1.2 million Australians have osteoporosis and 6.3 million have osteopenia. In the 2007–08 financial year, 82 000 Australians suffered fragility fractures, of which > 17 000 were hip fractures. In the 2000–01 financial year, direct costs were estimated at $1.9 billion per year and an additional $5.6 billion on indirect costs. Osteoporosis was designated a National Health Priority Area in 2002; however, implementation of national plans has not yet matched the rhetoric in terms of urgency. Building healthy bones throughout life, the Osteoporosis Australia strategy to prevent osteoporosis throughout the life cycle, presents an evidence-informed set of recommendations for consumers, health care professionals and policymakers. The strategy was adopted by consensus at the Osteoporosis Australia Summit in Sydney, 20 October 2011. Primary objectives throughout the life cycle are: to maximise peak bone mass during childhood and adolescence to prevent premature bone loss and improve or maintain muscle mass, strength and functional capacity in healthy adults to prevent and treat osteoporosis in order to minimise the risk of suffering fragility fractures, and reduce falls risk, in older people. The recommendations focus on three affordable and important interventions — to ensure people have adequate calcium intake, vitamin D levels and appropriate physical activity throughout their lives. Recommendations relevant to all stages of life include: daily dietary calcium intakes should be consistent with Australian and New Zealand guidelines serum levels of vitamin D in the general population should be above 50nmol/L in winter or early spring for optimal bone health regular weight-bearing physical activity, muscle strengthening exercises and challenging balance/mobility activities should be conducted in a safe environment. PMID:25370432

  12. Laboratory Colonization, Life History Observations, and Desiccation Tolerance of the Canyon Fly Fannia conspicua (Diptera: Fanniidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Congcong; Gerry, Alec C

    2015-07-01

    "Canyon flies" are flies within the Fannia benjamini Malloch species complex. These flies can be considerable pests to humans and animals due to their habit of feeding on animal body secretions such as tears, mucus, sweat, and blood. Adult "canyon flies" (Fannia conspicua Malloch) were collected from the coastal mountain community of La Habra Heights in Los Angeles County, CA, during late spring and early summer of 2011. Canyon flies were colonized in the laboratory and maintained for over two years. Larval growth, sex-specific adult emergence, and fecundity were evaluated quantitatively. At 25°C, male flies required a minimum of 22 d postoviposition to develop from egg to adult, with peak emergence occurring at 24-26 d; female flies required a minimum of 25 d postoviposition, with peak emergence occurring at 26-28 d. Female flies were capable of oviposition starting at 7 d postemergence, and produced a mean of 90.6±54.7 eggs over a 19-41-d life span. Canyon fly eggs were quite resistant to desiccation, with hatching rate of eggs reduced only after ≥12 wk of desiccation, and some successful hatching even when eggs were desiccated up to 28 wk. When immature flies were removed from their food source and subjected to continuous desiccation and starvation, flies at 3-d-old posthatching did not survive, and only 8% of flies at 5-d posthatching survived and completed development to the adult stage. Immature flies that were 7- or 11-d-old posthatching survived to adulthood in good numbers, having reached the mid to late L3 stage at the time of food removal. Exposure to desiccation in either the egg or larval stage had no effect on fecundity of surviving females. This extreme level of desiccation tolerance is likely an adaptation to increase survival in desert climates of the southwestern United States with long, hot summers and little precipitation, where Fannia conspicua are typically distributed. PMID:26335459

  13. Tips for a Healthy Long-Life Learned from Space Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshima, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shin; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    The field of space medicine is responsible for maintaining astronauts’ health and optimizing their performance. A prolonged stay in space with little gravity results in weakening of the bones and muscles that otherwise support body weight, which is precisely the problem faced by elderly people on Earth. Space medicine provides the means of alleviating such problems. Bone loss, muscle atrophy, and disturbed circadian rhythms are common issues for both astronauts and the elderly alike and can be prevented, if the risks are addressed correctly. To have a healthy long-life, it is important to practice effective health improvement techniques and take preventive measures. The space medicine technologies a for astronauts will provide helpful information to people living in a super aging society. and Japanese medical societies for health promotion. With the aids of the Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association, and the Japanese Association of Rehabilitation Medicine, JAXA has made a leaflet titled for general citizen to show the tips for a healthy long-life learned from space medicine from the viewpoints of their respective expertise.

  14. Microbial colonization of Ca-sulfate crusts in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert: implications for the search for life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Wierzchos, J; Cámara, B; de Los Ríos, A; Davila, A F; Sánchez Almazo, I M; Artieda, O; Wierzchos, K; Gómez-Silva, B; McKay, C; Ascaso, C

    2011-01-01

    The scarcity of liquid water in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert makes this region one of the most challenging environments for life on Earth. The low numbers of microbial cells in the soils suggest that within the Atacama Desert lies the dry limit for life on our planet. Here, we show that the Ca-sulfate crusts of this hyperarid core are the habitats of lithobiontic micro-organisms. This microporous, translucent substrate is colonized by epilithic lichens, as well as endolithic free-living algae, fungal hyphae, cyanobacteria and non photosynthetic bacteria. We also report a novel type of endolithic community, "hypoendoliths", colonizing the undermost layer of the crusts. The colonization of gypsum crusts within the hyperarid core appears to be controlled by the moisture regime. Our data shows that the threshold for colonization is crossed within the dry core, with abundant colonization in gypsum crusts at one study site, while crusts at a drier site are virtually devoid of life. We show that the cumulative time in 1 year of relative humidity (RH) above 60% is the best parameter to explain the difference in colonization between both sites. This is supported by controlled humidity experiments, where we show that colonies of endolithic cyanobacteria in the Ca-sulfate crust undergo imbibition process at RH >60%. Assuming that life once arose on Mars, it is conceivable that Martian micro-organisms sought refuge in similar isolated evaporite microenvironments during their last struggle for life as their planet turned arid. PMID:20726901

  15. Vitamin D Status and Quality of Life in Healthy Male High-Tech Employees.

    PubMed

    Tepper, Sigal; Dabush, Yael; Shahar, Danit R; Endevelt, Ronit; Geva, Diklah; Ish-Shalom, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    While low vitamin D status has been shown to be associated with decreased quality of life in unhealthy populations and women, only limited data are available regarding healthy adult men. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between health-related quality of life (QoL) and vitamin D status in adult men. High-tech employees aged 25-65 year were recruited from an occupational periodic examination clinic at Rambam Health Campus. QoL was assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health-related quality of life questionnaire (HRQOL-4). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and Body Mass Index (BMI) were measured; further information was collected about physical activity, education, sun exposure, sick-days, and musculoskeletal pain severity (visual analog scale). Three hundred and fifty-eight men were enrolled in the study; mean serum 25(OH)D level was 22.1 ± 7.9 ng/mL (range 4.6-54.5 ng/mL). In a multivariate logistic regression model, 25(OH)D was a significant independent determinant of self-rated health; Odds Ratio (OR) for self-rated health was 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85-0.97, p = 0.004), adjusted for age, BMI, pain severity, physical activity, and sun exposure. Every 1 ng/mL increase of 25(OH)D was associated with 9% reduction in the odds of reporting self-rated health as fair or poor. Poisson regression model demonstrated an association between physically unhealthy days and 25(OH)D levels (rate ratio 0.95, p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum levels of 25(OH)D were associated with self-rated health and with physically unhealthy days of HRQOL in healthy high-tech male workers. Future intervention studies are required to test the impact of vitamin D supplementation on QoL. PMID:27314386

  16. Self-rated health, life-style, and psychoendocrine measures of stress in healthy adult women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-rated health (SRH) is a robust predictor of subsequent health outcome, independent of objective health measures and life-style-related health risk factors. However, the determinants of SRH are as yet largely unknown. In accordance with the prevailing stress theory, we hypothesized that SRH is associated with personal coping resources, psychological strain, life-style variables, and endocrine variables. Methods A total of 106 healthy women, 22–59 years of age, were followed for up to 3 years with annual blood sampling (cortisol, prolactin, testosterone) and written questionnaires in which information on SRH, psychological strain, coping resources, socio-economic and life-style variables was sought. Results In bivariate, screening logistic regression analyses, intended to find candidate variables for a final analysis model, all coping resource variables (sense of coherence, mastery, and self-esteem) were significantly related to SRH, and so were two psychological strain variables (vital exhaustion, and sleep disturbances), one life-style variable (fitness), but none of the endocrine variables. In the final multivariate analysis model, including all candidate variables, only vital exhaustion (P < 0.0001), fitness (P = 0.0002), and sense of coherence (P = 0.0006) were independently associated with SRH, together explaining 74% of the SRH variance. Conclusion Some elements of the hypothesis, i.e. the effects of coping resources, psychological strain, and life-style variables on SRH, were supported by the results, while others, i.e. effects of endocrine measures on SRH, were not, indicating a possible gender difference. PMID:20977316

  17. Gastrointestinal pH and Transit Time Profiling in Healthy Volunteers Using the IntelliCap System Confirms Ileo-Colonic Release of ColoPulse Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Jacoba M.; Schellekens, Reinout C. A.; van Rieke, Hèlen M.; Wanke, Christoph; Iordanov, Ventzeslav; Stellaard, Frans; Wutzke, Klaus D.; Dijkstra, Gerard; van der Zee, Margot; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction ColoPulse tablets are an innovative development in the field of oral dosage forms characterized by a distal ileum and colon-specific release. Previous studies in humans showed release in the ileo-colonic region, but the relationship between gastrointestinal pH and release was not experimentally proven in vivo. This information will complete the in vivo release-profile of ColoPulse tablets. Materials and Methods Release from ColoPulse tablets was studied in 16 healthy volunteers using the dual label isotope strategy. To determine gastrointestinal pH profiles and transit times the IntelliCap system was used. A ColoPulse tablet containing 13C-urea and an uncoated, immediate release tablet containing 15N2-urea were taken simultaneously followed by a standardized breakfast after three hours. Five minutes after intake of the tablets the IntelliCap capsule was swallowed and pH was measured until excretion in the feces. Breath and urine samples were collected for isotope analysis. Results Full analysis could be performed in 12 subjects. Median bioavailability of 13C -urea was 82% (95% CI 74–94%, range 61–114%). The median lag time (5% release of 13C) was 5:42 h (95% CI 5:18–6:18 h, range 2:36–6:36 h,) There was no statistically significant difference between lag time based on isotope signal and colon arrival time (CAT) based on pH (median 5:42 vs 5:31 h p = 0.903). In all subjects an intestinal pH value of 7.0 was reached before release of 13C from the ColoPulse tablet occurred. Discussion and Conclusions From the combined data from the IntelliCap system and the 13C -isotope signal it can be concluded that release from a ColoPulse tablet in vivo is not related to transit times but occurs in the ileo-colonic region after pH 7.0 is reached. This supports our earlier findings and confirms that the ColoPulse system is a promising delivery system for targeting the distal ileum and colon. Trial Registration ISRCTN Registry 18301880 PMID:26177019

  18. In Italy, healthy life expectancy drop dramatically: from 2004 to 2008 there was a 10 years drop among newborn girls

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In this short essay, we would like to address a severe divergence observed in Italy between Life Expectancy (LE) and Healthy Life Expectancy (Healthy LE) and a unique trend of worsening in Healthy LE, compared to the other European countries. Both issues emerge in recent data by EUROSTAT Report. Methods The analysis used by the authors of the EUROSTAT report is based on Sullivan method which combines 2 type of variables: mortality and morbidity data. Results While several European countries started to deal with comparable data about LE since 1960, in Italy, analogous data were available for the first time in EUROSTAT Report only in 1985. In Italy, in the period 1985-2008, there was a good progressive increase in L.E., following the best European values. Nevertheless, while until 2004 Italy was among the European best countries in terms of both LE and Healthy LE at birth, four years later in 2008 there was a shocking loss of 10 years of Healthy LE at birth in newborn girls. In the process, they lost their 2-years previous advantage with respect to males (the latter lost only 6 years of Healthy LE, in the same time span). Looking at healthy LE at age 65 in respect to 2004, Italian women in 2008 could expect to live healthy only about 7 years (as much as men) versus the almost 15 years of the European best values (14 years for men). Conclusions It is legitimate to wonder why no one official comment has been produced as a reaction after the first year of spectacular decline in Healthy Life Years in Italy: in counter-tendency with European values, from 2004 to 2008 there is a clear evidence of a 10 years drop in Healthy LE among newborn girls. The problem has not been taken into consideration even when the situation clearly appeared to worsen in the following years, dropping 4-6 more years for males and females in 2006 (for newborn babies); two more years of healthy life expectancy have been lost between 2006 and 2007 for each gender. One more year of

  19. Development of healthy eating habits early in life. Review of recent evidence and selected guidelines.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Camille; Scholtens, Petra A M J; Lalanne, Amandine; Weenen, Hugo; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    Encouraging healthy eating habit development early in life is a way to prevent the onset of diet-related diseases. This review focuses on the period ranging from the beginning of complementary feeding until the age of 3 years. Its first objective was to review relevant themes in the most recent literature on the development of healthy eating habits in this period. Its second objective was to evaluate to what extent international and national feeding guidelines cover these themes. Analysed guidelines included WHO, European Network for Public Health Nutrition, US and two European national guidelines (UK and France). They were evaluated using a 4-pt scale and compared. Well-covered themes in current literature include the influence of exposure on later acceptance, the role of variety and parental styles. Themes that occur more rarely include the role of texture, the development of autonomy, the optimization of variety, acceptable consumption levels of sweet and salty foods, and the way to cope with food refusal. Guidelines in general cover most of the themes, but some of the national guidelines are incomplete. Finally, guidelines should give more practical tips to parents, especially to help them establish a responsive feeding behaviour. PMID:21651929

  20. Skin Barrier Function and Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Vestibulum Nasi and Fauces in Healthy Infants and Infants with Eczema: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Berents, Teresa Løvold; Carlsen, Karin Cecilie Lødrup; Mowinckel, Petter; Skjerven, Håvard Ove; Kvenshagen, Bente; Rolfsjord, Leif Bjarte; Bradley, Maria; Lieden, Agne; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Gaustad, Peter; Gjersvik, Petter

    2015-01-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is associated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization and skin barrier dysfunction, often measured by increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL). In the present study, the primary aim was to see whether S. aureus colonization in the vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was associated with increased TEWL in infants with healthy skin and infants with eczema. Secondarily, we aimed to investigate whether TEWL measurements on non-lesional skin on the lateral upper arm is equivalent to volar forearm in infants. In 167 of 240 infants, recruited from the general population, TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm, using a DermaLab USB, fulfilled our environmental requirements. The mean of three TEWL measurements from each site was used for analysis. The infants were diagnosed with no eczema (n = 110), possible AE (n = 28) or AE (n = 29). DNA samples were analysed for mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG). Bacterial cultures were reported positive with the identification of at least one culture with S. aureus from vestibulum nasi and/or fauces. S. aureus colonization, found in 89 infants (53%), was not associated with increased TEWL (i.e. TEWL in the upper quartile), neither on the lateral upper arm or volar forearm (p = 0.08 and p = 0.98, respectively), nor with AE (p = 0.10) or FLG mutation (p = 0.17). TEWL was significantly higher on both measuring sites in infants with AE compared to infants with possible AE and no eczema. FLG mutation was significantly associated with increased TEWL, with a 47% difference in TEWL. We conclude that S. aureus in vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was not associated with TEWL, whereas TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm appear equally appropriate in infants. PMID:26070153

  1. Skin Barrier Function and Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Vestibulum Nasi and Fauces in Healthy Infants and Infants with Eczema: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Berents, Teresa Løvold; Carlsen, Karin Cecilie Lødrup; Mowinckel, Petter; Skjerven, Håvard Ove; Kvenshagen, Bente; Rolfsjord, Leif Bjarte; Bradley, Maria; Lieden, Agne; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Gaustad, Peter; Gjersvik, Petter

    2015-01-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is associated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization and skin barrier dysfunction, often measured by increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL). In the present study, the primary aim was to see whether S. aureus colonization in the vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was associated with increased TEWL in infants with healthy skin and infants with eczema. Secondarily, we aimed to investigate whether TEWL measurements on non-lesional skin on the lateral upper arm is equivalent to volar forearm in infants. In 167 of 240 infants, recruited from the general population, TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm, using a DermaLab USB, fulfilled our environmental requirements. The mean of three TEWL measurements from each site was used for analysis. The infants were diagnosed with no eczema (n = 110), possible AE (n = 28) or AE (n = 29). DNA samples were analysed for mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG). Bacterial cultures were reported positive with the identification of at least one culture with S. aureus from vestibulum nasi and/or fauces. S. aureus colonization, found in 89 infants (53%), was not associated with increased TEWL (i.e. TEWL in the upper quartile), neither on the lateral upper arm or volar forearm (p = 0.08 and p = 0.98, respectively), nor with AE (p = 0.10) or FLG mutation (p = 0.17). TEWL was significantly higher on both measuring sites in infants with AE compared to infants with possible AE and no eczema. FLG mutation was significantly associated with increased TEWL, with a 47% difference in TEWL. We conclude that S. aureus in vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was not associated with TEWL, whereas TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm appear equally appropriate in infants. PMID:26070153

  2. Changes in Myocardial Contractility and Electromechanical Interval During the First Month of Life in Healthy Neonates.

    PubMed

    Kahr, Peter C; Kahr, Maike K; Dabral, Himanshu; Agarwal, Ramesh; Kothari, Shyam S; Saxena, Anita; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian

    2016-02-01

    This study aims at documenting the changes in ventricular tissue velocities, longitudinal strain and electromechanical coupling during the first month of life. During the neonatal period, when the ventricular myocardium is not yet fully maturated, the heart is subjected to significant hemodynamic changes. We studied the ventricular performance of 16 healthy neonates at three time points over the first month of life: on days 2 (IQR [2;2]), 13 [12;14] and 27 [25;29]. We found that systolic and diastolic tissue velocities increased significantly in both left and right ventricle (by 1.2-1.7 times, p < 0.001). Congruently, we found that peak systolic longitudinal strain of the right and left ventricles increased significantly. However, no significant changes in longitudinal strain rate were observed. Finally, QS-intervals shortened during the neonatal period: being measured at 12 points throughout the left ventricle, time to peak systolic velocity decreased on average to 89 % in the second and to 80 % in the fourth week of life (22.3 ± 0.2 vs. 19.8 ± 0.3 vs. 17.8 ± 0.5 ms, r = -0.564, p < 0.001). When comparing opposing walls of the left ventricle, no dyssynchrony in left ventricular contraction was found. In addition to increasing systolic and diastolic tissue velocities during the first month of life, the time to peak systolic contraction shortens in the neonatal heart, which may reflect an increasing efficiency of the excitation-contraction coupling in the maturing myocardium. While there appears to be no dyssynchrony in ventricular contraction, these findings may extend our appreciation of the immature neonatal heart and certain disease states. PMID:26499358

  3. Penetrated sigmoid colon by air gun pellet could be life threatening: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Krasniqi, Avdyl S.; Hamza, Astrit R.; Zejnullahu, Valon A.; Sada, Fatos E.; Bicaj, Besnik X.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Air and paintball guns have been in existence for over 400 year. Although serious injury or death can result from the use of such guns, previous literature has not mentioned the issue of the penetration of the sigmoid colon by an air gun pellet. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a rare case of a 44-year-old Caucasian woman referred to abdominal surgery after an accidental small wound had occurred in the lower left abdominal quadrant that was caused by an air gun pellet. The blood and biochemical analyses were normal but the CT scan revealed the presence of a foreign body – an air gun pellet in the left iliac region of the abdomen. Clinically, during the initial 24 h significant changes were not noticed. After 42 h, however, pain and local tenderness in the lower left abdominal quadrant was expressed. A laparotomy revealed a retained pellet in the wall of the sigmoid colon and a small leak with colonic content with consecutive local peritonitis also occurred. The foreign body was removed and the opening edges in the colon were excised and closed with the primary suture. DISCUSSION The hollow organs of the digestive tract, albeit very rarely penetrated by an air gun pellet, do not typically show all signs of an acute abdomen in the early posttraumatic phase. Such injuries can lead to a pronounced infection, which may cause septic shock if not appropriately treated. CONCLUSION For correct diagnosis, a careful approach and several daily clinical observations are required. PMID:25437671

  4. Use of instruments to measure quality of life among healthy and ill adults in community settings.

    PubMed

    Kalfoss, Mary

    2016-05-01

    International interest in quality of life (QoL) has been affected by patients' prolonged survival, the increasingly aging population, the increase in chronic conditions and the increasing costs of health care. This has also led to the development of QoL instruments that meet the psychometric criteria necessary for reliable and valid outcome measures in research, health policy decision-making and, increasingly, in clinical practice. Despite the proliferation of QoL instruments available to inform best practice, clinicians seldom routinely apply them. One of the barriers to using QoL instruments is the unfamiliarity nurses have with existing instruments. In order to increase community health nurses' familiarity with existing QoL assessments, the aim of this paper is to describe five instruments and modules that have been developed by the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Assessment Group for the assessment of QoL among healthy and ill adults and to describe how their applicability could enhance evidence-based practice in community nursing. PMID:27170407

  5. Vitamin D Status and Quality of Life in Healthy Male High-Tech Employees

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Sigal; Dabush, Yael; Shahar, Danit R.; Endevelt, Ronit; Geva, Diklah; Ish-Shalom, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    While low vitamin D status has been shown to be associated with decreased quality of life in unhealthy populations and women, only limited data are available regarding healthy adult men. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between health-related quality of life (QoL) and vitamin D status in adult men. High-tech employees aged 25–65 year were recruited from an occupational periodic examination clinic at Rambam Health Campus. QoL was assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health-related quality of life questionnaire (HRQOL-4). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and Body Mass Index (BMI) were measured; further information was collected about physical activity, education, sun exposure, sick-days, and musculoskeletal pain severity (visual analog scale). Three hundred and fifty-eight men were enrolled in the study; mean serum 25(OH)D level was 22.1 ± 7.9 ng/mL (range 4.6–54.5 ng/mL). In a multivariate logistic regression model, 25(OH)D was a significant independent determinant of self-rated health; Odds Ratio (OR) for self-rated health was 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85–0.97, p = 0.004), adjusted for age, BMI, pain severity, physical activity, and sun exposure. Every 1 ng/mL increase of 25(OH)D was associated with 9% reduction in the odds of reporting self-rated health as fair or poor. Poisson regression model demonstrated an association between physically unhealthy days and 25(OH)D levels (rate ratio 0.95, p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum levels of 25(OH)D were associated with self-rated health and with physically unhealthy days of HRQOL in healthy high-tech male workers. Future intervention studies are required to test the impact of vitamin D supplementation on QoL. PMID:27314386

