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  1. Emotion recognition in early Parkinson’s disease patients undergoing deep brain stimulation or dopaminergic therapy: a comparison to healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Lindsey G.; Mannava, Sishir; Camalier, Corrie R.; Folley, Bradley S.; Albritton, Aaron; Konrad, Peter E.; Charles, David; Park, Sohee; Neimat, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is traditionally regarded as a neurodegenerative movement disorder, however, nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration is also thought to disrupt non-motor loops connecting basal ganglia to areas in frontal cortex involved in cognition and emotion processing. PD patients are impaired on tests of emotion recognition, but it is difficult to disentangle this deficit from the more general cognitive dysfunction that frequently accompanies disease progression. Testing for emotion recognition deficits early in the disease course, prior to cognitive decline, better assesses the sensitivity of these non-motor corticobasal ganglia-thalamocortical loops involved in emotion processing to early degenerative change in basal ganglia circuits. In addition, contrasting this with a group of healthy aging individuals demonstrates changes in emotion processing specific to the degeneration of basal ganglia circuitry in PD. Early PD patients (EPD) were recruited from a randomized clinical trial testing the safety and tolerability of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in early-staged PD. EPD patients were previously randomized to receive optimal drug therapy only (ODT), or drug therapy plus STN-DBS (ODT + DBS). Matched healthy elderly controls (HEC) and young controls (HYC) also participated in this study. Participants completed two control tasks and three emotion recognition tests that varied in stimulus domain. EPD patients were impaired on all emotion recognition tasks compared to HEC. Neither therapy type (ODT or ODT + DBS) nor therapy state (ON/OFF) altered emotion recognition performance in this study. Finally, HEC were impaired on vocal emotion recognition relative to HYC, suggesting a decline related to healthy aging. This study supports the existence of impaired emotion recognition early in the PD course, implicating an early disruption of fronto-striatal loops mediating emotional function. PMID:25653616

  2. Explanations of AD in ethnic minority participants undergoing cognitive screening.

    PubMed

    Tappen, Ruth M; Gibson, Sandra E; Williams, Christine L

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and compare explanations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) of African American, Afro-Caribbean, and European American older adults undergoing cognitive screening. Participants were asked a series of open-ended questions regarding what they knew about AD and if they were experiencing memory problems. Responses were coded and quantized for analysis. Forty percent reported experiencing memory problems. Afro-Caribbeans made significantly more incorrect statements about AD and were less likely to identify memory loss as a symptom. Half the participants said they would seek their physician's advice if the screening was positive; none mentioned a memory disorder center. Misconceptions about AD included the effect of aluminum, brain collapse, relaxed brain, shaking, tremors, and physical illness. More Afro-Caribbeans, all of whom were first generation, had misconceptions about AD. Campaigns to educate the public about AD need to provide culturally sensitive and appropriate information to ethnic minority populations. PMID:21697141

  3. Performance of Healthy Participants on the Iowa Gambling Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steingroever, Helen; Wetzels, Ruud; Horstmann, Annette; Neumann, Jane; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2013-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Anderson, 1994) is often used to assess decision-making deficits in clinical populations. The interpretation of the results hinges on 3 key assumptions: (a) healthy participants learn to prefer the good options over the bad options; (b) healthy participants show homogeneous choice behavior;…

  4. The Healthy Children, Strong Families Intervention: Design and Community Participation

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Alexandra K.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Cronin, Kate A.; Prince, Ronald J.; Wubben, Deborah P.; Parker, Tassy; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy Children, Strong Families (HCSF) is a 2-year, community-driven, family-based randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention conducted in partnership with four Wisconsin American Indian tribes. HCSF is composed of 1 year of targeted home visits to deliver nutritional and physical activity curricula. During Year 1, trained community mentors work with 2–5-year-old American Indian children and their primary caregivers to promote goal-based behavior change. During Year 2, intervention families receive monthly newsletters and attend monthly group meetings to participate in activities designed to reinforce and sustain changes made in Year 1. Control families receive only curricula materials during Year 1 and monthly newsletters during Year 2. Each of the two arms of the study comprises 60 families. Primary outcomes are decreased child BMI z-score and decreased primary caregiver BMI. Secondary outcomes include: increased fruit/vegetable consumption, decreased TV viewing, increased physical activity, decreased soda/sweetened drink consumption, improved primary caregiver biochemical indices, and increased primary caregiver self-efficacy to adopt healthy behaviors. Using community-based participatory research and our history of university–tribal partnerships, the community and academic researchers jointly designed this randomized trial. This article describes the study design and data collection strategies, including outcome measures, with emphasis on the communities’ input in all aspects of the research. PMID:22956296

  5. The Healthy Children, Strong Families intervention: design and community participation.

    PubMed

    Adams, Alexandra K; LaRowe, Tara L; Cronin, Kate A; Prince, Ronald J; Wubben, Deborah P; Parker, Tassy; Jobe, Jared B

    2012-08-01

    Healthy Children, Strong Families (HCSF) is a 2-year, community-driven, family-based randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention conducted in partnership with four Wisconsin American Indian tribes. HCSF is composed of 1 year of targeted home visits to deliver nutritional and physical activity curricula. During Year 1, trained community mentors work with 2-5-year-old American Indian children and their primary caregivers to promote goal-based behavior change. During Year 2, intervention families receive monthly newsletters and attend monthly group meetings to participate in activities designed to reinforce and sustain changes made in Year 1. Control families receive only curricula materials during Year 1 and monthly newsletters during Year 2. Each of the two arms of the study comprises 60 families. Primary outcomes are decreased child body mass index (BMI) z-score and decreased primary caregiver BMI. Secondary outcomes include: increased fruit/vegetable consumption, decreased TV viewing, increased physical activity, decreased soda/sweetened drink consumption, improved primary caregiver biochemical indices, and increased primary caregiver self-efficacy to adopt healthy behaviors. Using community-based participatory research and our history of university-tribal partnerships, the community and academic researchers jointly designed this randomized trial. This article describes the study design and data collection strategies, including outcome measures, with emphasis on the communities' input in all aspects of the research. PMID:22956296

  6. Individualized Comprehensive Lifestyle Intervention in Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy with Curative or Palliative Intent: Who Participates?

    PubMed Central

    Vassbakk-Brovold, Karianne; Lian, Henrik; Mjåland, Odd; Seiler, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Knowledge about determinants of participation in lifestyle interventions in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, particularly with palliative intent, remains poor. The objective of the present study was to identify determinants of participating in a 12 month individualized, comprehensive lifestyle intervention, focusing on diet, physical activity, mental stress and smoking cessation, in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with curative or palliative intent. The secondary objective was to identify participation determinants 4 months into the study. Methods Newly diagnosed cancer patients starting chemotherapy at the cancer center in Kristiansand/Norway (during a 16 month inclusion period) were screened. Demographic and medical data (age, sex, body mass index, education level, marital status, smoking status, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG), diagnosis, tumor stage and treatment intention) was analyzed for screened patients. Results 100 of 161 invited patients participated. There were more females (69 vs. 48%; P = 0.004), breast cancer patients (46 vs. 25%; P = 0.007), non-smokers (87 vs. 74%; P = 0.041), younger (mean age 60 vs. 67 yrs; P < 0.001) and fitter (82 vs. 64% with EGOC 0; P = 0.036) participants vs. non-participants included. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, age (Odds Ratio 0.94, 95% Confidence Interval 0.91, 0.97) and smoking (0.42, 0.18, 0.99) were negatively associated with participation. After 4 months, 63 participants were still participating. Cancer type, smoking and age increased the probability of dropping out. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that age was the only significant determinant of 4 month participation (0.95, 0.91, 0.99). Patients aged >70 years were less likely to participate at baseline and 4 months. Conclusion Individualized lifestyle interventions in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy appear to facilitate a high participation rate that declines with increasing

  7. Rich Club Organization and Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Participants.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Hugo C; Segura, Barbara; Junque, Carme; de Reus, Marcel A; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Van den Heuvel, Martijn P

    2015-09-01

    The human brain is a complex network that has been noted to contain a group of densely interconnected hub regions. With a putative "rich club" of hubs hypothesized to play a central role in global integrative brain functioning, we assessed whether hub and rich club organizations are associated with cognitive performance in healthy participants and whether the rich club might be differentially involved in cognitive functions with a heavier dependence on global integration. A group of 30 relatively older participants (range = 39-79 years of age) underwent extensive neuropsychological testing, combined with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to reconstruct individual structural brain networks. Rich club connectivity was found to be associated with general cognitive performance. More specifically, assessing the relationship between the rich club and performance in two specific cognitive domains, we found rich club connectivity to be differentially associated with attention/executive functions-known to rely on the integration of distributed brain areas-rather than with visuospatial/visuoperceptual functions, which have a more constrained neuroanatomical substrate. Our findings thus provide first empirical evidence of a relevant role played by the rich club in cognitive processes. PMID:25941870

  8. The Healthy Children, Strong Families Intervention: Design and Community Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Alexandra K.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Cronin, Kate A.; Prince, Ronald J.; Wubben, Deborah P.; Parker, Tassy; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy Children, Strong Families (HCSF) is a 2-year, community-driven, family-based randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention conducted in partnership with four Wisconsin American Indian tribes. HCSF is composed of 1 year of targeted home visits to deliver nutritional and physical activity curricula. During Year 1, trained…

  9. Oxygen desaturation in healthy subjects undergoing the incremental shuttle walk test*

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, Daniel Machado; Seixas, Daniela Miti Tsukumo; Pereira, Monica Corso; Moreira, Marcos Mello; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the probability of oxygen desaturation in healthy individuals undergoing the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT). METHODS: We enrolled 83 healthy subjects: 55 males (including 1 smoker) and 28 females. We determined pre-ISWT FEV1, FEV6, HR and SpO2, as well as post-ISWT HR and SpO2. RESULTS: Mean values overall were as follows: age, 35.05 ± 12.53 years; body mass index, 24.30 ± 3.47 kg/m2; resting HR, 75.12 ± 12.48 bpm; resting SpO2, 97.96 ± 1.02%; FEV1, 3.75 ± 0.81 L; FEV6, 4.45 ± 0.87 L; FEV1/FEV6 ratio, 0.83 ± 0.08 (no restriction or obstruction); incremental shuttle walk distance, 958.30 ± 146.32 m; post-ISWT HR, 162.41 ± 18.24 bpm; and post-ISWT SpO2, 96.27 ± 2.21%. In 11 subjects, post-ISWT SpO2 was higher than was pre-ISWT SpO2. In 17 subjects, there was a 4% decrease in SpO2 after the ISWT. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with and without post-ISWT oxygen desaturation in terms of age, gender, FEV1, FEV6, FEV1/FEV6, pre-ISWT SpO2, incremental shuttle walk distance, HR, or percentage of maximal HR. In the individuals with post-ISWT oxygen desaturation, the body mass index was higher (p = 0.01) and post-ISWT SpO2 was lower (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Healthy individuals can present oxygen desaturation after the ISWT. Using the ISWT to predict subtle respiratory abnormalities can be misleading. In healthy subjects, oxygen desaturation is common after the ISWT, as it is during any intense physical activity. PMID:24068265

  10. Characteristics, Access, Utilization, Satisfaction, and Outcomes of Healthy Start Participants in Eight Sites

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, So; Cook, Benjamin; Trebino, Lisa; Walker, Deborah Klein

    2009-01-01

    To describe the characteristics, access, utilization, satisfaction, and outcomes of Healthy Start participants in eight selected sites, a survey of Healthy Start participants with infants ages 6–12-months-old at time of interview was conducted between October 2006 and January 2007. The response rate was 66% (n = 646), ranging from 37% in one site to >70% in seven sites. Healthy Start participants’ outcomes were compared to two national benchmarks. Healthy Start participants reported that they were satisfied with the program (>90% on five measures). Level of unmet need was 6% or less for most services, except for dental appointments (11%), housing (13%), and child care (11%). Infants had significantly better access to medical care than did their mothers, with higher rates of insurance coverage, medical homes, and checkups, and fewer unmet needs for health care. Healthy Start participants’ rates of ever breastfeeding (72%) and putting infants to sleep on their backs (70%) were at or near the Healthy People 2010 objectives, and considerably higher than rates among low-income mothers in the ECLS. The high rate of health education (>90%) may have contributed to these outcomes. Elimination of smoking among Healthy Start participants (46%) fell short of the Healthy People 2010 objective (99%). The low-birth weight (LBW) rate among Black Healthy Start participants (14%) was three times higher than the rate for Whites and Hispanics (5% each). Overall, the LBW rate in the eight sites (7.5%) was similar to the rate for low-income mothers in the ECLS, but both rates were above the Healthy People 2010 objective (5%). Challenges remain in reducing disparities in maternal and child health outcomes. Further attention to risk factors associated with LBW (especially smoking) may help close the gaps. The life course theory suggests that improved outcomes may require longer-term investments. Healthy Start’s emerging focus on interconception care has the potential to address

  11. Acute Stimulant Ingestion and Neurocognitive Performance in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Concussion management has become an area of great concern in athletics, and neurocognitive tests, such as Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT), are commonly used as management tools. Given the restrictive nature of current management plans, anecdotal concerns have been raised about athletes trying to cheat the assessments and return to participation sooner. Stimulants have been shown to improve neurocognitive measures similar to those used in ImPACT. Therefore, they could possibly improve performance during baseline and postinjury testing. Objective: To examine the effects of a supplement containing stimulants on ImPACT performance. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 5 men (age = 20.6 ± 1.5 years, height = 176.3 ± 9.6 cm, mass = 76.9 ± 18.6 kg) and 7 women (age = 20.6 ± 1.1 years, height = 162.9 ± 7.8 cm, mass = 60.9 ± 8.2 kg) with no histories of physician-diagnosed head injury, learning disability, or attention-deficit disorder. Intervention(s): Participants were assessed under supplement (5.5 g of Jacked 3D, which contains caffeine and 1,3-dimethylamylamine), placebo, and control conditions separated by 1 week. Main Outcome Measure(s): I compared ImPACT composite scores for verbal and visual memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, impulse control, and a cognitive-efficiency index under each of the 3 conditions and assessed them 30 minutes after ingestion. Results: I observed a difference when comparing reaction times, as the participants reacted faster during the supplement condition (0.53 ± 0.03 seconds) than during the placebo (0.55 ± 0.03 seconds) and control (0.55 ± 0.03 seconds) conditions (F2,22 = 4.31, P = .03). A difference also was observed for the cognitive-efficiency index, as participants scored higher during the supplement condition (0.49 ± 0.09) than during the placebo (0.41 ± 0.10) and control (0.41 ± 0.12) conditions (F2,22 = 4

  12. Repeat participation among normal healthy research volunteers: professional guinea pigs in clinical trials?

    PubMed

    Tishler, Carl L; Bartholomae, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    The recent death of a normal healthy volunteer, as well as the increased use of normal volunteers as research subjects, has heightened the attention given to the participation of normal volunteers in clinical research. An overlooked sub-population of normal healthy volunteers are repeat, veteran volunteers. This essay discusses ethical and methodological issues associated with the use of repeat volunteers in research, along with existing guidelines regarding the use of repeat healthy volunteers, and concludes with recommendations for safeguarding repeat volunteers and ideas supporting centralized recruiting. PMID:14593220

  13. Characteristics of the Healthy Brain Project Sample: Representing Diversity among Study Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lucinda L.; Laditka, James N.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Mathews, Anna E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Description of study participants and documentation of the desired diversity in the Prevention Research Centers Healthy Aging Research Network's Workgroup on Promoting Cognitive Health large multisite study designed to examine attitudes about brain health, behaviors associated with its maintenance, and information-receiving preferences…

  14. Participation in clinical research: perspectives of adult patients and parents of pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Keusch, Florian; Rao, Rohini; Chang, Lawrence; Lepkowski, James; Reddy, Pavan; Choi, Sung Won

    2014-10-01

    Despite major improvements over the past several decades, many patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) continue to suffer from significant treatment-related morbidity and mortality. Clinical research studies (trials) have been integral to advancing the standard of care in HSCT. However, 1 of the biggest challenges with clinical trials is the low participation rate. Although barriers to participation in cancer clinical trials have been previously explored, studies specific to HSCT are lacking. The current study was undertaken to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of HSCT patients regarding clinical trials. As members of focus groups, participants responded to open-ended questions that assessed factors influencing decision-making about HSCT clinical trials. Suggestions for improvements in the recruitment process were also solicited among participants. Seventeen adult HSCT patients and 6 parents of pediatric HSCT patients participated in the study. The median age was 56 years (range, 18 to 70) and 44 years (range, 28 to 54) for adult patients and parents, respectively. Participants universally indicated that too much information was provided within the informed consents and they were intimidated by the medical and legal language. Despite the large amount of information provided to them at the time of study enrollment, the participants had limited knowledge retention and recall of study details. Nevertheless, participants reported overall positive experiences with clinical trial participation and many would readily choose to participate again. A common concern among participants was the uncertainty of study outcome and general lack of feedback about results at the end of the study. Participants suggested that investigators provide more condensed and easier to understand informed consents and follow-up of study findings. These findings could be used to help guide the development of improved consent documents and enhanced

  15. Distinct neural correlates for attention lapses in patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Ryan C.; Salo, Taylor; Carter, Cameron S.

    2015-01-01

    Momentary lapses in attention are common in healthy populations. This phenomenon has recently received increased investigation, particularly in relationship to the default mode network (DMN). Previous research has suggested that these lapses may be due to intrusive task-irrelevant thoughts. The study of this phenomenon in schizophrenia, which is characterized by a wide variety of cognitive deficits including deficits in attention, has not previously been explored. We used the AX Continuous Performance Task to investigate attention lapses in healthy participants as well as patients with schizophrenia. We found distinct patterns of network activation between these two groups. Lapses in healthy participants were associated with DMN activation, while in patients, the same behavioral phenomenon was associated with deactivations in frontal-parietal control network (FPCN) regions. When considered in contrast to the results observed in healthy participants, these results suggest an additional origin of attention lapses in patients derived from a loss of task-related context, rather than intrusive task-irrelevant thoughts. PMID:26500517

  16. Distinct neural correlates for attention lapses in patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ryan C; Salo, Taylor; Carter, Cameron S

    2015-01-01

    Momentary lapses in attention are common in healthy populations. This phenomenon has recently received increased investigation, particularly in relationship to the default mode network (DMN). Previous research has suggested that these lapses may be due to intrusive task-irrelevant thoughts. The study of this phenomenon in schizophrenia, which is characterized by a wide variety of cognitive deficits including deficits in attention, has not previously been explored. We used the AX Continuous Performance Task to investigate attention lapses in healthy participants as well as patients with schizophrenia. We found distinct patterns of network activation between these two groups. Lapses in healthy participants were associated with DMN activation, while in patients, the same behavioral phenomenon was associated with deactivations in frontal-parietal control network (FPCN) regions. When considered in contrast to the results observed in healthy participants, these results suggest an additional origin of attention lapses in patients derived from a loss of task-related context, rather than intrusive task-irrelevant thoughts. PMID:26500517

  17. Labial vibrotactile somatosensory perception: a pilot study in healthy aging versus young adult participants.

    PubMed

    Etter, Nicole M; Van Meter, Emily M; Andreatta, Richard D

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to begin characterizing changes in labial vibrotactile somatosensation in healthy older adults as a foundational step in determining how changes in orofacial sensation can affect functional behaviors, such as speech and feeding. Labial vibrotactile perception capacity of healthy older adults (n = 15) was compared to a cohort of healthy young adults (n = 5). Vibrotactile inputs were delivered to the glabrous surface of the left lower lip at 5, 10, 50, and 150 Hz. A modified von Bekesy (staircase) method was used to identify participants' thresholds and response standard deviations for each test frequency. Consistent with findings in other body regions, a decrease in labial vibrotactile detection sensitivity was expected in healthy older adults. The threshold values for the 5 and 10 Hz test frequencies were higher in the older group and the differences in response standard deviations at these frequencies were statistically significant. This pilot study identified changes in labial perception among healthy older adults. PMID:24897891

  18. Influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution in healthy participants and patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Duprez, Joan; Naudet, Florian; Argaud, Soizic; Dondaine, Thibaut; Drapier, Sophie; Robert, Gabriel Hadrien; Drapier, Dominique; Vérin, Marc; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-08-15

    The influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution processes is not clearly defined in the literature, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Some studies have shown no effect of reward, while others have demonstrated a beneficial influence. In addition, although the basal ganglia are known to play a critical role in the association between motivation and cognition, the influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution processes in Parkinson's disease (PD) has received little attention. In this context, we assessed the influence of promised rewards on both impulse activation and suppression in 36 healthy participants and 36 patients with PD, using a rewarded Simon task. Analysis of performances revealed that promised rewards worsened the overall congruence effect, but only in healthy participants. Although the incentive context did not modulate the congruence effect in patients, by using the activation-suppression model, we were able to show that promised rewards did influence impulse suppression in patients-but not in healthy participants. Suppressing inappropriate response activation in an incentive context appears to be harder in medically treated Parkinson's disease. This indicates that incentive motivation can modulate at least one cognitive process involved in cognitive action control in patients with medically treated PD. The activation-suppression model provides essential additional information concerning the influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution processes in a pathological population. PMID:27423562

  19. Serum albumin and muscle measures in a cohort of healthy young and old participants.

    PubMed

    Reijnierse, E M; Trappenburg, M C; Leter, M J; Sipilä, S; Stenroth, L; Narici, M V; Hogrel, J Y; Butler-Browne, G; McPhee, J S; Pääsuke, M; Gapeyeva, H; Meskers, C G M; Maier, A B

    2015-10-01

    Consensus on clinically valid diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia requires a systematical assessment of the association of its candidate measures of muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance on one side and muscle-related clinical parameters on the other side. In this study, we systematically assessed associations between serum albumin as a muscle-related parameter and muscle measures in 172 healthy young (aged 18-30 years) and 271 old participants (aged 69-81 year) from the European MYOAGE study. Muscle measures included relative muscle mass, i.e., total- and appendicular lean mass (ALM) percentage, absolute muscle mass, i.e., ALM/height(2) and total lean mass in kilograms, handgrip strength, and walking speed. Muscle measures were standardized and analyzed in multivariate linear regression models, stratified by age. Adjustment models included age, body composition, C-reactive protein and lifestyle factors. In young participants, serum albumin was positively associated with lean mass percentage (p = 0.007) and with ALM percentage (p = 0.001). In old participants, serum albumin was not associated with any of the muscle measures. In conclusion, the association between serum albumin and muscle measures was only found in healthy young participants and the strongest for measures of relative muscle mass. PMID:26310888

  20. Scale-Free Functional Connectivity of the Brain Is Maintained in Anesthetized Healthy Participants but Not in Patients with Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaolin; Ward, B. Douglas; Binder, Jeffrey R.; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hudetz, Anthony G.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of consciousness in anesthetized healthy participants and in patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) is associated with substantial alterations of functional connectivity across large-scale brain networks. Yet, a prominent distinction between the two cases is that after anesthesia, brain connectivity and consciousness are spontaneously restored, whereas in patients with UWS this restoration fails to occur, but why? A possible explanation is that the self-organizing capability of the brain is compromised in patients with UWS but not in healthy participants undergoing anesthesia. According to the theory of self-organized criticality, many natural complex systems, including the brain, evolve spontaneously to a critical state wherein system behaviors display spatial and/or temporal scale-invariant characteristics. Here we tested the hypothesis that the scale-free property of brain network organization is in fact fundamentally different between anesthetized healthy participants and UWS patients. We introduced a novel, computationally efficient approach to determine anatomical-functional parcellation of the whole-brain network at increasingly finer spatial scales. We found that in healthy participants, scale-free distributions of node size and node degree were present across wakefulness, propofol sedation, and recovery, despite significant propofol-induced functional connectivity changes. In patients with UWS, the scale-free distribution of node degree was absent, reflecting a fundamental difference between the two groups in adaptive reconfiguration of functional interaction between network components. The maintenance of scale-invariance across propofol sedation in healthy participants suggests the presence of persistent, on-going self-organizing processes to a critical state – a capacity that is compromised in patients with UWS. PMID:24647227

  1. Maintenance of wakefulness with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, compared with placebo and armodafinil in healthy adult males undergoing acute sleep loss.

    PubMed

    Gasior, Maria; Freeman, Jon; Zammit, Gary; Donnelly, Patricia; Gao, Joseph; Ferreira-Cornwell, Maria Celeste; Roth, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated daytime alertness and performance with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate during acute sleep loss. In a randomized, double-blind study in healthy adult men (n = 135) undergoing 24-hour sleep loss, the alerting effects of single oral lisdexamfetamine dimesylate doses (20, 50, or 70 mg) were compared with a placebo and an active control (armodafinil 250 mg). Primary end point was mean unequivocal sleep latency on the 30-minute maintenance of wakefulness test taken every 2 hours from midnight to 8:00 A.M. Secondary end points included the Karolinska sleepiness scale and psychomotor vigilance task. Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and vital signs. Least squares mean (SE) maintenance of wakefulness test unequivocal sleep latency (in minutes) was longer with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate 20, 50, and 70 mg, or armodafinil 250 mg (23.3 [1.10], 27.9 [0.64], 29.3 [0.44], or 27.6 [0.63], respectively) versus placebo (15.3 [1.00]; P < 0.0001). Longer mean unequivocal sleep latency was seen with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate 70 mg versus armodafinil (P = 0.0351) and armodafinil versus lisdexamfetamine dimesylate 20 mg (P = 0.0014). On Karolinska sleepiness scale, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate 50 and 70 mg improved estimated sleepiness versus placebo (P ≤ 0.0002) and armodafinil (P ≤ 0.03). Active treatments improved psychomotor vigilance task performance versus placebo (P < 0.0001). The TEAEs were mild/moderate. No serious adverse events occurred. The most common TEAE was headache with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and armodafinil (7.4% each) versus placebo (3.7%). Small mean increases in vital signs were observed with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and armodafinil. In sleep-deprived healthy men, alertness was greater with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and armodafinil versus placebo on the primary end point. Studies are needed in clinical populations and using longer durations of administration. PMID:25159886

  2. Self-initiated actions result in suppressed auditory but amplified visual evoked components in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Mifsud, Nathan G; Oestreich, Lena K L; Jack, Bradley N; Ford, Judith M; Roach, Brian J; Mathalon, Daniel H; Whitford, Thomas J

    2016-05-01

    Self-suppression refers to the phenomenon that sensations initiated by our own movements are typically less salient, and elicit an attenuated neural response, compared to sensations resulting from changes in the external world. Evidence for self-suppression is provided by previous ERP studies in the auditory modality, which have found that healthy participants typically exhibit a reduced auditory N1 component when auditory stimuli are self-initiated as opposed to externally initiated. However, the literature investigating self-suppression in the visual modality is sparse, with mixed findings and experimental protocols. An EEG study was conducted to expand our understanding of self-suppression across different sensory modalities. Healthy participants experienced either an auditory (tone) or visual (pattern-reversal) stimulus following a willed button press (self-initiated), a random interval (externally initiated, unpredictable onset), or a visual countdown (externally initiated, predictable onset-to match the intrinsic predictability of self-initiated stimuli), while EEG was continuously recorded. Reduced N1 amplitudes for self- versus externally initiated tones indicated that self-suppression occurred in the auditory domain. In contrast, the visual N145 component was amplified for self- versus externally initiated pattern reversals. Externally initiated conditions did not differ as a function of their predictability. These findings highlight a difference in sensory processing of self-initiated stimuli across modalities, and may have implications for clinical disorders that are ostensibly associated with abnormal self-suppression. PMID:26751981

  3. Evaluation of stimulus velocity in automated kinetic perimetry in young healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Kazunori; Shoji, Nobuyuki; Okada, Ayaka; Takano, Kana; Tomioka, Seiya

    2014-05-01

    This prospective study aimed to evaluate the stimulus velocity for automated kinetic perimetry based on the test duration, the kinetic sensitivity, and the variability of the kinetic sensitivity in 31 eyes of 31 young healthy participants. Automated kinetic perimetry was performed using an Octopus 900 perimeter with Goldmann stimuli III4e, I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e. The participants underwent testing at 14 predetermined meridians for each stimulus, with velocities of 2°, 3°, 4°, 5°, and 10°/s; each velocity was tested twice. The test duration, kinetic sensitivity, and variability of kinetic sensitivity were compared among the stimulus velocities. Twenty-nine eyes from 29 participants were analyzed, and two participants were excluded. The test durations at the velocities of 2°, 3°, 4°, 5°, and 10°/s were negatively correlated with the stimulus velocity (p<0.01). The variability of the kinetic sensitivities did not significantly differ among the stimulus velocities. The kinetic sensitivities at 2° and 3°/s did not differ significantly for all stimuli. However, those at 4°/s decreased for III4e, I4e, and I1e (p<0.05), and those at 5° and 10°/s decreased for all stimuli (p<0.05) compared with those at 2° or 3°/s. Although the test durations for each stimulus velocity were negatively correlated with the stimulus velocities, a stimulus velocity of 3° or 4°/s might be recommended for automated kinetic perimetry based on the changes in the kinetic sensitivity. As this study included only young participants, further studies in elderly participants may also be necessary. PMID:24705075

  4. Decision making in healthy participants on the Iowa Gambling Task: new insights from an operant approach

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Peter N.; Tippett, Lynette J.; Addis, Donna Rose

    2015-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has contributed greatly to the study of affective decision making. However, researchers have observed high inter-study and inter-individual variability in IGT performance in healthy participants, and many are classified as impaired using standard criteria. Additionally, while decision-making deficits are often attributed to atypical sensitivity to reward and/or punishment, the IGT lacks an integrated sensitivity measure. Adopting an operant perspective, two experiments were conducted to explore these issues. In Experiment 1, 50 healthy participants completed a 200-trial version of the IGT which otherwise closely emulated Bechara et al.'s (1999) original computer task. Group data for Trials 1–100 closely replicated Bechara et al.'s original findings of high net scores and preferences for advantageous decks, suggesting that implementations that depart significantly from Bechara's standard IGT contribute to inter-study variability. During Trials 101–200, mean net scores improved significantly and the percentage of participants meeting the “impaired” criterion was halved. An operant-style stability criterion applied to individual data revealed this was likely related to individual differences in learning rate. Experiment 2 used a novel operant card task—the Auckland Card Task (ACT)—to derive quantitative estimates of sensitivity using the generalized matching law. Relative to individuals who mastered the IGT, persistent poor performers on the IGT exhibited significantly lower sensitivity to magnitudes (but not frequencies) of rewards and punishers on the ACT. Overall, our findings demonstrate the utility of operant-style analysis of IGT data and the potential of applying operant concurrent-schedule procedures to the study of human decision making. PMID:25904884

  5. Increased perceived self-efficacy facilitates the extinction of fear in healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Preusser, Friederike; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy has been proposed as an important element of a successful cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT). Positive changes in perceived self-efficacy have been linked to an improved adaptive emotional and behavioral responding in the context of anxiety-provoking situations. Furthermore, a positive influence of increased self-efficacy on cognitive functions has been confirmed. The present study examined the effect of verbal persuasion on perceived self-efficacy and fear extinction. Healthy participants were subjected to a standardized differential fear conditioning paradigm. After fear acquisition, half of the participants received a verbal persuasion aimed at increasing perceived self-efficacy. The extinction of fear was assessed immediately thereafter on both the implicit and explicit level. Our results suggest that an increased perceived self-efficacy was associated with enhanced extinction, evidenced on the psychophysiological level and accompanied by more pronounced decrements in conditioned negative valence. Changes in extinction were not due to a decrease in overall emotional reactivity to conditioned stimuli (CS). In addition, debriefing participants about the false positive feedback did not affect the processing of already extinguished conditioned responses during a subsequent continued extinction phase. Our results suggest that positive changes in perceived self-efficacy can be beneficial for emotional learning. Findings are discussed with respect to strategies aimed at increasing extinction learning in the course of exposure-based treatments. PMID:26528152

  6. Increased perceived self-efficacy facilitates the extinction of fear in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Preusser, Friederike; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy has been proposed as an important element of a successful cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT). Positive changes in perceived self-efficacy have been linked to an improved adaptive emotional and behavioral responding in the context of anxiety-provoking situations. Furthermore, a positive influence of increased self-efficacy on cognitive functions has been confirmed. The present study examined the effect of verbal persuasion on perceived self-efficacy and fear extinction. Healthy participants were subjected to a standardized differential fear conditioning paradigm. After fear acquisition, half of the participants received a verbal persuasion aimed at increasing perceived self-efficacy. The extinction of fear was assessed immediately thereafter on both the implicit and explicit level. Our results suggest that an increased perceived self-efficacy was associated with enhanced extinction, evidenced on the psychophysiological level and accompanied by more pronounced decrements in conditioned negative valence. Changes in extinction were not due to a decrease in overall emotional reactivity to conditioned stimuli (CS). In addition, debriefing participants about the false positive feedback did not affect the processing of already extinguished conditioned responses during a subsequent continued extinction phase. Our results suggest that positive changes in perceived self-efficacy can be beneficial for emotional learning. Findings are discussed with respect to strategies aimed at increasing extinction learning in the course of exposure-based treatments. PMID:26528152

  7. A Computerized Stroop Test for the Evaluation of Psychotropic Drugs in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Pilli, Raveendranadh; Naidu, MUR; Pingali, Usha Rani; Shobha, J. C.; Reddy, A. Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Stroop paradigm evaluates susceptibility to interference and is sensitive to dysfunction in frontal lobes and drug effects. The aim of the present study was to establish a simple and reliable computerized version of Stroop color-word test, which can be used for screening of various psychotropic drugs. Materials and Methods: The standardized method was followed in all cases, by recording the reaction time (RT) in msec in 24 healthy participants using computerized version of Stroop color-word test. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by recording the RTs by a single experimenter on two sessions (interday reproducibility). Validity of the model was further tested by evaluating the psychotropic effect of Zolpidem 5 mg, Caffeine 500 mg, or Placebo on 24 healthy subjects in a randomized, double blind three-way crossover design. Results: The method was found to produce low variability with coefficient of variation less than 10%. Interday reproducibility was very good as shown by Bland-Altman plot with most of the values within ±2SD. There was a significant increase in RTs in Stroop performance with Zolpidem at 1 hr and 2 hrs; in contrast, caffeine significantly decreased RTs in Stroop performance at 1 hr only compared to placebo. Conclusion: The Stroop color-word recording and analysis system is simple, sensitive to centrally acting drug effects, and has potential for future experimental psychomotor assessment studies. PMID:24049230

  8. Betaine supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine in healthy adult participants: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    McRae, Marc P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Betaine supplementation has been shown to be an effective agent for decreasing plasma homocysteine in healthy adults. Studies in healthy volunteers show that 6 g/d of betaine lowers plasma homocysteine concentrations by 5% to 20%. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials that used daily betaine supplementation to identify the range in betaine's effects on lowering homocysteine. Methods Five randomized controlled trials published between 2002 and 2010 were identified using MEDLINE and a manual search. All 5 studies used health adult participants who were supplemented with at least 4 g/d of betaine for between 6 and 24 weeks. A meta-analysis was carried out using a random-effects model, and the overall effect size was calculated for changes in plasma homocysteine. Results The pooled estimate of effect for betaine supplementation on plasma homocysteine was a reduction of 1.23 μmol/L, which was statistically significant (95% confidence interval, − 1.61 to − 0.85; P = .01). Conclusion Supplementation with at least 4g/d of betaine for a minimum of 6 weeks can lower plasma homocysteine. PMID:23997720

  9. Semagacestat pharmacokinetics are not significantly affected by formulation, food, or time of dosing in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Willis, Brian A; Zhang, Wei; Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun; Lowe, Stephen L; Annes, William F; Sirois, Paul J; Friedrich, Stuart; de la Peña, Amparo

    2012-06-01

    Semagacestat, a γ-secretase inhibitor, reduces formation of amyloid beta peptide. Two single-dose (140 mg), open-label, randomized, 3-period, crossover studies evaluated the effect of formulation, food, and time of dosing on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of semagacestat in healthy participants. The first study (n = 14) compared tablet to capsules. For all formulations, the median time to maximum plasma concentration (t(max)) was generally 1.0 hour. Plasma elimination was rapid, with a half-life of approximately 2.5 hours. Tablet form II bioavailability (F) relative to capsule was approximately 100% (F = 1.03 [90% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.10]). In the second study, participants (n = 27) received semagacestat either fed or fasting in the morning or fasting in the evening. No significant change in exposure (AUC(0-∞) [area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity] ratio = 1.02, [90% CI, 0.990-1.05]) occurred with food, whereas maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) declined approximately 15%, and median t(max) was delayed to 1.5 hours. Time of dosing made no significant difference in AUC(0-∞), C(max), or t(max) (AUC(0-∞) ratio 1.01, [90% CI, 0.975-1.04]). No clinically significant safety concerns occurred in either study. Accordingly, semagacestat may be dosed without regard to formulation, food, or time of administration. PMID:21724950

  10. Negative Emotional Arousal Impairs Associative Memory Performance for Emotionally Neutral Content in Healthy Participants.

