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Sample records for healthy newborn infants

  1. Hospital stay for healthy term newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Benitz, William E

    2015-05-01

    The hospital stay of the mother and her healthy term newborn infant should be long enough to allow identification of problems and to ensure that the mother is sufficiently recovered and prepared to care for herself and her newborn at home. The length of stay should be based on the unique characteristics of each mother-infant dyad, including the health of the mother, the health and stability of the newborn, the ability and confidence of the mother to care for herself and her newborn, the adequacy of support systems at home, and access to appropriate follow-up care in a medical home. Input from the mother and her obstetrical care provider should be considered before a decision to discharge a newborn is made, and all efforts should be made to keep a mother and her newborn together to ensure simultaneous discharge. PMID:25917993

  2. [Resuscitation of newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, Kilian; Leonhardt, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    Successful resuscitation of newborn infants depends on adequate preparation, exact evaluation and prompt initiation of support according to the recently updated recommendations by trained personnel. The key step in postnatal adaptation is the initiation of breathing with a subsequent increase in pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary gas exchange. Therefore, in compromised newborn infants, adequate ventilation is the most important step in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ventilation should be initiated with room air in term infants and with low concentrations of supplemental oxygen in preterm infants. Subsequently, oxygen supplementation should always be guided by pulse oximetry. Chest compressions are only effective if adequate ventilation has been ensured. The compression ventilation ratio remains 3:1. The prevention of heat loss and maintaining a normal body temperature by adequate measures is an essential part of the care for healthy as well as asphyxiated infants. Therapeutic hypothermia should only be initiated after successful resuscitation and consultation with the regional neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:21815119

  3. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Elizabeth R; Anderson, Gene C; Bergman, Nils; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background Mother-infant separation postbirth is common in Western culture. Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and involves placing the naked baby, head covered with a dry cap and a warm blanket across the back, prone on the mother’s bare chest. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neurobehaviors ensuring fulfillment of basic biological needs. This time may represent a psychophysiologically ‘sensitive period’ for programming future physiology and behavior. Objectives To assess the effects of early SSC on breastfeeding, physiological adaptation, and behavior in healthy mother-newborn dyads. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 November 2011), made personal contact with trialists, and consulted the bibliography on kangaroo mother care (KMC) maintained by Dr. Susan Ludington. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials comparing early SSC with usual hospital care. Data collection and analysis We independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Main results Thirty-four randomized controlled trials were included involving 2177 participants (mother-infant dyads). Data from more than two trials were available for only eight outcome measures. For primary outcomes, we found a statistically significant positive effect of early SSC on breastfeeding at one to four months postbirth (13 trials; 702 participants) (risk ratio (RR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06 to 1.53, and SSC increased breastfeeding duration (seven trials; 324 participants) (mean difference (MD) 42.55 days, 95% CI −1.69 to 86.79) but the results did not quite reach statistical significance (P = 0.06). Late preterm infants had better cardio-respiratory stability with early SSC (one trial; 31 participants) (MD 2.88, 95% CI 0.53 to 5.23). Blood glucose 75 to 90 minutes following the birth was

  4. Crying in Newborn and Young Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelsson, Katarina

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the reasons that newborns and young infants cry, the communicative effect and perception of crying, crying in sick and healthy infants, the sound spectograph, and crying for the use of clinical diagnostics. (RJC)

  5. A comparison of hexachlorophene and lactacyd on growth of skin flora in healthy term newborn infants.

    PubMed

    McHattie, J C; Crossan, M; Talukdar, C; Elder, R; Murdock, A I

    1974-06-01

    Reports of toxicity from the routine bathing of newborn infants with hexachlorophene resulted in discontinuing its use in the newborn nurseries of the Ottawa Civic Hospital, only to be followed by an outbreak of skin infections. As a result, a controlled trial of bathing newborn babies with either Lactacyd or pHisoHex was begun. The efficacy of the soaps was evaluated by comparing the colonization of the nose and umbilical cords of 158 pHisoHex-washed babies and 156 Lactacyd-washed babies on the day of discharge from hospital. The gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial flora of nose and cord of infants washed with pHisoHex and Lactacyd were identical in frequency and distribution. PMID:4834430

  6. [Seizures in newborn infant].

    PubMed

    Eskola, Vesa; Jäntti, Ville; Eriksson, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Seizures in newborn infants are common. The may constitute a neurologic emergency or a nonepileptic, harmless symptom. Diagnostics is becoming more specific with current methodologies. Detailed description of seizures and their connection with EEG abnormalities are the diagnostic cornerstones. The treatment has made slow progress, but newer antiepileptic drugs may aid in the treatment of epileptic seizures in newborn infants in the future. For the time being, evidence-based research results for them are lacking, as well as data on long-term effects. Differential diagnosis of seizures has become increasingly important. PMID:21188877

  7. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... energy and nutrients that babies need to be healthy. For a baby, breast milk is best. It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and 6 months of ...

  8. Thrombosis in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Bacciedoni, Viviana; Attie, Myriam; Donato, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of thrombosis is higher among newborn infants than in any other stage of pediatric development. This fact is the consequence of labile characteristics of the neonatal hemostatic system, in addition to exposure to multiple risk factors and the wide use of vascular catheters. Venous thromboses, which mainly affect the limbs, the right atrium and renal veins, are more frequently seen than arterial thromboses. A stroke may be caused by the occlusion of the arterial flow entering the brain or by occlusion of its venous drainage system. Purpura fulminans is a very severe condition that should be treated as a medical emergency, and is secondary to severe protein C deficiency or, less frequently, protein S or antithrombin deficiency. Most thrombotic events should be managed with antithrombotic therapy, which is done with unfractionated and/or low molecular weight heparins. Purpura fulminans requires protein C replacement and/or fresh frozen plasma infusion. Thrombolytic therapy is done using tissue plasminogen activator and should only be used for life-, or limb-, or organ-threatening thrombosis. PMID:27079395

  9. Newborn Infants Orient to Sounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Darwin; Field, Jeffrey

    1979-01-01

    In two experiments, the majority of 21 newborn infants who were maintained in an alert state consistently turned their heads toward a continuous sound source presented 90 degrees from midline. For most infants, this orientation response was rather slow, taking median latencies of 2.5 seconds to begin and 5.5 seconds to end. (JMB)

  10. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

  11. Infant - newborn development

    MedlinePlus

    ... holding a hand; may take few steps alone SENSORY DEVELOPMENT Hearing, begins before birth, and is mature at birth. The infant prefers the human voice. Touch, taste, and smell, mature at birth; ...

  12. Infant - newborn development

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye-muscle control allows the infant to track objects Begins to control hand and feet actions, but ... unable to coordinate the grasp, but swipes at objects to bring them closer Increased vision allows the ...

  13. Newborn infant skin: physiology, development, and care.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O; Adam, Ralf; Brink, Susanna; Odio, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Infant skin is critical to the newborn child's transition from the womb environment to the journey to self-sufficiency. This review provides an integrative perspective on the skin development in full term and premature infants. There is a particular focus on the role of vernix caseosa and on the implications of skin development for epidermal penetration of exogenous compounds. Healthy full-term newborn skin is well-developed and functional at birth, with a thick epidermis and well-formed stratum corneum (SC) layers. Transepidermal water loss is very low at birth, equal to, or lower than adults, indicating a highly effective skin barrier. Vernix facilitates SC development in full-term infants through a variety of mechanisms including physical protection from amniotic fluid and enzymes, antimicrobial effects, skin surface pH lowering, provision of lipids, and hydration. Premature infants, particularly those of very low birth weight, have a poor skin barrier with few cornified layers and deficient dermal proteins. They are at increased risk for skin damage, increased permeability to exogenous agents and infection. The SC barrier develops rapidly after birth but complete maturation requires weeks to months. The best methods for caring for infant skin, particularly in the diaper region, are described and related to these developmental changes. PMID:25889127

  14. Healthy Start, Grow Smart: Your Newborn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet offers guidance to parents in caring for their newborn babies. Advice is given on the following topics: (1) newborn health screening; (2) what a healthy newborn looks like; (3) newborn reflexes; (4) baby checkups; (5) fathers' role; (6) the baby blues; (7) sleeping position; (8) breast milk; (9) breast feeding; (10) bottle feeding;…

  15. Septicaemia in newborns and infants.

    PubMed

    Pettay, O

    1982-01-01

    In the lifespan of a human being the two extremes, the early childhood and old age are prone to septicaemia because of poorly functioning anti-infectious defensive mechanisms. In a newborn full term baby these mechanisms are all present but still unexperienced. The importance of both specific and nonspecific factors will be discussed. The etiologic agents, causing septicaemia in nurseries undergo continuous change. In Helsinki we have during the last 20 years experienced staphylococci to start with, changing then to Gram-negative rods, to streptococci group B and now we have increasing difficulties with hospital infections. In the treatment of these children antibiotics alone are not sufficient but repeated exchange transfusions and granulocyte transfusions are needed. In infants after the first month of life, septicaemias produce a clinical picture different from that in newborns but still different also from that in adults. Also in this age group a shift in etiology has been observed. Increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents in the bacteria encountered makes a reconsideration of therapeutic schemes necessary. PMID:7048513

  16. The aetiology of diarrhoea in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Bishop, R F; Cameron, D J; Barnes, G L; Holmes, I H; Ruck, B J

    1976-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a common problem in newborn infants in hospital nurseries. In the past, sporadic diarrhoea was often attributed to dietary indiscretion by the mother, and epidemic diarrhoea was though to be caused by an unknown infectious agent. Techniques with which to locate non-cultivable viruses and untypable enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli allow reevaluation of the aetiology of diarrhoea in newborn infants. Preliminary results from Melbourne, Australia, suggest that most diarrhoea in newborn infants is induced by a specific infectious agent. During 1975 the agent most often identified from sporadic and epidemic diarrhoea in hospital nurseries was a reovirus-like particle ("duovirus"). Enterotoxin-producing strains of E. coli were rarely isolated. Future attempts to protect newborn infants from developing diarrhoea must be based on an accurate understanding of the aetiology of this disease. PMID:186236

  17. Nutritional management of newborn infants: Practical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Ben, Xiao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    The requirements of growth and organ development create a challenge in nutritional management of newborn infants, especially premature newborn and intestinal-failure infants. Since their feeding may increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, some high-risk infants receive a small volume of feeding or parenteral nutrition (PN) without enteral feeding. This review summarizes the current research progress in the nutritional management of newborn infants. Searches of MEDLINE (1998-2007), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2007), abstracts and conference proceedings, references from relevant publications in the English language were performed, showing that breast milk is the preferred source of nutrients for enteral feeding of newborn infants. The number of nutrients found in human milk was recommended as a guideline in establishing the minimum and maximum levels in infant formulas. The fear of necrotizing enterocolitis and feeding intolerance are the major factors limiting the use of the enteral route as the primary means of nourishing premature infants. PN may help to meet many of the nutritional needs of these infants, but has significant detrimental side effects. Trophic feedings (small volume of feeding given at the same rate for at least 5 d) during PN are a strategy to enhance the feeding tolerance and decrease the side effects of PN and the time to achieve full feeding. Human milk is a key component of any strategy for enteral nutrition of all infants. However, the amounts of calcium, phosphorus, zinc and other nutrients are inadequate to meet the needs of the very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during growth. Therefore, safe and effective means to fortify human milk are essential to the care of VLBW infants. PMID:18985802

  18. Can Newborns Discriminate between Their Own Cry and the Cry of Another Newborn Infant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dondi, Marco; Simion, Francesca; Caltran, Giovanna

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments tested whether newborns could discriminate their own and another newborn's cry. Results indicated that awake newborns expressed facial distress more frequently and longer to another newborn's cry than to their own. Sucking decreased significantly between pretest phase and first minute of another infant's cry. Asleep infants'…

  19. Perceptual Completion in Newborn Human Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenza, Eloisa; Leo, Irene; Gava, Lucia; Simion, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Despite decades of studies of human infants, a still open question concerns the role of visual experience in the development of the ability to perceive complete shapes over partial occlusion. Previous studies show that newborns fail to manifest this ability, either because they lack the visual experience required for perceptual completion or…

  20. Alternatives to hexachlorophene bathing of newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Hnatko, S. I.

    1977-01-01

    In controlled trials newborn infants were bathed with Lactacyd, pHisoHex, Hibitane, Lanohex or tap water. Bacteriologic samples were taken from three sites (groin, axilla and cord) immediately after birth, following an initial bath with one of the test agents, and on day 3 or 5 after a water bath. Initial bathing with all agents, including water, reduced the concentration of bacteria on the skin to a similar extent. However, comparisons of bacterial flora at birth versus those on days 3 and 5 indicated differences in the actions of the various agents on pathogenic and nonpathogenic organisms. Lactacyd and Hibitane appeared to be suitable alternatives to hexachlorophene in the control of pathogenic bacteria on the skin of newborns. However, their absorption and toxicity in the newborn are unknown and, unless use of a skin disinfectant is warranted, routine bathing of newborns with tap water appears to be satisfactory. PMID:328126

  1. Resonance Raman based skin carotenoid measurements in newborns and infants

    PubMed Central

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Bernstein, Paul S.; Chan, Gary M.; Gellermann, Werner

    2014-01-01

    We describe Resonance Raman based skin carotenoid measurements in newborns and infants. Skin- and serum carotenoid levels correlate with high statistical significance in healthy newborns and infants, and with reduced accuracy also in prematurely born infants, who in general feature very low carotenoid levels and thin transparent skin giving rise to large background absorption effects. Skin carotenoid levels can be easily compared among subjects and/or tracked in longitudinal studies with the highly molecule-specific Raman method. It therefore holds promise as a rapid, non-invasive, carotenoid antioxidant assessment method for newborns and infants in the field of pediatrics. Photograph of an infant’s skin carotenoid measurement via Resonance Raman spectroscopy. The instrument’s fiber-coupled light delivery and collection module is held against the foot, exposing the heel skin to weak 488 nm laser light for 20 seconds. From spectral analysis of the Raman scattered light intensities, which occur in the green wavelength region, the carotenoid levels in the heel skin are obtained in a rapid, non-invasive, and painless fashion. PMID:23193015

  2. Timbre-independent extraction of pitch in newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    HÁDEN, GÁBOR P.; STEFANICS, GÁBOR; VESTERGAARD, MARTIN D.; DENHAM, SUSAN L.; SZILLER, ISTVÁN; WINKLER, ISTVÁN

    2010-01-01

    The ability to separate pitch from other spectral sound features, such as timbre, is an important prerequisite of veridical auditory perception underlying speech acquisition and music cognition. The current study investigated whether or not newborn infants generalize pitch across different timbres. Perceived resonator size is an aspect of timbre that informs the listener about the size of the sound source, a cue that may be important already at birth. Therefore, detection of infrequent pitch changes was tested by recording event-related brain potentials in healthy newborn infants to frequent standard and infrequent pitch-deviant sounds while the perceived resonator size of all sounds was randomly varied. The elicitation ofanearly negative andalater positive discriminative responsebydeviant sounds demonstrated that the neonate auditory system represents pitch separately from timbre, thus showing advanced pitch processing capabilities. PMID:19055501

  3. Sucrose and Warmth for Analgesia in Healthy Newborns: An RCT

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Elizabeth; Zageris, Danielle; Heilman, Keri J.; Porges, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Increasing data suggest that neonatal pain has long-term consequences. Nonpharmacologic techniques (sucrose taste, pacifier suckling, breastfeeding) are effective and now widely used to combat minor neonatal pain. This study examined the analgesic effect of sucrose combined with radiant warmth compared with the taste of sucrose alone during a painful procedure in healthy full-term newborns. METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial included 29 healthy, full-term newborns born at the University of Chicago Hospital. Both groups of infants were given 1.0 mL of 25% sucrose solution 2 minutes before the vaccination, and 1 group additionally was given radiant warmth from an infant warmer before the vaccination. We assessed pain by comparing differences in cry, grimace, heart rate variability (ie, respiratory sinus arrhythmia), and heart rate between the groups. RESULTS: The sucrose plus warmer group cried and grimaced for 50% less time after the vaccination than the sucrose alone group (P < .05, respectively). The sucrose plus warmer group had lower heart rate and heart rate variability (ie, respiratory sinus arrhythmia) responses compared with the sucrose alone group (P < .01), reflecting a greater ability to physiologically regulate in response to the painful vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of sucrose and radiant warmth is an effective analgesic in newborns and reduces pain better than sucrose alone. The ready availability of this practical nonpharmacologic technique has the potential to reduce the burden of newborn pain. PMID:25687147

  4. Insensible water loss in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Doyle, L W; Sinclair, J C

    1982-10-01

    In this review we have described, in some detail, the physical processes involved in water loss from both the skin and lungs. Although at first glance these physical processes may seem complex and confusing, once the basic concepts are grasped, the effect of the many variables in both the babies and their environment on IWL can be seen more clearly. Measurement of IWL, or its components, TEWL and RWL, is difficult in newborn infants. Some of the difficulties arise because of the nature of the subject being studied, and because of inaccuracy in the measuring apparatus. The difficulties in the subjects include lack of cooperation, and the presence of severe illness, both of which may limit the representativeness of any sample of babies that is eventually studied successfully. The size of the subjects studied means that small amounts of water are given off in any fixed period of time. Consequently, the accuracy of the measuring instruments has to be high. As we have discussed, each of the methods used to estimate IWL, TEWL, or RWL has limitations and potential inaccuracies. Despite the difficulties in obtaining estimates of IWL in newborn infants, there have been many studies over the years that have provided clinically useful data. More recently, improved survival of VLBW infants has lead to an awareness that IWL is substantially increased in these tiny babies. The best way to manage the problems of water and heat balance associated with increased IWL in VLBW infants remains to be determined. PMID:6761033

  5. Managing Hypertension in the Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Nickavar, Azar; Assadi, Farahnak

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension in newborn infants, particularly those requiring intensive care, is becoming increasingly recognized, with prevalence of 0.2-3%. Recent studies have established normative tables for blood pressure (BP) in both term and pre-term infants based on the gestational age, postnatal age, gender, weight and height, identifying the neonates at increased risk for early-onset cardiovascular disease. Common causes of neonatal hypertension include thromboembolic complications secondary to umbilical artery catheterization, congenital renal structural malformation, renovascular disease, aortic coarctation, as well as acute kidney injury and certain medications. A careful diagnostic evaluation should lead to identification of the underlying cause of hypertension in most infants. Treatment options should be tailored to the severity; and underlying cause of hypertension, including intravenous and/or oral therapy. This review summarizes recent work in these areas, focusing on optimal BP measurement, definition, evaluation and management of hypertension as well as advances in drug therapy of neonatal hypertension. PMID:24791189

  6. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Gould, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    Recent advances in technology have made direct radiographic magnification of the newborn infant clinically feasible. A microfocus radiographic tube and a rare-earth, high-speed recording system were combined to obtain more than 2,000 radiographs at magnifications of 2 to 2.5. Special positioning devices permitted imaging of even those infants confined to incubators and connected to life-supporting systems. When quantitatively compared with three conventional contact radiographic systems with respect to resolution, contrast, and noise, magnification radiography showed overall superiority of image characteristics. Definition of subtle abnormalities and anatomically small structures permitted diagnoses which could not be made from conventional images. Furthermore, infant radiation exposure was markedly less (15 mR (3.9 mC/kg) maximum skin exposure) as compared with conventional contact radiographic systems (24 mR(6.1 mC/kg) to 45 mR (11.6 mC/kg)).

  7. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Gould, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    Recent advances in technology have made direct radiographic magnification of the newborn infant clinically feasible. A microfocus radiographic tube and a rare-earth, high-speed recording system were combined to obtain more than 2,000 radiographs at magnifications of 2-2.5. Special positioning devices permitted imaging of even those infants confined to incubators and connected to life-supporting systems. When quantitatively compared with three conventional contact radiographic systems with respect to resolution, contrast, and noise, magnification radiography showed overall superiority of image characteristics. Definition of subtle abnormalities and anatomically small structures permitted diagnoses which could not be made from conventional images. Furthermore, infant radiation exposure was markedly less (15 mR (3.9 mC/kg) maximum skin exposure) as compared with conventional contact radiographic systems (24 mR (6.1 mC/kg) to 45 mR (11.6 mC/kg)).

  8. Pathogenesis of intraventricular haemorrhage in newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Valerie A.; Durbin, G. M.; Olaffson, A.; Reynolds, E. O. R.; Rivers, R. P. A.; Smith, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    The ventricular CSF of a group of preterm infants dying in the newborn period contained a large excess of protein which appeared to be a plasma filtrate. This excess was found whether or not an intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) was also present. After consideration of the clinical features of the infants, their coagulation status, and the findings at necropsy, we suggest that increased cerebral venous and capillary pressure, usually caused by heart failure resulting from hypoxia and acidosis, was responsible both for the IVH, by rupturing the terminal veins, and for promoting the filtration of plasma proteins into the CSF. Abnormalities of haemostasis, though very common, did not seem to provide an adequate explanation for the initiation of intraventricular bleeding, though they may have exacerbated it. PMID:4422777

  9. Dental lamina cysts in a newborn infant

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Kumar, Rakesh; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Kamleshwar

    2012-01-01

    Cystic lesions of transient nature viz. Epstein pearls, Bohn's nodules and dental lamina cysts are frequently found in the oral cavities of newborn infants. These cysts arise from the developing dental tissues or from their remnants. These cystic lesions are not commonly seen by the dental surgeons due to their self-limiting nature and ignorance of the parents to seek the professional opinion. However, when contacted by anxious parents seeking treatment, dental surgeons should be able to explain and reassure the parents about the transient nature of these lesions and need for no treatment but regular follow-up. The present case report was written with the purpose to increase the awareness in dental surgeons about the peculiar clinical presentation and self-limiting nature of these cystic lesions, so that unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided in such young infants. PMID:23048002

  10. Newborn infants detect the beat in music

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, István; Háden, Gábor P.; Ladinig, Olivia; Sziller, István; Honing, Henkjan

    2009-01-01

    To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the origin of music. Theorists are divided on the issue whether this ability is innate or learned. We show that newborn infants develop expectation for the onset of rhythmic cycles (the downbeat), even when it is not marked by stress or other distinguishing spectral features. Omitting the downbeat elicits brain activity associated with violating sensory expectations. Thus, our results strongly support the view that beat perception is innate. PMID:19171894

  11. Newborn infants detect the beat in music.

    PubMed

    Winkler, István; Háden, Gábor P; Ladinig, Olivia; Sziller, István; Honing, Henkjan

    2009-02-17

    To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the origin of music. Theorists are divided on the issue whether this ability is innate or learned. We show that newborn infants develop expectation for the onset of rhythmic cycles (the downbeat), even when it is not marked by stress or other distinguishing spectral features. Omitting the downbeat elicits brain activity associated with violating sensory expectations. Thus, our results strongly support the view that beat perception is innate. PMID:19171894

  12. Pulse oximetry performance in mechanically ventilated newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Solevåg, Anne L; Solberg, Marianne T; Šaltytė-Benth, Jūratė

    2015-08-01

    Pulse oximetry is widely used to target oxygenation in newborn infants. In a retrospective chart review of 138 mechanically ventilated infants, pulse oximetry overestimated blood oxygen saturation compared to arterial blood gas analyses. Despite improvements in pulse oximeter technology, pulse oximetry performance in sick newborns should still be under scrutiny. PMID:26067867

  13. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Netilmicin in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jane D.; McCracken, George H.; Thomas, Marion L.; Threlkeld, Norma

    1979-01-01

    Netilmicin and gentamicin susceptibilities of 258 gram-negative organisms and 25 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were nearly identical. The pharmacokinetic properties of netilmicin were evaluated in 101 newborn infants and related to birth weight, gestational age, chronological age, and route of administration. Mean peak serum concentrations of 5.6 to 6.9 and 7.8 to 8.4 μg/ml were observed 30 min after 3- and 4-mg/kg doses, respectively, were given intramuscularly. The peak concentrations were directly related to gestational age. The average serum half-life values varied from 3.4 to 4.7 h and in general were inversely related to birth weight, gestational age, and postnatal age. The pharmacokinetics of netilmicin in 10 infants were similar after intramuscular and intravenous administration. A comparative study of netilmicin and gentamicin in seven neonates revealed greater variability in serum concentrations of gentamicin and a shorter half-life for netilmicin. There was evidence of accumulation of netilmicin in 12 low-birth weight, premature infants who received 4-mg/kg doses for an average of 6.4 days. Serum and urine levels of netilmicin were measured up to 11 days after discontinuation of the drug. These data are well characterized by a two-compartment model. Additional studies of efficacy and long-term toxicity of netilmicin in neonates are necessary. PMID:426516

  14. Differences between uni- and multidimensional scales for assessing pain in term newborn infants at the bedside

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Maria Carmenza Cuenca; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the level of agreement between behavioral and multidimensional pain assessment scales in term newborn infants submitted to an acute nociceptive stimulus. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 400 healthy term newborns who received an intramuscular injection of vitamin K during the first 6 hours of life. Two behavioral pain scales (the Neonatal Facial Coding System and the Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain) and one multidimensional tool (the Premature Infant Pain Profile) were applied by a single observer before the procedure, during cleansing, during injection and two minutes after injection. The Cochran Q, McNemar and kappa tests were used to compare the presence and degree of agreement between the three scales. The Hotelling T2 test was used to compare the groups of newborns for which the scales showed agreement or disagreement. A generalized linear regression was used to compare the results of the Neonatal Facial Coding System and the Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain across the four study time points. RESULTS: The neonates studied had a gestational age of 39±1 weeks, a birth weight of 3169±316 g and and postnatal age of 67±45 minutes. During the stimulus procedure, 80% of the newborns exhibited pain behaviors according to the Neonatal Facial Coding System and the Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain, and 70% experienced pain according to the Premature Infant Pain Profile (p<0.001). The frequencies of the detection of pain using the Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain and the Neonatal Facial Coding System were similar. The characteristics of the neonates were not associated with the level of agreement between the scales. CONCLUSION: The Neonatal Facial Coding System and the Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain behavioral scales are more sensitive for the identification of pain in healthy term newborn infants than the multidimensional Premature Infant Pain Profile scale. PMID:23070343

  15. [THE COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF KAOLIN-ACTIVATED THROMBOELASTOGRAPHY IN HEALTHY NEWBORNS AND NEWBORNS WITH HEART AILMENTS].

    PubMed

    Leonov, N P; Karas'kov, A M; Litasova, E E; Strunin, O V; Karmadonova, N A; Akopov, G D; Vishegorodtseva, L I

    2016-02-01

    The study was carried out to diferentiate reference values for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in newborns with congenital heart disease. The study included two groups ofpatients. The first one consisted of 62 newborns with congenital heart disease and the second one consisted of 35 healthy newborns. The results of kaolin-activated thromboelastography implemented in groups are evaluated as condition of normal coagulation. The valuable diferences of homeostasis system in healthy newborns and newborns with congenital heart disease (without severe concomitant pathology) are not established. They have similar indicators of kaolin-activated thromboelastography. The derived results can be applied as standards in full-term newborns with congenital heart disease. PMID:27455561

  16. Red blood cell transfusion in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Robin K; Jefferies, Ann L

    2014-04-01

    Red blood cell transfusion is an important and frequent component of neonatal intensive care. The present position statement addresses the methods and indications for red blood cell transfusion of the newborn, based on a review of the current literature. The most frequent indications for blood transfusion in the newborn are the acute treatment of perinatal hemorrhagic shock and the recurrent correction of anemia of prematurity. Perinatal hemorrhagic shock requires immediate treatment with large quantities of red blood cells; the effects of massive transfusion on other blood components must be considered. Some guidelines are now available from clinical trials investigating transfusion in anemia of prematurity; however, considerable uncertainty remains. There is weak evidence that cognitive impairment may be more severe at follow-up in extremely low birth weight infants transfused at lower hemoglobin thresholds; therefore, these thresholds should be maintained by transfusion therapy. Although the risks of transfusion have declined considerably in recent years, they can be minimized further by carefully restricting neonatal blood sampling. PMID:24855419

  17. Can Conditioned Responses be Established in the Newborn Infant: 1971?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sameroff, Arnold J.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence indicates that the newborn infant must first develop cognitive systems, through his experience with various stimuli, to differentiate each modality separately before he can integrate any two modalities in classical conditioning. (Author/NH)

  18. [Enteral nutrition in premature newborn infants with sepsis].

    PubMed

    Pawlik, Dorota; Lauterbach, Ryszard

    2008-01-01

    The authors present beneficial effects and possible disadvantages of early enteral feeding of prematurely born infants. Also, the indications for maintaining enteral feeding in patients with sepsis are discussed. Breast milk is known to accelerate the process of maturation of alimentary tract as well as to improve the digestion of food compounds. Additionally, it protects the infant against bacterial translocations from gut to the blood stream and reduces the risk of sepsis in newborns, especially in very low birth weight infants. Finally, the authors formulate preliminary recommendations for enteral feeding of septic newborn infants. PMID:19471066

  19. Detecting the temporal structure of sound sequences in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Háden, Gábor P; Honing, Henkjan; Török, Miklós; Winkler, István

    2015-04-01

    Most high-level auditory functions require one to detect the onset and offset of sound sequences as well as registering the rate at which sounds are presented within the sound trains. By recording event-related brain potentials to onsets and offsets of tone trains as well as to changes in the presentation rate, we tested whether these fundamental auditory capabilities are functional at birth. Each of these events elicited significant event-related potential components in sleeping healthy neonates. The data thus demonstrate that the newborn brain is sensitive to these acoustic features suggesting that infants are geared towards the temporal aspects of segregating sound sources, speech and music perception already at birth. PMID:25722025

  20. Fathers' Affectionate Stimulation and Caregiving Behaviors with Newborn Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawin, Douglas B.; Parke, Ross D.