  6. Nature of bacterial colonization influences transcription of mucin genes in mice during the first week of life

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Postnatal regulation of the small intestinal mucus layer is potentially important in the development of adult gut functionality. We hypothesized that the nature of bacterial colonization affects mucus gene regulation in early life. We thus analyzed the influence of the presence of a conventional microbiota as well as two selected monocolonizing bacterial strains on the transcription of murine genes involved in mucus layer development during the first week of life. Mouse pups (N = 8/group) from differently colonized dams: Germ-free (GF), conventional specific pathogen free (SPF), monocolonized with either Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (Lb) or Escherichia coli Nissle (Ec) were analyzed by qPCR on isolated ileal tissue sections from postnatal days 1 and 6 (PND1, PND6) after birth with respect to: (i) transcription of specific genes involved in mucus production (Muc1-4, Tff3) and (ii) amounts of 16S rRNA of Lactobacillus and E. coli. Quantification of 16S rRNA genes was performed to obtain a measure for amounts of colonized bacteria. Results We found a microbiota-independent transcriptional increase of all five mucus genes from PND1 to PND6. Furthermore, the relative level of transcription of certain mucus genes on PND1 was increased by the presence of bacteria. This was observed for Tff3 in the SPF, Ec, and Lb groups; for Muc2 in SPF; and for Muc3 and Muc4 in Ec and Lb, respectively. Detection of bacterial 16S rRNA genes levels above the qPCR detection level occurred only on PND6 and only for some of the colonized animals. On PND6, we found significantly lower levels of Muc1, Muc2 and Muc4 gene transcription for Lb animals with detectable Lactobacillus levels as compared to animals with Lactobacillus levels below the detection limit. Conclusions In summary, our data show that development of the expression of genes encoding secreted (Muc2/Tff3) and membrane-bound (Muc1/Muc3/Muc4) mucus regulatory proteins, respectively, is distinct and that the onset of

  7. A Comparison of Type II Diabetic Patients With Healthy People: Coping Strategies, Hardiness, and Occupational Life Quality

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Safdar; Jaafari, Asghar; Ghamari, Mohammad; Esfandiary, Maryam; Salehi Mazandarani, Foroozan; Daneshvar, Sahar; Ajami, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to the epidemiologic transition and a rise in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases different coping strategies have been studied and developed. These strategies may help the affected people to conduct a normal life style. Objectives This research was conducted in Qazvin, Iran to determine the relationship between coping strategies, hardiness, and occupational life quality in Type II diabetic patients and healthy people. Patients and Methods Questionnaires such as Valton’s on “occupational life quality,” Billings and Moos’ examination of “Coping strategies,” and Kobasa’s investigation of “hardiness” were applied to collect the data needed for the present study. In this regard, 80 people were randomly selected from employees of offices in Qazvin, Iran. Results The results of this research indicated that there is a significant relationship between problem-focused strategies, emotion-focused strategies, hardiness, and occupational life quality in people suffering from Type II diabetes and healthy people (P ≤ 0.05). These results also indicated that hardiness does not predict occupational life quality of people suffering from Type II diabetes. Conclusions The results of the present study give some evidence that allows us to conclude that hardiness and coping strategies affect occupational life quality for both people suffering from Type II diabetes and healthy people. Therefore, it is proposed that people strengthen their hardiness and coping strategies, in order to improve their occupational life quality. PMID:27162758

  8. Glucosinolate profiles change during the life cycle and mycorrhizal colonization in a Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Pongrac, Paula; Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Regvar, Marjana; Tolrà, Roser; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Barceló, Juan

    2008-08-01

    Thlaspi praecox Wulfen (Brassicaceae) is a perennial Cd/Zn hyperaccumulating plant species that forms functional arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. Glucosinolates (GS) were studied in different organs of field-collected T. praecox at differing plant developmental stages. Additionally, AM colonization was recorded. Total GS concentrations and profiles of nine individual GS varied during the plant life cycle. Novel individual GS that were related to specific developmental phases, mainly to flowering and seed production, were identified. The highest total GS and sinalbin concentrations in rosette leaves were found in the vegetative phase, possibly contributing to protection of young, palatable leaves. The lowest were found in roots during the flowering and the seeding phases. Increased total GS concentrations in roots and enhanced aliphatic GS, especially glucobrassicanapin, in the senescence phase may protect roots from herbivory during winter and early spring. The presence of glucotropaeolin and the absence of glucobrassicanapin in the flowering phase coincided with peak AM colonization. This is the first report on GS profiles in an AM and metal-hyperaccumulating plant. PMID:18584257

  9. Investigation of the Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Mutlu; Ozkan, Ali; Kul, Murat; Bozkus, Taner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of physical activity (PA) level and healthy life-style behaviors in academic staff in Bartin University, Turkey. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of academic staff. Their PA levels were…

  10. Genetic hitchhiking associated with life history divergence and colonization of North America in the European corn borer moth.

    PubMed

    Dopman, Erik B

    2011-05-01

    A primary goal for evolutionary biology is to reveal the genetic basis for adaptive evolution and reproductive isolation. Using Z and E pheromone strains the European corn borer (ECB) moth, I address this problem through multilocus analyses of DNA polymorphism. I find that the locus Triose phosphate isomerase (Tpi) is a statistically significant outlier in coalescent simulations of demographic histories of population divergence, including strict allopatric isolation, restricted migration, secondary contact, and population growth or decline. This result corroborates a previous QTL study that identified the Tpi chromosomal region as a repository for gene(s) contributing to divergence in life history. Patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at Tpi suggest a recent selective sweep and genetic hitchhiking associated with colonization of North America from Europe ~200 generations ago. These results indicate that gene genealogies initially diverge during speciation because of selective sweeps, but differential introgression may play a role in the maintenance of differentiation for sympatric populations. PMID:21104111

  11. Metagenomic and ecophysiological analysis of biofilms colonizing coral substrates: "Life after death of coral"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, A., Sr.; Cerqueda-Garcia, D.; Falcón, L. I.; Iglesias-Prieto, R., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    Coral reefs are the most productive ecosystems on the planet and are the most important carbonated structures of biological origin. However, global warming is affecting the health and functionality of these ecosystems. Specifically, most of the Acropora sp. stony corals have declined their population all over the Mexican Caribbean in more than ~80% of their original coverage, resulting in vast extensions of dead coral rubble. When the coral dies, the skeleton begins to be colonized by algae, sponges, bacteria and others, forming a highly diverse biofilm. We analyzed the metagenomes of the dead A. palmata rubbles from Puerto Morelos, in the Mexican Caribbean. Also, we quantified the elemental composition of biomass and measured nitrogen fixation and emission of greenhouse gases over 24 hrs. This works provides information on how the community is composed and functions after the death of the coral, visualizing a possible picture for a world without coral reefs.

  12. A lesson program for schoolchildren about a clean and healthy life-style: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hollander, C

    1997-05-01

    A health education project is underway in primary schools in the Wonogiri district of Indonesia. This project, implemented by the Yayasan Indonesia Sejahtera (YIS), is related to the Perilaku Hidup Bersih dan Sehat (PHBS) campaign developed by the Provincial Health Office of central Java to promote a healthy life-style. The PHBS campaign, which will eventually target households, industry, and schools, is currently promoting only 10 household-level indicators. Thus, YIS developed a curriculum for PHBS that includes those indicators that are relevant to primary school students. The longterm YIS project group includes the fifth-grade (11- and 12-year-old students) at every elementary school in the district. A single class in a village school is serving as the target group for the pilot study. Development of the pilot curriculum involved a pre/post test as well as a field test, and an evaluation is planned. The health topics chosen for the project are: clean water, use of family sanitation facilities, garbage disposal, mosquitoes, personal hygiene, dental hygiene, nutrition, smoking and alcohol, and family planning. The curriculum consists of seven lessons and is taught using visual aids and a participatory approach. Post-test results were disappointing because answers improved over pretest answers for only 5 out of 21 questions. One of the reasons may have been that the project had to begin before all of the supporting materials were ready. Evaluation is currently ongoing, and plans are underway to expand the program. PMID:12320863

  13. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy between ethnic groups in England and Wales in 2001

    PubMed Central

    Wohland, Pia; Rees, Phil; Nazroo, James; Jagger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aim to develop robust estimates of disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and healthy life expectancy (HLE) for ethnic groups in England and Wales in 2001 and to examine observed variations across ethnic groups. Design. DFLE and HLE by age and gender for five-year age groups were computed for 16 ethnic groups by combining the 2001 Census data on ethnicity, self-reported limiting long-term illness and self-rated health using mortality by ethnic group estimated by two methods: the Standardised Illness Ratio (SIR) method and the Geographically Weighted Method (GWM). Results. The SIR and GWM methods differed somewhat in their estimates of life expectancy (LE) at birth but produced very similar estimates of DFLE and HLE by ethnic group. For the more conservative method (GWM), the range in DFLE at birth was 10.5 years for men and 11.9 years for women, double that in LE. DFLE at birth was highest for Chinese men (64.7 years, 95% CI 64.0–65.3) and women (67.0 years, 95% CI 66.4–67.6). Over half of the ethnic minority groups (men: 10; women: 9) had significantly lower DFLE at birth than White British men (61.7 years, 95% CI 61.7–61.7) or women (64.1 years, 95% CI 64.1–64.2), mostly the Black, Asian and mixed ethnic groups. The lowest DFLE observed was for Bangladeshi men (54.3 years, 95% CI 53.7–54.8) and Pakistani women (55.1 years, 95% CI 54.8–55.4). Notable were Indian women whose LE was similar to White British women but who had 4.3 years less disability-free (95% CI 4.0–4.6). Conclusions. Inequalities in DFLE between ethnic groups are large and exceed those in LE. Moreover, certain ethnic groups have a larger burden of disability that does not seem to be associated with shorter LE. With the increasing population of the non-White British community, it is essential to be able to identify the ethnic groups at higher risk of disability, in order to target appropriate interventions. PMID:24897306

  14. Polyethylene glycol plus an oral sulfate solution as a bowel cleansing regimen for colon capsule endoscopy: a prospective, single-arm study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Peled, Ravit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: As with colonoscopy, adequate bowel cleansing is essential prior to colon capsule endoscopy (CCE). Because CCE requires that the capsule traverse the entire gastrointestinal tract during the examination, laxative ‘boosters’ are used. The objective of this prospective, single-center, single-arm study was to evaluate the safety of a bowel preparation consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) plus an oral sulfate solution. Methods: Subjects were healthy volunteers aged 50–75 years old with normal baseline serum chemistry. The bowel preparation consisted of 4 Senna tablets, 4 liters of PEG (split dose), 10 mg metoclopramide, 2 oral sulfate solution boosters (6 oz. and 3 oz.), and 10 mg bisacodyl. Serum chemistry was performed at baseline, following PEG intake, 24 hours after bisacodyl administration, and at 7 days post procedure (in subjects with abnormal 24 hour results). The primary endpoints were the percentage of subjects with a clinically significant change in serum chemistry at the last test and the adverse event (AE) rate. Results: A total of 25 subjects were enrolled. The serum chemistry was normal in all subjects at the final evaluation. One subject showed a slight elevation in creatinine (1.08 mg/dl 7 days post procedure from 0.84 mg/dl at baseline), deemed not clinically significant. Another subject had a transient elevation in serum creatinine (from 1.01 mg/dl at baseline to 1.45 mg/dl at 24 hours after the bowel preparation); values returned to near baseline at 7 days post procedure (1.06 mg/dl). There were no serious AEs, three moderate AEs related to the bowel preparation (nausea, headache, elevated creatinine) and two mild unrelated AEs (chills, abdominal cramping). Conclusions: A bowel cleansing regimen of PEG plus an oral sulfate solution can be used in healthy volunteers. These data provide support for the continued study of this regimen in future CCE clinical trials and in medical practice. PMID:26327914

  15. Fate and effects of Camembert cheese micro-organisms in the human colonic microbiota of healthy volunteers after regular Camembert consumption.

    PubMed

    Firmesse, Olivier; Alvaro, Elise; Mogenet, Agnès; Bresson, Jean-Louis; Lemée, Riwanon; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Bonhomme, Cécile; Lambert, Denis; Andrieux, Claude; Doré, Joël; Corthier, Gérard; Furet, Jean-Pierre; Rigottier-Gois, Lionel

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this study was to determine i) if Camembert cheese micro-organisms could be detected in fecal samples after regular consumption by human subjects and ii) the consequence of this consumption on global metabolic activities of the host colonic microbiota. An open human protocol was designed where 12 healthy volunteers were included: a 2-week period of fermented products exclusion followed by a 4-weeks Camembert ingestion period where 2x40 g/day of Camembert cheese was consumed. Stools were collected from the volunteers before consumption, twice during the ingestion period (2nd and 4th week) and once after a wash out period of 2 weeks. During the consumption of Camembert cheese, high levels of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were measured in fecal samples using real-time quantitative PCR, reaching median values of 8.2 and 7.5 Log(10) genome equivalents/g of stool. For Ln. mesenteroides, persistence was observed 15 days after the end of Camembert consumption. The survival of Geotrichum candidum was also assessed and the fecal concentration reached a median level of 7.1 Log(10) CFU/g in stools. Except a decreasing trend of the nitrate reductase activity, no significant modification was shown in the metabolic activities during this study. PMID:18554738

  16. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf): protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf) study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1) a skill-building intervention; (2) price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3) a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4) a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the first internationally to

  17. Colonization of later life? Laypersons' and users' agency regarding anti-aging medicine in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schweda, Mark; Pfaller, Larissa

    2014-10-01

    Anti-aging medicine is regarded as a significant trend in contemporary Western societies. Foucauldian gerontology provides some of the dominant theoretical perspectives on this trend in social and cultural theory. Proceeding from its interpretation and critique of anti-aging in terms of medicalization and responsibilization of aging, we explore by means of qualitative socio-empirical research how interested laypersons as well as non-professional users in the German context actually perceive of and deal with the medical claims and moral imperatives surrounding anti-aging medicine. The study is based on 12 focus groups and 20 narrative interviews (96 participants all included). They were conducted in Germany between 2011 and 2012, and analyzed by qualitative content analysis as well as comparative sequence analysis. The empirical findings indicate that in everyday life, interested laypersons and non-professional users employ different strategies for dealing with anti-aging products and services, corresponding to different degrees of affirmation and rejection. Four strategies could be identified: (a) medical optimism, (b) preventive maximalism, (c) ritualized well-being, and (d) considerate rejection. Also, each type was problematized and arguments against it were expressed. Overall, these findings show how our participants develop viable strategies to put the relevance of medical knowledge and moral imperatives for their own lives into perspective. This sheds light on laypersons' and users' agency-that is, their active role and deliberative space in the uptake, adaptation, and integration of anti-aging into their personal life. These empirical findings contribute to an enriched picture of the actual practice of anti-aging in concrete national and socio-cultural settings. This can help to differentiate the evaluation and thus make its critique more context sensitive, adequate, and targeted. PMID:25127249

  18. Impact of functional training on cardiac autonomic modulation, cardiopulmonary parameters and quality of life in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Rezende Barbosa, Marianne Penachini da Costa de; Netto Júnior, Jayme; Cassemiro, Bruna Montechieze; de Souza, Naiara Maria; Bernardo, Aline Fernanda Barbosa; da Silva, Anne Kastelianne França; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques

    2016-07-01

    Functional training (FT) promotes benefits in various physical abilities; however, its effect on autonomic modulation, cardiorespiratory parameters and quality of life in the healthy adult population is unknown, and thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of  FT on these variables in healthy young women. The study consisted of 29 women, distributed into two groups: the FT Group (FTG; n = 13; 23 ± 2·51 years; 21·90 ± 2·82 kg m(-) ²) and the Control Group (CG; n = 16; 20·56 ± 1·03 years; 22·12 ± 3·86 kg m(-) ²). The FTG performed periodized FT for 12 weeks, three times a week. The following were evaluated: autonomic modulation (heart rate variability), cardiorespiratory parameters and quality of life (SF-36 Questionnaire). The Student's t-test for unpaired data or the Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the differences obtained between the final moment and the initial moment of the studied groups (P<0·05). The FTG demonstrated significant improvements in quality of life and autonomic modulation (P<0·05), but not in the cardiorespiratory parameters. Functional training was able to produce improvements in autonomic modulation and quality of life. PMID:26033271

  19. Life-threatening chronic enteritis due to colonization of the small bowel with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Hellmig, Stephan; Ott, Stephan; Musfeldt, Meike; Kosmahl, Markus; Rosenstiel, Phillip; Stüber, Eckhard; Hampe, Jochen; Fölsch, Ulrich R; Schreiber, Stefan

    2005-08-01

    Chronic diarrheal illness and malabsorption are challenging diagnostic and clinical problems. The identification of the causative pathogens that are involved in gastrointestinal infections is often difficult. It took 85 years after the first description of a case of intestinal lipodystrophy by Georg Whipple in 1907 until the causative bacterium was characterized by using molecular genetics techniques. We here report the complicated clinical course of a young patient with chronic diarrhea accompanied by severe, life-threatening malabsorption with extensive weight loss. Histology and glucose hydrogen breath test were suggestive of a bacterial overgrowth syndrome in the small bowel, but standard culture-based techniques and serology failed to identify the causative bacteria. Thus, bacterial ribosomal DNA (16S ribosomal DNA) was extracted from duodenal biopsy samples and analyzed by community fingerprinting and species-specific polymerase chain reaction. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was identified as the cause of chronic infectious enteritis. Only specific long-term antibiotic treatment with co-trimoxazole had a durable clinical effect and led to normalization of 16S ribosomal DNA profiles. This case shows the role of rare and uncommon bacteria in refractory and chronic human gastrointestinal infections. Genomic techniques, including 16S-based single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, will play an increasing role in the diagnosis of chronic infections with facultatively pathogenic bacteria or in the clinical analysis of complex bacterial communities such as the intestinal bacterial microflora. Future enhancements in detection techniques will show that chronic bacterial infections are more frequent as a cause of gastrointestinal malfunction than commonly thought. PMID:16083723

  20. Colonic Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colonic polyps grow in the large intestine, or colon. Most polyps are not dangerous. However, some polyps ... member with polyps Have a family history of colon cancer Most colon polyps do not cause symptoms. ...

  1. Maternal dietary counseling in the first year of life is associated with a higher healthy eating index in childhood.

    PubMed

    Vitolo, Marcia Regina; Rauber, Fernanda; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bo; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Hoffman, Daniel J

    2010-11-01

    Food preferences are established in early childhood and track later in life. Therefore, it is important to promote healthy feeding practices as early as possible. A randomized field trial was conducted with 500 mother-child pairs from a low-income area of São Leopoldo, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to evaluate the impact of a nutritional intervention in the first year of life on the dietary quality of 3- to 4-y-old children. Mother-child pairs were randomized either to intervention and control groups and dietary counseling was provided for mothers in the intervention group during 10 home visits in the course of the first year of life. These visits were carried out by fieldworkers who counseled the mothers about the Ten Steps for Healthy Feeding from Birth to Two Years of Age, based on the WHO guidelines. Dietary intake was assessed at 3-4 y of age for 345 children using two 24-h food recalls. Overall diet quality was determined by the Healthy Eating Index. The prevalence of poor diet in the intervention group was lower compared with the control group [relative risk (RR) = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.13-0.71). The number of children who achieved the 75th percentile for the vegetable and fruit component score was higher in the intervention than in control group (RR = 1.95; 95% CI = 1.31-2.89 and RR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.07-2.07, respectively). Such data provide evidence that dietary counseling for mothers during the first year of life improves the overall dietary quality of children in a low-income population. PMID:20844187

  2. Healthy Eating for Life English as a second language curriculum: primary outcomes from a nutrition education intervention targeting cancer risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Lindsay R; Martinez, Josefa L; Rivers, Susan E; Latimer, Amy E; Bertoli, Michelle C; Domingo, Samantha; Salovey, Peter

    2013-07-01

    We conducted a pre-post feasibility trial of Healthy Eating for Life, a theory-based, multimedia English as a second language curriculum that integrates content about healthy nutrition into an English language learning program to decrease cancer health disparities. Teachers in 20 English as a second language classrooms delivered Healthy Eating for Life to 286 adult English as a second language students over one semester. Postintervention data are available for 227 students. The results indicated that Healthy Eating for Life is effective for increasing fruit and vegetable intake as well as knowledge, action planning, and coping planning related to healthy eating. Participants also achieved higher reading scores compared to the state average. PMID:23027782

  3. Research on the Factors of College Students' Healthy Way of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panachev, V. D.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a sociological survey carried out by the associates of the departments of sociology, political science, and physical education at Perm State Technical University in 1998 to 2003. The purpose of the survey was to study the social and cultural characteristics of the students and their attitudes toward sports and a healthy way…

  4. Assessment of identity and quality of life in diabetic and renal transplant adolescents in comparison to healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lugasi, Tziona; Achille, Marie; Blydt-Hansen, Tom; Clermont, Marie-José; Geoffroy, Louis; Legault, Laurent; Phan, Véronique; Bell, Lorraine E

    2013-09-01

    Identity development represents a central task of adolescence. Identity achievement is characterized by a coherent sense of who one is following a period of exploration and can help navigate the challenges of adulthood. This study examined identity within a quality of life (QOL) context in 85 adolescents with a renal transplant or with Type 1 diabetes in comparison to 90 healthy controls. Results revealed significant differences in ideological identity, with patients showing higher levels of diffusion and controls showing higher levels of foreclosure. No differences with respect to interpersonal identity, QOL, perceived control over the QOL domains, and perceived opportunities for growth and development were found. Future research should assess identity and QOL over a longer period of time to determine whether differences between chronically ill and healthy young adults can be detected. PMID:23645186

  5. Quality of life in mentally ill, physically ill and healthy individuals: The validation of the Greek version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-100) questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Ginieri-Coccossis, Maria; Triantafillou, Eugenia; Tomaras, Vlasis; Liappas, Ioannis A; Christodoulou, George N; Papadimitriou, George N