    PubMed

    Guez, Jonathan; Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Mualem, Liran; Efrati, Matan; Keha, Eldad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of emotional arousal on memory presents a complex pattern with previous studies reporting conflicting results of both improved and reduced memory performance following arousal manipulations. In this study we further tested the effect of negative emotional arousal (NEA) on individual-item recognition and associative recognition of neutral stimuli in healthy participants, and hypothesized that NEA will particularly impair associative memory performance. The current study consists of two experiments; in both, participants studied a list of word-pairs and were then tested for items (items recognition test), and for associations (associative recognition test). In the first experiment, the arousal manipulation was induced by flashing emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between study-pairs while in the second experiment arousal was induced by presenting emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between lists. The results of the two experiments converged and supported an associative memory deficit observed under NEA conditions. We suggest that NEA is associated with an altered ability to bind one stimulus to another as a result of impaired recollection, resulting in poorer associative memory performance. The current study findings may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism underlying memory impairments reported in disorders associated with traumatic stress. PMID:26186001

  11. Coadministration of pioglitazone or glyburide and alogliptin: pharmacokinetic drug interaction assessment in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Karim, Aziz; Laurent, Aziz; Munsaka, Melvin; Wann, Elisabeth; Fleck, Penny; Mekki, Qais

    2009-10-01

    Alogliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor under investigation for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Potential pharmacokinetic (PK) drug-drug interactions of alogliptin with pioglitazone or glyburide were evaluated in healthy adults. In a randomized, 6-sequence, 3-period crossover study (study I), participants (n = 30 enrolled; n = 27 completed) received monotherapy with pioglitazone 45 mg once daily (qd), alogliptin 25 mg qd, or coadministration of the 2 agents. The 12-day treatment periods were separated by a > or =10-day washout interval. In a nonrandomized, single-sequence study (study II), participants (n = 24 completed) received a single 5-mg dose of the sulfonylurea glyburide, alone and after 8 days of dosing with alogliptin 25 mg qd. Sequential samples of blood (both studies) and urine (first study) were obtained for determination of PK parameters for alogliptin, pioglitazone, their metabolites, and glyburide. Minor changes in PK parameters between combination therapy and monotherapy were obtained but not judged to be clinically relevant. The combination treatments were well tolerated, although glyburide frequently caused hypoglycemia. Most adverse events were of mild intensity and occurred with a frequency similar to that with monotherapy. It is concluded that pioglitazone or glyburide can be administered with alogliptin without dose adjustment to any component of the combination therapy. PMID:19622714

  12. Negative Emotional Arousal Impairs Associative Memory Performance for Emotionally Neutral Content in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Guez, Jonathan; Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Mualem, Liran; Efrati, Matan; Keha, Eldad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of emotional arousal on memory presents a complex pattern with previous studies reporting conflicting results of both improved and reduced memory performance following arousal manipulations. In this study we further tested the effect of negative emotional arousal (NEA) on individual-item recognition and associative recognition of neutral stimuli in healthy participants, and hypothesized that NEA will particularly impair associative memory performance. The current study consists of two experiments; in both, participants studied a list of word-pairs and were then tested for items (items recognition test), and for associations (associative recognition test). In the first experiment, the arousal manipulation was induced by flashing emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between study-pairs while in the second experiment arousal was induced by presenting emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between lists. The results of the two experiments converged and supported an associative memory deficit observed under NEA conditions. We suggest that NEA is associated with an altered ability to bind one stimulus to another as a result of impaired recollection, resulting in poorer associative memory performance. The current study findings may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism underlying memory impairments reported in disorders associated with traumatic stress. PMID:26186001

  13. Kinematic characteristics of the lower extremity during a simulated skiing exercise in healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Roh, Hyo Lyun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Currently, various simulators are produced and used for athlete’s exercise, rehabilitation, and training. In this study, we analyzed the kinematic factors of sectional and total movements in healthy participants by providing group-dependent information during simulated exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Participants in this study included 26 male adults (non-experts and experts); experts held a certificate issued by the Korea Ski Instructors Association. The elapsed times in each phase, the difference in the lower extremity angles, and muscle activity were computed through analysis of kinematic factors. [Results] We observed that motions in the experts took shorter time to perform than that in non-experts, and showed larger variation of lower limb joint angle in most events during simulated skiing. There were also significant group-dependent differences in the peak and mean EMG values during simulated skiing. [Conclusion] A non-expert’s posture leads to enhanced muscle activity to keep the lower body in balance. We suggest the following training guideline: initially, non-experts should maintain appropriate range of motion with lower-intensity exercise to improve muscle endurance. It can be useful in providing preliminary data for future training and rehabilitation studies, as well as improvements in muscle strength and balance. PMID:27065554

  14. Kinematic characteristics of the lower extremity during a simulated skiing exercise in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Roh, Hyo Lyun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Currently, various simulators are produced and used for athlete's exercise, rehabilitation, and training. In this study, we analyzed the kinematic factors of sectional and total movements in healthy participants by providing group-dependent information during simulated exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Participants in this study included 26 male adults (non-experts and experts); experts held a certificate issued by the Korea Ski Instructors Association. The elapsed times in each phase, the difference in the lower extremity angles, and muscle activity were computed through analysis of kinematic factors. [Results] We observed that motions in the experts took shorter time to perform than that in non-experts, and showed larger variation of lower limb joint angle in most events during simulated skiing. There were also significant group-dependent differences in the peak and mean EMG values during simulated skiing. [Conclusion] A non-expert's posture leads to enhanced muscle activity to keep the lower body in balance. We suggest the following training guideline: initially, non-experts should maintain appropriate range of motion with lower-intensity exercise to improve muscle endurance. It can be useful in providing preliminary data for future training and rehabilitation studies, as well as improvements in muscle strength and balance. PMID:27065554

  15. Generalization Gradients in Cued and Contextual Pain-Related Fear: An Experimental Study in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Meulders, Ann; Vandebroek, Nele; Vervliet, Bram; Vlaeyen, Johan W. S.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the notion that pain-related fear plays a key role in the transition from acute to chronic pain. Recent experimental data show that associative learning processes are involved in the acquisition of pain-related fear. An intriguing yet underinvestigated question entails how spreading of pain-related fear in chronic pain occurs. In a voluntary movement paradigm in which one arm movement (CS+) was followed by a painful stimulus and another was not (CS−) in the predictable group and painful stimuli were delivered during the intertrial interval (context alone) in the unpredictable group, we tested generalization of fear to six novel generalization movements (GSs) with varying levels of similarity between the original CS+ movement and CS− movement. Healthy participants (N = 58) were randomly assigned to the predictable or unpredictable group. Fear was measured via verbal ratings and eyeblink startle responses. Results indicated that cued pain-related fear spreads selectively to novel movements that are proprioceptively more similar to the CS+ than to those similar to the CS− in the predictable group, but not in the unpredictable group. This is the first study to demonstrate a generalization gradient of cued pain-related fear. However, this effect was only present in the startle eyeblink responses, but not in the verbal ratings. Taken together, this paradigm represents a novel tool to scrutinize the largely understudied phenomenon of the spreading of fear and avoidance in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain and mapping possible pathological differences in generalization gradients and the spreading of pain in patients as compared with healthy controls. PMID:23847513

  16. Performance of Healthy Braced Participants During Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Rishiraj, Neetu; Taunton, Jack E.; Niven, Brian; Lloyd-Smith, Robert; Regan, William; Woollard, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Context: Knee braces were introduced in sports approximately 30 years ago. However, the effects of a functional knee brace (FKB) on aerobic and anaerobic performance after fatigue are unknown. Objective: To investigate whether FKB use in noninjured participants hindered performance during aerobic (Léger beep test) and anaerobic (repeated high-intensity shuttle test [RHIST]) tasks. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven healthy male provincial and national basketball and field hockey athletes (age = 19.4 ± 3.0 years, range, 17–26 years; height = 182.6 ± 6.8 cm, range, 168–196 cm; mass = 80.0 ± 9.1 kg, range, 66–108 kg). Interventions : Each participant was provided a custom-fitted FKB and performed 5 nonbraced (NBR) testing sessions over 3 days, followed by 5 braced (BR) testing sessions over 3 days, for a total of 17.5 hours of testing per condition. During each testing session, participants performed 1 trial of the Léger beep test and 1 trial of the RHIST in each condition. Main Outcome Measure(s): Predicted maximal oxygen consumption (V˙o2max) and time performance measures were recorded for each NBR and BR trial. Results: Initial performance levels were lower for BR than NBR for both the Léger beep test (BR = 44.3 mL/kg/min, NBR = 47.3 mL/kg/min; F1,26 = 8.726; P = .007) and the RHIST (BR = 16.5 seconds, NBR = 16.2 seconds; F1,26 = 13.98, P = .001). However, with continued FKB use, the aerobic performance measure remained higher for only the first 2 BR testing sessions (NBR = 46.9 mL/kg/min, BR = 42.4 mL/kg/min; F3.0,79.8 = 4.95, P = .003). For the anaerobic test, no performance difference was noted between the testing conditions (NBR = 16.2 seconds, BR = 16.4 seconds; P = .7), whereas fatigue levels were lower during BR testing sessions (NBR = 33%, BR = 31%). After 14.0 hours of FKB use, performance levels were almost equal between the testing conditions (NBR = 47.6 mL/kg/min, BR = 46.1 m

  17. Comparison of the cardiac effects of the antimalarials co-artemether and halofantrine in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Bindschedler, Margaretha; Lefèvre, Gilbert; Degen, Peter; Sioufi, Antoine

    2002-03-01

    Co-artemether (Coartem, Riamet) is a tablet containing 20 mg artemether and 120 mg lumefantrine for treatment of falciparum malaria. Lumefantrine has some chemical similarities to halofantrine (Halfan), an antimalarial known for QTc prolongation. Effects on the QTc interval of fed single oral doses of 500 mg halofantrine and 80/480 mg co-artemether were compared in 13 healthy males in a randomized double-blind crossover study. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded from 48 hours before dosing until 48 hours thereafter. The maximum QTc interval (QTc = QT/square root(RR)) was compared before and after treatment and between treatments, fitting a general linear model. Drug plasma concentrations were determined concomitantly. After halofantrine, all participants showed an increase in the QTc interval; the mean maximum increase was 28 ms. The length of the QTc interval was positively correlated to halofantrine exposure. The QTc interval remained unchanged after co-artemether. The difference between treatments was statistically significant. In conclusion, halofantrine caused a significant, exposure-dependent increase in the QTc interval. No such effect was seen with co-artemether. PMID:12139223

  18. Effect of carisbamate on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Martha; Zannikos, Peter; DiBernardo, Allitia; Brashear, H Robert; Ariyawansa, Jay

    2012-09-01

    Carisbamate's effect (200 mg twice-daily [study 1], 600 mg twice-daily [study 2]) on warfarin's (25 mg single dose) pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (international normalized ratio) was assessed during 2 open-label studies in healthy participants. Coadministration of either carisbamate regimen produced small changes on the mean maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve to the last measurable time point (AUC(last)) of (S)- and (R)-warfarin, which are unlikely to be clinically significant. For (S)-warfarin, the ratios (with carisbamate/without carisbamate) of geometric means for C(max) were 105.44 (study 1) and 98.48 (study 2) and for AUC(last) were 109.33 (study 1) and 114.43 (study 2); the corresponding 90% confidence intervals were within the bioequivalence limits of 80% to 125%. Results were similar for (R)-warfarin. Carisbamate at 600 mg (but not 200 mg) twice-daily prolonged the elimination half-life of (S)- and (R)-warfarin by ~10 hours (25% and 32% increase, respectively). Prothrombin time was unaltered by either carisbamate dose. Adverse events with the highest incidence were dizziness (50%) and headache (50%) in study 1 and somnolence (56%) in study 2. Warfarin exposure and international normalized ratio were unaffected by coadministration of carisbamate 200 mg or 600 mg twice-daily. Carisbamate was well tolerated. PMID:22011511

  19. Using “Clinical Trial Diaries” to Track Patterns of Participation for Serial Healthy Volunteers in U.S. Phase I Studies

    PubMed Central

    Edelblute, Heather B.; Fisher, Jill A.

    2015-01-01

    Phase I testing of investigational drugs relies on healthy volunteers as research participants. Many U.S. healthy volunteers enroll repeatedly in clinical trials for the financial compensation. Serial participants are incentivized to ignore restrictions on their participation, and no centralized clinical trial registry prevents dual enrollment. Little is currently known about how healthy volunteers participate in studies over time, hampering the development of policies to protect this group. We detail a methodology developed as part of a longitudinal study to track in real-time healthy volunteers’ Phase I participation. Illustrating these data through three case studies, we document how healthy volunteers use strategies, such as qualifying for studies at more than one clinic and traveling significant distances, to maximize their participation. Our findings suggest that “clinical trial diaries” can generate critical information about serial research participation and point to ethical issues unique to healthy volunteers’ involvement in Phase I clinical trials. PMID:25742668

  20. Effects of inflammation on hippocampus and substantia nigra responses to novelty in healthy human participants.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Neil A; Cercignani, Mara; Voon, Valerie; Critchley, Hugo D

    2015-03-01

    Humans are naturally inquisitive. This tendency is adaptive, aiding identification of potentially valuable novel outcomes. The dopaminergic substantia nigra (SN) is implicated in the drive to explore novel stimuli and situations. However, infection and inflammation inhibit the motivation to seek out novelty. This likely serves to limit exposure to uncertain, potentially detrimental outcomes when metabolic resources are limited. Nevertheless, the neural mechanisms through which inflammation constrains novelty seeking are poorly understood. We therefore scanned 16 healthy participants (6 male, mean 27.2±7.3 years), using fMRI, once following experimental inflammation (intramuscular (i.m.) typhoid vaccination) and once after placebo (i.m. saline), with the aim of characterizing effects of inflammation on neural processing of novel and familiar place, and face stimuli. We specifically tested the effects of inflammation on the hypothesized roles of SN and hippocampus in novelty processing. Typhoid vaccination evoked a nearly threefold increase in circulating pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6) levels 3 h after injection, indicating induction of mild systemic inflammation. Enhanced hippocampal responses to novel (compared with familiar) stimuli were observed following both vaccine and placebo, consistent with intact central novelty detection. However, the normal bilateral reactivity of SN to stimulus novelty was significantly attenuated following inflammation. Correspondingly, inflammation also markedly impaired novelty-related functional coupling between the SN and hippocampus. These data extend previous findings of SN sensitivity to mild inflammation associated with changes in psychomotor responding, and suggest that inflammation-induced blunting of SN responses to hippocampal novelty signals may represent a plausible mechanism through which inflammation impairs motivational responses to novelty. PMID:25154706

  1. Effects of Inflammation on Hippocampus and Substantia Nigra Responses to Novelty in Healthy Human Participants

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Neil A; Cercignani, Mara; Voon, Valerie; Critchley, Hugo D

    2015-01-01

    Humans are naturally inquisitive. This tendency is adaptive, aiding identification of potentially valuable novel outcomes. The dopaminergic substantia nigra (SN) is implicated in the drive to explore novel stimuli and situations. However, infection and inflammation inhibit the motivation to seek out novelty. This likely serves to limit exposure to uncertain, potentially detrimental outcomes when metabolic resources are limited. Nevertheless, the neural mechanisms through which inflammation constrains novelty seeking are poorly understood. We therefore scanned 16 healthy participants (6 male, mean 27.2±7.3 years), using fMRI, once following experimental inflammation (intramuscular (i.m.) typhoid vaccination) and once after placebo (i.m. saline), with the aim of characterizing effects of inflammation on neural processing of novel and familiar place, and face stimuli. We specifically tested the effects of inflammation on the hypothesized roles of SN and hippocampus in novelty processing. Typhoid vaccination evoked a nearly threefold increase in circulating pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6) levels 3 h after injection, indicating induction of mild systemic inflammation. Enhanced hippocampal responses to novel (compared with familiar) stimuli were observed following both vaccine and placebo, consistent with intact central novelty detection. However, the normal bilateral reactivity of SN to stimulus novelty was significantly attenuated following inflammation. Correspondingly, inflammation also markedly impaired novelty-related functional coupling between the SN and hippocampus. These data extend previous findings of SN sensitivity to mild inflammation associated with changes in psychomotor responding, and suggest that inflammation-induced blunting of SN responses to hippocampal novelty signals may represent a plausible mechanism through which inflammation impairs motivational responses to novelty. PMID:25154706

  2. A Feasibility Study of Bilateral Anodal Stimulation of the Prefrontal Cortex Using High-Definition Electrodes in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiansong; Healy, Stephen M.; Truong, Dennis Q.; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies often use one anode to increase cortical excitability in one hemisphere. However, mental processes may involve cortical regions in both hemispheres. This study’s aim was to assess the safety and possible effects on affect and working memory of tDCS using two anodes for bifrontal stimulation. A group of healthy subjects participated in two bifrontal tDCS sessions on two different days, one for real and the other for sham stimulation. They performed a working memory task and reported their affect immediately before and after each tDCS session. Relative to sham, real bifrontal stimulation did not induce significant adverse effects, reduced decrement in vigor-activity during the study session, and did not improve working memory. These preliminary findings suggest that bifrontal anodal stimulation is feasible and safe and may reduce task-related fatigue in healthy participants. Its effects on neuropsychiatric patients deserve further study. PMID:26339204

  3. Understanding why adult participants at the World Senior Games choose a healthy diet

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Ray M; Shields, Eric C

    2003-01-01

    Background Identifying those seniors most likely to adopt a healthy diet, the relative importance they place on certain perceived benefits associated with a healthy diet, and whether these perceived benefits are associated with selected demographic, lifestyle, and health history variables is important for directing effective dietary health promotion programs. Methods Analyses are based on a cross-sectional convenience sample of 670 seniors aged 50 years and older at the 2002 World Senior Games in St. George, Utah. Data are assessed using frequencies, bivariate analysis, analysis of variance, and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly higher in individuals aged 70–79, in women, in those not overweight or obese, and in those with excellent overall health. Dietary fiber consumption was significantly higher in former or never smokers, current and previous alcohol drinkers, in those not overweight or obese, and in those with excellent health. The strongest motivating factors identified for adopting a healthy diet were to improve the quality of life, to increase longevity, and to prevent disease. Of intermediate importance were the need to feel a sense of control and to satisfy likes or dislikes. Least important were the desire to experience a higher level of spirituality, social reasons, and peer acceptance. Conclusion Seniors who have adopted a healthy diet are more likely to have chosen that behavior because of perceived health benefits than for personal and social benefits. Overweight or obese individuals and those in poor health were less likely to be engaged in healthy eating behavior and require special attention by dieticians and public health professionals. PMID:14633282

  4. Electric and acoustic stimulation during movement preparation can facilitate movement execution in healthy participants and stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Marinovic, Welber; Brauer, Sandra G; Hayward, Kathryn S; Carroll, Timothy J; Riek, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    There has been increasing interest in the use of loud acoustic stimulation (LAS) to gain insight into the preparation and initiation of motor actions. Typically, LAS presented during movement preparation in healthy participants culminates in the earlier than normal initiation of the prepared movement and an increase in the magnitude of the response. Recent reports have shown LAS can also facilitate movement in chronic stroke survivors. This suggests that current therapies for motor recovery after stroke might benefit from employing such alternate methods of triggering movement. In this study we sought to test a new way to facilitate motor actions that could be of relevance in clinical settings. Five individuals with chronic motor impairments due to stroke and eight healthy young adults performed a functional reaching task in response to a visual go-signal. On 30% of the trials, LAS or electric stimuli (collectively, sensory stimuli) were unexpectedly presented in synchrony with the go-signal. Both healthy and stroke participants reacted with shorter latencies and executed faster responses when sensory stimulation was synchronized with the go-signal. We have replicated previous findings showing acoustic stimuli can aid movement execution in chronic stroke survivors and demonstrated the same type of effect can be achieved using electric stimulation. Thus, these two types of sensory stimuli can be easily integrated with current devices available to assist people with stroke to engage in rehabilitation efforts. PMID:26964472

  5. Comparison of Anthropometric Data between End-stage Renal Disease Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis and Healthy Adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seoung Woo; Park, Geun Ho; Lee, Sun Young; Song, Joon Ho

    2005-01-01

    Protein-calorie malnutrition is prevalent in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The prevalence of obesity in healthy Korean adults has increased rapidly during the last 10 years. However, there are few large scale data collections available about the current weight status of Korean HD patients. The weight statuses of 10,304 HD patients (data from the Insan Memorial Dialysis Registry 2002, Korean Society of Nephrology) were compared to those of 12,436 control subjects (age > 18) by using body mass index (BMI). Weight status was assessed by WHO classification for Asian-Pacific region [underweight (UW): < 18.5; normal weight (NW): 18.5-22.9; overweight (OW): 23-24.9; obese (OB): 25-29.9; and extremely obese (EOB): > 30 kg/m2] in both the control and HD patients. HD patients had significantly lower body weight and BMI than the controls in all age groups and in both sexes. For the male controls, the proportions of OW and OB showed a reversed U-shape, peaking at the 5th and 6th decades. of the numbers of those classified as NW and UW were relatively small. For the female controls, the proportions of OW and OB progressively increased with age. On the contrary, in HD patients, the proportions of NW and UW were large, up to more than 70%, and those of OW and OB were small in both sexes. In each age group, UW was seen significantly more in the HD group than in the control group. The 6th decade age group showed the highest prevalence ratio for UW in the HD group for both sexes, compared to the controls (Male: 17.33, Female: 17.68). The percentages of UW were related to HD duration and age in both sexes. In conclusion, Korean HD patients seem to have small proportions of OW and OB, compared to the general population, and protein-calorie malnutrition may still be an important nutritional condition. PMID:16259064

  6. Intertemporal choice behavior is constrained by brain structure in healthy participants and pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Bahram; Hammer, Anke; Miedl, Stephan F; Wiswede, Daniel; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Herrmann, Manfred; Münte, Thomas F

    2016-07-01

    The steepness of the delay discounting function shows considerable interindividual differences. Moreover, faster devaluation of future rewards has been consistently observed in pathological gamblers (PGs). Here, we asked whether variability in delay discounting is at least partially driven by differences in the anatomy of gray and white matter. For 40 healthy young subjects (study 1) as well as 15 PG and 15 age-matched healthy controls (HCs, study 2), the individual discounting parameter k was obtained. Based on 3D T1-weighted high-resolution magnetic resonance scans and diffusion tensor imaging, we performed voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics, respectively, to examine the relation of gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter properties (as indicated by fractional anisotropy, FA) to k. Healthy groups from both studies showed a negative correlation between k and FA for the superior longitudinal fascicle and inferior longitudinal fascicle, whereas a positive correlation was found in the PG group for the inferior longitudinal fascicle and left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle. The latter also was significantly different between HC and PG in the group statistics (albeit on the right side), thus suggesting that this is a significant structure for the development of pathological gambling. GMV of the right frontal orbital cortex, left insular cortex and right lateral occipital cortex showed a positive correlation to k HC (studies 1 and 2) and PG, whereas a negative correlation was found for the left frontal pole in all three groups. Group comparison of GMV (study 2) revealed a decrease in PG for several cortical and subcortical areas. PMID:26239549

  7. BDNF and COX-2 participate in anti-depressive mechanisms of catalpol in rats undergoing chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Ming; Yang, Lian-He; Zhang, Yue-Yue; Niu, Chun-Ling; Cui, Ying; Feng, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Gui-Fang

    2015-11-01

    Catalpol, a major compound in Rehmannia glutinosa with both medicinal and nutritional values, has been previously confirmed to shorten the duration of immobility in mice exposed to tail suspension and forced swimming tests. This study attempted to examine the anti-depressive mechanisms of catalpol in rats undergoing chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) by involving brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). CUMS-exposed rats were given catalpol daily (5, 10, and 20mg/kg, ig) or a reference drug, fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH, 10mg/kg, ig), at 5 weeks after starting the CUMS procedure. Sucrose preference test was performed to observe depression-like behavior, and serum and brain tissues were used for neurochemical and fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis. CUMS induced depression-like behavior, whereas catalpol and FH administration attenuated this symptom. Moreover, CUMS caused excessively elevated levels of serum corticosterone, an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivation, in a manner attenuated by catalpol and FH administration. Catalpol administration also further decreased BDNF activities, downregulated the mRNA expression of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), and reversed the excessive elevation in the activities and mRNA expression levels of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats undergoing CUMS. Results indicate that catalpol can ameliorate CUMS-induced depression-like behavior, and suggest its mechanisms may partially be ascribed to restoring HPA axis dysfunctions, upregulating BDNF expression and its cognate receptor TrkB, and downregulating COX-2 expression, thereby reducing PGE2 levels in the brain. PMID:26255123

  8. Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Du Toit, Nola Cora

    2010-01-01

    Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women--the notion…

  9. Prediction of "fear" acquisition in healthy control participants in a de novo fear-conditioning paradigm.

    PubMed

    Otto, Michael W; Leyro, Teresa M; Christian, Kelly; Deveney, Christen M; Reese, Hannah; Pollack, Mark H; Orr, Scott P

    2007-01-01

    Studies using fear-conditioning paradigms have found that anxiety patients are more conditionable than individuals without these disorders, but these effects have been demonstrated inconsistently. It is unclear whether these findings have etiological significance or whether enhanced conditionability is linked only to certain anxiety characteristics. To further examine these issues, the authors assessed the predictive significance of relevant subsyndromal characteristics in 72 healthy adults, including measures of worry, avoidance, anxious mood, depressed mood, and fears of anxiety symptoms (anxiety sensitivity), as well as the dimensions of Neuroticism and Extraversion. Of these variables, the authors found that the combination of higher levels of subsyndromal worry and lower levels of behavioral avoidance predicted heightened conditionability, raising questions about the etiological significance of these variables in the acquisition or maintenance of anxiety disorders. In contrast, the authors found that anxiety sensitivity was more linked to individual differences in orienting response than differences in conditioning per se. PMID:17179530

  10. Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Toit, Nola Cora Du

    2012-01-01

    Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women—the notion that certain limitations may make women poor marriage partners. Like their male counterparts, we find women also possess qualities that are not considered assets in the marriage market, such as economic constraints, mental and physical health issues, substance use, multiple partner fertility, and gender distrust. We also consider how women participating in a marriage program frame their marriage options, whereas a few opt out of the marriage market altogether. PMID:23258947

  11. The Right Supramarginal Gyrus Is Important for Proprioception in Healthy and Stroke-Affected Participants: A Functional MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shabat, Ettie; Matyas, Thomas A.; Pell, Gaby S.; Brodtmann, Amy; Carey, Leeanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Human proprioception is essential for motor control, yet its central processing is still debated. Previous studies of passive movements and illusory vibration have reported inconsistent activation patterns related to proprioception, particularly in high-order sensorimotor cortices. We investigated brain activation specific to proprioception, its laterality, and changes following stroke. Twelve healthy and three stroke-affected individuals with proprioceptive deficits participated. Proprioception was assessed clinically with the Wrist Position Sense Test, and participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. An event-related study design was used, where each proprioceptive stimulus of passive wrist movement was followed by a motor response of mirror ­copying with the other wrist. Left (LWP) and right (RWP) wrist proprioception were tested separately. Laterality indices (LIs) were calculated for the main cortical regions activated during proprioception. We found proprioception-related brain activation in high-order sensorimotor cortices in healthy participants especially in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG LWP z = 4.51, RWP z = 4.24) and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd LWP z = 4.10, RWP z = 3.93). Right hemispheric dominance was observed in the SMG (LI LWP mean 0.41, SD 0.22; RWP 0.29, SD 0.20), and to a lesser degree in the PMd (LI LWP 0.34, SD 0.17; RWP 0.13, SD 0.25). In stroke-affected participants, the main difference in proprioception-related brain activation was reduced laterality in the right SMG. Our findings indicate that the SMG and PMd play a key role in proprioception probably due to their role in spatial processing and motor control, respectively. The findings from stroke-­affected individuals suggest that decreased right SMG function may be associated with decreased proprioception. We recommend that clinicians pay particular attention to the assessment and rehabilitation of proprioception following right hemispheric

  12. The Right Supramarginal Gyrus Is Important for Proprioception in Healthy and Stroke-Affected Participants: A Functional MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shabat, Ettie; Matyas, Thomas A; Pell, Gaby S; Brodtmann, Amy; Carey, Leeanne M

    2015-01-01

    Human proprioception is essential for motor control, yet its central processing is still debated. Previous studies of passive movements and illusory vibration have reported inconsistent activation patterns related to proprioception, particularly in high-order sensorimotor cortices. We investigated brain activation specific to proprioception, its laterality, and changes following stroke. Twelve healthy and three stroke-affected individuals with proprioceptive deficits participated. Proprioception was assessed clinically with the Wrist Position Sense Test, and participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. An event-related study design was used, where each proprioceptive stimulus of passive wrist movement was followed by a motor response of mirror -copying with the other wrist. Left (LWP) and right (RWP) wrist proprioception were tested separately. Laterality indices (LIs) were calculated for the main cortical regions activated during proprioception. We found proprioception-related brain activation in high-order sensorimotor cortices in healthy participants especially in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG LWP z = 4.51, RWP z = 4.24) and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd LWP z = 4.10, RWP z = 3.93). Right hemispheric dominance was observed in the SMG (LI LWP mean 0.41, SD 0.22; RWP 0.29, SD 0.20), and to a lesser degree in the PMd (LI LWP 0.34, SD 0.17; RWP 0.13, SD 0.25). In stroke-affected participants, the main difference in proprioception-related brain activation was reduced laterality in the right SMG. Our findings indicate that the SMG and PMd play a key role in proprioception probably due to their role in spatial processing and motor control, respectively. The findings from stroke--affected individuals suggest that decreased right SMG function may be associated with decreased proprioception. We recommend that clinicians pay particular attention to the assessment and rehabilitation of proprioception following right hemispheric

  13. EEG-neurofeedback for optimising performance. I: a review of cognitive and affective outcome in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John H

    2014-07-01

    A re-emergence of research on EEG-neurofeedback followed controlled evidence of clinical benefits and validation of cognitive/affective gains in healthy participants including correlations in support of feedback learning mediating outcome. Controlled studies with healthy and elderly participants, which have increased exponentially, are reviewed including protocols from the clinic: sensory-motor rhythm, beta1 and alpha/theta ratios, down-training theta maxima, and from neuroscience: upper-alpha, theta, gamma, alpha desynchronisation. Outcome gains include sustained attention, orienting and executive attention, the P300b, memory, spatial rotation, RT, complex psychomotor skills, implicit procedural memory, recognition memory, perceptual binding, intelligence, mood and well-being. Twenty-three of the controlled studies report neurofeedback learning indices along with beneficial outcomes, of which eight report correlations in support of a meditation link, results which will be supplemented by further creativity and the performing arts evidence in Part II. Validity evidence from optimal performance studies represents an advance for the neurofeedback field demonstrating that cross fertilisation between clinical and optimal performance domains will be fruitful. Theoretical and methodological issues are outlined further in Part III. PMID:24125857

  14. Effect of CYP3A perpetrators on ibrutinib exposure in healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Jan; Skee, Donna; Murphy, Joe; Sukbuntherng, Juthamas; Hellemans, Peter; Smit, Johan; de Vries, Ronald; Jiao, Juhui James; Snoeys, Jan; Mannaert, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a potent covalent inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, has shown efficacy against a variety of B-cell malignancies. Given the prominent role of CYP3A in ibrutinib metabolism, effect of coadministration of CYP3A perpetrators with ibrutinib was evaluated in healthy adults. Ibrutinib (120 mg [Study 1, fasted], 560 mg [studies 2 (fasted), and 3 (nonfasted)]) was given alone and with ketoconazole [Study 1; 400 mg q.d.], rifampin [Study 2; 600 mg q.d.], and grapefruit juice [GFJ, Study 3]. Lower doses of ibrutinib were used together with CYP3A inhibitors [Study 1: 40 mg; Study 3: 140 mg], as safety precaution. Under fasted condition, ketoconazole increased ibrutinib dose-normalized (DN) exposure [DN-AUClast: 24-fold; DN-Cmax: 29-fold], rifampin decreased ibrutinib exposure [Cmax: 13-fold; AUClast: 10-fold]. Under nonfasted condition, GFJ caused a moderate increase [DN-Cmax: 3.5-fold; DN-AUC: 2.2-fold], most likely through inhibition of intestinal CYP3A. Half-life was not affected by CYP perpetrators indicating the interaction was mainly on first-pass extraction. All treatments were well-tolerated. PMID:26171235

  15. Effects of Ketoconazole on the Pharmacokinetics of Lenvatinib (E7080) in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Shumaker, Robert; Aluri, Jagadeesh; Fan, Jean; Martinez, Gresel; Thompson, Gary A; Ren, Min

    2015-01-01

    Background Lenvatinib is an oral, multitargeted, tyrosine kinase inhibitor under clinical investigation in solid tumors. In vitro evidence indicates that lenvatinib metabolism may be modulated by ketoconazole, an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and p-glycoprotein. Methods In this Phase I, single-center, randomized, open-label, two-period, crossover study, healthy adults (18–55 years; N = 18) were randomized to one of two sequences (ketoconazole → placebo or vice versa). Ketoconazole (400 mg) or placebo was administered orally once daily for 18 days; a 5 mg dose of lenvatinib was orally administered on Day 5 of each treatment period. Blood samples were collected over 14 days and lenvatinib plasma concentrations measured by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results Systemic exposure to lenvatinib increased slightly (15–19%) with coadministration of ketoconazole. Although the 90% confidence interval (CI) for area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) was within the prespecified bioequivalence interval of 80–125%, Cmax slightly exceeded the 125% CI bound (134%). No changes in tmax, tlag, or t½ were observed. Thirteen subjects (72%) experienced treatment-emergent adverse events (11 mild, 2 moderate), most commonly headache (22%) and diarrhea (17%). Conclusions Lenvatinib exposure was slightly increased by ketoconazole; however, the magnitude of the change was relatively small, and likely not clinically meaningful. PMID:26097795

  16. Predictors of Seizure Outcomes in Children with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex and Intractable Epilepsy Undergoing Resective Epilepsy Surgery: An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Aria; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Snead, O. Carter; Ebrahim, Shanil; Ibrahim, George M.; Mansouri, Alireza; Reddy, Deven; Walter, Stephen D.; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Bhandari, Mohit; Banfield, Laura; Bhatnagar, Neera; Liang, Shuli; Teutonico, Federica; Liao, Jianxiang; Rutka, James T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis to identify preoperative factors associated with a good seizure outcome in children with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex undergoing resective epilepsy surgery. Data Sources Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Web of Science), archives of major epilepsy and neurosurgery meetings, and bibliographies of relevant articles, with no language or date restrictions. Study Selection We included case-control or cohort studies of consecutive participants undergoing resective epilepsy surgery that reported seizure outcomes. We performed title and abstract and full text screening independently and in duplicate. We resolved disagreements through discussion. Data Extraction One author performed data extraction which was verified by a second author using predefined data fields including study quality assessment using a risk of bias instrument we developed. We recorded all preoperative factors that may plausibly predict seizure outcomes. Data Synthesis To identify predictors of a good seizure outcome (i.e. Engel Class I or II) we used logistic regression adjusting for length of follow-up for each preoperative variable. Results Of 9863 citations, 20 articles reporting on 181 participants were eligible. Good seizure outcomes were observed in 126 (69%) participants (Engel Class I: 102(56%); Engel class II: 24(13%)). In univariable analyses, absence of generalized seizure semiology (OR = 3.1, 95%CI = 1.2–8.2, p = 0.022), no or mild developmental delay (OR = 7.3, 95%CI = 2.1–24.7, p = 0.001), unifocal ictal scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormality (OR = 3.2, 95%CI = 1.4–7.6, p = 0.008) and EEG/Magnetic resonance imaging concordance (OR = 4.9, 95%CI = 1.8–13.5, p = 0.002) were associated with a good postoperative seizure outcome. Conclusions Small retrospective cohort studies are inherently prone to bias, some of which are overcome

  17. Towards Using Microstate-Neurofeedback for the Treatment of Psychotic Symptoms in Schizophrenia. A Feasibility Study in Healthy Participants.