    1979-01-01

    Overall findings from this series of studies indicate that fathers are as competent as mothers in providing affection, stimulation, and the necessary care for newborn infants. During feeding in the neonatal period, fathers have been found to be just as active participants in dyadic interactions with their infants as are mothers. (Author)

  1. Radiological findings in newborn infants with urinary infection.

    PubMed Central

    Drew, J H; Acton, C M

    1976-01-01

    Selective suprapubic urine aspiration was performed in 905 of 12 942 consecutive live-born infants and showed the presence of infection in 64 (0-5%). A majority (84%) of the infected infants were males. Radiological abnormalities were detected in 35 (55%). Because of this high incidence of abnormalities, which when diagnosed might alter management, it is suggested that radiological investigations be performed in newborn infants with proven urinary infection. PMID:986789

  2. Serological response to rotavirus infection in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Flores, J; White, L; Blanco, M; Perez-Schael, I

    1994-01-01

    We report the identification of rotavirus in stools of newborn infants at the "Hospital Materno Infantil de Caricuao" (HMIC) as well as the infants' serological responses to various rotavirus strains. The serological responses of another group of rotavirus-positive neonates studied previously at the "Maternidad Concepcion Palacios" (MCP) hospital was also evaluated. Fifty-four of 266 (20%) newborns examined at HMIC shed rotavirus. The infection rate was higher among infants admitted to the nursery (75%) than in those "rooming in" with their mothers (7%) (P < .01). Eleven of the 54 neonates (20%) had diarrhea; seven of them experienced mild, short-lived episodes, whereas five had frequent diarrhea bouts or diarrhea lasting for over 3 days; the remaining 43 infants were asymptomatic. Twenty-seven of 28 rotavirus specimens tested at HMIC had VP7 serotype 4 specificity and one belonged to VP7 serotype 1; VP4 typing performed on 24 of the viruses by RNA hybridization showed these viruses to be similar to the M37 strain, a rotavirus previously associated with asymptomatic infections in newborns at MCP. IgA seroresponses were detected in eight of 11 infants born at HMIC (73%), but most failed to developed neutralization responses to homologous or heterologous strains. Newborn infants who had shed the M37 rotavirus strain at MCP reacted similarly: 16 of 24 (67%) developed a rotavirus IgA rise, but only 29% developed a neutralization response. PMID:8308526

  3. Performance of a non-contact infrared thermometer in healthy newborns

    PubMed Central

    Dani, Carlo; Berti, Elettra; Fancelli, Claudia; Galli, Luisa; de Martino, Maurizio; Chiappini, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of a non-contact infrared thermometer (NCIT) in comparison with digital axillary thermometer (DAT) and infrared tympanic thermometers (ITT) in a population of healthy at term and preterm newborns nursed in incubators. Setting 1 level III maternity hospital, and its intensive neonatal care unit. Participants 119 healthy at term newborns and 70 preterm newborns nursed in incubators were consecutively enrolled. Exclusion criteria were unstable/critical conditions, polymalformative congenital syndromes and severe congenital syndromes. Interventions Body temperature readings were prospectively collected. Each participant underwent bilateral axillary temperature measurement with DAT, bilateral tympanic measurement with ITT and mid-forehead temperature measurements using NCIT. Primary outcome measures Degree of agreement between methods was evaluated by the Bland and Altman method. Results 714 measurements in 119 healthy at term newborns and 420 measurements in 70 preterm newborns nursed in incubators were performed. Clinical reproducibility of NCIT was 0.0455°C for infants in incubators and 0.0861°C for infants outside an incubator. Bias was 0.029°C for infants in incubators and <0.0001°C for infants outside an incubator. Zero outliers were recorded. The mean difference between methods was good both for newborns at term (0.12°C for NCIT vs DAT and 0.02°C for NCIT vs ITT) and preterm newborns in incubators (0.10°C for NCIT vs DAT and 0.14°C for NCIT vs ITT). Limits of agreement were 0.99 to −0.75 and 0.78 to −0.75 in at term newborns and were particularly satisfactory in preterm newborns in incubators (95% CI: 0.48 to −0.27 and 0.68 to −0.40). Conclusions Our results with Bland and Altman analysis demonstrate that NCIT is a very promising tool, especially in preterm newborns nursed in incubators. Trial registration: The study was approved by the Careggi University Hospital Ethics Committee (07/2011). PMID:26983944

  4. Abandonment of newborn infants: a Danish forensic medical survey 1997-2008.

    PubMed

    Gheorghe, Alexandra; Banner, Jytte; Hansen, Steen Holger; Stolborg, Uffe; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-12-01

    Concealment of pregnancy and newborn infant abandonment are closely associated with neonaticide, the killing of an infant within the first 24 h of life or less than 28-30 days depending on the jurisdiction. Abandonment of newborn infants occurs throughout the world and often the outcome for the infant is death. Together with neonaticide it is felt to be one of the least preventable crimes. In this retrospective study we present all forensically known Danish cases of abandoned newborn infant corpses, covering the period from 1997 to 2008. Eleven newborn infant corpses were found; we registered characteristics of the newborn infants and the circumstances of the cases based on autopsy reports. One further newborn infant was included, dating back to 1992, as it was found to be connected with one of the later cases. The mean age of the women who abandoned their newborn infants was 22 years, and five of the autopsied newborn infants were probably alive when abandoned. In two cases the newborn infants were half siblings and abandoned by the same mother. The time span from abandonment to when the newborn infant was found ranged from hours to 7 years. Two-thirds of the newborn infants were girls (66.6%). The most common means of disposal was in a plastic bag (~60%); only one newborn infant was wearing clothes when found. Causes of death were usually given as asphyxia, brain injury or simply undetermined. Two-thirds of the newborn infants showed signs of violence. None of the newborn infants had congenital malformations. PMID:21706371

  5. Jaundice in Newborn Infants (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... infants The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/healthtopics.html ) ● American Academy of Pediatrics ( www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/pages/Jaundice.aspx ) ● Parents of Infants ...

  6. Developmental outcomes of newborn encephalopathy in the term infant.

    PubMed

    Badawi, N; Keogh, J M; Dixon, G; Kurinczuk, J J

    2001-06-01

    Newborn encephalopathy is a clinically defined condition of abnormal neurological behaviours in the newborn period. Though most cases have their origin in the preconceptional and antepartum period, newborn encephalopathy represents a crucial link between intrapartum events and permanent neurological problems in the child. The birth prevalence of newborn encephalopathy ranges from 1.8 to 7.7 per 1000 term live births according to the definition used and the population to which it is applied. Few studies have investigated the outcomes of newborn encephalopathy other than for cases solely attributed to intrapartum hypoxia. These adverse outcomes range from death to cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, and less severe neurological disabilities such as learning and behavioural problems. Outcomes following newborn encephalopathy may vary from country to country with 9.1% of affected babies dying in the newborn period in Western Australia and 10.1% manifesting cerebral palsy by the age of two. These compare to a case fatality of 30.5% in Kathmandu and a cerebral palsy rate of 14.5% by one year of age. The study by Robertson et al which followed children with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy found an incidence of impairment of 16% among survivors assessed at 8 years with 42% requiring school resource room help or special classes. This review emphasises the great need for comprehensive clinical and educational assessment as these infants approach school entry to enable appropriate educational provisions to be made. PMID:11450384

  7. [Newborn and infant fractures secondary to traditional massage].

    PubMed

    Mboutol-Mandavo, C; N'dour, O; Ouedraogo, S F; Missengue-Bosseba, R; Ndiaye, D; Ngom, G

    2016-09-01

    The traditional massage of the newborn and young infant is an ancient practice in Africa and other regions. It has many benefits that are currently recognized, even in Western societies. However, it can be dangerous. We report two cases of fractures of the femur and clavicle that occurred in a 17-day-old newborn and a 1-month-old infant secondary to a traditional massage. In both cases, there was no concept of trauma or a history of osteogenesis imperfecta in the family or the presence of other fractures suggesting abuse. We concluded in a fracture caused by traditional massage in both cases. Given its many benefits as described in the literature, the traditional massage of young infants cannot be considered a harmful practice. However, it should be practiced with care to prevent the occurrence of such complications. PMID:27364938

  8. Management of Newborn Infants with Phenylketonuria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services Administration (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Community Health Services.

    The booklet covers the identification, diagnosis, and clinical treatment of newborns with Phenylketonuria (PKU), an inborn error of metabolism, which, if untreated, can lead to mental retardation. An initial section considers biochemical and genetic factors of PKU including a diagram of aromatic amino acid hydroxylation systems. Screening…

  9. Risk of Wheezing Attacks in Infants With Transient Tachypnea Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Golshantafti, Mohammad; Yavari, Tahereh; Afrand, Mohammadhosain

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most common reason of respiratory distress in the newborn is transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). There are some reports saying that TTN is associated with increased frequencies of wheezing attacks. Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the risk factors associated with TTN and to determine the association between TTN and the development of wheezing syndromes in early life. Materials and Methods: In a historical cohort study, we recorded the characteristics of 70 infants born at the Shohadaye Kargar Hospital in Yazd between March 2005 and March 2009 and who were hospitalized because of TTN in the neonatal intensive-care unit. We called their parents at least four years after the infants were discharged from the hospital and asked about any wheezing attacks. Seventy other infants with no health problems during the newborn period were included in the study as the control group. Results: The rate of wheezing attacks in newborns with TTN was more than patients with no TTN diagnosis (P = 0.014). TTN was found to be an independent risk factor for later wheezing attacks (relative risk [RR] = 2.8). Conclusions: The most obvious finding of this study was that TTN was an independent risk factor for wheezing attacks. So long-term medical care is suggested for these patients who may be at risk, because TTN may not be as transient as has been previously thought. PMID:26848370

  10. Findings of perinatal ocular examination performed on 3573, healthy full-term newborns

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Hong; Li, Na; Zhao, Jun-Yang; Fei, Ping; Zhang, Guo-ming; Mao, Jian-bo; Rychwalski, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To document the findings of a newborn eye examination programme for detecting ocular pathology in the healthy full-term newborn. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of the majority of newborns born in the Kunming Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital, China, between May 2010 and June 2011. Infants underwent ocular examination within 42 days after birth using a flashlight, retinoscope, hand-held slit lamp microscope and wide-angle digital retinal image acquisition system. The retinal fundus examination utilised the RetCam wide-field digital imaging system (Clarity Medical Systems, Pleasanton, California, USA). The external eye, pupillary light reflex, red reflex, opacity of refractive media, anterior chamber and posterior segments were also examined. Results A total of 3573 healthy full-term newborns were enrolled and examined in the programme. There was detection of 871 abnormal cases (24.4%). The majority of abnormal exams were 769 (21.52%) retinal haemorrhages. Of these, there were 215 cases of significant retinal haemorrhage, possible sight threatening or amblyogenic, representing 6.02% of the total. In addition, 67 cases (1.88%) involved macular haemorrhage. The other 107 cases (2.99%) with abnormal ocular findings included subconjunctival haemorrhage, congenital microphthalmos, congenital corneal leukoma, posterior synechia, persistent pupillary membrane, congenital cataract, enlarged C/D ratio, retinal hamartoma versus retinoblastoma, optic nerve defects, macular pigment disorder and non-specific peripheral retinopathy. Conclusion Ocular examination of healthy newborns leads to the detection of a significant number of ocular pathologies. The most commonly discovered ocular abnormality during examination of the newborns in this study is retinal haemorrhage. The long-term impact of these findings is unknown. Although presumed by some to benign, neonatal retinal haemorrhages due to birth trauma could be involved in altering visual development

  11. Phospholipid Species in Newborn and 4 Month Old Infants after Consumption of Different Formulas or Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Olaf; Fleddermann, Manja; Hellmuth, Christian; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for neuronal and cognitive development and are ingredients of infant formulae that are recommended but there is no evidence based minimal supplementation level available. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the effect of supplemented AA and DHA on phospholipid metabolism. Methods Plasma samples of a randomized, double-blind infant feeding trial were used for the analyses of phospholipid species by flow-injection mass spectrometry. Healthy term infants consumed isoenergetic formulae (intervention formula with equal amounts of AA and DHA—IF, control formula without additional AA and DHA—CF) from the first month of life until the age of 120 days. A group of breast milk (BM) -fed infants was followed as a reference. Results The plasma profile detected in newborns was different from 4 month old infants, irrespective of study group. Most relevant changes were seen in higher level of LPC16:1, LPC20:4, PC32:1, PC34:1 and PC36:4 and lower level of LPC18:0, LPC18:2, PC32:2, PC36:2 and several ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in newborns. The sum of all AA and DHA species at 4 month old infants in the CF group showed level of 40% (AA) and 51% (DHA) of newborns. The supplemented amount of DHA resulted in phospholipid level comparable to BM infants, but AA phospholipids were lower than in BM infants. Interestingly, relative contribution of DHA was higher in ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in CF fed infants, but IF and BM fed infants showed higher overall ether-linked phosphatidylcholines levels. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that infant plasma phospholipid profile changes remarkably from newborn over time and is dependent on the dietary fatty acid composition. A supplementation of an infant formula with AA and DHA resulted in increased related phospholipid species. PMID:27571269

  12. Choledochal cyst--a different disease in newborns and infants.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Zafar; Aziz, Munira Abdul

    2014-11-01

    We report experience of managing Choledochal Cyst (CC) in different paediatric ages. Eleven neonates and infants (aged 0-8 months) and 24 paediatric cases (aged 2.5 - 18 years) were managed over 24 years (1988 to 2012). Neonates and infants presented with jaundice, acholic stools and abdominal mass whereas most of the paediatric cases presented with intermittent non-specific abdominal pain. Morphology of CC was mostly cystic in neonates whereas it was fusiform in majority (62%) of paediatric cases. Biliary amylase was high and correlated with the presence of abnormal pancreaticobiliary junction (PBJ) in 20 /24 paediatric patients. Obstruction at the lower end of bile duct, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis were common in neonates. In conclusion, CC in newborns and infants is different and mimic correctable Biliary Atresia (BA). Early excision of CC and biliary reconstruction is promising in neonates, infants and children and it can be performed with minimal morbidity. PMID:25404451

  13. Isolation guidelines for obstetric patients and newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, R A; Boyer, K M; Linn, E S

    1983-06-15

    Available isolation guidelines for use in hospitals have often overlooked the infectious diseases and unique interactions of obstetric patients and their newborn infants. To help fill this void, we present our hospital's isolation policies for obstetric and neonatal patients and guidelines for maternal-infant contact and breast-feeding. These policies represent a multidisciplinary consensus of opinion and available epidemiologic data and have been found useful and practical in a single large teaching hospital. Other institutions should be able to adapt these guidelines to their own patient populations, personnel, and physical facilities. PMID:6859157

  14. Metabolomic Research on Newborn Infants With Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Xin-Xin; Li, Xiang-Wen; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Qiao

    2016-04-01

    , and hydroxyhexadecancenyl carnitine (P < 0.05). Among newborns with IUGR, metabolites differed among males and females, mainly in aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and hexacosenoic acid (P < 0.05). Birth weight had no significant effects on free carnitine concentration or on the ratios of free carnitine and acylcarnitine to total carnitine (P < 0.05).IUGR infants exhibit significant abnormalities in amino acid and acylcarnitine metabolism, especially those with birth weight below the third percentile. With increasing birth weight, amino acids and acylcarnitines showed compensatory increases or reductions, and when birth weight reached the 10th percentile, the newborns with IUGR resembled the AGA newborns. PMID:27124067

  15. Hepatic microsomal drug oxidation and electron transport in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Aranda, J V; MacLeod, S M; Renton, K W; Eade, N R

    1974-10-01

    Many drugs require oxidative metabolism for termination of action and/or for elimination from the body. Many oxidative reactions are catalyzed by hepatic microsomal enzymes. The activities of various drug-metabolizing enzymes, namely, NADPH cytochrome c reductase, NADPH oxidase, aminopyrine-N-demethylase, and analine P-hydroxylase, and the content of cytochrome P-450, were measured in hepatic microsomes obtained from seven newborn infants and four adult patients. The results in the newborn infant show increasing activities of these enzymes (except aminopyrine-N-demethylase) related to advancing age. Good correlation between three components of the hepatic microsomal mixed function oxidase system and aniline p-hydroxylase was established, whereas only NADPH oxidation correlated with aminopyrine N-demethylation. The rate of substrate or drug oxidation and the activities of the components of the microsomal electron transport pathway were lower than comparable values in the adult. The data demonstrate a possible biochemical basis for the transient deficiency in drug metabolism seen in newborn infants. PMID:4155438

  16. Safe Sleep and Skin-to-Skin Care in the Neonatal Period for Healthy Term Newborns.

    PubMed

    Feldman-Winter, Lori; Goldsmith, Jay P

    2016-09-01

    Skin-to-skin care (SSC) and rooming-in have become common practice in the newborn period for healthy newborns with the implementation of maternity care practices that support breastfeeding as delineated in the World Health Organization's "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding." SSC and rooming-in are supported by evidence that indicates that the implementation of these practices increases overall and exclusive breastfeeding, safer and healthier transitions, and improved maternal-infant bonding. In some cases, however, the practice of SSC and rooming-in may pose safety concerns, particularly with regard to sleep. There have been several recent case reports and case series of severe and sudden unexpected postnatal collapse in the neonatal period among otherwise healthy newborns and near fatal or fatal events related to sleep, suffocation, and falls from adult hospital beds. Although these are largely case reports, there are potential dangers of unobserved SSC immediately after birth and throughout the postpartum hospital period as well as with unobserved rooming-in for at-risk situations. Moreover, behaviors that are modeled in the hospital after birth, such as sleep position, are likely to influence sleeping practices after discharge. Hospitals and birthing centers have found it difficult to develop policies that will allow SSC and rooming-in to continue in a safe manner. This clinical report is intended for birthing centers and delivery hospitals caring for healthy newborns to assist in the establishment of appropriate SSC and safe sleep policies. PMID:27550975

  17. Hemodynamic responses to speech and music in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Kotilahti, Kalle; Nissilä, Ilkka; Näsi, Tiina; Lipiäinen, Lauri; Noponen, Tommi; Meriläinen, Pekka; Huotilainen, Minna; Fellman, Vineta

    2010-04-01

    We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to study responses to speech and music on the auditory cortices of 13 healthy full-term newborn infants during natural sleep. The purpose of the study was to investigate the lateralization of speech and music responses at this stage of development. NIRS data was recorded from eight positions on both hemispheres simultaneously with electroencephalography, electrooculography, electrocardiography, pulse oximetry, and inclinometry. In 11 subjects, statistically significant (P < 0.02) oxygenated (HbO2) and total hemoglobin (HbT) responses were recorded. Both stimulus types elicited significant HbO2 and HbT responses on both hemispheres in five subjects. Six of the 11 subjects had positive HbO2 and HbT responses to both stimulus types, whereas one subject had negative responses. Mixed positive and negative responses were observed in four neonates. On both hemispheres, speech and music responses were significantly correlated (r = 0.64; P = 0.018 on the left hemisphere (LH) and r = 0.60; P = 0.029 on the right hemisphere (RH)). On the group level, the average response to the speech stimuli was statistically significantly greater than zero in the LH, whereas responses on the RH or to the music stimuli did not differ significantly from zero. This suggests a more coherent response to speech on the LH. However, significant differences in lateralization of the responses or mean response amplitudes of the two stimulus types were not observed on the group level. PMID:19790172

  18. Cerebral blood flow in the newborn infant.

    PubMed Central

    Pryds, O.; Edwards, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of CBF have provided some insight into cerebrovascular physiology and pharmacology. However, the precise relation between CBF and cerebral damage remains elusive, and there is no definition of a threshold CBF below which ischaemic brain damage always occurs. Measurement of CBF thus does not currently provide a secure guide in the clinical management of sick infants. Further work, particularly using techniques like magnetic resonance imaging and NIRS, which provide data in addition to CBF measurements, may yet disclose strategies which manipulate CBF to reduce cerebral ischaemia. While cerebral injury remains a substantial problem in neonatal intensive care, such research is urgently needed. Images Figure 3 PMID:8653440

  19. Metabolomic Research on Newborn Infants With Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Xin-Xin; Li, Xiang-Wen; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    , hydroxyacetyl carnitine, and hydroxyhexadecancenyl carnitine (P < 0.05). Among newborns with IUGR, metabolites differed among males and females, mainly in aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and hexacosenoic acid (P < 0.05). Birth weight had no significant effects on free carnitine concentration or on the ratios of free carnitine and acylcarnitine to total carnitine (P < 0.05). IUGR infants exhibit significant abnormalities in amino acid and acylcarnitine metabolism, especially those with birth weight below the third percentile. With increasing birth weight, amino acids and acylcarnitines showed compensatory increases or reductions, and when birth weight reached the 10th percentile, the newborns with IUGR resembled the AGA newborns. PMID:27124067

  20. [Photoprevention or phototherapy in newborn infants born prematurely?].

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, C; Muzii, U; Maggio, L; De Carolis, M P; Zecca, E; Zuppa, A A; Tortorolo, G

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of different kinds of phototherapy in 186 newborns with a gestational age less than 33 weeks and weighing less than 2500 g. A control group of 60 infants was compared with a group of 31 infants submitted to photoprophylaxis, a group of 54 infants treated with day light, and a group of 41 infants treated with day light + special blue light. As far as the serum bilirubin variations in the first week, the maximum levels attained and the number of exchange transfusions are concerned, phototherapy always proved effective in reducing potentially neurotoxic serum bilirubin concentrations. Among the infants subjected to treatment, those treated with the day light showed a significant smaller decrease of serum bilirubin compared to those treated with the day light + special blue light, even if levels above 15 mg/dl were found in a similar percentage. Only 3.2% of the babies treated with photoprophylaxis showed serum bilirubin values above 15 mg/dl. The authors conclude that prophylaxis seems to be preferable to other phototherapeutic schedules used in the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia in low gestational age infants. PMID:3658802

  1. The Early Intestinal Microbiota of Healthy Korean Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eu Kyoung; Ahn, Young Tae; Huh, Chul Sung; Soo Kim, Hwan; Kim, Eugene; Chun, Yoon Hong; Yoon, Jong-Seo; Kim, Hyun Hee; Tack Kim, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The microflora hypothesis may be the underlying explanation for the growth of inflammatory disease. In addition to many known affecting factors, knowing the gut microbiota of healthy newborns can help to understand the gut immunity and modulate it. Objectives: This study examined the microbiota of healthy newborns from urban regions. Patients and Methods: We enrolled 128 full-term newborns, born at Seoul St. Mary and St. Paul hospital from January 2009 to February 2010. All 143 samples of feces were cultivated in six culture plates to determine the amounts of total bacteria, anaerobes, gram-positive bacteria, coliforms, lactobacilli, and bifidobacteria. The samples were evaluated with a bivariate correlation between coliforms and lactobacilli. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis with HhaI and MspI and a clustering analysis were performed for determination of diversity. Results: Bacteria were cultured in 61.5% of feces in the following order: anaerobes, gram-positive bacteria, lactobacilli, coliform, and bifidobacteria. The growth of total bacteria and lactobacilli increased in feces defecated after 24 hours of birth (P < 0.001, P = 0.008) and anaerobes decreased (P = 0.003). A negative correlation between the growth of lactobacilli and coliforms was found (r = -463, P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study confirms that bacterial colonization of healthy newborns born in cities is non-sterile, but has early diversification and inter-individuality. PMID:26495089

  2. Prevention of Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding in Newborn Infants: A Position Paper by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mihatsch, Walter A; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Mis, Nataša F; Hojsak, Iva; Hulst, Jessie; Indrio, Flavia; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Mlgaard, Christian; Embleton, Nicholas; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) due to physiologically low vitamin K plasma concentrations is a serious risk for newborn and young infants and can be largely prevented by adequate vitamin K supplementation. The aim of this position paper is to define the condition, describe the prevalence, discuss current prophylaxis practices and outcomes, and to provide recommendations for the prevention of VKDB in healthy term newborns and infants. All newborn infants should receive vitamin K prophylaxis and the date, dose, and mode of administration should be documented. Parental refusal of vitamin K prophylaxis after adequate information is provided should be recorded especially because of the risk of late VKDB. Healthy newborn infants should either receive 1 mg of vitamin K1 by intramuscular injection at birth; or 3 × 2 mg vitamin K1 orally at birth, at 4 to 6 days and at 4 to 6 weeks; or 2 mg vitamin K1 orally at birth, and a weekly dose of 1 mg orally for 3 months. Intramuscular application is the preferred route for efficiency and reliability of administration. The success of an oral policy depends on compliance with the protocol and this may vary between populations and healthcare settings. If the infant vomits or regurgitates the formulation within 1 hour of administration, repeating the oral dose may be appropriate. The oral route is not appropriate for preterm infants and for newborns who have cholestasis or impaired intestinal absorption or are too unwell to take oral vitamin K1, or those whose mothers have taken medications that interfere with vitamin K metabolism. Parents who receive prenatal education about the importance of vitamin K prophylaxis may be more likely to comply with local procedures. PMID:27050049

  3. Frequency of enzyme deficiency variants in erythrocytes of newborn infants

    SciTech Connect

    Mohrenweiser, H.W.

    1981-08-01

    The frequency of enzyme deficiency variants, defined as alleles whose products are either absent or almost devoid of normal activity in erythrocytes, was determined for nine erythrocyte enzymes in some 675 newborn infants and in approximately 200 adults. Examples of this type of genetic abnormality, which in the homozygous condition are often associated with significant health consequences, were detected for seven of the nine enzymes studied. Fifteen inherited enzyme deficiency variants in 1809 determinations from adults were identified. Seven of the deficiency variants involved triosephosphate isomerase, a frequency of 0.01 in the newborn population. The average frequency of 2.4/1000 is 2 to 3 times the frequency observed for rare electrophoretic variants of erythrocyte enzymes in this same population.

  4. Soy Protein-Based Infant Formulas with Supplemental Fructooligosaccharides: Gastrointestinal Tolerance and Hydration Status in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lasekan, John; Baggs, Geraldine; Acosta, Sonja; Mackey, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Unlike milk-based infant formulas, soy-based infant formulas containing supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have not been clinically evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, 28 day parallel feeding trial compared gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance and hydration in healthy term newborn infants fed either a commercialized soy formula (with history of safe use) containing sucrose as 20% of total carbohydrate, no supplemental short-chain FOS (scFOS) and no mixed carotenoids (lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene) as a control (CF, n = 62 infants) or one of two experimental soy-based formulas, EF1 (n = 64) and EF2 (n = 62) containing scFOS (2.5 g/L) and mixed carotenoids. EF1 differed from EF2 by containing sucrose. Results indicated no significant study group differences (p > 0.05) in study completion rates (CF = 81, EF1 = 86, & EF2 = 87%), growth, mean rank stool consistency, stool frequency, formula intake, spit-up/vomit, and safety measures (urine specific gravity, USG; hydration status and adverse events). Mean USGs for study groups were normal (<1.03). The EF1 > CF group in percent yellow stools (p < 0.01 at age 14 days). In conclusion, the study suggested that term infants fed soy-based formulas supplemented with scFOS and mixed carotenoids, with or without sucrose in the 1st 35 days of infancy demonstrated good tolerance and hydration comparable to the control soy-based formula with history of safe use. PMID:25912040

  5. Buen Comienzo, Buen Futuro: Su Recien Nacido. (Healthy Start, Grow Smart: Your Newborn).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet offers guidance to parents in caring for their newborn babies. Advice is given on the following topics: (1) newborn health screening; (2) what a healthy newborn looks like; (3) newborn reflexes; (4) baby checkups; (5) fathers' role; (6) the baby blues; (7) sleeping position; (8) breast milk; (9) breast feeding; (10) bottle feeding;…

  6. Mother-Father-Newborn Interaction: Effects of Maternal Medication, Labor, and Sex of Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Ross D.; And Others

    A research study was conducted to: (1) compare mother and father interactions with their newborn infant; (2) examine the effects of maternal drugs on mother-father infant interaction; (3) explore the impact of variations in length of labor on parent interaction; and (4) examine sex of parent and sex of newborn interactions to determine the nature…

  7. Newborn primate infants are entrained by low intensity lighting

    PubMed Central

    Rivkees, Scott A.; Hofman, Paul L.; Fortman, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    At the present time we do not know when the circadian timing system of human infants becomes responsive to light. Because of human study limitations, it is not currently possible to address this issue in clinical studies. Therefore, to provide insights into when the circadian system of humans becomes responsive to light, baboons were studied. We first assessed if the biological clock located in suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) is responsive to light at birth. When term newborn infants were exposed to bright light at night (5000 lux), SCN metabolic activity and c-fos mRNA expression increased, indicating the presence of photic responsiveness. When photic entrainment of developing rhythmicity was examined in infants, low intensity (200 lux) cycled lighting was sufficient to entrain circadian phase. However, low intensity lighting was not sufficient to induce changes in SCN metabolic activity or c-fos mRNA expression. Phase–response studies indicated that light exposure (200 lux) before the onset of activity most effectively shifted circadian phase. These data provide direct evidence that the SCN are responsive to visually mediated light information in a primate at birth. Further consideration of lighting conditions that infants are exposed to is therefore warranted. PMID:8990202

  8. Predictive processing of pitch trends in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Háden, Gábor P; Németh, Renáta; Török, Miklós; Winkler, István

    2015-11-11

    The notion of predictive sound processing suggests that the auditory system prepares for upcoming sounds once it has detected regular features within a sequence. Here we investigated whether predictive processes are operating at birth in the human auditory system. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded from healthy newborns to occasional ascending pitch steps occurring in the 2nd or the 5th position within trains of tones with otherwise monotonously descending pitch. If the trains were processed in a predictive manner only deviant pitch steps occurring in the later train position would elicit the discriminative mismatch response (MMR). Deviants delivered in the 5th but not in the 2nd position of the tone trains elicited a significant MMR response. These results suggest that newborns represent pitch trends within sound sequences and they process them in a predictive manner. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:25749483

  9. Infant Directed Speech Enhances Statistical Learning in Newborn Infants: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Bosseler, Alexis N; Teinonen, Tuomas; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna

    2016-01-01

    Statistical learning and the social contexts of language addressed to infants are hypothesized to play important roles in early language development. Previous behavioral work has found that the exaggerated prosodic contours of infant-directed speech (IDS) facilitate statistical learning in 8-month-old infants. Here we examined the neural processes involved in on-line statistical learning and investigated whether the use of IDS facilitates statistical learning in sleeping newborns. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while newborns were exposed to12 pseudo-words, six spoken with exaggerated pitch contours of IDS and six spoken without exaggerated pitch contours (ADS) in ten alternating blocks. We examined whether ERP amplitudes for syllable position within a pseudo-word (word-initial vs. word-medial vs. word-final, indicating statistical word learning) and speech register (ADS vs. IDS) would interact. The ADS and IDS registers elicited similar ERP patterns for syllable position in an early 0-100 ms component but elicited different ERP effects in both the polarity and topographical distribution at 200-400 ms and 450-650 ms. These results provide the first evidence that the exaggerated pitch contours of IDS result in differences in brain activity linked to on-line statistical learning in sleeping newborns. PMID:27617967

  10. [RV polymorphism of the chromosomes in newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Krachunova, M; Tsancheva, M; Lozanova, T

    1980-01-01

    The authors examined the routine variants (RV) of the karyotype of 100 clinically healthy newborns--49 girls and 51 boys. Secondary constriction of the long arm of one of the homologues of the chromosome I was found in 2% of the newborns; of the chromosome 9--in 4% of the chromosome 16--in 3%. Secondary constriction in both homologues was observed in the chromosome I in 1%; in the chromosome 9--in 1% and in the chromosome 16--4%. Secondary constriction of the short arm of both homologues was found only in the chromosome 16 in 3%. The large acrocentric chromosomes showed extended proximal area (p5) in 34%, but diminished (pI)--in 8%. The small acrocentrics with p5 were found in 14% of the newborns, but with pI--in 7%. Enlarged satelites were observed in 1% in the both groups of acrocentrics. Difference between the homologues in respect to the short arms was observed in 32,3% of the pairs of the great acrocentrics and in 47,5% of the small acrocentrics. Distribution of the Y chromosome according to the size in 51 boys was of Gaus character q1--0%, q2--29,4%, q3--33,3%, q4--25,5% and q5--11,7%. It is possible that Y chromosome with a size of q1 could be connected with definite pathology. PMID:7418645

  11. [Home care for the high-risk newborn infant].