    2009-01-01

    Objective The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-100) questionnaire is a generic quality of life (QoL) measurement tool used in various cultural and social settings and across different patient and healthy populations. The present study examines the psychometric properties of the Greek version, with an emphasis on the ability of the instrument to capture QoL differences between mentally ill, physically ill and healthy individuals. Methods A total of 425 Caucasian participants were tested, as to form 3 groups: (a) 124 psychiatric patients (schizophrenia n = 87, alcohol abuse/dependence n = 37), (b) 234 patients with physical illness (hypertension n = 139, cancer n = 95), and (c) 67 healthy control individuals. Results Confirmatory factor analysis was performed indicating that a four-factor model can provide an adequate instrument structure for the participating groups (GFI 0.92). Additionally, internal consistency of the instrument was shown to be acceptable, with Cronbach's α values ranging from 0.78 to 0.90 regarding the four -domain model, and from 0.40 to 0.90 regarding the six-domain one. Evidence based on Pearson's r and Independent samples t-test indicated satisfactory test/retest reliability, as well as good convergent validity tested with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the Life Satisfaction Inventory (LSI). Furthermore, using Independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA, the instrument demonstrated good discriminatory ability between healthy, mentally ill and physically ill participants, as well as within the distinct patient groups of schizophrenic, alcohol dependent, hypertensive and cancer patients. Healthy individuals reported significantly higher QoL, particularly in the physical health domain and in the overall QoL/health facet. Mentally ill participants were distinctively differentiated from physically ill in several domains, with the greatest difference and reduction observed in the social relationships domain and in

  6. Trends in healthy life expectancy in Hong Kong SAR 1996–2008

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Paul Siu Fai

    2010-01-01

    Although Hong Kong has one of the best life expectancy (LE) records in the world, second only to Japan for women, we know very little about the changes in the health status of the older adult population. Our article aims to provide a better understanding of trends in both chronic morbidity and disability for older men and women. The authors compute chronic morbidity-free and disability-free life expectancy and the proportion of both in relation to total LE using the Sullivan method to examine whether Hong Kong older adults are experiencing a compression of morbidity and disability and whether there is any gender difference in relation to mortality and morbidity. The results of this study show that Hong Kong women tend to outlive Hong Kong men but are also more likely to suffer from a ‘double disadvantage’, namely more years of life with more chronic morbidity and disability. There has also been a significant expansion of chronic morbidity, as chronic morbidity-free life expectancy (CMFLE) decreased substantially for both genders from 1996 to 2008. Although disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) increased during this period, it increased at a slower pace compared to LE. The proportion of life without chronic morbidity also declined remarkably during these 12 years. Among the advanced ages, the proportion of remaining life in good health without disability has decreased since 1996, indicating a relative expansion of disability. PMID:21212818

  7. Reduced energy intake: the secret to a long and healthy life?

    PubMed

    Martin, Bronwen; Golden, Erin; Egan, Josephine M; Mattson, Mark P; Maudsley, Stuart

    2007-09-01

    Reduced energy intake, or caloric restriction (CR), is known to extend life-span and to retard age-related health decline in a myriad of species, including nematode worms, flies, fish, mice and rats. The exact mechanism whereby CR exerts its life-extending and health-extending effects is unclear. CR however has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, reduce oxidative stress and alter neuroendocrine responses and central nervous system (CNS) function in animals. In this review article we provide a comprehensive overview of the effects of CR on animal physiology and we discuss some of the potential molecular mechanisms and pathways whereby reduced energy intake can increase health-span and life-span. A better understanding of how energy intake can influence the aging process could lead to new strategies and therapeutics to reduce age-related decline and increase health-span. PMID:18985162

  8. Glimpse of natural selection of long-lived T-cell clones in healthy life.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baojun; Jia, Qingzhu; Bock, Cheryl; Chen, Gang; Yu, Haili; Ni, Qingshan; Wan, Ying; Li, Qijing; Zhuang, Yuan

    2016-08-30

    Homeostatic maintenance of T cells with broad clonal diversity is influenced by both continuing output of young T cells from the thymus and ongoing turnover of preexisting clones in the periphery. In the absence of infection, self and commensal antigens are thought to play important roles in selection and homeostatic maintenance of the T-cell pool. Most naïve T cells are short-lived due to lack of antigen encounter, whereas antigen-experienced T cells may survive and persist as long-lived clones. Thus far, little is known about the homeostasis, antigenic specificity, and clonal diversity of long-lived T-cell clones in peripheral lymphoid organs under healthy living conditions. To identify long-lived T-cell clones in mice, we designed a lineage-tracing method to label a wave of T cells produced in the thymus of young mice. After aging the mice for 1.5 y, we found that lineage-tracked T cells consisted of primarily memory-like T cells and T regulatory cells. T-cell receptor repertoire analysis revealed that the lineage-tracked CD4 memory-like T cells and T regulatory cells exhibited age-dependent enrichment of shared clonotypes. Furthermore, these shared clonotypes were found across different mice maintained in the same housing condition. These findings suggest that nonrandom and shared antigens are involved in controlling selection, retention, and immune tolerance of long-lived T-cell clones under healthy living conditions. PMID:27535935

  9. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  10. [Beverage consumption for a healthy life: recommendations for the Mexican population].

    PubMed

    Rivera, Juan A; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Popkin, Barry M; Willett, Walter C

    2008-01-01

    The Expert Committee in charge of developing the Beverage Consumption Recommendations for the Mexican Population was convened by the Secretary of Health for the purpose of developing evidence-based guidelines for consumers, health professionals, and government officials. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and diabetes have dramatically increased in Mexico; beverages contribute a fifth of all calories consumed by Mexicans. Extensive research has found that caloric beverages increase the risk of obesity. Taking into consideration multiple factors, including the health benefits, risks, and nutritional implications associated with beverage consumption, as well as consumption patterns in Mexico, the committee classified beverages into six levels. Classifications were made based on caloric content, nutritional value, and health risks associated with the consumption of each type of beverage and range from the healthier (level 1) to least healthy (level 6) options, as follows: Level 1: water; Level 2: skim or low fat (1%) milk and sugar free soy beverages; Level 3: coffee and tea without sugar; Level 4: non-caloric beverages with artificial sweeteners; Level 5: beverages with high caloric content and limited health benefits (fruit juices, whole milk, and fruit smoothies with sugar or honey; alcoholic and sports drinks), and Level 6: beverages high in sugar and with low nutritional value (soft drinks and other beverages with significant amounts of added sugar like juices, flavored waters, coffee and tea). The committee recommends the consumption of water as a first choice, followed by no or low-calorie drinks, and skim milk. These beverages should be favored over beverages with high caloric value or sweetened beverages, including those containing artificial sweeteners. Portion size recommendations are included for each beverage category and healthy consumption patterns for men and women are illustrated. PMID:18637573

  11. [Drink consumption for a healthy life: recommendations for the general population in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Rivera, Juan A; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Popkin, Barry M; Willett, Walter C

    2008-01-01

    The Expert Committee in charge of developing the Beverage Consumption Recommendations for the Mexican Population was convened by the Ministry of Health with the aim of drafting evidence-based guidelines for consumers, health professionals, and government officials. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and diabetes have dramatically increased in Mexico; beverages contribute a fifth of all calories consumed by Mexicans. Extensive research has documented that caloric beverages increase the risk of obesity. Taking into consideration multiple factors, including health benefits, risks, and nutritional implications associated with beverage consumption, as well as consumption patterns in Mexico, the committee classified beverages in six categories. Classifications were made based on caloric content, nutritional value, and health risks associated with the consumption of each type of beverage. Ranges included healthier (level 1) to least healthy (level 6) options as follows: Level 1: water; Level 2: skim or low fat (1%) milk and sugar free soy beverages; Level 3: coffee and tea without sugar; Level 4: non-caloric beverages with artificial sweeteners; Level 5: beverages with high caloric content and limited health benefits (fruit juices, whole milk, and fruit smoothies with sugar or honey; alcoholic and sports drinks), and Level 6: beverages high in sugar and with low nutritional value (soft drinks and other beverages with significant amounts of added sugar like juices, flavored waters, coffee and tea). The committee recommends the consumption of water as a first choice, followed by no or low-calorie drinks, and skim milk. These beverages should be favored over beverages with high caloric value or sweetened beverages, including those containing artificial sweeteners. Portion size recommendations are included for each beverage category together with healthy consumption patterns for men and women. PMID:19043956

  12. [Beverage consumption for a healthy life: recommendations for the Mexican population].

    PubMed

    Rivera, Juan A; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Popkin, Barry M; Willett, Walter C

    2008-01-01

    The Expert Committee in charge of developing the Beverage Consumption Recommendations for the Mexican Population was convened by the Secretary of Health for the purpose of developing evidence-based guidelines for consumers, health professionals, and government officials. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and diabetes have dramatically increased in Mexico; beverages contribute a fifth of all calories consumed by Mexicans. Extensive research has found that caloric beverages increase the risk of obesity. Taking into consideration multiple factors, including the health benefits, risks, and nutritional implications associated with beverage consumption, as well as consumption patterns in Mexico, the committee classified beverages into six levels. Classifications were made based on caloric content, nutritional value, and health risks associated with the consumption of each type of beverage and range from the healthier (level 1) to least healthy (level 6) options, as follows: Level 1: water; Level 2: skim or low fat (1%) milk and sugar free soy beverages; Level 3: coffee and tea without sugar; Level 4: non-caloric beverages with artificial sweeteners; Level 5: beverages with high caloric content and limited health benefits (fruit juices, whole milk, and fruit smoothies with sugar or honey; alcoholic and sports drinks), and Level 6: beverages high in sugar and with low nutritional value (soft drinks and other beverages with significant amounts of added sugar like juices, flavored waters, coffee and tea). The committee recommends the consumption of water as a first choice, followed by no or low-calorie drinks, and skim milk. These beverages should be favored over beverages with high caloric value or sweetened beverages, including those containing artificial sweeteners. Portion size recommendations are included for each beverage category and healthy consumption patterns for men and women are illustrated. PMID:18372998

  13. Next steps in obesity prevention: altering early life systems to support healthy parents, infants, and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Nader, Philip R; Huang, Terry T-K; Gahagan, Sheila; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Hammond, Ross A; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer

    2012-06-01

    There is an urgent need for effective, sustainable child obesity prevention strategies. Progress toward this goal requires strengthening current approaches to add a component that addresses pregnancy onward. Altering early-life systems that promote intergenerational transmission of obesity holds promise for interrupting the continuing cycle of the obesity epidemic. A 2011 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report emphasizes the need for interventions early in life to prevent obesity. A 2010 IOM report called for addressing gaps in existing obesity research evidence by using a systems perspective, simultaneously addressing interacting obesity promoting factors in multiple sectors and at multiple societal levels. A review of evidence from basic science, prevention, and systems research supports an approach that (1) begins at the earliest stages of development, and (2) uses a systems framework to simultaneously implement health behavior and environmental changes in communities. PMID:22799545

  14. Neural signatures of the interaction between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and stressful life events in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Angela; Manara, Renzo; Pievani, Michela; Clementi, Maurizio; Forzan, Monica; Bruson, Alice; Tenconi, Elena; Degortes, Daniela; Pinato, Claudia; Giannunzio, Valeria; Battista Frisoni, Giovanni; Santonastaso, Paolo

    2014-08-30

    A change in neural connectivity of brain structures implicated in the memory of negative life events has been hypothesized to explain the enhancement of memory encoding during the processing of negative stimuli in depressed patients. Here, we investigated the effects of the interaction between negative life events and the 5-HTTLPR genotype - a polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene - on the functional and structural connectivity of the hippocampal area in 34 healthy women. All participants were genotyped for the presence of the 5-HTTLPR short variant and for the A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism; they underwent clinical assessment including structured diagnostic interviews to exclude the presence of psychiatric disorders and to assess the presence of stressful life events. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging scans were performed. We found significant interactions between stressful events and the 5-HTTLPR genotype in both the functional connectivity of the parahippocampus with the posterior cingulate cortex and the structural connectivity between the hippocampus and both the amygdala and the putamen. In addition, we found several genotype-related differences in the relationship between functional/structural connectivity of the hippocampal area and the ability to update expectations or stress-related phenotypes, such as anxiety symptoms. If confirmed by future studies, these mechanisms may clarify the role of the 5HTTLPR genotype as a risk factor for depression, in interaction with negative events. PMID:24914006

  15. Early-life origins of chronic respiratory diseases: understanding and promoting healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Silvia; Scheltema, Nienke; Bont, Louis; Baraldi, Eugenio

    2014-12-01

    Chronic obstructive respiratory disorders such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease often originate early in life. In addition to a genetic predisposition, prenatal and early-life environmental exposures have a persistent impact on respiratory health. Acting during a critical phase of lung development, these factors may change lung structure and metabolism, and may induce maladaptive responses to harmful agents, which will affect the whole lifespan. Some environmental factors, such as exposure to cigarette smoke, type of childbirth and diet, may be modifiable, but it is more difficult to influence other factors, such as preterm birth and early exposure to viruses or allergens. Here, we bring together recent literature to analyse the critical aspects involved in the early stages of lung development, going back to prenatal and perinatal events, and we discuss the mechanisms by which noxious factors encountered early on may have a lifelong impact on respiratory health. We briefly comment on the need for early disease biomarkers and on the possible role of "-omic" technologies in identifying risk profiles predictive of chronic respiratory conditions. Such profiles could guide the ideation of effective preventive strategies and/or targeted early lifestyle or therapeutic interventions. PMID:25323240

  16. Age-related cortical thinning in cognitively healthy individuals in their 60s: the PATH Through Life study.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Marnie E; Sachdev, Perminder S; Anstey, Kaarin J; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Although it is recognized that the human cortex thins with age, longitudinal estimates of thinning patterns specific to healthy young-old age (<75 years) individuals are lacking. Importantly, many neurodegenerative disorders first manifest between midlife and old age, and normative estimates may provide a reference for differential change associated with such disorders. Here, we provide longitudinal estimates of cortical thinning observed over 12 years in a large group (n = 396) of healthy individuals, aged 60-66 years at baseline scan, who were scanned with magnetic resonance imaging (1.5T) on 4 occasions. Longitudinal age-related thinning was observed across most of the cortices, with a mean change of -0.3% per year. We measured significant thinning in heteromodal association cortex, with less thinning in regions expected to atrophy later in life (e.g., primary sensory cortex). Men showed more extensive thinning than women. Our comparison of cross-sectional and longitudinal estimates adds to growing evidence that cross-sectional designs may underestimate age-related changes in cortical thickness. PMID:26923417

  17. The COLON study: Colorectal cancer: Longitudinal, Observational study on Nutritional and lifestyle factors that may influence colorectal tumour recurrence, survival and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is clear evidence that nutrition and lifestyle can modify colorectal cancer risk. However, it is not clear if those factors can affect colorectal cancer treatment, recurrence, survival and quality of life. This paper describes the background and design of the “COlorectal cancer: Longitudinal, Observational study on Nutritional and lifestyle factors that may influence colorectal tumour recurrence, survival and quality of life” – COLON – study. The main aim of this study is to assess associations of diet and other lifestyle factors, with colorectal cancer recurrence, survival and quality of life. We extensively investigate diet and lifestyle of colorectal cancer patients at diagnosis and during the following years; this design paper focusses on the initial exposures of interest: diet and dietary supplement use, body composition, nutrient status (e.g. vitamin D), and composition of the gut microbiota. Methods/Design The COLON study is a multi-centre prospective cohort study among at least 1,000 incident colorectal cancer patients recruited from 11 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients with colorectal cancer are invited upon diagnosis. Upon recruitment, after 6 months, 2 years and 5 years, patients fill out food-frequency questionnaires; questionnaires about dietary supplement use, physical activity, weight, height, and quality of life; and donate blood samples. Diagnostic CT-scans are collected to assess cross-sectional areas of skeletal muscle, subcutaneous fat, visceral fat and intermuscular fat, and to assess muscle attenuation. Blood samples are biobanked to facilitate future analyse of biomarkers, nutrients, DNA etc. Analysis of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, and analysis of metabolomic profiles are scheduled. A subgroup of patients with colon cancer is asked to provide faecal samples before and at several time points after colon resection to study changes in gut microbiota during treatment. For all patients, information on vital

  18. The Impact of the Broadcasting Mistake Management Culture in a Healthy Organization on the Quality of the Personnel Work Life

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Alireza; Mortazavi, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Today, healthy organizations such as hospital have found out the importance of quality of work life (QWL) of their personnel. QWL direct to increase job satisfaction, improve the quality of services to patient of hospital, and create high performance. One of factors that impact QWL is mistake management culture (MMC) when contribute different organization aspects such as QWL and cover its needs and finally promote job performance. Material and Method: A questionnarie was designed with items involve five-item Likert-type scale items and it distribute samong a sample of 207 nurses of four hospitals that voluntarily participated in research plan in Mashhad city. Two hospitals were private and two hospitals were public. Result: There are significant relationships between MMC, QWL and performance. Conclusion: According to importance of enhancement of QWL and job performance in organizations such as hospital, broadcasting culture of mistake management plays positive role and promotes quality level of work life of employees. Therefore, we can improve job satisfaction by changing and manipulating QWL factors, and thus move toward the development of the organization. PMID:23634407

  19. Decreased Default Network Connectivity is Associated with Early Life Stress in Medication-Free Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Noah S.; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Price, Lawrence H.; Bloom, Rachel F.; Carpenter, Linda L.

    2012-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is a significant risk factor for psychopathology, although there are few functional imaging studies investigating its effects. Previous literature suggests that ELS is associated with changes in structure and function in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), which forms the main anterior node of the default network (DN). This study investigated the impact of ELS history on resting state DN connectivity, using seed-based correlation analyses (SCA) involving the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Data were analyzed from 22 adult subjects without psychiatric or medical illness (13 with and 9 without ELS); none were taking psychotropic medication. Relative to controls, the ELS group had significant decreases in DN connectivity, observed between the PCC seed and the MPFC and inferior temporal cortex. Further analyses revealed a trend-level increase in connectivity between the amygdala and MPFC associated with ELS history. In conclusion, this study found that subjects with ELS, in the absence of psychiatric illness and medication exposure, demonstrated decreased DN connectivity, and trend-level increases in connectivity between the amygdala and MPFC. These findings suggest that altered resting state connectivity is a correlate of stress exposure, rather than a product of medication or psychiatric morbidity. PMID:23141153

  20. Oxygen saturation trends in the first hour of life in healthy full-term neonates born at moderate altitude

    PubMed Central

    Said Habib, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Transition from a parallel circulation in utero to an in-series circulation immediately after birth is partly an oxygen-dependent process. Relative hypoxemia with increasing altitude above sea level exerts a certain degree of stress on oxygen-dependent metabolic processes throughout the body. Objective: The present study aimed to determine the reference values for oxygen saturation and the pre-ductal and post-ductal oxygen saturation trends during the first 60 min of life in healthy full-term neonates born at moderate altitude (1500-2500 m) using pulse oximetry. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out over a period of three months started from July 2011 in the Neonatology Department of King Abdulaziz Specialist Hospital, Taif, Saudi Arabia. In this observational study, arterial oxygen saturation in the right hand and right foot of each infant was recorded by pulse oximetry immediately after birth and continuously within the first 60 min of life. The respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured at birth and at 1 h after birth. Cord blood gas and haemoglobin levels were also measured. Results: The study was conducted in a hospital situated at an altitude of 1640 m above sea level. Immediately after birth, the mean pre-ductal SpO2 in the right hand was 68% (51–80%); in the right foot, the mean post-ductal SpO2 was 60% (40–77%). This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01); however, it became statistically insignificant at 20 min (4–45 min) and disappeared at 25 min, when the SpO2 in both limbs equalised at 88% (83–96%). SpO2 levels > 94% were reached after 13 min (4–35) min pre-ductally and after 22 min (10–45 min) post-ductally. The mean respiratory rate, heart rate, and mean blood pressure at birth were 56/min, 140/min, and 34 mmHg, respectively; at 60 min, they were 40/min, 123/min, and 47 mmHg, respectively. Conclusion: This study defined normal range of SpO2 values in healthy full-term neonates born at

  1. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  2. Quality of Life Is Related to Fecal Calprotectin Concentrations in Colonic Crohn Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, but not in Ileal Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Gauss, Annika; Geib, Thomas; Hinz, Ulf; Schaefert, Rainer; Zwickel, Philipp; Zawierucha, Anna; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Klute, Lukas

    2016-04-01

    To formulate therapy goals, we aimed to define the relationship between fecal calprotectin and health-related quality of life in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). This retrospective single-center cross-sectional study included ambulatory IBD patients who had completed standardized questionnaires comprising items of health-related quality of life (Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire) and clinical disease activity scores, and who had provided stool samples for calprotectin determination within 30 days of questionnaire completion. Correlation analyses were performed between the indicated parameters. Post hoc analysis was conducted, taking into account only data from patients with fecal calprotectin concentrations measured within 3 days of questionnaire completion. One hundred ninety-seven patients with Crohn disease and 111 patients with ulcerative colitis were enrolled in the study. Lower fecal calprotectin concentrations were associated with better health-related quality of life. The correlations were weak, but stronger if only fecal calprotectin concentrations measured within 3 days of questionnaire completion were included (results for 3 days; Crohn disease: n = 86, rS = -0.419, P < 0.001; ulcerative colitis: n = 43, rS = -0.432, P = 0.004). In Crohn disease, a significant correlation between fecal calprotectin concentration and health-related quality of life was found in patients with colonic involvement (n = 59, rS = -0.470, P < 0.001), but not in patients with purely ileal disease (n = 27, rS = -0.268, P = 0.18). Correlations between fecal calprotectin concentrations and clinical disease activity were also only weak to moderate. Owing to its moderate correlation with fecal calprotectin concentrations in IBD patients with colonic involvement, health-related quality of life should be used in combination with other markers for IBD management. This is even more important in isolated ileal Crohn disease

  3. Quality of Life Is Related to Fecal Calprotectin Concentrations in Colonic Crohn Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, but not in Ileal Crohn Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gauss, Annika; Geib, Thomas; Hinz, Ulf; Schaefert, Rainer; Zwickel, Philipp; Zawierucha, Anna; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Klute, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To formulate therapy goals, we aimed to define the relationship between fecal calprotectin and health-related quality of life in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). This retrospective single-center cross-sectional study included ambulatory IBD patients who had completed standardized questionnaires comprising items of health-related quality of life (Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire) and clinical disease activity scores, and who had provided stool samples for calprotectin determination within 30 days of questionnaire completion. Correlation analyses were performed between the indicated parameters. Post hoc analysis was conducted, taking into account only data from patients with fecal calprotectin concentrations measured within 3 days of questionnaire completion. One hundred ninety-seven patients with Crohn disease and 111 patients with ulcerative colitis were enrolled in the study. Lower fecal calprotectin concentrations were associated with better health-related quality of life. The correlations were weak, but stronger if only fecal calprotectin concentrations measured within 3 days of questionnaire completion were included (results for 3 days; Crohn disease: n = 86, rS = −0.419, P < 0.001; ulcerative colitis: n = 43, rS = −0.432, P = 0.004). In Crohn disease, a significant correlation between fecal calprotectin concentration and health-related quality of life was found in patients with colonic involvement (n = 59, rS = −0.470, P < 0.001), but not in patients with purely ileal disease (n = 27, rS = −0.268, P = 0.18). Correlations between fecal calprotectin concentrations and clinical disease activity were also only weak to moderate. Owing to its moderate correlation with fecal calprotectin concentrations in IBD patients with colonic involvement, health-related quality of life should be used in combination with other markers for IBD management. This is even more important in isolated ileal