    PubMed

    Diaz Hernandez, Laura; Rieger, Kathryn; Baenninger, Anja; Brandeis, Daniel; Koenig, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Spontaneous EEG signal can be parsed into sub-second periods of stable functional states (microstates) that assumingly correspond to brief large scale synchronization events. In schizophrenia, a specific class of microstate (class "D") has been found to be shorter than in healthy controls and to be correlated with positive symptoms. To explore potential new treatment options in schizophrenia, we tested in healthy controls if neurofeedback training to self-regulate microstate D presence is feasible and what learning patterns are observed. Twenty subjects underwent EEG-neurofeedback training to up-regulate microstate D presence. The protocol included 20 training sessions, consisting of baseline trials (resting state), regulation trials with auditory feedback contingent on microstate D presence, and a transfer trial. Response to neurofeedback was assessed with mixed effects modelling. All participants increased the percentage of time spent producing microstate D in at least one of the three conditions (p < 0.05). Significant between-subjects across-sessions results showed an increase of 0.42 % of time spent producing microstate D in baseline (reflecting a sustained change in the resting state), 1.93 % of increase during regulation and 1.83 % during transfer. Within-session analysis (performed in baseline and regulation trials only) showed a significant 1.65 % increase in baseline and 0.53 % increase in regulation. These values are in a range that is expected to have an impact upon psychotic experiences. Additionally, we found a negative correlation between alpha power and microstate D contribution during neurofeedback training. Given that microstate D has been related to attentional processes, this result provides further evidence that the training was to some degree specific for the attentional network. We conclude that microstate-neurofeedback training proved feasible in healthy subjects. The implementation of the same protocol in schizophrenia patients may promote

  18. From neural signatures of emotional modulation to social cognition: individual differences in healthy volunteers and psychiatric participants

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Jaume; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Ortega, Rodrigo; Sigman, Mariano; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torrente, Fernando; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Torralva, Teresa; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Manes, Facundo

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that early emotional signals provide relevant information for social cognition tasks. The goal of this study was to test the association between (a) cortical markers of face emotional processing and (b) social-cognitive measures, and also to build a model which can predict this association (a and b) in healthy volunteers as well as in different groups of psychiatric patients. Thus, we investigated the early cortical processing of emotional stimuli (N170, using a face and word valence task) and their relationship with the social-cognitive profiles (SCPs, indexed by measures of theory of mind, fluid intelligence, speed processing and executive functions). Group comparisons and individual differences were assessed among schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and their relatives, individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), individuals with euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy participants (educational level, handedness, age and gender matched). Our results provide evidence of emotional N170 impairments in the affected groups (SCZ and relatives, ADHD and BD) as well as subtle group differences. Importantly, cortical processing of emotional stimuli predicted the SCP, as evidenced by a structural equation model analysis. This is the first study to report an association model of brain markers of emotional processing and SCP. PMID:23685775

  19. From neural signatures of emotional modulation to social cognition: individual differences in healthy volunteers and psychiatric participants.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Aguado, Jaume; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Ortega, Rodrigo; Sigman, Mariano; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torrente, Fernando; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Torralva, Teresa; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Manes, Facundo

    2014-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that early emotional signals provide relevant information for social cognition tasks. The goal of this study was to test the association between (a) cortical markers of face emotional processing and (b) social-cognitive measures, and also to build a model which can predict this association (a and b) in healthy volunteers as well as in different groups of psychiatric patients. Thus, we investigated the early cortical processing of emotional stimuli (N170, using a face and word valence task) and their relationship with the social-cognitive profiles (SCPs, indexed by measures of theory of mind, fluid intelligence, speed processing and executive functions). Group comparisons and individual differences were assessed among schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and their relatives, individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), individuals with euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy participants (educational level, handedness, age and gender matched). Our results provide evidence of emotional N170 impairments in the affected groups (SCZ and relatives, ADHD and BD) as well as subtle group differences. Importantly, cortical processing of emotional stimuli predicted the SCP, as evidenced by a structural equation model analysis. This is the first study to report an association model of brain markers of emotional processing and SCP. PMID:23685775

  20. Comparison of joint mechanics of both lower limbs of THA patients with healthy participants during stair ascent and descent.

    PubMed

    Lamontagne, Mario; Beaulieu, Mélanie L; Beaulé, Paul E

    2011-03-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common surgical procedure for patients suffering from osteoarthritis to relieve their pain and to attempt to restore their normal locomotion patterns. Although this procedure does not restore normal mobility during activities of daily living, it remains unclear how it affects the joint mechanics of both lower limbs during stair negotiation tasks. Hence, we compared the 3D joint mechanics of both lower limbs of THA patients with matched healthy controls during stair ascent and stair descent. 3D kinematics and kinetics of both lower limbs were recorded for 20 patients having undergone unilateral THA and 20 healthy, age and body mass index matched control participants. The THA patients generated limited power at the operated hip joint, and thus compensated with larger power generation at the contralateral ankle to lift the body weight to the next step. This stair ambulation strategy, as well as others, adopted by the THA patients implied decreased activation of the lower limb musculature, which may be indicative of a muscle strength deficiency or a post-operatively adopted protective mechanism to unload the prosthesis. These asymmetric power production patterns should be addressed in rehabilitation programs pre- and post-operatively. PMID:20886649

  1. The Effect of Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on Item and Associative Recognition of Words and Pictures in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Guez, Jonathan; Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Keha, Eldad; Tiferet-Dweck, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress, induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), has repeatedly been shown to alter memory performance. Although factors influencing memory performance such as stimulus nature (verbal/pictorial) and emotional valence have been extensively studied, results whether stress impairs or improves memory are still inconsistent. This study aimed at exploring the effect of TSST on item versus associative memory for neutral, verbal, and pictorial stimuli. 48 healthy subjects were recruited, 24 participants were randomly assigned to the TSST group and the remaining 24 participants were assigned to the control group. Stress reactivity was measured by psychological (subjective state anxiety ratings) and physiological (Galvanic skin response recording) measurements. Subjects performed an item-association memory task for both stimulus types (words, pictures) simultaneously, before, and after the stress/non-stress manipulation. The results showed that memory recognition for pictorial stimuli was higher than for verbal stimuli. Memory for both words and pictures was impaired following TSST; while the source for this impairment was specific to associative recognition in pictures, a more general deficit was observed for verbal material, as expressed in decreased recognition for both items and associations following TSST. Response latency analysis indicated that the TSST manipulation decreased response time but at the cost of memory accuracy. We conclude that stress does not uniformly affect memory; rather it interacts with the task’s cognitive load and stimulus type. Applying the current study results to patients diagnosed with disorders associated with traumatic stress, our findings in healthy subjects under acute stress provide further support for our assertion that patients’ impaired memory originates in poor recollection processing following depletion of attentional resources. PMID:27148117

  2. The Effect of Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on Item and Associative Recognition of Words and Pictures in Healthy Participants.

    PubMed

    Guez, Jonathan; Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Keha, Eldad; Tiferet-Dweck, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress, induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), has repeatedly been shown to alter memory performance. Although factors influencing memory performance such as stimulus nature (verbal/pictorial) and emotional valence have been extensively studied, results whether stress impairs or improves memory are still inconsistent. This study aimed at exploring the effect of TSST on item versus associative memory for neutral, verbal, and pictorial stimuli. 48 healthy subjects were recruited, 24 participants were randomly assigned to the TSST group and the remaining 24 participants were assigned to the control group. Stress reactivity was measured by psychological (subjective state anxiety ratings) and physiological (Galvanic skin response recording) measurements. Subjects performed an item-association memory task for both stimulus types (words, pictures) simultaneously, before, and after the stress/non-stress manipulation. The results showed that memory recognition for pictorial stimuli was higher than for verbal stimuli. Memory for both words and pictures was impaired following TSST; while the source for this impairment was specific to associative recognition in pictures, a more general deficit was observed for verbal material, as expressed in decreased recognition for both items and associations following TSST. Response latency analysis indicated that the TSST manipulation decreased response time but at the cost of memory accuracy. We conclude that stress does not uniformly affect memory; rather it interacts with the task's cognitive load and stimulus type. Applying the current study results to patients diagnosed with disorders associated with traumatic stress, our findings in healthy subjects under acute stress provide further support for our assertion that patients' impaired memory originates in poor recollection processing following depletion of attentional resources. PMID:27148117

  3. Semantic memory is key to binding phonology: Converging evidence from immediate serial recall in semantic dementia and healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ehsan, Sheeba; Jones, Roy W.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia (SD) make numerous phoneme migration errors when recalling lists of words they no longer fully understand, suggesting that word meaning makes a critical contribution to phoneme binding in verbal short-term memory. Healthy individuals make errors that appear similar when recalling lists of nonwords, which also lack semantic support. Although previous studies have assumed that the errors in these two groups stem from the same underlying cause, they have never been directly compared. We tackled this issue by examining immediate serial recall for SD patients and controls on “pure” word lists and “mixed” lists that contained a mixture of words and nonwords. SD patients were equally poor at pure and mixed lists and made numerous phoneme migration errors in both conditions. In contrast, controls recalled pure lists better than mixed lists and only produced phoneme migrations in mixed lists. We also examined the claim that semantic activation is critical for words in the primacy portion of the list. In fact, the effect of mixed lists was greatest for later serial positions in the control group and in the SD group recall was poorest towards the ends of lists. These results suggest that mixing nonwords with words in healthy participants closely mimics the impact of semantic degradation in SD on word list recall. The study provides converging evidence for the idea that lexical/semantic knowledge is an important source of constraint on phonological coherence, ensuring that phonemes in familiar words are bound to each other and emerge together in recall. PMID:19114052

  4. A School Based Intervention for Combating Food Insecurity and Promoting Healthy Nutrition in a Developed Country Undergoing Economic Crisis: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalma, A.; Veloudaki, A.; Petralias, A.; Mitraka, K.; Zota, D.; Kastorini, C.-M.; Yannakoulia, M.; Linos, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aiming at reducing the rates of food insecurity and promoting healthy diet for children and adolescents, we designed and implemented the Program on Food Aid and Promotion of Healthy Nutrition-DIATROFI, a school-based intervention program including the daily provision of a free healthy mid-day meal in disadvantaged areas across…

  5. Interoception in insula subregions as a possible state marker for depression—an exploratory fMRI study investigating healthy, depressed and remitted participants

    PubMed Central

    Wiebking, Christine; de Greck, Moritz; Duncan, Niall W.; Tempelmann, Claus; Bajbouj, Malek; Northoff, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interoceptive awareness (iA), the awareness of stimuli originating inside the body, plays an important role in human emotions and psychopathology. The insula is particularly involved in neural processes underlying iA. However, iA-related neural activity in the insula during the acute state of major depressive disorder (MDD) and in remission from depression has not been explored. Methods: A well-established fMRI paradigm for studying (iA; heartbeat counting) and exteroceptive awareness (eA; tone counting) was used. Study participants formed three independent groups: patients suffering from MDD, patients in remission from MDD or healthy controls. Task-induced neural activity in three functional subdivisions of the insula was compared between these groups. Results: Depressed participants showed neural hypo-responses during iA in anterior insula regions, as compared to both healthy and remitted participants. The right dorsal anterior insula showed the strongest response to iA across all participant groups. In depressed participants there was no differentiation between different stimuli types in this region (i.e., between iA, eA and noTask). Healthy and remitted participants in contrast showed clear activity differences. Conclusions: This is the first study comparing iA and eA-related activity in the insula in depressed participants to that in healthy and remitted individuals. The preliminary results suggest that these groups differ in there being hypo-responses across insula regions in the depressed participants, whilst non-psychiatric participants and patients in remission from MDD show the same neural activity during iA in insula subregions implying a possible state marker for MDD. The lack of activity differences between different stimulus types in the depressed group may account for their symptoms of altered external and internal focus. PMID:25914633

  6. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    McNeely, M E; Duncan, R P; Earhart, G M

    2015-12-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations. PMID:26318265

  7. Objective and subjective components of the first-night effect in young nightmare sufferers and healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Kis, Anna; Szakadát, Sára; Simor, Péter; Gombos, Ferenc; Horváth, Klára; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-01-01

    The first-night effect--marked differences between the first- and the second-night sleep spent in a laboratory--is a widely known phenomenon that accounts for the common practice of excluding the first-night sleep from any polysomnographic analysis. The extent to which the first-night effect is present in a participant, as well as its duration (1 or more nights), might have diagnostic value and should account for different protocols used for distinct patient groups. This study investigated the first-night effect on nightmare sufferers (NM; N = 12) and healthy controls (N = 15) using both objective (2-night-long polysomnography) and subjective (Groningen Sleep Quality Scale for the 2 nights spent in the laboratory and 1 regular night spent at home) methods. Differences were found in both the objective (sleep efficiency, wakefulness after sleep onset, sleep latency, Stage-1 duration, Stage-2 duration, slow-wave sleep duration, and REM duration) and subjective (self-rating) variables between the 2 nights and the 2 groups, with a more pronounced first-night effect in the case of the NM group. Furthermore, subjective sleep quality was strongly related to polysomnographic variables and did not differ among 1 regular night spent at home and the second night spent in the laboratory. The importance of these results is discussed from a diagnostic point of view. PMID:24294972

  8. Characteristics of Participants in Australia's Get Healthy Telephone-Based Lifestyle Information and Coaching Service: Reaching Disadvantaged Communities and Those Most at Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Blythe J.; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Venugopal, Kamalesh; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2011-01-01

    To address increasing rates of overweight and obesity, a population-based telephone intervention was introduced in New South Wales, Australia. The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service[R] (GHS) offered participants a 6-month coaching program or detailed self-help information. Determining the population reach of GHS is of public health…

  9. Analysis of the Chaotic Characteristics of Human Colonic Activities and Comparison of Healthy Participants to Costive Subjects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Constipation is a common yet distressing disease that has high rates of morbidity and impacts patients' quality of life. However, there is no perfect method to distinguish costive patients from healthy subjects. Is there chaos in human colonic activities? Are there any differences for the chaos indicators of colonic activities between healthy and costive subjects? Can these indicators distinguish patients with constipation from healthy subjects? To answer these questions, colonic pressure data from 16 healthy subjects and 48 patients with constipation were analyzed using the chaos theory. Three chaotic indicators [i.e., the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE), correlation dimension (CorDim), and Kolmogorov entropy (KoEn)] were calculated and compared between groups with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. As a result, the LyE was greater than zero and the CorDim was fractioned, which showed that human colonic activities have clear chaotic characteristics. Statistically significant differences were observed between groups for CorDim (p < 0.05), whereas LyE did not show statistically significant differences between groups. The chaotic indicator of CorDim was able to differentiate between patients with constipation and healthy subjects. The chaos theory provides a new method for learning the nonlinear dynamics of human gastrointestinal activities. PMID:25420272

  10. Semantic Memory Is Key to Binding Phonology: Converging Evidence from Immediate Serial Recall in Semantic Dementia and Healthy Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ehsan, Sheeba; Jones, Roy W.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia (SD) make numerous phoneme migration errors when recalling lists of words they no longer fully understand, suggesting that word meaning makes a critical contribution to phoneme binding in verbal short-term memory. Healthy individuals make errors that appear similar when recalling lists of nonwords, which also lack…

  11. Tools for Prevention: Building Healthy Youths. A Training Program for: School Counselors, School Nurses, School Psychologists. Participant Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Maxie P.; Collins, Charles B., Jr.

    This training program participants' manual is designed to assist K-12 school counselors, nurses, and psychologists in offering aid to youths at risk for substance abuse. The training objectives for participants in the workshop are to be able to demonstrate: (1) competence in knowledge of basic substance abuse information to include age-appropriate…

  12. Characteristics of participants in Australia's Get Healthy telephone-based lifestyle information and coaching service: reaching disadvantaged communities and those most at need.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Venugopal, Kamalesh; Bauman, Adrian E

    2011-12-01

    To address increasing rates of overweight and obesity, a population-based telephone intervention was introduced in New South Wales, Australia. The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service® (GHS) offered participants a 6-month coaching program or detailed self-help information. Determining the population reach of GHS is of public health importance to ensure that the program reaches disadvantaged groups. This paper describes the socio-demographic and risk profile of participants (n = 4828) in the first 18 months of operations, determines how representative they are of the population, assesses changes in participants' socio-demographic profile and compares 'information-only' and 'coaching' participants. The results show that GHS users are representative of the adult population in relation to education, employment status, Aboriginal status, fruit and vegetable consumption and alcohol use. However, more female, middle-aged, English-speaking, rural and socially disadvantaged adults participated in GHS. Coaching Participants were more likely to be overweight and to be ex-smokers than the general population. There was substantial variability in GHS recruitment, when mass-reach television advertising was used, participants enrolled from a major city and from more disadvantaged communities. The GHS has broader population reach than many local interventions, but further efforts are needed to increase reach by Aboriginal communities, other minorities and men. PMID:21987479

  13. Lack of Healthy Food in Small-Size to Mid-Size Retailers Participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Minneapolis–St. Paul, Minnesota, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Caitlin E.; Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Friebur, Robin; Harnack, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The US Department of Agriculture has stocking criteria for healthy foods among Supplemental Nutrition Assistant Program (SNAP)-authorized retailers. Increased access to healthy food could improve diet quality among SNAP participants, which has implications for chronic disease prevention. The objective of this study was to quantify healthy foods stocked in small-size to mid-size retailers who are authorized under SNAP but not under the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Methods We used formative, cross-sectional data from a large policy evaluation to conduct secondary analyses. Store audits were conducted in 2014 in 91 randomly selected, licensed food stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Supermarkets and retailers participating in WIC, which are required to stock healthy foods, were excluded as were other stores not reasonably expected to stock staple foods, such as specialty stores or produce stands. Availability of milk, fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain–rich foods was assessed. Results The 91 stores studied were corner stores, food–gas marts, dollar stores, and pharmacies. More than half carried 1 or more varieties of fat-free or low-fat milk, fresh or canned fruit, and whole-grain–rich cereal. However, only one-third stocked 1 or more varieties of fresh vegetables and only one-quarter stocked whole-grain–rich products, such as whole-grain-rich bread (26%) or tortillas (21%) or brown rice (25%). Few stores stocked at least 2 varieties of each product. Conclusions Many stores did not stock a variety of healthy foods. The US Department of Agriculture should change policies to improve minimum stocking requirements for SNAP-authorized retailers. PMID:26312380

  14. Improving Heart Healthy Lifestyles Among Participants in a Salud Para Su Corazón Promotores Model: The Mexican Pilot Study, 2009–2012

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Gaxiola, Ana Cecilia; Pérez-Lizaur, Ana Bertha; Peyron, Rosa Adriana; Ayala, Carma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In Mexico, cardiovascular disease and its risk factors are growing problems and major public health concerns. The objective of this study was to implement cardiovascular health promotion and disease prevention activities of the Salud para su Corazón model in a high-risk, impoverished, urban community in Mexico City. Methods We used a pretest–posttest (baseline to 12-week follow-up) design without a control group. Material from Salud para su Corazón was validated and delivered by promotores (community health workers) to community members from 6 geographic areas. Two validated, self-administered questionnaires that assessed participants’ knowledge and behaviors relating to heart health were administered. We used t tests and χ2 tests to evaluate pretest and posttest differences, by age group (≤60 and >60 years), for participants’ 3 heart-healthy habits, 3 types of physical activity, performance skills, and anthropometric and clinical measurements. Results A total of 452 (82%) adult participants completed the program. Heart-healthy habits from pretest to posttest varied by age group. “Taking action” to modify lifestyle behaviors increased among adults aged 60 or younger from 31.5% to 63.0% (P < .001) and among adults older than 60 from 30.0% to 45.0% (P < .001). Positive responses for cholesterol and fat consumption reduction were seen among participants 60 or younger (P = .03). Among those older than 60, salt reduction and weight control increased (P = .008). Mean blood glucose concentration among adults older than 60 decreased postintervention (P = .03). Conclusion Significant improvements in some heart-healthy habits were seen among adult participants. The model has potential to improve heart-healthy habits and facilitate behavioral change among high-risk adults. PMID:25764140

  15. Influence of Physical Activity Participation on the Associations between Eating Behaviour Traits and Body Mass Index in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Riou, Marie-Ève; Doucet, Éric; Provencher, Véronique; Weisnagel, S. John; Piché, Marie-Ève; Dubé, Marie-Christine; Bergeron, Jean; Lemieux, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Available data reveals inconsistent relationships between eating behaviour traits and markers of adiposity level. It is thus relevant to investigate whether other factors also need to be considered when interpreting the relationship between eating behaviour traits and adiposity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was thus to examine whether the associations between variables of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and adiposity are influenced by the level of physical activity participation. Information from the TFEQ and physical activity was obtained from 113 postmenopausal women (56.7 ± 4.2 years; 28.5 ± 5.9 kg/m2). BMI was compared between four groups formed on the basis of the physical activity participation and eating behaviour traits medians. In groups of women with higher physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women who presented higher dietary restraint when compared to women who had lower dietary restraint (25.5 ± 0.5 versus 30.3 ± 1.7 kg/m2, P < .05). In addition, among women with lower physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women presenting a lower external hunger than in those with a higher external hunger (27.5 ± 0.8 versus 32.4 ± 1.1 kg/m2, P < .001). Our results suggest that physical activity participation should also be taken into account when interpreting the relationship between adiposity and eating behaviour traits. PMID:20871862

  16. Participant Assisted Data Collection Methods in the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-13

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Singer, Brett C.

    2013-08-01

    From November 2011 to March 2013, air quality was measured over 6-day periods in 324 residences across California using a mail-out strategy. All interactions with study participants, from recruitment, to data collection, to communication of results, were conducted with remote communication methods including conventional mail, electronic mail, telephone and text messaging. Potential participants were reached primarily by sharing study information with community groups and organizations that directed interested individuals to complete an online screening survey. Pollutant concentrations were measured with sampling equipment that was mailed to participants' homes with deployment instructions. Residence and household characteristics and activity data were collected via two phone surveys and an activity log. A comparison of responses to survey questions completed online versus over the phone indicated that a substantial fraction of participants (roughly 20%) required a researcher's assistance to respond to basic questions about appliance characteristics. Using the printed instructions and telephone assistance from researchers, roughly 90% of participants successfully deployed and returned sampling materials accurately and on schedule. The mail-out strategy employed in this study was found to be a cost-effective means for collecting residential air quality data.

  17. Protocol for a prospective magnetic resonance imaging study on supraspinal lower urinary tract control in healthy subjects and spinal cord injury patients undergoing intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections for treating neurogenic detrusor overactivity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The control of the lower urinary tract is a complex, multilevel process involving both the peripheral and central nervous system. Due to lesions of the neuraxis, most spinal cord injury patients suffer from neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, which may jeopardise upper urinary tract function and has a negative impact on health-related quality of life. However, the alterations to the nervous system following spinal cord injury causing neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction and potential effects of treatments such as intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections on lower urinary tract control are poorly understood. Methods/Design This is a prospective structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigating the supraspinal lower urinary tract control in healthy subjects and spinal cord injury patients undergoing intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections for treating neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Neuroimaging data will include structural magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging) as well as functional, i.e. blood oxygen level-dependent sensitive magnetic resonance imaging using a 3 T magnetic resonance scanner. The functional magnetic resonance imaging will be performed simultaneously to three different bladder stimulation paradigms using an automated magnetic resonance compatible and synchronised pump system. All subjects will undergo two consecutive and identical magnetic resonance imaging measurements. Healthy subjects will not undergo any intervention between measurements but spinal cord injury patients will receive intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections for treating neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Parameters of the clinical assessment including bladder diary, urinalysis, medical history, neuro-urological examination, urodynamic investigation as well as standardised questionnaires regarding lower urinary tract function and quality of life will serve as co-variates in the magnetic

  18. Can a Novel Web-Based Computer Test Predict Poor Simulated Driving Performance? A Pilot Study With Healthy and Cognitive-Impaired Participants

    PubMed Central

    Nef, Tobias; Bieri, Rahel; Jäger, Michael; Bethencourt, Nora; Tarnanas, Ioannis; Mosimann, Urs P

    2013-01-01

    Background Driving a car is a complex instrumental activity of daily living and driving performance is very sensitive to cognitive impairment. The assessment of driving-relevant cognition in older drivers is challenging and requires reliable and valid tests with good sensitivity and specificity to predict safe driving. Driving simulators can be used to test fitness to drive. Several studies have found strong correlation between driving simulator performance and on-the-road driving. However, access to driving simulators is restricted to specialists and simulators are too expensive, large, and complex to allow easy access to older drivers or physicians advising them. An easily accessible, Web-based, cognitive screening test could offer a solution to this problem. The World Wide Web allows easy dissemination of the test software and implementation of the scoring algorithm on a central server, allowing generation of a dynamically growing database with normative values and ensures that all users have access to the same up-to-date normative values. Objective In this pilot study, we present the novel Web-based Bern Cognitive Screening Test (wBCST) and investigate whether it can predict poor simulated driving performance in healthy and cognitive-impaired participants. Methods The wBCST performance and simulated driving performance have been analyzed in 26 healthy younger and 44 healthy older participants as well as in 10 older participants with cognitive impairment. Correlations between the two tests were calculated. Also, simulated driving performance was used to group the participants into good performers (n=70) and poor performers (n=10). A receiver-operating characteristic analysis was calculated to determine sensitivity and specificity of the wBCST in predicting simulated driving performance. Results The mean wBCST score of the participants with poor simulated driving performance was reduced by 52%, compared to participants with good simulated driving performance (P

  19. Internalized weight stigma moderates eating behavior outcomes in women with high BMI participating in a healthy living program.

    PubMed

    Mensinger, Janell L; Calogero, Rachel M; Tylka, Tracy L

    2016-07-01

    Weight stigma is a significant socio-structural barrier to reducing health disparities and improving quality of life for higher weight individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of internalized weight stigma on eating behaviors after participating in a randomized controlled trial comparing the health benefits of a weight-neutral program to a conventional weight-management program for 80 community women with high body mass index (BMI > 30, age range: 30-45). Programs involved 6 months of facilitator-guided weekly group meetings using structured manuals. Assessments occurred at baseline, post-intervention (6 months), and 24-months post-randomization. Eating behavior outcome measurements included the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Intuitive Eating Scale. Intention-to-treat linear mixed models were used to test for higher-order interactions between internalized weight stigma, group, and time. Findings revealed significant 3-way and 2-way interactions between internalized weight stigma, group, and time for disordered and adaptive eating behaviors, respectively. Only weight-neutral program participants with low internalized weight stigma improved global disordered eating scores. Participants from both programs with low internalized weight stigma improved adaptive eating at 6 months, but only weight-neutral program participants maintained changes at follow-up. Participants with high internalized weight stigma demonstrated no changes in disordered and adaptive eating, regardless of program. In order to enhance the overall benefit from weight-neutral approaches, these findings underscore the need to incorporate more innovative and direct methods to reduce internalized weight stigma for women with high BMI. PMID:26829370

  20. White bread enriched with polyphenol extracts shows no effect on glycemic response or satiety, yet may increase postprandial insulin economy in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Coe, Shelly; Ryan, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Extracts from different plant sources have been shown to modify starch digestion from carbohydrate-rich foods and lower resulting glycemia. It was hypothesized that extracts rich in polyphenols, added to white bread, would improve the glycemic response and insulin response and increase satiety in healthy participants. An in vitro dose-response analysis was performed to determine the optimal dose of a variety of extracts (baobab fruit extract, green tea extract, grape seed extract, and resveratrol) for reducing rapidly digestible starch in white bread. The 2 extracts with the greatest sugar reducing potential were then used for the human study in which 13 volunteers (9 female and 4 male) were recruited for a crossover trial of 3 different meals. On separate days, participants consumed a control white bread, white bread with green tea extract (0.4%), and white bread with baobab fruit extract (1.88%). Glycemic response, insulin response, and satiety were measured 3 hours postprandially. Although enriched breads did not reduce glycemic response or hunger, white bread with added baobab fruit extract significantly (P < .05) reduced the total (0-180 minutes) and segmental insulin area under the curve at 0 to 90, 0 to 120, and 0 to 150 minutes, and therefore reduced the amount of insulin needed for a given blood glucose response. This preliminary research suggests that there is potential for baobab fruit extract added into white bread to improve insulin economy in healthy adults. PMID:26612114

  1. Is Hunting Still Healthy? Understanding the Interrelationships between Indigenous Participation in Land-Based Practices and Human-Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    King, Ursula; Furgal, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically. PMID:24879487

  2. [Cardiovascular function dynamics in healthy Kazakhstan participants of an ecomedical investigation working in extreme conditions (emergency management personnel)].

    PubMed

    Eshmanova, A K; Akanov, A A; Kiyabaev, A M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the investigation was to study group dynamics of seasonal changes in the autonomous nervous and cardiovascular functions in essentially healthy males occupationally dealing with stressful situations (field personnel and firefighters of the Alma Ata Emergency Management Department (Kazakhstan). The investigation was based at the Kazakh National Medical University (Alma Ata) and conducted in conjunction and parallel with the MARS-500 project. Methodology embodied the pre-nosology approach pointed at identification of states in-between the norm and pathology. Results of the year-long investigation demonstrated seasonal variations in the functioning of normal organism that could be associated with occupational factors and "arduous duty", as it follows from the EMD operations summary (autonomous balance shifting toward prevalence of the sympathetic control due to the spring and summer "arduous duties" and the parasympathetic control in the peaceful situation during wintertime). These observations testify to the importance of dynamic health monitoring of normal people occupationally exposed to chronic psycho-emotional strain for pre-nosology diagnosis and timely preventive intervention. PMID:24660241

  3. Significant grey matter changes in a region of the orbitofrontal cortex in healthy participants predicts emotional dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Predrag; Ekman, Carl Johan; Klahr, Johanna; Tigerström, Lars; Rydén, Göran; Johansson, Anette G M; Sellgren, Carl; Golkar, Armita; Olsson, Andreas; Öhman, Arne; Ingvar, Martin; Landén, Mikael

    2016-07-01

    The traditional concept of 'categorical' psychiatric disorders has been challenged as many of the symptoms display a continuous distribution in the general population. We suggest that this is the case for emotional dysregulation, a key component in several categorical psychiatric disorder constructs. We used voxel-based magnetic resonance imaging morphometry in healthy human subjects (n = 87) to study how self-reported subclinical symptoms associated with emotional dysregulation relate to brain regions assumed to be critical for emotion regulation. To measure a pure emotional dysregulation, we also corrected for subclinical symptoms of non-emotional attentional dysregulation. We show that such subclinical emotional symptoms correlate negatively with the grey matter volume of lateral orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally-a region assumed to be critical for emotion regulation and dysfunctional in psychiatric disorders involving emotional dysregulation. Importantly, this effect is mediated both by a decrease in volume associated with emotional dysregulation and an increase in volume due to non-emotional attentional dysregulation. Exploratory analysis suggests that other regions involved in emotional processing such as insula and ventral striatum also show a similar reduction in grey matter volume mirroring clinical disorders associated with emotional dysregulation. Our findings support the concept of continuous properties in psychiatric symptomatology. PMID:26078386

  4. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of figitumumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Yin, Donghua; Sleight, Barbara; Alvey, Christine; Hansson, Arne G; Bello, Akintunde

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the pharmacokinetics (PK) of figitumumab and its effects on insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis-related biomarkers, following a single intravenous dose (10 [n = 16] and 20 [n = 12] mg/kg) in healthy adults. Serial blood sampling for PK and biomarkers was conducted up to 84 days postdose. A dose increase from 10 to 20 mg/kg led to 1.9- and 2.4-fold increases in mean C(max) and AUC∞, respectively. Median disposition half-life was 21.1 and 27.8 days at 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. At 10 and 20 mg/kg, figitumumab increased total IGF-1, free IGF-1, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3, and insulin by 4.1- and 4.8-, 8.3- and 12.1-, 2.4- and 2.9-, and 7.3- and 9.8-fold, respectively; increases were sustained throughout the 84-day period. There was a slight and transient elevation in IGF-2. Mean plasma glucose increased by 18% and 16% at 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. Most treatment-related adverse events were mild in severity; the most common included dry eye (n = 9) and ocular hyperemia (n = 9) in the 20-mg/kg group. No antidrug antibodies were detected. Overall, figitumumab (10 or 20 mg/kg) demonstrated PK properties typical of IgG2 antibodies and produced substantial and sustained increases in IGF-1 (total and free), IGFBP-3, and insulin. PMID:23400740

  5. Healthy doctors, healthy communities.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Donna; Katch, Ellen; Anderson, Patricia; Furlong, Mary A

    2004-01-01

    Promoting health and eliminating disease are goals of Healthy People 2010, a national initiative for all communities. Physician-directed interventions that advance these principles are most effective when directed by clinicians who regularly participate in such healthy behaviors themselves. This pilot study describes an 8-week intervention, "Well-being for You and Your Patients," for first-year medical students to experience health behavior change. In the 2-hour sessions, students set goals for changing health behavior in 6 dimensions of wellness; report their progress; and enjoy a 30-minute change-of-pace wellness activity. The authors recommend adapting the course for medical student alumni to facilitate health behavior change with small groups of adults, school-age children, teens, and elders in churches, schools, community health centers, and other community-based organizations. Through continuing medical education and Grand Rounds, residents and physicians in practice could also be trained to implement specific behavioral change strategies. PMID:15495745

  6. Reliability and criterion validity of two applications of the iPhone™ to measure cervical range of motion in healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary of background data Recent smartphones, such as the iPhone, are often equipped with an accelerometer and magnetometer, which, through software applications, can perform various inclinometric functions. Although these applications are intended for recreational use, they have the potential to measure and quantify range of motion. The purpose of this study was to estimate the intra and inter-rater reliability as well as the criterion validity of the clinometer and compass applications of the iPhone in the assessment cervical range of motion in healthy participants. Methods The sample consisted of 28 healthy participants. Two examiners measured cervical range of motion of each participant twice using the iPhone (for the estimation of intra and inter-reliability) and once with the CROM (for the estimation of criterion validity). Estimates of reliability and validity were then established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results We observed a moderate intra-rater reliability for each movement (ICC = 0.65-0.85) but a poor inter-rater reliability (ICC < 0.60). For the criterion validity, the ICCs are moderate (>0.50) to good (>0.65) for movements of flexion, extension, lateral flexions and right rotation, but poor (<0.50) for the movement left rotation. Conclusion We found good intra-rater reliability and lower inter-rater reliability. When compared to the gold standard, these applications showed moderate to good validity. However, before using the iPhone as an outcome measure in clinical settings, studies should be done on patients presenting with cervical problems. PMID:23829201

  7. Modulation of the N170 with Classical Conditioning: The Use of Emotional Imagery and Acoustic Startle in Healthy and Depressed Participants

    PubMed Central

    Camfield, David A.; Mills, Jessica; Kornfeld, Emma J.; Croft, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that classical conditioning may be capable of modulating early sensory processing in the human brain, and that there may be differences in the magnitude of the conditioned changes for individuals with major depressive disorder. The effect of conditioning on the N170 event-related potential was investigated using neutral faces as conditioned stimuli (CS+) and emotional imagery and acoustic startle as unconditioned stimuli (UCS). In the first experiment, electroencephalogram was recorded from 24 undergraduate students (M = 21.07 years, SD = 3.38 years) under the following conditions: (i) CS+/aversive imagery, (ii) CS+/aversive imagery and acoustic startle, (iii) CS+/acoustic startle, and (iv) CS+/pleasant imagery. The amplitude of the N170 was enhanced following conditioning with aversive imagery as well as acoustic startle. In the second experiment, 26 healthy control participants were tested (17 females and 9 males, age M = 25.97 years, SD = 9.42) together with 18 depressed participants (13 females and 5 males, age M = 23.26 years, SD = 4.01) and three conditions were used: CS+/aversive imagery, CS+/pleasant imagery, and CS-. N170 amplitude at P7 was increased for the CS+/aversive condition in comparison to CS- in the conditioning blocks versus baseline. No differences between depressed and healthy participants were found. Across both experiments, evaluative conditioning was absent. It was concluded that aversive UCS are capable of modulating early sensory processing of faces, although further research is also warranted in regards to positive UCS. PMID:27445773

  8. Modulation of the N170 with Classical Conditioning: The Use of Emotional Imagery and Acoustic Startle in Healthy and Depressed Participants.