    PubMed

    Puddu, M

    2010-06-01

    With increased survival of extremely low birth weigh (ELBW) and very ill infants, a lot of them are discharged with unresolved medical issues that complicate their subsequent care. Infants born preterm with low birth weight who require neonatal intensive care experience a much higher rate of hospital readmission and death during the first year after birth compared with healthy term infants. Despite initial hospital care which is one of the most expensive of all kind of hospitalization, home care services are sometimes still sparse though the high risk of this group for failure to thrive, respiratory problems, developmental delays, parenting problems. In addition, societal and economic forces have come to bear on the timing and process of discharge and home care. Moreover it takes time for the family of a high-risk infant to prepare to care for their infant in a home setting and to obtain the necessary support services and mobilize community resources. Careful preparation for discharge, good follow-up and medical home after discharge may reduce these risks. PMID:21090070

  12. [MIKAMINOM ANTIFUNGAL THERAPY IN NEWBORNS AND INFANTS WITH SURGICAL PATHOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Melnikova, N I; Strogonov, I A; Kartseva, E V; Haritonova, G D; Gliznutsin, O E; Gabulaev, S V; Pulikova, E M

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged empiric and etiotropic therapy of multidrug-resistant or pan-resistant bacterial flora in different gestation age newborns has led to the growth of resistant fungalflora in intencive care units (ICU). According to risk factors and rating scales every child of ICU undergoing the abdominal cavity surgery is threatened the development of a fungal infection and requires antifungal therapy appointment or causal prophylactic. In recent years, before the advent of medications of the group of echinocandins, therapy of invasive fungal infections has been a challenge. Currently alternative drug to diflucane in neonates and infants is micafungine (mycamine) in the dose of 2-8 mg/kg/day, depending on the signs of infestation and severity of the condition. PMID:27192854

  13. Why do premature newborn infants display elevated blood adenosine levels?

    PubMed

    Panfoli, Isabella; Cassanello, Michela; Bruschettini, Matteo; Colella, Marina; Cerone, Roberto; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Candiano, Giovanni; Ramenghi, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Our preliminary data show high levels of adenosine in the blood of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, positively correlating to their prematurity (i.e. body weight class). This prompted us to look for a mechanism promoting such impressive adenosine increase. We hypothesized a correlation with oxygen challenge. In fact, it is recognized that either oxygen lack or its excess contribute to the pathogenesis of the injuries of prematurity, such as retinopathy (ROP) and periventricular white matter lesions (PWMI). The optimal concentration of oxygen for resuscitation of VLBW infants is currently under revision. We propose that the elevated adenosine blood concentrations of VLBW infants recognizes two sources. The first could be its activity-dependent release from unmyelinated brain axons. Adenosine in this respect would be an end-product of the hypometabolic VLBW newborn unmyelinated axon intensely firing in response to the environmental stimuli consequent to premature birth. Adenosine would be eventually found in the blood due to blood-brain barrier immaturity. In fact, adenosine is the primary activity-dependent signal promoting differentiation of premyelinating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) into myelinating cells in the Central Nervous System, while inhibiting their proliferation and inhibiting synaptic function. The second, would be the ecto-cellular ATP synthesized by the endothelial cell plasmalemma exposed to ambient oxygen concentrations due to premature breathing, especially in lung. ATP would be rapidly transformed into adenosine by the ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase I (CD39), and NT5E (CD73). An ectopic extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP synthetic ability was reported in many cell plasma-membranes, among which endothelial cells. The potential implications of the cited hypotheses for the neonatology area would be great. The amount of oxygen administration for reviving of newborns would find a molecular basis for its assessment. VLBW

  14. Estimating outcomes in newborn infants using fuzzy logic

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Luciano Eustáquio; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To build a linguistic model using the properties of fuzzy logic to estimate the risk of death of neonates admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: Computational model using fuzzy logic. The input variables of the model were birth weight, gestational age, 5th-minute Apgar score and inspired fraction of oxygen in newborn infants admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Taubaté, Southeast Brazil. The output variable was the risk of death, estimated as a percentage. Three membership functions related to birth weight, gestational age and 5th-minute Apgar score were built, as well as two functions related to the inspired fraction of oxygen; the risk presented five membership functions. The model was developed using the Mandani inference by means of Matlab(r) software. The model values were compared with those provided by experts and their performance was estimated by ROC curve. RESULTS: 100 newborns were included, and eight of them died. The model estimated an average possibility of death of 49.7±29.3%, and the possibility of hospital discharge was 24±17.5%. These values are different when compared by Student's t-test (p<0.001). The correlation test revealed r=0.80 and the performance of the model was 81.9%. CONCLUSIONS: This predictive, non-invasive and low cost model showed a good accuracy and can be applied in neonatal care, given the easiness of its use. PMID:25119746

  15. The diving reflex in healthy infants in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Fleming S; Riesgo, Rudimar S; Gatiboni, Tanira; Rotta, Newra T

    2012-02-01

    A cohort study was conducted with a random sample of 33 healthy infants evaluated at birth and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12 months to determine the frequency of respiratory rate changes in response to air blown over the face (diving reflex) in the first year of life, and to standardize the description of diving reflex occurrence. All 33 infants remained neurologically normal throughout follow-up. Diving reflex was observed in 95.3% of newborns and in 100% of infants between 2 and 6 months of age. At 6 months, it started to decrease but persisted in 90% of the infants up to 12 months. The diving reflex is highly prevalent in the first year of life and can be easily elicited by applying a flow of air over the infant's face, particularly during crying. PMID:21881008

  16. [Influence of the technogenic environment on health new-borns infant children in Lugansk region].

    PubMed

    Kapranov, S V; Sapel'nikov, A Ia; Sapel'nikova, L Ia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to evaluate the health of new-borns born to mothers who lived constantly influenced of the technogenic environmentat on health infant children in Luhansk region. We exameded evaluation of the influence of the technogenic environmental factors on the health of 1119 children in Alchevsk city, Perevalsk town with mining towns and rural villages of Perevalsky area of Lugansk region and Zhovtnev district of Lugansk region. The children were measured in anthropometric studies conducted body length, body weight, chest circumference and the head. Evaluation of the physical development of the children carried tsentilnym method. Prior to discharge from the hospital new-borns divided into three main groups--healthy, risk group, pathology. Also we have done the analysis of the statistical information on the health status of all newborns administrative units Lugansk region. Found that the percentage of new-borns with normal anthropometric variables (from 3 to 97 centile), body length and head circumference was significantly higher in rural areas Perevalsky area with more favorable environmental conditions compared to the industrial city of Alchevsk. New-borns with abnormal significantly higher in women who are domiciled in the city of Alchevsk (19.01% ± 1.44%) under the impact of emissions components ferrous metallurgy and coke-chemical, compared with Perevalskiy and mining towns (13.82% ± 2.20%), as well as rural villages Perevalsky area (11.90% ± 2.89%). Over the period 2004-2011, the incidence of congenital anomalies of new-borns weighing 1000 g or more (per 1000 live births and stillbirths) were significantly higher in the industrial cities of Luhansk region--19.70 ± 0.61 compared with rural areas--15.51 ± 0.73. The incidence of this pathology is one of the highest in Alchevsk--31.88 ± 2.48, which was significantly higher than.in urban areas, as well as in the whole of Luhansk region--19.13 ± 0.55. Therefore, the health of new-born babies is

  17. Imitation in Newborn Infants: Exploring the Range of Gestures Imitated and the Underlying Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Moore, M. Keith

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated psychological mechanisms underlying imitation of facial actions in 40 newborn infants. Results showed imitation of head movement and a tongue-protrusion gesture. Subjects imitated from memory after displays had stopped. (RJC)

  18. Neurobehaviors of Japanese Newborns in Relation to the Characteristics of Early Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Kek Khee; Ohgi, Shohei; Howard, Judy; Tyler, Rachelle; Hirose, Taiko

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between newborn neurobehavioral profiles and the characteristics of early mother-infant interaction in Nagasaki, Japan. The authors administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS; T. B. Brazelton & J. K. Nugent, 1995) in the newborn period and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale…

  19. Tumor-Associated and Disease-Associated Autoantibody Repertoires in Healthy Colostrum and Maternal and Newborn Cord Sera

    PubMed Central

    Madi, Asaf; Bransburg-Zabary, Sharron; Maayan-Metzger, Ayala; Dar, Gittit; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we studied autoantibody repertoires and Ig isotypes in 71 mothers and their 104 healthy newborns (including twins and triplets delivered term or premature). Newborns receive maternal IgG Abs via the placenta before birth, but developing infants must produce their own IgM and IgA Abs. We used an Ag microarray analysis to detect binding to a selection of 295 self-Ags, compared with 27 standard foreign Ags. The magnitude of binding to specific self-Ags was found to be not less than that to the foreign Ags. As expected, each newborn shared with its mother a similar IgG repertoire—manifest as early as the 24th week of gestation. IgM and IgA autoantibody repertoires in cord sera were highly correlated among the newborns and differed from their mothers’ repertoires; the latter differed in sera and milk. The autoantibodies bound to self-Ags known to be associated with tumors and to autoimmune diseases. Thus, autoantibody repertoires in healthy humans—the immunological homunculus—arise congenitally, differ in maternal milk and sera, and mark the potential of the immune system to attack tumors, beneficially, or healthy tissues, harmfully; regulation of the tissue site, the dynamics, and the response phenotype of homuncular autoimmunity very likely affects health. PMID:25917091

  20. Tumor-associated and disease-associated autoantibody repertoires in healthy colostrum and maternal and newborn cord sera.

    PubMed

    Madi, Asaf; Bransburg-Zabary, Sharron; Maayan-Metzger, Ayala; Dar, Gittit; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Cohen, Irun R

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we studied autoantibody repertoires and Ig isotypes in 71 mothers and their 104 healthy newborns (including twins and triplets delivered term or premature). Newborns receive maternal IgG Abs via the placenta before birth, but developing infants must produce their own IgM and IgA Abs. We used an Ag microarray analysis to detect binding to a selection of 295 self-Ags, compared with 27 standard foreign Ags. The magnitude of binding to specific self-Ags was found to be not less than that to the foreign Ags. As expected, each newborn shared with its mother a similar IgG repertoire-manifest as early as the 24th week of gestation. IgM and IgA autoantibody repertoires in cord sera were highly correlated among the newborns and differed from their mothers' repertoires; the latter differed in sera and milk. The autoantibodies bound to self-Ags known to be associated with tumors and to autoimmune diseases. Thus, autoantibody repertoires in healthy humans--the immunological homunculus--arise congenitally, differ in maternal milk and sera, and mark the potential of the immune system to attack tumors, beneficially, or healthy tissues, harmfully; regulation of the tissue site, the dynamics, and the response phenotype of homuncular autoimmunity very likely affects health. PMID:25917091

  1. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of Ibuprofen enantiomers in preterm newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Gregoire, Nicolas; Desfrere, Luc; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Kibleur, Yves; Koehne, Petra

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this pharmacokinetic analysis was to develop and validate a population pharmacokinetic model for R- and S-ibuprofen from samples obtained after 3 successive administrations of ibuprofen (10-5-5 mg/kg) at 24-hour intervals to preterm newborn infants aged from <6 hours to 8 days of life. A model including unilateral bioconversion of R-ibuprofen into S-ibuprofen was developed using the software NONMEM. R- and S-ibuprofen plasma concentrations were adequately fitted by this model. Estimated clearance and volume of distribution were 3.5 mL/h/kg and 173 mL/kg, respectively, with a calculated half-life (t((1/2))) of 34.3 hours for S-ibuprofen. Estimated clearance at birth and volume of distribution were 25.5 mL/h/kg and 306 mL/kg with a t((1/2)) at birth of 8.3 hours for R-ibuprofen. R-ibuprofen elimination increased during the first week of life, whereas S-ibuprofen pharmacokinetics were weakly modified. Therefore, because the activity of the 2 enantiomers differs, it is important that subsequent studies consider R- and S-enantiomers separately. Mean simulated ibuprofen concentrations at various dose regimens were in agreement with observed concentrations. The present analysis allows a more accurate estimation of the ibuprofen pharmacokinetics as parameters could be estimated separately for each enantiomer and the effect of postnatal age on the elimination of R-ibuprofen was elicited. PMID:18796580

  2. Effects of Fructans from Mexican Agave in Newborns Fed with Infant Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Parra-Ortiz, Minerva; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; García-Torres, Itzhel; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Alcántara-Ortigoza, Miguel Angel; González-del Angel, Ariadna; Velázquez-Aragón, José; Ortiz-Hernández, Rosario; Cruz-Rubio, José Manuel; Villa-Barragán, Pablo; Jiménez-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background: The importance of prebiotics consumption is increasing all over the world due to their beneficial effects on health. Production of better prebiotics from endemic plants raises possibilities to enhance nutritional effects in vulnerable population groups. Fructans derived from Agave Plant have demonstrated their safety and efficacy as prebiotics in animal models. Recently, the safety in humans of two fructans obtained from Agave tequilana (Metlin® and Metlos®) was demonstrated. Methods: This study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy as prebiotics of Metlin® and Metlos® in newborns of a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with a pilot study design. Biological samples were taken at 20 ± 7 days, and three months of age from healthy babies. Outcomes of efficacy include impact on immune response, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, bone metabolism, and gut bacteria changes. Results: There were differences statistically significant for the groups of infants fed only with infant formula and with formula enriched with Metlin® and Metlos®. Conclusions: Our results support the efficacy of Metlin® and Metlos® as prebiotics in humans, and stand the bases to recommend their consumption. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 01251783. PMID:26529006

  3. Task-Oriented and Bottle Feeding Adversely Affect the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions Following Abnormal Newborn Screens

    PubMed Central

    Tluczek, Audrey; Clark, Roseanne; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Orland, Kate Murphy; Brown, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Examine effects of newborn screening (NBS) and neonatal diagnosis on the quality of mother-infant interactions in the context of feeding. Methods Study compared the quality of mother-infant feeding interactions among four groups of infants classified by severity of NBS and diagnostic results: cystic fibrosis (CF), congenital hypothyroidism, heterozygote CF carrier, and healthy with normal NBS. The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment and a task-oriented item measured the quality of feeding interactions for 130 dyads, infant ages 3–19 weeks (M=9.19, SD=3.28). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measured maternal depression and anxiety. Results Composite Indicator Structure Equation Modeling showed that infant diagnostic status and, to a lesser extent, maternal education predicted feeding method. Mothers of infants with CF were most likely to bottle feed, which was associated with more task-oriented maternal behavior than breastfeeding. Mothers with low task-oriented behavior showed more sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues, as well as less negative affect and behavior in their interactions with their infants than mothers with high task-oriented scores. Mothers of infants with CF were significantly more likely to have clinically significant anxiety and depression than the other groups. However, maternal psychological profile did not predict feeding method or interaction quality. Conclusions Mothers in the CF group were the least likely to breastfeed. Research is needed to explicate long-term effects of feeding methods on quality of mother-child relationship and ways to promote continued breastfeeding following a neonatal CF diagnosis. PMID:20495477

  4. Differences in the Biodiversity of the Fecal Microbiota of Infants With Rotaviral Diarrhea and Healthy Infants

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Peng; Li, Lin; Cai, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xinjie; Bai, Hong Jian; Jiang, Yu Jun; Feng, Zhen; Guo, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background Rotaviral diarrhea (RD) has been associated with the biodiversity of the fecal microbiota in infants; however, the differences in the biodiversity of the fecal microbiota between infants with RD and healthy (H) infants have not been clearly elucidated. Objectives This study aimed to reveal the changes in the biodiversity of the fecal microbiota of infants with RD. Patients and Methods For this study, 30 fecal samples from 15 RD infants and 15 H infants were collected. The biodiversity of the fecal microbiota from the two groups was compared via polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and gene sequencing. Results The Shannon-Weaver index showed that the biodiversity of the fecal microbiota from the RD infants was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that from the H infants. All fifteen RD infants were grouped into one cluster and were separated from the H infants by the un weighted-pair group method, with the arithmetic average (UPGMA) clustering algorithm. In addition, when compared with the healthy infants, the communities of the dominant microbes, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, in the fecal microbiota from the RD infants have obviously changed. Conclusions With regard to improving the understanding of the differences in the biodiversity of the fecal microbiota between RD infants and H infants, the findings of this study can provide a possible basis to reveal the relationship between RD and intestinal microbiota. PMID:27279991

  5. Three-dimensional refractive index tomograms and deformability of individual human red blood cells from cord blood of newborn infants and maternal blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, HyunJoo; Ahn, Taegyu; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Sangyun; Kook, Song-yi; Lee, Dongheon; Suh, In Bum; Na, Sunghun; Park, YongKeun

    2015-11-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from the cord blood of newborn infants have distinctive functions in fetal and infant development. To systematically investigate the biophysical characteristics of individual cord RBCs in newborn infants, a comparative study was performed on RBCs from the cord blood of newborn infants and from adult mothers or nonpregnant women using optical holographic microtomography. Optical measurements of the distributions of the three-dimensional refractive indices and the dynamic membrane fluctuations of individual RBCs were used to investigate the morphological, biochemical, and mechanical properties of cord, maternal, and adult RBCs at the individual cell level. The volume and surface area of the cord RBCs were significantly larger than those of the RBCs from nonpregnant women, and the cord RBCs had more flattened shapes than that of the RBCs in adults. In addition, the hemoglobin (Hb) content in the cord RBCs from newborns was significantly higher. The Hb concentration in the cord RBCs was higher than that in the nonpregnant women or maternal RBCs, but they were within the physiological range of adults. Interestingly, the amplitudes of the dynamic membrane fluctuations in cord RBCs were comparable to those in nonpregnant women and maternal RBCs, suggesting that the deformability of cord RBCs is similar to that of healthy RBCs in adults.

  6. Three-dimensional refractive index tomograms and deformability of individual human red blood cells from cord blood of newborn infants and maternal blood.

    PubMed

    Park, HyunJoo; Ahn, Taegyu; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Sangyun; Kook, Song-Yi; Lee, Dongheon; Suh, In Bum; Na, Sunghun; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from the cord blood of newborn infants have distinctive functions in fetal and infant development. To systematically investigate the biophysical characteristics of individual cord RBCs in newborn infants, a comparative study was performed on RBCs from the cord blood of newborn infants and from adult mothers or nonpregnant women using optical holographic microtomography. Optical measurements of the distributions of the three-dimensional refractive indices and the dynamic membrane fluctuations of individual RBCs were used to investigate the morphological, biochemical, and mechanical properties of cord, maternal, and adult RBCs at the individual cell level. The volume and surface area of the cord RBCs were significantly larger than those of the RBCs from nonpregnant women, and the cord RBCs had more flattened shapes than that of the RBCs in adults. In addition, the hemoglobin (Hb) content in the cord RBCs from newborns was significantly higher. The Hb concentration in the cord RBCs was higher than that in the nonpregnant women or maternal RBCs, but they were within the physiological range of adults. Interestingly, the amplitudes of the dynamic membrane fluctuations in cord RBCs were comparable to those in nonpregnant women and maternal RBCs, suggesting that the deformability of cord RBCs is similar to that of healthy RBCs in adults. PMID:26259511

  7. Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parent Information Pregnancy Infants (Ages 0-3) Diseases & Conditions Safety in the Home & ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Information For... Media Policy Makers Infants & Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children Recommend on Facebook ...

  8. Newborn jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    ... newborn; Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia; Bili lights - jaundice; Infant - yellow skin; Newborn - yellow skin ... efficiently. Most newborns have some yellowing of the skin, or jaundice. This is called physiological jaundice. It ...

  9. Newborn jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    Jaundice of the newborn; Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia; Bili lights - jaundice; Infant - yellow skin; Newborn - yellow skin ... lasts 1 to 2 days. Sometimes special blue lights are used on infants whose levels are very ...

  10. PHENYLKETONURIA, DETECTION IN THE NEWBORN INFANT AS A ROUTINE HOSPITAL PROCEDURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GUTHRIE, ROBERT; WHITNEY, STEWART

    A FIELD TRIAL OF AN INHIBITION ASSAY METHOD FOR SCREENING FOR PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU) TESTED MORE THAN 400,000 NEWBORN INFANTS PRIOR TO DISCHARGE FROM THE HOSPTIAL. IN ALL, 39 CASES WERE FOUND, A HIGHER INCIDENCE THAN HAD PREVIOUSLY BEEN EXPECTED. THE PRACTICALITY OF THE INHIBITION ASSAY METHOD WAS ALSO DEMONSTRATED. THE REPORT DETAILS THE TRIAL'S…

  11. A Comparison of Developmental Assessments of the Newborn and Young Infant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majnemer, Annette; Snider, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    Neonatal neurobehavioral assessments describe a newborn's spontaneous behavioural repertoire and observable responses to environmental stimuli. Infant developmental assessments document the range of developmental skills that emerge and develop over the first years of life. This review highlights two neonatal assessments (Einstein Neonatal…

  12. Newborn infants' auditory system is sensitive to Western music chord categories

    PubMed Central

    Virtala, Paula; Huotilainen, Minna; Partanen, Eino; Fellman, Vineta; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Neural encoding of abstract rules in the audition of newborn infants has been recently demonstrated in several studies using event-related potentials (ERPs). In the present study the neural encoding of Western music chords was investigated in newborn infants. Using ERPs, we examined whether the categorizations of major vs. minor and consonance vs. dissonance are present at the level of the change-related mismatch response (MMR). Using an oddball paradigm, root minor, dissonant and inverted major chords were presented in a context of consonant root major chords. The chords were transposed to several different frequency levels, so that the deviant chords did not include a physically deviant frequency that could result in an MMR without categorization. The results show that the newborn infants were sensitive to both dissonant and minor chords but not to inverted major chords in the context of consonant root major chords. While the dissonant chords elicited a large positive MMR, the minor chords elicited a negative MMR. This indicates that the two categories were processed differently. The results suggest newborn infants are sensitive to Western music categorizations, which is consistent with the authors' previous studies in adults and school-aged children. PMID:23966962

  13. Heart Rate Conditioning in Newborn Infants: Relationships Among Conditionability, Heart Rate Variability, and Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamps, Leighton E.; Porges, Stephen W.

    1975-01-01

    Trace conditioning was evaluated in newborn infants by measurements of heart rate responses to a conditioned stimulus in anticipation of or in absence of the unconditioned stimulus. Data suggest females have higher levels of heart rate variability than males, which parallels their greater conditionability. (GO)

  14. The Effects of Hunger on Hand-Mouth Coordination in Newborn Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Adina R.; Butterworth, George

    1995-01-01

    Examined the effects of hunger on the hand-mouth (HM) behavior of a group of newborn infants. Found that significantly more mouth opening before contacts to the mouth than those to the face occurred before but not after feeding, suggesting some link between HM behavior and hunger state. (MDM)

  15. Newborn Irritability Moderates the Association between Infant Attachment Security and Toddler Exploration and Sociability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupica, Brandi; Sherman, Laura J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation of 84 infants examined whether the effect of 12-month attachment on 18- and 24-month exploration and sociability with unfamiliar adults varied as a function of newborn irritability. As expected, results revealed an interaction between attachment (secure vs. insecure) and irritability (highly irritable vs. moderately…

  16. Phonotactic Acquisition in Healthy Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that preterm infants are at higher risk for cognitive/language delays than full-term infants. Recent studies, focusing on prosody (i.e. rhythm, intonation), have suggested that prosodic perception development in preterms is indexed by maturational rather than postnatal/listening age. However, because prosody is heard…

  17. Serum Zinc in Mothers and from Cord Blood of Appropriate Birth-Weight Full Term and Preterm Newborn Infants, and of Low-Birth-Weight Full Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trindade, Cleide Enoir Petean; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Studied the maternal plasmatic zinc behavior at delivery time and the cord blood zinc concentration from appropriate and low-birth-weight full-term infants and appropriate preterm infants. Findings indicated that neither prematurity nor fetal growth delay interfere in maternal or newborn infants' zinc levels. (BJD)

  18. Evaluation and treatment of developmental hip dysplasia in the newborn and infant.

    PubMed

    Schwend, Richard M; Shaw, Brian A; Segal, Lee S

    2014-12-01

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) encompasses a spectrum of physical and imaging findings. The child's hip will not develop normally if it remains unstable and anatomically abnormal by walking age. Therefore, careful physical examination of all infants to diagnosis and treat significant DDH is critical to provide the best possible functional outcome. Regardless of the practice setting, all health professionals who care for newborns and infants should be trained to evaluate the infant hip for instability and to provide appropriate and early conservative treatment or referral. PMID:25439013

  19. Fecal S100A12 in Healthy Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    Day, A. S.; Ehn, M.; Gearry, R. B.; Lemberg, D. A.; Leach, S. T.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims. Fecal S100A12 is shown to be a useful noninvasive marker of gut inflammation. However, the studies to date have not characterised the patterns of expression in healthy young children. This study aimed to determine S100A12 levels in infants and children without symptoms of underlying gut disease. Methods. Stool samples were collected from healthy infants (<12 months) and children without gastrointestinal symptoms. Faecal S100A12 was measured by immunoassay. Results. Fifty-six children were recruited. Serial samples were obtained from seven term infants over the first 6 months of life. Single samples were obtained from 49 healthy children ranging from 0.16 to 13.8 years of age. Median S100A12 levels were 0.5 mg/kg (ranging from 0.39 to 25) in the healthy children, with high values (>10 mg/kg) in five infants only. There was no variation between gender. Median S100A12 levels in healthy infants remained below the established normal cut-off from birth to six months of age. Conclusion. S100A12 levels in well infants and children are almost exclusively lower than the standard cut-off. Transiently higher levels may be seen in early infancy. An elevated level of S100A12 in children older than 12 months of age is likely to represent organic gut disease. PMID:24167377

  20. Penile length, digit length, and anogenital distance according to birth weight in newborn male infants

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Young; Lim, Gina; Oh, Ki Won; Ryu, Dong Soo; Park, Seonghun; Jeon, Jong Chul; Cheon, Sang Hyeon; Moon, Kyung Hyun; Park, Sejun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anogential distance (AGD) and the 2:4 digit length ratio appear to provide a reliable guide to fetal androgen exposure. We intended to investigate the current status of penile size and the relationship between penile length and AGD or digit length according to birth weight in Korean newborn infants. Materials and Methods Between May 2013 and February 2014, among a total of 78 newborn male infants, 55 infants were prospectively included in this study. Newborn male infants with a gestational age of 38 to 42 weeks and birth weight>2.5 kg were assigned to the NW group (n=24) and those with a gestational age<38 weeks and birth weight<2.5 kg were assigned to the LW group (n=31). Penile size and other variables were compared between the two groups. Results Stretched penile length of the NW group was 3.3±0.2 cm, which did not differ significantly from that reported in 1987. All parameters including height, weight, penile length, testicular size, AGD, and digit length were significantly lower in the LW group than in the NW group. However, there were no significant differences in AGD ratio or 2:4 digit length ratio between the two groups. Conclusions The penile length of newborn infants has not changed over the last quarter century in Korea. With normal penile appearance, the AGD ratio and 2:4 digit length ratio are consistent irrespective of birth weight, whereas AGD, digit length, and penile length are significantly smaller in newborns with low birth weight. PMID:25763130

  1. Frightened Versus Not Frightened Disorganized Infant Attachment: Newborn Characteristics and Maternal Caregiving

    PubMed Central

    Padrón, Elena; Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2014-01-01

    The disorganized infant has been described as experiencing “fright without solution” (Hesse & Main, 1999, p. 484) within the attachment relationship. Using a sample at risk because of poverty (n=157), this study evaluated the role of newborn characteristics in predicting disorganized attachment and explored the existence of two subgroups of disorganized infants, based on whether they display direct indices of fear. For the entire sample, regression analyses revealed that newborn characteristics did not predict ratings of disorganization directly or via moderation by caregiving. Regarding subgroups, it was hypothesized that, if direct expressions of fear resulted from interaction with a frightening or frightened caregiver, it could be expected that infants in the Not Frightened subgroup would become disorganized in part because of other factors, such as compromised regulatory abilities at birth. Results supported this hypothesis for emotional regulation, but not for orientation; infants in the Not Frightened subgroup displayed limited emotional regulation as newborns. Findings suggest that the disorganized attachment category may be comprised of two subgroups, with direct expressions of fear as the key differentiating factor. Specifically, disorganized infants who do not display direct fear in the presence of the caregiver may have started out with compromised emotional regulation abilities at birth. PMID:24826936

  2. Frightened versus not frightened disorganized infant attachment: Newborn characteristics and maternal caregiving.

    PubMed

    Padrón, Elena; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Sroufe, L Alan

    2014-03-01

    The disorganized infant has been described as experiencing "fright without solution" (Hesse & Main, 1999, p. 484) within the attachment relationship. Using a sample at risk because of poverty (n = 157), this study evaluated the role of newborn characteristics in predicting disorganized attachment and explored the existence of 2 subgroups of disorganized infants, based on whether they display direct indices of fear. For the entire sample, regression analyses revealed that newborn characteristics did not predict ratings of disorganization directly or via moderation by caregiving. Regarding subgroups, it was hypothesized that, if direct expressions of fear resulted from interaction with a frightening or frightened caregiver, it could be expected that infants in the Not Frightened subgroup would become disorganized in part because of other factors, such as compromised regulatory abilities at birth. Results supported this hypothesis for emotional regulation, but not for orientation; infants in the Not Frightened subgroup displayed limited emotional regulation as newborns. Findings suggest that the disorganized attachment category may be comprised of 2 subgroups, with direct expressions of fear as the key differentiating factor. Specifically, disorganized infants who do not display direct fear in the presence of the caregiver may have started out with compromised emotional regulation abilities at birth. PMID:24826936

  3. Endogenous production of carbon monoxide in normal and erythroblastotic newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Maisels, M. Jeffrey; Pathak, Ambadas; Nelson, Nicholas M.; Nathan, David G.; Smith, Clement A.

    1971-01-01

    The endogenous production of carbon monoxide (˙VCO) in newborn infants was measured by serial determinations of blood carboxyhemoglobin during rebreathing in a closed system. Mean ˙VCO in nine full-term infants was 13.7 ±3.6 μl CO/kg per hr (SD), and in four erythroblastotic infants ˙VCO ranged from 37 to 154 μl CO/kg per hr preceding exchange transfusion. Mean red cell life-span (MLS) and total bilirubin production were calculated from ˙VCO. MLS in normal newborns was 88 ±15 days (SD), and bilirubin production was 8.5 ±2.3 mg/kg per 24 hr. This is more than twice the amount of bilirubin normally produced in the adult per kilogram of body weight. Normal infants achieved a net excretion of bilirubin of at least 5.6 ±2.3 mg/kg per 24 hr (SD) as calculated from the bilirubin production and the measured rise in serum bilirubin concentration. The measurement of ˙VCO should prove valuable in the study of red blood cell survival and bilirubin metabolism in the newborn infant. Images PMID:5543875

  4. [Listeriosis in the newborn infant: improved prognosis due to early detection].

    PubMed

    Bucher, H U; Nadal, D; Mieth, D

    1989-06-01

    Perinatal clinical data were collected retrospectively from 35 newborn infants infected with Listeria monocytogenes and compared with the subsequent outcome. The average annual incidence of neonatal listeriosis in the Canton of Zurich (Switzerland) between 1983 and 1987 was 0.33 per 1000, which is more than twice that during the preceding 10 years. This increase paralleled a similar outbreak in the French part of Switzerland, where contaminated soft cheese was found to be the source. Three infants were probably cross-infected in the delivery room. Antenatal symptoms included fever in the mother, greenstained amniotic fluid, pathological cardiotocogram, premature contractions and disappearance of fetal movements. After birth the infants showed respiratory distress, fever or hypothermia, exanthema or neurological abnormalities. A gram stain of the gastric content was highly accurate in predicting listeria infection (92% sensitivity, 90% specificity). Five infants died, all within 24 h of birth; seven infants survived with and 23 without, sequelae. Factors associated with fatal outcome were a short gestational age, a low birth weight and a long interval between onset of symptoms and delivery or first dose of an appropriate antibiotic. Cephalosporins were not effective in four infants and therefore should not be given alone to pregnant women and newborn infants as long as Listeria monocytogenes infection is not excluded. PMID:2503713

  5. Gaze following is accelerated in healthy preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Peña, Marcela; Arias, Diana; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2014-10-01

    Gaze following is an essential human communication cue that orients the attention of two interacting people to the same external object. This capability is robustly observed after 7 months of age in full-term infants. Do healthy preterm infants benefit from their early exposure to face-to-face interactions with other humans to acquire this capacity sooner than full-term infants of the same chronological age, despite their immature brains? In two different experiments, we demonstrated that 7-month-old preterm infants performed like 7-month-old full-term infants (with whom they shared the same chronological age) and not like 4-month-old full-term infants (with whom they shared the same postmenstrual age). The duration of exposure to visual experience thus appears to have a greater impact on the development of early gaze following than does postmenstrual age. PMID:25125427

  6. [Systemic candidiasis with meningeal involvement in a newborn infant].