  4. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    McNeely, M E; Duncan, R P; Earhart, G M

    2015-12-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations. PMID:26318265

  5. Sodium Intake of Special Populations in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span (HANDLS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cotugna, Nancy; Fanelli-Kuczmarksi, Marie; Clymer, Julie; Hotchkiss, Lawrence; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The sodium intake of participants of the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study who were in three of the special population groups identified by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 (those with hypertension, African Americans, and those ≥51 years) was analyzed to determine if they met sodium recommendations. Methods The sample included 2152 African American and White subjects, aged 30-64 years. Major dietary sources of sodium for each group were determined from two 24-hour dietary recalls, and dietary intakes were compared with sodium recommendations. Dietary potassium was also evaluated. Results The intakes of the groups studied exceeded 1500 mg sodium while their potassium intakes were lower than the Adequate Intake of 4700 mg. The major contributors of sodium included “cold cuts, sausage, and franks,” “protein foods”, and yeast breads. Conclusions Excessive sodium intake characterized the diet of an urban, socioeconomically diverse population who are hypertensive or at risk for having hypertension. These findings have implications for health professionals and the food industry. PMID:23769900

  6. Barriers and Facilitators to the Uptake and Maintenance of Healthy Behaviours by People at Mid-Life: A Rapid Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Sarah; Martin, Steven; Kuhn, Isla; Cowan, Andy; Brayne, Carol; Lafortune, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background With an ageing population, there is an increasing societal impact of ill health in later life. People who adopt healthy behaviours are more likely to age successfully. To engage people in health promotion initiatives in mid-life, a good understanding is needed of why people do not undertake healthy behaviours or engage in unhealthy ones. Methods Searches were conducted to identify systematic reviews and qualitative or longitudinal cohort studies that reported mid-life barriers and facilitators to healthy behaviours. Mid-life ranged from 40 to 64 years, but younger adults in disadvantaged or minority groups were also eligible to reflect potential earlier disease onset. Two reviewers independently conducted reference screening and study inclusion. Included studies were assessed for quality. Barriers and facilitators were identified and synthesised into broader themes to allow comparisons across behavioural risks. Findings From 16,426 titles reviewed, 28 qualitative studies, 11 longitudinal cohort studies and 46 systematic reviews were included. Evidence was found relating to uptake and maintenance of physical activity, diet and eating behaviours, smoking, alcohol, eye care, and other health promoting behaviours and grouped into six themes: health and quality of life, sociocultural factors, the physical environment, access, psychological factors, evidence relating to health inequalities. Most of the available evidence was from developed countries. Barriers that recur across different health behaviours include lack of time (due to family, household and occupational responsibilities), access issues (to transport, facilities and resources), financial costs, entrenched attitudes and behaviours, restrictions in the physical environment, low socioeconomic status, lack of knowledge. Facilitators include a focus on enjoyment, health benefits including healthy ageing, social support, clear messages, and integration of behaviours into lifestyle. Specific issues

  7. Intestinal colonization resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Trevor D; Walker, Alan W

    2013-01-01

    Dense, complex microbial communities, collectively termed the microbiota, occupy a diverse array of niches along the length of the mammalian intestinal tract. During health and in the absence of antibiotic exposure the microbiota can effectively inhibit colonization and overgrowth by invading microbes such as pathogens. This phenomenon is called ‘colonization resistance’ and is associated with a stable and diverse microbiota in tandem with a controlled lack of inflammation, and involves specific interactions between the mucosal immune system and the microbiota. Here we overview the microbial ecology of the healthy mammalian intestinal tract and highlight the microbe–microbe and microbe–host interactions that promote colonization resistance. Emerging themes highlight immunological (T helper type 17/regulatory T-cell balance), microbiota (diverse and abundant) and metabolic (short-chain fatty acid) signatures of intestinal health and colonization resistance. Intestinal pathogens use specific virulence factors or exploit antibiotic use to subvert colonization resistance for their own benefit by triggering inflammation to disrupt the harmony of the intestinal ecosystem. A holistic view that incorporates immunological and microbiological facets of the intestinal ecosystem should facilitate the development of immunomodulatory and microbe-modulatory therapies that promote intestinal homeostasis and colonization resistance. PMID:23240815

  8. Fear of falling and quality of life of apparently-healthy elderly individuals from a Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Akosile, Christopher O; Anukam, Gabriel O; Johnson, Olubusola E; Fabunmi, Ayodeji A; Okoye, Emmanuel C; Iheukwumere, Ngozi; Akinwola, Mojisola O

    2014-06-01

    Ageing is associated with increased morbidity, increased fear of falling (FOF) and reduced activity. These may consequently impair the quality of life (QOL) of the elderly. Studies from Africa investigating FOF and its relationship with QOL among elderly individuals are rare. This study investigated the prevalence of FOF and QOL of apparently-healthy elderly residents of two Local Government Areas (LGAs) from Anambra State, Nigeria and also determined the relationship between the two variables. Two hundred and sixty-one (131 males and 130 females) volunteering elderly individuals, from three randomly-selected communities from each of the LGAs, participated in this cross-sectional survey. The Modified Fall Efficacy Scale (MFES) and the Short-Form Health Survey 36-item (SF-36) questionnaire were used to evaluate FOF and QOL respectively. Data were analysed using frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation, Chi-square, Independent t-test, Pearson correlation and multivariate regression analysis statistics. Alpha level was set at 0.05. FOF was markedly prevalent in the population at 23.4 % and the QOL score of 55.27 ± 17.28 was just modest. QOL was particularly low in the role limitations due to the physical and emotional problems domains but high in the mental health, social function and bodily pain domains. Significant relationship was found between FOF and all the QOL domains. FOF was present in nearly one of every four elderly individuals in the sample and was related to their QOL. FOF should be routinely investigated in community-dwelling elderly and strategies devised to combat it. PMID:24710949

  9. A rare case of acute pancreatitis and life-threatening hemolytic anemia associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in a young healthy adult.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhchain; Khosla, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a common infection that affects 95% of adults worldwide at some point during life. It is usually asymptomatic or causes a self-limiting clinical syndrome known as infectious mononucleosis. It rarely causes complications. Here, we present a case of a healthy 21-year-old female college student who suffered from severe pancreatitis and life-threatening autoimmune hemolytic anemia in association with EBV infection, and we also discuss the common presentation of EBV infection and the diagnosis and treatment of simple and complicated EBV infection. PMID:26190854

  10. Calcium phosphate: an alternative calcium compound for dietary prevention of colon cancer? A study on intestinal and faecal parameters in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Cats, A; Mulder, N H; de Vries, E G; Oremus, E T; Kreumer, W M; Kleibeuker, J H

    1993-09-01

    In an effort to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer development, oral calcium carbonate supplementation has been used in previous studies for the precipitation of cytotoxic bile acids and fatty acids. In human intervention trials its effect on mucosal hyperproliferation in the colorectum has not always been satisfactory. Because the complexation of calcium and bile acids requires the formation of calcium phosphate, we performed an intervention study in 14 healthy volunteers, giving them 1,500 mg calcium as Ca3(PO4)2 for 1 week. The effects of tricalcium phosphate on luminal and faecal parameters of cytolytic activity were evaluated before, during, and after calcium phosphate supplementation. The cytolytic activity of faecal water and intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity in faecal water were not affected by supplemental calcium phosphate. In duodenal bile, the proportion of cholic acid tended to increase, whereas that of chenodeoxycholic acid tended to decrease during calcium phosphate supplementation. Neither concentrations of total and individual faecal bile acids, nor that of faecal fat were affected during calcium phosphate supplementation. It is suggested that, although phosphate is involved in bile acid precipitation, phosphate competes for calcium in the binding of fatty acids. This might possibly explain the unchanged cytolytic potency of faecal water, and therefore does not make tricalcium phosphate a suitable calcium compound for dietary intervention. PMID:8401176

  11. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  12. Comparison of health-related quality of life of children during maintenance therapy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia versus siblings and healthy children in India.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Minakshi; Sharma, Kamlesh K; Vatsa, Manju; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2013-05-01

    Data on quality of life (QOL) specifically in maintenance therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are minimal. This study was done to assess various items listed in domains of QOL (physical, emotional, social and school health domains) of children with ALL during maintenance therapy, and compare the same with those of their siblings and other healthy children. Forty children on maintenance therapy of ALL, 40 siblings and 40 healthy children were assessed for QOL by child self-report using PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core in the local language. Means were computed and compared for each domain with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), wherein higher values reflected better QOL. Overall QOL of children with ALL in maintenance therapy (77.16 ± 10.98) was significantly poorer than that of siblings (93.56 ± 4.41) and healthy children (93.02 ± 3.76) (p < 0.001), but their abilities of self-care, household work, exercise, attentiveness, memory and homework were unaffected. There was significantly higher absenteeism due to sickness and hospital visits, and increased emotional problems (fear, anger, sleeping problems) among children with ALL. In the social health domain, children with ALL reported difficulty in maintaining friendships and competing. QOL of siblings was as good as that of healthy children in physical, social and school health domains, but they had increased emotional problems such as anger and sadness. Healthy children reported significantly higher future worries and bullying than children with ALL and siblings. This study validated that the QOL of children with ALL during maintenance therapy was significantly poorer than that of siblings and healthy children. The study identified various items in each domain of QOL that were affected in these children, and thus would assist in guiding healthcare professionals to focus on these specific items so as to improve their overall QOL. PMID:23035720

  13. Maternal influences on fetal microbial colonization and immune development

    PubMed Central

    Romano-Keeler, Joann; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    While critical for normal development, the exact timing of establishment of the intestinal microbiome is unknown. For example, although preterm labor and birth have been associated with bacterial colonization of the amniotic cavity and fetal membranes for many years, the prevailing dogma of a sterile intrauterine environment during normal term pregnancies has been challenged more recently. While found to be a key contributor of evolution in the animal kingdom, maternal transmission of commensal bacteria may also constitute a critical process during healthy pregnancies in humans with yet unclear developmental importance. Metagenomic sequencing has elucidated a rich placental microbiome in normal term pregnancies likely providing important metabolic and immune contributions to the growing fetus. Conversely, an altered microbial composition during pregnancy may produce aberrant metabolites impairing fetal brain development and life-long neurological outcomes. Here we review the current understanding of microbial colonization at the feto-maternal interface and explain how normal gut colonization drives a balanced neonatal mucosal immune system, while dysbiosis contributes to aberrant immune function early in life and beyond. We discuss how maternal genetics, diet, medications, and probiotics inform the fetal microbiome in preparation for perinatal and postnatal bacterial colonization. PMID:25310759

  14. LIFE Experiment: Isolation of Cryptoendolithic Organisms from Antarctic Colonized Sandstone Exposed to Space and Simulated Mars Conditions on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalzi, Giuliano; Selbmann, Laura; Zucconi, Laura; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Albertano, Patrizia; Onofri, Silvano

    2012-06-01

    Desiccated Antarctic rocks colonized by cryptoendolithic communities were exposed on the International Space Station (ISS) to space and simulated Mars conditions (LiFE— Lichens and Fungi Experiment). After 1.5 years in space samples were retrieved, rehydrated and spread on different culture media. Colonies of a green alga and a pink-coloured fungus developed on Malt-Agar medium; they were isolated from a sample exposed to simulated Mars conditions beneath a 0.1 % T Suprasil neutral density filter and from a sample exposed to space vacuum without solar radiation exposure, respectively. None of the other flight samples showed any growth after incubation. The two organisms able to grow were identified at genus level by Small SubUnit (SSU) and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) rDNA sequencing as Stichococcus sp. (green alga) and Acarospora sp. (lichenized fungal genus) respectively. The data in the present study provide experimental information on the possibility of eukaryotic life transfer from one planet to another by means of rocks and of survival in Mars environment.

  15. LIFE experiment: isolation of cryptoendolithic organisms from Antarctic colonized sandstone exposed to space and simulated Mars conditions on the international space station.

    PubMed

    Scalzi, Giuliano; Selbmann, Laura; Zucconi, Laura; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Albertano, Patrizia; Onofri, Silvano

    2012-06-01

    Desiccated Antarctic rocks colonized by cryptoendolithic communities were exposed on the International Space Station (ISS) to space and simulated Mars conditions (LiFE-Lichens and Fungi Experiment). After 1.5 years in space samples were retrieved, rehydrated and spread on different culture media. Colonies of a green alga and a pink-coloured fungus developed on Malt-Agar medium; they were isolated from a sample exposed to simulated Mars conditions beneath a 0.1 % T Suprasil neutral density filter and from a sample exposed to space vacuum without solar radiation exposure, respectively. None of the other flight samples showed any growth after incubation. The two organisms able to grow were identified at genus level by Small SubUnit (SSU) and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) rDNA sequencing as Stichococcus sp. (green alga) and Acarospora sp. (lichenized fungal genus) respectively. The data in the present study provide experimental information on the possibility of eukaryotic life transfer from one planet to another by means of rocks and of survival in Mars environment. PMID:22688852

  16. Life Satisfaction, Happiness, and the Growth Mindset of Healthy and Unhealthy Perfectionists among Hong Kong Chinese Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This study used clustering to classify Chinese gifted students based on their scores on the High Standards and Discrepancy subscales of the Almost Perfect Scale--Revised (APS-R). The interpretation of the three clusters as nonperfectionists, unhealthy perfectionists, and healthy perfectionists was supported by results comparing these groups on…

  17. A Population-based Prospective Birth Cohort Study of Childhood Neurocognitive and Psychological Functioning in Healthy Survivors of Early-life Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Khandaker, Golam M.; Stochl, Jan; Zammit, Stanley; Lewis, Glyn; Jones, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine neurocognitive, educational and psychological functioning during childhood and early-adolescence among survivors of early-life meningitis who are apparently healthy. METHODS In the general population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort, meningitis exposure was determined at age 18 months. The outcomes of IQ, short-term memory, working memory, reading and spelling abilities, psychological and behavioural problems, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and psychotic experiences at ages 9 to 13 years were compared between those exposed and unexposed to meningitis. Individuals with special educational needs were excluded. RESULTS By age 18 months, 67 out of 11,035 children were reported to have suffered from meningitis (0.61%). These children, compared with the unexposed, performed worse on all neurocognitive and educational measures; mean difference in total IQ 7.36 (95% CI 1.60-13.11). Meningitis was associated with higher depressive and anxiety symptoms (p=0.02), psychological and behavioural problems (p=0.09), and increased risk of psychotic experiences; risk ratio 2.22 (95% CI 1.12-4.38). CONCLUSIONS Exposure to meningitis in the early-life is associated with neurocognitive, educational and psychological difficulties during childhood and early-adolescence among survivors who are apparently healthy. Therefore, focusing only on serious neurologic disabilities may underestimate the true impact of early-life meningitis. PMID:25794764

  18. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... red or processed meats Have colorectal polyps Have inflammatory bowel disease ( Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis ) Have a family history of colon cancer Have a personal history of breast cancer Some inherited diseases also increase the risk ...

  19. Effects of Estrogen or Venlafaxine on Menopause Related Quality of Life in Healthy Postmenopausal Women with Hot Flashes: A Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Caan, Bette; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Joffe, Hadine; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Larson, Joseph C.; Carpenter, Janet S.; Cohen, Lee S.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Newton, Katherine; Reed, Susan; Rexrode, Kathy; Shifren, Jan; Sternfeld, Barbara; Ensrud, Kris

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of low-dose estradiol (ET) or venlafaxine on menopause-related quality of life and associated symptoms in healthy peri- and postmenopausal women with hot flashes. METHODS A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of low-dose oral 17-beta-estradiol 0.5-mg/day, venlafaxine XR 75-mg/day, vs. identical placebo was conducted among 339 women ages 40–62 years with ≥2 (mean 8.07, SD 5.29) daily VMS recruited at 3 clinical sites from November 2011 to October 2012. The primary trial outcome, reported previously, was the frequency of VMS at 8 weeks. Here, we report on secondary endpoints of total and domain scores from the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) and measures of pain (PEG), depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7) and perceived stress (PSS). RESULTS Treatment with both estradiol and venlafaxine resulted in significantly greater improvement in quality of life, as measured by total MENQOL scores compared to placebo (mean difference for ET at 8 weeks of −0.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.7 to −0.2; p<0.001 and for venlafaxine of −0.2; 95% CI −0.5 to 0.0; p 0.04). Quality of life (QOL) domain analyses revealed that ET had beneficial treatment effects in all domains of the MENQOL except psychosocial, while venlafaxine benefits were observed only in the psychosocial domain. Neither ET nor venlafaxine improved pain, anxiety or depressive symptoms, although baseline symptom levels were low. Modest benefits were observed for perceived stress with venlafaxine. CONCLUSIONS Both low-dose estradiol and venlafaxine are effective pharmacologic agents for improving menopause-related quality of life in healthy women with vasomotor symptoms. PMID:25405571

  20. How Much Should We Weigh for a Long and Healthy Life Span? The Need to Reconcile Caloric Restriction versus Longevity with Body Mass Index versus Mortality Data

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzini, Antonello

    2014-01-01

    Total caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition is a well-established experimental approach to extend life span in laboratory animals. Although CR in humans is capable of shifting several endocrinological parameters, it is not clear where the minimum inflection point of the U-shaped curve linking body mass index (BMI) with all-cause mortality lies. The exact trend of this curve, when used for planning preventive strategies for public health is of extreme importance. Normal BMI ranges from 18.5 to 24.9; many epidemiological studies show an inverse relationship between mortality and BMI inside the normal BMI range. Other studies show that the lowest mortality in the entire range of BMI is obtained in the overweight range (25–29.9). Reconciling the extension of life span in laboratory animals by experimental CR with the BMI–mortality curve of human epidemiology is not trivial. In fact, one interpretation is that the CR data are identifying a known: “excess fat is deleterious for health”; although a second interpretation may be that: “additional leanness from a normal body weight may add health and life span delaying the process of aging.” This short review hope to start a discussion aimed at finding the widest consensus on which weight range should be considered the “healthiest” for our species, contributing in this way to the picture of what is the correct life style for a long and healthy life span. PMID:25126085

  1. Aberrant Gene Expression Profile of Unaffected Colon Mucosa from Patients with Unifocal Colon Polyp

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Jingjing; Ma, Lili; Yang, Jiayin; Xu, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate gene expression profiles in unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp to investigate the potential mucosa impairment in normal-appearing colon mucosa from these patients. Material/Methods Colon polyp patients were prospectively recruited. We obtained colon biopsies from the normal-appearing sites and polyp tissue through colonoscopy. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays. Gene ontology and clustering were evaluated by bioinformatics. Results We detected a total of 711 genes (274 up-regulated and 437 down-regulated) in polyp tissue and 256 genes (170 up-regulated and 86 down-regulated) in normal-appearing colon mucosa, with at least a 3-fold of change compared to healthy controls. Heatmapping of the gene expression showed similar gene alteration patterns between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue. Gene ontology analyses confirmed the overlapped molecular functions and pathways of altered gene expression between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp. The most significantly altered genes in normal-appearing tissues in polyp patients include immune response, external side of plasma membrane, nucleus, and cellular response to zinc ion. Conclusions Significant gene expression alterations exist in unaffected colon mucosa from patients with unifocal colon polyp. Unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue share great similarity and overlapping of altered gene expression profiles, indicating the potential possibility of recurrence of colon polyps due to underlying molecular abnormalities of colon mucosa in these patients. PMID:26675397

  2. Colon Cleansing: Health or Hype?

    MedlinePlus

    ... maintain a healthy bacterial composition, known as your microflora. “Your microflora plays a crucial role in protecting your body ... potassium Kidney damage Plus, colon cleansing changes your microflora. “You may think you’re getting rid of ...

  3. Health-related quality of life among adolescents: A comparison between subjects at ultra-high risk for psychosis and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Nitka, Freya; Richter, Julia; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz; Henze, Romy

    2016-01-30

    At risk status for psychosis has been robustly associated with decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adults. However, this relationship has not been examined in adolescents with ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis in comparison to healthy controls. Twenty-seven subjects with UHR and thirty healthy controls (14-18 years of age) were recruited in a multiphase screening and accessed with a HRQoL scale of KIDSCREEN-27. Comparisons indicated that subjects with UHR had poorer mean scores at a statistically significant level in the following scales: physical well-being, psychological well-being and school environment. In a logistic regression analysis, lower scores in the scale school environment explained at risk status for psychosis. Adolescents with UHR show significantly poorer HRQoL scores than healthy peers, identified predominantly by the evaluation of the school environment. These results might be interpreted as a self-perception of early mental and social functioning impairments, which seem to be recognized initially based on school demands. Considering these findings, institutes of education should be a good starting point to promote the awareness of the psychosis-risk state. PMID:26654755

  4. Effects of Compression Stockings on Elevation of Leg Lymph Pumping Pressure and Improvement of Quality of Life in Healthy Female Volunteers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sugisawa, Ryota; Saito, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sano, Masaki; Katahashi, Kazuto; Uranaka, Hironori; Marumo, Tomohiko; Konno, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Lymph is pumped through the collecting lymphatic vessels by both intrinsic and extrinsic forces. The intrinsic pump relies on spontaneous lymphatic contraction, which generates the pumping lymph pressure (Plp). Among healthy people with daily leg edema, a considerable number of cases are accompanied with low leg Plp. Herein, a double-blinded controlled trial was conducted in healthy female volunteers with reduced leg Plp to compare the effectiveness of a 15–29 mmHg compression stocking (Stocking A) and a 8–16 mmHg stocking (Stocking B) on elevating Plp. Method and Results: Among 219 healthy female volunteers who underwent measurement of leg Plp, 80 participants (36.5%) had unilateral or bilateral legs with Plp < 20 mmHg (122 legs with Plp < 20 mmHg and 38 legs with Plp ≧ 20 mmHg). These 80 participants were assigned to wear either Stocking A (n = 40) or Stocking B (n = 40) for 16 weeks. Leg Plp was measured using indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography and an occlusion cuff technique while sitting. At 16 weeks, both Stockings A and B resulted in significantly elevated leg Plp, with the effect on elevating Plp being superior for Stocking A. Only Stocking A resulted in decreased prevalence of leg edema and improved Short Form-36 scores. Conclusion: Compression stockings may represent a therapeutic option to elevate leg Plp and ameliorate leg edema, thereby leading to improved quality of life in healthy females with low leg Plp. PMID:26824795

  5. Therapy Preferences in Melanoma Treatment - Willingness to Pay and Preference of Quality versus Length of Life of Patients, Physicians and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Krammer, Ramona; Heinzerling, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    Background New melanoma therapies, like e.g. ipilimumab, improve survival. However, only a small subset of patients benefits while 60% encounter side effects. Furthermore, these marginal benefits come at a very high price of €110’000 per treatment. This study examines attitudes towards melanoma therapy options of physicians, healthy individuals and patients, their willingness to pay and preference of quality versus length of life. Methods Based on findings from a focus group questionnaires were developed and pretested. After obtaining ethical approval and informed consent surveys were conducted in a total of 90 participants (n = 30 for each group). Statistical analyses were conducted using R. Findings Attitudes vastly differed between healthy participants, physicians and melanoma patients. Whereas melanoma patients show a high willingness to endure side effects despite very small survival gains (down to 1 extra week) or even only hope with no survival benefit, healthy controls are more critical, while physicians are the most therapy adverse. Consequently, if given €100’000 and the free decision what to spend the money on the willingness to pay for therapy was much higher in the patient group (68%) compared to 28% of healthy controls and only 43% of the physicians, respectively. When lowering the amount of cash that could be received instead of ipilimumab to €50’000 or €10’000 to test price sensitivity 69% (+1%) and 76% (+8%) of melanoma patients, respectively, preferred ipilimumab over cash. When judging on societal spending even melanoma patients opted for spending on ipilimumab in only 21%. Conclusion The judgment about the benefits of new treatment options largely differs between groups, physicians being the most critical against therapy. Price elasticity was low. PMID:25369124

  6. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables. PMID:12506926

  7. Evaluation of an in vitro faecal degradation method for early assessment of the impact of colonic degradation on colonic absorption in humans.