    PubMed

    Camfield, David A; Mills, Jessica; Kornfeld, Emma J; Croft, Rodney J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that classical conditioning may be capable of modulating early sensory processing in the human brain, and that there may be differences in the magnitude of the conditioned changes for individuals with major depressive disorder. The effect of conditioning on the N170 event-related potential was investigated using neutral faces as conditioned stimuli (CS+) and emotional imagery and acoustic startle as unconditioned stimuli (UCS). In the first experiment, electroencephalogram was recorded from 24 undergraduate students (M = 21.07 years, SD = 3.38 years) under the following conditions: (i) CS+/aversive imagery, (ii) CS+/aversive imagery and acoustic startle, (iii) CS+/acoustic startle, and (iv) CS+/pleasant imagery. The amplitude of the N170 was enhanced following conditioning with aversive imagery as well as acoustic startle. In the second experiment, 26 healthy control participants were tested (17 females and 9 males, age M = 25.97 years, SD = 9.42) together with 18 depressed participants (13 females and 5 males, age M = 23.26 years, SD = 4.01) and three conditions were used: CS+/aversive imagery, CS+/pleasant imagery, and CS-. N170 amplitude at P7 was increased for the CS+/aversive condition in comparison to CS- in the conditioning blocks versus baseline. No differences between depressed and healthy participants were found. Across both experiments, evaluative conditioning was absent. It was concluded that aversive UCS are capable of modulating early sensory processing of faces, although further research is also warranted in regards to positive UCS. PMID:27445773

  9. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Minority or Poor Clinical Research Participants: Lessons From the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span Study

    PubMed Central

    Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer H.; Mason, Marc A.; Cromwell, Bridget C.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Investigating health disparities requires studies designed to recruit and retain racially and socioeconomically diverse cohorts. It is critical to address the barriers that disproportionately affect participation in clinical research by minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. This study sought to identify and rectify these barriers to recruit and retain a biracial (African American and non-Hispanic White) and socioeconomically diverse cohort for a longitudinal study. Design and Method: The Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study is a 20-year longitudinal examination of how race and socioeconomic status influence the development of age-related health disparities. One goal was to create a multifactorial recruitment and retention strategy. The recruitment paradigm targeted known barriers and identified those unique to the study's urban environment. The retention paradigm mirrored the recruitment plan but was based on specifically developed approaches. Results: This cohort recruitment required attention to developing community partnerships, designing the research study to meet the study hypotheses and to provide benefit to participants, providing a safe community-based site for the research and creating didactics to develop staff cultural proficiency. These efforts facilitated study implementation and enhanced recruitment resulting in accrual of a biracial and socioeconomically diverse cohort of 3,722 participants. Implications: Recruiting and retaining minority or poor research participants is challenging but possible. The essential facets include clear communication of the research hypothesis, focus on providing a direct benefit for participants, and selection of a hypothesis that is directly relevant to the community studied PMID:21565817

  10. Assessment of perception of morphed facial expressions using the Emotion Recognition Task: normative data from healthy participants aged 8-75.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Roy P C; Montagne, Barbara; Hendriks, Angelique W; Perrett, David I; de Haan, Edward H F

    2014-03-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional facial expressions is an important aspect of social cognition. However, existing paradigms to examine this ability present only static facial expressions, suffer from ceiling effects or have limited or no norms. A computerized test, the Emotion Recognition Task (ERT), was developed to overcome these difficulties. In this study, we examined the effects of age, sex, and intellectual ability on emotion perception using the ERT. In this test, emotional facial expressions are presented as morphs gradually expressing one of the six basic emotions from neutral to four levels of intensity (40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). The task was administered in 373 healthy participants aged 8-75. In children aged 8-17, only small developmental effects were found for the emotions anger and happiness, in contrast to adults who showed age-related decline on anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. Sex differences were present predominantly in the adult participants. IQ only minimally affected the perception of disgust in the children, while years of education were correlated with all emotions but surprise and disgust in the adult participants. A regression-based approach was adopted to present age- and education- or IQ-adjusted normative data for use in clinical practice. Previous studies using the ERT have demonstrated selective impairments on specific emotions in a variety of psychiatric, neurologic, or neurodegenerative patient groups, making the ERT a valuable addition to existing paradigms for the assessment of emotion perception. PMID:23409767

  11. Is Black Always the Opposite of White? An Investigation on the Comprehension of Antonyms in People with Schizophrenia and in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Cacciari, Cristina; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Gamberoni, Tania; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Lo Russo, Leo; Pedrazzi, Francesca; Melati, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation sought to expand our understanding of the cognitive processes underlying the recognition of antonyms and to evaluate whether these processes differed in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Antonymy is the most robust of the lexico-semantic relations and is relevant to both the mental organization of the lexicon and the organization of coherent discourse, as attested by the resurgence of interest in antonymy in the linguistic and psychological domains. In contrast, the vast literature on semantic processing in schizophrenia almost ignored antonymy. In this study, we tested the online comprehension of antonyms in 39 Italian patients with paranoid schizophrenia and in an equal number of pairwise-matched healthy controls. Participants read a definitional sentence fragment (e.g., the opposite of black is), followed by the correct antonym (white) or by a semantically unrelated word (nice), and judged whether or not the target word was correct. Patients were rather accurate in identifying antonyms, but compared to controls, they showed longer response times and higher priming scores, suggesting an exaggerated contextual facilitation. Presumably, this reflects a deficient controlled semantic processing and an overreliance on stored semantic representations. PMID:25760930

  12. Influence of Panax ginseng on cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Malati, Christine Y; Robertson, Sarah M; Hunt, Jennifer D; Chairez, Cheryl; Alfaro, Raul M; Kovacs, Joseph A; Penzak, Scott R

    2012-06-01

    A number of herbal preparations have been shown to interact with prescription medications secondary to modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and/or P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of Panax ginseng on CYP3A and P-gp function using the probe substrates midazolam and fexofenadine, respectively. Twelve healthy participants (8 men) completed this open-label, single-sequence pharmacokinetic study. Healthy volunteers received single oral doses of midazolam 8 mg and fexofenadine 120 mg, before and after 28 days of P ginseng 500 mg twice daily. Midazolam and fexofenadine pharmacokinetic parameter values were calculated and compared before and after P ginseng administration. Geometric mean ratios (postginseng/preginseng) for midazolam area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC(0-∞)), half-life (t(1/2)), and maximum concentration (C(max)) were significantly reduced at 0.66 (0.55-0.78), 0.71 (0.53-0.90), and 0.74 (0.56-0.93), respectively. Conversely, fexofenadine pharmacokinetics were unaltered by P ginseng administration. Based on these results, P ginseng appeared to induce CYP3A activity in the liver and possibly the gastrointestinal tract. Patients taking P ginseng in combination with CYP3A substrates with narrow therapeutic ranges should be monitored closely for adequate therapeutic response to the substrate medication. PMID:21646440

  13. Is black always the opposite of white? An investigation on the comprehension of antonyms in people with schizophrenia and in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Cacciari, Cristina; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Gamberoni, Tania; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Russo, Leo Lo; Pedrazzi, Francesca; Melati, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation sought to expand our understanding of the cognitive processes underlying the recognition of antonyms and to evaluate whether these processes differed in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Antonymy is the most robust of the lexico-semantic relations and is relevant to both the mental organization of the lexicon and the organization of coherent discourse, as attested by the resurgence of interest in antonymy in the linguistic and psychological domains. In contrast, the vast literature on semantic processing in schizophrenia almost ignored antonymy. In this study, we tested the online comprehension of antonyms in 39 Italian patients with paranoid schizophrenia and in an equal number of pairwise-matched healthy controls. Participants read a definitional sentence fragment (e.g., the opposite of black is), followed by the correct antonym (white) or by a semantically unrelated word (nice), and judged whether or not the target word was correct. Patients were rather accurate in identifying antonyms, but compared to controls, they showed longer response times and higher priming scores, suggesting an exaggerated contextual facilitation. Presumably, this reflects a deficient controlled semantic processing and an overreliance on stored semantic representations. PMID:25760930

  14. Sex differences in salivary cortisol in response to acute stressors among healthy participants, in recreational or pathological gamblers, and in those with posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Jason J.; Franco, Christine; Sodano, Ruthlyn; Freidenberg, Brian; Gordis, Elana; Anderson, Drew A.; Forsyth, John P.; Wulfert, Edelgard; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Sex differences in incidence and severity of some stress-related, neuropsychiatric disorders are often reported to favor men, suggesting that women may be more vulnerable to aberrant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress. In this review, we discuss several investigations that we, and others, have conducted assessing salivary cortisol as a measure of HPA function. We have examined basal cortisol among healthy men and women and also following acute exposure to stressors. Among healthy participants, men had higher basal cortisol levels than did women. In response to acute stressors, such as carbon dioxide or noise, respectively, cortisol levels were comparable between men and women or higher among women. We have also examined cortisol levels among those with problem eating, gambling, or post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women with restrained eating habits have higher basal cortisol levels than do women without restrained eating habits. Pathological gamblers have more aberrant stress response to gambling stimuli than do recreational gamblers, and these effects are more prominent among men than women. Men who have motor-vehicle accident related PTSD, demonstrate more aberrant cortisol function, than do their female counterparts. Although these sex differences in cortisol seem to vary with type of stress exposure and/or pathophysiological status of the individual, other hormones may influence cortisol response. To address this, cortisol levels among boys and girls with different stress-related experiences, will be the subject of future investigation. PMID:19538960

  15. Drug-Drug Interaction Studies of Paliperidone and Divalproex Sodium Extended-Release Tablets in Healthy Participants and Patients with Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Remmerie, Bart; Ariyawansa, Jay; De Meulder, Marc; Coppola, Danielle; Berwaerts, Joris

    2016-06-01

    The objective of these 2 phase 1, open-label, 2-treatment, single-sequence studies was to evaluate the effect of repeated oral doses of divalproex sodium extended-release (ER) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a single dose of paliperidone ER in healthy participants (study 1), and the effect of multiple doses of paliperidone ER on the steady-state PK of valproic acid (VPA) in patients with psychiatric disorders (study 2), respectively. In study 1 healthy participants received, in a fixed sequential order, treatment A, paliperidone ER 12 mg (day 1); treatment B, VPA 1000 mg (2 × 500 mg divalproex sodium ER) once daily (days 5 to 18) and paliperidone ER 12 mg (day 15). In study 2 patients received treatment A, VPA (days 1-7); treatment B, VPA + paliperidone ER 12 mg (days 8-12). Divalproex sodium ER doses (study 2) were individualized such that systemic therapeutic VPA exposure from prior treatment was maintained on entry into the study. PK assessments were performed at prespecified time points (paliperidone days 1 and 15 [study 1]; VPA days 7 and 12 [study 2]). The oral bioavailability of paliperidone was increased by an estimated 51% (Cmax ) and 51%-52% (AUCs) when coadministered with divalproex sodium ER. No effect on the steady-state plasma concentration of VPA was observed following repeated coadministration with paliperidone ER: the 90%CI around the VPA exposure ratios for the 2 treatments was within the 80%-125% bioequivalence criteria for Cmax,ss and AUCτ . Both VPA and paliperidone ER were well tolerated, and no new safety concerns were identified. PMID:26412032

  16. Evaluation of the Analgesic Activity of Standardized Aqueous Extract of Terminalia chebula in Healthy Human Participants Using Hot Air Pain Model

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Chiranjeevi Uday; Pokuri, Venkata Kishan

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain affects millions of people worldwide, opioid analgesics have been used for chronic painful conditions. Due to their adverse effects, safer alternatives would be beneficial. Terminalia chebula, with proven analgesic action has been evaluated in the hot air pain model for its analgesic activity. Aim To evaluate analgesic activity and safety of single oral dose of Terminalia chebula using hot air pain model in healthy human participants. Setting and Design Randomized, Double blind, Placebo controlled, Cross over study. Materials and Methods After taking written informed consent to IEC approved protocol, 12 healthy human participants were randomized to receive either single oral dose of two capsules of Terminalia chebula 500 mg each or identical placebo capsules in a double blinded manner. Thermal pain was assessed using hot air analgesiometer, to deliver thermal pain stimulus. Mean Pain Threshold time and Mean Pain Tolerance time measured in seconds at baseline and 180 minutes post drug. A washout period of two weeks was given for cross-over between the two treatments. Results Terminalia chebula significantly increased mean pain threshold and tolerance time compared to baseline and placebo. Mean pain threshold time increased from 34.06±2.63 seconds to 41.00±2.99 seconds (p<0.001) and mean pain tolerance time increased from 49.67± 3.72 seconds to 57.30±3.07 seconds (p<0.001). The increase in mean percentage change for pain threshold time is 20.42% (p<0.001) and for pain tolerance time is 17.50% (p<0.001). Conclusion In the present study, Terminalia chebula significantly increased Pain Threshold time and Pain Tolerance time compared to Placebo. Study medications were well tolerated. PMID:26155489

  17. Lack of effect of brivanib on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam, a CYP3A4 substrate, administered intravenously and orally in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Syed, Shariq; Clemens, Pamela L; Lathers, Deanne; Kollia, Georgia; Dhar, Arindam; Walters, Ian; Masson, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Brivanib alaninate is the orally available prodrug of brivanib, a dual inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathways that is under therapeutic investigation for various malignancies. Brivanib alaninate inhibits CYP3A4 in vitro, and thus there is potential for drug-drug interaction with CYP3A4 substrates, such as midazolam. The present study evaluated pharmacokinetic parameters and safety/tolerability upon coadministration of brivanib alaninate and midazolam. Healthy participants received intravenous (IV) or oral midazolam with and without oral brivanib alaninate. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected up to 12 hours after midazolam and up to 48 hours after brivanib alaninate. Twenty-four participants were administered study drugs; 21 completed the trial. No clinically relevant effect of brivanib alaninate on the overall exposure to midazolam following IV or oral administration was observed. Orally administered brivanib alaninate was generally well tolerated in the presence of IV or oral midazolam. The lack of a pharmacokinetic interaction between brivanib and midazolam indicates that brivanib alaninate does not influence either intestinal or hepatic CYP3A4 and confirms that brivanib alaninate may be safely coadministered with midazolam and other CYP3A4 substrates. PMID:21659627

  18. Normal values of 24-hour ambulatory esophageal impedance-pH monitoring in a rural South African cohort of healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Ndebia, E J; Sammon, A M; Umapathy, E; Iputo, J E

    2016-05-01

    There are no data on 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring in African populations. The purpose of this study was to provide the normal values of esophageal impedance and pH monitoring in a rural African populations. South African healthy rural participants were recruited and underwent 24 hours of esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. The median and the 95th percentiles of the total reflux episodes were 49 and 97, respectively, of which the corresponding number of acidic, weakly acidic, and weakly alkaline reflux were 15 and 55, 17 and 51, and 8 and 36, respectively. The compositions of the total reflux were 5 and 21 for liquid, 27 and 72 for mixed, and 10 and 39 for gas reflux, respectively. The median bolus clearance was 18 seconds and the median bolus exposure was 14 minutes/24 hours. The proximal extent was 6%. The 95th percent time of esophageal exposure to acid was 8.6 in 24 hours. Female and overweight participants were associated with an increased number of reflux events. There were more reflux episodes, and of which, more were weakly alkaline compared with previous similar studies. The findings provide reference values of gastroesophageal reflux for a South African rural population. PMID:25721534

  19. Effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, and assessment of dose proportionality in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Devineni, Damayanthi; Manitpisitkul, Prasarn; Murphy, Joseph; Stieltjes, Hans; Ariyawansa, Jay; Di Prospero, Nicholas A; Rothenberg, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Canagliflozin, an orally active inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter 2, is approved for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of 300 mg canagliflozin, and dose proportionality of 50, 100, and 300 mg canagliflozin, were evaluated, in two studies, in healthy participants. Study 1 used a randomized, 2-way crossover design: canagliflozin 300 mg/day was administered under fasted (Period-1) and fed (Period-2) conditions or vice versa. Study 2 was a 3-way crossover: participants were randomized to receive three single-doses of canagliflozin (50, 100, and 300 mg), one in each period. In both studies, treatment periods were separated by washout intervals of 10-14 days, and pharmacokinetics assessed up to 72 hours postdose of each treatment period. No clinically relevant food effects on canagliflozin exposure parameters were observed: 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the fed/fasted geometric mean ratios of AUC∞ (ratio: 100.51; 90% CI: 89.47-112.93) and Cmax (ratio: 108.09; 90% CI: 103.45-112.95) were entirely within bioequivalence limits (80-125%). Plasma canagliflozin exposures were dose-proportional as the 90% CI of the slope of the regression line for dose-normalized AUC∞ and Cmax fell entirely within the prespecified limits of -0.124 to 0.124. No clinically significant safety issues were noted, and canagliflozin was generally well-tolerated. PMID:27136908

  20. A comparison of lower limb EMG and ground reaction forces between barefoot and shod gait in participants with diabetic neuropathic and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is known that when barefoot, gait biomechanics of diabetic neuropathic patients differ from non-diabetic individuals. However, it is still unknown whether these biomechanical changes are also present during shod gait which is clinically advised for these patients. This study investigated the effect of the participants own shoes on gait biomechanics in diabetic neuropathic individuals compared to barefoot gait patterns and healthy controls. Methods Ground reaction forces and lower limb EMG activities were analyzed in 21 non-diabetic adults (50.9 ± 7.3 yr, 24.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2) and 24 diabetic neuropathic participants (55.2 ± 7.9 yr, 27.0 ± 4.4 kg/m2). EMG patterns of vastus lateralis, lateral gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior, along with the vertical and antero-posterior ground reaction forces were studied during shod and barefoot gait. Results Regardless of the disease, walking with shoes promoted an increase in the first peak vertical force and the peak horizontal propulsive force. Diabetic individuals had a delay in the lateral gastrocnemius EMG activity with no delay in the vastus lateralis. They also demonstrated a higher peak horizontal braking force walking with shoes compared to barefoot. Diabetic participants also had a smaller second peak vertical force in shod gait and a delay in the vastus lateralis EMG activity in barefoot gait compared to controls. Conclusions The change in plantar sensory information that occurs when wearing shoes revealed a different motor strategy in diabetic individuals. Walking with shoes did not attenuate vertical forces in either group. Though changes in motor strategy were apparent, the biomechanical did not support the argument that the use of shoes contributes to altered motor responses during gait. PMID:20128894

  1. Kinetics of L-theanine uptake and metabolism in healthy participants are comparable after ingestion of L-theanine via capsules and green tea.

    PubMed

    Scheid, Lisa; Ellinger, Sabine; Alteheld, Birgit; Herholz, Hannes; Ellinger, Jörg; Henn, Thomas; Helfrich, Hans-Peter; Stehle, Peter

    2012-12-01

    L-Theanine, an amino acid in green tea, is suggested to improve cognition and mood. Therefore, L-theanine is available as a supplement and is now used as an ingredient in functional drinks. Because data on the metabolic fate of L-theanine from human studies are lacking, we investigated the kinetics of L-theanine uptake and its metabolites, ethylamine and glutamic acid, in healthy participants. Within a randomized crossover study, 12 participants ingested a bolus of 100 mg L-theanine via capsules or green tea. On further occasions, 3 participants received 50 and 200 mg L-theanine via capsules. Blood and urine were collected before and up to 24 h postconsumption to determine the concentrations of L-theanine, proteinogenic amino acids, and ethylamine in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine by HPLC. L-Theanine increased in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine with comparable results after both treatments. The maximum plasma concentration of L-theanine occurred 0.8 h after intake of 100 mg L-theanine via capsules (24.3 ± 5.7 μmol/L) and tea (26.5 ± 5.2 μmol/L), respectively. The AUC of L-theanine in plasma increased dose dependently after intake of 50, 100, and 200 mg L-theanine via capsules. Moreover, ethylamine and glutamic acid increased in plasma and were excreted by urine after intake of capsules and tea. In conclusion, L-theanine is rapidly absorbed and seems to be hydrolyzed to ethylamine and glutamic acid. A minor part of L-theanine is retained in erythrocytes. Kinetics and urinary excretion of L-theanine, ethylamine, and glutamic acid are comparable after both treatments. Thus, functional effects of L-theanine intake may result from L-theanine, ethylamine, or glutamic acid. PMID:23096008

  2. Associations of visceral adiposity and exercise participation with C-reactive protein, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction in Korean healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kijin; Valentine, Rudy J; Shin, Yoonjung; Gong, Kyungmin

    2008-09-01

    correlated with BMI and percentage body fat (P < .05). Therefore, the relative importance of central adiposity as opposed to total body fatness in endothelial dysfunction is unclear. Compared with the nonexercise group, exercise participants had significantly lower (P < .05) WHR, visceral fat area, ratio of visceral fat area to subcutaneous area, hsCRP, hemoglobin A(1c), and HOMA, with no significant differences in BMI, percentage body fat, and physical fitness. Central obesity with high visceral fat is strongly associated with blood level of hsCRP, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction-related factors in healthy Korean adults. In addition, exercise participation, even in the absence of difference in physical fitness, may be protective against development of central obesity and insulin resistance in this understudied Korean population. PMID:18702942

  3. Social role participation and the life course in healthy adults and individuals with osteoarthritis: are we overlooking the impact on the middle-aged?

    PubMed

    Gignac, Monique A M; Backman, Catherine L; Davis, Aileen M; Lacaille, Diane; Cao, Xingshan; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2013-03-01

    Little is known about life course differences in social role participation among those with chronic diseases. This study examined role salience (i.e., importance), role limitations, and role satisfaction among middle- and older-aged adults with and without osteoarthritis (OA) and its relationship to depression, stress, role conflict, health care utilization and coping behaviours. Participants were middle- and older-aged adults with OA (n = 177) or no chronic disabling conditions (n = 193), aged ≥40 years. Respondents were recruited through community advertising and clinics in Ontario, Canada (2009-2010). They completed a 45-50 min telephone interview and 20 min self-administered questionnaire assessing demographics (e.g., age, gender); health (e.g., pain, functional limitations, health care utilization); the Social Role Participation Questionnaire (SRPQ) (role salience, limitations, satisfaction in 12 domains), and psychological variables (e.g., depression, stress, role conflict, behavioural coping). Analyses included two-way ANOVAs, correlations, and linear regression. Results indicated that middle-aged adults (40-59 years) reported greater role salience than older-aged adults (60 + years). Middle-aged adults with OA reported significantly greater role limitations and more health care utilization than all other groups. Middle-aged adults and those with OA also reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping efforts than older adults or healthy controls. Controlling for age and OA, those with higher role salience and greater role limitations reported more health care utilization. Those with greater role limitations and lower role satisfaction reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping. This study has implications for research and interventions, highlighting the need to characterize role participation as multidimensional. It points to the importance of taking into account the meaning of roles at

  4. Effects of rifampin, cyclosporine A, and probenecid on the pharmacokinetic profile of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Devineni, Damayanthi; Vaccaro, Nicole; Murphy, Joe; Curtin, Christopher; Mamidi, Rao N.V.S.; Weiner, Sveta; Wang, Shean-Sheng; Ariyawansa, Jay; Stieltjes, Hans; Wajs, Ewa; Di Prospero, Nicholas A.; Rothenberg, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, approved for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is metabolized by uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) 1A9 and UGT2B4, and is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Canagliflozin exposures may be affected by coadministration of drugs that induce (e.g., rifampin for UGT) or inhibit (e.g. probenecid for UGT; cyclosporine A for P-gp) these pathways. The primary objective of these three independent studies (single-center, open-label, fixed-sequence) was to evaluate the effects of rifampin (study 1), probenecid (study 2), and cyclosporine A (study 3) on the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin in healthy participants. Methods: Participants received; in study 1: canagliflozin 300 mg (days 1 and 10), rifampin 600 mg (days 4 – 12); study 2: canagliflozin 300 mg (days 1 – 17), probenecid 500 mg twice daily (days 15 – 17); and study 3: canagliflozin 300 mg (days 1 – 8), cyclosporine A 400 mg (day 8). Pharmacokinetics were assessed at pre-specified intervals on days 1 and 10 (study 1); on days 14 and 17 (study 2), and on days 2 – 8 (study 3). Results: Rifampin decreased the maximum plasma canagliflozin concentration (Cmax) by 28% and its area under the curve (AUC) by 51%. Probenecid increased the Cmax by 13% and the AUC by 21%. Cyclosporine A increased the AUC by 23% but did not affect the Cmax. Conclusion: Coadministration of canagliflozin with rifampin, probenecid, and cyclosporine A was well-tolerated. No clinically meaningful interactions were observed for probenecid or cyclosporine A, while rifampin coadministration modestly reduced canagliflozin plasma concentrations and could necessitate an appropriate monitoring of glycemic control. PMID:25407255

  5. Longitudinal reproducibility of default-mode network connectivity in healthy elderly participants: A multicentric resting-state fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Jovicich, Jorge; Minati, Ludovico; Marizzoni, Moira; Marchitelli, Rocco; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Bartrés-Faz, David; Arnold, Jennifer; Benninghoff, Jens; Fiedler, Ute; Roccatagliata, Luca; Picco, Agnese; Nobili, Flavio; Blin, Oliver; Bombois, Stephanie; Lopes, Renaud; Bordet, Régis; Sein, Julien; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Didic, Mira; Gros-Dagnac, Hélène; Payoux, Pierre; Zoccatelli, Giada; Alessandrini, Franco; Beltramello, Alberto; Bargalló, Núria; Ferretti, Antonio; Caulo, Massimo; Aiello, Marco; Cavaliere, Carlo; Soricelli, Andrea; Parnetti, Lucilla; Tarducci, Roberto; Floridi, Piero; Tsolaki, Magda; Constantinidis, Manos; Drevelegas, Antonios; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Marra, Camillo; Schönknecht, Peter; Hensch, Tilman; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Kuijer, Joost P; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Barkhof, Frederik; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2016-01-01

    To date, limited data are available regarding the inter-site consistency of test-retest reproducibility of functional connectivity measurements, in particular with regard to integrity of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in elderly participants. We implemented a harmonized resting-state fMRI protocol on 13 clinical scanners at 3.0T using vendor-provided sequences. Each site scanned a group of 5 healthy elderly participants twice, at least a week apart. We evaluated inter-site differences and test-retest reproducibility of both temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR) and functional connectivity measurements derived from: i) seed-based analysis (SBA) with seed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), ii) group independent component analysis (ICA) separately for each site (site ICA), and iii) consortium ICA, with group ICA across the whole consortium. Despite protocol harmonization, significant and quantitatively important inter-site differences remained in the tSNR of resting-state fMRI data; these were plausibly driven by hardware and pulse sequence differences across scanners which could not be harmonized. Nevertheless, the tSNR test-retest reproducibility in the consortium was high (ICC=0.81). The DMN was consistently extracted across all sites and analysis methods. While significant inter-site differences in connectivity scores were found, there were no differences in the associated test-retest error. Overall, ICA measurements were more reliable than PCC-SBA, with site ICA showing higher reproducibility than consortium ICA. Across the DMN nodes, the PCC yielded the most reliable measurements (≈4% test-retest error, ICC=0.85), the medial frontal cortex the least reliable (≈12%, ICC=0.82) and the lateral parietal cortices were in between (site ICA). Altogether these findings support usage of harmonized multisite studies of resting-state functional connectivity to characterize longitudinal effects in studies that assess disease progression and treatment response

  6. Sucrose preload reduces snacking after mild mental stress in healthy participants as a function of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene promoter polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Markus, C Rob; Jonkman, Lisa M; Capello, Aimee; Leinders, Sacha; Hüsch, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) dysfunction is considered to promote food intake and eating-related disturbances, especially under stress or negative mood. Vulnerability for 5-HT disturbances is considered to be genetically determined, including a short (S) allele polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) that is associated with lower serotonin function. Since 5-HT function may be slightly increased by carbohydrate consumption, S-allele 5-HTTLPR carriers in particular may benefit from a sugar-preload due to their enhanced 5-HT vulnerability. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a sugar-containing preload may reduce appetite and energy intake after exposure to stress to induce negative mood, depending on genetic 5-HT vulnerability. From a population of 771 healthy young male and female genotyped college students 31 S/S carriers (8 males, 23 females) and 26 long allele (L/L) carriers (9 males, 17 females) (mean ± S.D. 22 ± 1.6 years; body mass index, BMI, 18-33 kg/m(2)) were monitored for changes in appetite and snacking behavior after stress exposure. Results revealed an increased energy intake after mild mental stress (negative mood) mainly for high-fat sweet foods, which was significantly greater in S/S carriers, and only in these genotypes this intake was significantly reduced by a sucrose-containing preload. Although alternative explanations are possible, it is suggested that S/S participants may have enhanced brain (hypothalamic) 5-HT responsiveness to food that makes them more susceptible to the beneficial satiation effects of a sucrose-preload as well as to the negative effects of mild mental stress on weight gain. PMID:25423193

  7. The impact of escitalopram on vagally mediated cardiovascular function to stress and the moderating effects of vigorous physical activity: a randomized controlled treatment study in healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Camilla S.; Outhred, Tim; Brunoni, Andre R.; Malhi, Gin S.; Kemp, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent concerns over the impact of antidepressant medications, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), on cardiovascular function highlight the importance of research on the moderating effects of specific lifestyle factors such as physical activity. Studies in affective neuroscience have demonstrated robust acute effects of SSRIs, yet the impact of SSRIs on cardiovascular stress responses and the moderating effects of physical activity remain to be determined. This was the goal of the present study, which involved a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of a single-dose of escitalopram (20 mg) in 44 healthy females; outcomes were heart rate (HR) and its variability. Participants engaging in at least 30 min of vigorous physical activity at least 3 times per week (regular exercisers) showed a more resilient cardiovascular stress response than irregular vigorous exercisers, a finding associated with a moderate effect size (Cohen's d = 0.48). Escitalopram attenuated the cardiovascular stress response in irregular exercisers only (HR decreased: Cohen's d = 0.80; HR variability increased: Cohen's d = 0.33). HR during stress under escitalopram in the irregular exercisers was similar to that during stress under placebo in regular exercisers. These findings highlight that the effects of regular vigorous exercise during stress are comparable to the effects of an acute dose of escitalopram, highlighting the beneficial effects of this particular antidepressant in irregular exercisers. Given that antidepressant drugs alone do not seem to protect patients from cardiovascular disease (CVD), longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the impact of exercise on cardiovascular stress responses in patients receiving long-term antidepressant treatment. PMID:24069000

  8. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  9. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular disease risk factors and exercise performance in healthy participants: a randomized placebo-controlled preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dujaili, Emad A. S.; Munir, Nimrah; Iniesta, Raquel Revuelta

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Evidence suggests associations between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including hypertension and excessive cortisol levels. Also, vitamin D levels may impact exercise performance. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D intake on cardiovascular risk factors, free urinary cortisol and exercise performance. Methods: A randomized placebo-controlled single-blinded parallel trial was conducted in healthy participants (n = 15). They received 2000 IU (50 µg) vitamin D3 per day (n = 9) or placebo (lactose) (n = 6) for 14 days. Body composition, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and arterial elasticity (as measured by pulse wave velocity, PWV) were recorded at baseline, day 7 and day 14 of intervention. A total of two 24-hour urine samples were collected to estimate free cortisol and cortisone levels. Exercise performance was assessed at the baseline and day 14 of the intervention using a bike ergometer in which BP and PWV were measured before and after exercise. The distance cycled in 20 minutes and the Borg Scale rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Results: In the intervention arm, at day 14, vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced SBP and DBP from 115.8 ± 17.1 and 75.4 ± 10.3 at baseline to 106.3 ± 10.9 (p = 0.022) and 68.5 ± 10.1 mmHg (p = 0.012) respectively. Also arterial stiffness was markedly reduced in the vitamin D group (from 7.45 ± 1.55 to 6.11 ± 1.89, p = 0.049). Urinary free cortisol levels and cortisol/cortisone ratio were significantly reduced from 162.65 ± 58.9 nmol/day and 2.22 ± 0.7 to 96.4 ± 37.2 (p = 0.029) and 1.04 ± 0.4 (p = 0.017) respectively. Exercise-induced SBP and DBP were significantly reduced post vitamin D intake from 130.7 ± 12.2 to 116.1 ± 8.1 (p = 0.012) and from 76.2 ± 8.4 to 70.5 ± 7.7 mmHg (p = 0.042) respectively. The distance cycled in 20 minutes significantly increased from 4.98 ± 2.65 to 6

  10. Manipulation of starch bioaccessibility in wheat endosperm to regulate starch digestion, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and gut hormone responses: a randomized controlled trial in healthy ileostomy participants12

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Cathrina H; Grundy, Myriam ML; Grassby, Terri; Vasilopoulou, Dafni; Frost, Gary S; Butterworth, Peter J; Berry, Sarah EE; Sanderson, Jeremy; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cereal crops, particularly wheat, are a major dietary source of starch, and the bioaccessibility of starch has implications for postprandial glycemia. The structure and properties of plant foods have been identified as critical factors in influencing nutrient bioaccessibility; however, the physical and biochemical disassembly of cereal food during digestion has not been widely studied. Objectives: The aims of this study were to compare the effects of 2 porridge meals prepared from wheat endosperm with different degrees of starch bioaccessibility on postprandial metabolism (e.g., glycemia) and to gain insight into the structural and biochemical breakdown of the test meals during gastroileal transit. Design: A randomized crossover trial in 9 healthy ileostomy participants was designed to compare the effects of 55 g starch, provided as coarse (2-mm particles) or smooth (<0.2-mm particles) wheat porridge, on postprandial changes in blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, lipids, and gut hormones and on the resistant starch (RS) content of ileal effluent. Undigested food in the ileal output was examined microscopically to identify cell walls and encapsulated starch. Results: Blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations were significantly lower (i.e., 33%, 43%, 40%, and 50% lower 120-min incremental AUC, respectively) after consumption of the coarse porridge than after the smooth porridge (P < 0.01). In vitro, starch digestion was slower in the coarse porridge than in the smooth porridge (33% less starch digested at 90 min, P < 0.05, paired t test). In vivo, the structural integrity of coarse particles (∼2 mm) of wheat endosperm was retained during gastroileal transit. Microscopic examination revealed a progressive loss of starch from the periphery toward the particle core. The structure of the test meal had no effect on the amount or pattern of RS output. Conclusion: The structural integrity of wheat

  11. Propranolol’s effects on the consolidation and reconsolidation of long-term emotional memory in healthy participants: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lonergan, Michelle H.; Olivera-Figueroa, Lening A.; Pitman, Roger K.; Brunet, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Background Considering the pivotal role of negative emotional experiences in the development and persistence of mental disorders, interfering with the consolidation/reconsolidation of such experiences would open the door to a novel treatment approach in psychiatry. We conducted a meta-analysis on the experimental evidence regarding the capacity of the β-blocker propranolol to block the consolidation/reconsolidation of emotional memories in healthy adults. Methods Selected studies consisted of randomized, double-blind experiments assessing long-term memory for emotional material in healthy adults and involved at least 1 propranolol and 1 placebo condition. We searched PsycInfo, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Central, PILOTS, Google Scholar and clinicaltrials.org for eligible studies from the period 1995–2012. Ten consolidation (n = 259) and 8 reconsolidation (n = 308) experiments met the inclusion criteria. We calculated effect sizes (Hedges g) using a random effects model. Results Compared with placebo, propranolol given before memory consolidation reduced subsequent recall for negatively valenced stories, pictures and word lists (Hedges g = 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14–0.74). Propranolol before reconsolidation also reduced subsequent recall for negatively valenced emotional words and the expression of cue-elicited fear responses (Hedges g = 0.56, 95% CI 0.13–1.00). Limitations Limitations include the moderate number of studies examining the influence of propranolol on emotional memory consolidation and reconsolidation in healthy adults and the fact that most samples consisted entirely of young adults, which may limit the ecological validity of results. Conclusion Propranolol shows promise in reducing subsequent memory for new or recalled emotional material in healthy adults. However, future studies will need to investigate whether more powerful idiosyncratic emotional memories can also be weakened and whether this weakening can bring about long

  12. Barriers and enablers for participation in healthy lifestyle programs by adolescents who are overweight: a qualitative study of the opinions of adolescents, their parents and community stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight or obesity during adolescence affects almost 25% of Australian youth, yet limited research exists regarding recruitment and engagement of adolescents in weight-management or healthy lifestyle interventions, or best-practice for encouraging long-term healthy behaviour change. A sound understanding of community perceptions, including views from adolescents, parents and community stakeholders, regarding barriers and enablers to entering and engaging meaningfully in an intervention is critical to improve the design of such programs. Methods This paper reports findings from focus groups and semi-structured interviews conducted with adolescents (n?=?44), parents (n?=?12) and community stakeholders (n?=?39) in Western Australia. Three major topics were discussed to inform the design of more feasible and effective interventions: recruitment, retention in the program and maintenance of healthy change. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Results Data were categorised into barriers and enablers across the three main topics. For recruitment, identified barriers included: the stigma associated with overweight, difficulty defining overweight, a lack of current health services and broader social barriers. The enablers for recruitment included: strategic marketing, a positive approach and subsidising program costs. For retention, identified barriers included: location, timing, high level of commitment needed and social barriers. Enablers for retention included: making it fun and enjoyable for adolescents, involving the family, having an on-line component, recruiting good staff and making it easy for parents to attend. For maintenance, identified barriers included: the high degree of difficulty in sustaining change and limited services to support change. Enablers for maintenance included: on-going follow up, focusing on positive change, utilisation of electronic media and transition back to community services. Conclusions This study

  13. Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  14. Dissociated deficits of visuo-spatial memory in near space and navigational space: evidence from brain-damaged patients and healthy older participants.