    PubMed

    Kacprzak-Bergman, I; Szychowska, Z; Rudkowski, Z

    1989-04-24

    The newborn with sepsis (E. coli) and salmonellosis was described. After treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics it was suffered from Candida albicans (Meningitis with Hydrocephalus internus, Chorioretinitis and Ostitis). The authors difficulties connected with diagnosis and anti-fungal therapy have showed. They have punctated the necessity of combined anti-mycotic therapy. PMID:2626360

  7. A Life Worth Giving? The Threshold for Permissible Withdrawal of Life Support From Disabled Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Dominic James

    2011-01-01

    When is it permissible to allow a newborn infant to die on the basis of their future quality of life? The prevailing official view is that treatment may be withdrawn only if the burdens in an infant's future life outweigh the benefits. In this paper I outline and defend an alternative view. On the Threshold View, treatment may be withdrawn from infants if their future well-being is below a threshold that is close to, but above the zero-point of well-being. I present four arguments in favor of the Threshold View, and identify and respond to several counterarguments. I conclude that it is justifiable in some circumstances for parents and doctors to decide to allow an infant to die even though the infant's life would be worth living. The Threshold View provides a justification for treatment decisions that is more consistent, more robust, and potentially more practical than the standard view. PMID:21337273

  8. Trained immunity in newborn infants of HBV-infected mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Michelle; Sandalova, Elena; Low, Diana; Gehring, Adam J.; Fieni, Stefania; Amadei, Barbara; Urbani, Simonetta; Chong, Yap-Seng; Guccione, Ernesto; Bertoletti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The newborn immune system is characterized by an impaired Th1-associated immune response. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmitted from infected mothers to newborns is thought to exploit the newborns’ immune system immaturity by inducing a state of immune tolerance that facilitates HBV persistence. Contrary to this hypothesis, we demonstrate here that HBV exposure in utero triggers a state of trained immunity, characterized by innate immune cell maturation and Th1 development, which in turn enhances the ability of cord blood immune cells to respond to bacterial infection in vitro. These training effects are associated with an alteration of the cytokine environment characterized by low IL-10 and, in most cases, high IL-12p40 and IFN-α2. Our data uncover a potentially symbiotic relationship between HBV and its natural host, and highlight the plasticity of the fetal immune system following viral exposure in utero. PMID:25807344

  9. Risk factors for neonatal morbidity and mortality among "healthy," late preterm newborns.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Tomashek, Kay M; Kotelchuck, Milton; Barfield, Wanda; Weiss, Judith; Evans, Stephen

    2006-04-01

    Research about neonatal outcomes among late preterm infants (34 weeks through 36 6/7 weeks of gestation) is limited. Understanding which late preterm infants are at risk for neonatal morbidity or mortality is necessary to improve health outcomes and reduce hospital costs. We conducted a population-based cohort study of "healthy," singleton late preterm infants vaginally delivered in Massachusetts hospitals to Massachusetts residents between 1998 and 2002. We compared the incidence of neonatal morbidity (postdelivery inpatient readmissions, observational stays, or mortality) between "healthy," late preterm infants with and without infant, obstetric, and sociodemographic factors by calculating risk ratios adjusted for confounding. Of the 9552 late preterm, "healthy" infants, 4.8% had an inpatient readmission and 1.3% had an observational stay. Infants with neonatal morbidity were more likely to be firstborn, be breastfed at discharge, have labor and delivery complications, be a recipient of a public payer source at delivery, or have an Asian/Pacific Islander mother. Non-Hispanic blacks had a decreased risk for neonatal morbidity compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Knowledge of risk factors for neonatal morbidity among "healthy" late preterm infants can be used to identify infants needing closer monitoring and earlier follow-up after hospital discharge. PMID:16731277

  10. Standard of hygiene and immune adaptation in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Kallionpää, Henna; Laajala, Essi; Öling, Viveka; Härkönen, Taina; Tillmann, Vallo; Dorshakova, Natalya V; Ilonen, Jorma; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Knip, Mikael; Lahesmaa, Riitta

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of immune-mediated diseases, such as allergies and type 1 diabetes, is on the rise in the developed world. In order to explore differences in the gene expression patterns induced in utero in infants born in contrasting standards of living and hygiene, we collected umbilical cord blood RNA samples from infants born in Finland (modern society), Estonia (rapidly developing society) and the Republic of Karelia, Russia (poor economic conditions). The whole blood transcriptome of Finnish and Estonian neonates differed from their Karelian counterparts, suggesting exposure to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and a more matured immune response in infants born in Karelia. These results further support the concept of a conspicuous plasticity in the developing immune system: the environmental factors that play a role in the susceptibility/protection towards immune-mediated diseases begin to shape the neonatal immunity already in utero and direct the maturation in accordance with the surrounding microbial milieu. PMID:25245264

  11. Increased concentrations of D-dimers in newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, I R; Gibson, B E; Brownlie, J; Holland, B M; Turner, T L; Webber, R G

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of D-dimers (the D fragments of fibrinogen) were measured in blood from 15 preterm infants, and 45 born at full term, to establish normal ranges. The adult normal range is less than 0.25 mg/l; 31 of the 60 infants (52%) had values less than 0.25 mg/l, in 16 (27%) they were 0.25-0.5, in eight (13%) 0.5-1, in three (5%) 1-2, and in two (3%) 2-4. D-dimer concentrations measured during the neonatal period should be interpreted with caution. PMID:2337364

  12. Premature infants display increased noxious-evoked neuronal activity in the brain compared to healthy age-matched term-born infants.

    PubMed

    Slater, Rebeccah; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2010-08-15

    This study demonstrates that infants who are born prematurely and who have experienced at least 40days of intensive or special care have increased brain neuronal responses to noxious stimuli compared to healthy newborns at the same postmenstrual age. We have measured evoked potentials generated by noxious clinically-essential heel lances in infants born at term (8 infants; born 37-40weeks) and in infants born prematurely (7 infants; born 24-32weeks) who had reached the same postmenstrual age (mean age at time of heel lance 39.2+/-1.2weeks). These noxious-evoked potentials are clearly distinguishable from shorter latency potentials evoked by non-noxious tactile sensory stimulation. While the shorter latency touch potentials are not dependent on the age of the infant at birth, the noxious-evoked potentials are significantly larger in prematurely-born infants. This enhancement is not associated with specific brain lesions but reflects a functional change in pain processing in the brain that is likely to underlie previously reported changes in pain sensitivity in older ex-preterm children. Our ability to quantify and measure experience-dependent changes in infant cortical pain processing will allow us to develop a more rational approach to pain management in neonatal intensive care. PMID:20438855

  13. Single-incision pediatric endosurgery in newborns and infants

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Yury; Novozhilov, Vladimir; Baradieva, Polina; Krasnov, Pavel; Kovalkov, Konstantin; Muensterer, Oliver J

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the successful application of single-incision pediatric endosurgery in the treatment of congenital anomalies and acquired diseases in neonates and infants. The purpose of this scientific review consists in highlighting the spectrum, indications, applicability, and effectiveness of single-port endosurgery in children during the first 3 postnatal months. PMID:26566478

  14. Dissociation between Small and Large Numerosities in Newborn Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coubart, Aurélie; Izard, Véronique; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Marie, Julien; Streri, Arlette

    2014-01-01

    In the first year of life, infants possess two cognitive systems encoding numerical information: one for processing the numerosity of sets of 4 or more items, and the second for tracking up to 3 objects in parallel. While a previous study showed the former system to be already present a few hours after birth, it is unknown whether the latter…

  15. Temperature drop in normal term newborn infants born at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Raman, S; Shahla, A

    1992-05-01

    A prospective study of temperature drop in 141 normal term newborn infants delivered vaginally at the labour ward, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur were studied. The effect of various manoeuvres on the temperature drop were also studied. They were randomized into 3 study groups, 63 cases where the babies were wiped with dry cloth alone, 37 cases where the babies were put into a plastic bag immediately after birth and lastly 41 cases where the babies were wiped with dry cloth and then inserted into a plastic bag. There was significant temperature drop in all the 3 groups maximum in the first 15 minutes and the fall continued for 1 hour after delivery (p less than 0.001). This shows that in an air-conditioned labour ward in a tropical country the temperature fall in newborn infants can be significant. This study also showed that plastic is a poor insulator against significant temperature drop. PMID:1520194

  16. Healthy eating for infants--mothers' actions.

    PubMed

    Stordy, B J; Redfern, A M; Morgan, J B

    1995-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the nutrient composition, with respect to energy density, protein, fat, carbohydrate, non-starch polysaccharides and certain micronutrients, of home-prepared infant foods and to compare the nutrient composition with the draft European Commission directive for baby foods, the published nutrient content of manufactured baby foods, and with breast milk. Two hundred and sixty-five samples of home-prepared weaning foods for infants aged 3-12 months were collected and chemically analysed. Many of the food samples were low in energy, protein, fat, iron, calcium and zinc and high in non-starch polysaccharides and sodium. Home-prepared weaning foods have some shortcomings in terms of nutrient composition. Advice from health care professionals needs to focus on these areas at the same time as presenting the nutritional merits of manufactured baby foods. PMID:7549288

  17. Exosomes from human mesenchymal stem cells conduct aerobic metabolism in term and preterm newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Panfoli, Isabella; Ravera, Silvia; Podestà, Marina; Cossu, Claudia; Santucci, Laura; Bartolucci, Martina; Bruschi, Maurizio; Calzia, Daniela; Sabatini, Federica; Bruschettini, Matteo; Ramenghi, Luca Antonio; Romantsik, Olga; Marimpietri, Danilo; Pistoia, Vito; Ghiggeri, Gianmarco; Frassoni, Francesco; Candiano, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Exosomes are secreted nanovesicles that are able to transfer RNA and proteins to target cells. The emerging role of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) exosomes as promoters of aerobic ATP synthesis restoration in damaged cells, prompted us to assess whether they contain an extramitochondrial aerobic respiration capacity. Exosomes were isolated from culture medium of human MSCs from umbilical cord of ≥37-wk-old newborns or between 28- to 30-wk-old newborns (i.e.,term or preterm infants). Characterization of samples was conducted by cytofluorometry. Oxidative phosphorylation capacity was assessed by Western blot analysis, oximetry, and luminometric and fluorometric analyses. MSC exosomes express functional respiratory complexes I, IV, and V, consuming oxygen. ATP synthesis was only detectable in exosomes from term newborns, suggestive of a specific mechanism that is not completed at an early gestational age. Activities are outward facing and comparable to those detected in mitochondria isolated from term MSCs. MSC exosomes display an unsuspected aerobic respiratory ability independent of whole mitochondria. This may be relevant for their ability to rescue cell bioenergetics. The differential oxidative metabolism of pretermvs.term exosomes sheds new light on the preterm newborn's clinical vulnerability. A reduced ability to repair damaged tissue and an increased capability to cope with anoxic environment for preterm infants can be envisaged.-Panfoli, I., Ravera, S., Podestà, M., Cossu, C., Santucci, L., Bartolucci, M., Bruschi, M., Calzia, D., Sabatini, F., Bruschettini, M., Ramenghi, L. A., Romantsik, O., Marimpietri, D., Pistoia, V., Ghiggeri, G., Frassoni, F., Candiano, G. Exosomes from human mesenchymal stem cells conduct aerobic metabolism in term and preterm newborn infants. PMID:26655706

  18. [The local prevalence of group B streptococcus in pregnant women and newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Celebi, S; Tuncel, E; Babacan, M

    1992-04-01

    In this study, group B streptococcus (GBS) were investigated in vaginal swabs obtained from 76 pregnant women and in samples of newborn infants obtained from different areas of their bodies. GBS were determined in 5.2% of women and 3.96% of infants. GBS were recovered in 15.4% of the women in their first pregnancy and in 13.3% of women in their second pregnancy. GBS could not isolated from the women in their third and more pregnancies. All eight species of GBS were sensitive to AMP + Sulbactam, Clavulanic acid + Amox, Lincomycin, Clindamycin, Penicillin G and SMZ + TMP. PMID:1588850

  19. [Ultrasonographic evaluation of the hip using Harcke's method in newborns and infants].

    PubMed

    Synder, M; Zwierzchowski, T J

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical foundations, technique of examination classification and own results of hip assessment with Harcke method in 256 newborns and infants has been presented. Simplicity of interpreting of the sonographic images, multiplanal, dynamic hip evaluation and potential to conduct assessment also in abduction device is underlined. Position II and III according to Harcke proved to be most useful for dynamic evaluation of the hip. Ossification center was seen earliest in position I; position III provided most significant information about hip joint morphology. PMID:7587505

  20. Overlap of clinical features of Smith-Magenis & Down Syndrome in newborns and infants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, K.A.; Finucane, B.M.; Bauer, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) frequently goes unrecognized in newborns and infants as these patients do not yet demonstrate the characteristic behavioral phenotype and may only present with developmental delay and physical dysmorphism. Six of Hall`s ten cardinal features of trisomy 21 in the newborn are also frequently found in newborns with SMS, leading to an early presumptive diagnosis of DS in many of these patients. CASE No. 1: Based on clinical findings, a presumptive diagnosis of DS was given to the patient in the newborn period. Chromosome analysis of peripheral blood revealed a normal 46,XX karyotype. Given this result, the possibility of mosaic DS was raised, and a skin fibroblast study done. Again, the karyotype was reported as normal. Clinical features and cytogenetic analysis confirmed a diagnosis of SMS when the patient was 8 years old. CASE No. 2: A presumptive diagnosis of DS was made in an infant with hypotonia, facial dysmorphisms and congenital heart defects. A routine chromosome analysis was ordered, which revealed a 46,XY,del(17)(p11.2p11.2) karyotype. Indeed, approximately 38% of blood samples referred to our laboratory to rule out DS in an infant failed to demonstrate trisomy for chromosome 21. Given the high degree of clinical overlap with Down Syndrome, the diagnosis of SMS should be considered in all such patients. Additional analysis should be done to look for deletion 17p11.2 when faced with a {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} karyotype in an infant referred to rule out DS.

  1. In Vivo Effect of Pneumonia on Surfactant Disaturated-Phosphatidylcholine Kinetics in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Facco, Maddalena; Nespeca, Matteo; Simonato, Manuela; Isak, Ilena; Verlato, Giovanna; Ciambra, Gianluca; Giorgetti, Chiara; Carnielli, Virgilio P.; Cogo, Paola E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial pneumonia in newborns often leads to surfactant deficiency or dysfunction, as surfactant is inactivated or its production/turnover impaired. No data are available in vivo in humans on the mechanism of surfactant depletion in neonatal pneumonia. We studied the kinetics of surfactant's major component, disaturated-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), in neonatal pneumonia, and we compared our findings with those obtained from control newborn lungs. Methods We studied thirty-one term or near-term newborns (gestational age 39.7±1.7 weeks, birth weight 3185±529 g) requiring mechanical ventilation. Fifteen newborns had pneumonia, while 16 newborns were on mechanical ventilation but had no lung disease. Infants received an intratracheal dose of 13C labeled dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine at the study start. We measured the amount and the isotopic enrichment of DSPC-palmitate from serial tracheal aspirates by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively, and we calculated the DSPC half-life (HL) and pool size (PS) from the isotopic enrichment curves of surfactant DSPC-palmitate. Results The mean DSPC amount obtained from all tracheal aspirates did not differ between the two groups. DSPC HL was 12.7 (6.5–20.2) h and 25.6 (17.9–60.6) h in infants with pneumonia compared with control infants (p = 0.003). DSPC PS was 14.1 (6.6–30.9) mg/kg in infants with pneumonia and 34.1 (25.6–65.0) mg/kg in controls, p = 0.042. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as a marker of lung inflammation, was 1322 (531–2821) mU/ml of Epithelial Lining Fluid (ELF) and 371(174–1080) mU/ml ELF in infants with pneumonia and in controls, p = 0.047. In infants with pneumonia, DSPC PS and HL significantly and inversely correlated with mean Oxygenation Index (OI) during the study (DSPC PS vs. OI R = −0.710, p = 0.004 and HL vs. OI R = −0.525, p = 0.044, respectively). Conclusions We demonstrated for the first time in vivo in

  2. Infant dental care (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Even though newborns and infants do not have teeth, care of the mouth and gums is important. ... sugar water. As the child grows, establishing proper dental hygiene will promote healthy teeth and gums which ...

  3. [Somatometry in the full-term newborn infant (preliminary report)].

    PubMed

    Ramos Galván, R; Díaz Graham, C; Martí Torroella, G; Pinal, A M

    1977-01-01

    As a preliminary comunication, the authors report a somatometric study carried out in 315 full term newborns from different socioeconomic situation; 152 were born at the Hospital General, S.S.A. and 163, in a private hospital where middle and high class families are attended. The information is grouped on whether measurements are related to physical growth, th state of nutrition or to physical development. Several conditions which necessarily must be taken as independent variables in a study of this sort, such as the age of the parents, but specially of the mother, the period of gestation and of course, the socioeconomic level, were analyzed. The finding of up to 17% of case with height under 47 cm. and/or weight under 2,500 g., outstands the necessity to study the homeorrhesis phenomenon as a very important detail in this type of material. PMID:843406

  4. Randomised, double blind trial of two loading dose regimens of diamorphine in ventilated newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Pawula, M.; Barrett, D. A.; Shaw, P. N.; Rutter, N.

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To compare the safety and efficacy of two loading doses of diamorphine in 27 ventilated newborn infants in a randomised double blind trial. METHODS--Fifty or 200 mcg/kg were infused intravenously over 30 minutes, followed by a 15 mcg/kg/hour continuous infusion. Serial measurements were made of physiology, behaviour, and stress hormones. RESULTS--Both loading doses produced small but significant falls in blood pressure. The 200 mcg/kg dose produced greater respiratory depression, and two infants deteriorated clinically, requiring resuscitation. Loading reduced respiratory effort in most of the infants, but had little effect on behavioural activity. Stress hormone concentrations were reduced at six hours in both dosage groups; differences between loading doses were not significant. Morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, and morphine-6-glucuronide were detected in the plasma of all patients. No significant differences in concentrations between loading doses were found. CONCLUSIONS--Diamorphine reduces the stress response in ventilated newborn infants. A high loading dose confers no benefit, and may produce undesirable physiological effects. A 50 mcg/kg loading dose seems to be safe and effective. PMID:7552591

  5. Achieving skin to skin contact in theatre for healthy newborns.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    The evidence base is supportive of early skin to skin contact (SSC) for optimal newborn-physiological adaptation, bonding and breastfeeding, and national guidelines encourage SSC as soon as possible, regardless of mode of birth. With an ever-rising caesarean (CS) rate, implementing SSC in theatre stands to benefit an increasing number of mothers and babies. While it may be best practice, in reality there is a lot of variation from trust to trust, and many hospitals do not facilitate it, citing numerous reasons as to why it is not possible. Midwives may feel that they should focus on norma birth, but it is our role to provide holistic care and normalise birth in all settings. This article looks at current evidence and the role of the midwife around facilitating SSC in theatre with an example from practice of how change has been implemented so that mothers and babies get the best start in life. PMID:26320329

  6. Lipid and Protein Oxidation in Newborn Infants after Lutein Administration

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, S.; Tei, M.; Longini, M.; Santacroce, A.; Turrisi, G.; Proietti, F.; Felici, C.; Picardi, A.; Bazzini, F.; Vasarri, P.; Buonocore, G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To test the hypothesis that neonatal supplementation with lutein in the first hours of life reduces neonatal oxidative stress (OS) in the immediate postpartum period. Methods. A randomized controlled, double-blinded clinical trial was conducted among 150 newborns divided into control group, not supplemented (n = 47), and test group, supplemented with lutein on the first day postpartum (n = 103). Blood Samples were collected at birth from cord and at 48 hrs postpartum while routine neonatal metabolic screenings were taking place. Total hydroperoxide (TH), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) were measured by spectrophotometry and data were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum test and by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results. Before lutein supplementation, the mean blood concentrations of AOPP, TH, and BAP were 36.10 umol/L, 156.75 mmol/H2O2, and 2361.04 umol/L in the test group. After lutein supplementation, significantly higher BAP increment (0.17 ± 0.22 versus 0.06 versus ± 0.46) and lower TH increment (0.46 ± 0.54 versus 0.34 ± 0.52) were observed in the test group compared to controls. Conclusion. Neonatal supplementation with lutein in the first hours of life increases BAP and reduces TH in supplemented babies compared to those untreated. The generation of free radical-induced damage at birth is reduced by lutein. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02068807. PMID:24876916

  7. Brain white matter abnormality in a newborn infant with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Akimune; Saito-Hakoda, Akiko; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Kamimura, Miki; Kanno, Junko; Kure, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Ikuma

    2013-10-01

    Several studies have described brain white matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children and adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), while the brain MRI findings of newborn infants with CAH have not been clarified. We report a newborn boy with CAH who presented brain white matter abnormality on MRI. He was diagnosed as having salt-wasting CAH with a high 17-OHP level at neonatal screening and was initially treated with hydrocortisone at 8 days of age. On day 11 after birth, he had a generalized tonic seizure. No evidence of serum electrolyte abnormalities was observed. Brain MRI revealed white matter abnormalities that consisted of bilateral small diffuse hyperintensities on T1-weighted images with slightly low intensity on T2-weighted images in the watershed area. Several factors associated with brain white matter abnormalities in adults with CAH, such as increasing age, hypertension, diabetes and corticosteroid replacement, were not applicable. Although the cause of the phenomenon in this case is unclear, brain white matter abnormality could be observed in newborn infants with CAH as well as in adult patients. PMID:24170965

  8. Comparison of Cerebral Oximeter and Pulse Oximeter Values in the First 72 Hours in Premature, Asphyctic and Healthy Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, A; Okur, M; Sal, E; Peker, E; Köstü, M; Tuncer, O; Kirimi, E

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The monitoring of oxygenation is essential for providing patient safety and optimal results. We aimed to determine brain oxygen saturation values in healthy, asphyctic and premature newborns and to compare cerebral oximeter and pulse oximeter values in the first 72 hours of life in neonatal intensive care units. Methods: This study was conducted at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Van Yüzüncü Yil University Research and Administration Hospital. Seventy-five neonatal infants were included in the study (28 asphyxia, 24 premature and 23 mature healthy infants for control group). All infants were studied within the first 72 hours of life. We used a Somanetics 5100C cerebral oximeter (INVOS cerebral/somatic oximeter, Troy, MI, USA). The oxygen saturation information was collected by a Nellcor N-560 pulse oximeter (Nellcor-Puriton Bennet Inc, Pleasanton, CA, USA). Results: In the asphyxia group, the cerebral oximeter average was 76.85 ± 14.1, the pulse oximeter average was 91.86 ± 5.9 and the heart rate average was 139.91 ± 22.3. Among the premature group, the cerebral oximeter average was 79.08 ± 9.04, the pulse oximeter average was 92.01 ± 5.3 and the heart rate average was 135.35 ± 17.03. In the control group, the cerebral oximeter average was 77.56 ± 7.6, the pulse oximeter average was 92.82 ± 3.8 and the heart rate average was 127.04 ± 19.7. Conclusion: Cerebral oximeter is a promising modality in bedside monitoring in neonatal intensive care units. It is complementary to pulse oximeter. It may be used routinely in neonatal intensive care units. PMID:25867556

  9. Transplant Tolerance Induction in Newborn Infants: Mechanisms, Advantages, and Potential Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hua; Gazarian, Aram; Dubernard, Jean-Michel; Belot, Alexandre; Michallet, Marie-Cécile; Michallet, Mauricette

    2016-01-01

    Although several tolerance induction protocols have been successfully implemented in adult renal transplantation, no tolerance induction approach has, as yet, been defined for solid organ transplantations in young infants. Pediatric transplant recipients have a pressing demand for the elaboration of tolerance induction regimens. Indeed, since they display a longer survival time, they are exposed to a higher level of risks linked to long-term immunosuppression (IS) and to chronic rejection. Interestingly, central tolerance induction may be of great interest in newborns, because of their immunological immaturity and the important role of the thymus at this early stage in life. The present review aims to clarify mechanisms and strategies of tolerance induction in these immunologically premature recipients. We first introduce the discovery and mechanisms of neonatal tolerance in murine experimental models and subsequently analyze tolerance induction in human newborn infants. Hematopoietic mixed chimerism in neonates is also discussed based on in utero hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant studies. Then, we review the recent advances in tolerance induction approaches in adults, including the infusion of HSCs associated with less toxic conditioning regimens, regulatory T cells/facilitating cells/mesenchymal stem cells transplantation, costimulatory blockade, and thymus manipulation. Finally, IS withdrawal in pediatric solid organ transplant is discussed. In conclusion, the establishment of transplant tolerance induction in infants is promising and deserves further investigations. Future studies could focus on the selection of patients, on less toxic conditioning regimens, and on biomarkers for IS minimization or withdrawal. PMID:27092138

  10. Ethics, genetics and public policies in Uruguay: newborn and infant screening as a paradigm.

    PubMed

    Larrandaburu, Mariela; Matte, Ursula; Noble, Ana; Olivera, Zully; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa V; Nacul, Luis; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia

    2015-07-01

    Uruguay is a middle-income country and the smallest in South America. Its population is under 3.3 million. The demographic and epidemiological characteristics are similar to those of developed countries, with a high burden associated with congenital anomalies. Infant mortality rate (IMR) decreased from 37/1000 live births, in 1980, to 8.8/1000, in 2013. This is largely explained by medical and social policies. IMR related to congenital anomalies, however, remained unchanged for the last 30 years. Therefore, programmes for prevention of congenital disorders were developed, such as the National Newborn Screening Programme. Mandatory, universal, free infant screening was implemented two decades ago. The Ministry of Public Health created the Comprehensive Plan on Birth Defects and Rare Diseases (PIDCER), to develop a strategic public policy tool enabling comprehensive, universal, quality care during their entire lifetime. Recent national legislation created provisions for newborn and infant screening, including for congenital hypothyroidism, phenylketonuria, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, cystic fibrosis and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, via blood spot test, otoacoustic emissions, systematic physical examination and hip ultrasound. We discuss how this programme was implemented, the current situation of rare diseases, the institution managing disability in Uruguay and the development of new laws based on the MPH's PIDCER. It illustrates how Uruguay is developing public policies in the genomic era, based both on science and bioethics. PMID:26021874

  11. Transplant Tolerance Induction in Newborn Infants: Mechanisms, Advantages, and Potential Strategies.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hua; Gazarian, Aram; Dubernard, Jean-Michel; Belot, Alexandre; Michallet, Marie-Cécile; Michallet, Mauricette

    2016-01-01

    Although several tolerance induction protocols have been successfully implemented in adult renal transplantation, no tolerance induction approach has, as yet, been defined for solid organ transplantations in young infants. Pediatric transplant recipients have a pressing demand for the elaboration of tolerance induction regimens. Indeed, since they display a longer survival time, they are exposed to a higher level of risks linked to long-term immunosuppression (IS) and to chronic rejection. Interestingly, central tolerance induction may be of great interest in newborns, because of their immunological immaturity and the important role of the thymus at this early stage in life. The present review aims to clarify mechanisms and strategies of tolerance induction in these immunologically premature recipients. We first introduce the discovery and mechanisms of neonatal tolerance in murine experimental models and subsequently analyze tolerance induction in human newborn infants. Hematopoietic mixed chimerism in neonates is also discussed based on in utero hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant studies. Then, we review the recent advances in tolerance induction approaches in adults, including the infusion of HSCs associated with less toxic conditioning regimens, regulatory T cells/facilitating cells/mesenchymal stem cells transplantation, costimulatory blockade, and thymus manipulation. Finally, IS withdrawal in pediatric solid organ transplant is discussed. In conclusion, the establishment of transplant tolerance induction in infants is promising and deserves further investigations. Future studies could focus on the selection of patients, on less toxic conditioning regimens, and on biomarkers for IS minimization or withdrawal. PMID:27092138

  12. Melatonin production in healthy infants: evidence for seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Y; Laudon, M; Tauman, R; Zisapel, N

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the normal range of nocturnal urinary excretion of the major melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6SMT) in a large sample of healthy full-term infants (8 and 16 wk old) and assess whether the endogenous production of melatonin changes with season. 6SMT was assessed in urine samples extracted from disposable diapers removed from full-term, 8- (n = 317) and 16-wk-old (n = 93) infants over the nocturnal period (19:00-08:00 h). In addition, 6SMT was assessed in 8-wk-old (n = 35) healthy infants over the entire 24-h period. 6SMT was determined by an ELISA assay. 6SMT excretion at 8 wk of age exhibited diurnal variations with (mean +/- SD) 61 +/- 18% of the daily production excreted during the nocturnal period regardless of season. The nocturnal 6SMT values in the entire cohort (at 8 as well as 16 wk of age) were found to significantly depart from normal distribution (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). A normal distribution was obtained using a natural base logarithmic (ln) transformation of the data. The normal range (2.5-97.5 percentile of the ln 6SMT excretion per night) was thus defined as 4.66-8.64 (106-5646 ng/night) for 8-wk-old and 5.19-9.67 (180-15,820 ng/night) for 16-wk-old infants. A significant effect of the month of birth on 6SMT production at the age of 8 wk was found (ANOVA, p < 0.002) with maximal levels produced by infants born in June (summer solstice) and minimal excretion in infants born in December (winter solstice). Short-photoperiod-born infants excreted on average about threefold less 6SMT compared with long-photoperiod-born infants (t test, p = 0. 01). The seasonal variations were no longer present at 16 wk of age. No effect of breast-feeding at the time of sampling on seasonality of 6SMT was found. Normal ranges for the nocturnal urinary excretion of 6SMT in full-term infants at 8 and 16 wk of age are defined. This enables the evaluation of nocturnal 6SMT excretion as a prognostic and diagnostic factor

  13. Radiant energy and insensible water loss in the premature newborn infant nursed under a radiant warmer.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, S

    1982-10-01

    Radiant warmers are a powerful and efficient source of heat serving to warm the cold-stressed infant acutely and to provide uninterrupted maintenance of body temperature despite a multiplicity of nursing, medical, and surgical procedures required to care for the critically ill premature newborn in today's intensive care nursery. A recognized side-effect of radiant warmer beds is the now well-documented increase in insensible water loss through evaporation from an infant's skin. Particularly the very-low-birth-weight, severely premature, and critically ill neonate is subject to this increase in evaporative water loss. The clinician caring for the infant is faced with the difficult problem of fluid and electrolyte balance, which requires vigilant monitoring of all parameters of fluid homeostasis. Compounding these difficulties, other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (for example, phototherapy) may affect an infant's fluid metabolism by mechanisms that are not well understood. The role of plastic heat shielding in reducing large insensible losses in infants nursed on radiant warmer beds is currently under intense investigation. Apparently, convective air currents and not radiant heat energy may be the cause of the observed increase in insensible water loss in the intensive care nursery. A thin plastic blanket may be effective in reducing evaporative water loss by diminishing an infant's exposure to convective air currents while being nursed on an open radiant warmer bed. A rigid plastic body hood, although effective as a radiant heat shield, is not as effective in preventing exposure to convection in the intensive care nursery and, therefore, is not as effective as the thin plastic blanket in reducing insensible water loss. Care should be exercised in determining the effect of heat shielding on all parameters of heat exchange (convection, evaporation, and radiation) before application is made to the critically ill premature infant nursed on an open radiant

  14. Preventing obesity in infants: the Growing healthy feasibility trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Laws, Rachel; Russell, Catherine Georgina; Ong, Kok-leong; Taki, Sarah; Elliot, Roz; Azadi, Leva; Lymer, Sharyn; Taylor, Rachael; Lynch, John; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie; Askew, Deborah; Litterbach, Eloise Kate; J Campbell, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Early childhood is an important period for establishing behaviours that will affect weight gain and health across the life course. Early feeding choices, including breast and/or formula, timing of introduction of solids, physical activity and electronic media use among infants and young children are considered likely determinants of childhood obesity. Parents play a primary role in shaping these behaviours through parental modelling, feeding styles, and the food and physical activity environments provided. Children from low socio-economic backgrounds have higher rates of obesity, making early intervention particularly important. However, such families are often more difficult to reach and may be less likely to participate in traditional programs that support healthy behaviours. Parents across all socio-demographic groups frequently access primary health care (PHC) services, including nurses in community health services and general medical practices, providing unparalleled opportunity for engagement to influence family behaviours. One emerging and promising area that might maximise engagement at a low cost is the provision of support for healthy parenting through electronic media such as the Internet or smart phones. The Growing healthy study explores the feasibility of delivering such support via primary health care services. Methods This paper describes the Growing healthy study, a non-randomised quasi experimental study examining the feasibility of an intervention delivered via a smartphone app (or website) for parents living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, for promoting infant feeding and parenting behaviours that promote healthy rather than excessive weight gain. Participants will be recruited via their primary health care practitioner and followed until their infant is 9 months old. Data will be collected via web-based questionnaires and the data collected inherently by the app itself. Ethics and dissemination This study received

  15. The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Because early life growth has long-lasting metabolic and behavioral consequences, intervention during this period of developmental plasticity may alter long-term obesity risk. While modifiable factors during infancy have been identified, until recently, preventive interventions had not been tested. The Intervention Nurses Starting Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT). Study is a longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial evaluating a responsive parenting intervention designed for the primary prevention of obesity. This “parenting” intervention is being compared with a home safety control among first-born infants and their parents. INSIGHT’s central hypothesis is that responsive parenting and specifically responsive feeding promotes self-regulation and shared parent–child responsibility for feeding, reducing subsequent risk for overeating and overweight. Methods/Design 316 first-time mothers and their full-term newborns were enrolled from one maternity ward. Two weeks following delivery, dyads were randomly assigned to the “parenting” or “safety” groups. Subsequently, research nurses conduct study visits for both groups consisting of home visits at infant age 3–4, 16, 28, and 40 weeks, followed by annual clinic-based visits at 1, 2, and 3 years. Both groups receive intervention components framed around four behavior states: Sleeping, Fussy, Alert and Calm, and Drowsy. The main study outcome is BMI z-score at age 3 years; additional outcomes include those related to patterns of infant weight gain, infant sleep hygiene and duration, maternal responsiveness and soothing strategies for infant/toddler distress and fussiness, maternal feeding style and infant dietary content and physical activity. Maternal outcomes related to weight status, diet, mental health, and parenting sense of competence are being collected. Infant temperament will be explored as a moderator of parenting effects, and blood is collected to obtain genetic