    PubMed

    Tannergren, Christer; Borde, Anders; Boreström, Cecilia; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Lindahl, Anders

    2014-06-16

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate an in vitro method to investigate bacterial-mediated luminal degradation of drugs in colon in humans. This would be a valuable tool for the assessment of drug candidates during early drug development, especially for compounds intended to be developed as oral extended release formulations. Freshly prepared faecal homogenate from healthy human volunteers (n=3-18), dog (n=6) and rat (colon and caecal content, n=3) was homogenised with 3.8 parts (w/w) physiological saline under anaerobical conditions. Four model compounds (almokalant, budesonide, ximelagatran and metoprolol) were then incubated (n=3-18) separately in the human faecal homogenate for up to 120min at 37°C. In addition, ximelagatran was also incubated in the faecal or colonic content from dog and rat. The mean (±SD) in vitro half-life for almokalant, budesonide and ximelagatran was 39±1, 68±21 and 26±12min, respectively, in the human faecal homogenate. Metoprolol was found to be stable in the in vitro model. The in vitro degradation data was then compared to literature data on fraction absorbed after direct colon administration in humans. The percentage of drug remaining after 60min of in vitro incubation correlated (R(2)=0.90) with the fraction absorbed from colon in humans. The mean in vitro half-life of ximelagatran was similar in human faeces (26±12min) and rat colon content (34±31min), but significantly (p<0.05) longer in rat caecum content (50±11min) and dog faeces (126±17min). The in vitro method is in vivo relevant both qualitatively as all the model drugs that undergoes colonic degradation in vivo was rapidly degraded in the faecal homogenates as well as quantitatively since a correlation was established between percentage degraded in vitro at 60min and fraction absorbed in the colon for the model drugs, which have no other absorption limiting properties. Also, the method is easy to use from a technical point of view, which suggests

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing factor and perceived early-life stress in depressed patients and healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Linda L; Tyrka, Audrey R; McDougle, Christopher J; Malison, Robert T; Owens, Michael J; Nemeroff, Charles B; Price, Lawrence H

    2004-04-01

    Previous studies have reported elevated concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in patients with major depression. Elevations of CSF CRF have also been reported in adult laboratory animals exposed to the stress of brief maternal deprivation or maternal neglect in the neonatal or preweaning period. The present study was designed to determine whether major depression and a history of perceived early adversity in childhood are independently associated with elevated CSF CRF concentrations in adults. In this case-control study, 27 medication-free adults with major depression and 25 matched controls underwent standardized lumbar puncture for collection of a single CSF sample at 1200. Subjects provided data about significant adverse early-life experiences and rated their global perceived level of stress during pre-school and preteen years on a six-point Likert scale. The mean difference in CSF CRF between depressed patients and controls did not reach statistical significance. In a regression model, perceived early-life stress was a significant predictor of CSF CRF, but depression was not. Perinatal adversity and perceived adversity in the preteen adversity years (ages 6-13 years) were both independently associated with decreasing CSF CRF concentrations. The relationship observed between perceived early-life stress and adult CSF CRF concentrations in this study closely parallels recent preclinical findings. More work is needed to elucidate the critical nature and timing of early events that may be associated with enduring neuroendocrine changes in humans. PMID:14702025

  9. Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  10. Serum antibody responses to pneumococcal colonization in the first 2 years of life: results from an SE Asian longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Turner, P; Turner, C; Green, N; Ashton, L; Lwe, E; Jankhot, A; Day, N P; White, N J; Nosten, F; Goldblatt, D

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of antibody responses to pneumococcal colonization in early childhood may aid our understanding of protection and inform vaccine antigen selection. Serum samples were collected from mother-infant pairs during a longitudinal pneumococcal colonization study in Burmese refugees. Maternal and cord sera were collected at birth and infants were bled monthly (1–24 months of age). Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken monthly to detect colonization. Serum IgG titres to 27 pneumococcal protein antigens were measured in 2624 sera and IgG to dominant serotypes (6B, 14, 19F, 19A and 23F) were quantified in 864 infant sera. Antibodies to all protein antigens were detect ablein maternal sera. Titres to four proteins (LytB, PcpA, PhtD and PhtE) were significantly higher in mothers colonized by pneumococci at delivery. Maternally-derived antibodies to PiuA and Spr0096 were associated with delayed pneumococcal acquisition in infants in univariate,but not multivariate models. Controlling for infant age and previous homologous serotype exposure, nasopharyngeal acquisition of serotypes 19A, 23F, 14 or 19F was associated significantly with a ≥2-fold antibody response to the homologous capsule (OR 12.84, 7.52,6.52, 5.33; p <0.05). Acquisition of pneumococcal serotypes in the nasopharynx of infants was not significantly associated with a ≥2-fold rise in antibodies to any of the protein antigens studied. In conclusion, nasopharyngeal colonization in young children resulted in demonstrable serum IgG responses to pneumococcal capsules and surface/virulence proteins. However, the relationship between serum IgG and the prevention of, or response to, pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization remains complex. Mechanisms other than serum IgG are likely to have a role but are currently poorly understood. PMID:24255996

  11. Blood and plasma glutathione measured in healthy subjects by HPLC: relation to sex, aging, biological variables, and life habits.

    PubMed

    Michelet, F; Gueguen, R; Leroy, P; Wellman, M; Nicolas, A; Siest, G

    1995-10-01

    We report an HPLC method for measuring the concentrations of reduced (GSH) and total (GSHt) free glutathione in human plasma and whole blood. The chromatographic step was coupled with a postcolumn derivatization reaction and fluorometric detection. The linear range was 0.81-13.02 mumol/L, and the detection limit was 0.13 mumol/L. In healthy adults (ages 18-73 years), mean concentrations were 941 +/- 155 mumol/L for GSHt and 849 +/- 63 mumol/L for GSH in blood (107 men, 94 women), and 3.39 +/- 1.04 mumol/L for GSH in plasma (66 men, 58 women). Blood GSHt but not GSH was significantly lower in children (32 boys, 32 girls: 872 +/- 157 mumol/L) than in adults. Blood GSHt and GSH appeared to be correlated positively with the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the regular practice of physical exercise, and negatively with alcohol abstinence. We observed positive correlations between blood GSHt and cholesterol and calcium concentrations, and between blood GSH and cholesterol concentration. PMID:7586526

  12. A novel exendin-4 human serum albumin fusion protein, E2HSA, with an extended half-life and good glucoregulatory effect in healthy rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Lin; Meng, Zhiyun; Gan, Hui; Gu, Ruolan; Wu, Zhuona; Gao, Lei; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Sun, Wenzhong; Li, Jian; Zheng, Ying; Dou, Guifang

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • E2HSA has an extended half-life and good plasma stability. • E2HSA could improve glucose-dependent insulin secretion. • E2HSA has excellent glucoregulatory effects in vivo. • E2HSA could potentially be used as a new long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist for type 2 diabetes management. - Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has attracted considerable research interest in terms of the treatment of type 2 diabetes due to their multiple glucoregulatory functions. However, the short half-life, rapid inactivation by dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and excretion, limits the therapeutic potential of the native incretin hormone. Therefore, efforts are being made to develop the long-acting incretin mimetics via modifying its structure. Here we report a novel recombinant exendin-4 human serum albumin fusion protein E2HSA with HSA molecule extends their circulatory half-life in vivo while still retaining exendin-4 biological activity and therapeutic properties. In vitro comparisons of E2HSA and exendin-4 showed similar insulinotropic activity on rat pancreatic islets and GLP-1R-dependent biological activity on RIN-m5F cells, although E2HSA was less potent than exendin-4. E2HSA had a terminal elimation half-life of approximate 54 h in healthy rhesus monkeys. Furthermore, E2HSA could reduce postprandial glucose excursion and control fasting glucose level, dose-dependent suppress food intake. Improvement in glucose-dependent insulin secretion and control serum glucose excursions were observed during hyperglycemic clamp test (18 h) and oral glucose tolerance test (42 h) respectively. Thus the improved physiological characterization of E2HSA make it a new potent anti-diabetic drug for type 2 diabetes therapy.

  13. Early Events in the Life of Apple Roots: Variation in Root Growth Rate is Linked to Mycorrhizal and Nonmycorrhizal Fungal Colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to characterize early events of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal fungal colonization in newly-emerging roots of mature apple (Malus domestica) trees and to determine the relationship to fine root growth rate and development. New roots were traced on root windows to measure growt...

  14. Early traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history, and birth risk factors in patients with borderline personality disorder and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Bandelow, Borwin; Krause, Joana; Wedekind, Dirk; Broocks, Andreas; Hajak, Göran; Rüther, Eckart

    2005-04-15

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) were compared with a healthy control group with regard to traumatic life events during childhood. The patients (n=66) and controls (n=109) were investigated using a comprehensive retrospective interview with 203 questions about childhood traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history of psychiatric disorders and birth risk factors. The frequency of reports of traumatic childhood experiences was significantly higher in patients than in controls, including sexual abuse, violence, separation from parents, childhood illness, and other factors. On a 0- to 10-point "severe trauma scale," patients had significantly more severe traumatic events (mean score=3.86, SD=1.77) than control subjects (0.61, SD=0.93). Only four (6.1%) of the BPD patients, but 67 (61.5%) of the controls did not report any severe traumatic events at all. Compared with controls, patients described the attitude of their parents as significantly more unfavorable in all aspects. Patients reported significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders in their families in general, especially anxiety disorders, depression, and suicidality. Among birth risk factors, premature birth was reported more often in BPD subjects. In a logistic regression model of all possible etiological factors examined, the following factors showed a significant influence: familial neurotic spectrum disorders, childhood sexual abuse, separation from parents and unfavorable parental rearing styles. The present data support the hypothesis that the etiology of BPD is multifactorial and that familial psychiatric disorders and sexual abuse are contributing factors. PMID:15840418

  15. Family Functioning and Quality of Life among Families in Eating Disorders: A Comparison with Substance-related Disorders and Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadou, Dimitra; Sepulveda, Ana R; Sánchez, Julio César; Parks, Melissa; Álvarez, Tamara; Graell, Montserrat

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the family functioning of Spanish parents of patients with an eating disorder (ED) with that of carers of patients with substance-related disorders (SRDs) and families of healthy controls (HC). This cross-sectional study included 48 mothers and 45 fathers of 48 adolescent patients with an ED, 47 mothers and 37 fathers of 47 patients with an SRD and 66 mothers and 50 fathers of 68 HCs. Families of ED patients reported lower levels of criticism, symptom accommodation and negative caregiving experience than families of SRD patients. However, relatives of both ED and SRD patients reported similar levels of quality of life related to their mental health. Furthermore, families of HCs generally exhibited better scores on all scales assessing their caregiving experiences. Regarding gender differences, there was a tendency in mothers, primarily those from the ED group, to report more adverse experiences as caregivers compared with fathers. Symptoms characteristic to each disorder may be associated with differential patterns of family functioning and may require specifically tailored family interventions. Early family intervention in adolescence is crucial, as relatives' quality of life does not seem to have been badly affected at this point in the course of the illness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26915666

  16. Improving health-related quality of life through an evidence-based obesity reduction program: the Healthy Weights Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Lemstra, Mark E; Rogers, Marla R

    2016-01-01

    When evaluating any health intervention, it is critical to include the impact of the intervention on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Among those who are obese, HRQL is often lower than the general population and even more when considering obesity-related comorbidities and bodily pain. The objectives of this paper were to determine the impact of a multidisciplinary, community-based obesity reduction program on HRQL and to determine the independent risk factors for lack of improvement from baseline to follow-up. HRQL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) at baseline and follow-up (24 weeks). To date, 84.5% of those who completed the program had improvements in their overall SF-36 score. Significant increases in the mean scores on eight dimensions of health were also observed. Lack of improvement was independently affected by smoking status (odds ratio 3.75; 95% confidence interval 1.44–9.78; P=0.007) and not having a buddy to attend the program (odds ratio 3.70; 95% confidence interval 1.28–10.68; P=0.015). Obesity reduction programs that target increasing exercise, improving diet, and cognitive behavioral therapy can positively impact HRQL in obese adults. Social support has a strong role to play in improving outcomes. PMID:27022273

  17. Early life stress impacts dorsolateral prefrontal cortex functional connectivity in healthy adults: informing future studies of antidepressant treatments

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Noah S.; Valentine, Thomas R.; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Price, Lawrence H.; Carpenter, Linda L.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress (ELS) is strongly associated with poor treatment outcomes, particularly for trauma-associated disorders such as depression. Little research to date, however, has examined the potential effects of ELS on outcomes with newer treatments, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). This study evaluated whether ELS exposure impacts resting state functional connectivity associated with brain regions targeted by rTMS. Twenty-seven medication-free adults without psychiatric or medical illness (14 with a history of at least moderate ELS) were scanned using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner during two 4-minute rest periods. The primary targets of rTMS, the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), were utilized as seed regions in connectivity analyses. Relative to controls, when seeding the left DLPFC, ELS subjects demonstrated significantly increased local connectivity with the left middle frontal gyrus and negative connectivity with the left precuneus. ELS status was also associated with negative connectivity from the right DLPFC to the left precuneus and left inferior parietal lobule. These findings demonstrate greater dissociation between the executive and default mode networks in individuals with a history of ELS, and these results may inform neuroimaging assessments in future rTMS studies of ELS-related conditions. PMID:24513500

  18. Growing Strong and Healthy with Mister Bone: An Educational Program to Have Strong Bones Later in Life.

    PubMed

    Pampaloni, Barbara; Cianferotti, Luisella; Gronchi, Giorgio; Bartolini, Elisa; Fabbri, Sergio; Tanini, Annalisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2015-12-01

    Optimal peak bone mass and bone health later in life are favored by a sufficient calcium intake in infancy, childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a new educational program created to monitor and to improve calcium and vitamin D intake in children. Nutritional habits in children were evaluated through a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess the intake of calcium, vitamin D, dairy products, and total caloric energy at baseline and after seven months of exposure to a unique educational program applied between November 2013 and May 2014 in 176 schoolchildren (48% male, 52% female) attending the fourth and fifth grades of two selected primary schools in Florence, Italy. A significant increase of calcium (from 870 ± 190 to 1100 ± 200 mg/day, p < 0.05), and vitamin D (from 3.6 ± 1.53 to 4.1 ± 2 µg/day) intake in children was documented after the educational program. The amount of specific foods important for bone health consumed, such as milk and vegetables, increased significantly, both in male and female children (p < 0.05). The proposed educational program appears to be effective in modifying calcium intake in children, with a significant increase in the consumption of dairy products and vegetables, but without a significant change in the total caloric intake. PMID:26633485

  19. Improving health-related quality of life through an evidence-based obesity reduction program: the Healthy Weights Initiative.

    PubMed

    Lemstra, Mark E; Rogers, Marla R

    2016-01-01

    When evaluating any health intervention, it is critical to include the impact of the intervention on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Among those who are obese, HRQL is often lower than the general population and even more when considering obesity-related comorbidities and bodily pain. The objectives of this paper were to determine the impact of a multidisciplinary, community-based obesity reduction program on HRQL and to determine the independent risk factors for lack of improvement from baseline to follow-up. HRQL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) at baseline and follow-up (24 weeks). To date, 84.5% of those who completed the program had improvements in their overall SF-36 score. Significant increases in the mean scores on eight dimensions of health were also observed. Lack of improvement was independently affected by smoking status (odds ratio 3.75; 95% confidence interval 1.44-9.78; P=0.007) and not having a buddy to attend the program (odds ratio 3.70; 95% confidence interval 1.28-10.68; P=0.015). Obesity reduction programs that target increasing exercise, improving diet, and cognitive behavioral therapy can positively impact HRQL in obese adults. Social support has a strong role to play in improving outcomes. PMID:27022273

  20. Growing Strong and Healthy with Mister Bone: An Educational Program to Have Strong Bones Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Pampaloni, Barbara; Cianferotti, Luisella; Gronchi, Giorgio; Bartolini, Elisa; Fabbri, Sergio; Tanini, Annalisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Optimal peak bone mass and bone health later in life are favored by a sufficient calcium intake in infancy, childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a new educational program created to monitor and to improve calcium and vitamin D intake in children. Nutritional habits in children were evaluated through a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess the intake of calcium, vitamin D, dairy products, and total caloric energy at baseline and after seven months of exposure to a unique educational program applied between November 2013 and May 2014 in 176 schoolchildren (48% male, 52% female) attending the fourth and fifth grades of two selected primary schools in Florence, Italy. A significant increase of calcium (from 870 ± 190 to 1100 ± 200 mg/day, p < 0.05), and vitamin D (from 3.6 ± 1.53 to 4.1 ± 2 µg/day) intake in children was documented after the educational program. The amount of specific foods important for bone health consumed, such as milk and vegetables, increased significantly, both in male and female children (p < 0.05). The proposed educational program appears to be effective in modifying calcium intake in children, with a significant increase in the consumption of dairy products and vegetables, but without a significant change in the total caloric intake. PMID:26633485

  1. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  2. Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 > Staying Healthy Font: What is Alpha-1? Emphysema Alpha-1 Symptoms Diagnosing Alpha-1 Current Treatments ... Healthy What can people with Alpha-1-related emphysema do to stay as healthy as possible? First ...

  3. Healthy doctors, healthy communities.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Donna; Katch, Ellen; Anderson, Patricia; Furlong, Mary A

    2004-01-01

    Promoting health and eliminating disease are goals of Healthy People 2010, a national initiative for all communities. Physician-directed interventions that advance these principles are most effective when directed by clinicians who regularly participate in such healthy behaviors themselves. This pilot study describes an 8-week intervention, "Well-being for You and Your Patients," for first-year medical students to experience health behavior change. In the 2-hour sessions, students set goals for changing health behavior in 6 dimensions of wellness; report their progress; and enjoy a 30-minute change-of-pace wellness activity. The authors recommend adapting the course for medical student alumni to facilitate health behavior change with small groups of adults, school-age children, teens, and elders in churches, schools, community health centers, and other community-based organizations. Through continuing medical education and Grand Rounds, residents and physicians in practice could also be trained to implement specific behavioral change strategies. PMID:15495745

  4. Healthy pets, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Wong, S K; Feinstein, L H; Heidmann, P

    1999-08-01

    Zoonoses, diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans, can pose serious health risks to immunocompromised people. Although pets can carry zoonoses, owning and caring for animals can benefit human health. Information exists about preventing transmission of zoonoses, but not all physicians and veterinarians provide adequate and accurate information to immunocompromised pet owners. This disease prevention/health promotion project provides physicians and veterinarians with information, created specifically to share with patients and clients, about the health risks and benefits of pet ownership. Further, "Healthy Pets, Healthy People" encourages communication between veterinarians, physicians, clients, and patients and can serve as a model program for a nation-wide effort to aid health professionals in making recommendations about pet ownership for immunocompromised people. PMID:10434969

  5. A comparison of muscle strength and endurance, exercise capacity, fatigue perception and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy subjects: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has significant systemic effects that substantially impact quality of life and survival. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare peripheral muscle strength and endurance, exercise capacity, fatigue perception and quality of life between patients with COPD and healthy subjects. Methods Twenty COPD patients (mean FEV1 49.3 ± 19.2%) and 20 healthy subjects were included in the study. Pulmonary function testing and six-minute walk test (6MWT) were performed. Peripheral muscle strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer, peripheral muscle endurance was evaluated with sit-ups, squats and modified push-ups tests. Fatigue perception was assessed using the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). General quality of life was determined with the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), and cough-specific quality of life was evaluated with the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). Results Pulmonary functions, strength of shoulder abductor and flexor muscles, numbers of sit-ups and squats, 6MWT distance and 6MWT% were significantly lower in COPD patients than in healthy subjects (p < 0.05). FIS psychosocial sub-dimension and total scores, NHP scores for all sub-dimensions except pain sub-dimension of the COPD group were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects (p < 0.05). The LCQ physical, psychological and social sub-dimensions and total scores were significantly lower in COPD patients than in healthy subjects (p < 0.05). Conclusions Pulmonary functions, peripheral muscle strength and endurance, exercise capacity and quality of life were adversely affected in patients with COPD. There are greater effect of fatigue on psychosocial functioning and general daily life activities and effect of cough on the quality of life in patients with COPD. This study supports the idea that COPD patients must be evaluated in a comprehensive manner for planning pulmonary

  6. In Search for the Genetic Basis of Quality of Life in Healthy Swedish Women—A GWAS Study Using the iCOGS Custom Genotyping Array

    PubMed Central

    Schoormans, Dounya; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Brandberg, Yvonne; Eriksson, Mikael; Zwinderman, Koos H.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Hall, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QoL) is increasingly measured in both research and clinical practice. QoL-assessments are built on a long, empirically-based, and stringent approach. There is ample evidence that QoL is, in part, heritable. We therefore performed a GWAS relating genetic variation to QoL in healthy females. Methods In 5,142 healthy females, background characteristics (e.g. demographic, clinical, lifestyle and psychological factors) and QoL by means of the EORTC QLQ-C30 were measured. Moreover, women were genotyped using a custom array including ~210,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Initially, SNPs were related to each QoL-domain, by means of partially adjusted (controlling for age and population stratification) and fully adjusted (controlling for age, population stratification, and background characteristics) regression analyses. Additionally, gene-based analyses were performed relating the combined effect of SNPs within each gene to QoL using the statistical software package VEGAS. Results None of the associations between QoL and genetic variation (i.e. individual SNPs and genes) reached the bonferroni corrected significance level. Conclusion Reasons for a lack of association between genetic markers and QoL could be low variation in QoL-scores; selecting genetic markers not tagging QoL; or that the genetic effect that impacts one’s QoL is mediated through biological pathways rather than the effect of single SNPs or genes. Therefore, we opt for a pathway-based or system biology approach as a complementary and powerful approach to analyze the combined effect of genes and their biological implications in future studies focusing on QoL-issues. PMID:26469178

  7. [Physical activity and healthy diet, weight perception and stress in adult population in Chile: analysis of the second quality of life and health survey 2006].