    PubMed

    Piccardi, L; Iaria, G; Bianchini, F; Zompanti, L; Guariglia, C

    2011-05-01

    Defects confined to spatial memory can severely affect a variety of daily life activities, such as remembering the location of objects or navigating the environment, until now the skills involved have been mostly assessed with regard to the visual domain using traditional pencil and paper tests. Our aim was to test the efficacy of a recently developed psychometric instrument (Walking Corsi Test: WalCT) to assess the specific contribution of spatial memory to the complex task of retrieving route knowledge. The WalCT is a 3 × 2.5-m version of the well-known Corsi Block-tapping Test (CBT), in which patients are required to memorize (and replicate) a sequence of body displacements. We assessed the ability of left and right brain-damaged patients, as well as healthy young and senior controls, to perform both the CBT and the WalCT. Results showed differences related to age in the healthy individuals and specific functional dissociations in the brain-damaged patients. The double dissociations found in this study demonstrate the importance of having a task able to detect navigational disorders, because virtual reality tasks are often much too difficult for aged brain-damaged patients to perform. PMID:21557118

  15. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Minority or Poor Clinical Research Participants: Lessons from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer H.; Mason, Marc A.; Cromwell, Bridget C.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Investigating health disparities requires studies designed to recruit and retain racially and socioeconomically diverse cohorts. It is critical to address the barriers that disproportionately affect participation in clinical research by minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. This study sought to identify and…

  16. The role of the precuneus in metaphor comprehension: evidence from an fMRI study in people with schizophrenia and healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Mashal, Nira; Vishne, Tali; Laor, Nathaniel

    2014-01-01

    Comprehension of conventional and novel metaphors involves traditional language-related cortical regions as well as non-language related regions. While semantic processing is crucial for understanding metaphors, it is not sufficient. Recently the precuneus has been identified as a region that mediates complex and highly integrated tasks, including retrieval of episodic memory and mental imagery. Although the understanding of non-literal language is relatively easy for healthy individuals, people with schizophrenia exhibit deficits in this domain. The present study aims to examine whether people with schizophrenia differentially recruit the precuneus, extending to the superior parietal (SP) cortex (SPL), to support their deficit in metaphor comprehension. We also examine interregional associations between the precuneus/SPL and language-related brain regions. Twelve people with schizophrenia and twelve healthy controls were scanned while silently reading literal word pairs, conventional metaphors, and novel metaphors. People with schizophrenia showed reduced comprehension of both conventional and novel metaphors. Analysis of functional connectivity found that the correlations between activation in the left precuneus/SPL and activation in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS) were significant for both literal word pairs and novel metaphors, and significant correlations were found between activation in the right precuneus/SPL and activation in the right PSTS for the three types of semantic relations. These results were found in the schizophrenia group alone. Furthermore, relative to controls, people with schizophrenia demonstrated increased activation in the right precuneus/SPL. Our results may suggest that individuals with schizophrenia use mental imagery to support comprehension of both literal and metaphoric language. In particular, our findings indicate over-integration of language and non-language brain regions during more effortful processes of novel

  17. Sleep spindles and rapid eye movement sleep as predictors of next morning cognitive performance in healthy middle-aged and older participants.

    PubMed

    Lafortune, Marjolaine; Gagnon, Jean-François; Martin, Nicolas; Latreille, Véronique; Dubé, Jonathan; Bouchard, Maude; Bastien, Célyne; Carrier, Julie

    2014-04-01

    Spindles and slow waves are hallmarks of non-rapid eye movement sleep. Both these oscillations are markers of neuronal plasticity, and play a role in memory and cognition. Normal ageing is associated with spindle and slow wave decline and cognitive changes. The present study aimed to assess whether spindle and slow wave characteristics during a baseline night predict cognitive performance in healthy older adults the next morning. Specifically, we examined performance on tasks measuring selective and sustained visual attention, declarative verbal memory, working memory and verbal fluency. Fifty-eight healthy middle-aged and older adults (aged 50-91 years) without sleep disorders underwent baseline polysomnographic sleep recording followed by neuropsychological assessment the next morning. Spindles and slow waves were detected automatically on artefact-free non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalogram. All-night stage N2 spindle density (no./min) and mean frequency (Hz) and all-night non-rapid eye movement sleep slow wave density (no./min) and mean slope (μV/s) were analysed. Pearson's correlations were performed between spindles, slow waves, polysomnography and cognitive performance. Higher spindle density predicted better performance on verbal learning, visual attention and verbal fluency, whereas spindle frequency and slow wave density or slope predicted fewer cognitive performance variables. In addition, rapid eye movement sleep duration was associated with better verbal learning potential. These results suggest that spindle density is a marker of cognitive functioning in older adults and may reflect neuroanatomic integrity. Rapid eye movement sleep may be a marker of age-related changes in acetylcholine transmission, which plays a role in new information encoding. PMID:24245769

  18. Population pharmacokinetics of teduglutide following repeated subcutaneous administrations in healthy participants and in patients with short bowel syndrome and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Marier, Jean-Francois; Mouksassi, Mohamad-Samer; Gosselin, Nathalie H; Beliveau, Martin; Cyran, Jane; Wallens, John

    2010-01-01

    Teduglutide is a GLP-2 analog currently evaluated for the treatment of short bowel syndrome, Crohn's disease, and other gastrointestinal disorders. The population pharmacokinetics (PK) of teduglutide were assessed following daily subcutaneous (SC) administrations of 2.5 to 80 mg doses in a total of 256 patients. A 1-compartment model with a site-specific rate constant of absorption in the abdomen, arm, and thigh was used to assess the PK of teduglutide. Apparent clearance (CL/F) of teduglutide in male participants was approximately 18% higher than that observed in female participants (12.4 vs 10.5 L/h, respectively). Body weight was detected as a significant covariate explaining the volume of distribution of teduglutide. The elimination half-life (t((1/2))) of teduglutide was also influenced by the body weight of participants. For a male patient weighing 50 and 90 kg, t((1/2)) of teduglutide was 0.897 and 2.99 hours, respectively. Renal and hepatic function of patients did not affect the PK of teduglutide. As a result, no dose adjustment was deemed necessary in patients with altered renal or liver function. The population PK model will help to support adequate drug labeling following SC administrations in patients and determine whether an individualized dosage is required. PMID:19773525

  19. Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 > Staying Healthy Font: What is Alpha-1? Emphysema Alpha-1 Symptoms Diagnosing Alpha-1 Current Treatments ... Healthy What can people with Alpha-1-related emphysema do to stay as healthy as possible? First ...

  20. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  1. Healthy pets, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Wong, S K; Feinstein, L H; Heidmann, P

    1999-08-01

    Zoonoses, diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans, can pose serious health risks to immunocompromised people. Although pets can carry zoonoses, owning and caring for animals can benefit human health. Information exists about preventing transmission of zoonoses, but not all physicians and veterinarians provide adequate and accurate information to immunocompromised pet owners. This disease prevention/health promotion project provides physicians and veterinarians with information, created specifically to share with patients and clients, about the health risks and benefits of pet ownership. Further, "Healthy Pets, Healthy People" encourages communication between veterinarians, physicians, clients, and patients and can serve as a model program for a nation-wide effort to aid health professionals in making recommendations about pet ownership for immunocompromised people. PMID:10434969

  2. ‘You need a support. When you don’t have that . . . chocolate looks real good’. Barriers to and facilitators of behavioural changes among participants of a Healthy Living Program

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Holly Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background. Health behavioural change is complex, especially for underserved patients who have higher rates of obesity and physical inactivity. Behavioural change interventions that show high efficacy in clinical trials may be difficult to disseminate and may not be effective in the office. Objective. We sought to identify factors that facilitate or hinder behavioural change among past participants of a healthy lifestyle intervention in an urban underserved health centre. Methods. Between March and October 2011, we conducted five focus group sessions with a total of 23 past participants. The focus group transcripts were analysed with a framework approach using the Social Ecological Model as a coding structure. Results. We found four interconnected levels of social contexts: individual, interpersonal, programmatic and community levels. Themes of social support and the importance of relationships for making and maintaining behavioural changes were found at all levels. Conclusion. Social support and relatedness were key facilitators of healthy lifestyle changes and influenced individual motivation and perseverance. Harnessing the power of social support and motivation may be a way for future behavioural change interventions to bridge the gap between efficacy and effectiveness. PMID:23515375

  3. Differential patterns of initial and sustained responses in amygdala and cortical regions to emotional stimuli in schizophrenia patients and healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Pineda, Pilar; Fakra, Eric; Delaveau, Pauline; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Blin, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Background We sought to investigate the altered brain responses to emotional stimuli in patients with schizophrenia. Methods We analyzed data from 14 patients with schizophrenia and 14 healthy controls who performed an emotional face matching task. We evaluated brain activity and connectivity in the amygdala and cortical regions during the initial (first 21 seconds of each stimulation block) and sustained (last 21 seconds) stages of an emotional processing task, and we determined changes in amygdala activity across the emotional processing task. Results The patients with schizophrenia showed similar amygdala activation to the controls during the initial stage of processing, but their activation decreased during the sustained stage. The controls showed increasing amygdala activity across the emotional blocks, whereas activity progressively decreased in the schizophrenia group. The patients with schizophrenia showed increased cortical activity and interconnectivity in the medial frontal and inferior parietal cortex in the initial stage of emotional processing. There was increased activity in the superior temporal cortex and greater connectivity with the inferior parietal cortex in the sustained stage. Performance accuracy was lower in the schizophrenia group in the first part of the block, while their reaction time was longer in the latter part of the block. Limitations It was not possible to specify the moment at which the switch in amygdala response occurred. Conclusion Our findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have an initial automatic emotional response but that they need to switch to a compensatory cognitive strategy to solve the task. PMID:20040245

  4. Reproducibility of Retinol Binding Protein 4 and Omentin-1 Measurements over a Four Months Period: A Reliability Study in a Cohort of 207 Apparently Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Wittenbecher, Clemens; di Giuseppe, Romina; Biemann, Ronald; Menzel, Juliane; Arregui, Maria; Hoffmann, Juliane; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Isermann, Berend; Schulze, Matthias B.; Weikert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of single time point measurements of the novel adipokines retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 in the blood has not been evaluated in large samples yet. The present study aimed to assess the amount of biological variation of these two adipokines within individuals. The study sample comprised 207 participants (124 women and 83 men) from Potsdam (Germany) and surrounding areas, with an average age of 56.5 years (SD 4.2). Blood samples were collected from each participant twice, approximately four months apart. Using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, the concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 were determined in EDTA plasma. As indicators of reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated from the repeated biomarker measurements. The ICCs for repeated retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 measurements were 0.77 (95% CI 0.71, 0.82) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.78, 0.87), respectively, indicating for both adipokines excellent reliability. ICCs were stable across strata according to sex, age, BMI, and blood pressure. Thus, for epidemiological studies it seems reasonable to rely on concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 in samples from a single time point if repeated measurements are not available. PMID:26402656

  5. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Training and Jobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  6. The Effect of Task-Irrelevant Fearful-Face Distractor on Working Memory Processing in Mild Cognitive Impairment versus Healthy Controls: An Exploratory fMRI Study in Female Participants.

    PubMed

    Burhan, Amer M; Anazodo, Udunna C; Chung, Jun Ku; Arena, Amanda; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Mitchell, Derek G V

    2016-01-01

    In mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a risk state for Alzheimer's disease, patients have objective cognitive deficits with relatively preserved functioning. fMRI studies have identified anomalies during working memory (WM) processing in individuals with MCI. The effect of task-irrelevant emotional face distractor on WM processing in MCI remains unclear. We aim to explore the impact of fearful-face task-irrelevant distractor on WM processing in MCI using fMRI. Hypothesis. Compared to healthy controls (HC), MCI patients will show significantly higher BOLD signal in a priori identified regions of interest (ROIs) during a WM task with a task-irrelevant emotional face distractor. Methods. 9 right-handed female participants with MCI and 12 matched HC performed a WM task with standardized task-irrelevant fearful versus neutral face distractors randomized and counterbalanced across WM trials. MRI images were acquired during the WM task and BOLD signal was analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) to identify signal patterns during the task response phase. Results. Task-irrelevant fearful-face distractor resulted in higher activation in the amygdala, anterior cingulate, and frontal areas, in MCI participants compared to HC. Conclusions. This exploratory study suggests altered WM processing as a result of fearful-face distractor in MCI. PMID:26949290

  7. Tecarfarin, a novel vitamin K reductase antagonist, is not affected by CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 inhibition following concomitant administration of fluconazole in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Bavisotto, Linda M; Ellis, David J; Milner, Peter G; Combs, Daniel L; Irwin, Ian; Canafax, Daniel M

    2011-04-01

    Comparative pharmacokinetics of vitamin K epoxide reductase antagonists tecarfarin and warfarin were assessed before and after coadministration for 21 days of the CYP450 inhibitor fluconazole in a randomized, open-label, single-center drug interaction study. Twenty healthy adult participants were randomized 1:1 to receive approximately equipotent single oral doses of tecarfarin (50 mg) or warfarin (17.5 mg). Following 7 days of baseline serial blood level collections, each participant received oral fluconazole 400 mg daily for 21 days. A second identical single oral dose of tecarfarin or warfarin was given 14 days after starting fluconazole with serial pharmacokinetic sampling. Key pharmacokinetic parameters C(max), t(max), AUC(0-168), apparent clearance, and t(1/2) demonstrated no tecarfarin-fluconazole interaction but a strong warfarin-fluconazole interaction. The ratio of log-transformed mean AUC(0-168) with versus without fluconazole for tecarfarin was 91.2% (90% confidence interval [CI]: 83.3-99.8) and for racemic warfarin was 213% (90% CI: 202-226). The 90% CI was entirely within the standard 80% to 125% bioequivalence interval for tecarfarin but well outside the bioequivalence interval for warfarin, confirming a clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction between warfarin and fluconazole. In contrast, tecarfarin pharmacokinetics were apparently unchanged by fluconazole. PMID:20622200

  8. The Effect of Task-Irrelevant Fearful-Face Distractor on Working Memory Processing in Mild Cognitive Impairment versus Healthy Controls: An Exploratory fMRI Study in Female Participants

    PubMed Central

    Burhan, Amer M.; Anazodo, Udunna C.; Chung, Jun Ku; Arena, Amanda; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Mitchell, Derek G. V.

    2016-01-01

    In mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a risk state for Alzheimer's disease, patients have objective cognitive deficits with relatively preserved functioning. fMRI studies have identified anomalies during working memory (WM) processing in individuals with MCI. The effect of task-irrelevant emotional face distractor on WM processing in MCI remains unclear. We aim to explore the impact of fearful-face task-irrelevant distractor on WM processing in MCI using fMRI. Hypothesis. Compared to healthy controls (HC), MCI patients will show significantly higher BOLD signal in a priori identified regions of interest (ROIs) during a WM task with a task-irrelevant emotional face distractor. Methods. 9 right-handed female participants with MCI and 12 matched HC performed a WM task with standardized task-irrelevant fearful versus neutral face distractors randomized and counterbalanced across WM trials. MRI images were acquired during the WM task and BOLD signal was analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) to identify signal patterns during the task response phase. Results. Task-irrelevant fearful-face distractor resulted in higher activation in the amygdala, anterior cingulate, and frontal areas, in MCI participants compared to HC. Conclusions. This exploratory study suggests altered WM processing as a result of fearful-face distractor in MCI. PMID:26949290

  9. Healthy Colon, Healthy Life

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Judith M.E.; Salazar, Rene; Nguyen, Tung T.; Kaplan, Celia; Nguyen, Lamkieu; Hwang, Jimmy; McPhee, Stephen J.; Pasick, Rena J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are increasing, but they are still low, particularly in ethnic minority groups. In many resource-poor settings, fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is the main screening option. Intervention Culturally tailored telephone counseling by community health advisors employed by a community-based organization, culturally tailored brochures, and customized FOBT kits. Design RCT. Participants were randomized to (1) basic intervention: culturally tailored brochure plus FOBT kit (n=765); (2) enhanced intervention: brochure, FOBT plus telephone counseling (n=768); or (3) usual care (n=256). Setting/participants Latino and Vietnamese primary care patients at a large public hospital. Main outcome measures Self-reported receipt of FOBT or any CRC screening at 1-year follow-up. Results 1358 individuals (718 Latinos and 640 Vietnamese) completed the follow-up survey. Self-reported FOBT screening rates increased by 7.8 % in the control group, by 15.1 % in the brochure group, and by 25.1 % in the brochure/telephone counseling group (p<0.01 for differences between each intervention and usual care and for the difference between brochure/telephone counseling and brochure alone). For any CRC screening, rates increased by 4.1 % in the usual care group, by 11.9 % in the FOBT/brochure group, and by 21.4 % in the brochure/telephone counseling group (p<0.01 for differences between each intervention and usual care and for the difference between the basic and the enhanced intervention). Conclusions An intervention that included culturally tailored brochures and tailored telephone counseling increased CRC screening in Latinos and the Vietnamese. Brochure and telephone counseling together had the greatest impact. Future research should address replication and dissemination of this model for Latinos and Vietnamese in other communities, and adaptation of the model for other groups. PMID:20547275

  10. The Healthy Weight Collaborative: quality improvement methods promoting healthy weight.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Marianne E; Vanderkruik, Rachel; Reims, Kathy; Coulouris, Natasha; Anand, Shikha; Linde-Feucht, Sarah; Homer, Charles J

    2012-08-01

    Promoting healthy weight requires innovative approaches and a concerted response across all sectors of society. This commentary features the framework guiding the Healthy Weight Collaborative, a two-phased quality improvement (QI) learning collaborative and key activity of the Collaborate for Healthy Weight initiative. Multi-sector teams from primary care, public health, and community-based organizations use QI to identify, test, and implement program and policy changes in their communities related to promoting healthy weight. We describe the Collaborative's overall design based on the Action Model to Achieve Healthy People 2020 Goals and our approach of applying QI methods to advance implementation of sustainable ways to promote healthy weight and healthy equity. We provide specifics on measurement and change strategies as well as examples of Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles from teams participating in Phase 1 of the Collaborative. These teams will serve as leaders for sustainable, positive change in their communities. PMID:22864485

  11. Activity Levels in Healthy Older Adults: Implications for Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Thorp, Laura E.; Orozco, Diego; Block, Joel A.; Sumner, Dale R.; Wimmer, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluated activity levels in a group of healthy older adults to establish a target activity level for adults of similar age after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). With the decreasing age of TJA patients, it is essential to have a reference for activity level in younger patients as activity level affects quality of life and implant design. 54 asymptomatic, healthy older adults with no clinical evidence of lower extremity OA participated. The main outcome measure, average daily step count, was measured using an accelerometer-based activity monitor. On average the group took 8813 ± 3611 steps per day, approximately 4000 more steps per day than has been previously reported in patients following total joint arthroplasty. The present work provides a reference for activity after joint arthroplasty which is relevant given the projected number of people under the age of 65 who will undergo joint arthroplasty in the coming years. PMID:23577274

  12. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  13. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  14. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be ...

  15. Healthy Sexuality

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... t be afraid to talk with a health care professional. Everyone can achieve the healthy and satisfying ... site at www.asrm.org Find a Health Care Provider Back to Top Home | About Us | Reproductive ...

  16. Adapalene-benzoyl peroxide once-daily, fixed-dose combination gel for the treatment of acne vulgaris: a randomized, bilateral (split-face), dose-assessment study of cutaneous tolerability in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Andres, Philippe; Pernin, Colette; Poncet, Michel

    2008-03-01

    Combination therapy is an effective approach to simultaneously target multiple pathogenic factors of acne. International consensus guidelines recommend the use of topical retinoids and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) for acne treatment. These drugs are often prescribed as a free combination without any safety concern associated with antibiotic use. A 3-week, randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, single-center, bilateral (split-face), dose-assessment study was conducted comparing the cutaneous tolerability of 2 adapalene-BPO fixed-dose combination products versus various concentrations of BPO monotherapy applied once daily. Sixty healthy participants were randomized to one of the following treatment groups: adapalene 0.1%-BPO 2.5% combination product versus BPO 2.5% monotherapy; adapalene 0.1%-BPO 2.5% combination product versus BPO 5% monotherapy; adapalene 0.1%-BPO 5% combination product versus BPO 5% monotherapy; and adapalene 0.1%-BPO 5% combination product versus BPO 10% monotherapy. Assessments included total sum score (TSS) of irritation signs/ symptoms (erythema, scaling/desquamation, dryness, pruritus, stinging/burning) averaged over all postbaseline visits, individual irritation signs/symptoms (worst score), and adverse events. The overall cutaneous tolerability profile of the adapalene 0.1%-BPO 2.5% combination product was better than the combination with BPO 5% and similar to BPO 2.5% or 5% monotherapy. The combination product with BPO 5% induced significantly more irritation than BPO 5% monotherapy (P < .001) or BPO 10% monotherapy (P = .001). In conclusion, the new fixed-dose adapalene 0.1%-BPO 2.5% combination product provided the best overall cutaneous tolerability profile relative to BPO monotherapy. PMID:18441854

  17. Tools for Healthy Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Fleischhacker, Sheila; Byrd, Randi R.; Ramachandran, Gowri; Vu, Maihan; Ries, Amy; Bell, Ronny A.; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing recognition that policymakers can promote access to healthy, affordable foods within neighborhoods, schools, childcare centers, and workplaces. Despite the disproportionate risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes among American Indian children and adults, comparatively little attention has been focused on the opportunities tribal policymakers have to implement policies or resolutions to promote access to healthy, affordable foods. This paper presents an approach for integrating formative research into an action-oriented strategy of developing and disseminating tribally led environmental and policy strategies to promote access to and consumption of healthy, affordable foods. This paper explains how the American Indian Healthy Eating Project evolved through five phases and discusses each phase’s essential steps involved, outcomes derived, and lessons learned. Using community-based participatory research and informed by the Social Cognitve Theory and ecologic frameworks, the American Indian Healthy Eating Project was started in fall 2008 and has evolved through five phases: (1) starting the conversation; (2) conducting multidisciplinary formative research; (3) strengthening partnerships and tailoring policy options; (4) disseminating community-generated ideas; and (5) accelerating action while fostering sustainability. Collectively, these phases helped develop and disseminate Tools for Healthy Tribes—a toolkit used to raise awareness among participating tribal policymakers of their opportunities to improve access to healthy, affordable foods. Formal and informal strategies can engage tribal leaders in the development of culturally appropriate and tribe-specific sustainable strategies to improve such access, as well as empower tribal leaders to leverage their authority toward raising a healthier generation of American Indian children. PMID:22898161

  18. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preparing Food When the person with Alzheimer’s disease lives with you: • Buy healthy foods such as vegetables, fruits, and whole-grain products. ... When a person with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease lives alone, you can buy foods that the person doesn’t need to cook. ...

  19. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age. But you can make changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke and other serious diseases: Get ...

  20. Healthy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  1. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... easy for kids to choose healthy snacks by keeping fruits and vegetables on hand and ready to eat. ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping ... Award-Winning Cafeteria Recipes Garden-Fresh Lunches Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Kid's Guide ...

  2. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... of healthy foods, and limit calories and saturated fat Be physically active Control your blood pressure and cholesterol Don't smoke Protect yourself from too much sun Drink alcohol in moderation, or don't drink at all Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

  3. Asexual metazoans undergo senescence.

    PubMed

    Martínez, D E; Levinton, J S

    1992-10-15

    August Weismann popularized the notion that metazoans have a potentially immortal germ line separated from a mortal soma, and evolutionary biologists regard senescence as an evolved characteristic of the soma. Many have claimed that metazoans that do not sequester their germ line have no clear distinction between germ line and soma, and consequently they should lack senescence. Here we present experimental evidence that senescence occurs in the asexually reproducing marine oligochaete Paranais litoralis. We also analyze data reported in Sonneborn's classical study and show that the rhabdocoel Stenostomum incaudatum undergoes senescence. We argue that the stability of commitment to somatic function and the fact that asexual metazoans form their germ cells from undifferentiated stem cells are sufficient to allow for senescence of the asexual metazoan's soma. Thus the evolution of somatic differentiation, and not germ-line sequestration, would be the necessary condition for the evolution of senescence. PMID:11607334

  4. Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ways to give How your gift saves lives Donate cord blood Cord blood is changing lives Federal cord blood ... Cord blood options Sibling directed donation How to donate cord blood Participating hospitals Cord blood FAQs Learn if you ...

  5. Designing the Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls Church-Based Diabetes Prevention Program through a Participatory Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Amber; Confair, Amy R.; Flamm, Laura; Goheer, Attia; Graham, Karlene; Muindi, Mwende; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls (HBHS) program aims to reduce diabetes risk among urban African Americans by creating healthy food and physical activity environments within churches. Participant engagement supports the development of applicable intervention strategies by identifying priority concerns, resources, and opportunities.…

  6. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  7. Employee Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarratt, Alex

    1975-01-01

    The article presents another approach to individual motivation--participative management--which concerns an emotional rather than financial commitment to the job through involvement and job satisfaction. The author favors within this approach: employee participation in decision-making, entitlement to information, and the establishment of…

  8. Healthy Family 2009: Practicing Healthy Adult Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Practicing Healthy Adult Living Past Issues / Winter ... diabetes, or if heart disease runs in your family, begin checking cholesterol at age 20. Colorectal Cancer : ...

  9. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... please turn Javascript on. 7 Smart Steps to Aging Well 1. Control Blood Pressure You can have ...

  10. Partnership for Healthy Mouths Healthy Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Dentist Campaign Overview Press Releases About the Partnership Our Supporters Contact Us Partner Profile Page Learn ... others in the general population. OUR SOLUTION The Partnership for Healthy Mouths, Healthy Lives (PHMHL) is helping ...

  11. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  12. Evaluating Maori community initiatives to promote healthy eating, healthy action.

    PubMed

    Hamerton, Heather; Mercer, Christine; Riini, Denise; McPherson, Brighid; Morrison, Laurie

    2014-03-01

    Māori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand, experience poorer health than non-Māori across a range of health measures. Interventions focused at an individual level have proved largely ineffective; 'bottom-up' approaches where communities determine their own priorities may be more sustainable than 'top-down' approaches where goals are determined by health authorities. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate an innovative health promotion programme aimed at improving Māori health and to discuss the importance of ownership and control of health initiatives by Māori. Evaluators conducted a comprehensive evaluation of a Healthy Eating Healthy Action programme in six small Māori health agencies, gathering information from programme managers and co-ordinators, participants and wider community members about what changes were occurring at individual, family and community levels. Effective interventions built on cultural values and practices and were delivered by Māori with close connections to the community. Changes in nutrition and physical activity made by participants also benefitted their wider families and community. The changes demonstrated subtle but important shifts in thinking about healthy eating and healthy activity that in the longer term could lead to more measurable change towards improved quality of life for people within communities. PMID:22952336

  13. Empowering communities: action research through healthy cities.

    PubMed

    Flynn, B C; Ray, D W; Rider, M S

    1994-01-01

    The Healthy Cities process uses action research to empower communities to take action for health. Five concepts that link community empowerment and action research are: focus on community, citizen participation, information and problem solving, sharing of power, and quality of life. Two city examples from Healthy Cities Indiana, a pilot program of CITYNET Healthy Cities, provide illustrations of these concepts. The dynamics of community participation in action research and the successes and barriers to community participation are presented. Outcomes that empowered the community are suggested: the extent to which Healthy City projects are initiated, their progress monitored, continued action in health supported, resources obtained, and policies promoted that contribute equity in health. PMID:8002362

  14. Worker Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    The philosophy and workability of the concept of worker participation in management decisions is discussed in the context of British society. It is recommended that four interests be represented in any kind of Workers' Council: management, workers, shareholders, and consumers. (AG)

  15. Remote limb ischemic conditioning enhances motor learning in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Cherry-Allen, Kendra M; Gidday, Jeff M; Lee, Jin-Moo; Hershey, Tamara; Lang, Catherine E

    2015-06-01

    Brief bouts of sublethal ischemia have been shown to protect exposed tissue (ischemic conditioning) and tissues at remote sites (remote ischemic conditioning) against subsequent ischemic challenges. Given that the mechanisms of this protective phenomenon are multifactorial and epigenetic, we postulated that remote limb ischemic conditioning (RLIC) might enhance mechanisms responsible for neural plasticity, and thereby facilitate learning. Specifically, we hypothesized that conditioning of the nervous system with RLIC, achieved through brief repetitive limb ischemia prior to training, would facilitate the neurophysiological processes of learning, thus making training more effective and more long-lasting. Eighteen healthy adults participated in this study; nine were randomly allocated to RLIC and nine to sham conditioning. All subjects underwent seven consecutive weekday sessions and 2-wk and 4-wk follow-up sessions. We found that RLIC resulted in significantly greater motor learning and longer retention of motor performance gains in healthy adults. Changes in motor performance do not appear to be due to a generalized increase in muscle activation or muscle strength and were not associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration. Of note, RLIC did not enhance cognitive learning on a hippocampus-dependent task. While future research is needed to establish optimal conditioning and training parameters, this inexpensive, clinically feasible paradigm might ultimately be implemented to enhance motor learning in individuals undergoing neuromuscular rehabilitation for brain injury and other pathological conditions. PMID:25867743

  16. Remote limb ischemic conditioning enhances motor learning in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Cherry-Allen, Kendra M.; Gidday, Jeff M.; Lee, Jin-Moo; Hershey, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Brief bouts of sublethal ischemia have been shown to protect exposed tissue (ischemic conditioning) and tissues at remote sites (remote ischemic conditioning) against subsequent ischemic challenges. Given that the mechanisms of this protective phenomenon are multifactorial and epigenetic, we postulated that remote limb ischemic conditioning (RLIC) might enhance mechanisms responsible for neural plasticity, and thereby facilitate learning. Specifically, we hypothesized that conditioning of the nervous system with RLIC, achieved through brief repetitive limb ischemia prior to training, would facilitate the neurophysiological processes of learning, thus making training more effective and more long-lasting. Eighteen healthy adults participated in this study; nine were randomly allocated to RLIC and nine to sham conditioning. All subjects underwent seven consecutive weekday sessions and 2-wk and 4-wk follow-up sessions. We found that RLIC resulted in significantly greater motor learning and longer retention of motor performance gains in healthy adults. Changes in motor performance do not appear to be due to a generalized increase in muscle activation or muscle strength and were not associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration. Of note, RLIC did not enhance cognitive learning on a hippocampus-dependent task. While future research is needed to establish optimal conditioning and training parameters, this inexpensive, clinically feasible paradigm might ultimately be implemented to enhance motor learning in individuals undergoing neuromuscular rehabilitation for brain injury and other pathological conditions. PMID:25867743

  17. ‘Is Going through Clinical Test a Headache?’ An HRV Study and Descriptive Report of Subjective Experience of Undergoing EEG Testing

    PubMed Central

    Kathrotia, Rajesh; Singh, Yogesh; Goel, Arun; Patil, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    To explore the heart rate variability (HRV) changes and subjective perception of undergoing electroencephalography (EEG). We conducted a study on 35 healthy male volunteers. The intervention consisted of placing 23 disc-type EEG electrodes of 5-7 mm diameter with long flexible lead according to international 10-20 system for the duration of 30 min, in a sitting position, on the scalp. The outcome measures were time and frequency domain parameters of HRV analysis and descriptive report of subjective experiences on a 3-point Likert scale. The perception of undergoing EEG ranged from pleasant to uneasy. For 13 (37%) participants it was soothing and relaxing, for 11 (31.5%) it was neutral and for the rest 11 (31.5%) it was uneasy and restrictive in nature. However, HRV analysis of the pre and post EEG, showed no statistically significant difference. In our study, the mixed subjective experience of undergoing EEG may be due to individual variation in the perception of the intervention. No difference in HRV parameters may be because of 2 possibilities. The first possibility is varied experiences of procedure with temporal progression. Same participants may have experienced 2 opposite extremes of experiences over and over again, which may have cancelled out sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. The second possibility may be that no stress is generated during clinical test. PMID:27536017

  18. Participative Design for Participative Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Merrelyn, Ed.

    This four-part volume addresses design principles for introducing democratic forms in workplaces, educational institutions, and social institutions, based on a trend toward participative democracy in Australia. Following an introduction, part I sets the context with two papers: "The Agenda for the Next Wave" and "Educational Paradigms: An…

  19. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development. PMID:26069314

  20. Factors that motivate people to undergo cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Levitas, James

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 204 British participants completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude toward cosmetic surgery as well as measures of self-esteem, life satisfaction, self-rated physical attractiveness, religiosity and media consumption. Two factors emerged from a factor analysis of their attitudes toward surgery: likelihood to undergo, and benefits of undergoing, cosmetic surgery. Females with low self-esteem, low life satisfaction, low self-rated attractiveness and little religious beliefs who were heavy television watchers reported a greater likelihood of undergoing cosmetic surgery. Stepwise regression analysis with the two attitude factors as criterion variables showed two major predictors for likelihood: religiousness and low self-esteem, and four major predictors for benefit: religousness, media consumption, life satisfaction and sex. The role of religion is considered in this context. PMID:24294026

  1. Factors that motivate people to undergo cosmetic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian; Levitas, James

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 204 British participants completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude toward cosmetic surgery as well as measures of self-esteem, life satisfaction, self-rated physical attractiveness, religiosity and media consumption. Two factors emerged from a factor analysis of their attitudes toward surgery: likelihood to undergo, and benefits of undergoing, cosmetic surgery. Females with low self-esteem, low life satisfaction, low self-rated attractiveness and little religious beliefs who were heavy television watchers reported a greater likelihood of undergoing cosmetic surgery. Stepwise regression analysis with the two attitude factors as criterion variables showed two major predictors for likelihood: religiousness and low self-esteem, and four major predictors for benefit: religousness, media consumption, life satisfaction and sex. The role of religion is considered in this context. PMID:24294026

  2. Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... our online catalog . Alternate Language URL Keep Your Kidneys Healthy Page Content The steps you take to ... and heart disease. Tips to help keep your kidneys healthy: Keep your blood pressure at the target ...