  16. Anesthetic use in newborn infants: the urgent need for rigorous evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Viviane G.; Davis, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 1.5 million neonates receive general anesthesia each year for a surgical procedure. Despite this being an essential practice, a number of recent studies now indicate that anesthetic exposure could cause toxicity and neuronal apoptosis in the developing brain. This could potentially influence long-term neurodevelopmental outcome, especially premature infants in need of multiple surgical procedures. Most anesthetic drugs routinely administered to neonates have not been adequately tested for safety or efficacy. Given the number of confounders, dosing is often extrapolated from adults. This is concerning since many different drugs can be administered concurrently, with few of these agents actually approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration. Since 1997, legislation has been passed in the United States and abroad encouraging more drug investigation in infants and children. This has resulted in over 500 labeling changes to products regarding safety and efficacy in various pediatric age groups. However, only three drugs routinely used as anesthetic agents in newborn infants have had any updated labeling (none in very premature infants). This “off-label” use without adequate testing must be addressed. Therefore, more clinical trials of common anesthetic agents used alone and in combination in neonates are urgently needed. PMID:25790274

  17. Withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment for newborn infants from a Christian perspective.

    PubMed

    Scott-Joynt, Michael

    2012-02-01

    The more vulnerable a person, of whatever age, therefore, the more there must be a presumption in favour of life; and care must be offered with particular respect and dignity, and in the best interests of the infant her/himself, not in those of others. The principles, that guide Christians in making ethical healthcare decisions, were derived from two core Christian beliefs: that all human beings, of whatever age, are "made in the image of God"--so human beings have a distinctive dignity and value, and may not be treated as possessions or commodities; and that we are therefore made to live relationally--so communal, as well as individual, perspectives ought to be considered in ethical decision-making. The article then notes and explores three areas in which it may not be in the infant's best interests for life-sustaining treatment to continue or to be initiated, noting the complexity of "quality of life" questions, and the danger of considering others' quality of life over that of the infant. So, to safeguard the vulnerable, the threshold for acceptable "quality of life" needs to be set at a "low" level; and a distinction should be drawn, in considering withdrawing life-sustaining treatment, between medical intervention and "assisted-care" - so that there are very limited circumstances in which life-sustaining treatments ought to be withheld or withdrawn from newborn infants. PMID:22257827

  18. Interatrial shunt flow profiles in newborn infants: a colour flow and pulsed Doppler echocardiographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Hiraishi, S; Agata, Y; Saito, K; Oguchi, K; Misawa, H; Fujino, N; Horiguchi, Y; Yashiro, K

    1991-01-01

    Interatrial shunt flow profiles in 36 normal term infants were examined serially by colour flow and pulsed Doppler echocardiographic techniques from within an hour of birth to four or five days after birth. Shunt flow across the foramen ovale was detected in 33 normal infants (92%) within an hour of birth (mean 40 minutes). The occurrence of interatrial shunting decreased with age, but a shunt signal was still detected in 17 infants (47%) on the fourth or fifth day of life, by then the ductus arteriosus had already closed in all the normal infants. The direction of interatrial shunt flow was predominantly left-to-right, but in 64% there was a coexistent small right-to-left shunt in diastole within an hour of birth; by four to five days it was found in 19%. In the six patients with persistent fetal circulation the direction of the interatrial shunt flow was predominantly right-to-left with biphasic peaks in diastole and systole at the early stage of the disease, and the period of right-to-left shunt flow during each cardiac cycle was significantly longer than that in normal infants examined within 1 hour of birth. In all patients the ductus closed before the foramen ovale. At the time of ductal closure in all patients with persistent fetal circulation right-to-left shunt flow was seen during diastole and its period was still prolonged. These findings suggest that interatrial shunting, predominantly left-to-right, is common in normal newborn infants. Evaluation of the characteristics of the interatrial shunt by Doppler echocardiography may be useful for predicting the progress of or improvement in neonates with persistent fetal circulation. Images PMID:1993129

  19. Prospective cohort study of factors influencing the relative weights of the placenta and the newborn infant.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, L. A.; Evans, S. F.; Newnham, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the demographic, environmental, and medical factors that influence the relative weights of the newborn infant and the placenta and compare this ratio with other factors known to predispose to adult ill health. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The tertiary referral centre for perinatal care in Perth, Western Australia. SUBJECTS: 2507 pregnant women who delivered a single live infant at term. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Placental weight, birth weight, and the ratio of placental weight to birth weight. RESULTS: By multiple regression analysis the placental weight to birthweight ratio was significantly and positively associated with gestational age, female sex, Asian parentage, increasing maternal body mass index, increased maternal weight at booking, lower socioeconomic status, maternal anaemia, and increasing number of cigarettes smoked daily. There were no consistent relations between the placental weight to birthweight ratio and measures of newborn size. CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of placental weight to birth weight is not an accurate marker of fetal growth. In its role as a predictor of adult disease the ratio may be acting as a surrogate for other factors which are already known to influence health and may act before or after birth. Determining the role that relative growth rates of the fetus and placenta have in predisposing to adult disease requires prospective study to account for the many confounding variables which complicate this hypothesis. PMID:9224128

  20. Inherited protein C deficiency and coumarin-responsive chronic relapsing purpura fulminans in a newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Branson, H E; Katz, J; Marble, R; Griffin, J H

    1983-11-19

    A coumarin-responsive chronic relapsing purpura fulminans syndrome is described in a protein-C-deficient newborn infant. Episodes of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and cutaneous gangrene, which first appeared at age 11 h, were effectively controlled for 28 months with transfusions of fresh-frozen plasma. Cryoprecipitate and cryoprecipitate-poor plasma induced remissions as long as those induced by fresh-frozen plasma (less than or equal to 72 h). Coumarins sustained a cryoprecipitate-induced remission for 19 days: they were then electively discontinued and 17 h later the patient had an acute exacerbation of DIC with haemorrhaging. Family studies showed protein C levels of 31-40% in the subject's symptom-free mother and full and half brothers. DIC, the coumarin effect, and the inherited protein C abnormality appear to have contributed to the extremely low plasma levels (less than or equal to 6%) of protein C in the patient. This experience suggests that protein C deficiency may greatly compromise the ability of newborn infants to control consumptive disorders. PMID:6139528

  1. The Clinical Aspects of Newborn Screening: Importance of Newborn Screening Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Philip M.; Levy, Harvey L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of newborn screening is to identify presymptomatic healthy infants that will develop significant metabolic or endocrine derangements if left undiagnosed and untreated. The goal of ultimately reducing or eliminating irreversible sequelae is reached by maximizing test sensitivity of the primary newborn screening that measures specific…

  2. Pulse oximetry versus transcutaneous pO2 in sick newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Wimberley, P D; Helledie, N R; Friis-Hansen, B; Fogh-Andersen, N; Olesen, H

    1987-01-01

    A pulse oximeter (Ohmeda Biox 3700) and two transcutaneous systems (Radiometer TCM3) were applied simultaneously to 18 newborn infants with respiratory insufficiency. All infants had either an umbilical catheter placed in the mid thoracic aorta or a radial artery catheter. The average monitoring time was 2 hours. Arterial blood pO2, pCO2 and pH (Radiometer ABL300), arterial sO2, HbCO and metHb (Radiometer OSM3), erythrocyte 2,3 DPG concentration, and fetal hemoglobin fraction (alkali denaturation kinetic method) were measured. Using arterial sO2 and pO2 as reference, the analytical bias of pulse oximetry (-0.5 +/- 1.0%, mean +/- 1 SD) corresponded in magnitude, when converted to pO2, to that of transcutaneous - pO2 (0.6 +/- 1.4 kPa for combined O2-CO2 electrode and -0.1 +/- 2.3 kPa for single O2 electrode). Transcutaneous pCO2 showed the smallest bias (0.3 +/- 0.3 kPa). Both pulse oximetry and transcutaneous pO2 electrodes were good as trend monitors detecting rapid changes in the infants' oxygenation status. The pulse oximeter offers certain advantages in not requiring calibration or heating. The variations in the levels of fetal hemoglobin fraction (44 to 97%), pH (7.27 to 7.49), pCO2 (3.3 to 6.8 kPa) and 2,3 diphosphoglycerate concentration (1.6 to 5.9 mmol/l) between the infants studied, resulted in a variable pO2-sO2 relation (p50 2.5 to 3.5 kPa). This presents difficulties in interpreting sO2 values in sick newborn infants, and we therefore recommend caution in using a pulse oximeter to apply strict limits for avoiding hypoxia and hyperoxia in this population. PMID:2453078

  3. Holistic Face Processing in Newborns, 3-Month-Old Infants, and Adults: Evidence from the Composite Face Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turati, Chiara; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Bardi, Lara; Simion, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Holistic face processing was investigated in newborns, 3-month-old infants, and adults through a modified version of the composite face paradigm and the recording of eye movements. After familiarization to the top portion of a face, participants (N = 70) were shown 2 aligned or misaligned faces, 1 of which comprised the familiar top part. In the…

  4. Morphology of chordae tendianeae of atrioventricular heart valves of newborns and infants in terms of laser polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentelejchuk, N. P.; Chala, K. M.; Yermolenko, S. B.

    2013-12-01

    The paper studied the morphological features of the structure and polarization properties of tendon tissue strings atrioventricular valvular of newborns and infants on histological sections. Analysis of the obtained results showed high diagnostic sensitivity of statistic moments of coordinate distributions of matrix elements of both types of chordae tendianeae of atrioventricular valves hearts tissue to the changes of optical-geometric structure.

  5. Neurological evaluation of newborn infants of mothers working in citrus groves in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, Winslow Joseph; Riederer, Anne; Prapamontol, Tippawan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess neurological function in newborn infants born to mothers working in citrus orchards in Northern Thailand for a period in excess of one year where pesticide applications average 35 times a year. Forty-one infants from uncomplicated term births at the community hospital in Fang, Thailand, were given neurological evaluations during the first four days of life. This was a cross-sectional study in which nine mothers worked in citrus orchards and 32 mothers did not. Examiners were not given the exposure history of the mothers. Twelve infants--five of them born to mothers from citrus orchards--had examinations demonstrating abnormal muscle tone. Using logistic regression, the final model showed that maternal citrus grove exposure and anesthesia use were significant predictors (p < 0.05) of abnormal muscle tone with adjusted odds ratios of 9.82 (CI = 1.42, 68.07) and 5.99 (CI = 1.003, 35.85) for exposure and anesthesia respectively. PMID:21618945

  6. Photoplethysmography for simultaneous recording of heart and respiratory rates in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Olsson, E; Ugnell, H; Oberg, P A; Sedin, G

    2000-07-01

    Ten newborn infants, born at 25-41 wk of gestation and nursed in a neonatal intensive care unit or in a neonatal intermediate care unit, underwent monitoring of heart and respiratory rates with a new technique using an optical sensor, 0-60 d postnatally. The aim of this study was to compare the heart and respiratory rates recorded in infants by photoplethysmography with a probe positioned on three monitoring sites, namely the leg, buttock and interscapular region, with the rates recorded by ECG and transthoracic impedance, respectively. The recordings were compared in order to determine which individual heart beats and respiratory cycles were recorded with one or both relevant techniques. A high degree of association (r =0.99) was found between the respiratory rates recorded by photoplethysmography and by transthoracic impedance. Recordings of heart rates by ECG were also highly associated with the photoplethysmographic rates as measured at two (r = 0.99) of the three monitoring sites. It is concluded that heart and respiratory rates in infants can be monitored satisfactorily by the new method based on photoplethysmography. This method offers the advantage of recording several physiological parameters non-invasively with a single probe during the neonatal period. PMID:10943970

  7. Development of a finite element/multi-body model of a newborn infant for restraint analysis and design.

    PubMed

    Bondy, Matthew; Altenhof, William; Chen, Xilin; Snowdon, Anne; Vrkljan, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    A finite element/multi-body model of a newborn infant has been developed by researchers at the University of Windsor. The geometry of this model is derived from a Nita newborn hospital training mannequin. It consists of 17 parts: eight upper and lower limb segments, the torso, head, and a seven-segment neck with seven translational and eight rotational joints. Anthropometry is consistent with hospital growth charts, measurements requested from health professionals and data from the open literature. The biomechanical properties of the model (i.e. joint stiffnesses) are implementations of data identified in the open literature. The model has been validated with respect to studies of the biomechanics of shaken baby syndrome, infant falls and the Q0 anthropomorphic testing device. A significant conclusion of this study is that the kinetics of the Q0 neck is not biofidelic. This model is currently used in an analysis of airway patency for infants in modern automotive child restraints. PMID:22512507

  8. Case of 46,XX/47,XY, +21 chimerism in a newborn infant with ambiguous genitalia

    SciTech Connect

    Sawai, Tomoko; Yoshimoto, Masaaki; Kinoshita, Ei-ichi; Baba, Tsuneyoshi; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Tsuji, Yoshiro, Niikawa, Norio; Fukuda, Shinpei; Harada, Naoki

    1994-02-15

    The authors describe the whole-body chimerism in a newborn infant with small phallus, pseudo-vaginal perineal hypospadias, and a bifid scrotum containing gonads. The human testis determining factor gene (SRY) was detected by PCR amplification. GTG-banding chromosome analysis in peripheral blood lymphocytes and cultured fibroblasts derived from right cubital skin showed a 46,XX/47,XY, +21 karyotype. Their ratios in each cell line were 294:5 and 178:7, respectively. QFQ-banding chromosome analysis documented 3 heteromorphic satellites on trisomic chromsomes 21 in the 47,XY,+21 cell line and a homozygous satellite pattern in the 46,XX cell line. Heteromorphic patterns of chromsomes 4, 13, 14, and 22 were also different between the two cell lines. To our knowledge, such disomy/trisomy chimeras have not been described previously. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  9. The Methodology of Doppler-Derived Central Blood Flow Measurements in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    de Waal, Koert A.

    2012-01-01

    Central blood flow (CBF) measurements are measurements in and around the heart. It incorporates cardiac output, but also measurements of cardiac input and assessment of intra- and extracardiac shunts. CBF can be measured in the central circulation as right or left ventricular output (RVO or LVO) and/or as cardiac input measured at the superior vena cava (SVC flow). Assessment of shunts incorporates evaluation of the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale. This paper describes the methodology of CBF measurements in newborn infants. It provides a brief overview of the evolution of Doppler ultrasound blood flow measurements, basic principles of Doppler ultrasound, and an overview of all used methodology in the literature. A general guide for interpretation and normal values with suggested cutoffs of CBFs are provided for clinical use. PMID:22291718

  10. Skin characteristics in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  11. Thyroid function in newborn infants from goitrous and non goitrous mothers.

    PubMed

    Sunartini; Nakamura, H

    1991-12-01

    Endemic goiter is one of the health effects of iodine deficiency. Enlargement of the thyroid is often seen during pregnancy especially in the endemic iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) areas. Thyroid hormones have a vital role in the fetal development and maturation of the brain. The lack of these hormones may result in neurological damage. We measured thyroid hormones and TSH in cord blood and TSH in newborn's blood from dry blood spots on filter paper in 5-14 th days, from 58 non goitrous and 61 goitrous mothers. T4, T3 and TSH concentrations in cord blood were measured by enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) using enzymum test Boehringer and TSH from dry blood spots on filter paper were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Goiter size was graded as follows: O, I, II and III. There were significant differences in cord serum T3 concentrations between non goitrous and goitrous mothers with grade I, II and III. TSH concentration in newborn's blood from goitrous mothers of grade III were significantly higher than those from non goitrous mothers and from goitrous mothers of grade I. T4 concentration in cord blood from non goitrous mothers in IDD area was significantly lower than those from non IDD area and those from goitrous mothers in the IDD area. There were significant differences also between TSH concentration in newborn's blood spots from goitrous mothers in IDD area and those from goitrous mothers in non IDD area and from non goitrous mothers in IDD area. Two cases of congenital hypothyroidism were found in infants from goitrous mothers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1817205

  12. Urinary paraben concentrations among pregnant women and their matching newborn infants of Korea, and the association with oxidative stress biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sungeun; Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hae-Joong; Lee, Jeongjae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Kho, Young Lim; Choi, Kyungho

    2013-09-01

    Parabens have been used in multiple products including personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods for more than 50 years but increasing numbers of studies have raised concerns on their safety. The present study was designed to determine urinary paraben levels among pregnant women and their matching newborn infants (<48 h after delivery), and the association between paraben levels and stress markers. Pregnant women (n=46) and their matching newborn infants were recruited from four university hospitals located in Seoul, Ansan and Jeju of Korea, 2011. Parabens including methyl paraben (MP), ethyl paraben (EP), n-propyl paraben (PP), and n-butyl paraben (BP) were measured in the urine using an automatic, high throughput online SPE-LC-MS/MS method. Urinary concentrations were normalized with specific gravity (SG). Free cortisol, malondealdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured in the urine as stress marker. Urinary MP was detected as the highest, and BP was detected as the lowest paraben in the urine samples of both pregnant women and their infants. Significant correlations between paraben concentrations of maternal and their newborn infant's urine were observed. The levels of urinary parabens among Korean pregnant women are comparable to those reported elsewhere, except for EP which were 4-9 folds higher than pregnant women of other countries. The ratios of infant to maternal urinary paraben concentrations varied between 0.5 and 0.6 for MP and PP, but approximately 10 fold lower for EP. Urinary MP or EP levels were associated with several oxidative stress related biomarkers such as urinary 8-OHdG and MDA, even after the adjustment of relevant covariates such as maternal age, mode of delivery, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational age and parity. This is the first study that reported the levels of major parabens in the first urine of newborn infants. Further studies are warranted to understand the implications of paraben exposure among

  13. Maternal and infant characteristics influencing the anogenital distance and penile length in newborns.

    PubMed

    Singal, Arbinder Kumar; Jain, Viral G

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that maternal characteristics can affect reproductive health of offspring, possibly through pre-natal hormonal influence. Anogenital distance (AGD) is an anthropometric measure which is a sensitive reproductive endpoint of masculinisation. It provides a read-out of pre-natal androgen exposure and has been associated with several reproductive health outcomes in humans. We studied AGD and stretched penile length (SPL) in a large, racially homogenous sample of consecutive newborns to understand their association with maternal and infant characteristics. A prospective cross-sectional study involving measurement of AGD and SPL at birth was performed by a single trained observer. A total of 1077 newborns (553 males and 524 females) were included in final anthropometric analysis. The mean AGD of males was 2.56 ± 0.31 cm, and the mean AGD of females was 1.54 ± 0.17 cm. The mean SPL of males was 3.31 ± 0.38 cm. On multiple regression analysis, for both males and females, birthweight (β = 0.229, P < 0.001 and β = 0.135, P < 0.001, respectively) was modest but significant predictor for AGD. For SPL, only gestational age (β = 0.054, P < 0.001) was found to be statistically significant predictor. There was no significant association observed for gravidity, parity and maternal age with both AGD and SPL. Thus, no maternal characteristics (age, gravidity, parity) influence AGD or SPL in human infants. PMID:26666590

  14. Sugaring the pill: ethics and uncertainties in the use of sucrose for newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dominic J C; Savulescu, Julian; Slater, Rebeccah

    2012-07-01

    Sucrose is widely used for the management of procedural pain in newborn infants, including capillary blood sampling, venepuncture, and vascular cannulation. Multiple randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that sweet-tasting solutions reduce behavioral responses to acute painful stimuli. It has been claimed that sucrose should be a standard of care in neonatal units and that further placebo-controlled trials of sucrose are unnecessary and unethical. However, recently published data cast doubt on the analgesic properties of sucrose. We review this new evidence and analyze the philosophical and ethical questions that it raises, including the "problem of other minds." Sugar may be better understood not as an analgesic, removing or relieving pain, but as a compensating pleasure. There is a need for further research on the mechanism of sucrose's effect on pain behavior and on the long-term effects of sucrose treatment. Such trials will require comparison with placebo or with other interventions. Given uncertainty about the benefit of sucrose, it may be wise to use alternative analgesics or nonpharmacological interventions where these are available and appropriate. Sucrose may not be the answer to procedural pain in newborns. PMID:22751876

  15. Sugaring the pill. Ethics and uncertainties in the use of sucrose for newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Dominic JC; Savulescu, Julian; Slater, Rebeccah

    2012-01-01

    Sucrose is widely used for the management of procedural pain in newborn infants, including capillary blood sampling, venepuncture and vascular cannulation. Multiple randomised controlled trials have demonstrated that sweet-tasting solutions reduce behavioural responses to acute painful stimuli. It has been claimed that sucrose should be a standard of care in neonatal units, and that further placebo-controlled trials of sucrose are unnecessary and unethical. However, recently published neuroscientific studies cast doubt on the analgesic properties of sucrose. We review this new evidence and analyse the philosophical and ethical questions that it raises, including the “problem of other minds”. Sugar may be better understood not as an analgesic, removing or relieving pain, but as a compensating pleasure. There is a need for further research on the mechanism of sucrose’s effect on pain behaviour and on the long-term effects of sucrose treatment. Such trials will require comparison with placebo or with other interventions. Given uncertainty about the benefit of sucrose it may be wise to use alternative analgesics or non-pharmacological interventions where these are available and appropriate. Sucrose may not be the answer to procedural pain in newborns. PMID:22751876

  16. Abuse and Neglect of Healthy Newborn by Parents: A Social Problem with a Long History

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Ahmadshah; Ghasemi, Ali; Mohammadzadeh, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    A Two-day-old girl who was found in garbage by police and transferred to hospital. She was irritable and dehydrated; also there were burn injuries around her knees and right cheek. Her weight was 3100 grams and physical examinations were normal. Opium was found in urine. Phenobarbital (4 mg/kg/day intravenous every 12 hours) was started for her irritability. After 20 days, infant was entrusted to a welfare organization with coordination of social support of hospital. The prevention of child abuse and neglect is an urgent public health concern. Home visit by welfare organization has been proposed as a promising approach to prevent health and developmental problems among children. We report this case of an abused and neglected newborn. PMID:26675006

  17. Abuse and Neglect of Healthy Newborn by Parents: A Social Problem with a Long History.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Ahmadshah; Ghasemi, Ali; Mohammadzadeh, Ashraf; Sezavar, Majid

    2015-11-01

    A Two-day-old girl who was found in garbage by police and transferred to hospital. She was irritable and dehydrated; also there were burn injuries around her knees and right cheek. Her weight was 3100 grams and physical examinations were normal. Opium was found in urine. Phenobarbital (4 mg/kg/day intravenous every 12 hours) was started for her irritability. After 20 days, infant was entrusted to a welfare organization with coordination of social support of hospital. The prevention of child abuse and neglect is an urgent public health concern. Home visit by welfare organization has been proposed as a promising approach to prevent health and developmental problems among children. We report this case of an abused and neglected newborn. PMID:26675006

  18. Tackling Health Inequities in Chile: Maternal, Newborn, Infant, and Child Mortality Between 1990 and 2004

    PubMed Central

    Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Nien, Jyh Kae; Merialdi, Mario; Bustreo, Flavia; Betran, Ana Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed trends in maternal, newborn, and child mortality in Chile between 1990 and 2004, after the introduction of national interventions and reforms, and examined associations between trends and interventions. Methods. Data were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health on all pregnancies between 1990 and 2004 (approximately 4 000 000). We calculated yearly maternal mortality ratios, stillbirth rates, and mortality rates for neonates, infants (aged > 28 days and < 1 year), and children aged 1 to 4 years. We also calculated these statistics by 5-year intervals for Chile's poorest to richest district quintiles. Results. During the study period, the maternal mortality ratio decreased from 42.1 to 18.5 per 100 000 live births. The mortality rate for neonates decreased from 9.0 to 5.7 per 1000 births, for infants from 7.8 to 3.1 per 1000 births, and for young children from 3.1 to 1.7 per 1000 live births. The stillbirth rate declined from 6.0 to 5.0 per 1000 births. Disparities in these mortality statistics between the poorest and richest district quintiles also decreased, with the largest mortality reductions in the poorest quintile. Conclusions. During a period of socioeconomic development and health sector reforms, Chile experienced significant mortality and inequity reductions. PMID:19443831

  19. Ranitidine treatment in newborn infants: effects on gastric acidity and serum prolactin levels.

    PubMed

    Fontana, M; Tornaghi, R; Petrillo, M; Lora, E; Bianchi Porro, G; Principi, N

    1993-05-01

    Data about the use of ranitidine in the early postnatal period are lacking. In this study, 30 term newborn infants < 2 days old with bleeding erosions in their upper gastrointestinal tracts were treated with ranitidine by continuous i.v. infusion (0.2 mg/kg/h) for 48 h and thereafter by mouth (5 mg/kg b.i.d.) for 1 month. Mean gastric pH (SD) rose from 4.27 (1.62) to 5.70 (0.95) during i.v. infusion; after oral therapy it was still 5.55 (1.25). Serum ranitidine concentrations were 642.4 (376.5) and 321.5 (368.2) ng/ml after i.v. and oral therapy, respectively, with wide interindividual variations; the correlation between serum ranitidine and gastric pH was found to be weak. No untoward effect was observed either on the cardiorespiratory rate or on creatinine and aminotransferase values. Mean serum prolactin concentration after i.v. therapy was found to be lower, although within the reference range, than in control infants; no significant correlation was observed between serum ranitidine and prolactin concentrations. From these data, a < 0.2 mg/kg/h rate seems to be advisable for continuous ranitidine infusion in neonates, whereas the 5 mg/kg b.i.d. regimen could be considered adequate for oral therapy. PMID:8315550

  20. Cerebral blood flow in the newborn infant: comparison of Doppler ultrasound and /sup 133/xenon clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Greisen, G.; Johansen, K.; Ellison, P.H.; Fredriksen, P.S.; Mali, J.; Friis-Hansen, B.

    1984-03-01

    Two techniques of Doppler ultrasound examination, continuous-wave and range-gated, applied to the anterior cerebral artery and to the internal carotid artery, were compared with /sup 133/xenon clearance after intravenous injection. Thirty-two sets of measurements were obtained in 16 newborn infants. The pulsatility index, the mean flow velocity, and the end-diastolic flow velocity were read from the Doppler recordings. Mean cerebral blood flow was estimated from the /sup 133/Xe clearance curves. The correlation coefficients between the Doppler and the /sup 133/Xe measurements ranged from 0.41 to 0.82. In the subset of 16 first measurements in each infant, there were no statistically significant differences between the correlation coefficients of the various Doppler ultrasound variables, but the correlation coefficients were consistently lower for the pulsatility index than for mean flow velocity or end-diastolic flow velocity, and they were consistently higher for the range-gated than for the continuous-wave Doppler technique.

  1. Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenny, Carmen; Biallas, Martin; Trajkovic, Ivo; Fauchère, Jean-Claude; Bucher, Hans Ulrich; Wolf, Martin

    2011-09-01

    Early detection of cerebral hypoxemia is an important aim in neonatology. A relevant parameter to assess brain oxygenation may be the cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). So far the reproducibility of StO2 measurements was too low for clinical application, probably due to inhomogeneities. The aim of this study was to test a novel sensor geometry which reduces the influence of inhomogeneities. Thirty clinically stable newborn infants, with a gestational age of median 33.9 (range 26.9 to 41.9) weeks, birth weight of 2220 (820 to 4230) g, postnatal age of 5 (1 to 71) days were studied. At least four StO2 measurements of 1 min duration were carried out using NIRS on the lateral head. The sensor was repositioned between measurements. Reproducibility was calculated by a linear mixed effects model. The mean StO2 was 79.99 +/- 4.47% with a reproducibility of 2.76% and a between-infant variability of 4.20%. Thus, the error of measurement only accounts for 30.1% of the variability. The novel sensor geometry leads to considerably more precise measurements compared to previous studies with, e.g., ~5% reproducibility for the NIRO 300. The novel StO2 values hence have a higher clinical relevance.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors For vitamin D deficiency among healthy infants in Sacramento, California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the vitamin D status of healthy infants 6-18 months of age in Sacramento, CA. Patients and Methods: This was a one-year, cross-sectional study among a convenience sample of healthy infants seen at routine “well child” or follow-up appointments at t...

  3. [Routine examination of the mature newborn infant. Incidence of frequent "minor findings"].

    PubMed

    Rosegger, H; Rollett, H R; Arrunàtegui, M

    1990-05-11

    From 1st January to 31st August 1989 2,248 healthy, mature infants were delivered at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Graz, Austria. They were routinely examined on day 1 and before discharge from hospital on day 4. Attention was paid to the presence or absence of minor abnormalities such as skin lesions, eruptions or rashes, cephalhaematoma, tongue tie, undescended testis, increased physiological jaundice, heart murmurs, talipes calcaneo-valgus, hip click, fracture of the clavicle and other common abnormalities and limb deformities. 20.9% of the investigated babies had no such findings whatsoever. In 79.1% of the subjects with one or more abnormalities, minor lesions due to birth trauma dominated with 24.2%, followed by postural deformities of the lower extremities in 20.5% and hip clicks and/or asymmetric skin-folds in 12.9%. Dislocation of the hip, however, was found in only 17%. Elevated serum bilirubin levels were noted in 33.0%, and in many of the jaundiced infants bruising or haematoma due to birth trauma was evident. Traumatic lesions were much rarer in infants delivered by caesarean section than in infants born vaginally. PMID:2356618

  4. Effect of feeding on ventilation and respiratory mechanics in newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, V Y; Rolfe, P

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of ventilation and respiratory mechanics were made before and after tube feeding in 24 infants. In 12 infants with the respiratory distresssyndrome tidal volume tended to fall after feeding; as the respiratory rate increased after feeding; as the respiratory rate increased after feeding, minute ventilation remained unchanged. Hypoventilation is therefore unlikely to be the cause of hypoxaemia after feeding. Compliance, resistance, and the work of breathing showed no changes after feeding. In 12 healthy infants feeding had no effects on pulmonary function. There was a slight rise in compliance and a tendency for work of breathing to fall after feeding. Respiratory rate, tidal volume, and minute ventilation remained unchanged. There was therefore no evidence of adverse effects of feeding on any of the factors measured. It is suggested that hypoxaemia without hypoventilation after feeding in infants with pre-existing respiratory distress syndrome might be attributable to a reduction in functional residual capacity associated with a greater extent of airways closure than before feeding. PMID:818963

  5. Relationship Between Serum Albumin Levels and Infections in Newborn Late Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunyan; Liu, Zhaoguo; Tian, Min; Xu, Ping; Li, Baoyun; Yang, Qiaozhi; Yang, Yujun

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the clinical value of serum albumin levels for the evaluation and prognosis of late preterm infants with infections. Material/Methods This was a retrospective study performed in late preterm infants admitted at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Liaocheng People’s Hospital between July 2012 and March 2013. Data, including laboratory test results, neonatal critical illness score (NCIS), perinatal complications and prognosis, were analyzed. The newborn infants were divided into 3 groups according to their serum albumin levels, (≥30 g/L, 25–30 g/L and ≤25 g/L for high, moderate, and low, respectively). Results Among 257 patients, birth weight was 2003±348 g, gestational age was 35.7±2.3 weeks, and 59.1% were male. In addition, 127 (49.4%) were in the low albumin group. There were 32 patients with sepsis, 190 with infections, and 35 without infection, and their rates of hypoalbuminemia were 86.0%, 50.5%, and 30.7%, respectively (P<0.05). Albumin levels of the patients who survived were higher than those of the patients who died. In the low albumin group, the number of individual-event-critical NCIS cases and the frequency of multiple organs injuries were 63.8% and 28.3%, respectively, and were higher than in the 2 other groups. Mortality was higher in patients with sepsis. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with severe adverse outcomes (odds ratio=6.3, 95% confidence interval: 3.7–10.9, P<0.001). Conclusions Hypoalbuminemia was frequent among neonates with sepsis. Lower albumin levels might be associated with a poorer prognosis. Albumin levels could be appropriate for the diagnosis and prognosis of late preterm neonates with infections. PMID:26747243

  6. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Hospitalizations in Healthy Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Margulis, Andrea V.; Samuel, Miny; Lohr, Kathleen N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have explored the risk for and impact of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection requiring hospitalization among healthy preterm infants born at 29–35 weeks of gestational age not given RSV immunoprophylaxis. We performed a systematic review and qualitative synthesis of these studies. Methods: Two experienced reviewers used prespecified inclusion/exclusion criteria to screen titles/abstracts and full-text studies using MEDLINE, Embase, BIOSIS and Cochrane Library (January 1, 1985, to November 6, 2014). We abstracted data on risk factors for RSV hospitalization, incidence and short- and long-term outcomes of RSV hospitalization. Using standard procedures, we assessed study risk of bias and graded strength of evidence (SOE). Results: We identified 4754 records and reviewed 27. Important risk factors for RSV hospitalization included young age during the RSV season, having school-age siblings and day-care attendance, with odds ratios >2.5 in at least one study (high SOE). Incidence rates for RSV hospitalizations ranged from 2.3% to 10% (low SOE). Length of hospital stays ranged from 3.8 to 6.1 days (low SOE). Recurrent wheezing rates ranged from 20.7% to 42.8% 1 to 2 years after RSV hospitalization (low SOE). Conclusions: Young chronological age and some environmental risk factors are important clinical indicators of an increased risk of RSV hospitalization in healthy preterm infants 32 to 35 weeks of gestational age. SOE was low for estimates of incidence of RSV hospitalizations, in-hospital resource use and recurrent wheezing in this population. Studies were inconsistent in study characteristics, including weeks of gestational age, age during RSV season and control for confounding factors. PMID:27093166

  7. Posture as a Determinant of Visual Behavior in Newborns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, W. Timm; Brown, Josephine V.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of posture on the visual behavior of 15 3-day-old healthy, black, newborn infants were assessed. Findings suggest that the vestibular, proprioceptive, and contact stimulation provided by the on-shoulder position affects the newborn's ability to follow and process visual stimuli. (Author/CS)

  8. The Theoretical Distribution of Evoked Brainstem Activity in Preterm, High-Risk, and Healthy Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamy, A.