    PubMed

    Pablo Zavala, Juan; Leraç, Lydia; Vio, Fernando

    2010-12-01

    Chile had a rapid epidemiological and nutritional transition with an increase in risk factors for chronic diseases and obesity. Dietary changes have occurred, mostly an increase in consumption of foods high in fat, sugar and salt, as well as a decrease in physical activity. This has led to a marked increase in obesity rates. To learn more on these risk factors for chronic diseases, obesity and physical activity, the First Quality of Life and Health Survey (ECVS) was carried out in 2000, with a second version in 2006. The objective of this paper is to analyze, from data collected by the 2006 survey, the relationship of physical activity with the consumption of fruits, vegetables and dairy products, weight perception and stress. The 2006 survey included 6.210 subjects with a 10.8% of active population and 89.2% of sedentary people. The relationship of activity was determined with the consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, weight perception and stress, by sex and socioeconomic levels. Results show that more than 50% of the active subjects consume fruits and vegetables, and 50% consume dairy products every day, with a higher probability of active persons of consuming healthy foods than the sedentary ones. Besides, sedentary people perceive themselves with more overweight and obesity than the active subjects. There was no relationship between physical activity and stress. People with a higher socioeconomic level are more active and consume more healthy products. These results permit to elaborate targeted policies and programs to improve diet and physical activity in the Chilean population. PMID:21866680

  8. Correlation of Six-Minute Walking Performance with Quality of Life is Domain- and Gender-Specific in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Andrey Jorge; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo; Lanza, Fernanda; de Amorim Flandes, Camila; Silva, Shirley Cardoso; Suzuki, Frank Shiguemitsu; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Andrade, Erinaldo; Casarin, Cezar; Silva, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the relationship between performance on the 6-min walk test (6MWT) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older subjects. Our secondary aim was to determine the distance to be completed on the 6MWT for the subject to achieve a score of 50 on the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36). Associations were tested using linear correlation and multivariate linear regression. Participants were 130 healthy older individuals. The predictive performance of the 6MWT based on an SF-36 score of 50 was assessed using a receiver operating characteristic curve and its area under curve (AUC). Associations were observed between physical functioning, role-emotional, social functioning, vitality, general health score, and 6MWT performance in women, after adjusting for confounding variables (coefficients: 0.57, 0.38, 0.40, and 0.46, respectively; p < 0.05). No association was found for men. The distance for the 6MWT to predict an SF-36 score of 50 was 481 m for men in the physical functioning (AUC: 0.79) and role-physical (AUC: 0.84) domains, and 420 m for women in role-emotional (AUC: 0.75), role-physical (AUC: 0.80), and general health (AUC: 0.80) domains. Our results indicate that superior 6MWT performance may be associated with better HRQoL in several domains in only healthy older women. No association between 6MWT performance and role-emotional, mental health, or vitality domains was found. We suggest that a score of 50 is represented by a 6MWT distance of 481 m for men and 420 m for women, at least in the role-physical domain. PMID:25695668

  9. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M.

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual’s fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0–11 years) and late (12–18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life

  10. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M; Collip, Dina; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual's fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0-11 years) and late (12-18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life stress

  11. Colon cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  12. Sudarshan Kriya yoga improves quality of life in healthy people living with HIV (PLHIV): results from an open label randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Mawar, N.; Katendra, T.; Bagul, R.; Bembalkar, S.; Vedamurthachar, A.; Tripathy, S.; Srinivas, K.; Mandar, K.; Kumar, N.; Gupte, N.; Paranjape, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Improving quality of life (QOL) of healthy people living with HIV (PLHIV) is critical needing home-based, long-term strategy. Sudarshan Kriya yoga (SKY) intervention is acknowledged for its positive impact on health. It is hypothesised that SKY would improve PLHIV's QOL, justifying an evaluation. Methods: In this open label randomized controlled pilot trial, 61 adult PLHIV with CD4 count more than 400 cells/µl and Karnofsky scale score above 70 were enrolled. Those with cardiac disease, jaundice, tuberculosis, or on antiretroviral therapy/yoga intervention were excluded. All were given standard care, randomized to SKY intervention (31: I-SKY) and only standard of care in control (30: O-SOC) arms. The I-SKY participants were trained for six days to prepare for daily practice of SKY at home for 30 min. A validated 31-item WHOQOL-HIVBREF questionnaire was used to document effect in both arms from baseline to three visits at 4 wk interval. Results: Baseline QOL scores, hypertension and CD4 count were similar in both arms. An overall 6 per cent improvement of QOL scores was observed in I-SKY group as compared to O-SOC group, after controlling for baseline variables like age, gender, education and occupation (P =0.016); 12 per cent for physical (P =0.004), 11 per cent psychological (P =0.023) and 9 per cent level of independence (P =0.001) domains. Improvement in I-SKY observed at post-training and in the SKY adherence group showed increase in these two domains. Conclusions: A significant improvement in QOL scores was observed for the three health related QOL domains in SKY intervention arm. This low cost strategy improved physical and psychological state of PLHIV calling for upscaling with effective monitoring for sustainability of quality of life. PMID:25857500

  13. Kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae elimination from the intestines of human volunteers and effect of this yeast on resistance to microbial colonization in gnotobiotic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Pecquet, S; Guillaumin, D; Tancrede, C; Andremont, A

    1991-01-01

    When healthy volunteers were given a daily dose of 3 x 10(8) life-dehydrated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells for 5 days, the volunteers excreted 10(5) living yeast cells per g of feces at first, but the yeast cells disappeared within 5 days of the end of treatment. In gnotobiotic mice, S. cerevisiae administered alone colonized the intestinal tract but did not interfere with previous or subsequent colonization by a variety of potentially enteropathogenic microorganisms. When these microorganisms were present, the intestinal counts of S. cerevisiae were greatly reduced. PMID:1746964

  14. A prospective study of morbidity pattern and nutritional status of a group of healthy newborns during their first year of life in a rural area near Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, H M; el-Sherbini, A F; Fahmy, S I; Mortada, M M; Nosseir, S A; Elsahn, F F

    1991-01-01

    The present work was planned to study morbidity pattern and nutritional status of a group of healthy new borns in a rural area near Alexandria (Abbis II, VIII villages) through a prospective follow up approach. Eighty two infants were followed up for 12 months. Each infant was subjected to 15 visits within the first year of life. Morbidity was recorded either from mother's history, records from rural health centres or detected by the researcher and expressed as morbidity risk exposures based on a tested scoring system. Anthropometric standards issued by WHO were used to classify the children's length for age, weight for age and weight for length in terms of a cut off point of 2 SD below the median of that of the reference. Gomez classification was used to diagnose undernutrition and Waterlow system was used to diagnose growth stunting. Socioeconomic status of infants' families was also assessed. Results indicated a high prevalence of morbidity risk exposure, growth retardation and under nutrition with a tendency for gradual increase towards the end of the follow up. The results also proved that diarrheal diseases were still the most common illness among infants followed by respiratory tract infections. Investigation of the effects of socioeconomic status on morbidity risk exposure proved its significance at the end of the follow up. The results also illustrated a significant effect of morbidity risk exposure on the nutritional status at the end of the first year. PMID:1800623

  15. Breast cancer-specific intrusions are associated with increased cortisol responses to daily life stressors in healthy women without personal or family histories of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dettenborn, Lucia; James, Gary D; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B; Montgomery, Guy H; Bovbjerg, Dana H

    2006-10-01

    Studies indicate that women fear breast cancer more than any other disease and that women's levels of breast cancer-specific intrusions are related to their perceived risk of breast cancer. Here, we explore possible biological consequences of higher breast cancer risk perceptions and intrusions in healthy women without personal or family histories of the disease. We hypothesized that women with higher perceived risk would have more intrusions about breast cancer, which would constitute a background stressor sufficient to increase hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) responsivity to daily stress. HPA responses to an ordinary life stressor (work) were assessed in 141 employed women (age = 37.2+/-9.2) without personal or family histories of breast cancer. Urinary cortisol excretion rates were assessed with timed sample collections at work, home, and during sleep. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant Group by Time interaction with higher work cortisol levels in women with breast cancer-specific intrusions compared to women without intrusions (p < 0.02). Regression analyses revealed a significant association between risk perceptions and intrusions (p < 0.001). Regression analysis with intrusions and risk perceptions predicting work cortisol indicated a significant contribution of intrusions (p < 0.04), but not risk perceptions (p = 0.53). Overestimation of breast cancer risk is associated with higher levels of breast cancer-specific intrusions that can result in increased cortisol responsivity to daily stressors. This heightened responsivity could have long-term negative health implications. PMID:16944305

  16. Quality of Life, Stress, and Mental Health in Parents of Children with Parentally Diagnosed Food Allergy Compared to Medically Diagnosed and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL) and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA), medically diagnosed food allergy (MA), and a control group with no allergy (NA). Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population completed validated measures of QoL, anxiety, depression, and stress. Results. Parents of children with food allergy (PA or MA) reported higher stress, anxiety, and depression than the control group (all p < 0.05). Parents of children with MA reported poorer food allergy related QoL compared to parents of children with PA (p < 0.05); parents of children with PA reported poorer general QoL compared to parents of children with MA (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Parents of children with food allergy have significantly poorer mental health compared to healthy controls, irrespective of whether food allergy is medically diagnosed or not. It is important to encourage parents to have their child medically tested for food allergy and to recognise and refer for psychological support where needed. PMID:27429624

  17. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Clyde F

    2003-12-01

    A series of workshops were sponsored by the Physical Science Division of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research to address operational gravity-compliant in-situ resource utilization and life support techologies. Workshop participants explored a Mars simulation study on Devon Island, Canada; the processing of carbon dioxide in regenerative life support systems; space tourism; rocket technology; plant growth research for closed ecological systems; and propellant extraction of planetary regoliths. PMID:14696587

  18. Healthy world, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Mcmichael, T

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the challenges to human health from environmental degradation. The environment includes the social environment as well as the physical and chemical environment. Housing quality, recreation, population growth, density and mobility, social networks, and political and distributive equity also impact on health. There are well known examples of man-made disasters, such as in Bhopal, Chernobyl, and the Love Canal. What are less understood are the general conditions of poor health, low life expectancy, and early death due to polluted air, contaminated drinking water, and pesticide and other chemical contamination. An estimated 66% of diarrhea episodes are attributed to contaminated food or water. Health and vital statistics do not measure public health problems, such as declines in intelligence from lead ingestion from auto emissions. Epidemiological tracking of cause and effect of environmental contaminants is elusive. Some key features of environmental impact are the threshold effect, indirect pathways, and long-term and systems effects. Environmental hazards may deplete or disrupt natural biophysical processes that are the basic source of sustained good health. These basic systems include the food production system, the vector borne disease routes, global hydrological cycles, and the stratosphere. Gains in life expectancy have been due to declines in infectious disease mortality in early life, food security, improved hygiene and water sanitation, vaccination, and antibiotics and other medical treatments. Rapid technological change, acquisitive consumerism, ignorance of distant and deferred environmental impacts, and a free market ethic limit social advancement and ignore public health and environmental stresses. The scale of today's environmental problems requires priority setting and socially and ecologically sustainable ways of living. PMID:12321048

  19. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Training and Jobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  20. Complete colonic duplication in children

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghnejad Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad Tabari, Nasibeh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in 15% of gastrointestinal duplication. We report two cases of complete colonic duplications, and their characteristics. Case Presentation: We present two patients with complete colonic duplication with different types and presentations. Case 1: A 2- year old boy presented to the clinic with abdominal protrusion, difficulty to defecate, chronic constipation and mucosal prolaps covered bulging (rectocele) since he was 6 months old. The patient had palpable pelvic mass with doughy consistency. Rectal exam confirmed perirectal mass with soft consistency. The patient underwent a surgical operation that had total tubular colorectal duplication with one blind end and was treated with simple fenestration of distal end, and was discharged without complication. After two years follow up, he had normal defecation and good weight gain. Case 2: A 2 –day old infant was referred with imperforate anus and complete duplication of recto-sigmoid colon, diphallus, double bladder, and hypospadiasis. After clinical and paraclinical investigations, he underwent operations in several stages in different periods, and was discharged without complications. After four years follow up, he led a normal life. Conclusion: The patients with complete duplication have to be examined carefully because of the high incidence of other systemic anomalies. Treatment includes simple resection of distal common wall, fenestration, and repair other associated anomalies. PMID:24358440

  1. Stress System Dynamics during “Life As It Is Lived”: An Integrative Single-Case Study on a Healthy Woman

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Christian; Geser, Willi; Noisternig, Bianca; Fuchs, Dietmar; Welzenbach, Natalie; König, Paul; Schüßler, Gerhard; Ocaña-Peinado, Francisco M.; Lampe, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the dynamic characteristics of stress system activity during “life as it is lived”. Using as representative a study design as possible, this investigation sought to gain insights into this area. A healthy 25-year-old woman collected her entire urine over a period of 63 days in 12-h intervals (126 measurements) to determine cortisol and neopterin (immune activation marker) levels. In addition, she filled out questionnaires on emotional state and daily routine in 12-h intervals, and was interviewed weekly to identify emotionally negative and positive everyday incidents. Adjusted cross-correlational analyses revealed that stressful incidents were associated with cyclic response patterns in both urinary cortisol and urinary neopterin concentrations. Urinary cortisol levels first decreased 12–24 h after stressful incidents occurred (lag 1: −.178; p = 0.048) and then increased a total of 72–84 h later (lag 6: +.224; p = 0.013). Urinary neopterin levels first increased 0–12 h before the occurrence of stressful incidents (−lag 1: +.185; p = 0.040) and then decreased a total of 48–60 h following such stressors (lag 4: −.181; p = 0.044). Decreases in urinary neopterin levels were also found 24–36 and 48–60 h after increases in pensiveness (lag 2: −.215; p = 0.017) and depressiveness (lag 4: −.221; p = 0.014), respectively. Findings on emotionally positive incidents sharply contrasted with those dealing with negative experiences. Positive incidents were followed first by urinary cortisol concentration increases within 12 h (lag 0: +.290; p = 0.001) and then by decreases after a total of 60–72 h (lag 5: −.186; p = 0.039). Urinary neopterin levels first decreased 12–24 h before positive incidents occurred (−lag 2: −.233; p = 0.010) and then increased a total of 12–24 h following these incidents (lag 1: +.222; p = 0.014). As with previous investigations on patients with systemic

  2. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Minority or Poor Clinical Research Participants: Lessons From the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span Study

    PubMed Central

    Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer H.; Mason, Marc A.; Cromwell, Bridget C.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Investigating health disparities requires studies designed to recruit and retain racially and socioeconomically diverse cohorts. It is critical to address the barriers that disproportionately affect participation in clinical research by minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. This study sought to identify and rectify these barriers to recruit and retain a biracial (African American and non-Hispanic White) and socioeconomically diverse cohort for a longitudinal study. Design and Method: The Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study is a 20-year longitudinal examination of how race and socioeconomic status influence the development of age-related health disparities. One goal was to create a multifactorial recruitment and retention strategy. The recruitment paradigm targeted known barriers and identified those unique to the study's urban environment. The retention paradigm mirrored the recruitment plan but was based on specifically developed approaches. Results: This cohort recruitment required attention to developing community partnerships, designing the research study to meet the study hypotheses and to provide benefit to participants, providing a safe community-based site for the research and creating didactics to develop staff cultural proficiency. These efforts facilitated study implementation and enhanced recruitment resulting in accrual of a biracial and socioeconomically diverse cohort of 3,722 participants. Implications: Recruiting and retaining minority or poor research participants is challenging but possible. The essential facets include clear communication of the research hypothesis, focus on providing a direct benefit for participants, and selection of a hypothesis that is directly relevant to the community studied PMID:21565817

  3. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity in colonizing species.

    PubMed

    Lande, Russell

    2015-05-01

    I elaborate an hypothesis to explain inconsistent empirical findings comparing phenotypic plasticity in colonizing populations or species with plasticity from their native or ancestral range. Quantitative genetic theory on the evolution of plasticity reveals that colonization of a novel environment can cause a transient increase in plasticity: a rapid initial increase in plasticity accelerates evolution of a new optimal phenotype, followed by slow genetic assimilation of the new phenotype and reduction of plasticity. An association of colonization with increased plasticity depends on the difference in the optimal phenotype between ancestral and colonized environments, the difference in mean, variance and predictability of the environment, the cost of plasticity, and the time elapsed since colonization. The relative importance of these parameters depends on whether a phenotypic character develops by one-shot plasticity to a constant adult phenotype or by labile plasticity involving continuous and reversible development throughout adult life. PMID:25558898

  4. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990–2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age–sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development. Methods We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time. Findings Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6·2 years (95% UI 5·6–6·6), from 65·3 years (65·0–65·6) in 1990 to 71·5 years (71·0–71·9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5·4 years (4·9–5·8), from 56·9 years (54·5–59·1) to 62·3 years (59·7

  5. Elective colonic resection after acute diverticulitis improves quality of life, intestinal symptoms and functional outcome: experts' perspectives and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Forgione, Antonello; Guraya, Salman Yousuf

    2016-03-01

    The decision whether to operate for diverticular disease and the appropriate selection of right candidates for elective colectomy after recovery from an uncomplicated episode of acute diverticulitis remains controversial. Although both the impact of symptomatic disease and occurrence of its complications are extensively studied, there is no consensus about the role of elective colonic resection in the management of symptomatic recurrent diverticulitis. In this study, the database of ERIC, the Web of Science, EMBASE, and MEDLINE were searched for the English-language published articles about the functional outcomes and symptomatic improvement in patients after elective surgery for diverticular disease. A majority of clinical trials showed that elective surgery following a successful conservative treatment of acute diverticulitis resulted in significantly better social and functional well-being. In addition, elective surgery greatly reduces the potential events of disease recurrence, thus decreasing financial burden on the national health services. However, to obtain the best functional outcome surgical intervention must be individualized and tailored to meet every single patient's specific indigenous symptomatology. PMID:27015932

  6. Liver Colonization Competence Governs Colon Cancer Metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Tsong-Hong; Kubota, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Furukawa, Toshiharu; Teramoto, Tatuso; Ishibiki, Kyuya; Kitajima, Masaki; Rahim Moosa, A.; Penman, Sheldon; Hoffman, Robert M.

    1995-12-01

    Tumors that metastasize do so to preferred target organs. To explain this apparent specificity, Paget, >100 years ago, formulated his seed and soil hypothesis; i.e., the cells from a given tumor would "seed" only favorable "soil" offered by certain organs. The hypothesis implies that cancer cells must find a suitable "soil" in a target organ-i.e., one that supports colonization-for metastasis to occur. We demonstrate in this report that ability of human colon cancer cells to colonize liver tissue governs whether a particular colon cancer is metastatic. In the model used in this study, human colon tumors are transplanted into the nude mouse colon as intact tissue blocks by surgical orthotopic implantation. These implanted tumors closely simulate the metastatic behavior of the original human patient tumor and are clearly metastatic or nonmetastatic to the liver. Both classes of tumors were equally invasive locally into tissues and blood vessels. However, the cells from each class of tumor behave very differently when directly injected into nude mouse livers. Only cells from metastasizing tumors are competent to colonize after direct intrahepatic injection. Also, tissue blocks from metastatic tumors affixed directly to the liver resulted in colonization, whereas no colonization resulted from nonmetastatic tumor tissue blocks even though some growth occurred within the tissue block itself. Thus, local invasion (injection) and even adhesion to the metastatic target organ (blocks) are not sufficient for metastasis. The results suggest that the ability to colonize the liver is the governing step in the metastasis of human colon cancer.

  7. Significant impairment of health-related quality of life in mainland Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B: a cross-sectional survey with pair-matched healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Few studies have evaluated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in mainland China. We aimed at characterizing the impact of CHB on HRQoL in mainland Chinese and finding out factors associated with HRQoL. Methods 460 CHB patients (323 with CHB only, 54 with compensated cirrhosis and 83 with decompensated cirrhosis) and 460 pair-matched healthy controls were recruited in Xi’an city. They answered a structured questionnaire including the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2), the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ) (only for patients), and questions on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. A blood sample was collected from each of patients for liver function tests. SF-36v2 scores were compared between patients and controls overall and by groups by paired-samples t-test, and CLDQ scores and paired differences of SF-36v2 scores were compared among three patient groups by one-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test. Multi-variable linear regression analyses were performed to identify determinants of HRQoL in patients. Results Patients, overall and by groups had significantly lower SF-36v2 scores than controls on all summaries and domains, with differences higher than the suggested minimally important difference values. Both the SF-36v2 and the CLDQ showed that HRQoL of patients with cirrhosis further deteriorated, but compensated and decompensated cirrhosis patients had similar total HRQoL impairments. The gradually increasing impairment with disease progression was confirmed only on physical components. Impaired liver function and currently taken anti-viral treatment were associated with lower HRQoL. Education attainment and annual per capita household income had a positive effect on HRQoL. Conclusions Mainland Chinese CHB patients suffered significant HRQoL impairment on all health dimensions, and the impairment reached a high level on mental health at initial stage of illness and increased gradually on

  8. Social role participation and the life course in healthy adults and individuals with osteoarthritis: are we overlooking the impact on the middle-aged?