  3. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.; Bourne, Peter G.; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security. PMID:23385371

  4. Qualitative study exploring healthy eating practices and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary behaviours and physical activity are modifiable risk factors to address increasing levels of obesity among children and adolescents, and consequently to reduce later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This paper explores perceptions, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in the rural Agincourt subdistrict, covered by a health and sociodemographic surveillance system, in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Semistructured “duo-interviews” were carried out with 11 pairs of adolescent female friends aged 16 to 19 years. Thematic content analysis was used. Results The majority of participants considered locally grown and traditional foods, especially fruits and vegetables, to be healthy. Their consumption was limited by availability, and these foods were often sourced from family or neighbourhood gardens. Female caregivers and school meal programmes facilitated healthy eating practices. Most participants believed in the importance of breakfast, even though for the majority, limited food within the household was a barrier to eating breakfast before going to school. The majority cited limited accessibility as a major barrier to healthy eating, and noted the increasing intake of “convenient and less healthy foods”. Girls were aware of the benefits of physical activity and engaged in various physical activities within the home, community, and schools, including household chores, walking long distances to school, traditional dancing, and extramural activities such as netball and soccer. Conclusions The findings show widespread knowledge about healthy eating and the benefits of consuming locally grown and traditional food items in a population that is undergoing nutrition transition. Limited access and food availability are strong barriers to healthy eating practices. School meal programmes are an important

  5. Healthy-eater identity and self-efficacy predict healthy eating behavior: a prospective view.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Shaelyn M; Brawley, Lawrence R

    2009-07-01

    Identity and Self-efficacy Theories were used to examine the relationship between healthy-eater identity, self-efficacy for healthy eating and healthy eating. Measures of healthy-eater identity, perception of healthy eating, nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy for both intake of fruits and vegetables and foods of low nutritional value were completed by 101 university students and staff. Two weeks later, participants recalled recent consumption of (a) fruits and vegetables and (b) foods of low nutritional value. For both eating outcomes, healthy-eater identity was a significant predictor after controlling for nutrition knowledge. The addition of self-efficacy improved prediction in the case of both eating outcomes. PMID:19515684

  6. Recruiting Healthy Volunteers for Research Participation via Internet Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Bramstedt, Katrina A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The Internet is frequently used as a tool to recruit research subjects, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides general guidance regarding such advertising. The goal of this study was to explore the incidence and nature of ethically inappropriate recruiting advertisements on the Internet and to provide descriptive guidance to researchers for responsible Internet recruiting. Methods: In this study, 119 advertisements recruiting health volunteers and listed on the CenterWatch Clinical Trials Listing Service website were reviewed for content as well as text style and visual effects. Results: The majority of advertisements satisfied FDA guidance. However, 21 (18%) were ethically troubling with regard to font size, font style, and/or verbiage. In many advertisements, it was unclear if “medication” meant “investigational drug,” “over-the-counter medication” or US FDA approved “prescription medication.” Nearly 30% of the 119 advertisements used the terms “free,” “no charge” or “no cost” as lures. Conclusion: Ethically problematic recruiting advertisements can be coercive and misleading. Descriptive guidance provided in this paper can help clinical researchers create ethically appropriate recruiting advertisements. PMID:17607043

  7. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Vazirian, Shams; Seyedzadeh, Abolhasan; Rafeie, Mohammad; Salehi, Bahman; Amiri, Mohammad; Ebrahimimonfared, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood psychiatric disorder. This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic disease. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and to compare the results with those of healthy children. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted for six months (December 22, 2013 to June 21, 2014) on five to 16-year-old children, visiting the Pediatric Dialysis Unit of Amirkabir Hospital, Arak, Iran, and Taleghani Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran. A total of 100 children with ESRD who had undergone CAPD for at least six months and 100 healthy children were included in this study as case and control groups, respectively. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner's Parent Rating Scale-48 (CPRS-48) and DSM-IV-TR criteria, and was confirmed through consultation by psychologist. Data were analyzed by Binomial test in SPSS 18. Results: The ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16%) with CAPD and five controls (5%) (P = 0.01). Moreover, ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type was observed in 27 cases (27%) with CAPD and seven controls (9%) (P = 0.002). Despite these significant differences, no children were diagnosed with ADHD combined type among all subjects. Conclusions: Inattentive type and hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD are more prevalent in children with ESRD undergoing CAPD. Therefore screening methods for ADHD is necessary in these patients. PMID:25830120

  8. Food intake and the nutritional status of women undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabela Borges; Marinho, Eduarda da Costa; Custódio, Isis Danyelle Dias; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Maia, Yara Cristina de Paiva

    2016-06-01

    The objective behind this study was the analysis of food intake and the nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC) undergoing chemotherapy (CT). The quantitative dietary evaluation was performed in accordance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), whereas the qualitative evaluation was performed through the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R).From among the total number of patients (n = 20), 60% (n = 12) presented waist circumference, equal to or higher than 88cm. It was noted that 75% (n = 15) individuals were overweight. The average intake for calcium, copper, iron, dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, vitamin B6 and zinc, were found to be below adequate intake levels, while the intake of vitamin C, phosphorus, manganese, sodium and thiamine were all found to be above DRIs recommendations. As for the analysis of the BHEI-R, 80% (n = 16) of the patients presented a "diet that needs modifications", while 20% (n = 4) presented a "healthy diet". Noted from these observations was the presence of a high overweight rate, a discrepancy in the intake of micronutrients and a diet that needed improvements. In this manner, the establishment and use of a nutritional intervention protocol are very important when it comes to the improvement of the diet in patients with BC and who are undergoing CT. PMID:27383354

  9. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. PMID:24210176

  10. Perspectives on Healthy Eating Among Appalachian Residents

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Howell, Britteny M.; Swanson, Mark; Grosh, Christopher; Bardach, Shoshana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Extensive attention has been focused on improving the dietary intake of Americans. Such focus is warranted due to increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and other dietary-related disease. To address suboptimal dietary intake requires an improved, contextualized understanding of the multiple and intersecting influences on healthy eating, particularly among those populations at greatest risk of and from poor diet, including rural residents. Methods During 8 focus groups (N=99) and 6 group key informant interviews (N=20), diverse Appalachian rural residents were queried about their perceptions of healthy eating, determinants of healthy food intake, and recommendations for improving the dietary intake of people in their communities. Participants included church members and other laypeople, public health officials, social service providers, health care professionals, and others. Findings Participants offered insights on healthy eating consistent with the categories of individual, interpersonal, community, physical, environmental and society-level influences described in the socioecological model. Although many participants identified gaps in dietary knowledge as a persistent problem, informants also identified extra-individual factors, including the influence of family, fellow church members, and schools, policy, advertising and media, and general societal trends, as challenges to healthy dietary intake. We highlight Appalachian residents’ recommendations for promoting healthier diets, including support groups, educational workshops, cooking classes, and community gardening. Conclusions We discuss the implications of these findings for programmatic development in the Appalachian context. PMID:23944277

  11. Healthy Child Care Colorado, 2002: Outcome Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Susan

    This report describes the impact of nurse consultant services to child care programs in Colorado on the children, parents, and staff of the centers they serve as part of the Healthy Child Care Colorado (HCCC) initiative. Study participants included 25 child care center directors and 24 nurse consultants, representing large and small centers in…

  12. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  13. Staying Healthy After Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... http://womenshealth.gov/menopause/menopause-basics/index.html Staying healthy after menopause may mean making some changes in the way you live. Don't smoke. If you do use any type of tobacco, stop—it's never too late to benefit from quitting smoking. Eat a healthy ...

  14. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  15. Healthy Homes Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina; Lyon, Melinda; Russ, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Extension is focusing on healthy homes programming. Extension educators are not qualified to diagnose consumers' medical problems as they relate to housing. We cannot give medical advice. Instead, we can help educate consumers about home conditions that may affect their well-being. Extension educators need appropriate healthy homes tools to…

  16. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  17. Choosing Healthy Restaurant Meals

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Your Plate? Smart Food Choices for Healthy Aging. Download the Tip Sheet Choosing Healthy Restaurant Meals (PDF, 513.39 KB) You Might Also Like Drinking Enough Fluids Foot Care Monthly Progress Test STAY INFORMED Follow us on Twitter Visit us ...

  18. Who Participates and Why: Building a Process Model of Citizen Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster-Fishman, Pennie G.; Pierce, Steven J.; Van Egeren, Laurie A.

    2009-01-01

    Initiating and sustaining sufficient levels of participation among residents in low-income and urban neighborhoods have become significant focuses of many initiatives that strive to develop healthy communities. This study examines the factors associated with citizen participation levels in resident leaders and followers in seven low-income…

  19. Inflammatory response in heroin addicts undergoing methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yuan-Yu; Yang, Szu-Nian; Lin, Jyh-Chyang; Chang, Junn-Liang; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lo, Wan-Yu

    2015-03-30

    Opioid addiction influences many physiological functions including reactions of the immune system. The objective of this study was to investigate the immune system function in heroin addicted patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) compared to healthy controls. We tested the cytokine production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α from a group of heroin addicts (n=34) and healthy controls (n=20). The results show that production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 was significantly higher in the group of methadone-maintained patients than in the healthy control group. Plasma TNF-α and IL-6 levels were significantly correlated with the dairy methadone dosage administered, and the IL-1β level was significantly correlated with the duration of methadone maintenance treatment. These findings suggest that methadone maintenance treatment influences the immune system functions of opioid-dependent patients and may also induce long-term systemic inflammation. PMID:25660662

  20. Coalition releases declaration for healthy and productive oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-06-01

    Coalition releases declaration for healthy and productive oceans A coalition of 13 countries or federal agencies participating in a new Global Partnership for Oceans (GPO) indicated its support for a “Declaration for Healthy and Productive Oceans to Help Reduce Poverty” on 16 June, just prior to the Rio+20 conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  1. PETE Students' Perceptions of a Healthy and Active Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Pennington, Todd; Barney, David; Lockhart, Barbara; Hager, Ron; Prusak, Keven

    2014-01-01

    Participants were male and female students (n = 12) in a physical education teacher education (PETE) program with a healthy and active lifestyle management (HALM) focus, at a university in the Intermountain West. The purpose of the study was to examine PETE students' perceptions of a healthy and active lifestyle (HAL). Following inductive content…

  2. Modelling decisions to undergo genetic testing for susceptibility to common health conditions: an ancillary study of the Multiplex Initiative.

    PubMed

    Wade, Christopher H; Shiloh, Shoshana; Woolford, Samuel W; Roberts, J Scott; Alford, Sharon Hensley; Marteau, Theresa M; Biesecker, Barbara B

    2012-01-01

    New genetic tests reveal risks for multiple conditions simultaneously, although little is understood about the psychological factors that affect testing uptake. We assessed a conceptual model called the multiplex genetic testing model (MGTM) using structural equation modelling. The MGTM delineates worry, perceived severity, perceived risk, response efficacy and attitudes towards testing as predictors of intentions and behaviour. Participants were 270 healthy insured adults aged 25-40 from the Multiplex Initiative conducted within a health care system in Detroit, MI, USA. Participants were offered a genetic test that assessed risk for eight common health conditions. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that worry, perceived risk and severity clustered into two disease domains: cancer or metabolic conditions. Only perceived severity of metabolic conditions was correlated with general response efficacy (β = 0.13, p<0.05), which predicted general attitudes towards testing (β = 0.24, p<0.01). Consistent with our hypothesised model, attitudes towards testing were the strongest predictors of intentions to undergo testing (β = 0.49, p<0.01), which in turn predicted testing uptake (OR 17.7, β = 0.97, p<0.01). The MGTM explained a striking 48% of the variance in intentions and 94% of the variation in uptake. These findings support use of the MGTM to explain psychological predictors of testing for multiple health conditions. PMID:21660870

  3. Health Status of People Undergoing Foreclosure in the Philadelphia Region

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the health status of people undergoing mortgage foreclosure in the Philadelphia region to determine if there was a relationship between foreclosure and health. Methods. Participants were recruited in partnership with a mortgage counseling agency. Participants' health status and health care use were compared with a community sample from the 2008 Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey. We used publicly filed foreclosure records to assess response bias. Results. Of the 250 people recruited, 36.7% met screening criteria for major depression. The foreclosure sample was significantly more likely than the community sample to not have insurance coverage (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49, 3.48) and to not have filled a prescription because of cost in the preceding year (AOR = 3.44; 95% CI = 2.45, 4.83). Approximately 9% of the participants reported that their own or a family member's medical condition was the primary reason they were undergoing foreclosure. More than a quarter of those in foreclosure (27.7%) stated that they owed money to medical creditors. Conclusions. Foreclosure affects already-vulnerable populations. Public health practitioners may be able to leverage current efforts to connect homeowners with mortgage counseling agencies to improve health care access. PMID:19696373

  4. Planning For a Healthy School Year: Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Planning For A Healthy School Year Healthy Eating Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of Contents How ... federal government releases a set of guidelines on healthy eating. The guidelines suggest balancing calories with physical activity. ...

  5. The healthy aged

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Marshall; Pike, Andrea; McCrate, Farah; Parsons, Karen; Parsons, Wanda; Pitcher, Heather; Buehler, Sharon; Gadag, Veeresh; Miller, Robert; Sclater, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe a population of cognitively functioning seniors aged 80 years and older who are living independently in the community. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study based on the enrolment cohort of a randomized controlled trial. Setting St John’s, Nfld. Participants A total of 236 cognitively functioning seniors aged 80 years and older living independently in the community. Main outcome measures Demographic characteristics including age, sex, marital status, and education; health status and quality of life measured by the Short Form–36 and the CASP-19 (control, autonomy, self-realization, and pleasure); use of formal and informal community services; satisfaction with family physician care as measured by the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire–18; and use of health care resources (family physician visits, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and laboratory and diagnostic imaging tests). Results Overall, 66.5% of those in the group were women and the average age was 85.5 years. A quarter had postsecondary diplomas or degrees; 54.7% were widowed (69.4% of women and 25.3% of men). The cohort scored well in terms of health status and quality of life, with a range of scores on the Short Form–36 from 57.5 to 93.5 out of 100, and a score of 44 out of 57 on the CASP-19; they were satisfied with the care received from family physicians, with scores between 3.8 and 4.3 out of 5 on the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire–18; and use of health services was low—70% had no emergency department visits in the previous year and 80% had not used any laboratory or diagnostic services. Conclusion Seniors aged 80 years and older living independently are involved in the social fabric of society. They are generally well educated, slightly more than half are widowed, and two-thirds are female. They score well on scales that measure well-being and quality of life, and they use few health services. They are the healthy aged. Trial registration

  6. Phase I/II Randomized Trial of Safety and Immunogenicity of LIPO-5 Alone, ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) Alone, and ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) Prime/LIPO-5 Boost in Healthy, HIV-1-Uninfected Adult Participants

    PubMed Central

    Peiperl, Laurence; McElrath, M. Juliana; Kalams, Spyros; Goepfert, Paul A.; Keefer, Michael C.; Baden, Lindsey R.; Lally, Michelle A.; Mayer, Kenneth; Blattner, William A.; Harro, Clayton D.; Hammer, Scott M.; Gorse, Geoffrey J.; Hural, John; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Levy, Yves; Gilbert, Peter; deCamp, Allan; Russell, Nina D.; Elizaga, Marnie; Allen, Mary; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Finding an effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine remains a major global health priority. In a phase I/II, placebo-controlled trial, healthy, HIV-1-negative adults were randomized to receive one of 5 vaccine regimens: LIPO-5 (combination of 5 lipopeptides) alone (250 μg), ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) alone, or 3 groups of ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) followed by ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) plus LIPO-5 (250, 750, and 2,500 μg). Only 73/174 participants (42%) received all four vaccinations due to a study halt related to myelitis. There were no significant differences in systemic reactions between groups or in local reactogenicity between groups receiving ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452). Significant differences in local reactogenicity occurred between groups receiving LIPO-5 (P ≤ 0.05). Gag and Env antibodies were undetectable by ELISA 2 weeks after the fourth vaccination for all but one recipient. Antibodies to Gag and Env were present in 32% and 24% of recipients of ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) alone and in 47% and 35% of ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452)+LIPO recipients, respectively. Coadministration of LIPO-5 did not significantly increase the response rate compared to ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) alone, nor was there a significant relationship between dose and antibody responses among ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452)+LIPO groups. Over 90% of study participants had no positive gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISpot) responses to any peptide pool at any time point. The study was halted due to a case of myelitis possibly related to the LIPO-5 vaccine; this case of myelitis remains an isolated event. In general, there was no appreciable cell-mediated immunity detected in response to the vaccines used in this study, and antibody responses were limited. The clinical trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with registry number NCT00076063. PMID:25253665

  7. Phase I/II randomized trial of safety and immunogenicity of LIPO-5 alone, ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) alone, and ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) prime/LIPO-5 boost in healthy, HIV-1-uninfected adult participants.

    PubMed

    Frey, Sharon E; Peiperl, Laurence; McElrath, M Juliana; Kalams, Spyros; Goepfert, Paul A; Keefer, Michael C; Baden, Lindsey R; Lally, Michelle A; Mayer, Kenneth; Blattner, William A; Harro, Clayton D; Hammer, Scott M; Gorse, Geoffrey J; Hural, John; Tomaras, Georgia D; Levy, Yves; Gilbert, Peter; deCamp, Allan; Russell, Nina D; Elizaga, Marnie; Allen, Mary; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-11-01

    Finding an effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine remains a major global health priority. In a phase I/II, placebo-controlled trial, healthy, HIV-1-negative adults were randomized to receive one of 5 vaccine regimens: LIPO-5 (combination of 5 lipopeptides) alone (250 μg), ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) alone, or 3 groups of ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) followed by ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) plus LIPO-5 (250, 750, and 2,500 μg). Only 73/174 participants (42%) received all four vaccinations due to a study halt related to myelitis. There were no significant differences in systemic reactions between groups or in local reactogenicity between groups receiving ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452). Significant differences in local reactogenicity occurred between groups receiving LIPO-5 (P ≤ 0.05). Gag and Env antibodies were undetectable by ELISA 2 weeks after the fourth vaccination for all but one recipient. Antibodies to Gag and Env were present in 32% and 24% of recipients of ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) alone and in 47% and 35% of ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452)+LIPO recipients, respectively. Coadministration of LIPO-5 did not significantly increase the response rate compared to ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) alone, nor was there a significant relationship between dose and antibody responses among ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452)+LIPO groups. Over 90% of study participants had no positive gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISpot) responses to any peptide pool at any time point. The study was halted due to a case of myelitis possibly related to the LIPO-5 vaccine; this case of myelitis remains an isolated event. In general, there was no appreciable cell-mediated immunity detected in response to the vaccines used in this study, and antibody responses were limited. The clinical trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with registry number NCT00076063. PMID:25253665

  8. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    MedlinePlus

    Flaxseeds contain fiber, vitamins, minerals, protein, healthy plant-based fats, and antioxidants that help prevent cell damage. Flaxseeds are a good source of soluble and insoluble fiber which help ...

  9. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean up the air are enforced. Learn more Climate Change Climate change threatens the health of millions of people, with ... What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & Natural Disasters Tobacco Education and Training Ask ...

  10. Healthy Sleep Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  11. Healthy Muscles Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my muscles more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles ... If you have been inactive, “start low and go slow” by gradually increasing how often and how ...

  12. Healthy Bones Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my bones more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Reprinted from The Surgeon General’s Report on ... women who don’t smoke, and they often go through menopause earlier. Smokers also may absorb less ...

  13. Healthy Dining Hall Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... with healthy foods will help fuel both your body and your mind. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  14. 4 Top Healthy Snacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity 4 Top Healthy Snacks Past Issues / Spring - Summer ... looking at whether or not the risks for childhood obesity could actually start before birth. The subject needs ...

  15. Healthy grocery shopping

    MedlinePlus

    ... for meats that are 97% lean ground meats. Fish, such as salmon, whitefish, sardines, herring, tilapia, and ... healthy foods are: Choose tuna and other canned fish that is packed in water, not oil. Check ...

  16. The healthy human microbiome.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Price, Jason; Abu-Ali, Galeb; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Humans are virtually identical in their genetic makeup, yet the small differences in our DNA give rise to tremendous phenotypic diversity across the human population. By contrast, the metagenome of the human microbiome-the total DNA content of microbes inhabiting our bodies-is quite a bit more variable, with only a third of its constituent genes found in a majority of healthy individuals. Understanding this variability in the "healthy microbiome" has thus been a major challenge in microbiome research, dating back at least to the 1960s, continuing through the Human Microbiome Project and beyond. Cataloguing the necessary and sufficient sets of microbiome features that support health, and the normal ranges of these features in healthy populations, is an essential first step to identifying and correcting microbial configurations that are implicated in disease. Toward this goal, several population-scale studies have documented the ranges and diversity of both taxonomic compositions and functional potentials normally observed in the microbiomes of healthy populations, along with possible driving factors such as geography, diet, and lifestyle. Here, we review several definitions of a 'healthy microbiome' that have emerged, the current understanding of the ranges of healthy microbial diversity, and gaps such as the characterization of molecular function and the development of ecological therapies to be addressed in the future. PMID:27122046

  17. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index of Water-Related Topics Featured Partners Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global WASH Other Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related ...

  18. Participation during First Social Encounters in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G. T.; McCabe, Rosemarie

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia are socially excluded. The aim of this study was to investigate how patients participate in first encounters with unfamiliar healthy participants, who are unaware of their diagnosis. Methods Patterns of participation were investigated during interactions involving three-people. Three conversation roles were analysed: (i) speaker, (ii) primary recipient- focus of the speaker’s attention and (iii) secondary recipient- unaddressed individual. Twenty patient interactions (1 patient, 2 healthy controls) and 20 control interactions (3 healthy participants) were recorded and motion captured in 3D. The participation of patients and their partners, in each conversation role, was compared with controls at the start, middle and end of the interaction. The relationship between patients’ participation, their symptoms and the rapport others experienced with them was also explored. Results At the start of the interaction patients spoke less (ß = −.639, p = .02) and spent more time as secondary recipient (ß = .349, p = .02). Patients’ participation at the middle and end of the interaction did not differ from controls. Patients’ partners experienced poorer rapport with patients who spent more time as a primary recipient at the start of the interaction (Rho(11) = −.755, p<.01). Patients’ participation was not associated with symptoms. Conclusion Despite their increased participation over time, patients’ initial participation appears to be associated with others’ experience of rapport with them. Thus, the opening moments of patients’ first encounters appear to be interpersonally significant. Further investigation of patient and others’ behaviour during these critical moments is warranted in order to understand, and possibly develop interventions to address, the difficulties schizophrenia patients experience here. PMID:24465363

  19. Opportunistic microorganisms in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Querido, Silvia Maria Rodrigues; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy may cause changes in the resident oral microbiota, with the increase of opportunistic pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of Candida, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of fifty patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis and systemically healthy controls. Oral rinsing and subgingival samples were obtained, plated in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, mannitol agar and MacConkey agar, and incubated for 48 h at 37°C. Candida spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified by phenotypic tests, C. dubliniensis, by multiplex PCR, and coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., by the API systems. The number of Candida spp. was significantly higher in tuberculosis patients, and C. albicans was the most prevalent specie. No significant differences in the prevalence of other microorganisms were observed. In conclusion, the antimicrobial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis induced significant increase only in the amounts of Candida spp. PMID:24031759

  20. Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2003-01-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

  1. Serum Sclerostin Increases in Healthy Adult Men during Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Pajevic, P. Divieti; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, J. D.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton's response to mechanical unloading in part by an increase in sclerostin. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Objective: We determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men undergoing controlled bed rest. Design, Setting, and Participants: Seven healthy adult men (31 ± 3 yr old) underwent 90 d of 6° head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch Institute for Translational Sciences-Clinical Research Center. Outcomes: Serum sclerostin, PTH, vitamin D, bone resorption and formation markers, urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24-h pooled urinary markers of bone resorption were evaluated before bed rest [baseline (BL)] and at bed rest d 28 (BR-28), d 60 (BR-60), and d 90 (BR-90). Bone mineral density was measured at BL, BR-60, and 5 d after the end of the study (BR+5). Data are reported as mean ± sd. Results: Consistent with prior reports, bone mineral density declined significantly (1–2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites. Serum sclerostin was elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29 ± 20%; P = 0.003) and BR-60 (+42 ± 31%; P < 0.001), with a lesser increase at BR-90 (+22 ± 21%; P = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (−17 ± 16%; P = 0.02) and BR-60 (−24 ± 14%; P = 0.03) and remained lower than BL at BR-90 (−21 ± 21%; P = 0.14), but did not reach statistical significance. Serum bone turnover markers were unchanged; however, urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated at all time points after bed rest (P < 0.01). Conclusions: In healthy men subjected to controlled bed rest for 90 d, serum sclerostin increased, with a peak at 60, whereas serum PTH declined, and urinary calcium and bone resorption markers increased. PMID:22767636

  2. Who participates and why: building a process model of citizen participation.

    PubMed

    Foster-Fishman, Pennie G; Pierce, Steven J; Van Egeren, Laurie A

    2009-06-01

    Initiating and sustaining sufficient levels of participation among residents in low-income and urban neighborhoods have become significant focuses of many initiatives that strive to develop healthy communities. This study examines the factors associated with citizen participation levels in resident leaders and followers in seven low-income neighborhoods in one community. Overall, the findings suggest that different factors facilitate participation in leaders and followers. Leaders are more likely to actively participate in neighborhood and community affairs if they perceive themselves as having the skills needed to organize others and make change happen. Whereas perceived skill levels also matter for followers, these residents are strongly influenced by the norms for activism within their neighborhood. These norms mediate the impact of neighborhood readiness and capacity for change on citizen participation levels. Implications for funders and practitioners interested in promoting healthy communities are discussed. PMID:19225070

  3. Participation in Universal Prevention Programs.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, Robert; Goates, Scott; Hill, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We analyze family decisions to participate in community-based universal substance-abuse prevention programs through the framework of expected utility theory. Family functioning, which has been shown to be a good indicator of child risk for substance abuse, provides a useful reference point for family decision making. Our results show that well-functioning families (with children at low risk for substance use) should have the lowest incentive to participate, but that high-risk families may also opt out of prevention programs. For programs that are most effective for high-risk youth, this could be a problem. Using data from the Strengthening Families Program and the Washington Healthy Youth Survey, we empirically test the implications of our model and find that at least for one measure of family functioning those families with children most likely to be at risk for substance use are opting out of the program. PMID:23894208

  4. Status of selected nutrients in obese dogs undergoing caloric restriction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that dog plasma concentrations of selected nutrients decrease after undergoing caloric restriction for weight loss. Thirty-one overweight dogs that had successfully lost at least 15% of initial body weight were included in the study. Nutrients that had been previously identified to be at potential risk of deficiency during caloric restriction were measured in plasma (choline, amino acids) and urine (selenium) at the initiation and completion of a standardized weight loss regimen in dogs. Results Dogs remained healthy throughout the study, and no signs attributable to nutrient deficiency were noted. Percentage weight loss was 28.3% (16.0-40.1%) starting body weight, over a period of 250 days (91–674 days). Median energy intake during the weight loss period was 62 (44 to 74) Kcal/kg0.75 target weight per day. Choline (P = 0.046) and threonine (P = 0.02) decreased after weight loss. Glycine (P = 0.041), and urinary selenium:creatinine ratio (P = 0.006) both increased after weight loss. There were no other significant differences in plasma nutrient concentrations. Conclusions Since concentrations of most measured nutrients did not change significantly, the data are not consistent with widespread nutrient deficiency in dogs undergoing caloric restriction using a diet formulated for weight loss. However, the significance of the decrease in plasma choline concentration requires further assessment. PMID:24156605

  5. Healthy human gut phageome.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J

    2016-09-13

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health. PMID:27573828

  6. Classroom Teachers' Efficacy in Teaching Healthy Behaviour Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Cothran, Donetta; Kloeppel, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    This study, grounded in Self-Efficacy Theory, investigated classroom teachers' self-efficacy changes related to teaching healthy behaviour content after participating in ongoing workshops. Participants were 50 male and female teachers at the primary (n = 17) and secondary (n = 33) levels from two schools in one Native American community. Teacher…

  7. Healthy eating habits protect against temptations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Wood, Wendy; Monterosso, John

    2016-08-01

    Can healthy food-choice habits protect people against temptations of consuming large portion sizes and unhealthy foods? In two studies, we show that the answer is yes, good habits serve this protective role, at least in contexts in which people are not deliberating and thus fall back on habitual responses. In the first study, participants trained with unhealthy habits to approach eating chocolate, but not those trained with healthy habits, succumbed to temptation and ate more chocolates when their self-control resources were depleted. Study 2 extended and clarified these findings by demonstrating the role of environmental cues in eliciting healthy habits when self-control resources are depleted. Participants who had been trained to choose carrots habitually to a pictorial stimulus (i.e., habit cue) subsequently resisted choosing M&Ms as long as the cue was present. This effect of habit cues on healthy food choices suggests the usefulness of manipulating such cues as a means of meeting self-regulatory goals such as portion control. PMID:26585633

  8. Healthy Schools Network, 2011 Yearbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the 2011 Yearbook of the Healthy Schools Network. This yearbook contains: (1) Tough Time To Be a Child: Parents and Taxpayers Should Be Enraged; (2) National Coalition For Healthier Schools: Healthy Schools 2015--Sustaining Momentum In Tough Times; (3) Healthy Schools Heroes Award Program; (4) National Healthy Schools Day…

  9. [Determinants of vascular wall stiffness in patients with chronic renal disease undergoing hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Kharlamova, U V; Il'icheva, O E

    2012-01-01

    Examination of 109 patients with chronic renal disease undergoing hemodialysis revealed significant impairment of arterial wall distensibility (accordingly, decreased Peterson's and Young's elastic moduli, distensibility coefficient). The relative thickness of the common carotid artery and pulse wave velocity were significantly greater than in practically healthy subjects. Independent factors influencing arterial wall rigidity included age, arterial pressure, total cholesterol and homocystein, stable metabolites of nitric oxide, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus levels, calcium x phosphorus product, duration of hemodialysis, interdialytic weight gain. PMID:23516853

  10. Anxious Attachment Style and Salivary Cortisol Dysregulation in Healthy Female Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskis, Andrea; Loveday, Catherine; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Clow, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attachment style has been linked with basal cortisol secretion in healthy adult women. We investigated whether dysregulation in basal cortisol secretion may be evident in younger healthy females. Methods: Sixty healthy females aged 9-18 years (mean 14.16, SD [plus or minus] 2.63 years) participated in the Attachment Style Interview…

  11. Healthy food trends -- microgreens

    MedlinePlus

    ... that can turn into vitamin A ) Garnet amaranth -- Vitamin K Eating lots of fruits and vegetables in any form is good for ... not well-proven, a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables may reduce the ... you may need to limit vitamin K foods. Vitamin K can affect how these ...

  12. Healthy People 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, Catherine M.

    2001-01-01

    Major Healthy People (HP) 2000 goals closely tied to prevention were not met nationally: physical activity did not improve; evidence that it actually decreased; obesity did not decrease but instead increased in all groups, actually doubling in children; and incidence of type 2 diabetes did not decrease, but instead evidence showed that it increased in all age groups.

  13. Deficient Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation in Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Jared W.; Cody, Mark J.; McManus, Meghann P.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Yost, Christian Con

    2016-01-01

    Overwhelming infection causes significant morbidity and mortality among patients treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for primary immune deficiencies, syndromes of bone marrow failure, or cancer. The polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN; neutrophil) is the first responder to microbial invasion and acts within the innate immune system to contain and clear infections. PMNs contain, and possibly clear, infections in part by forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are extensive lattices of extracellular DNA and decondensed chromatin decorated with antimicrobial proteins and degradative enzymes, such as histones, myeloperoxidase, and neutrophil elastase. They trap and contain microbes, including bacteria and fungi, and may directly affect extracellular microbial killing. Whether or not deficient NET formation contributes to the increased risk for overwhelming infection in patients undergoing BMT remains incompletely characterized, especially in the pediatric population. We examined NET formation in vitro in PMNs isolated from 24 patients who had undergone BMT for 13 different clinical indications. For these 24 study participants, the median age was 7 years. For 6 of the 24 patients, we examined NET formation by PMNs isolated from serial, peripheral blood samples drawn at three different clinical time points: pre-BMT, pre-engraftment, and post-engraftment. We found decreased NET formation by PMNs isolated from patients prior to BMT and during the pre-engraftment and post-engraftment phases, with decreased NET formation compared with healthy control PMNs detected even out to 199 days after their BMT. This decrease in NET formation after BMT did not result from neutrophil developmental immaturity as we demonstrated that >80% of the PMNs tested using flow cytometry expressed both CD10 and CD16 as markers of terminal differentiation along the neutrophilic lineage. These pilot study results mandate further exploration regarding the mechanisms or factors

  14. Deficient Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation in Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Jared W; Cody, Mark J; McManus, Meghann P; Pulsipher, Michael A; Schiffman, Joshua D; Yost, Christian Con

    2016-01-01

    Overwhelming infection causes significant morbidity and mortality among patients treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for primary immune deficiencies, syndromes of bone marrow failure, or cancer. The polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN; neutrophil) is the first responder to microbial invasion and acts within the innate immune system to contain and clear infections. PMNs contain, and possibly clear, infections in part by forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are extensive lattices of extracellular DNA and decondensed chromatin decorated with antimicrobial proteins and degradative enzymes, such as histones, myeloperoxidase, and neutrophil elastase. They trap and contain microbes, including bacteria and fungi, and may directly affect extracellular microbial killing. Whether or not deficient NET formation contributes to the increased risk for overwhelming infection in patients undergoing BMT remains incompletely characterized, especially in the pediatric population. We examined NET formation in vitro in PMNs isolated from 24 patients who had undergone BMT for 13 different clinical indications. For these 24 study participants, the median age was 7 years. For 6 of the 24 patients, we examined NET formation by PMNs isolated from serial, peripheral blood samples drawn at three different clinical time points: pre-BMT, pre-engraftment, and post-engraftment. We found decreased NET formation by PMNs isolated from patients prior to BMT and during the pre-engraftment and post-engraftment phases, with decreased NET formation compared with healthy control PMNs detected even out to 199 days after their BMT. This decrease in NET formation after BMT did not result from neutrophil developmental immaturity as we demonstrated that >80% of the PMNs tested using flow cytometry expressed both CD10 and CD16 as markers of terminal differentiation along the neutrophilic lineage. These pilot study results mandate further exploration regarding the mechanisms or factors

  15. Phase Transition in a Healthy Human Heart Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyono, Ken; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Aoyagi, Naoko; Togo, Fumiharu; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2005-07-01

    A healthy human heart rate displays complex fluctuations which share characteristics of physical systems in a critical state. We demonstrate that the human heart rate in healthy individuals undergoes a dramatic breakdown of criticality characteristics, reminiscent of continuous second order phase transitions. By studying the germane determinants, we show that the hallmark of criticality—highly correlated fluctuations—is observed only during usual daily activity, and a breakdown of these characteristics occurs in prolonged, strenuous exercise and sleep. This finding is the first reported discovery of the dynamical phase transition phenomenon in a biological control system and will be a key to understanding the heart rate control system in health and disease.

  16. [Discussion paper participation research].

    PubMed

    Farin, Erik

    2012-12-01

    This contribution introduces the "Diskussionspapier Teilhabeforschung" (discussion paper participation research) of the German Association for Rehabilitation (DVfR) and German Society for Rehabilitation Science (DGRW). The aim of this paper is to more clearly define current scientific research activity on the subject of participation and the significance of interdisciplinary participation research. The authors emphasise the desirability of a stronger scientific basis for instruments designed to improve the participation of disabled individuals. The paper is meant to be understood as an initial basis for the discussion about participation research development, and the authors are open to suggestions and elaboration.Participation research is understood in this discussion paper as an interdisciplinary research field with 7 goals and characteristics: 1. focussing on participation and self-determination; 2. contextual approach (taking environmental and personal factors into consideration that affect participation); 3. the participation of disabled persons in participation research; 4. interdisciplinary cooperation; 5. involving organisations and institutions whose approaches to participation research overlap; 6. referring to social and healthcare policies; 7. national and international orientations.The authors discuss the rationale behind increasing the support for participation research and theoretical models thereof. Fundamental concepts with high relevance to participation research include the biopsychosocial model of the International Classification of Functionality, Disability and Health (ICF), the inclusion concept, empowerment concept, and capabilities concept. The authors conclude their paper with recommendations for strengthening the research funding for participation research, and specify concrete steps toward greater participation research. PMID:23235948

  17. Empowering a healthy practice environment.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Jodi; Ruffin, Tasha

    2015-03-01

    This article provides frontline nurses a tool kit so they can advocate a healthy practice environment. The healthy nurse, healthy work hours, job satisfaction, adequate sleep, power naps at work, and balancing family/work are discussed. The overweight nurse, nurse fatigue, compassion fatigue, shift work sleep disorder, and role strain are discussed as barriers to a healthy practice environment. Case reports with analysis and recommendations are discussed to overcome these barriers. Resources are presented for frontline nurses to develop a tool kit for transforming their environment to a healthy practice environment and to empower them to become healthy nurses. PMID:25680495

  18. Healthy Weight, Healthy Child | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity Healthy Weight, Healthy Child Past Issues / Spring - Summer ... to help achieve healthier weights for our children. Obesity in Children Obesity means having too much body ...