    1981-01-01

    Determines the frequency distribution of Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential variables (BAEP) for premature babies at different stages of development--normal newborns, infants, young children, and adults. The author concludes that the assumption of normality underlying most "standard" statistical analyses can be met for many BAEP measures.…

  9. Vacuum assisted birth and risk for cerebral complications in term newborn infants: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have focused on cerebral complications among newborn infants delivered by vacuum extraction (VE). The aim of this study was to determine the risk for intracranial haemorrhage and/or cerebral dysfunction in newborn infants delivered by VE and to compare this risk with that after cesarean section in labour (CS) and spontaneous vaginal delivery, respectively. Methods Data was obtained from Swedish national registers. In a population-based cohort from 1999 to 2010 including all singleton newborn infants delivered at term after onset of labour by VE (n = 87,150), CS (75,216) or spontaneous vaginal delivery (n = 851,347), we compared the odds for neonatal intracranial haemorrhage, traumatic or non-traumatic, convulsions or encephalopathy. Logistic regressions were used to calculate adjusted (for major risk factors and indication) odds ratios (AOR), using spontaneous vaginal delivery as reference group. Results The rates of traumatic and non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhages were 0.8/10,000 and 3.8/1,000. VE deliveries provided 58% and 31.5% of the traumatic and non-traumatic cases, giving a ten-fold risk [AOR 10.05 (4.67-21.65)] and double risk [AOR 2.23 (1.57-3.16)], respectively. High birth weight and short mother were associated with the highest risks. Infants delivered by CS had no increased risk for intracranial hemorrhages. The risks for convulsions or encephalopathy were similar among infants delivered by VE and CS, exceeding the OR after non-assisted spontaneous vaginal delivery by two-to-three times. Conclusion Vacuum assisted delivery is associated with increased risk for neonatal intracranial hemorrhages. Although causality could not be established in this observational study, it is important to be aware of the increased risk of intracranial hemorrhages in VE deliveries, particularly in short women and large infants. The results warrant further studies in decision making and conduct of assisted vaginal delivery. PMID:24444326

  10. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) with Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC): Comprehensive Care for Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Als, Heidelise; McAnulty, Gloria B.

    2014-01-01

    State-of-the-art Newborn Intensive Care Units (NICUs), instrumental in the survival of high-risk and ever-earlier-born preterm infants, often have costly human repercussions. The developmental sequelae of newborn intensive care are largely misunderstood. Developed countries eager to export their technologies must also transfer the knowledge-base that encompasses all high-risk and preterm infants’ personhood as well as the neuro-essential importance of their parents. Without such understanding, the best medical care, while assuring survival jeopardizes infants’ long-term potential and deprives parents of their critical role. Exchanging the womb for the NICU environment at a time of rapid brain growth compromises preterm infants’ early development, which results in long-term physical and mental health problems and developmental disabilities. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) aims to prevent the iatrogenic sequelae of intensive care and to maintain the intimate connection between parent and infant, one expression of which is Kangaroo Mother Care. NIDCAP embeds the infant in the natural parent niche, avoids over-stimulation, stress, pain, and isolation while it supports self-regulation, competence, and goal orientation. Research demonstrates that NIDCAP improves brain development, functional competence, health, and life quality. It is cost effective, humane, and ethical, and promises to become the standard for all NICU care. PMID:25473384

  11. Radiation absorbed dose estimates for oxygen-15 radiopharmaceuticals (H2( V)O, C VO, O VO) in newborn infants

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, W.J.; Stabin, M.; Howse, D.; Eichling, J.O.; Herscovitch, P.

    1988-12-01

    In preparation for measurement of regional cerebral oxygen metabolism by positron emission tomography, radiation absorbed dose estimates for 19 internal organs, blood, and total body were calculated for newborn infants following bolus intravenous administration of H2( V)O and brief inhalation of C VO and O VO. Cumulated activity for each radiopharmaceutical was calculated from a compartmental model based on the known biologic behavior of the compound. Values for mean absorbed dose/unit cumulated activity (S) for internal organs and total body were based on a newborn phantom. S was separately calculated for blood. Total radiopharmaceutical absorbed dose estimates necessary to measure cerebral oxygen metabolism in a 3.51-kg infant based on 0.7 mCi/kg H2( V)O and 1 mCi/kg C VO and O VO were determined to be 1.6 rad to the lung (maximum organ dose), 0.28 rad to the marrow, 0.46 rad to the gonads, and 0.22 rad to total body. These values are similar to those for current clinical nuclear medicine procedures employing /sup 99m/Tc in newborn infants.

  12. Screening of newborn infants for cholestatic hepatobiliary disease with tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Imran; Logan, Stuart; Morris, Michael; Johnson, Andrew W; Wade, Angie M; Kelly, Deirdre; Clayton, Peter T

    1999-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of screening for cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and extrahepatic biliary atresia by using tandem mass spectrometry to measure conjugated bile acids in dried blood spots obtained from newborn infants at 7-10 days of age for the Guthrie test. Setting Three tertiary referral clinics and regional neonatal screening laboratories. Design Unused blood spots from the Guthrie test were retrieved for infants presenting with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and from the two cards stored on either side of each card from an index child. Concentrations of conjugated bile acids measured by tandem mass spectrometry in the two groups were compared. Main outcome measures Concentrations of glycodihydroxycholanoates, glycotrihydroxycholanoates, taurodihydroxycholanoates, and taurotrihydroxycholanoates. Receiver operator curves were plotted to determine which parameter (or combination of parameters) would best predict the cases of cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and extrahepatic biliary atresia. The sensitivity and specificity at a selection of cut off values for each bile acid species and for total bile acid concentrations for the detection of the two conditions were calculated. Results 218 children with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease were eligible for inclusion in the study. Two children without a final diagnosis and five who presented at <14 days of age were excluded. Usable blood spots were obtained from 177 index children and 708 comparison children. Mean concentrations of all four bile acid species were significantly raised in children with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and extrahepatic biliary atresia compared with the unaffected children (P<0.0001). Of 177 children with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease, 104 (59%) had a total bile acid concentration >33 μmol/l (97.5th centile value for comparison group). Of the 61 with extrahepatic biliary atresia, 47 (77%) had total bile acid concentrations >33

  13. Conservation of the fourth gene among rotaviruses recovered from asymptomatic newborn infants and its possible role in attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, J.; Midthun, K.; Hoshino, Y.; Green, K.; Gorziglia, M.; Kapikian, A.Z.; Chanock, R.M.

    1986-11-01

    RNA-RNA hybridization was performed to assess the extent of genetic relatedness among human rotaviruses isolated from children with gastroenteritis and from asymptomatic newborn infants. /sup 32/P-labeled single-stranded RNAs produced by in vitro transcription from viral cores of the different strains tested were used as probes in two different hybridization assays: (1) undenatured genomic RNAs were resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, denatured in situ, electrophoretically transferred to diazobenzyloxymethyl-paper (Northern blots), and then hybridized to the probes under two different conditions of stringency; and (ii) denatured genomic double-stranded RNAs were hybridized to the probes in solution and the hybrids which formed were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When analyzed by Northern blot hybridization at a low level of stringency, all genes from the strains tested cross-hybridized, providing evidence for some sequence homology in each of the corresponding genes. However, when hybridization stringency was increased, a difference in gene 4 sequence was detected between strains recovered from asymptomatic newborn infants (nursery strains) and strains recovered from infants and young children with diarrhea. Although the nursery strains exhibited serotypic diversity, the fourth gene appeared to be highly conversed. These results were confirmed and extended during experiments in which the RNA-RNA hybridization was carried out in solution and the resulting hybrids were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Full-length hybrids did not form between the fourth genes from the nursery strains and the corresponding genes from the strains recovered from symptomatic infants and young children.

  14. Surfactant therapy in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome and in near-term or term newborns with acute RDS.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, R

    2006-05-01

    Many different surfactant preparations derived from animal sources, as well as synthetic surfactants, are available for the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Natural, modified surfactants containing surfactant-associated proteins appear to be more effective than non-protein-containing synthetic surfactants. Comparative trials with poractant alfa at a higher initial dose of 200 mg/kg appear to be associated with rapid weaning of FiO2, less need for additional doses, and decreased mortality in infants <32 weeks gestation when compared with beractant. Early rescue (<30 min of age) surfactant therapy is an effective method to minimize over treatment of some preterm infants who may not develop RDS. Surfactant therapy followed by rapid extubation to nasal ventilation appears to be more beneficial than continued mechanical ventilation. In near-term or term newborns with acute RDS, surfactant therapy has been shown to be 70% effective in improving respiratory failure. PMID:16625226

  15. [Influence of sodium alginate on the intestinal transit in low birth weight newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Chouraqui, J P; Morer, I; Renard, P; Bielsky, M C; Richard-Berthe, C; Rambaud, P

    1993-01-01

    Sodium alginate (Gaviscon) is used in the management of gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants. No digestive disadvantages have as yet been reported with the use of the Gaviscon formula available in France, which contains neither aluminium hydroxide nor thickener. Twenty-two healthy neonates were prospectively studied before and after Gaviscon treatment in order to characterize their whole gut transit time with the use of a carmine index. The head of the marker appeared within the same time in both experiments but the appearance of the tail was earlier in the treated infants (P < 0.05), without any subsequent clinical consequences. The slight increase shown in the rate of the clearance of the marker from the gut, is likely to be related to a less proximal to distal dispersion of the marker, subsequently to physical changes occurring in the viscous alginate. Frequency and consistency of the stools were unmodified by treatment and accordingly Gaviscon can be regarded as having no deleterious effect on transit time in neonates. PMID:8247649

  16. Severe hemolytic disease of the newborn in a group B African-American infant delivered by a group O mother.

    PubMed

    Drabik-Clary, Kathryn; Reddy, Vishnu V B; Benjamin, William H; Boctor, Fouad N

    2006-01-01

    Maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility is a common hematological problem affecting the newborn. In general, hemolysis is minimal and the clinical course is relatively benign, rarely causing the escalating levels of hyperbilirubinemia and significant anemia commonly associated with Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). The incidence of HDN ranges from one in 150 births to 1:3000 births, depending on the degree of anemia and level of serum bilirubin. The etiology of ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn (ABO-HDN) is complex because anti-A and anti-B antibodies are composed mainly of IgM. Since only IgG antibodies cross the placenta, those pregnant women with high levels of IgG anti-A,B, anti-A, or anti-B with an ABO incompatible fetus will be the ones to give birth to an infant with ABO-HDN. We describe a case of a B/Rh positive term newborn born to an O/Rh negative African-American mother demonstrating aggressive hemolysis and a robust response of the bone marrow. This case was successfully managed with phototherapy and simple RBC transfusion without the need for exchange transfusion. PMID:16682519

  17. Morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide and morphine-3-glucuronide pharmacokinetics in newborn infants receiving diamorphine infusions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, D A; Barker, D P; Rutter, N; Pawula, M; Shaw, P N

    1996-06-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) were studied in 19 ventilated newborn infants (24-41 weeks gestation) who were given a loading dose of 50 micrograms kg-1 or 200 micrograms kg-1 of diamorphine followed by an intravenous infusion of 15 micrograms kg-1 h-1 of diamorphine. Plasma concentrations of morphine, M3G and M6G were measured during the accrual to steady-state and at steady state of the diamorphine infusion. 2. Following both the 50 micrograms kg-1 or 200 micrograms kg-1 loading doses the mean steady-state plasma concentration (+/- s.d.) of morphine, M3G and M6G were 86 +/- 52 ng ml-1, 703 +/- 400 ng ml-1 and 48 +/- 28 ng ml-1 respectively and morphine clearance was found to be 4.6 +/- 3.2 ml min-1 kg-1. 3. M3G formation clearance was estimated to be 2.5 +/- 1.8 ml min-1 kg-1, and the formation clearance of M6G was estimated to be 0.46 +/- 0.32 ml min-1 kg-1. 4. M3G metabolite clearance was 0.46 +/- 0.60 ml min-1 kg-1, the elimination half-life was 11.1 +/- 11.3 h and the volume of distribution was 0.55 +/- 1.13 l kg-1. M6G metabolite clearance was 0.71 +/- 0.36 ml min-1 kg-1, the elimination half-life was 18.2 +/- 13.6 h and the volume of distribution was 1.03 +/- 0.88 l kg-1. 5. No significant effect of the loading dose (50 micrograms kg-1 or 200 micrograms kg-1) on the plasma morphine or metabolite concentrations or their derived pharmacokinetic parameters was found. 6. We were unable to identify correlations between gestational age of the infants and any of the determined pharmacokinetic parameters. 7. M3G: morphine and M6G: morphine steady-state plasma concentration ratios were 11.0 +/- 10.8 and 0.8 +/- 0.8, respectively. 8. The metabolism of morphine in neonates, in terms of the respective contributions of each glucuronide pathway, was similar to that in adults. PMID:8799518

  18. Palatal development of preterm and low birthweight infants compared to term infants – What do we know? Part 1: The palate of the term newborn

    PubMed Central

    Hohoff, Ariane; Rabe, Heike; Ehmer, Ulrike; Harms, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Background The evidence on prematurity as 'a priori' a risk for palatal disturbances that increase the need for orthodontic or orthognathic treatment is still weak. Further well-designed clinical studies are needed. The objective of this review is to provide a fundamental analysis of methodologies, confounding factors, and outcomes of studies on palatal development. One focus of this review is the analysis of studies on the palate of the term newborn, since knowing what is 'normal' is a precondition of being able to assess abnormalities. Methods A search profile based on Cochrane search strategies applied to 10 medical databases was used to identify existing studies. Articles, mainly those published before 1960, were identified from hand searches in textbooks, encyclopedias, reference lists and bibliographies. Sources in English, German, and French of more than a century were included. Data for term infants were recalculated if particular information about weight, length, or maturity was given. The extracted values, especially those from non-English paper sources, were provided unfiltered for comparison. Results The search strategy yielded 182 articles, of which 155 articles remained for final analysis. Morphology of the term newborn's palate was of great interest in the first half of the last century. Two general methodologies were used to assess palatal morphology: visual and metrical descriptions. Most of the studies on term infants suffer from lack of reliability tests. The groove system was recognized as the distinctive feature of the infant palate. The shape of the palate of the term infant may vary considerably, both visually and metrically. Gender, race, mode of delivery, and nasal deformities were identified as causes contributing to altered palatal morphology. Until today, anatomical features of the newborn's palate are subject to a non-uniform nomenclature. Conclusion Today's knowledge of a newborn's 'normal' palatal morphology is based on non

  19. Evaluating Latino WIC Mothers' Perceptions of Infant's Healthy Growth: A Formative Assessment.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Angela C; Thomson, Cynthia A; Duncan, Burris; Arthur, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Objectives This article reports on a formative assessment with Latino mothers in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) evaluating knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding healthy growth for infants and their understanding of infant growth monitoring. Further, we explored the acceptability and feasibility of mothers' monitoring their infants' growth. This assessment includes healthy growth perceptions from mothers, caregivers and from WIC staff. Methods Utilizing a mixed method approach, this assessment included qualitative focus groups with WIC mothers that included a growth chart plotting exercise and a quantitative survey. In-depth interviews with clinic staff discussing protocols used in assessing children's growth were also conducted in one WIC clinic. Results Focus group participants included 34 mothers and 19 caregivers with a mean age of 32 years; 90 % identified as Latino. Themes included concern for underweight status, and reports of limited conversations between mothers and healthcare providers regarding overweight status, and infant feeding practices/beliefs that may contribute to feeding behaviors associated with risk for excess weight gain during infancy. Growth charts were well received, mothers were able to plot with modest accuracy; but effectiveness of growth plotting might be limited without refinement for health literacy and the provision of culturally-sensitive education in relation to feeding behaviors to support healthy infant growth. Conclusions This represents a first effort in evaluating Latino mothers' perceptions of infants' healthy growth and use growth charts as a potential tool that can help prevent excess weight gain in early infancy. PMID:26530036

  20. Dynamics of Gut Microbiota According to the Delivery Mode in Healthy Korean Infants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun; Kim, Byoung Ju; Kang, Mi Jin; Choi, Kil Yong; Cho, Hyun Ju; Kim, Yeongho; Yang, Song I; Jung, Young Ho; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju Hee; Kwon, Ji Won; Kim, Hyo Bin; Lee, So Yeon; Hong, Soo Jong

    2016-09-01

    Microbial colonization of the infant gut is unstable and shows a wide range of diversity between individuals. Gut microbiota play an important role in the development of the immune system, and an imbalance in these organisms can affect health, including an increased risk of allergic diseases. Microbial colonization of young infants is affected by the delivery mode at birth and the consequent alterations of gut microbiota in early life affect the development of allergic diseases. We investigated the effects of the delivery mode on the temporal dynamics of gut microbiota in healthy Korean infants. Fecal samples were collected at 1-3 days, 1 month, and 6 months after birth in six healthy infants. Microbiota were characterized by 16S rRNA shotgun sequencing. At the first and third days of life, infants born by vaginal delivery showed a higher richness and diversity of gut microbiota compared with those born by cesarean section. However, these differences disappeared with age. The Bacteroides genus and Bacteroidetes phylum were abundant in infants born by vaginal delivery, whereas Bacilli and Clostridium g4 were increased in infants born by cesarean section. The Firmicutes phylum and Bacteroides genus showed convergent dynamics with age. This study demonstrated the effect of delivery mode on the dynamics of gut microbiota profiles in healthy Korean infants. PMID:27334787

  1. [The Russian and international experience with the implementation of the programs of universal audiological screening of the newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Tavartkiladze, G A; Markova, T G; Chibisova, S S; Al'shardzhabi, I; Tsygankova, E R

    2016-01-01

    The problem of diagnostics of congenital hearing impairment has acquired special importance in the light of new possibilities for the early rehabilitation of the patients presenting with this condition. The implementation of the programs of universal audiological screening into the clinical practice of Russia and many other countries made it possible to significantly reducethe time necessary to confirm congenital impairment of hearing and begin the rehabilitative treatment. The present paper was designed to analyze the international experience with the implementation of the programs of universal audiological screening of the newborn infants as exemplified by such countries as Great Britain, USA, Germany, and Poland. The main indicators of the quality and the efficiency of such programs are considered taking into account the results of the epidemiological studies on the prevalence of congenital hearing impairment. A total of 1.8 mln newborn infants were examined in Russia during 2013. The first stage of screening involved 96.7% of the children, and only 2.9% of them remained uncovered by the examination. As many as 5,659 children were found to present with the congenital loss of hearing,with the prevalence of this condition being 3 per 1.000 newborn infants and the prevalence of deafness 0.6 per 1.000. The principal problem to be resolved for the organization of the management of these patients, both in Russia and other countries, remains the enhancement of the availability of comprehensive diagnostic examination and the timelyreferral of the patients to such examination (if appropriate based on the results of the screening). The successful solution of this problem requires personalized recording of the screening data with the use of the commonly accepted medical information systems. PMID:27213647

  2. Increased protein intake augments kidney volume and function in healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Escribano, Joaquin; Luque, Veronica; Ferre, Natalia; Zaragoza-Jordana, Marta; Grote, Veit; Koletzko, Berthold; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Socha, Piotr; Dain, Elena; Van Hees, Jean-Noel; Verduci, Elvira; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo

    2011-04-01

    Protein intake has been directly associated with kidney growth and function in animal and human observational studies. Protein supply can vary widely during the first months of life, thus promoting different kidney growth patterns and possibly affecting kidney and cardiovascular health in the long term. To explore this further, we examined 601 healthy 6-month-old formula-fed infants who had been randomly assigned within the first 8 weeks of life to a 1-year program of formula with low-protein (LP) or high-protein (HP) contents and compared them with 204 breastfed (BF) infants. At 6 months, infants receiving the HP formula had significantly higher kidney volume (determined by ultrasonography) and ratios of kidney volume to body length and kidney volume to body surface area than did infants receiving the LP formula. BF infants did not differ from those receiving the LP formula in any of these parameters. Infants receiving the HP formula had significantly higher serum urea and urea to creatinine ratios than did LP formula and BF infants. Hence, in this European multicenter clinical trial, we found that a higher protein content of the infant formula increases kidney size at 6 months of life, whereas a lower protein supply achieves kidney size indistinguishable from that of healthy BF infants. The potential long-term effects of a higher early protein intake on long-term kidney function needs to be determined. PMID:21191362

  3. The Foundations of Social Cognition: Studies on Face/Voice Integration in Newborn Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streri, Arlette; Coulon, Marion; Guellai, Bahia

    2013-01-01

    A series of studies on newborns' abilities for recognizing speaking faces has been performed in order to identify the fundamental cues of social cognition. We used audiovisual dynamic faces rather than photographs or patterns of faces. Direct eye gaze and speech addressed to newborns, in interactive situations, appear to be two good…

  4. In Italy, healthy life expectancy drop dramatically: from 2004 to 2008 there was a 10 years drop among newborn girls

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In this short essay, we would like to address a severe divergence observed in Italy between Life Expectancy (LE) and Healthy Life Expectancy (Healthy LE) and a unique trend of worsening in Healthy LE, compared to the other European countries. Both issues emerge in recent data by EUROSTAT Report. Methods The analysis used by the authors of the EUROSTAT report is based on Sullivan method which combines 2 type of variables: mortality and morbidity data. Results While several European countries started to deal with comparable data about LE since 1960, in Italy, analogous data were available for the first time in EUROSTAT Report only in 1985. In Italy, in the period 1985-2008, there was a good progressive increase in L.E., following the best European values. Nevertheless, while until 2004 Italy was among the European best countries in terms of both LE and Healthy LE at birth, four years later in 2008 there was a shocking loss of 10 years of Healthy LE at birth in newborn girls. In the process, they lost their 2-years previous advantage with respect to males (the latter lost only 6 years of Healthy LE, in the same time span). Looking at healthy LE at age 65 in respect to 2004, Italian women in 2008 could expect to live healthy only about 7 years (as much as men) versus the almost 15 years of the European best values (14 years for men). Conclusions It is legitimate to wonder why no one official comment has been produced as a reaction after the first year of spectacular decline in Healthy Life Years in Italy: in counter-tendency with European values, from 2004 to 2008 there is a clear evidence of a 10 years drop in Healthy LE among newborn girls. The problem has not been taken into consideration even when the situation clearly appeared to worsen in the following years, dropping 4-6 more years for males and females in 2006 (for newborn babies); two more years of healthy life expectancy have been lost between 2006 and 2007 for each gender. One more year of

  5. Fetal brain disruption sequence in a newborn infant with a history of cordocentesis at 21 weeks gestation

    PubMed Central

    Villo, N; Beceiro, J; Cebrero, M; de Frias, E G.

    2001-01-01

    The case is reported of a full term infant with severe microcephaly, overlapping sutures, prominence of the occipital bone, and scalp rugae. No other associated malformations were observed. The only obstetric history of interest was the performance of cordocentesis at 21 weeks gestational age because of low maternal α fetoprotein levels. Ultrasound scans performed until then were normal. Cranial growth retardation was detected on ultrasound scanning at 25 weeks and intrauterine growth retardation as well as severe microcephaly at 34 weeks. Neuroimaging studies performed on the newborn infant showed intense cerebral atrophy in both hemispheres. Other complementary investigations gave negative results. A relation is proposed between the cordocentesis and the development of vascular disruption, which could have caused the fetal brain disruption sequence in this case.

 PMID:11124930

  6. Acute Hepatitis and Pancytopenia in Healthy Infant with Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Matoq, Amr; Salahuddin, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses are a common cause of respiratory infection, pharyngitis, and conjunctivitis in infants and young children. They are known to cause hepatitis and liver failure in immunocompromised patients; they are a rare cause of hepatitis in immunocompetent patients and have been known to cause fulminant hepatic failure. We present a 23-month-old immunocompetent infant who presented with acute noncholestatic hepatitis, hypoalbuminemia, generalized anasarca, and pancytopenia secondary to adenovirus infection. PMID:27340581

  7. Acute Hepatitis and Pancytopenia in Healthy Infant with Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Salahuddin, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses are a common cause of respiratory infection, pharyngitis, and conjunctivitis in infants and young children. They are known to cause hepatitis and liver failure in immunocompromised patients; they are a rare cause of hepatitis in immunocompetent patients and have been known to cause fulminant hepatic failure. We present a 23-month-old immunocompetent infant who presented with acute noncholestatic hepatitis, hypoalbuminemia, generalized anasarca, and pancytopenia secondary to adenovirus infection. PMID:27340581

  8. [Auditory neuropathy due to the Q829X mutation in the gene encoding otoferlin (OTOF) in an infant screened for newborn hearing impairment].

    PubMed

    Gallo-Terán, J; Morales-Angulo, C; Sánchez, N; Manrique, M; Rodríguez-Ballesteros, M; Moreno-Pelayo, M A; Moreno, E; del Castillo, I

    2006-01-01

    We report an infant with auditory neuropathy secondary to the Q829X mutation in the gene encoding otoferlin (OTOF). Included in a universal newborn hearing screening program, the subject passed the otoacoustic emission (OAEs) test. Given that the infant had a familial history of deafness auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing was performed, revealing a profound hearing impairment. The genetic study confirmed that the subject was homozygous for the Q829X mutation in OTOF. The patient underwent a cochlear implant, obtaining satisfactory results. The moderately high prevalence of this mutation in the Spanish population could produce a significant false negative rate in newborn hearing screening programs using OAEs. PMID:17036997

  9. Noninvasive monitoring of gas in the lungs and intestines of newborn infants using diode lasers: feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, Patrik; Svanberg, Emilie Krite; Cocola, Lorenzo; Xu, Märta Lewander; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Jahr, John; Fellman, Vineta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2013-12-01

    Preterm newborn infants have a high morbidity rate. The most frequently affected organs where free gas is involved are the lungs and intestines. In respiratory distress syndrome, both hyperexpanded and atelectatic (collapsed) areas occur, and in necrotizing enterocolitis, intramural gas may appear in the intestine. Today, these conditions are diagnosed with x-ray radiography. A bed-side, rapid, nonintrusive, and gas-specific technique for in vivo gas sensing would improve diagnosis. We report the use of noninvasive laser spectroscopy, for the first time, to assess gas content in the lungs and intestines of three full-term infants. Water vapor and oxygen were studied with two low-power diode lasers, illuminating the skin and detecting light a few centimeters away. Water vapor was easily detected in the intestines and was also observed in the lungs. The relatively thick chest walls of the infants prevented detection of the weaker oxygen signal in this study. However, results from a previous phantom study, together with scaling of the results presented here to the typical chest-wall thickness of preterm infants, suggest that oxygen also should be detectable in their lungs.

  10. Simultaneous EEG and diffuse optical imaging of seizure-related hemodynamic activity in the newborn infant brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Cooper, Robert J.; Gibson, Adam; Everdell, Nick; Austin, Topun

    2012-06-01

    An optical imaging system has been developed which uses measurements of diffusely reflected near-infrared light to produce maps of changes in blood flow and oxygenation occurring within the cerebral cortex. Optical sources and detectors are coupled to the head via an array of optical fibers, on a probe held in contact with the scalp, and data is collected at a rate of 10 Hz. A clinical electroencephalography (EEG) system has been integrated with the optical system to enable simultaneous observation of electrical and hemodynamic activity in the cortex of neurologically compromised newborn infants diagnosed with seizures. Studies have made a potentially critically important discovery of previously unknown transient hemodynamic events in infants treated with anticonvulsant medication. We observed repeated episodes of small increases in cortical oxyhemoglobin concentration followed by a profound decrease in 3 of 4 infants studied, each with cerebral injury who presented with neonatal seizures. This was not accompanied by clinical or EEG seizure activity and was not present in nineteen matched controls. The underlying cause of these changes is currently unknown. We tentatively suggest that our results may be associated with a phenomenon known as cortical spreading depolarization, not previously observed in the infant brain.

  11. Respiratory impedance in healthy unsedated South African infants: Effects of maternal smoking

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Diane; Czövek, Dorottya; Smith, Emilee; Willemse, Lauren; Alberts, Ane; Gingl, Zoltán; Hall, Graham L; Zar, Heather J; Sly, Peter D; Hantos, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Non-invasive techniques for measuring lung mechanics in infants are needed for a better understanding of lung growth and function, and to study the effects of prenatal factors on subsequent lung growth in healthy infants. The forced oscillation technique requires minimal cooperation from the individual but has rarely been used in infants. The study aims to assess the use of the forced oscillation technique to measure the influence of antenatal exposures on respiratory mechanics in unsedated infants enrolled in a birth cohort study in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods Healthy term infants were studied at 6–10 weeks of age using the forced oscillation technique. Respiratory impedance was measured in the frequency range 8–48 Hz via a face mask during natural sleep. Respiratory system resistance, compliance and inertance were calculated from the impedance spectra. Results Of 177 infants tested, successful measurements were obtained in 164 (93%). Median (25–75%) values for resistance, compliance and inertance were 50.2 (39.5–60.6) cmH2O.s.L−1, 0.78 (0.61–0.99) mL.cmH2O−1 and 0.062 (0.050–0.086) cmH2O.s2.L−1, respectively. As a group, male infants had 16% higher resistance (P = 0.006) and 18% lower compliance (P = 0.02) than females. Infants whose mothers smoked during pregnancy had a 19% lower compliance than infants not exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy (P = 0.005). Neither maternal HIV infection nor ethnicity had a significant effect on respiratory mechanics. Conclusions The forced oscillation technique is sensitive enough to demonstrate the effects of tobacco smoke exposure and sex in respiratory mechanics in healthy infants. This technique will facilitate assessing perinatal influences of lung function in infancy. PMID:25581268

  12. Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells for the measurement of red cell mass in newborn infants: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Linderkamp, O.; Betke, K.; Fendel, H.; Klemm, J.; Lorenzen, K.; Riegel, K.P.