    PubMed

    Gignac, Monique A M; Backman, Catherine L; Davis, Aileen M; Lacaille, Diane; Cao, Xingshan; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2013-03-01

    Little is known about life course differences in social role participation among those with chronic diseases. This study examined role salience (i.e., importance), role limitations, and role satisfaction among middle- and older-aged adults with and without osteoarthritis (OA) and its relationship to depression, stress, role conflict, health care utilization and coping behaviours. Participants were middle- and older-aged adults with OA (n = 177) or no chronic disabling conditions (n = 193), aged ≥40 years. Respondents were recruited through community advertising and clinics in Ontario, Canada (2009-2010). They completed a 45-50 min telephone interview and 20 min self-administered questionnaire assessing demographics (e.g., age, gender); health (e.g., pain, functional limitations, health care utilization); the Social Role Participation Questionnaire (SRPQ) (role salience, limitations, satisfaction in 12 domains), and psychological variables (e.g., depression, stress, role conflict, behavioural coping). Analyses included two-way ANOVAs, correlations, and linear regression. Results indicated that middle-aged adults (40-59 years) reported greater role salience than older-aged adults (60 + years). Middle-aged adults with OA reported significantly greater role limitations and more health care utilization than all other groups. Middle-aged adults and those with OA also reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping efforts than older adults or healthy controls. Controlling for age and OA, those with higher role salience and greater role limitations reported more health care utilization. Those with greater role limitations and lower role satisfaction reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping. This study has implications for research and interventions, highlighting the need to characterize role participation as multidimensional. It points to the importance of taking into account the meaning of roles at

  9. [Irritable colon].

    PubMed

    Madsen, J R

    2001-08-20

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a chronic, relapsing functional bowel disorder of unknown aetiology. Methods of studying intestinal motor function, nociception, and interactions of the central nervous system and enteric nervous system are not applicable for clinical use. The diagnosis is therefore made on the symptoms, but it is necessary to exclude relevant organic disease. Establishment of the diagnosis, information about the disorder, elimination of foods and other factors that provoke the symptoms, and a change in life-style are sufficient in most cases. Treatment is hampered by the lack of effective treatment and the psychological aspects. The therapeutic gain of drug administration is modest and the rate of response to placebo is high. Fibre supplementation, magnesium oxide or cisapride may be tried for constipation, diphenoxylate or loperamide for diarrhoea, and low dose tricyclic antidepressants or serotonin reuptake blockers for severe pain. The introduction of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists seems promising. PMID:11530562

  10. Colon diverticula - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100158.htm Colon diverticula - series To use the sharing features on ... 6 out of 6 Normal anatomy Overview The colon, or large intestine, is a muscular tube that ...

  11. Colon cancer - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100157.htm Colon cancer - Series To use the sharing features on ... 5 out of 5 Normal anatomy Overview The colon, or large intestine, is a muscular tube that ...

  12. Healthy Children, Healthy Minds: Creating a Brighter Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebrun, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Children struggle with life today. Being children in the 21st century is both taxing and exciting, and yet trying to cope with all of the technology and media that surrounds them. How do we as adults provide good models? Mindfulness, exercise, focus and attention, and healthy living strategies need to play a role in shaping healthy children.…

  13. Colon cancer - Series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States. Risk factors include a diet low ... The treatment of colon cancer depends on the stage of the disease. Stage I cancer is limited to the inner lining of the colon; ...

  14. Healthy habits for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... less by the time it is over. Practice Healthy Eating Life gets busy and a lot of people ... Emotional eating, or eating for comfort rather than nutrition, can make a big difference in what and ...

  15. Rapid and repeatable shifts in life-history timing of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) following colonization of novel host plants in the Pacific Northwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Monte; Hood, Glen R; Feder, Jeffrey L; Ruedas, Luis A

    2015-12-01

    Host shifts of phytophagous insect specialists to novel plants can result in divergent ecological adaptation, generating reproductive isolation and potentially new species. Rhagoletis pomonella fruit flies in eastern North America underwent a host shift ~160 ya from native downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to introduced, domesticated apple (Malus domestica). Divergent selection on diapause phenology related to the earlier fruiting time of apples versus downy hawthorns resulted in partial allochronic reproductive isolation between the fly races. Here, we test for how rapid and repeatable shifts in life-history timing are driving ecological divergence of R. pomonella in the Pacific Northwestern USA. The fly was introduced into the region via larval-infested apples 40-65 ya and now attacks native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), in addition to early- and late-maturing apple varieties in the region. To investigate the life-history timing hypothesis, we used a field-based experiment to characterize the host-associated eclosion and flight activity patterns of adults, and the feeding times of larvae at a field site in Vancouver, Washington. We also assessed the degree to which differences in host-fruiting time generate allochronic isolation among apple-, black hawthorn-, and ornamental hawthorn-associated fly populations. We conclude that host-associated fly populations are temporally offset 24.4% to 92.6% in their seasonal distributions. Our results imply that R. pomonella possesses the capacity for rapid and repeatable shifts in diapause life history to match host-fruiting phenology, which can generate ecologically based reproductive isolation, and potentially biodiversity in the process. PMID:26811757

  16. Characteristics of a Healthy Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Phylis Lan

    The reason for studying the characteristics of a healthy family is to encourage and strengthen the family and to move toward an enriched family life by using the characteristics as bench marks. Six characteristics are discussed as the essence of a healthy family: (1) commitment; (2) togetherness; (3) appreciation; (4) good communication; (5)…

  17. Dynamics of Gut Microbiota According to the Delivery Mode in Healthy Korean Infants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun; Kim, Byoung Ju; Kang, Mi Jin; Choi, Kil Yong; Cho, Hyun Ju; Kim, Yeongho; Yang, Song I; Jung, Young Ho; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju Hee; Kwon, Ji Won; Kim, Hyo Bin; Lee, So Yeon; Hong, Soo Jong

    2016-09-01

    Microbial colonization of the infant gut is unstable and shows a wide range of diversity between individuals. Gut microbiota play an important role in the development of the immune system, and an imbalance in these organisms can affect health, including an increased risk of allergic diseases. Microbial colonization of young infants is affected by the delivery mode at birth and the consequent alterations of gut microbiota in early life affect the development of allergic diseases. We investigated the effects of the delivery mode on the temporal dynamics of gut microbiota in healthy Korean infants. Fecal samples were collected at 1-3 days, 1 month, and 6 months after birth in six healthy infants. Microbiota were characterized by 16S rRNA shotgun sequencing. At the first and third days of life, infants born by vaginal delivery showed a higher richness and diversity of gut microbiota compared with those born by cesarean section. However, these differences disappeared with age. The Bacteroides genus and Bacteroidetes phylum were abundant in infants born by vaginal delivery, whereas Bacilli and Clostridium g4 were increased in infants born by cesarean section. The Firmicutes phylum and Bacteroides genus showed convergent dynamics with age. This study demonstrated the effect of delivery mode on the dynamics of gut microbiota profiles in healthy Korean infants. PMID:27334787

  18. Colonic microbiome is altered in alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Ece A.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Rangwala, Huzefa; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Naqvi, Ammar; Engen, Phillip A.; Kwasny, Mary; Lau, Cynthia K.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies indicate the importance of colonic microbiota in metabolic and inflammatory disorders and importance of diet on microbiota composition. The effects of alcohol, one of the prominent components of diet, on colonic bacterial composition is largely unknown. Mounting evidence suggests that gut-derived bacterial endotoxins are cofactors for alcohol-induced tissue injury and organ failure like alcoholic liver disease (ALD) that only occur in a subset of alcoholics. We hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption results in alterations of the gut microbiome in a subgroup of alcoholics, and this may be responsible for the observed inflammatory state and endotoxemia in alcoholics. Thus we interrogated the mucosa-associated colonic microbiome in 48 alcoholics with and without ALD as well as 18 healthy subjects. Colonic biopsy samples from subjects were analyzed for microbiota composition using length heterogeneity PCR fingerprinting and multitag pyrosequencing. A subgroup of alcoholics have an altered colonic microbiome (dysbiosis). The alcoholics with dysbiosis had lower median abundances of Bacteroidetes and higher ones of Proteobacteria. The observed alterations appear to correlate with high levels of serum endotoxin in a subset of the samples. Network topology analysis indicated that alcohol use is correlated with decreased connectivity of the microbial network, and this alteration is seen even after an extended period of sobriety. We show that the colonic mucosa-associated bacterial microbiome is altered in a subset of alcoholics. The altered microbiota composition is persistent and correlates with endotoxemia in a subgroup of alcoholics. PMID:22241860

  19. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  20. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  1. Healthy Sexuality

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... t be afraid to talk with a health care professional. Everyone can achieve the healthy and satisfying ... site at www.asrm.org Find a Health Care Provider Back to Top Home | About Us | Reproductive ...

  2. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be ...

  3. Lucilia sericata strain from Colombia: Experimental colonization, life tables and evaluation of two artificial diets of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Bogotá, Colombia strain.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Luis C; Ortega, Luis G; Segura, Nidya A; Acero, Víctor M; Bello, Felio

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to establish, under experimental laboratory conditions, a colony of Lucilia sericata, Bogotá-Colombia strain, to build life tables and evaluate two artificial diets. This blowfly is frequently used in postmortem interval studies and in injury treatment. The parental adult insects collected in Bogotá were maintained in cages at 22°C±1 average temperature, 60%±5 relative humidity and 12 h photoperiodicity. The blowflies were fed on two artificial diets that were evaluated over seven continuous generations. Reproductive and population parameters were assessed. The life cycle of the species was expressed in the number of days of the different stages: egg = 0.8±0.1, larvae I = 1.1±0.02, larvae II = 1.94±0.16, larvae III = 3.5±0.54, pupae = 6.55±0.47, male adult = 28.7±0.83 and female adult = 33.5±1.0. Total survival from egg stage to adult stage was 91.2% for diet 1, while for diet 2 this parameter was 40.5%. The lifetime reproductive output was 184.51±11.2 eggs per female. The population parameters, as well as the reproductive output of the blowflies that were assessed, showed relatively high values, giving evidence of the continuous increase of the strain over the different generations and making possible its maintenance as a stable colony that has lasted for more than two years. PMID:21031265

  4. Colonic transit time is related to bacterial metabolism and mucosal turnover in the gut.

    PubMed

    Roager, Henrik M; Hansen, Lea B S; Bahl, Martin I; Frandsen, Henrik L; Carvalho, Vera; Gøbel, Rikke J; Dalgaard, Marlene D; Plichta, Damian R; Sparholt, Morten H; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Nielsen, H Bjørn; Pedersen, Oluf; Lauritzen, Lotte; Kristensen, Mette; Gupta, Ramneek; Licht, Tine R

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism and its importance for host health, although a firm stool consistency, a proxy for a long colonic transit time, has recently been positively associated with gut microbial richness. Here, we show that colonic transit time in humans, assessed using radio-opaque markers, is associated with overall gut microbial composition, diversity and metabolism. We find that a long colonic transit time associates with high microbial richness and is accompanied by a shift in colonic metabolism from carbohydrate fermentation to protein catabolism as reflected by higher urinary levels of potentially deleterious protein-derived metabolites. Additionally, shorter colonic transit time correlates with metabolites possibly reflecting increased renewal of the colonic mucosa. Together, this suggests that a high gut microbial richness does not per se imply a healthy gut microbial ecosystem and points at colonic transit time as a highly important factor to consider in microbiome and metabolomics studies. PMID:27562254

  5. Safe and Healthy Travel for Senior Citizens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Preparedness & Response Environmental Health Healthy Living Injury, Violence & Safety Life Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features ...

  6. Staphylococcus aureus colonization related to severity of hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Mernelius, S; Carlsson, E; Henricson, J; Löfgren, S; Lindgren, P-E; Ehricht, R; Monecke, S; Matussek, A; Anderson, C D

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge on Staphylococcus aureus colonization rates and epidemiology in hand eczema is limited. The aim of this study was to clarify some of these issues. Samples were collected by the "glove juice" method from the hands of 59 patients with chronic hand eczema and 24 healthy individuals. Swab samples were taken from anterior nares and throat from 43 of the 59 patients and all healthy individuals. S. aureus were spa typed and analysed by DNA-microarray-based genotyping. The extent of the eczema was evaluated by the hand eczema extent score (HEES). The colonization rate was higher on the hands of hand eczema patients (69 %) compared to healthy individuals (21 %, p < 0.001). This was also seen for bacterial density (p = 0.002). Patients with severe hand eczema (HEES ≥ 13) had a significantly higher S. aureus density on their hands compared to those with milder eczema (HEES = 1 to 12, p = 0.004). There was no difference between patients and healthy individuals regarding colonization rates in anterior nares or throat. spa typing and DNA-microarray-based genotyping indicated certain types more prone to colonize eczematous skin. Simultaneous colonization, in one individual, with S. aureus of different types, was identified in 60-85 % of the study subjects. The colonization rate and density indicate a need for effective treatment of eczema and may have an impact on infection control in healthcare. PMID:27193891

  7. Healthy Life Style Behaviors of University Students of School of Physical Education and Sports in Terms of Body Mass Index and Other Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozlar, Volkan; Arslanoglu, Cansel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors of students in the Schools of Physical Education and Sport (SPES) utilizing Body Mass Index (BMI) and other various variables. The study is composed of 1,695 students studying in SPES, in 14 different universities across Turkey. It is made up of 1,067 male and 624 female students.…

  8. Differences in colonic tone and phasic response to a meal in the transverse and sigmoid human colon.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, M J; Camilleri, M; Wiste, J A; Hanson, R B

    1995-01-01

    It is not yet clear whether the regional differences in the physical properties of the colon influence its motor responses. Tonic and phasic colonic motility and compliance of the transverse and sigmoid colon were therefore assessed using a combined barostat-manometry assembly in 22 healthy subjects. Measured colonic compliance was corrected by subtraction of the compliance of the closed barostat system. The mean (SEM) preprandial colonic volumes in the transverse and sigmoid colon were similar (150 (12) and 128 (13) ml, p = NS), corresponding to calculated mean (SEM) colonic diameters of 4.3 cm and 4.0 cm respectively. The mean increase in colonic tone postprandially was significantly greater in the transverse (24.1% (3.5)) than in the sigmoid colon (13.1% (3.0), p < 0.01). The mean increase in phasic contractility was significantly greater, however, in the sigmoid than in the transverse colon (1270 (210) and 425 (60) mm Hg/90 min respectively, p < 0.01). Compliance was greater in the transverse than sigmoid colon (7.6 (0.44) and 4.1 (0.15) ml/mm Hg, p < 0.001). The fasting volume of the colon was significantly correlated with the magnitude of the tonic response to the meal in the transverse and sigmoid colon (p < 0.001 for both). In conclusion, there are quantitatively different but qualitatively similar phasic and tonic responses to the meal in the two colonic regions. Differences in the viscoelastic and luminal dimensions may partly account for these differences in tonic responses. PMID:7557579

  9. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-01-01

    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health. PMID:24713325

  10. Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Institute on Aging at NIH Search form Search this site Menu Get Started Try These Exercises Go to My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating Sometimes it’s hard to make smart food choices . Here are some suggestions from Go4Life ...

  11. Dairy cattle serum and milk factors contributing to the risk of colon and breast cancers.

    PubMed

    zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2015-08-15

    The analysis of published epidemiological data on colon and breast cancer reveals a remarkable concordance for most regions of the world. A low incidence for both cancers has been recorded in Mongolia and Bolivia. Discrepant data, however, have been reported for India, Japan and Korea. In India, the incidence of breast cancer is significantly higher than for colon cancer, in Japan and Korea colon cancer exceeds by far the rate of breast cancer. Here, studies are summarized pointing to a species-specific risk for colon cancer after consumption of beef originating from dairy cattle. Uptake of dairy products of Bos taurus-derived milk cattle, particularly consumed at early age, is suggested to represent one of the main risk factors for the development of breast cancer. A recent demonstration of reduced breast cancer rates in individuals with lactose intolerance (Ji et al., Br J Cancer 2014; 112:149-52) seems to be in line with this interpretation. Species-specific risk factors for these cancers are compatible with the transmission of different infectious factors transferred via meat or dairy products. Countries with discordant rates of colon and breast cancer reveal a similar discordance between meat and milk product consumption of dairy cattle. The recent isolation of a larger number of novel presumably viral DNAs from serum, meat and dairy products of healthy dairy cows, at least part of them infectious for human cells, deserves further investigation. Systemic infections early in life, resulting in latency and prevention of subsequent infections with the same agent by neutralizing antibodies, would require reconsideration of ongoing prospective studies conducted in the adult population. PMID:25648405

  12. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preparing Food When the person with Alzheimer’s disease lives with you: • Buy healthy foods such as vegetables, fruits, and whole-grain products. ... When a person with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease lives alone, you can buy foods that the person doesn’t need to cook. ...

  13. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age. But you can make changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke and other serious diseases: Get ...

  14. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... of healthy foods, and limit calories and saturated fat Be physically active Control your blood pressure and cholesterol Don't smoke Protect yourself from too much sun Drink alcohol in moderation, or don't drink at all Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

  15. Healthy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  16. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... easy for kids to choose healthy snacks by keeping fruits and vegetables on hand and ready to eat. ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping ... Award-Winning Cafeteria Recipes Garden-Fresh Lunches Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Kid's Guide ...

  17. Triclosan Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Adnan K.; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G.; Boles, Blaise R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. PMID:24713325

  18. A Case of Sigmoid Colon Tuberculosis Mimicking Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seong-Min; Kim, Min-Dae; Lee, Hee-Ryong; Jung, Peel; Ryu, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Il-Seon

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the sigmoid colon is a rare disorder. An 80-year-old man visited Bongseng Memorial Hospital for medical examination. A colonoscopy was performed, and a lesion in the sigmoid colon that was suspected to be colon cancer was found. A biopsy was performed, and tuberculous enteritis with chronic granulomatous inflammation was diagnosed. Intestinal tuberculosis is most frequent in the ileocecal area, followed by the ascending colon, transverse colon, duodenum, stomach, and sigmoid colon, in descending order. Hence, we report a case of intestinal tuberculosis in the sigmoid colon, which is rare and almost indistinguishable from colon cancer. PMID:23185709

  19. A longitudinal study of the impact of chronic psychological stress on health-related quality of life and clinical biomarkers: protocol for the Australian Healthy Aging of Women Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite advancements in our understanding of the importance of stress reduction in achieving good health, we still only have limited insight into the impact of stress on cellular function. Recent studies have suggested that exposure to prolonged psychological stress may alter an individual’s physiological responses, and contribute to morbidity and mortality. This paper presents an overview of the study protocol we are using to examine the impact of life stressors on lifestyle factors, health-related quality of life and novel and established biomarkers of stress in midlife and older Australian women. The primary aim of this study is to explore the links between chronic psychological stress on both subjective and objective health markers in midlife and older Australian women. The study examines the extent to which exposure frightening, upsetting or stressful events such as natural disasters, illness or death of a relative, miscarriage and relationship conflict is correlated with a variety of objective and subjective health markers. Methods/Design This study is embedded within the longitudinal Healthy Aging of Women’s study which has collected data from midlife and older Australian women at 5 yearly intervals since 2001, and uses the Allostastic model of women’s health by Groër and colleagues in 2010. The current study expands the focus of the HOW study and will assess the impact of life stressors on quality of life and clinical biomarkers in midlife and older Australian women to explain the impact of chronic psychological stress in women. Discussion The proposed study hypothesizes that women are at increased risk of exposure to multiple or repeated stressors, some being unique to women, and the frequency and chronicity of stressors increases women’s risk of adverse health outcomes. This study aims to further our understanding of the relationships between stressful life experiences, perceived quality of life, stress biomarkers, chronic illness, and

  20. Role of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Virulence Factors in Colonization at the Bovine Terminal Rectal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Haiqing; Lim, Ji Youn; Knecht, Hannah J.; Li, Jie; Hovde, Carolyn J.

    2006-01-01

    The human pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes hemorrhagic colitis and life-threatening sequelae and transiently colonizes healthy cattle at the terminal rectal mucosa. This study analyzed virulence factors important for the clinical manifestations of human E. coli O157:H7 infection for their contribution to the persistence of E. coli in cattle. The colonizing ability of E. coli O157:H7 was compared with those of nonpathogenic E. coli K-12 and isogenic deletion mutants missing Shiga toxin (Stx), the adhesin intimin, its receptor Tir, hemolysin, or the ∼92-kb pO157. Fully ruminant steers received a single rectal application of one E. coli strain so that effects of mucosal attachment and survival at the terminal rectum could be measured without the impact of bacterial passage through the entire gastrointestinal tract. Colonization was monitored by sensitive recto-anal junction mucosal swab culture. Nonpathogenic E. coli K-12 did not colonize as well as E. coli O157:H7 at the bovine terminal rectal mucosa. The E. coli O157:H7 best able to persist had intimin, Tir, and the pO157. Strains missing even one of these factors were recovered in lower numbers and were cleared faster than the wild type. In contrast, E. coli O157:H7 strains that were missing Stx or hemolysin colonized like the wild type. For these three strains, the number of bacteria increased between days 1 and 4 postapplication and then decreased slowly. In contrast, the numbers of noncolonizing strains (K-12, Δtir, and Δeae) decreased from the day of application. These patterns consistently predicted long-term colonization or clearance of the bacteria from the bovine terminal rectal mucosa. PMID:16861656

  1. Differences in Sleep Quality and Health-Related Quality of Life in Young Adults with Allergies and Asthma and Their Healthy Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molzon, Elizabeth S.; Bonner, Margaret S.; Hullmann, Stephanie E.; Ramsey, Rachelle R.; Suorsa, Kristina I.; Chaney, John M.; Mullins, Larry L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the relationship between sleep quality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Participants: Participants were 501 undergraduate students with allergies (167), asthma + allergies (167), or with no history of a chronic illness (167) completed study measures from August 2011 to April 2012. Methods: The…

  2. Evaluation of psychosocial effects of pre-symptomatic testing for breast/ovarian and colon cancer pre-disposing genes: a 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Arver, Brita; Haegermark, Aina; Platten, Ulla; Lindblom, Annika; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2004-01-01

    A prospective study of psychosocial consequences following predictive testing for inherited mutations in breast/ovarian and colon cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1, BRCA2, MLH1, and MSH2 was performed. Eighty-seven healthy women were tested for known family mutations and self-assessment scales were used to evaluate anxiety, depression and quality of life. Extensive pre- and post-test information was given. Questionnaires were responded before testing and four times after during the following year. A statistically significant decrease in anxiety mean scores over time was observed among the studied participants. The levels of depression in cancer genes carriers decreased over time while, surprisingly the levels in non-carriers increased. Compared to a normative Swedish sample all women tested showed similar levels of anxiety but women tested for breast cancer genes showed statistically lower levels of depression. Vitality dropped initially after disclosure of the testing of colon cancer genes carriers, followed by increasing levels. No change in vitality or in other quality of life parameters was seen in the other groups and the levels were similar to Swedish norm data. Most tested individuals were satisfied with the testing procedure including genetic counselling and testing and all of them but one would redo the testing. Healthy self-referred women going through predictive breast/ovarian or colon cancer gene testing, including extensive pre- and post-test information and support, in general, will not experience adverse psychological consequences. PMID:15340261

  3. Wisconsin's Lifecourse Initiative for Healthy Families: application of the maternal and child health life course perspective through a regional funding initiative.