  19. Healthy Aging in China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution—,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence. PMID:25621202

  20. Developing healthy childhood behaviour: outcomes of a summer camp experience.

    PubMed

    Seal, Nuananong; Seal, John

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to test the short-term effects of the Wellness Summer Camp (WSC) on changes in children's knowledge of healthy foods and healthy snacks, physical activity and eating behaviours, and self-perception of competence in school-age children. The WSC programme activities were developed based on age-appropriate developmental theory, including healthy behaviour developmental skills and reinforcement for effective behaviour choices and action patterns. A total of 18 children who participated in the 10 day WSC were evaluated using a pretest-posttest evaluation design. The results revealed that at post-intervention, children significantly improved their knowledge about healthy foods and healthy snacks. Based on paired t-test analyses, the mean posttest scores of healthy eating behaviours and self-perception of competence were statistically significantly higher than the mean pretest scores. The mean posttest score of physical activity also increased but not statistically significant. Introducing children to the WSC programme could help maximize their opportunities to build confidence and self-competence to improve their knowledge of healthy foods and healthy snacks as well as motivate them to engage in healthy behaviours. PMID:21781222

  1. Smart Substitutions for Healthy Cooking

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  2. Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  3. Healthy Post-Play Snacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  4. Obesity, Poverty, and Participation in Nutrition Assistance Programs: Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The national nutrition safety net consists of 15 programs that provide millions of low-income Americans access to a healthy and nutritious diet. It has been observed that many low income individuals are both overweight and participants in one or more nutrition assistance programs. This has led some to question whether participation in the…

  5. Federal participation in LEED

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher; Dyer, Beverly

    2004-11-10

    The federal government has been an active participant in the development and use of USGBC's Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design Green Building Rating System (LEED). This paper presents a review of this participation and some expectations for ongoing partnership.

  6. Promoting People's Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with communication in rural areas to promote participation in development programs. Suggests that success of such programs depends on continued government policy in favor of citizen participation in agricultural and rural development. (SK)

  7. Facilitating Active Learner Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Steven; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Project Participate has developed and implemented a model for making decisions about interventions that enhance the ability of a preschool child with severe motor disabilities to actively participate in educational programs. The effectiveness of the process in increasing child participation in play, communication, social interaction, and mobility…

  8. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-01

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer. PMID:26959472

  9. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  10. Pulsed photothermal depth profiling of tattoos undergoing laser removal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanic, Matija; Majaron, Boris

    2012-02-01

    Pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) allows noninvasive determination of temperature depth profiles induced by pulsed laser irradiation of strongly scattering biological tissues and organs, including human skin. In present study, we evaluate the potential of this technique for investigational characterization and possibly quantitative evaluation of laser tattoo removal. The study involved 5 healthy volunteers (3 males, 2 females), age 20-30 years, undergoing tattoo removal treatment using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. There were four measurement and treatment sessions in total, separated by 2-3 months. Prior to each treatment, PPTR measurements were performed on several tattoo sites and one nearby healthy site in each patient, using a 5 ms Nd:YAG laser at low radiant exposure values and a dedicated radiometric setup. The laser-induced temperature profiles were then reconstructed by applying a custom numerical code. In addition, each tatoo site was documented with a digital camera and measured with a custom colorimetric system (in tristimulus color space), providing an objective evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy to be correlated with our PPTR results. The results show that the laser-induced temperature profile in untreated tattoos is invariably located at a subsurface depth of 300 μm. In tattoo sites that responded well to laser therapy, a significant drop of the temperature peak was observed in the profiles obtained from PPTR record. In several sites that appeared less responsive, as evidenced by colorimetric data, a progressive shift of the temperature profile deeper into the dermis was observed over the course of consecutive laser treatments, indicating that the laser tattoo removal was efficient.

  11. Healthy obesity and objective physical activity123

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Joshua A; Hamer, Mark; van Hees, Vincent T; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika; Sabia, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disease risk is lower in metabolically healthy obese adults than in their unhealthy obese counterparts. Studies considering physical activity as a modifiable determinant of healthy obesity have relied on self-reported measures, which are prone to inaccuracies and do not capture all movements that contribute to health. Objective: We aimed to examine differences in total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity between healthy and unhealthy obese groups by using both self-report and wrist-worn accelerometer assessments. Design: Cross-sectional analyses were based on 3457 adults aged 60–82 y (77% male) participating in the British Whitehall II cohort study in 2012–2013. Normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults were considered “healthy” if they had <2 of the following risk factors: low HDL cholesterol, hypertension, high blood glucose, high triacylglycerol, and insulin resistance. Differences across groups in total physical activity, based on questionnaire and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer assessments (GENEActiv), were examined by using linear regression. The likelihood of meeting 2010 World Health Organization recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥2.5 h/wk) was compared by using prevalence ratios. Results: Of 3457 adults, 616 were obese [body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥30]; 161 (26%) of those were healthy obese. Obese adults were less physically active than were normal-weight adults, regardless of metabolic health status or method of physical activity assessment. Healthy obese adults had higher total physical activity than did unhealthy obese adults only when assessed by accelerometer (P = 0.002). Healthy obese adults were less likely to meet recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than were healthy normal-weight adults based on accelerometer assessment (prevalence ratio: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.79) but were not more likely to meet these recommendations than were unhealthy obese adults (prevalence ratio: 1

  12. Heterogeneity in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lowsky, David J.; Olshansky, S. Jay; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For a surprisingly large segment of the older population, chronological age is not a relevant marker for understanding, measuring, or experiencing healthy aging. Using the 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2004 Health and Retirement Study to examine the proportion of Americans exhibiting five markers of health and the variation in health-related quality of life across each of eight age groups, we find that a significant proportion of older Americans is healthy within every age group beginning at age 51, including among those aged 85+. For example, 48% of those aged 51–54 and 28% of those aged 85+ have excellent or very good self-reported health status; similarly, 89% of those aged 51–54 and 56% of those aged 85+ report no health-based limitations in work or housework. Also, health-related quality of life ranges widely within every age group, yet there is only a comparatively small variation in median quality of life across age groups, suggesting that older Americans today may be experiencing substantially different age-health trajectories than their predecessors. Patterns are similar for medical expenditures. Several policy implications are explored. PMID:24249734

  13. 'Healthy skin': significance and results of an Italian study on healthy population with particular regard to 'sensitive' skin.

    PubMed

    Sparavigna, A; Di Pietro, A; Setaro, M

    2005-12-01

    There is an increasing demand in general population regarding skin healthiness and improvement of aesthetical appearance, indicating that people require more information about how to treat healthy skin and to prevent skin disease. This study is the result of a campaign on healthy skin organized by the International Society of Plastic Dermatology. This campaign was at the same time an occasion to perform an epidemiological study on Italian population and was conducted during only one month (March 2004) throughout Italy. In total, 462 dermatologists all over Italy joined the project. Study protocol and diagnostic kits were provided to all adhering dermatologists. After signing an informed consent, subjects were assigned to undergo anamnesis, medical examination and stinging test with 10% lactic acid at the level of nasolabial fold. A total of 2101 duly compiled case record forms were sent back by the dermatologists. The analysis of the demographic features and lifestyle of the subjects who were attracted by the campaign allows us to draw the identikit of people interested in the maintenance of a healthy skin, i.e. mainly young women, who already lead a healthy life and took care of their skin. Sensitive skin was common in this healthy population. PMID:18492170

  14. A Healthy Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Jeffrey J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is second only to smoking as the nation's number one preventable cause of death. Fewer than one in four kids gets 20 minutes of physical activity per week and fewer than one in four participate in at least 30 minutes of physical activity a day. In an effort to help students switch to a healthier lifestyle and through a grant from PANA…

  15. Tools for healthy tribes: improving access to healthy foods in Indian country.

    PubMed

    Fleischhacker, Sheila; Byrd, Randi R; Ramachandran, Gowri; Vu, Maihan; Ries, Amy; Bell, Ronny A; Evenson, Kelly R

    2012-09-01

    There is growing recognition that policymakers can promote access to healthy, affordable foods within neighborhoods, schools, childcare centers, and workplaces. Despite the disproportionate risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes among American Indian children and adults, comparatively little attention has been focused on the opportunities tribal policymakers have to implement policies or resolutions to promote access to healthy, affordable foods. This paper presents an approach for integrating formative research into an action-oriented strategy of developing and disseminating tribally led environmental and policy strategies to promote access to and consumption of healthy, affordable foods. This paper explains how the American Indian Healthy Eating Project evolved through five phases and discusses each phase's essential steps involved, outcomes derived, and lessons learned. Using community-based participatory research and informed by the Social Cognitive Theory and ecologic frameworks, the American Indian Healthy Eating Project was started in fall 2008 and has evolved through five phases: (1) starting the conversation; (2) conducting multidisciplinary formative research; (3) strengthening partnerships and tailoring policy options; (4) disseminating community-generated ideas; and (5) accelerating action while fostering sustainability. Collectively, these phases helped develop and disseminate Tools for Healthy Tribes-a toolkit used to raise awareness among participating tribal policymakers of their opportunities to improve access to healthy, affordable foods. Formal and informal strategies can engage tribal leaders in the development of culturally appropriate and tribe-specific sustainable strategies to improve such access, as well as empower tribal leaders to leverage their authority toward raising a healthier generation of American Indian children. PMID:22898161

  16. Sleep in Healthy Black and White Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Martica; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inadequate sleep among adolescents has negative consequences for self-regulation, emotional well-being, and risk behaviors. Using multiple assessment methods, we evaluated the adequacy of sleep among healthy adolescents from a lower socioeconomic community and expected differences by race. METHODS: A total of 250 healthy high school students enrolled in public school (mean age: 15.7 years; 57% black, 54% female) from families of low to middle class according to the Hollingshead scale participated in weeklong assessments of sleep duration and fragmentation, assessed by using actigraphy; sleep duration and perceived quality, assessed by using daily diaries; and daytime sleepiness and sleep delay, assessed by using a questionnaire. RESULTS: Students slept during the school week a mean ± SD of 6.0 ± 0.9 hours per night according to actigraphy and 6.8 ± 1.1 hours according to daily diary, and during the weekend, a mean of 7.4 ± 1.2 and 8.7 ± 1.4 hours, respectively. Black participants and male participants slept less and had more fragmented sleep; female participants reported poorer quality of sleep in their daily diaries and more daytime sleepiness. The results remained significant after adjustments for age, physical activity, smoking status, and percentile BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Most students slept less than the 8 to 9 hours suggested by the guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Black male participants had the least amount of sleep, which may play a role in the substantial risks experienced by this demographic group. Our findings are consistent with recommendations that pediatricians should routinely screen their adolescent patients about their sleep, especially those from at-risk subgroups. PMID:24753532

  17. Steps of Healthy Swimming: Protection against Recreational Water Illnesses (RWIs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work: Healthy Swimming Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... has moved to Steps of Healthy Swimming. Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ...

  18. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations. PMID:23933684

  19. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions

    PubMed Central

    Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar S.; Martínez-Jiménez, Mario A.; Ramírez-GarcíaLuna, José L.; González, Francisco J.; Campos-Lara, Nadia P.; Pierdant-Perez, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p < 0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p < 0.001) and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim. PMID:27445611

  20. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions.

    PubMed

    Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar S; Martínez-Jiménez, Mario A; Ramírez-GarcíaLuna, José L; González, Francisco J; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury J; Campos-Lara, Nadia P; Pierdant-Perez, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p < 0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p < 0.001) and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim. PMID:27445611

  1. Chicago Healthy Aging Study: Objectives and Design

    PubMed Central

    Pirzada, Amber; Reid, Kathryn; Kim, Daniel; Garside, Daniel B.; Lu, Brandon; Vu, Thanh-Huyen T.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; Zee, Phyllis; Liu, Kiang; Stamler, Jeremiah; Daviglus, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    Investigators in the Chicago Healthy Aging Study (CHAS) reexamined 1,395 surviving participants aged 65–84 years (28% women) from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry (CHA) 1967–1973 cohort whose cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles were originally ascertained at ages 25–44 years. CHAS investigators reexamined 421 participants who were low-risk (LR) at baseline and 974 participants who were non-LR at baseline. LR was defined as having favorable levels of 4 major CVD risk factors: serum total cholesterol level <200 mg/dL and no use of cholesterol-lowering medication; blood pressure 120/≤80 mm Hg and no use of antihypertensive medication; no current smoking; and no history of diabetes or heart attack. While the potential of LR status in overcoming the CVD epidemic is being recognized, the long-term association of LR with objectively measured health in older age has not been examined. It is hypothesized that persons who were LR in 1967–1973 and have survived to older age will have less clinical and subclinical CVD, lower levels of inflammatory markers, and better physical performance/functioning and sleep quality. Here we describe the rationale, objectives, design, and implementation of this longitudinal epidemiologic study, compare baseline and follow-up characteristics of participants and nonparticipants, and highlight the feasibility of reexamining study participants after an extended period postbaseline with minimal interim contact. PMID:23669655

  2. Preferences Regarding Return of Genomic Results to Relatives of Research Participants, Including after Participant Death: Empirical Results from a Cancer Biobank.

    PubMed

    Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Petersen, Gloria M; Wolf, Susan M; Chaffee, Kari G; Robinson, Marguerite E; Gordon, Deborah R; Lindor, Noralane M; Koenig, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    Data are lacking with regard to participants' perspectives on return of genetic research results to relatives, including after the participant's death. This paper reports descriptive results from 3,630 survey respondents: 464 participants in a pancreatic cancer biobank, 1,439 family registry participants, and 1,727 healthy individuals. Our findings indicate that most participants would feel obligated to share their results with blood relatives while alive and would want results to be shared with relatives after their death. PMID:26479556

  3. Pyrosequencing analysis of the human microbiota of healthy Chinese undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Elucidating the biogeography of bacterial communities on the human body is critical for establishing healthy baselines from which to detect differences associated with disease; however, little is known about the baseline bacterial profiles from various human habitats of healthy Chinese undergraduates. Results Using parallel barcoded 454 pyrosequencing targeting on the 16S rRNA gene V3 region, the bacterial diversity of the nasopharynx, saliva, dominant hands, and feces were investigated from 10 healthy Chinese junior boarding undergraduates at Zhejiang University. The participants were 21–24 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) < 24 kg/m2. A total of 156,717 high-quality pyrosequencing reads were obtained for evaluating bacterial diversity, which represented 29,887 unique phylotypes. The overall taxonomic distribution of the 16S rRNA gene-based amplicons demonstrated that these 4 habitats of the human body harbored distinct microbiota and could be divided into different clusters according to anatomic site, while the established patterns of bacterial diversity followed the human body habitat (feces, hands, saliva, and nasopharynx). Although significant inter-individual variation was observed, the healthy microbiota still shared a large number of phylotypes in each habitat, but not among the four habitats, indicating that a core microbiome existed in each healthy habitat. The vast majority of sequences from these different habitats were classified into different taxonmies that became the predominant bacteria of the healthy microbiota. Conclusions We first established the framework of microbial communities from four healthy human habitats of the same participants with similar living environments for the Chinese undergraduates. Our data represent an important step for determining the diversity of Chinese healthy microbiota, and can be used for more large-scale studies that focus on the interactions between healthy and diseases states for young Chinese

  4. Patterns of public participation.

    PubMed

    Slutsky, Jean; Tumilty, Emma; Max, Catherine; Lu, Lanting; Tantivess, Sripen; Hauegen, Renata Curi; Whitty, Jennifer A; Weale, Albert; Pearson, Steven D; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Wang, Hufeng; Staniszewska, Sophie; Weerasuriya, Krisantha; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Cubillos, Leonardo

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - The paper summarizes data from 12 countries, chosen to exhibit wide variation, on the role and place of public participation in the setting of priorities. The purpose of this paper is to exhibit cross-national patterns in respect of public participation, linking those differences to institutional features of the countries concerned. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is an example of case-orientated qualitative assessment of participation practices. It derives its data from the presentation of country case studies by experts on each system. The country cases are located within the historical development of democracy in each country. Findings - Patterns of participation are widely variable. Participation that is effective through routinized institutional processes appears to be inversely related to contestatory participation that uses political mobilization to challenge the legitimacy of the priority setting process. No system has resolved the conceptual ambiguities that are implicit in the idea of public participation. Originality/value - The paper draws on a unique collection of country case studies in participatory practice in prioritization, supplementing existing published sources. In showing that contestatory participation plays an important role in a sub-set of these countries it makes an important contribution to the field because it broadens the debate about public participation in priority setting beyond the use of minipublics and the observation of public representatives on decision-making bodies. PMID:27468773

  5. Viscoelastic behavior of polymers undergoing crosslinking reactions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moacanin, J.; Aklonis, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Previously a method was developed for predicting the viscoelastic response of polymers undergoing scission reactions. These results are now extended to include crosslinking reactions. As for scission, at any given time the character of the network chains is determined by the instantaneous crosslink density. For scission all chains were assumed to carry the same stress; for crosslinking, however, the stress is distributed between the 'new' and 'old' chains. Equations for calculating the creep response of a system which experiences a step increase in crosslink density are derived.

  6. Granulocyte kinetics in donors undergoing filtration leukapheresis.

    PubMed

    Rubins, J M; MacPherson, J L; Nusbacher, J; Wiltbank, T

    1976-01-01

    Normal blood donors undergoing filtration leukapheresis (FL) have a profound transient neutropenia early in the procedure which is followed by a "rebound" neutrophilia. This phenomenon occurs in unstimulated donors as well as in donors pretreated with either prednisone or dexamethasone. The mechanism for development of the neutropenia was investigated in volunteers throug a nylon filter at 37 C, a significant but transient neutropenia was observed. Plasma rendered cell and stroma-free achieved the same result indicating that plasma alone, when exposed to nylon fibers, is capable of producing neutropenia. PMID:1251458

  7. Oral surgery in patients undergoing chemoradiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Demian, Nagi M; Shum, Jonathan W; Kessel, Ivan L; Eid, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Oral health care in patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy can be complex. Care delivered by a multidisciplinary approach is timely and streamlines the allocation of resources to provide prompt care and to attain favorable outcomes. A hospital dentist, oral and maxillofacial surgeon, and a maxillofacial prosthodontist must be involved early to prevent avoidable oral complications. Prevention and thorough preparation are vital before the start of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Oral complications must be addressed immediately and, even with the best management, can cause delays and interruption in treatment, with serious consequences for the outcome and prognosis. PMID:24794266

  8. Capitalizing on Mobile Technology to Support Healthy Eating in Ethnic Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Pernal, Wendy; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Shiyko, Mariya; Intille, Stephen; Franko, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a mobile technology-based intervention to support healthy eating among ethnic minority female students. Participants: Forty-three African American and Hispanic female students participated in a 3-week intervention between January and May 2013. Methods: Participants photographed their meals using their smart…

  9. Factors associated with resilience in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Simeon, Daphne; Yehuda, Rachel; Cunill, Ruth; Knutelska, Margaret; Putnam, Frank W; Smith, Lisa M

    2007-01-01

    Mature defenses comprise one well-validated indicator of resilience. We investigated the relationships of resilience to trauma, attachment, temperament, cortisol, and cognitive performance in adult healthy volunteers. Participants were administered the Defense Style Questionnaire; the Relationship Questionnaire; the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Cortisol determinations included 24-h urinary, mean hourly plasma, response to low-dose dexamethasone suppression, and reactivity to the Trier social stress test (TSST). Mathematical performance during the TSST was quantified. Twenty-five women and 29 men participated. Resilience was significantly negatively correlated with childhood interpersonal trauma and with harm avoidance. Resilience was significantly positively correlated with urinary cortisol, secure attachment, reward dependence, and superior performance. In a linear regression analysis, the strongest predictor of resilience was childhood trauma, followed by math performance under stress and harm avoidance. We conclude that in young adults without manifest psychiatric disorder, resilience was associated with developmental, biological, and cognitive measures which merit further investigation. PMID:17913377

  10. EDUCATIONAL PARTICIPATION AND INNOVATIVENESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AVERILL, THOMAS B.

    FARMERS WERE CLASSIFIED INTO FOUR GROUPS ACCORDING TO THEIR TENDENCY TO ADOPT FARM PRACTICE INNOVATIONS. PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATIVE ACTIVITIES WAS POSTULATED TO BE RELATED TO THEIR OPENNESS TO NEW IDEAS AND PRACTICES. A STRUCTURED INTERVIEW SCHEDULE WAS USED TO DETERMINE THE FARMERS' PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES--READING BOOKS AND…

  11. TANF Participation in 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Mark; Rahmanou, Hedieh

    During 2002, there were disputes about most aspects of the participation rate structure for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. The Administration put forward, and the House adopted, a proposal to raise TANF participation rates to 70 percent over 5 years, require families to be in selected activities for 40 hours per week to be fully…

  12. Colloquium Participants Speak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafe, Joanne

    1996-01-01

    Presents a summary and interpretation of responses from the participants of the Catholic-Jewish Colloquium. The participants reflect on a number of issues including the changing nature of the relationship between Judaism and Christianity, the rationale and impact of this changed relationship, the particular elements involved in the…

  13. Spatial learning in men undergoing alcohol detoxification.

    PubMed

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Hamilton, Derek; Coriale, Giovanna; Carito, Valentina; Aloe, Luigi; Chaldakov, George; Romeo, Marina; Ceccanti, Marco; Iannitelli, Angela; Fiore, Marco

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol dependence is a major public health problem worldwide. Brain and behavioral disruptions including changes in cognitive abilities are common features of alcohol addiction. Thus, the present study was aimed to investigate spatial learning and memory in 29 alcoholic men undergoing alcohol detoxification by using a virtual Morris maze task. As age-matched controls we recruited 29 men among occasional drinkers without history of alcohol dependence and/or alcohol related diseases and with a negative blood alcohol level at the time of testing. We found that the responses to the virtual Morris maze are impaired in men undergoing alcohol detoxification. Notably they showed increased latencies in the first movement during the trials, increased latencies in retrieving the hidden platform and increased latencies in reaching the visible platform. These findings were associated with reduced swimming time in the target quadrant of the pool where the platform had been during the 4 hidden platform trials of the learning phase compared to controls. Such increasing latency responses may suggest motor control, attentional and motivational deficits due to alcohol detoxification. PMID:26143187

  14. Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 200-page activity guide for educators of students in grades six through university level raises the awareness and understanding of water quality issues and their relationship to personal, public and environmental health. "Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" will help educators address science standards through 25…

  15. Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…

  16. Healthy Children, Healthy Minds: Creating a Brighter Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebrun, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Children struggle with life today. Being children in the 21st century is both taxing and exciting, and yet trying to cope with all of the technology and media that surrounds them. How do we as adults provide good models? Mindfulness, exercise, focus and attention, and healthy living strategies need to play a role in shaping healthy children.…

  17. Creating healthy camp experiences.

    PubMed

    Walton, Edward A; Tothy, Alison S

    2011-04-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics has created recommendations for health appraisal and preparation of young people before participation in day or resident camps and to guide health and safety practices for children at camp. These recommendations are intended for parents, primary health care providers, and camp administration and health center staff. Although camps have diverse environments, there are general guidelines that apply to all situations and specific recommendations that are appropriate under special conditions. This policy statement has been reviewed and is supported by the American Camp Association. PMID:21444589

  18. Evaluation of hand function in patients undergoing long term haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Limaye, V; Frankham, A; Disney, A; Pile, K

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Haemodialysis is associated with the deposition of β2 microglobulin in musculoskeletal structures, leading to the syndrome of dialysis related amyloidosis and impairment of hand function. This study aimed at assessing hand function using the Sollerman test in a cross section of patients undergoing haemodialysis.
METHODS—Recipients of haemodialysis underwent the Sollerman test of hand grip function, which assesses 20 activities of daily living using eight grip types, and the JAMAR grip strength test, visual analogue scales (VAS) for pain (VAS-P) and function (VAS-F), and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) were determined. Results—Thirty five subjects (26 male), with mean age 53.2 years, participated. The average duration of haemodialysis was 6.2 years (range one month to 25 years). The median Sollerman score was 77, with 19/35 (54%) patients receiving haemodialysis having a score below the lower normal value of 78-80. The log Sollerman score correlated poorly with age (rs=0.16, p=0.35), and significantly with the HAQ score (rs=−0.66, p<0.00005), duration of haemodialysis (rs=−0.39, p<0.05), VAS-F (rs=−0.41, p<0.05), VAS-P (rs=−0.34, p<0.05), and JAMAR score (rs=0.57, p<0.05). Sollerman scores were highly correlated between dominant and non-dominant hands (rs=0.69, p<000005).
CONCLUSIONS—Hand dysfunction is a common finding among patients undergoing long term haemodialysis. The Sollerman test accurately reflects patient function as measured by HAQ, VAS-F, and grip strength, but less so pain. Its use for the early detection of dialysis related amyloidosis and in the serial monitoring of the effects of hand treatment programmes is encouraged.

 PMID:11171692

  19. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 in Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Isakova, Tamara; Xie, Huiliang; Barchi-Chung, Allison; Vargas, Gabriela; Sowden, Nicole; Houston, Jessica; Wahl, Patricia; Lundquist, Andrew; Epstein, Michael; Smith, Kelsey; Contreras, Gabriel; Ortega, Luis; Lenz, Oliver; Briones, Patricia; Egbert, Phyllis; Ikizler, T. Alp; Jueppner, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with ESRD. Before FGF23 testing can be integrated into clinical practice of ESRD, further understanding of its determinants is needed. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a study of 67 adults undergoing peritoneal dialysis, we tested the hypothesis that longer dialysis vintage and lower residual renal function and renal phosphate clearance are associated with higher FGF23. We also compared the monthly variability of FGF23 versus parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum phosphate. Results In unadjusted analyses, FGF23 correlated with serum phosphate (r = 0.66, P < 0.001), residual renal function (r = −0.37, P = 0.002), dialysis vintage (r = 0.31, P = 0.01), and renal phosphate clearance (r = −0.38, P = 0.008). In adjusted analyses, absence of residual renal function and greater dialysis vintage associated with higher FGF23, independent of demographics, laboratory values, peritoneal dialysis modality and adequacy, and treatment with vitamin D analogs and phosphate binders. Urinary and dialysate FGF23 clearances were minimal. In three serial monthly measurements, within-subject variability accounted for only 10% of total FGF23 variability compared with 50% for PTH and 60% for serum phosphate. Conclusions Increased serum phosphate, loss of residual renal function, longer dialysis vintage, and lower renal phosphate clearance are associated with elevated FGF23 levels in ESRD patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. FGF23 may be a more stable marker of phosphate metabolism in ESRD than PTH or serum phosphate. PMID:21903990

  20. Kinematics of signature writing in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, Michael P; Kim, Chi; Landy, Kelly M

    2014-07-01

    Forensic document examiners (FDE) called upon to distinguish a genuine from a forged signature of an elderly person are often required to consider the question of age-related deterioration and whether the available exemplars reliably capture the natural effects of aging of the original writer. An understanding of the statistical relationship between advanced age and handwriting movements can reduce the uncertainty that may exist in an examiner's approach to questioned signatures formed by elderly writers. The primary purpose of this study was to systematically examine age-related changes in signature kinematics in healthy writers. Forty-two healthy subjects between the ages of 60-91 years participated in this study. Signatures were recorded using a digitizing tablet, and commercial software was used to examine the temporal and spatial stroke kinematics and pen pressure. Results indicated that vertical stroke duration and dysfluency increased with age, whereas vertical stroke amplitude and velocity decreased with age. Pen pressure decreased with age. We found that a linear model characterized the best-fit relationship between advanced age and handwriting movement parameters for signature formation. Male writers exhibited stronger age effects than female writers, especially for pen pressure and stroke dysfluency. The present study contributes to an understanding of how advanced age alters signature formation in otherwise healthy adults. PMID:24673648

  1. Rural Adolescent Girls Negotiating Healthy and Unhealthy Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Toupey; Jenkins, Melissa; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2012-01-01

    The focused discussions of adolescent girls were analyzed to explore the processes of managing healthy and unhealthy aspects of dating relationships. Grounded theory methods were used to generate an outline of these processes. The core category elicited from discussions with participants was "wrestling with gender expectations". This category…

  2. Healthy Relationships and Building Developmental Assets in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Mariko

    2011-01-01

    This action research project was designed to have the majority of middle school students engage in healthy relationships with their peers and teachers as the data suggested the need for improved interactions with others. Students contributed to team building lessons; implemented school community service learning projects; participated in an…

  3. Advertising a "Healthy Lifestyle:" A Cypriot Health Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Soula

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a health education program entitled "Young Consumer" project, financed by the European Union and implemented by the Cyprus Consumer Association between March and June 2004. The aim of the project was to promote a healthy lifestyle among a group of Cypriot primary school pupils (11-12 years old). Participants were asked to…

  4. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  5. Perceptions of Slimming and Healthiness among Norwegian Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjelkrem, Kristiane; Lien, Nanna; Wandel, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore what adolescent girls mean when they talk about healthiness and slimming, as well as the distinction between the 2 concepts. Design: Data was collected by the use of 8 focus groups, each with 5-9 adolescent girls. Setting: Four different schools in Oslo and 2 other municipalities in Norway in 2006-2007. Participants:…

  6. Story Processing Ability in Cognitively Healthy Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method: Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups--young adults (20-29 years of age) and older…

  7. Study Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities: Recruitment and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hermans, Heidi; Penning, Corine; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Problems encountered in epidemiologic health research in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are how to recruit a large-scale sample of participants and how to measure a range of health variables in such a group. This cross-sectional study into healthy ageing started with founding a consort of three large care providers with a total…

  8. Ethnic Notions & Healthy Paranoias

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Colette Marie

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To report the firsthand perspectives of older Black women within healthcare encounters that impact the trajectories of health seeking behavior; to examine their perceptions, expectations, and beliefs about the role of cultural difference within predominantly White (US) health care settings; and to explore how sharing personal experiences (theirs and others’) as a fund of knowledge influences ethnic notions. This research is aimed at the development of community resource partnerships and effective healthcare service delivery with intervention and promotion efforts targeting older Black women. Design Ethnographic data collected over a twenty-four month period (2003 – 2005) from fifty older Black women in Tucson, Arizona is discussed on three levels: (1) expectations and beliefs, (2) the use of ethnic notions in the form of healthy paranoias as part of individual and communal health advocacy, and (3) perceptions of interethnic communication within healthcare settings, including feeling uncared for by healthcare providers and support staff. Results Disparities in older Black women's health and well-being are often constructed and filtered through "non-clinical" influences, such as cultural differences, individual experiences, and beliefs about "race" or "being" a Black female. Conclusions Unfamiliarity with ethnic notions may cause misinterpretations and misunderstandings and may influence interactions between older Black women and healthcare providers. PMID:20694867

  9. Autophagy induction by sera from women undergoing an in vitro fertilization cycle varies with subsequent outcome.

    PubMed

    Sisti, Giovanni; Kanninen, Tomi T; Di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Witkin, Steven S; Spandorfer, Steven D

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy maintains intracellular homeostasis during placental development and embryogenesis. We evaluated if differences in the autophagy-inducing capacity of sera from women undergoing an in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle predicted subsequent pregnancy outcome. In this retrospective study, sera collected from 94 women at the time of intrauterine embryo implantation were incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors. The PBMCs were lysed and autophagy induction measured by determination of the p62 concentration. A reduced capacity for autophagy induction was associated with defective implantation while an elevated level of autophagy was associated with ectopic pregnancy. PMID:27343871

  10. European Healthy Cities come to terms with health network governance.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Kickbusch, Ilona; Palmer, Nicola; Spanswick, Lucy

    2015-06-01

    A focus on good governance in the WHO European network of Healthy Cities mirrors the WHO Region's strategic emphasis-its member states in the Health 2020 strategy espouse governance for health as key. Healthy Cities adopted governance as a key value and approach to delivering specific health programmes and policies. This article reviews the extent to which they actually introduce and align governance concepts and approaches with their local government commitments. Healthy Cities show that better participation, policy-making and intersectoral action result from an emphasis on governance. This happens across the designated cities and is not limited to a certain class (in terms of population or geographical location) or the time they have been designated. The support of WHO in driving the governance agenda seems important, but no data are available to show that European Healthy Cities are different from other urban environments. PMID:26069316

  11. 77 FR 5519 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Surveillance of Supports for Healthy Eating/Active Living (HE/AL)--New-- ] National Center for Chronic Disease... efforts for healthy eating and active living, the built environment and policies that support physical activity, and policies and practices that support access to healthy food and healthy eating. The...

  12. Limits on Risks for Healthy Volunteers in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy volunteers in biomedical research often face significant risks in studies that offer them no medical benefits. The U.S. federal research regulations and laws adopted by other countries place no limits on the risks that these participants face. In this essay, I argue that there should be some limits on the risks for biomedical research involving healthy volunteers. Limits on risk are necessary to protect human participants, institutions, and the scientific community from harm. With the exception of self-experimentation, limits on research risks faced by healthy volunteers constitute a type of soft, impure paternalism, because participants usually do not fully understand the risks they are taking. I consider some approaches to limiting research risks and propose that healthy volunteers in biomedical research should not be exposed to greater than a 1% chance of serious harm, such as death, permanent disability, or severe illness or injury. While this guideline would restrict research risks, the limits would not be so low that they would prevent investigators from conducting valuable research. They would, however, set a clear upper boundary for investigators and signal to the scientific community and the public that there are limits on the risks that healthy participants may face in research. This standard provides guidance for decisions made by oversight bodies, but it is not an absolute rule. Investigators can enroll healthy volunteers in studies involving a greater than 1% chance of serious harm if they show that the research addresses a compelling public health or social problem and the risk of serious harm is only slightly more than 1%. The committee reviewing the research should use outside experts to assess these risks. PMID:22198413

  13. Adaptation of multijoint coordination during standing balance in healthy young and healthy old individuals.

    PubMed

    Engelhart, D; Pasma, J H; Schouten, A C; Aarts, R G K M; Meskers, C G M; Maier, A B; van der Kooij, H

    2016-03-01

    Standing balance requires multijoint coordination between the ankles and hips. We investigated how humans adapt their multijoint coordination to adjust to various conditions and whether the adaptation differed between healthy young participants and healthy elderly. Balance was disturbed by push/pull rods, applying two continuous and independent force disturbances at the level of the hip and between the shoulder blades. In addition, external force fields were applied, represented by an external stiffness at the hip, either stabilizing or destabilizing the participants' balance. Multivariate closed-loop system-identification techniques were used to describe the neuromuscular control mechanisms by quantifying the corrective joint torques as a response to body sway, represented by frequency response functions (FRFs). Model fits on the FRFs resulted in an estimation of time delays, intrinsic stiffness, reflexive stiffness, and reflexive damping of both the ankle and hip joint. The elderly generated similar corrective joint torques but had reduced body sway compared with the young participants, corresponding to the increased FRF magnitude with age. When a stabilizing or destabilizing external force field was applied at the hip, both young and elderly participants adapted their multijoint coordination by lowering or respectively increasing their neuromuscular control actions around the ankles, expressed in a change of FRF magnitude. However, the elderly adapted less compared with the young participants. Model fits on the FRFs showed that elderly had higher intrinsic and reflexive stiffness of the ankle, together with higher time delays of the hip. Furthermore, the elderly adapted their reflexive stiffness around the ankle joint less compared with young participants. These results imply that elderly were stiffer and were less able to adapt to external force fields. PMID:26719084

  14. Healthy School Communities in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; Yessis, Jennifer; Manske, Steve; Gleddie, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Background and context: Healthy school communities aim to optimise student health and educational achievement. Various models, terms and resources have been used to describe healthy school communities. Policy makers and practitioners have reported confusion around many of the key concepts involved because of the varying models and terms.…

  15. Healthy Mouth for Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... cities. Ask a dentist or doctor if your water has fluoride in it. If it doesn’t, ask about other kinds of fluoride (such as fluoride varnish or drops) that can help keep your baby’s teeth healthy. 2. Check and clean your baby’s teeth. CHECK your baby’s teeth. Healthy ...