    1980-07-01

    In vitro and in vivo investigations were performed to examine the binding of Tc-99m to neonatal red blood cells (RBC). Labeling efficiency was about 90%, and unbound Tc-99m less than 3% after one washing, in premature and full-term newborns and in children. Thus presence of high percentages of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) did not influence the labeling of RBCs with Tc-99m. RBCs of 11 newborns were hemolysed and the distribution of Tc-99m on RBC components was analyzed. Although Hb F percentage averaged (60.0 +- 8.10)% (s.d.), only (11.9 +- 3.7)% of Tc-99m was bound by Hb F, whereas (45.0 +- 6.1)% was associated with Hb A. RBC membranes bound (13.7 +- 4.3)% and (29.3 +- 4.0)% were found unbound in hemolysates. These results indicate that Tc-99m preferentially binds to beta chains. In vivo equilibration of Tc-99m RBCs and of albumin labeled with Evans blue was investigated in five newborn infants. Tc-99m RBCs were stable in each case during the first hour after injection. Elution of Tc-99m from RBCs was (3.4 +- 1.5)% per h. Body-to-venous hematocrit ratio averaged 0.86 +- 0.03.

  13. Morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide and morphine-3-glucuronide pharmacokinetics in newborn infants receiving diamorphine infusions

    PubMed Central

    BARRETT, D. A.; BARKER, D. P.; RUTTER, N.; PAWULA, M.; SHAW, P. N.

    1996-01-01

    1The pharmacokinetics of morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) were studied in 19 ventilated newborn infants(24–41 weeks gestation) who were given a loading dose of 50 μg kg−1 or 200 μg kg−1 of diamorphine followed by an intravenous infusion of 15 μg kg−1 h−1 of diamorphine. Plasma concentrations of morphine, M3G and M6G were measured during the accrual to steady-state and at steady state of the diamorphine infusion. 2Following both the 50 μg kg−1 or 200 μg kg−1 loading doses the mean steady-state plasma concentration (±s.d.) of morphine, M3G and M6G were 86±52 ng ml−1, 703±400 ng ml−1 and 48±28 ng ml−1 respectively and morphine clearance was found to be 4.6±3.2 ml min−1 kg−1. 3M3G formation clearance was estimated to be 2.5±1.8 ml min−1 kg−1, and the formation clearance of M6G was estimated to be 0.46±0.32 ml min−1 kg−1. 4M3G metabolite clearance was 0.46±0.60 ml min−1 kg−1, the elimination half-life was 11.1±11.3 h and the volume of distribution was 0.55±1.13 l kg−1. M6G metabolite clearance was 0.71±0.36 ml min−1 kg−1, the elimination half-life was 18.2±13.6 h and the volume of distribution was 1.03±0.88 l kg−1. 5No significant effect of the loading dose (50 μg kg−1 or 200 μg kg−1) on the plasma morphine or metabolite concentrations or their derived pharmacokinetic parameters was found. 6We were unable to identify correlations between gestational age of the infants and any of the determined pharmacokinetic parameters. 7M3G:morphine and M6G:morphine steady-state plasma concentration ratios were 11.0±10.8 and 0.8±0.8, respectively. 8The metabolism of morphine in neonates, in terms of the respective contributions of each glucuronide pathway, was similar to that in adults. PMID:8799518

  14. Age-Related 1H NMR Characterization of Cerebrospinal Fluid in Newborn and Young Healthy Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Francesca; Elmi, Alberto; Romagnoli, Noemi; Bacci, Maria Laura

    2016-01-01

    When it comes to neuroscience, pigs represent an important animal model due to their resemblance with humans’ brains for several patterns including anatomy and developmental stages. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a relatively easy-to-collect specimen that can provide important information about neurological health and function, proving its importance as both a diagnostic and biomedical monitoring tool. Consequently, it would be of high scientific interest and value to obtain more standard physiological information regarding its composition and dynamics for both swine pathology and the refinement of experimental protocols. Recently, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy has been applied in order to analyze the metabolomic profile of this biological fluid, and results showed the technique to be highly reproducible and reliable. The aim of the present study was to investigate in both qualitative and quantitative manner the composition of Cerebrospinal Fluid harvested form healthy newborn (5 days old-P5) and young (30-P30 and 50-P50 days old) piglets using 1H NMR Spectroscopy, and to analyze any possible difference in metabolites concentration between age groups, related to age and Blood-Brain-Barrier maturation. On each of the analyzed samples, 30 molecules could be observed above their limit of quantification, accounting for 95–98% of the total area of the spectra. The concentrations of adenine, tyrosine, leucine, valine, 3-hydroxyvalerate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate were found to decrease between P05 and P50, while the concentrations of glutamine, creatinine, methanol, trimethylamine and myo-inositol were found to increase. The P05-P30 comparison was also significant for glutamine, creatinine, adenine, tyrosine, leucine, valine, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate, while for the P30-P50 comparison we found significant differences for glutamine, myo-inositol, leucine and trimethylamine. None of these molecules showed at P30 concentrations

  15. Ascending in utero herpes simplex virus infection in an initially healthy-appearing premature infant.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Morven S; Popek, Edwina J; Wise, Brittany; Hatzenbuehler, Lindsay; Arunachalam, Athis R; Hair, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    The usual route of acquisition for intrauterine herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is transplacental. We evaluated a premature infant with in utero acquisition of HSV resulting from ascending infection. Histopathologic evidence of chronic chorioamnionitis and positive staining with immunohistochemistry for HSV in the placenta and umbilical cord established the diagnosis. The clinical presentation was also of interest in that the infant was initially healthy appearing. PMID:25535792

  16. Rhabdomyoma of the heart in a newborn infant. Diagnosis by echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Milner, S; Abramowitz, J A; Levin, S E

    1980-01-01

    An intracavitary right ventricular tumour was identified echocardiographically before operation in an infant with a rhabdomyoma of the heart. Necropsy showed associated tuberous sclerosis. Images PMID:7426178

  17. Association between Several Persistent Organic Pollutants and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Cord Blood Serum and Bloodspot of the Newborn Infants of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-01-01

    Current knowledge on adverse endocrine disruption effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) among newborn infants is limited and often controversial. To investigate the associations between prenatal exposure to major POPs and thyroid hormone levels among newborn infants, both cord serum or maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were compared with five thyroid hormones in cord serum of newborn infants as well as TSH in bloodspot collected at 2 day after birth (n=104). Since cord serum thyroid hormones could be affected by those of mothers, thyroid hormone concentrations of the matching mothers at delivery were adjusted. In cord serum, BDE-47, -99, and Σchlordane (CHD) showed significant positive associations with cord or bloodspot TSH. At the same time, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorbenzene (HCB) showed negative associations with total T3 and total T4 in cord serum, respectively. Maternal exposure to β-hexachlorhexane (β-HCH), ΣCHD, ΣDDT, or p,p'-DDE were also associated with neonatal thyroid hormones. Although the sample size is small and the thyroid hormone levels of the subjects were within the reference range, our observation supports thyroid disrupting potential of several POPs among newborn infants, at the levels occurring in the general population. Considering the importance of thyroid hormones during gestation and early life stages, health implication of thyroid hormone effects by low level POPs exposure deserves further follow up investigations. PMID:25965908

  18. Preparing Early Intervention Specialist To Service Newborn and Infant Children at Risk or with Identified Handicaps and Their Families within Rural Vermont. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Wayne; Capone, Angela

    The Preparation of Personnel To Provide Special Education and Related Service to Newborn and Infant Handicapped Children program of the University of Vermont offered interdisciplinary preservice programs to train Early Intervention Specialists at either the Master's level (36 credit hours) or the Certificate of Advanced Study level (30 credit…

  19. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide do not affect iron absorption from formula in healthy term infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron absorption from infant formula is relatively low. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide have been suggested to enhance mineral absorption. We therefore assessed the effect of alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide on iron absorption from infant formula in healthy term infants. ...

  20. Effect of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow in newborn infants

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, D.P.; Reivich, M.; Jaggi, J.L.; Obrist, W.D.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1987-06-01

    The effects of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow were measured in 15 stable, low birth weight babies. CBF was measured with a modification of the xenon-133 (/sup 133/Xe) clearance technique, which uses an intravenous bolus of /sup 133/Xe, an external chest detector to estimate arterial /sup 133/Xe concentration, eight external cranial detectors to measure cephalic /sup 133/Xe clearance curves, and a two-compartmental analysis of the cephalic /sup 133/Xe clearance curves to estimate CBF. There was a significant inverse correlation between hematocrit and CBF, presumably due to alterations in arterial oxygen content and blood viscosity. Newborn CBF varied independently of systolic blood pressure between 60 and 84 mm Hg, suggesting an intact cerebrovascular autoregulatory mechanism. These results indicate that at least two of the factors that affect newborn animal CBF are operational in human newborns and may have important clinical implications.

  1. A Followup of Twenty Three Infants with Diarrhoea in the Newborn Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Barton; Farmer, Keitha

    1979-01-01

    Factors such as gestational age and birthweight were compared in a follow-up study of 66 neonates with diarrhea and two groups of infants--one with low birthweight, one with optimal birthweight. Among findings was that low birthweight was found to correlate with low test scores on visual perception regardless of whether the infants had had…

  2. Biological Effects of Short-Term or Prolonged Administration of 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)Propyl]Adenine (Tenofovir) to Newborn and Infant Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Van Rompay, Koen K. A.; Brignolo, Laurie L.; Meyer, Dennis J.; Jerome, Christopher; Tarara, Ross; Spinner, Abigail; Hamilton, Marta; Hirst, Linda L.; Bennett, David R.; Canfield, Don R.; Dearman, Trish G.; Von Morgenland, Wilhelm; Allen, Phil C.; Valverde, Celia; Castillo, Alesha B.; Martin, R. Bruce; Samii, Valerie F.; Bendele, Ray; Desjardins, John; Marthas, Marta L.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Bischofberger, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    The reverse transcriptase inhibitor 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA; tenofovir) was previously found to offer strong prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in an infant macaque model of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We now summarize the toxicity and safety of PMPA in these studies. When a range of PMPA doses (4 to 30 mg/kg of body weight administered subcutaneously once daily) was administered to 39 infant macaques for a short period of time (range, 1 day to 12 weeks), no adverse effects on their health or growth were observed; this included a subset of 12 animals which were monitored for more than 2 years. In contrast, daily administration of a high dose of PMPA (30 mg/kg subcutaneously) for prolonged periods of time (>8 to 21 months) to 13 animals resulted in a Fanconi-like syndrome (proximal renal tubular disorder) with glucosuria, aminoaciduria, hypophosphatemia, growth restriction, bone pathology (osteomalacia), and reduced clearance of PMPA. The adverse effects were reversible or were alleviated following either complete withdrawal of PMPA treatment or reduction of the daily regimen from 30 mg/kg to 2.5 to 10 mg/kg subcutaneously. Finally, to evaluate the safety of a prolonged low-dose treatment regimen, two newborn macaques were started on a 10-mg/kg/day subcutaneous regimen; these animals are healthy and have normal bone density and growth after 5 years of daily treatment. In conclusion, our findings suggest that chronic daily administration of a high dose of PMPA results in adverse effects on kidney and bone, while short-term administration of relatively high doses and prolonged low-dose administration are safe. PMID:15105094

  3. Newborn Care Practices among Mother-Infant Dyads in Urban Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kayom, Violet Okaba; Kakuru, Abel; Kiguli, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background. Most information on newborn care practices in Uganda is from rural communities which may not be generalized to urban settings. Methods. A community based cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the capital city of Uganda from February to May 2012. Quantitative and qualitative data on the newborn care practices of eligible mothers were collected. Results. Over 99% of the mothers attended antenatal care at least once and the majority delivered in a health facility. Over 50% of the mothers applied various substances to the cord of their babies to quicken the healing. Although most of the mothers did not bathe their babies within the first 24 hours of birth, the majority had no knowledge of skin to skin care as a thermoprotective method. The practice of bathing babies in herbal medicine was common (65%). Most of the mothers breastfed exclusively (93.2%) but only 60.7% initiated breastfeeding within the first hour of life, while a significant number (29%) used prelacteal feeds. Conclusion. The inadequate newborn care practices in this urban community point to the need to intensify the promotion of universal coverage of the newborn care practices irrespective of rural or urban communities and irrespective of health care seeking indicators. PMID:26713096

  4. Development of a new near-IR laser system for clinical monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in the newborn infant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mostafa; Hamza, Mohammad; Hamza, Ahmad M.

    1998-04-01

    The provision of sufficient oxygen to the brain is a major goal for neonatologists to prevent major neuro-developmental handicaps and to improve the chances for intact survival of sick newborn infants. In this paper the authors present the theory and design of a new noninvasive device for transcutaneous monitoring of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation using a differential absorption laser system. The new technique depends upon illuminating the head of the neonate with radiation from six near infrared laser diodes. The choice of the used laser wavelengths (775, 780, 810, 825, 830, 850 nanometers) follows the principles of near infrared spectroscopy for obtaining accurate measurements. Different constructions of fiber optic probes arranged around the head of the neonate along the biparietal diameter guide the transmitted and received laser signals for signal processing. The detailed description and operating characteristics of this system are presented.

  5. Sequencing from Dried Blood Spots in Infants with “False Positive” Newborn Screen for MCAD Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    McCandless, Shawn E.; Chandrasekar, Ram; Linard, Sharon; Kikano, Sandra; Rice, Lorrie

    2012-01-01

    Background Newborn screening (NBS) for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD), one of the most common disorders identified, uses measurement of octanoylcarnitine (C8) from dried blood spots. In the state of Ohio, as in many places, primary care providers, with or without consultation from a metabolic specialist, may perform “confirmatory testing”, with the final diagnostic decision returned to the state. Confirmatory testing may involve measurement of metabolites, enzyme analysis, mutation screening, or sequencing. We now report sequencing results for infants said to have “false positive” NBS results for MCAD deficiency, or who died before confirmatory testing could be performed. Methods Dried blood spots (DBS) were obtained from all 18 available NBS cards identified as “false positive” by NBS for the 3 year period after screening began in Ohio in 2003 (N=20, thus 2 had no DBS available), and from all 6 infants with abnormal screens who died before confirmatory testing could be obtained. DNA extracted from DBS was screened for the common c.985A>G mutation in exon 11 of the ACADM gene, using a specific restriction digest method, followed by sequencing of the 12 exons, intron-exon junctions, and several hundred base pairs of the 5′ untranslated region. Results The NBS cut-off value for C8 used was 0.7 μmol/L. Sequencing of ACADM in six neonates with elevated C8 on NBS who died before confirmatory testing was obtained did not identify any significant variants in the coding region of the gene, suggesting that MCADD was not a contributing factor in these deaths. The mean C8 for the 18 surviving infants labeled as “False Positives” was 0.90 (95%CI 0.77-1.15), much lower than the mean value for confirmed cases. Ten of the 18 were premature births weighing <1200 g, the rest were normal sized and full term. Eight infants, mostly full term with appropriate birth weight, were heterozygous for the common c.985A>G mutation; one of those also

  6. Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A are avirulent in newborn and infant mice even when expressing virulence plasmid genes of Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Javier Santander, M.; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A are human host-restricted pathogens. Therefore, there is no small susceptible animal host that can be used to assess the virulence and safety of vaccine strains derived from these Salmonella serovars. However, infant mice have been used to evaluate virulence and colonization by another human host-restricted pathogen, Vibrio cholerae. Methodology The possibility that infant mice host could be adapted for Salmonella led us to investigate the susceptibility of newborn and infant mice to oral infection with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes enteric fever in adult mice and this system has been used as a model for human typhoid. The pSTV virulence plasmid, not present in S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, plays an essential role in S. Typhimurium colonization and systemic infection of mice. We also conjugated pSTV into S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A serovars and evaluated these transconjugants in newborn and infant mice. Results We determined that the spv virulence genes from the S. Typhimurium virulence plasmid are expressed in S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A in a RpoS dependent fashion. Also, we determined that S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A with and without pSTV transiently colonize newborn and infant mice tissues. Conclusion Newborn and infant mice infected with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A do not succumb to the infection and that carriage of the S. Typhimurium virulence plasmid, pSTV, did not influence these results. PMID:21252450

  7. Frequency of high-quality communication behaviors used by primary care providers of heterozygous infants after newborn screening

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Michael H.; Christopher, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the quality of communication likely to be experienced by parents when being first informed about how newborn screening identified heterozygous “carrier” status for cystic fibrosis or sickle cell disease. Methods Primary care providers (PCPs) of infants found to have carrier status were telephoned over a 48-month period, and asked to rehearse with a standardized patient how they would inform the infants’ parent(s). 214 rehearsal transcripts were abstracted using explicit criteria methods to measure the frequency of five categories of high-quality communication behaviors. Results Overall, PCPs used large amounts of jargon and failed to use high quality communication behaviors. On average, PCPs used 18.6 total jargon words (8.7 unique words), but explained 2.4 jargon words. The most frequent assessment of understanding was the close-ended version, although it was only seen in 129 of 214 transcripts. The most common organizing behavior was importance emphasis (121/214). Precautionary empathy was rare; the most frequent behavior was “instruction about emotion” (33/214). Conclusions The limited use of high-quality communication behaviors in rehearsals raises concern about parental understanding, decision-making, and psychosocial outcomes after newborn screening. Practice Implications Measurement of specific behaviors may help PCPs to improve communication, and thereby improve the patient experience. PMID:23194821

  8. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K.; Wilkerson, C.; Meisner, L. |

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. [Development and evaluation of a measure scale of risk of mother-newborn infant relations].

    PubMed

    Kimelman, M; Núñez, C; Hernández, G; Castillo, N; Páez, J; Bustos, S; Montino, O

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to construct and assess a scale aimed to detect risky relationships between mothers and newborns that could predict future child abuse and neglect. The instrument was applied in two opportunities, by a trained midwife and by an expert in mental health, to a sample of 106 mother-newborn dyads. When both assessments were compared, the concordance to assess relationship risk was 99.3%. The reliability of the scale, measured with the Crombach, an internal consistence index, was 0.88. Those items with a low discriminative capacity were eliminated. The massive use of the resultant scale, that is easy to apply and highly reliable, could help to prevent child abuse and neglect. PMID:8525223

  10. Organ and effective doses in newborns and infants undergoing voiding cystourethrograms (VCUG): A comparison of stylized and tomographic phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Pazik, Frank D.; Staton, Robert J.; Williams, Jonathon L.; Arreola, Manuel M.; Hintenlang, David E.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2007-01-15

    The time-sequence videotape-analysis methodology, developed [Sulieman et al., Radiology 178, 653-658 (1991)] for use in tissue dose estimations in adult fluoroscopy examinations and utilized [Bolch et al., Med. Phys. 30, 667-680 (2003)] for analog fluoroscopy in newborn patients, has been extended to the study of digital fluoroscopic examinations of the urinary bladder in newborn and infant female patients. Individual frames of the fluoroscopic and radiographic video were analyzed with respect to unique combinations of field size, field center, projection, tube potential, and tube current (mA), and integral tube current (mAs), respectively. The dosimetry study was conducted on five female patients of ages ranging from four-days to 66 days. For each patient, three different phantoms were utilized: a stylized computational phantom of the reference newborn (3.5 kg), a tomographic computational phantom of the reference newborn (3.5 kg), and (3) a tomographic computational phantom uniformly rescaled to match patient total-body mass. The latter phantom set circumvented the need for mass-dependent rescaling of recorded technique factors (kVp, mA, mAs, etc.), and thus represented the highest degree of patient specificity in the individual organ dose assessment. Effective dose values for the voiding cystourethrogram examination ranged from 0.6 to 3.2 mSv, with a mean and standard deviation of 1.8{+-}0.9 mSv. The ovary and colon equivalent doses contributed in total {approx}65%-80% of the effective dose in these fluoroscopy studies. Percent differences in the effective dose assessed using the two tomographic phantoms (one fixed at 3.5 kg with rescaled technique factors rescaled and one physically rescaled to individual patient masses with no adjustment of recorded technique factors) ranged for -49% to +15%. Percent differences in effective dose found using the 3.5 kg stylized phantom and the 3.5 kg tomographic phantom, both with patient-specific rescaling of technique

  11. [Renal volumetric echography in the newborn infant with an agenetic, dysplastic or obstructive contralateral kidney].

    PubMed

    Uroz-Tristán, J; Pérez Candela, V; García-Anguiano Duque, F; Busto Ferrer, C; Domínguez Ortega, F; Arteaga García, R; Sanchís Solera, L; de la Iglesia Iñigo, S; Valenciano Fuentes, B

    1994-07-01

    In newborn babies with congenital renal pathology type agenesia, dysplasia or obstruction is very important to know if there is intrautero vicariant growing of the contralateral kidney. To find out that we have proceeded to be ultrasound volume measurement of the normal renal unit, as this is a valuable parameter related to compensatory mechanisms. We have studied by ultrasounds 28 renal units (16 right, 12 left) in newborns with contralateral pathology: pyeloureteral stenosis in 10 cases, multicystic kidney in 13 cases, renal agenesia in 3 cases, obstructive ureterocele in 1 case and another one with ureterovesical stenosis. We considered renal function, length of the larger renal axis width and depth of the kidney mass. Renal function was normal in all cases. Analysis of objectives results show a clear difference between the volume of normal Kidneys in children with contralateral pathology and the control group constituted by 42 renal unit in normal newborns without urological pathology. We conclude with the real evidence of compensatory growing of the normal contralateral kidney during intrautero periods. PMID:7999515

  12. [Peculiarities of respiration mechanics in spontaneously breathing newborn infants. 1. Principles of the measurement technics].

    PubMed

    Wauer, R R; Schmalisch, G

    1983-01-01

    Disturbances of breathing mechanics may involve disturbances of ventilation as one cause of hypoxaemia. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of breathing mechanics has several diagnostical and therapeutical advantages, but their application in newborns, under conditions of spontaneous ventilation, is rendered more difficult by the missing co-operation of the newborns and by the missing of suitable measurement devices for a bedside measurement. The determination of parameters of breathing mechanics is based on the measurement of breathing flow rate (V), tidal volume (VT) and esophageal pressure (Pe). Bodyplethysmographs, face masks and nasal prongs can be used for the measurement of V and VT, however, face masks have the most methodological and technical advantages for the bedside application, moreover, they guarantee a very low injury of newborns. Until now the fluid-filled open catheter is used most frequently for the measurement of esophageal pressure, however, it will be replaced in future by the microtip pressure transducer (Tip-catheter), which offers fundamental advantages. In addition to these technical problems the complete clinical application of breathing mechanical investigations is rendered more difficult, because the standardization of the investigative conditions, the parameters and the proposals on evaluation techniques are absent until now. PMID:6670321

  13. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Infants: Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This Kids Count issue brief details the strides made in Rhode Island over the last 10 years to improve maternal and child health, focusing on efforts to reduce racial and ethnic disparities. The brief notes that Rhode Island has made significant progress in several areas of maternal and infant care, most notably in access to insurance and early…

  14. Comparative genomics of Enterococcus faecalis from healthy Norwegian infants

    PubMed Central

    Solheim, Margrete; Aakra, Ågot; Snipen, Lars G; Brede, Dag A; Nes, Ingolf F

    2009-01-01

    Background Enterococcus faecalis, traditionally considered a harmless commensal of the intestinal tract, is now ranked among the leading causes of nosocomial infections. In an attempt to gain insight into the genetic make-up of commensal E. faecalis, we have studied genomic variation in a collection of community-derived E. faecalis isolated from the feces of Norwegian infants. Results The E. faecalis isolates were first sequence typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and characterized with respect to antibiotic resistance and properties associated with virulence. A subset of the isolates was compared to the vancomycin resistant strain E. faecalis V583 (V583) by whole genome microarray comparison (comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)). Several of the putative enterococcal virulence factors were found to be highly prevalent among the commensal baby isolates. The genomic variation as observed by CGH was less between isolates displaying the same MLST sequence type than between isolates belonging to different evolutionary lineages. Conclusion The variations in gene content observed among the investigated commensal E. faecalis is comparable to the genetic variation previously reported among strains of various origins thought to be representative of the major E. faecalis lineages. Previous MLST analysis of E. faecalis have identified so-called high-risk enterococcal clonal complexes (HiRECC), defined as genetically distinct subpopulations, epidemiologically associated with enterococcal infections. The observed correlation between CGH and MLST presented here, may offer a method for the identification of lineage-specific genes, and may therefore add clues on how to distinguish pathogenic from commensal E. faecalis. In this work, information on the core genome of E. faecalis is also substantially extended. PMID:19393078

  15. Does Breast Feeding Protect the Hypothyroid Infant Diagnosed by Newborn Screening?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovet, Joanne F.

    Because breast milk contains small quantities of thyroid hormones not found in commercial formula preparations, it was hypothesized that breast feeding may provide some protective benefit to the hypothyroid infant before medical treatment is begun. Of 108 children with congenital hypothyroidism, breast-fed children had higher thyroid hormone…

  16. Learning, Play, and Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Learning, Play, and Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Learning, ... juega su recién nacido What Is My Newborn Learning? Play is the chief way that infants learn ...

  17. Emollient therapy for preterm newborn infants – evidence from the developing world

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Application of emollients is a widespread traditional newborn care practice in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs) and may have the potential to decrease infection and consequent mortality in preterm neonates. Methods We systematically reviewed literature published up to December 2012 to identify studies describing the effectiveness of emollient therapy. We used a standardized abstraction and grading format to estimate the effect of emollient therapy by applying the standard Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) rules. Results We included seven studies and one unpublished trial in this review. Topical emollient therapy significantly reduced neonatal mortality by 27% (RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.94) and hospital acquired infection by 50% (RR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.71). There were significant increases in weight (g) (MD: 98.04, 95% CI: 42.64, 153.45) and weight gain (g/kg/day) (MD: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.79, 2.36), whereas the impacts were non-significant for length and head circumference. Conclusion Emollient therapy is associated with improved weight gain, reduced risk of infection and associated newborn mortality in preterm neonates and is a potentially promising intervention for use in low resource settings. Large scale effectiveness trials are required to further assess the impact of this intervention. PMID:24564550

  18. Reducing maternal, newborn, and infant mortality globally: an integrated action agenda.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Cabral, Sergio; Chan, Chok-Wan; Keenan, William J

    2012-10-01

    There has been increasing awareness over recent years of the persisting burden of worldwide maternal, newborn, and child mortality. The majority of maternal deaths occur during labor, delivery, and the immediate postpartum period, with obstetric hemorrhage as the primary medical cause of death. Other causes of maternal mortality include hypertensive diseases, sepsis/infections, obstructed labor, and abortion-related complications. Recent estimates indicate that in 2009 an estimated 3.3 million babies died in the first month of life and that overall, 7.3 million children under 5 die each year. Recent data also suggest that sufficient evidence- and consensus-based interventions exist to address reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health globally, and if implemented at scale, these have the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need to put elements in place to promote integrated interventions among healthcare professionals and their associations. What is needed is the political will and partnerships to implement evidence-based interventions at scale. PMID:22883919

  19. Safety and tolerability of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in healthy Chinese adults, children and infants

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fengcai; Hu, Yuemei; Liang, Qi; Young, Mariano; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Zhangjing; Liang, John Z.; Gruber, William C.; Scott, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Pneumococcal disease is a global problem, including in China. The objective of this study was to provide safety data for single-dose 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in Chinese subjects, needed to begin a phase III safety and immunogenicity study in Chinese infants. Methods: Healthy Chinese adults (18−55 years), children (3−5 years), and infants (42–98 days) received a single dose of PCV13 in this open-label safety study. Local reactions and systemic events were collected for 7 days via an electronic diary; adverse events were recorded for 1 month after vaccination. Results: All 72 (24 per group) screened subjects (58.3% males; mean ± standard deviation [SD] age: 43.3 ± 9.1 years [adults], 4.5 ± 0.7 years [children], and 79.6 ± 15.2 days [infants]) were enrolled, received vaccine, and completed the study. The most frequently reported local reactions per group were pain at the injection site (n = 23 adults [95.8%]), tenderness (n = 18 children [75%]), and swelling (n = 6 infants [25%]), none of which were severe. The mean duration of each local reaction was ⩽2.0 days in infants and ⩽2.4 days in children but in adults was 3.3 days for pain at the injection site and 9 days each for redness and swelling. Systemic events in adults were muscle pain (n = 5), fatigue (n = 3), and headache and joint pain (n = 1 each). One child and seven infants had disturbed sleep (increased or decreased). One adult and one child had mild fever (37.7–38.5°C, as per China Food and Drug Administration guidelines). No subject used antipyretic medication. One adverse event (bronchopneumonia in an infant) was reported, which was serious, severe, and unrelated to vaccination. There were no deaths. Conclusions: A single dose of PCV13 was safe and well tolerated in healthy Chinese adults, children, and infants. This study provided the safety data to enable a phase III safety and immunogenicity registration trial in Chinese infants to proceed. PMID

  20. Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate increased intestinal hemodynamics without systemic circulatory changes in healthy newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangqin; Morton, Jude; Miedzyblocki, Margaret; Lee, Tze Fun; Bigam, David L; Fok, Tai Fai; Chen, Chao; Lee, Shoo K; Davidge, Sandra T; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2009-10-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, tanshinone IIA is a lipid-soluble component of Danshen that has been widely used for various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders, including neonatal asphyxia. Despite promising effects, little is known regarding the hemodynamic effects of tanshinone IIA in newborn subjects. To examine the dose-response effects of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) on systemic and regional hemodynamics and oxygen transport, 12 newborn piglets were anesthetized and acutely instrumented for the placement of femoral arterial and venous, pulmonary arterial catheters to measure mean arterial, central venous, and pulmonary arterial pressures, respectively. The blood flow at the common carotid, renal, pulmonary, and superior mesenteric (SMA) arteries were continuously monitored after treating the piglets with either STS (0.1-30 mg/kg iv) or saline treatment (n = 6/group). To further delineate the underlying mechanisms for vasorelaxant effects of STS, in vitro vascular myography was carried out to compare its effect on rat mesenteric and carotid arteries (n = 4-5/group). STS dose-dependently increased the SMA blood flow and the corresponding oxygen delivery with no significant effect on systemic and pulmonary, carotid and renal hemodynamic parameters. In vitro studies also demonstrated that STS selectively dilated rat mesenteric but not carotid arteries. Vasodilation in mesenteric arteries was inhibited by apamin and TRAM-34 (calcium-activated potassium channel inhibitors) but not by meclofenamate (cyclooxygenase inhibitor) or N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor). In summary, without significant hemodynamic effects on newborn piglets, intravenous infusion of STS selectively increased mesenteric perfusion in a dose-dependent manner, possibly via an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor vasodilating pathway. PMID:19617411

  1. Community acquired fulminant Pseudomonas infection of the gastrointestinal tract in previously healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C K; Lee, K H

    1998-12-01

    Three previously healthy infants presented with diarrhoea and pyrexia and deteriorated rapidly. Two patients had necrotizing bowel disease requiring aggressive surgical intervention. All survived. P. aeruginosa gastrointestinal infection in previously healthy children is an extremely rare condition with a high mortality. Ecthyma gangrenosum was present in over 60% of reported cases although often not recognized initially. A high index of clinical suspicion, including prompt recognition of ecthyma gangrenosum, is mandatory for an early diagnosis of P. aeruginosa gastrointestinal infection. Early diagnosis and treatment may improve the prognosis. PMID:9928656

  2. Multiple ecthyma gangrenosum in a healthy infant with community-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Teng; Huang, Jing-Long

    2010-10-01

    We report the case of a previously healthy 8-month-old infant girl with Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis who presented to a pediatric emergency department with multiple ecthyma gangrenosum. Skin manifestations are uncommon in Pseudomonas infection. Ecthyma gangrenosum is a rare, distinct skin disorder associated with potentially fatal underlying Pseudomonas sepsis. Although typically occurring in immunocompromised or neutropenic patients, it can occasionally affect otherwise healthy children. This case demonstrates the critical importance of the pediatrician's identification of ecthyma gangrenosum to give directed antipseudomonal therapy. PMID:20930597

  3. Infantile Hepatic Hemangioendothelioma: An Uncommon Cause of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension in a Newborn Infant

    PubMed Central

    Chatmethakul, Trassanee; Bhat, Ramachandra; Alkaabi, Maryam; Siddiqui, Abdul; Peevy, Keith; Zayek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Multifocal and diffuse infantile hepatic hemangioendotheliomas commonly present with signs of high-output congestive heart failure. In addition, prolonged persistent pulmonary overcirculation eventually leads to the development of pulmonary hypertension at a later age. We report a 2-day old, full-term infant with multifocal, large infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma, who presented with an early onset of pulmonary hypertension, managed successfully with supportive care and systemic therapy directed toward the involution of infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma. PMID:27468364