    PubMed

    Frey, Catherine A; Farrell, Philip M; Cotton, Quinton D; Lathen, Lorraine S; Marks, Katherine

    2014-02-01

    National experts are calling for more integrated approaches such as the life course perspective to reduce health disparities and achieve greater health equity. The translation and application of the life course perspective is therefore of great interest to public health planners, policy makers and funders to promote community-wide improvements in maternal and child health. However, few organizations have applied the life course perspective in designing strategic funding initiatives. For over three decades, Wisconsin has observed persistent racial disparities in birth outcomes. This complex public health issue led to the development of the Lifecourse Initiative for Health Families, a regional multi-million dollar funding initiative created and supported by the Wisconsin Partnership Program of the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health (Created by the UW SMPH from an endowment following the conversion of Blue Cross Blue Shield United of Wisconsin, the Partnership Program makes investments in research, education, and public health and prevention initiatives that improve health and reduce health disparities in the state.). Over a 2-year period, the program funded four collaboratives to adopt a life course perspective and develop strategic plans for improving African American birth outcomes. The Twelve-point plan to close the black-white gap in birth outcomes provided the framework for the planning process. Despite the conceptual challenges, the life course perspective was embraced by the collaboratives, challenged community assumptions on the root causes of poor birth outcomes and provided a unifying funding construct for organizing and planning complementary individual-level interventions with social and physical environmental change strategies. These integrated and complimentary approaches provide a long-term opportunity to address the persistent racial birth outcome disparity in Wisconsin. PMID:23595565

  4. [Serpins in hyperplastic colon tissue].

    PubMed

    Kit, O I; Frantsiiants, E M; Kozlova, L S; Terpugov, A L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to define α-2-macroglobulin (α-2M) and α-1-proteinase inhibitor (α-1PI) in tissues of malignant tumors and polyps of the lower parts of the colon. 28 patients had malignant tumors of the sigmoid colon or rectum (T3N0-1M0-2), 29 had polyps of the same location. Content of α-2M and α-1PI was studied in cytosols of the central, peripheral and conditionally healthy tissues (of resection line) of the mentioned hyperplasias by the ELISA method using standard test kits. Suppression of a-2M and increase of α-1PI (perifocal zone) were found in malignant tumor tissue, as well as α-1PI maintenance in tumorous focus. Increase of α-2M and decrease of α-1PI were detected in polyp tissue. Changes in physiological balance of serpins were assessed by α-1PI/α-2M ratio in comparison with the resection line. The risk of distortion of proliferation and differentiation processes increases in polyps in ineffective inhibition of proteolysis under the influence of released factors of malignancy. Endogenous or medicamentous restoration of balance of interaction of trypsin-like proteases and kallikrein with inhibitors will probably play the crucial role. PMID:25911925

  5. Diversity of the Human Skin Microbiome Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Capone, Kimberly A; Dowd, Scot E; Stamatas, Georgios N; Nikolovski, Janeta

    2011-01-01

    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first year of life, showing increasing diversity with age. Although early colonization is dominated by Staphylococci, their significant decline contributes to increased population evenness by the end of the first year. Similar to what has been shown in adults, the composition of infant skin microflora appears to be site specific. In contrast to adults, we find that Firmicutes predominate on infant skin. Timely and proper establishment of healthy skin microbiome during this early period might have a pivotal role in denying access to potentially infectious microbes and could affect microbiome composition and stability extending into adulthood. Bacterial communities contribute to the establishment of cutaneous homeostasis and modulate inflammatory responses. Early microbial colonization is therefore expected to critically affect the development of the skin immune function. PMID:21697884

  6. Heterogeneity in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lowsky, David J.; Olshansky, S. Jay; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For a surprisingly large segment of the older population, chronological age is not a relevant marker for understanding, measuring, or experiencing healthy aging. Using the 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2004 Health and Retirement Study to examine the proportion of Americans exhibiting five markers of health and the variation in health-related quality of life across each of eight age groups, we find that a significant proportion of older Americans is healthy within every age group beginning at age 51, including among those aged 85+. For example, 48% of those aged 51–54 and 28% of those aged 85+ have excellent or very good self-reported health status; similarly, 89% of those aged 51–54 and 56% of those aged 85+ report no health-based limitations in work or housework. Also, health-related quality of life ranges widely within every age group, yet there is only a comparatively small variation in median quality of life across age groups, suggesting that older Americans today may be experiencing substantially different age-health trajectories than their predecessors. Patterns are similar for medical expenditures. Several policy implications are explored. PMID:24249734

  7. Healthy carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional foods include dietary fiber consisting of health-promoting carbohydrates. We have produced novel prebiotics from orange peel and observed that they extend the shelf life of probiotic bacteria in synbiotics. Some pectic-oligosaccharides and xyloglucan-oligosaccharides also have anti-adhesi...

  8. Laparoscopic Colon Resection

    MedlinePlus

    ... inches to complete the procedure. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Colon Resection? Results may vary depending ... type of procedure and patient’s overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain May shorten hospital stay ...

  9. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... death and complications caused by colorectal cancer. SCREENING TESTS There are several ways to screen for colon ...

  10. Culture - colonic tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the large intestine. The cause may be bacteria, fungi, or viruses. ... bacteria Cytomegalovirus Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria Salmonella bacteria Shigella bacteria These organisms may lead to diarrhea or infections involving the colon.

  11. Transverse colon conduit diversion

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.D.; Buchsbaum, H.J.

    1986-05-01

    The versatility and other advantages of the transverse colon conduit for urinary diversion have been described and implemented in 50 patients. Because most patients considered for this procedure will be at high risk because of a history of significant pelvic irradiation, underlying malignancy, poor renal function, fistula, and so forth, the technical details of surgery and patient selection cannot be minimized. The transverse colon segment is indicated for primary supravesical diversion as well as for salvage of problems related to ileal conduits. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is an unlikely long-term complication of this form of diversion because the fecal stream is absent. Now that the transverse colon conduit has been used for more than 10 years, meaningful comparisons with ileal segments should soon be available.

  12. [Angiodysplasia of the colon].

    PubMed

    Bruni, R; Rossodivita, I; Santoro, M; La Banca, G; Rollo, R; Putti, R

    1990-01-01

    The Authors report their experience with a case of angiodysplasia of the colon. It is outlined how these lesions can be demonstrated by angiography and colonoscopy. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and management are discussed as well. PMID:2223469

  13. Evaluation of easy-to-read information material on healthy life-styles written with the help of citizens' collaboration through networking.

    PubMed

    Daghio, M Monica; Fattori, Giuseppe; Ciardullo, Anna V

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate if easy-to-read information material on the prevention of chronic-degenerative diseases through healthy lifestyle co-written by communicators, educators, physicians and citizens -using a networking strategy- could be judged comprehensible. Readability scores were computed. The survey involved 100 individuals attending our centralized booking centre for medical appointments during an "index week". They filled out an anonymous questionnaire, just before and after they had read the material. Readability and comprehensibility frequencies were calculated. The participants had a mean age of 59.1+/-15.1 (SD) years (range 19-81yrs), 62% were females. Twenty-six percent of them had received no education, 30% "primary", 28% "secondary", and 14% had a "degree". According to readability scores, the booklet was "readable" by all persons who had finished primary school. Of the 100 participants, 40 percent found the booklet's language to be "easy" or "very easy", 46% "sufficiently easy", and 14% "difficult" for laypersons to understand. Ninety-four percent of them found no unintelligible words in the text. Education levels showed no differences. Readers' answers were more correct after they had read the booklet. The pre-test showed that 61+/-26% of the readers answered the comprehensibility items correctly. After reading the booklet, 81+/-17% of them gave correct answers. The after-minus-before net increase in knowledge was +20% (95% CIs +8 to +32%). The booklet was designed and written using a networking strategy with the help of the local population. It was found to be easy to read and quite clear. PMID:17294709

  14. Nutrition as a part of healthy aging and reducing cardiovascular risk: improving functionality in later life using quality protein, with optimized timing and distribution.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Beryl M; Axford, Samantha

    2014-09-01

    Aging is associated with many physiological changes, which may in time lead to numerous pathophysiological outcomes, including adverse vascular events. For example, senescence of the immune system and cellular senescence both contribute to rising inflammation with age, potentially induced by the overall burden of comorbid illness, adipose tissue mass, diet, socioeconomic status, and physical activity. In turn, this chronic inflammation decreases physical and cognitive performance, and promotes sarcopenia and the syndrome of frailty. These events and others decrease the functionality of life as we age and include an increased risk of thrombosis and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In this review, we aim to overview the aging process primarily as related to functional impairment, and provide evidence for the role of protein, and specifically differential quality protein, in particular whey protein, and timing and distribution of intake, to help reduce some of the morbid effects of aging, including reducing obesity, improving glycemic control, and improving vascular function. PMID:25151523

  15. Peri-colonic haematoma following routine colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Page, Felicity; Adedeji, Olfunso

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We present a case of an extra-luminal haematoma following routine colonoscopy. This case highlights an uncommon but potentially life threatening complication in which there is little published literature to date. Presentation of case A 73 year old male presented with abdominal pain and a reduction in haemoglobin following an uneventful colonoscopy. The imaging had been required as part of colorectal cancer follow up. Initial differential diagnosis included colonic perforation and the patient was admitted for further investigations. Same day CT scan imaging revealed an extra-luminal haematoma in the mid descending colon. The patient was managed non-operatively and was discharged with antibiotics following a period of observation. Discussion Colonoscopy is a highly effective imaging modality for direct visualisation of the lower gastrointestinal tract and for simultaneous diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. In recent years the use of colonoscopy has increased greatly, this is largely due to an increasingly aging population, increased availability of the resource and as a consequence of the implementation of the Bowel Cancer Screening Programme. Extra-colonic bleeding following colonoscopy is rare. Causes that have been identified in the literature include splenic injury, mesenteric tears, hepatic injury and retroperitoneal haemorrhage. To the authors' knowledge, there is very little published literature specifically on isolated peri-colonic haematomas following colonoscopy. Conclusion This case highlights an unusual but potentially life threatening complication following colonoscopy. Endoscopists and clinicians should be aware of the diagnosis to allow for early recognition and appropriate management. PMID:26900460

  16. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which mod...

  17. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  18. Clinical Features and Colonic Motor Disturbances in Chronic Megacolon in Adults

    PubMed Central

    O'Dwyer, Ralph Hurley; Acosta, Andrés; Camilleri, Michael; Burton, Duane; Busciglio, Irene; Bharucha, Adil E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic megacolon is a rare disease of the colonic motor function characterized by a permanent increase in colonic diameter. Methods We reviewed electronic medical records of all patients diagnosed with chronic megacolon from 1999 to 2014 at Mayo Clinic. Our aim was to summarize clinical and motility features, including colonic compliance and tone measured by colonic barostat-controlled 10cm long infinitely compliant balloon. Colonic compliance curves were compared to healthy (40) and disease (47) control groups. Results Among 24 identified patients, the mean maximal colonic diameter on abdominal radiograph was 12.7±0.8cm. The cause of megacolon was idiopathic in 16/24, and secondary in 8/24. A relatively high prevalence (10/24) of comorbid pelvic floor dyssynergia was identified. At the time of this report, 16 patients had undergone colectomy. In general, megacolon presented high fasting colonic volume at relatively low pressures (16-20mmHg), suggesting high colonic compliance; similarly, volumes at operating pressures that ensured apposition of the balloon to the colonic wall suggested low colonic tone. Median balloon volume at 44mmHg distension was 584mL (IQR 556.5-600) in patients with megacolon compared to 251mL (212-281) in healthy, 240mL (207-286) in functional constipation and 241mL (210.8-277.5) in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome controls. Colon's tonic response to feeding was generally intact, and there was frequently maintained phasic contractile response to feeding. Conclusions Chronic megacolon is a severe colonic dysmotility, manifesting radiologically with increased colonic diameter; it can be proven by measuring colonic compliance, and typically requires colectomy because of failed medical therapy. PMID:25868630

  19. Life satisfaction in young adults 10 or more years after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for childhood malignant and nonmalignant diseases does not show significant impairment compared with healthy controls: a case-matched study.

    PubMed

    Uderzo, Cornelio; Corti, Paola; Pappalettera, Marco; Baldini, Valentina; Lucchini, Giovanna; Meani, Dario; Rovelli, Attilio

    2012-11-01

    Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may experience physical and psychological deterioration that impairs their life satisfaction (LS). This study focused on LS in long-term survivors at 10 or more years after HSCT. Fifty-five patients (39 males, median age 25 years) undergoing allogeneic HSCT for childhood malignant (n = 52) or nonmalignant diseases (n = 3) were enrolled. A control group of 98 young adults (59 males, median age 24 years) was considered. A questionnaire with a modified Satisfaction Life Domain Scale was administered. We assessed such domains as education, employment, leisure time, social relationships, and perception of physical status with a 30-item questionnaire. To investigate the association between the domains and the probability of diminished LS, we performed a logistical procedure using the maximum likelihood method. Predictive factors of LS were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. In the multivariate analysis, the participant's level of LS was not significantly correlated with sociodemographic factors or with HSCT status. The same analysis showed a slight trend in favor of the control group (P = .06) for body perception. Our data suggest that the patients who undergo HSCT in childhood have no significant difference in long-term LS compared with healthy controls. PMID:22766222

  20. Colonic mass movements in idiopathic chronic constipation.

    PubMed Central

    Bassotti, G; Gaburri, M; Imbimbo, B P; Rossi, L; Farroni, F; Pelli, M A; Morelli, A

    1988-01-01

    As relatively little is known of human colonic motor activity either in health, or in pathological conditions, we investigated mass movements in 14 chronically constipated patients and 18 healthy volunteers. Mass movements were recorded from proximal and distal colon during 24 h (12 noon-12 noon) by a colonoscopically positioned multilumen manometric probe and low compliance infusion system. Patients and controls differed significantly in the number (mean 2.6 (0.7) v 6.1 (0.9) (SE), p = 0.02) and duration (mean 8.2 (1.6) v 14.1 (0.8) s, p = 0.04) of mass movements. The data suggest that one pathophysiological mechanism of constipation may be decreased propulsive activity. A circadian pattern, with a significant difference between day and night distribution, was documented in both groups. The patients reported decreased defecatory stimulus concomitant with the mass movements. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3197990

  1. Regeneration, health status and quality of life after rhG-CSF-stimulated stem cell collection in healthy donors: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Leitner, G C; Baumgartner, K; Kalhs, P; Biener, D; Greinix, H T; Hoecker, P; Worel, N

    2009-03-01

    Mobilized allogeneic PBPC are increasingly used instead of BM for allogeneic stem cell grafting. Although the short-term safety profile of recombinant human (rh)G-CSF seems acceptable, only minimal data on long-term safety are available. We therefore reviewed data on 171 sibling donors (M/F: 98/73) with respect to side effects of rhG-CSF and PBPC collection and impact on quality of life (QoL) and health status. In a cross-sectional study, we investigated the actual QoL and health status of the donors as well as the need for medical treatment since PBPC donation by a questionnaire that was sent to 151 donors. Ninety-five (64%) of the addressed donors responded to the questionnaire, but only 69 (46%) of them reported on their actual health status and QoL, which was good to very good in the majority of them. Two donors developed malignancies in the post-donation course. In general, PBPC collection after rhG-CSF mobilization was well tolerated by the responding donors. Although the reported events in medical history after PBPC donation do not seem to be associated with rhG-CSF administration or the collection procedure, a lifelong follow-up of donors should be obligatory. PMID:18936736

  2. Microvascular circulation of the ascending colon in horses.

    PubMed

    Snyder, J R; Tyler, W S; Pascoe, J R; Olander, H J; Bleifer, D R; Hinds, D M; Neves, J W

    1989-12-01

    Microvascular circulation of the ascending colon in healthy horses was studied using microangiography, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The pelvic flexure with 30 cm of ventral and dorsal colon attached was removed from 14 adult horses immediately after horses were euthanatized. The lumen was flushed with warm water, and this section of the ascending colon was placed in a 37-C bath of isotonic NaCl. In sections from 8 horses, colic vessels were perfused with a radio-opaque medium for microangiography. After angiographic evaluation, tissue sections were prepared for light microscopic observation, using standard histologic methods. In sections from 6 horses, injection replicas were made by perfusing the vessels with 2 types of plastics. The results of microangiography, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy of vascular replicas were correlated, providing a comprehensive documentation of the microvasculature of the ascending colon at the pelvic flexure. Arteries branched from mesenteric colic vessels approximately every 2 cm toward the colonic tissue. Immediately after branching, arterial vessels formed an anastomotic plexus, the colonic rete. However, each branch from the colic vessel eventually continued into the colonic tissue. A second set of vessels originated from the colonic tissue. A second set of vessels originated from the colonic rete and supplied the mesenteric lymph nodes. Arterial vessels penetrated the tunica muscularis into the submucosa 3 to 4 cm toward the antimesenteric border forming a submucosal vascular network. From the submucosal arterioles, branching took place at right angles to supply the mucosal capillaries. Capillaries surrounded the colonic glands and anastomosed at the luminal surface, forming a superficial luminal honeycomb-appearing vascular plexus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2610433

  3. Advances in understanding colonic function.

    PubMed

    Milla, Peter J

    2009-04-01

    The colon is an organ of conservation that salvages water, electrolytes, and energy. The organization of colonic function is determined by the roles played by the luminal flora, the function of the different mucosal epithelial cell types, immunocompetent cells, and the neuromusculature. These different components of the colon interact with one another and with the colonic flora, and different areas of the colon serve different functions. In the normal adult during the course of a day the colon absorbs approximately 1.5 L of fluid, but under the influence of aldosterone increases up to 5 to 6 L. Diarrhoea occurs when secretion exceeds absorptive processes by either small intestinal secretion overwhelming colonic salvage or salvage being impaired by reduced colonic absorption or increased colonic secretion. PMID:19300122

  4. Hyperventilation, central autonomic control, and colonic tone in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, M J; Camilleri, M J; Hanson, R B; Wiste, J A; Joyner, M J

    1995-01-01

    Symptoms attributable to hyperventilation are common among patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); indeed, some have suggested that hyperventilation may exacerbate the alimentary symptoms of IBS. Hyperventilation changes haemodynamic function through central and peripheral mechanisms; its effects on colonic motor function, however, are unknown. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess the effects of hyperventilation on colonic tone and motility and on cardiovascular autonomic activity, and to discover if hypocapnia was critical to elicit the response. Phasic and tonic motility of the transverse and sigmoid colon, end tidal PCO2, pulse rate, and beat to beat pulse variability were assessed before, during, and after a five minute period of hypocapnic hyperventilation in 15 healthy volunteers; in seven other subjects, effects of both eucapnic and hypocapnic hyperventilation were evaluated. Hypocapnic but not eucapnic hyperventilation produced an increase in colonic tone and phasic contractility in the transverse and sigmoid regions and an increase in pulse rate and pulse interval variability. The findings are consistent with inhibition of sympathetic innervation to the colon or direct effects of hypocapnia on colonic smooth muscle, or both. These physiological gut responses suggest that some of the changes in colonic function are caused by altered brain or autonomic control mechanisms. PMID:7489935

  5. Hierarchical spatial structure of stream fish colonization and extinction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitt, N.P.; Roberts, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial variation in extinction and colonization is expected to influence community composition over time. In stream fish communities, local species richness (alpha diversity) and species turnover (beta diversity) are thought to be regulated by high extinction rates in headwater streams and high colonization rates in downstream areas. We evaluated the spatiotemporal structure of fish communities in streams originally surveyed by Burton and Odum 1945 (Ecology 26: 182-194) in Virginia, USA and explored the effects of species traits on extinction and colonization dynamics. We documented dramatic changes in fish community structure at both the site and stream scales. Of the 34 fish species observed, 20 (59%) were present in both time periods, but 11 (32%) colonized the study area and three (9%) were extirpated over time. Within streams, alpha diversity increased in two of three streams but beta diversity decreased dramatically in all streams due to fish community homogenization caused by colonization of common species and extirpation of rare species. Among streams, however, fish communities differentiated over time. Regression trees indicated that reproductive life-history traits such as spawning mound construction, associations with mound-building species, and high fecundity were important predictors of species persistence or colonization. Conversely, native fishes not associated with mound-building exhibited the highest rates of extirpation from streams. Our results demonstrate that stream fish colonization and extinction dynamics exhibit hierarchical spatial structure and suggest that mound-building fishes serve as keystone species for colonization of headwater streams.

  6. Urinary Tract Infection In Young Healthy Women Following Heterosexual Anal Intercourse: Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Lema, Valentino M

    2015-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in outpatient clinical settings globally. Young healthy women are at highest risk of community-acquired UTI. While uncomplicated UTI is not life-threatening, it is associated with high morbidity and treatment costs. The pathogenesis of urinary tract infection in young healthy women is complex. It is influenced by a number of host biological and behavioural factors and virulence of the uropathogen. The infecting uropathogens in community-acquired UTI originate from the fecal flora, E. coli being the most predominant, accounting for 80-90% of these UTIs. Vaginal colonization with uropathogens, a pre-requisite for bladder infection may be facilitated by sexual intercourse, which has been shown to be a strong risk factor and predictor of UTI. While majority of studies have explored the association between heterosexual vaginal intercourse and UTI in healthy young women, the possible association with heterosexual receptive anal intercourse has not received adequate attention despite evidence of high prevalence globally. This paper presents two young healthy married women who had severe UTI following heterosexual anal intercourse and discusses possible association thereof. Understanding the risk factors for UTI and identification of possible predisposing conditions in a particular individual are important in guiding therapeutic approaches and preventive strategies. Cognisant of reportedly high prevalence of various sexual practices including receptive heterosexual anal intercourse and their impact on individuals' health, details on sexual history should always be enquired into in young women presenting with genito-urinary complaints. PMID:26506666

  7. Healthy Cities: a guide to the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Kenzer, M

    2000-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on attempts by city governments, international agencies, and nongovernmental and community organizations to improve city life around the world through Healthy Cities projects. PMID:10968770

  8. The Superior Sleep of Healthy Elderly Nuns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Carolyn C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared nocturnal sleep structure of 10 healthy elderly nuns to that of 10 healthy age-matched female controls. The nuns fell asleep more quickly and had less early morning awakening, as well as greater rapid eye movement sleep time. These differences may reflect the more highly entrained life style of the nuns, including modest habitual sleep…

  9. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Cetinyurek Yavuz, Aysun; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to support the

  10. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rocio; Makino, Hiroshi; Cetinyurek Yavuz, Aysun; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to support the