  4. The relationship between nociceptive brain activity, spinal reflex withdrawal and behaviour in newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Caroline; Goksan, Sezgi; Poorun, Ravi; Brotherhood, Kelly; Mellado, Gabriela Schmidt; Moultrie, Fiona; Rogers, Richard; Adams, Eleri; Slater, Rebeccah

    2015-01-01

    Measuring infant pain is complicated by their inability to describe the experience. While nociceptive brain activity, reflex withdrawal and facial grimacing have been characterised, the relationship between these activity patterns has not been examined. As cortical and spinally mediated activity is developmentally regulated, it cannot be assumed that they are predictive of one another in the immature nervous system. Here, using a new experimental paradigm, we characterise the nociceptive-specific brain activity, spinal reflex withdrawal and behavioural activity following graded intensity noxious stimulation and clinical heel lancing in 30 term infants. We show that nociceptive-specific brain activity and nociceptive reflex withdrawal are graded with stimulus intensity (p < 0.001), significantly correlated (r = 0.53, p = 0.001) and elicited at an intensity that does not evoke changes in clinical pain scores (p = 0.55). The strong correlation between reflex withdrawal and nociceptive brain activity suggests that movement of the limb away from a noxious stimulus is a sensitive indication of nociceptive brain activity in term infants. This could underpin the development of new clinical pain assessment measures. PMID:26228435

  5. Neonatal Respiratory Diseases in the Newborn Infant: Novel Insights from Stable Isotope Tracer Studies.

    PubMed

    Carnielli, Virgilio P; Giorgetti, Chiara; Simonato, Manuela; Vedovelli, Luca; Cogo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome is a common problem in preterm infants and the etiology is multifactorial. Lung underdevelopment, lung hypoplasia, abnormal lung water metabolism, inflammation, and pulmonary surfactant deficiency or disfunction play a variable role in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome. High-quality exogenous surfactant replacement studies and studies on surfactant metabolism are available; however, the contribution of surfactant deficiency, alteration or dysfunction in selected neonatal lung conditions is not fully understood. In this article, we describe a series of studies made by applying stable isotope tracers to the study of surfactant metabolism and lung water. In a first set of studies, which we call 'endogenous studies', using stable isotope-labelled intravenous surfactant precursors, we showed the feasibility of measuring surfactant synthesis and kinetics in infants using several metabolic precursors including plasma glucose, plasma fatty acids and body water. In a second set of studies, named 'exogenous studies', using stable isotope-labelled phosphatidylcholine tracer given endotracheally, we could estimate surfactant disaturated phosphatidylcholine pool size and half-life. Very recent studies are focusing on lung water and on the endogenous biosynthesis of the surfactant-specific proteins. Information obtained from these studies in infants will help to better tailor exogenous surfactant treatment in neonatal lung diseases. PMID:27251153

  6. The relationship between nociceptive brain activity, spinal reflex withdrawal and behaviour in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Caroline; Goksan, Sezgi; Poorun, Ravi; Brotherhood, Kelly; Mellado, Gabriela Schmidt; Moultrie, Fiona; Rogers, Richard; Adams, Eleri; Slater, Rebeccah

    2015-01-01

    Measuring infant pain is complicated by their inability to describe the experience. While nociceptive brain activity, reflex withdrawal and facial grimacing have been characterised, the relationship between these activity patterns has not been examined. As cortical and spinally mediated activity is developmentally regulated, it cannot be assumed that they are predictive of one another in the immature nervous system. Here, using a new experimental paradigm, we characterise the nociceptive-specific brain activity, spinal reflex withdrawal and behavioural activity following graded intensity noxious stimulation and clinical heel lancing in 30 term infants. We show that nociceptive-specific brain activity and nociceptive reflex withdrawal are graded with stimulus intensity (p < 0.001), significantly correlated (r = 0.53, p = 0.001) and elicited at an intensity that does not evoke changes in clinical pain scores (p = 0.55). The strong correlation between reflex withdrawal and nociceptive brain activity suggests that movement of the limb away from a noxious stimulus is a sensitive indication of nociceptive brain activity in term infants. This could underpin the development of new clinical pain assessment measures. PMID:26228435

  7. Newborn Physiological Immaturity

    PubMed Central

    Fabrellas-Padrés, Núria; Delgado-Hito, Pilar; Hurtado-Pardos, Bárbara; Martí-Cavallé, Montserrat; Gironès-Nogué, Marta; García-Berman, Rosa-Maria; Alonso-Fernandez, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most standardized nursing care plans for healthy neonates include multiple nursing diagnoses to reflect nurses' judgments on the infant's status; however scientific literature concerning this issue is scarce. Newborn physiological immaturity is a concept in the ATIC terminology (architecture, terminology, interface, information, nursing [infermeria], and knowledge [coneixement]) to represent the natural status of vulnerability of the healthy neonate. Purpose: To identify the essential attributes of the concept and provide its conceptual and operational definition, using the Wilsonian approach. Findings: The concept under analysis embeds a natural cluster of vulnerabilities and environmental interactions that enhance the evolving maturation process. Implications for Practice: The use of this diagnosis may simplify the process of charting the nursing care plans and reduce time needed for documentation while maintaining the integrity of the information. Implications for Research: Consistent development and use of nursing concepts is essential for knowledge building. Studies on the actual use of nursing diagnoses are needed to inform decision making. PMID:25822514

  8. Neonatal care: withholding or withdrawal of treatment in the newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, J S

    1999-12-01

    Life-sustaining treatment may be ethically withdrawn or withheld in critically ill or dying newborns if the action is genuinely in the best interests of the patient. This may occur in situations where life-sustaining treatment is futile because of a hopeless prognosis, or if the burdens of intensive treatment clearly outweigh its likely benefits. There is no fundamental ethical difference between the withholding of resuscitation and the withdrawing of life-sustaining treatment once it has commenced. However the actions may have different emotional and psychological implications. A decision to withdraw treatment should only be taken with the consensus of experienced staff caring for the baby and with the unpressurized agreement of the parents. Palliative care and symptomatic relief should always continue after life-support has been withdrawn. Emotional and practical support should be provided for parents and adequate training and support is essential for obstetric and neonatal unit staff. PMID:10718705

  9. Cerebral hemodynamics in newborn infants exposed to speech sounds: a whole-head optical topography study.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroki; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Tsubokura, Hifumi; Kanai, Makoto; Ashida, Takashi; Konishi, Ikuo; Uchida-Ota, Mariko; Konishi, Yukuo; Maki, Atsushi

    2012-09-01

    Considerable knowledge on neural development related to speech perception has been obtained by functional imaging studies using near-infrared spectroscopy (optical topography). In particular, a pioneering study showed stronger left-dominant activation in the temporal lobe for (normal) forward speech (FW) than for (reversed) backward speech (BW) in neonates. However, it is unclear whether this stronger left-dominant activation for FW is equally observed for any language or is clearer for the mother tongue. We hypothesized that the maternal language elicits clearer activation than a foreign language in newborns because of their prenatal and/or few-day postnatal exposure to the maternal language. To test this hypothesis, we developed a whole-head optode cap for 72-channel optical topography and visualized the spatiotemporal hemodynamics in the brains of 17 Japanese newborns when they were exposed to FW and BW in their maternal language (Japanese) and in a foreign language (English). Statistical analysis showed that all sound stimuli together induced significant activation in the bilateral temporal regions and the frontal region. They also showed that the left temporal-parietal region was significantly more active for Japanese FW than Japanese BW or English FW, while no significant difference between FW and BW was shown for English. This supports our hypothesis and suggests that the few-day-old brain begins to become attuned to the maternal language. Together with a finding of equivalent activation for all sound stimuli in the adjacent measurement positions in the temporal region, these findings further clarify the functional organization of the neonatal brain. PMID:21714036

  10. The Healthy Start Initiative: A Community-Driven Approach to Infant Mortality Reduction. Volume IV: Community Outreach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightsey, Debra, Ed.; Gwinner, Valerie, Ed.

    The Healthy Start Initiative is a national 5-year demonstration program that uses a broad range of community-driven, system development approaches to reduce infant mortality and improve the health and well-being of women, infants, children, and families. This volume, fourth in the series, deals with the topic of community outreach and is based on…

  11. Face Orientation and Motion Differently Affect the Deployment of Visual Attention in Newborns and 4-Month-Old Infants.

    PubMed

    Valenza, Eloisa; Otsuka, Yumiko; Bulf, Hermann; Ichikawa, Hiroko; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2015-01-01

    Orienting visual attention allows us to properly select relevant visual information from a noisy environment. Despite extensive investigation of the orienting of visual attention in infancy, it is unknown whether and how stimulus characteristics modulate the deployment of attention from birth to 4 months of age, a period in which the efficiency in orienting of attention improves dramatically. The aim of the present study was to compare 4-month-old infants' and newborns' ability to orient attention from central to peripheral stimuli that have the same or different attributes. In Experiment 1, all the stimuli were dynamic and the only attribute of the central and peripheral stimuli to be manipulated was face orientation. In Experiment 2, both face orientation and motion of the central and peripheral stimuli were contrasted. The number of valid trials and saccadic latency were measured at both ages. Our results demonstrated that the deployment of attention is mainly influenced by motion at birth, while it is also influenced by face orientation at 4-month of age. These findings provide insight into the development of the orienting visual attention in the first few months of life and suggest that maturation may be not the only factor that determines the developmental change in orienting visual attention from birth to 4 months. PMID:26367122

  12. [A careful course of action in a conflict regarding useful treatment of a newborn infant with severe brain damage].

    PubMed

    van Beek, R H T; Buiting, H P J; de Haan, F H; van Goudoever, J B

    2005-11-26

    In a newborn female infant, it was concluded that severe perinatal asphyxia had caused such extensive cerebral damage that further medical treatment was useless. Based on their religious beliefs, the parents disagreed, despite the fact that the requested second opinions supported the conclusion of the medical staff. Since the parents persisted, a period of inurement was agreed upon during which reanimation would be performed if necessary. After several months, there was no change in the attitude of the parents towards the policy not to reanimate, even though it was clear that there was no improvement whatsoever in the patient's neurological status, while everyone agreed that she showed signs of increased suffering. The decision regarding the determination of a situation in which further medical treatment was useless was re-evaluated carefully. In a legal procedure started by the parents, the judge supported the decision of the attending physicians. In order to prevent the parents from taking their child home, in which case a situation could arise in which she would be deprived of adequate sedation or analgesia, which the attending physicians were obliged to provide, the Dutch Child Protection Council was consulted and the parents were deprived of their parental authority. Ultimately, the patient died suddenly due to respiratory and circulatory arrest without another situation in which reanimation might have been indicated. PMID:16358621

  13. A case of cervical esophageal duplication cyst in a newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Shoko; Segawa, Osamu; Kimura, Shuri; Tsuchiya, Masayoshi; Henmi, Nobuhide; Hasegawa, Hisaya; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2016-12-01

    Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from a foregut budding error during the fourth to sixth week of embryonic development. Cervical esophageal duplication cysts are very rare and may cause respiratory distress in infancy. A full-term newborn girl who was born by normal delivery was transferred to our hospital because of swelling of the right anterior neck since birth. Cervical ultrasonography showed a 40 × 24 × 33 mm simple cyst on the right neck. Tracheal intubation was required at 2 weeks of age because of worsening external compression of the trachea. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed the existence of ciliated epithelium. At 1 month of age, exploration was performed through a transverse neck incision. The cyst had a layer of muscle connected to the lateral wall of the esophagus. Histopathological diagnosis was a cervical esophageal duplication cyst. We describe the clinical features of infantile cervical esophageal duplication cysts based on our experience of this rare disease in a neonate, along with a review of 19 cases previously reported in literature. PMID:27037803

  14. Non-invasive gas monitoring in newborn infants using diode laser absorption spectroscopy: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, Patrik; Svanberg, Emilie K.; Cocola, Lorenzo; Lewander, Märta; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Jahr, John; Fellman, Vineta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2012-03-01

    Non-invasive diode laser spectroscopy was, for the first time, used to assess gas content in the intestines and the lungs of a new-born, 4 kg, baby. Two gases, water vapor and oxygen, were studied with two low-power tunable diode lasers, illuminating the surface skin tissue and detecting the diffusely emerging light a few centimeters away. The light, having penetrated into the tissue, had experienced absorption by gas located in the lungs and in the intestines. Very distinct water vapor signals were obtained from the intestines while imprint from oxygen was lacking, as expected. Detectable, but minor, signals of water vapor were also obtained from the lungs, illuminating the armpit area and detecting below the collar bone. Water vapor signals were seen but again oxygen signals were lacking, now due to the difficulties of penetration of the oxygen probing light into the lungs of this full-term baby. Ultra-sound images were obtained both from the lungs and from the stomach of the baby. Based on dimensions and our experimental findings, we conclude, that for early pre-term babies, also oxygen should be detectable in the lungs, in addition to intestine and lung detection of water vapor. The present paper focuses on the studies of the intestines while the lung studies will be covered in a forthcoming paper.

  15. Randomised controlled trial of eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics cream for venepuncture in healthy preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, A; Bustani, P; Phillips, J; Taub, N; Beattie, R

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To assess the safety and efficacy of EMLA cream (eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics) used to induce surface anaesthesia for venepuncture in healthy preterm infants.
METHODS—Nineteen infants, median gestational age 31 weeks (range 26-33 weeks) were assessed in a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over trial. Changes in physiological variables (heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation) and behavioural responses (neonatal facial coding system score, crying time) before and after venepuncture with EMLA cream were compared with those obtained with a placebo cream to assess efficacy. Toxicity was assessed by comparing methaemoglobin concentrations at 1 hour and 8 hours after application.
RESULTS—There was no significant difference in efficacy between EMLA and placebo creams in physiological and behavioural responses. There was no significant difference in methaemoglobin concentrations one hour after the cream had been applied. At eight hours, however, concentrations were significantly higher after EMLA than placebo (p=0.016). There was no evidence of clinical toxicity.
CONCLUSION—This study does not support the routine use of EMLA for venepuncture in healthy preterm infants.

 PMID:9577286

  16. Epidemiologic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors associated with severity of respiratory syncytial virus infection in previously healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Somech, Raz; Tal, Guy; Gilad, Eli; Mandelberg, Avigdor; Tal, Asher; Dalal, Ilan

    2006-09-01

    We prospectively quantified disease severity associated with epidemiologic and socioeconomic parameters as well as the clinical factors in 195 previously healthy infants with confirmed respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Infants were enrolled into three subgroups according to disease severity: outpatients (82 patients), inpatients (100 patients), and intensive care unit patients (13 patients). Epidemiologic parameters such as gestational age, birth weight, chronologic age at presentation, and gender as well as socioeconomic factors such as ethnic origin, family history of asthma, exposure to cigarette smoke, number of family members, presence of pets at home, breast-feeding, and day-care attendance were not found to predict the severity of RSV illness in previously healthy infants. Our results emphasize the complexity of predicting disease severity in previously healthy infants with RSV infection and suggest that other parameters such as host genetic background might explain the clinical variability. PMID:16928839

  17. Newborn and Four-Week Retest on a Normative Population Using the Brazelton Newborn Assessment Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Frances Degan; And Others

    A survey of assessment procedures of the newborn and of the infant during the first month of life was conducted; the survey indicated that there were instruments for evaluating the newborn and for evaluating the four-week-old infant, but there was no single procedure which included an evaluation of both the newborn and the four-week-old infant.…

  18. A laminar flow unit for the care of critically ill newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Jose MR; Golombek, Sergio G; Fajardo, Carlos; Sola, Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Medical and nursing care of newborns is predicated on the delicate control and balance of several vital parameters. Closed incubators and open radiant warmers are the most widely used devices for the care of neonates in intensive care; however, several well-known limitations of these devises have not been resolved. The use of laminar flow is widely used in many fields of medicine, and may have applications in neonatal care. Objective To describe the neonatal laminar flow unit, a new equipment we designed for care of ill newborns. Methods The idea, design, and development of this device was completed in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The unit is an open mobile bed designed with the objective of maintaining the advantages of the incubator and radiant warmer, while overcoming some of their inherent shortcomings; these shortcomings include noise, magnetic fields and acrylic barriers in incubators, and lack of isolation and water loss through skin in radiant warmers. The unit has a pump that aspirates environmental air which is warmed by electrical resistance and decontaminated with High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter (HEPA) filters (laminar flow). The flow is directed by an air flow directioner. The unit has an embedded humidifier to increase humidity in the infant’s microenvironment and a servo control mechanism for regulation of skin temperature. Results The laminar flow unit is open and facilitates access of care providers and family, which is not the case in incubators. It provides warming by convection at an air velocity of 0.45 m/s, much faster than an incubator (0.1 m/s). The system provides isolation 1000 class (less than 1,000 particles higher than 0.3 micron per cubic feet at all times). This is much more protection than an incubator provides and more than radiant warmers, which have no isolation whatsoever. Additionally, it provides humidification of the newborn’s microenvironment (about 60% relative humidity), which is impossible with a radiant

  19. [Maltodextrin in a 13% solution as a supplement in the first 4 days of life in breast-fed mature newborn infants. Effect on drinking behavior, weight curve, blood picture, blood glucose and bilirubin].

    PubMed

    Rosegger, H

    1986-05-16

    200 mature healthy newborn infants (birthweight 3382 +/- 377 g) were randomly divided into 2 groups of 100 each: all were breast fed according to the guidelines recommended by 'La Leche League'. If possible breast feeding was commenced in the delivery room. When breast feeds did not suffice infants of group A were supplemented ad libitum with a fully adapted formula (67 kcal/dl), those of group B with a 13% maltodextrine solution (52 kcal, 160 mOsm/l). Total fluid intake was similar in both groups. Group A took less supplementary feeds on day 2, the caloric uptake, however, was not different from that of group B. On day 4 group A had a somewhat higher caloric uptake due to supplementation, whereas group B needed less supplementation but had a higher intake of breast milk. On day 5 all babies were entirely breast fed. No supplementation was handed over to the mothers for at home use. The frequency of breast meals and supplementary meals was almost equal for both groups, as were sucking activity, appetite and degree of saturation. 18.6% of the infants in both groups had no need for any supplementary feeding at all. Temperature, stools, weight loss, blood glucose and bilirubin (taken on day 4 simultaneously with the Guthrie test) were almost identical. The red blood cell count showed slightly higher values in group A. Supplementation with fully adapted formula was not advantageous over supplementation with 13% maltodextrine solution. The latter was, indeed, tolerated well in all cases and satisfied all infants who remained hungry after being breast fed; additional early exposure to cow-milk protein was, thus, avoided in all these cases. PMID:3727591

  20. Low blood sugar - newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... to produce enough breast milk. (Hand expression and massage can help mothers express more milk.) The infant ... If you have diabetes during pregnancy, work with your health care ... sugar level. Be sure that your newborn's blood sugar level is ...

  1. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study: examining developmental origins of allergy and asthma.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, Padmaja; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R; Denburg, Judah A; HayGlass, Kent T; Kobor, Michael S; Kollmann, Tobias R; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lou, W Y Wendy; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Miller, Gregory E; Moraes, Theo J; Pare, Peter D; Scott, James A; Takaro, Tim K; Turvey, Stuart E; Duncan, Joanne M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-10-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study recruited 3624 pregnant women, most partners and 3542 eligible offspring. We hypothesise that early life physical and psychosocial environments, immunological, physiological, nutritional, hormonal and metabolic influences interact with genetics influencing allergic diseases, including asthma. Environmental and biological sampling, innate and adaptive immune responses, gene expression, DNA methylation, gut microbiome and nutrition studies complement repeated environmental and clinical assessments to age 5. This rich data set, linking prenatal and postnatal environments, diverse biological samples and rigorous phenotyping, will inform early developmental pathways to allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26069286

  2. [Management of the most frequent functional gastrointestinal dis orders in healthy infants].

    PubMed

    Toca, María del C; Sosa, Patricia; Aprigliano, Gustavo; Furnes, Raquel; Marchisone, Silvia; Mora, Mabel; Orsi, Marina; Saieg, Graciela; Tabacco, Omar; Wagener, Marta

    2015-12-01

    Healthy infants during the first year of life often have multiple functional gastrointestinal symptoms such as colic, regurgitation and constipation. The usual fuzziness and/or crying at this stage of life is interpreted as digestive discomfort or pain, and the corresponding concerns result in unsuitable behaviors as overeating, interruption of breastfeeding, multiple changes of formulas, innumerable queries and unnecessary medications. The aim of this paper is to update knowledge on the pathophysiology of the most common functional gastrointestinal dis orders, in order to avoid over diagnosis and select the most appropriate therapeutic approach and convenient nutritional interventions. PMID:26593804

  3. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model for Gentamicin and Its Adaptive Resistance with Predictions of Dosing Schedules in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Elisabet I.; Cars, Otto; Friberg, Lena E.

    2012-01-01

    Gentamicin is commonly used in the management of neonatal infections. Development of adaptive resistance is typical for aminoglycosides and reduces the antibacterial effect. There is, however, a lack of understanding of how this phenomenon influences the effect of different dosing schedules. The aim was to develop a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model that describes the time course of the bactericidal activity of gentamicin and its adaptive resistance and to investigate different dosing schedules in preterm and term newborn infants based on the developed model. In vitro time-kill curve experiments were conducted on a strain of Escherichia coli (MIC of 2 mg/liter). The gentamicin exposure was either constant (0.125 to 16 mg/liter) or dynamic (simulated concentration-time profiles in a kinetic system with peak concentrations of 2.0, 3.9, 7.8, and 16 mg/liter given as single doses or as repeated doses every 6, 12, or 24 h). Semimechanistic PKPD models were fitted to the bacterial counts in the NONMEM (nonlinear mixed effects modeling) program. A model with compartments for growing and resting bacteria, with a function allowing the maximal bacterial killing of gentamicin to reduce with exposure, characterized both the fast bactericidal effect and the adaptive resistance. Despite a lower peak concentration, preterm neonates were predicted to have a higher bacterial killing effect than term neonates for the same per-kg dose because of gentamicin's longer half-life. The model supported an extended dosing interval of gentamicin in preterm neonates, and for all neonates, dosing intervals of 36 to 48 h were as effective as a 24-h dosing interval for the same total dose. PMID:22037853

  4. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model for gentamicin and its adaptive resistance with predictions of dosing schedules in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ami F; Nielsen, Elisabet I; Cars, Otto; Friberg, Lena E

    2012-01-01

    Gentamicin is commonly used in the management of neonatal infections. Development of adaptive resistance is typical for aminoglycosides and reduces the antibacterial effect. There is, however, a lack of understanding of how this phenomenon influences the effect of different dosing schedules. The aim was to develop a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model that describes the time course of the bactericidal activity of gentamicin and its adaptive resistance and to investigate different dosing schedules in preterm and term newborn infants based on the developed model. In vitro time-kill curve experiments were conducted on a strain of Escherichia coli (MIC of 2 mg/liter). The gentamicin exposure was either constant (0.125 to 16 mg/liter) or dynamic (simulated concentration-time profiles in a kinetic system with peak concentrations of 2.0, 3.9, 7.8, and 16 mg/liter given as single doses or as repeated doses every 6, 12, or 24 h). Semimechanistic PKPD models were fitted to the bacterial counts in the NONMEM (nonlinear mixed effects modeling) program. A model with compartments for growing and resting bacteria, with a function allowing the maximal bacterial killing of gentamicin to reduce with exposure, characterized both the fast bactericidal effect and the adaptive resistance. Despite a lower peak concentration, preterm neonates were predicted to have a higher bacterial killing effect than term neonates for the same per-kg dose because of gentamicin's longer half-life. The model supported an extended dosing interval of gentamicin in preterm neonates, and for all neonates, dosing intervals of 36 to 48 h were as effective as a 24-h dosing interval for the same total dose. PMID:22037853

  5. Foetal and neonatal intracranial haemorrhage in term newborn infants: Hacettepe University experience.

    PubMed

    Tavil, Betül; Korkmaz, Ayşe; Bayhan, Turan; Aytaç, Selin; Unal, Sule; Kuskonmaz, Baris; Yigit, Sule; Cetin, Mualla; Yurdakök, Murat; Gumruk, Fatma

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, causes and clinical management of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) diagnosed during foetal life or in the first month of life in term neonates with a discussion of the role of haematological risk factors. This study included term neonates (gestational age 37-42 weeks) with ICH diagnosed, treated and followed up in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey, between January 1994 and January 2014. Medical follow-up was obtained retrospectively from hospital files and prospectively from telephonic interviews and/or clinical visits. During the study period, 16 term neonates were identified as having ICH in our hospital. In six (37.5%) neonates, ICH was diagnosed during foetal life by obstetric ultrasonography, and in 10 (62.5%) neonates, it has been diagnosed after birth. Haemorrhage types included intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) in eight (50.0%), intraparenchymal haemorrhage in six (37.5%), subarachnoid haemorrhage in one (6.2%) and subdural haemorrhage in one (6.2%) neonate. IVH was the most common (n = 5/6, 83.3%) haemorrhage type among neonates diagnosed during foetal life. Overall, haemorrhage severity was determined as mild in three (18.7%) neonates, moderate in three (18.75%) neonates and severe in 10 (62.5%) neonates. During follow-up, one infant was diagnosed as afibrinogenemia, one diagnosed as infantile spasm, one cystic fibrosis, one orofaciodigital syndrome and the other diagnosed as Friedrich ataxia. Detailed haematological investigation and search for other underlying diseases are very important to identify the reason of ICH in term neonates. Furthermore, early diagnosis, close monitoring and prompt surgical interventions are significant factors to reduce disabilities. PMID:26829281

  6. Home visits by community health workers to improve identification of serious illness and care seeking in newborns and young infants from low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, A; Kabra, S K; Sachdev, H P S; Lodha, R

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of this review were to evaluate the effect of home visits by trained community health workers (CHWs) to successfully identify newborns and young infants (up to 59 days of age) with serious illness and improve care seeking from a health facility. The authors searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and EMBASE. Abstracts of all articles were read by two authors independently and relevant articles selected. Data were extracted in a pretested questionnaire by two authors independently. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager software. A meta-analysis of included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was carried out. Pooled estimates (risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)) of the evaluated outcome measures were calculated by the generic inverse variance method. Seven articles were identified for inclusion in the review. None of them compared the diagnosis of serious illness in young infants by health workers to a 'gold standard' diagnosis. Three studies were available for evaluating the ability of CHWs to identify seriously ill young infants/signs of serious illness. These studies suggest that sensitivity to identify serious illness ranged from 33.3 to 90.5% and specificity from 75.61 to 98.4%. For the outcome of improved care seeking from a health facility, after pooling the data from six RCTs with 4760 subjects in the intervention and 4398 subjects in the control arm, there was a significant improvement in care seeking in the home visit arm (RR=1.35; 95% CI=1.15 to 1.58). Moderate quality evidence indicated that home visits by trained CHWs were associated with improved care-seeking for sick young infants from health facilities by appropriate health care providers in resource-limited settings. However, there is a lack of data regarding successful identification of serious illness. Evidence from validation studies supports the implementation of home visits by trained CHWs for improving outcomes in

  7. Home visits by community health workers to improve identification of serious illness and care seeking in newborns and young infants from low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, A; Kabra, S K; Sachdev, H P S; Lodha, R

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this review were to evaluate the effect of home visits by trained community health workers (CHWs) to successfully identify newborns and young infants (up to 59 days of age) with serious illness and improve care seeking from a health facility. The authors searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and EMBASE. Abstracts of all articles were read by two authors independently and relevant articles selected. Data were extracted in a pretested questionnaire by two authors independently. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager software. A meta-analysis of included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was carried out. Pooled estimates (risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)) of the evaluated outcome measures were calculated by the generic inverse variance method. Seven articles were identified for inclusion in the review. None of them compared the diagnosis of serious illness in young infants by health workers to a ‘gold standard' diagnosis. Three studies were available for evaluating the ability of CHWs to identify seriously ill young infants/signs of serious illness. These studies suggest that sensitivity to identify serious illness ranged from 33.3 to 90.5% and specificity from 75.61 to 98.4%. For the outcome of improved care seeking from a health facility, after pooling the data from six RCTs with 4760 subjects in the intervention and 4398 subjects in the control arm, there was a significant improvement in care seeking in the home visit arm (RR=1.35; 95% CI=1.15 to 1.58). Moderate quality evidence indicated that home visits by trained CHWs were associated with improved care-seeking for sick young infants from health facilities by appropriate health care providers in resource-limited settings. However, there is a lack of data regarding successful identification of serious illness. Evidence from validation studies supports the implementation of home visits by trained CHWs for improving outcomes

  8. Inter-society consensus document on treatment and prevention of bronchiolitis in newborns and infants.

    PubMed

    Baraldi, Eugenio; Lanari, Marcello; Manzoni, Paolo; Rossi, Giovanni A; Vandini, Silvia; Rimini, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Costantino; Colonna, Pierluigi; Biondi, Andrea; Biban, Paolo; Chiamenti, Giampietro; Bernardini, Roberto; Picca, Marina; Cappa, Marco; Magazzù, Giuseppe; Catassi, Carlo; Urbino, Antonio Francesco; Memo, Luigi; Donzelli, Gianpaolo; Minetti, Carlo; Paravati, Francesco; Di Mauro, Giuseppe; Festini, Filippo; Esposito, Susanna; Corsello, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Acute bronchiolitis is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection and hospitalization in children less than 1 year of age worldwide. It is usually a mild disease, but some children may develop severe symptoms, requiring hospital admission and ventilatory support in the ICU. Infants with pre-existing risk factors (prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart diseases and immunodeficiency) may be predisposed to a severe form of the disease. Clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis is manly based on medical history and physical examination (rhinorrhea, cough, crackles, wheezing and signs of respiratory distress). Etiological diagnosis, with antigen or genome detection to identify viruses involved, may have a role in reducing hospital transmission of the infection. Criteria for hospitalization include low oxygen saturation (<90-92%), moderate-to-severe respiratory distress, dehydration and presence of apnea. Children with pre-existing risk factors should be carefully assessed.To date, there is no specific treatment for viral bronchiolitis, and the mainstay of therapy is supportive care. This consists of nasal suctioning and nebulized 3% hypertonic saline, assisted feeding and hydration, humidified O2 delivery. The possible role of any pharmacological approach is still debated, and till now there is no evidence to support the use of bronchodilators, corticosteroids, chest physiotherapy, antibiotics or antivirals. Nebulized adrenaline may be sometimes useful in the emergency room. Nebulized adrenaline can be useful in the hospital setting for treatment as needed. Lacking a specific etiological treatment, prophylaxis and prevention, especially in children at high risk of severe infection, have a fundamental role. Environmental preventive measures minimize viral transmission in hospital, in the outpatient setting and at home. Pharmacological prophylaxis with palivizumab for RSV bronchiolitis is indicated in specific categories of children at risk during

  9. Catch up growth in low birth weight infants: striking a healthy balance.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vandana; Singhal, Atul

    2012-06-01

    Catch-up growth in the first few months of life is seen almost ubiquitously in infants born small for their gestational age and conventionally considered highly desirable as it erases the growth deficit. However, recently such growth has been linked to an increased risk of later adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in both low income and high-income countries. In India, a third of all babies are born with a low birth weight, but the optimal growth pattern for such infants is uncertain. As a response to the high rates of infectious morbidities, undernutrition and stunting in children, the current policy is to promote rapid growth in infancy. However, with socio-economic transition and urbanization making the Indian environment more obesogenic, and the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, affecting progressively younger population, the long term adverse programming effect of fast/excessive weight gain in infancy on later body composition and metabolism may outweigh short-term benefits. This review discusses the above issues focusing on the need to strike a healthy balance between the risks and benefits of catch-up growth in Indian infants. PMID:22415299

  10. Commentary on a Cochrane Review of Early Additional Food and Fluids for Healthy Breastfed Full-Term Infants.

    PubMed

    Maslin, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life. A Cochrane Review assessed the benefits and harms of additional foods and fluids for full-term healthy breastfed infants. The review included randomized or quasirandomized controlled trials of full-term healthy breastfed infants up to the age of 6 months. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Trials from early days after birth did not indicate that giving additional fluids was beneficial. Trials with 4- to 6-month-old infants did not indicate any benefit to supplementing with food at 4 months. This review did not find any evidence for disagreement with the recommendation that exclusive breastfeeding should be recommended for 6 months after birth. PMID:27520599