  16. Healthy Mouth for Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... cities. Ask a dentist or doctor if your water has fluoride in it. If it doesn’t, ask about other kinds of fluoride (such as fluoride varnish or drops) that can help keep your baby’s teeth healthy. Back to Top Check and clean your baby’s teeth. CHECK your baby’s teeth. Healthy ...

  17. Characteristics of a Healthy Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Phylis Lan

    The reason for studying the characteristics of a healthy family is to encourage and strengthen the family and to move toward an enriched family life by using the characteristics as bench marks. Six characteristics are discussed as the essence of a healthy family: (1) commitment; (2) togetherness; (3) appreciation; (4) good communication; (5)…

  18. What Does "Healthy Eating" Mean?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Get Free Stuff Be a Partner What Does “Healthy Eating” Mean? According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans , ... help, too! Download the Tip Sheet What Does “Healthy Eating” Mean? (PDF, 513.2 KB) You Might Also ...

  19. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  20. Eat healthily, stay healthy.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    HIV and poor nutrition destroys the immune system. A well-nourished HIV infected person is less likely to develop an opportunistic infection than those with poor nutrition. Emotional stress and opportunistic infections can decrease one's appetite. Eating can become difficult and painful in persons with oropharyngeal infections. HIV-related wasting reduces protein and fat reserves. Vitamin A maintains a healthy immune system. Adding nuts, oil, mashed fish, dark green or orange fruits and vegetables, or fruit juice and replacing some water with fresh milk or coconut milk makes porridge more energy-rich. Fermenting or malting porridge makes it thinner, easier to swallow, and more nutritious. Fermentation allows for increased absorption of some nutrients (e.g., iron and zinc). The diet for persons with HIV-related infections should increase their appetite, and they should ingest enough nutrients to help the gastrointestinal tract manage and recover from diarrhea and to regain weight and strength lost during illness. All HIV-infected persons should eat as much as possible, particularly easy-to-eat and easily-absorbed foods. Those with mouth sores should avoid spicy and peppery foods. Those with a poor appetite should eat small amounts more often than usual. Those with diarrhea should eat easily digestible foods (e.g., soups) and, in some cases, avoid fatty or oily foods and milk. They should drink extra fluids to prevent dehydration. HIV-infected pregnant women should eat foods rich in vitamin A (dark green leaves or orange fruits and vegetables, liver, or egg yolk) and iron. Maternal vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of vertical HIV transmission 3-4 fold. Breast milk is the best food for all infants, particularly during diarrhea. In some communities, nongovernmental organizations provide those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS with food, food production maintenance, and nutrition counseling through their home care services. PMID:12290562

  1. Reducing psychological distress in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Milanti, Ariesta; Metsälä, Eija; Hannula, Leena

    Psychological distress is a common problem among patients with cancer, yet it mostly goes unreported and untreated. This study examined the association of a psycho-educational intervention with the psychological distress levels of breast cancer and cervical cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The design of the study was quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design with a comparison group. One hundred patients at a cancer hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia, completed Distress Thermometer screening before and after chemotherapy. Fifty patients in the intervention group were given a psycho-educational video with positive reappraisal, education and relaxation contents, while receiving chemotherapy. Patients who received the psycho-educational intervention had significantly lower distress levels compared with those in the control group. Routine distress screening, followed by distress management and outcome assessment, is needed to improve the wellbeing of cancer patients. PMID:26911178

  2. Maximizing Classroom Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to maximize classroom participation in the English-as-a-Second-or-Foreign-Language classroom, and provides a classroom discussion method that is based on real-life problem solving. (Author/VWL)

  3. Clinical Trials - Participants

    MedlinePlus

    ... participating in was reviewed by an IRB. Further Reading For more information about research protections, see: Office ... data and decide whether the results have medical importance. Results from clinical trials are often published in ...

  4. Public Participation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this Public Participation Plan is to describe the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) plan for involving the public in the decision-making process for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The plan describes how the DOE will meet the public participation requirements of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, as amended, and of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. It includes the UMTRA Project Office plans for complying with DOE Order 5440.1D and for implementing the DOE`s Public Participation Policy for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (1992) and Public Participation Guidance for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (1993).

  5. Protocol of the baseline assessment for the Environments for Healthy Living (EHL) Wales cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Health is a result of influences operating at multiple levels. For example, inadequate housing, poor educational attainment, and reduced access to health care are clustered together, and are all associated with reduced health. Policies which try to change individual people's behaviour have limited effect when people have little control over their environment. However, structural environmental change and an understanding of the way that influences interact with each other, has the potential to facilitate healthy choices irrespective of personal resources. The aim of Environments for Healthy Living (EHL) is to investigate the impact of gestational and postnatal environments on health, and to examine where structural change can be brought about to optimise health outcomes. The baseline assessment will focus on birth outcomes and maternal and infant health. Methods/Design EHL is a longitudinal birth cohort study. We aim to recruit 1000 pregnant women in the period April 2010 to March 2013. We will examine the impact of the gestational environment (maternal health) and the postnatal environment (housing and neighbourhood conditions) on subsequent health outcomes for the infants born to these women. Data collection will commence during the participants' pregnancy, from approximately 20 weeks gestation. Participants will complete a questionnaire, undergo anthropometric measurements, wear an accelerometer, compile a food diary, and have environmental measures taken within their home. They will also be asked to consent to having a sample of umbilical cord blood taken following delivery of their baby. These data will be complemented by routinely collected electronic data such as health records from GP surgeries, hospital admissions, and child health and development records. Thereafter, participants will be visited annually for follow-up of subsequent exposures and child health outcomes. Discussion The baseline assessment of EHL will provide information concerning

  6. Community Needs and Barriers to Healthy Dietary Intake and Physical Activity in a Native American Reservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: Identify unique cultural needs, priorities, program delivery preferences and barriers to achieving a healthy diet and lifestyle in one Native American community. DESIGN: A novel modified nominal group technique (NGT). SETTING: Four community district’s recreation centers. PARTICIPANTS...

  7. Effecting Healthy Lifestyle Changes in Overweight and Obese Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pett, Marjorie; Clark, Lauren; Eldredge, Alison; Cardell, Beth; Jordan, Kristine; Chambless, Cathy; Burley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a 12-week recreation center-based healthy lifestyle intervention for 30 obese home-dwelling young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities. Three cohorts participated: YA only, YA and parents, and parents only. The YA cohorts received a nutrition/exercise intervention; parents focused on modeling healthy lifestyle behaviors.…

  8. Consumer Perspectives on Involving Family and Significant Others in a Healthy Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aschbrenner, Kelly; Bartels, Stephen; Mueser, Kim; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Kinney, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This focus group study explored the potential benefits and challenges of involving family members and significant others in a healthy lifestyle program for people with serious mental illness (SMI). Six focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 30 people with SMI, who were participants in a healthy lifestyle intervention. Separate focus…

  9. Evidence for mild thyroidal impairment in women undergoing endurance training

    SciTech Connect

    Boyden, T.W.; Pamenter, R.W.; Stanforth, P.; Rotkis, T.; Wilmore, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of endurance training on body composition and the pituitary-thyroid axis were studied in 29 healthy, young (mean age, 28.7 yr), regularly menstruating women. Women who were initially jogging a mean of 13.5 miles/week were selected for this study to minimize dropouts. Body composition, measured by hydrostatic weighing, and nonfasting plasma concentrations of T/sub 4/, T/sub 3/, rT/sub 3/, TSH, and TRH-stimulated TSH, measured by RIA, were examined initially and after each subject's weekly mileage had increased to 30 miles (..delta..30, mean total body weight did not change, mean fat weight decreased (-1.02 kg/ P<0.005), and mean lean weight increased (+0.75 kg; P<0.05). T/sub 4/ and unstimulated TSH did not change. However, mean (+/- SE) T/sub 3/ decreased from 107.2 +/- 4.4 to 97.9 +/- 3.4 ng/dl (P<0.025), and mean rT/sub 3/ decreased from 170.9 +/- 13.9 to 154.6 +/- 13.2 pg/ml (P<0.025). The decrease in T/sub 3/ and rT/sub 3/ were accompanied by significantly greater TSH responses to TRH stimulation (mean (+/- SE) area under TSH curve, 1381.4 +/- 123 vs. 1712.8 +/- 202 ..mu..IU/ml-min; P < 0.01). These results indicate that physically active women who undergo additional endurance training 1) become more lean without a change in total body weight, and 2) have changes in T/sub 3/, rT/sub 3/, and TRH-stimulated TSH indicative of mild thyroidal impairment.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine after intraperitoneal administration to cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Benito, Javier; Monteiro, Beatriz P; Beaudry, Francis; Lavoie, Anne-Marie; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Steagall, Paulo V

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine after IP administration to cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. ANIMALS 8 healthy cats. PROCEDURES Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. Buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg, IV) and meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, SC) were administered. A 20-gauge catheter was inserted into a jugular vein for blood sample collection. A ventral midline incision was made, and a solution of 0.5% bupivacaine (2 mg/kg) diluted with an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (final concentration, 0.25% bupivacaine) was injected into the peritoneal space over the right and left ovarian pedicles and caudal aspect of the uterus before ovariohysterectomy. Cats were monitored for signs of bupivacaine toxicosis. Venous blood samples (2 mL) were collected before (time 0) and 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after bupivacaine administration. Plasma bupivacaine concentrations were determined with a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by data plotting followed by analysis with a noncompartmental model. RESULTS No signs of bupivacaine toxicosis were observed. Maximum bupivacaine plasma concentration was 1,030 ± 497.5 ng/mL at a mean ± SD value of 30 ± 24 minutes after administration. Mean elimination half-life was 4.79 ± 2.7 hours. Mean clearance indexed by bioavailability and volume of distribution indexed by bioavailability were 0.35 ± 0.18 L•h/kg and 2.10 ± 0.84 L/kg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Intraperitoneal administration of bupivacaine resulted in concentrations that did not cause observable toxicosis. Studies to investigate analgesic effects for this technique in cats are warranted. PMID:27227503

  11. Integrated healthy workplace model: An experience from North Indian industry

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Bains, Puneet; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Wadhwa, Sanjay; Moirangthem, Prabha; Kumar, Rajesh; Wadwalker, Sanjay; Sharma, Yashpal

    2012-01-01

    Background: Keeping in view of rapid industrialization and growing Indian economy, there has been a substantial increase in the workforce in India. Currently there is no organized workplace model for promoting health of industrial workers in India. Objective: To develop and implement a healthy workplace model in three industrial settings of North India. Materials and Methods: An operations research was conducted for 12 months in purposively selected three industries of Chandigarh. In phase I, a multi-stakeholder workshop was conducted to finalize the components and tools for the healthy workplace model. NCD risk factors were assessed in 947 employees in these three industries. In phase II, the healthy workplace model was implemented on pilot basis for a period of 12 months in these three industries to finalize the model. Findings: Healthy workplace committee with involvement of representatives of management, labor union and research organization was formed in three industries. Various tools like comprehensive and rapid healthy workplace assessment forms, NCD work-lite format for risk factors surveillance and monitoring and evaluation format were developed. The prevalence of tobacco use, ever alcoholics was found to be 17.8% and 47%, respectively. Around one-third (28%) of employees complained of back pain in the past 12 months. Healthy workplace model with focus on three key components (physical environment, psychosocial work environment, and promoting healthy habits) was developed, implemented on pilot basis, and finalized based on experience in participating industries. A stepwise approach for model with a core, expanded, and optional components were also suggested. An accreditation system is also required for promoting healthy workplace program. Conclusion: Integrated healthy workplace model is feasible, could be implemented in industrial setting in northern India and needs to be pilot tested in other parts of the country. PMID:23776318

  12. Effect of the healthy MOMs lifestyle intervention on reducing depressive symptoms among pregnant Latinas.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Edith C; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Welmerink, Diana B; Welch, Kathleen B; Sinco, Brandy R; Guzmán, J Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Depression during the prenatal and postpartum periods is associated with poor maternal, perinatal and child outcomes. This study examines the effectiveness of a culturally and linguistically tailored, social support-based, healthy lifestyle intervention led by trained community health workers in reducing depressive symptoms among pregnant and early postpartum Latinas. A sample of 275 pregnant Latinas was randomized to the Healthy MOMs Healthy Lifestyle Intervention (MOMs) or the Healthy Pregnancy Education (control) group. More than one-third of participants were at risk for depression at baseline. MOMs participants were less likely than control group participants to be at risk for depression at follow-up. Between baseline and 6 weeks postpartum, MOMs participants experienced a significant decline in depressive symptoms; control participants experienced a marginally significant decline. For MOMs participants, most of this decline occurred during the pregnancy intervention period, a time when no change occurred for control participants. The change in depressive symptoms during this period was greater among MOMs than control participants ("intervention effect"). From baseline to postpartum, there was a significant intervention effect among non-English-speaking women only. These findings provide evidence that a community-planned, culturally tailored healthy lifestyle intervention led by community health workers can reduce depressive symptoms among pregnant, Spanish-speaking Latinas. PMID:22638902

  13. Disaccharidase activity in children undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Daileda, Taylor; Baek, Peter; Sutter, Morgan E; Thakkar, Kalpesh

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the utility of intestinal disaccharide analysis during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in children, we performed a systematic review of studies examining disaccharide activity. METHODS: All full-length articles published in English during 1966-2014 were included if: (1) participants had small intestinal biopsy evaluation of disaccharide activity; (2) levels of lactase, sucrase, maltase or palatinase were reported; and (3) age of participants was under 18 years. RESULTS: Thirty articles examining 34753 disaccharide assays fulfilled the specific search, inclusion, and exclusion criteria. All of the studies were observational in design and 57% (17) were prospective. Sixteen studies were conducted in the United States and 9 European studies were identified. The biggest study enrolled about 30, 314 procedures and 13 studies investigated fewer than 50 procedures. Eleven studies examined Caucasian subjects, 3 studies examined Asian subjects, and 6 examined African subjects. Only one Hispanic subject was included. In studies reporting disaccharide deficiency, the overall proportion of lactase deficiency was 39.2%, sucrase deficiency was 9.0%, maltase deficiency was 12.6% and palatinase deficiency was 9.1%. The prevalence of duodenal inflammatory changes ranged from 6% to 24% for non-specific histological lesions (e.g., duodenitis). Sixteen studies examined the association of histologic findings with disaccharide activities, and 12 studies reported an inverse association between degree of histologic inflammation and disaccharide levels. CONCLUSION: We reviewed 30 studies including 34753 biopsy specimens with disaccharide analysis from children undergoing EGD. Our findings advocate a large study is to further illuminate the importance of EGD with disaccharide analysis in children. PMID:27158545

  14. Cognitive function in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Devapalasundarum, A N; Silbert, B S; Evered, L A; Scott, D A; MacIsaac, A I; Maruff, P T

    2010-01-01

    Objective To measure cognition in patients before and after coronary angiography. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting University teaching hospital. Patients 56 patients presenting for elective coronary angiography. Main outcome measures Computerised cognitive test battery administered before coronary angiography, before discharge from hospital and 7 days after discharge. A matched healthy control group was used as a comparator. Results When analysed by group, coronary angiography patients performed worse than matched controls at each time point. When the cognitive change was examined for each individual, of the 48 patients tested at discharge, 19 (39.6%) were classified as having a new cognitive dysfunction, and of 49 patients tested at day 7, six (12.2%) were classified as having a new cognitive dysfunction. Conclusions The results confirm that cognitive function is decreased in patients who have cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, coronary angiography may exacerbate this impaired cognition in some patients.

  15. Resistance to Clopidogrel among Iranian Patients Undergoing Angioplasty Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Haji Aghajani, Mohammad; Kobarfard, Farzad; Safi, Olia; Sheibani, Kourosh; Sistanizad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    To study the resistance to standard dosage of clopidogrel among Iranian patients following percutaneous coronary intervention measured by platelet aggregation test. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in Imam Hussein Medical center, Tehran, Iran, who were under treatment with aspirin, but had no history of clopidogrel usage, entered the study. Patients received standard dosage of clopidogrel (Plavix®, Sanofi, France, 600 mg loading dose and 75 mg/day afterward). Platelet aggregation was measured using light transmission aggregometer. The response to the drug was categorized as complete resistance (platelet aggregation decreased less than 10%), intermediate resistance (platelet aggregation decreased between 10 to 30%) and complete response (platelet aggregation decreased to 30% or more). All patients were evaluated for major adverse cardio vascular events one month after the angioplasty based on MACE criteria by phone contact. Thirty-one patients with a mean age of 59 ± 13 entered the study. Sixty-five percent of patients showed complete response to clopidogrel (95% CI: 45% to 81%), 22% showed intermediate resistance (95% CI: 10-41%) and 13% showed complete resistance (95% CI: 4-30%). One month after the angioplasty, no major adverse cardiovascular event was recorded. Based on our findings, it seems that there is no major difference between Iranian population and other studies regarding the resistance to clopidogrel. Due to the limited number of participants in our study, further investigations with higher number of patients are recommended to more precisely calculate the percentage of resistance among Iranian patients. PMID:24250685

  16. Analgesia and sedation for children undergoing burn wound care.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Ahmad; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Bhananker, Sanjay M

    2010-11-01

    Standard care of burn wounds consists of cleaning and debridement (removing devitalized tissue), followed by daily dressing changes. Children with burns undergo multiple, painful and anxiety-provoking procedures during wound care and rehabilitation. The goal of procedural sedation is safe and efficacious management of pain and emotional distress, requiring a careful and systematic approach. Achieving the best results needs understanding of the mechanisms of pain and the physiologic changes in burn patients, frequent evaluation and assessment of pain and anxiety, and administration of suitable pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies. Pharmacological therapies provide the backbone of analgesia and sedation for procedural pain management. Opioids provide excellent pain control, but they must be administered judiciously due to their side effects. Sedative drugs, such as benzodiazepines and propofol, provide excellent sedation, but they must not be used as a substitute for analgesic drugs. Ketamine is increasingly used for analgesia and sedation in children as a single agent or an adjuvant. Nonpharmacological therapies such as virtual reality, relaxation, cartoon viewing, music, massage and hypnosis are necessary components of procedural sedation and analgesia for children. These can be combined with pharmacological techniques and are used to limit the use of drugs (and hence side effects), as well as to improve patient participation and satisfaction. In this article, we review the pathophysiologic changes associated with major thermal injury in children, the options available for sedation and analgesia for wound care procedures in these children and our institutional guidelines for procedural sedation. PMID:20977331

  17. Coordination and citizen participation.

    PubMed

    Tucker, D J

    1980-03-01

    This study investigates the validity of the assumption that coordination and citizen participation are related inversely and, thus, are incompatible as features in the same social service reform strategy. Seventeen social service organizations situated in the same urban area were studied. Data were obtained by structured interview. The concepts of coordination and citizen participation were operationalized by means of scales. The findings support the validity of the assumption noted above. Although interpretations of the findings can be provided, they are post-factum. This implies a need for explanatory research which might be guided by theories of community power structure and of organizational behavior. PMID:10246483

  18. Analysis of operator participation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zarakovskiy, G. M.; Zinchenko, V. P.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of providing a psychological conception of the analysis of operator participation in a form that will allow the qualitative approach to be combined with the quantitative approach is examined. This conception is based on an understanding of the essence of human endeavor in automated control systems that now determine the development of society's productive forces and that are the main object of ergonomic research. Two main types of operator participation were examined; information retrieval with immediate service and information retrieval with delayed service.

  19. Guide to Healthy Web Surfing

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/healthywebsurfing.html MedlinePlus Guide to Healthy Web Surfing To use the sharing features on this ... the site, use caution. Focus on quality--All Web sites are not created equal Does the site ...

  20. Healthy habits for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... less by the time it is over. Practice Healthy Eating Life gets busy and a lot of people ... Emotional eating, or eating for comfort rather than nutrition, can make a big difference in what and ...

  1. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxygen into energy), and behavior or habits. Energy Balance Energy balance is important for maintaining a healthy weight. The ... OUT over time = weight stays the same (energy balance) More energy IN than OUT over time = weight ...

  2. National Center for Healthy Housing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Housing Videos Lead Links Listervs Share NCHH's Flood Cleanup Guide with a Friend Today Several locations ... rains on Saturday, July 30, resulting in flash flood conditions and damage. The town of Ellicott City ...

  3. MedlinePlus: Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... in America (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine) Article: The benefits of social prescribing. Article: Healthy ...

  4. Analyses of viscoelastic solid polymers undergoing degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoodi, Bentolhoda; Muliana, Anastasia; Tscharnuter, Daniel; Pinter, Gerald

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we study the three-dimensional response of isotropic viscoelastic solid-like polymers undergoing degradation due to mechanical stimuli. A single integral model is used to describe the time-dependent behaviors of polymers under general loading histories. The degradation is associated to excessive deformations in the polymers as strains continuously increase when the mechanical stimuli are prescribed, and therefore we consider a degradation threshold in terms of strains. The degradation part of the deformations is unrecoverable, and upon removal of the prescribed external stimuli, the accumulation of the degradation strains lead to residual strains. We also systematically present material parameter characterization from available experimental data under various loading histories, i.e., ramp loading with different constant rates, creep-recovery under different stresses, and relaxation under several strains. We analyze viscoelastic-degradation response of two polymers, namely polyethylene and polyoxymethylene under uniaxial tensile tests. Longer duration of loading can lead to increase in the degradation of materials due to the substantial increase in the deformations. The single integral model is capable in predicting the time-dependent responses of the polymers under various loading histories and capturing the recovery and residual strains at different stages of degradations.

  5. Casimir invariants for systems undergoing collective motion

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, C. Allen; Byrd, Mark S.; Wu Lianao

    2011-06-15

    Dicke states are an important class of states which exhibit collective behavior in many-body systems. They are interesting because (1) the decay rates of these states can be quite different from a set of independently evolving particles and (2) a particular class of these states are decoherence-free or noiseless with respect to a set of errors. These noiseless states, or more generally subsystems, avoid certain types of errors in quantum-information-processing devices. Here we provide a method for determining a set of transformations of these states which leave the states in their subsystems but still enable them to evolve in particular ways. For subsystems of particles undergoing collective motions, these transformations can be calculated by using essentially the same construction which is used to determine the famous Casimir invariants for quantum systems. Such invariants can be used to determine a complete set of commuting observables for a class of Dicke states as well as to identify possible logical operations for decoherence-free-noiseless subsystems. Our method is quite general and provides results for cases where the constituent particles have more than two internal states.

  6. Inducing Tropical Cyclones to Undergo Brownian Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodyss, D.; McLay, J.; Moskaitis, J.; Serra, E.

    2014-12-01

    Stochastic parameterization has become commonplace in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models used for probabilistic prediction. Here, a specific stochastic parameterization will be related to the theory of stochastic differential equations and shown to be affected strongly by the choice of stochastic calculus. From an NWP perspective our focus will be on ameliorating a common trait of the ensemble distributions of tropical cyclone (TC) tracks (or position), namely that they generally contain a bias and an underestimate of the variance. With this trait in mind we present a stochastic track variance inflation parameterization. This parameterization makes use of a properly constructed stochastic advection term that follows a TC and induces its position to undergo Brownian motion. A central characteristic of Brownian motion is that its variance increases with time, which allows for an effective inflation of an ensemble's TC track variance. Using this stochastic parameterization we present a comparison of the behavior of TCs from the perspective of the stochastic calculi of Itô and Stratonovich within an operational NWP model. The central difference between these two perspectives as pertains to TCs is shown to be properly predicted by the stochastic calculus and the Itô correction. In the cases presented here these differences will manifest as overly intense TCs, which, depending on the strength of the forcing, could lead to problems with numerical stability and physical realism.

  7. Number skills are maintained in healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Didino, Daniele; Stoianov, Ivilin; Zorzi, Marco

    2014-03-01

    Numerical skills have been extensively studied in terms of their development and pathological decline, but whether they change in healthy ageing is not well known. Longer exposure to numbers and quantity-related problems may progressively refine numerical skills, similar to what happens to other cognitive abilities like verbal memory. Alternatively, number skills may be sensitive to ageing, reflecting either a decline of number processing itself or of more auxiliary cognitive abilities that are involved in number tasks. To distinguish between these possibilities we tested 30 older and 30 younger participants on an established numerosity discrimination task requiring to judge which of two sets of items is more numerous, and on arithmetical tasks. Older participants were remarkably accurate in performing arithmetical tasks although their numerosity discrimination (also known as 'number acuity') was impaired. Further analyses indicate that this impairment was limited to numerosity trials requiring inhibiting information incongruent to numerosity (e.g., fewer but larger items), and that this also correlated with poor inhibitory processes measured by standard tests. Therefore, rather than a numerical impairment, poor numerosity discrimination is likely to reflect elderly's impoverished inhibitory processes. This conclusion is supported by simulations with a recent neuro-computational model of numerosity perception, where only the specific degradation of inhibitory processes produced a pattern that closely resembled older participants' performance. Numeracy seems therefore resilient to ageing but it is influenced by the decline of inhibitory processes supporting number performance, consistent with the 'Inhibitory Deficit' Theory. PMID:24423632

  8. Life satisfaction in young adults 10 or more years after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for childhood malignant and nonmalignant diseases does not show significant impairment compared with healthy controls: a case-matched study.

    PubMed

    Uderzo, Cornelio; Corti, Paola; Pappalettera, Marco; Baldini, Valentina; Lucchini, Giovanna; Meani, Dario; Rovelli, Attilio

    2012-11-01

    Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may experience physical and psychological deterioration that impairs their life satisfaction (LS). This study focused on LS in long-term survivors at 10 or more years after HSCT. Fifty-five patients (39 males, median age 25 years) undergoing allogeneic HSCT for childhood malignant (n = 52) or nonmalignant diseases (n = 3) were enrolled. A control group of 98 young adults (59 males, median age 24 years) was considered. A questionnaire with a modified Satisfaction Life Domain Scale was administered. We assessed such domains as education, employment, leisure time, social relationships, and perception of physical status with a 30-item questionnaire. To investigate the association between the domains and the probability of diminished LS, we performed a logistical procedure using the maximum likelihood method. Predictive factors of LS were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. In the multivariate analysis, the participant's level of LS was not significantly correlated with sociodemographic factors or with HSCT status. The same analysis showed a slight trend in favor of the control group (P = .06) for body perception. Our data suggest that the patients who undergo HSCT in childhood have no significant difference in long-term LS compared with healthy controls. PMID:22766222

  9. Promoting Healthy Eating Attitudes Among Uninsured Primary Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Tabler, Jennifer; Nourian, Maziar M; Jess, Allison; Stephens, Tamara; Aguilera, Guadalupe; Wright, Lindsey; Ashby, Jeanie

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is associated with a number of chronic health problems such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. While common prevention and treatment strategies to control unhealthy weight gain tend to target behaviors and lifestyles, the psychological factors which affect eating behaviors among underserved populations also need to be further addressed and included in practice implementations. The purpose of this study is to examine positive and negative emotional valence about food among underserved populations in a primary care setting. Uninsured primary care patients (N = 621) participated in a self-administered survey from September to December in 2015. Higher levels of perceived benefits of healthy food choice were associated with lower levels of a negative emotional valence about food while higher levels of perceived barriers to healthy food choice are related to higher levels of a negative emotional valence about food. Greater acceptance of motivation to eat was associated with higher levels of positive and negative emotional valence about food. Spanish speakers reported greater acceptance of motivation to eat and are more likely to have a negative emotional valence about food than US born or non-US born English speakers. The results of this study have important implications to promote healthy eating among underserved populations at a primary care setting. Healthy food choice or healthy eating may not always be achieved by increasing knowledge. Psychological interventions should be included to advance healthy food choice. PMID:26831483

  10. Oral and salivary changes among renal patients undergoing hemodialysis: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, A.; Reddy, S. S.; Umesh, L.; Devi, B. K. Y.; Santana, N.; Rakesh, N.

    2013-01-01

    We wanted to assess oral and salivary changes in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and to understand the correlation of such changes with renal insufficiency. The cross-sectional study was performed among 100 ESRD patients undergoing HD. Among these, 25 patients were randomly selected to assess the salivary changes and compared with 25 apparently healthy individuals who formed the control group. Total duration of the study was 15 months. Oral malodor, dry mouth, taste change, increased caries incidence, calculus formation, and gingival bleeding were the common oral manifestations. The flow rates of both unstimulated as well as stimulated whole saliva were decreased in the study group. The pH and buffer capacity of unstimulated whole saliva was increased in the study group, but stimulated whole saliva did not show any difference. ESRD patients undergoing HD require special considerations during dental treatment because of the various conditions inherent to the disease, their multiple oral manifestations and the treatment side-effects. PMID:23716919

  11. Partial Participation Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Dianne L.; Baumgart, Diane

    1991-01-01

    This article reanalyzes the principle of partial participation in integrated educational programing for students with severe or profound disabilities. The article presents four "error patterns" in how the concept has been used, some reasons why such error patterns have occurred, and strategies for avoiding these errors. (Author/JDD)

  12. Asking Questions about Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian; Flanagan, Bernie; Hogarth, Sylvia; Mountford, Paula; Philpott, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    We raise questions about young people's participation in light of findings from a project ("Democracy through Citizenship") funded by the Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust Limited, and managed by the Institute for Citizenship. Following a six-month feasibility study the project took place over a three-year period in one local authority in the north of…

  13. Increasing Participation through Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Bridget; Wager, Anita A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the many challenges teachers face is trying to differentiate instruction so all students have equal opportunities to participate, learn, and engage. To provide guidelines for differentiated instruction in mathematics, staff from the Madison Metropolitan School District in Wisconsin created a pedagogical framework for teaching called…

  14. Communication Games: Participant's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupar, Karen R.

    Using a series of communicational games, the author leads the participant through self-awareness, verbal and nonverbal communication, decision-making, problem-solving, and skills in perception, listening, and small group, organizational, and cultural communications. The thesis behind the book is that model-making, role-playing, or other forms of…

  15. Narrowing Participation Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Victoria; Kirtley, Karmen; Matassa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Shrinking the achievement gap in mathematics is a tall order. One way to approach this challenge is to think about how the achievement gap manifests itself in the classroom and take concrete action. For example, opportunities to participate in activities that involve mathematical reasoning and argumentation in a safe and supportive manner are…

  16. Widening Participation; Widening Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes that widening participation in higher education might distinctively be conceptualised beyond economically driven human capital outcomes, as a matter of widening capability. Specifically, the paper proposes forming the capability of students to become and to be "strong evaluators", able to make reflexive and informed choices…

  17. Katimavik Participant Information Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OPCAN, Montreal (Quebec).

    The guide provides prospective participants with an overview of Katimavik, a 9-month community volunteer service and learning program for 17- to 21-year-olds sponsored since 1977 by the Canadian Government. The guide describes the application process and computerized random selection procedures; work projects, which may range from building…

  18. 78 FR 60283 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ..., Health Promotion, and Surveillance Program Announcement: Healthy Communities, Tobacco Control, Diabetes...-901 cooperative agreement: diabetes prevention and control, state BRFSS activities, and Healthy... response respondents respondent (in hours) State Tobacco Control Program....... Management Information 53...

  19. 78 FR 71615 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... promotion training program, to support employers' efforts to create healthy work environments and provide employees with opportunities to make healthy lifestyle choices. The Work@Health Program will train...

  20. 77 FR 27775 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ...-free living, active living and healthy eating, high impact evidence-based clinical and other preventive services, social and emotional wellness, and a healthy and safe physical environment. The CTG program...

  1. Quantitative Histomorphometry of the Healthy Peritoneum

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Betti; Bartosova, Maria; Macher-Goeppinger, Stephan; Ujszaszi, Akos; Wallwiener, Markus; Nyarangi-Dix, Joanne; Sallay, Peter; Burkhardt, Dorothea; Querfeld, Uwe; Pfeifle, Viktoria; Lahrmann, Bernd; Schwenger, Vedat; Wühl, Elke; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Schaefer, Franz; Schmitt, Claus P.

    2016-01-01

    The peritoneum plays an essential role in preventing abdominal frictions and adhesions and can be utilized as a dialysis membrane. Its physiological ultrastructure, however, has not yet been studied systematically. 106 standardized peritoneal and 69 omental specimens were obtained from 107 patients (0.1–60 years) undergoing surgery for disease not affecting the peritoneum for automated quantitative histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. The mesothelial cell layer morphology and protein expression pattern is similar across all age groups. Infants below one year have a thinner submesothelium; inflammation, profibrotic activity and mesothelial cell translocation is largely absent in all age groups. Peritoneal blood capillaries, lymphatics and nerve fibers locate in three distinct submesothelial layers. Blood vessel density and endothelial surface area follow a U-shaped curve with highest values in infants below one year and lowest values in children aged 7–12 years. Lymphatic vessel density is much lower, and again highest in infants. Omental blood capillary density correlates with parietal peritoneal findings, whereas only few lymphatic vessels are present. The healthy peritoneum exhibits major thus far unknown particularities, pertaining to functionally relevant structures, and subject to substantial changes with age. The reference ranges established here provide a framework for future histomorphometric analyses and peritoneal transport modeling approaches. PMID:26905058

  2. 7 CFR 625.11 - Easement participation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Easement participation requirements. 625.11 Section 625.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM §...

  3. 7 CFR 625.11 - Easement participation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Easement participation requirements. 625.11 Section 625.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM §...

  4. Perceptions of Reimbursement for Clinical Trial Participation

    PubMed Central

    Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Loza, Melissa; Vincent, Kathleen; Moench, Thomas; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    A greater understanding of participant views regarding reimbursement will help investigators plan studies that have better potential for reaching target enrollment, maximize efficient recruitment, maintain scientific integrity, and enhance retention over time. As part of a clinical trial in the area of sexual health, healthy women’s perceptions of reimbursement for research participation were investigated. Semi-structured, audio-recorded, qualitative interviews were conducted immediately upon women’s completion of the clinical trial to enable a participant-driven understanding of perceptions about monetary reimbursement. Audio-recordings were transcribed and analyzed using framework analysis. Women (N = 30) had a mean age of 29.5 ± 5.7 years (range 22–45 years). Sixty-three percent of participants (n = 19) were non-Hispanic (white n = 13, black n = 4, and Asian n = 2), while the remaining were Hispanic (n = 11). Seventy-three percent (n = 22) reported previous participation in research. In general, women viewed reimbursement as a benefit to research participation, the amount of which should reflect time, the inconvenience to the research subject, and the potential for unknown risks in the short- and long-term. They believed reimbursement should take into account the degree of risk of the study, with investigations of experimental products offering greater reimbursement. Women believed that monetary reimbursement is unlikely to coerce an individual to volunteer for a study involving procedures or requirements that they found unacceptable. The results of this study can be used to provide guidance to those planning and evaluating reimbursement for research participation. PMID:21931235

  5. Feasibility of an exercise programme in elderly patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schuler, M K; Hornemann, B; Pawandenat, C; Kramer, M; Hentschel, L; Beck, H; Kasten, P; Singer, S; Schaich, M; Ehninger, G; Platzbecker, U; Schetelig, J; Bornhäuser, M

    2016-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that physical exercise benefits younger patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We designed a prospective pilot study investigating whether elderly patients (>60 years) would also be able to participate in such a programme. It consisted of physiotherapist-supervised alternating endurance and resistance workouts on 6 of 7 days a week. Sixteen consecutive patients undergoing allo-HSCT were enrolled into the study. The median age was 64.5 years. Twelve patients participated in the programme until the time of discharge (75%) from the transplant unit. Therefore, the predefined criteria regarding feasibility were met. The reason for drop out was transplantation associated mortality in all patients (n = 4). Adherence was very good with a median of 85% attended training sessions. No adverse events were recorded. The endurance capacity dropped by 7% and lower extremity strength improved by 2% over time. Quality of life decreased during the study period, with global health being significantly worse at the time of discharge. In conclusion, a combined and intensified strength and endurance exercise programme is feasible and safe in a population of elderly patients undergoing allo-HSCT. Further research should focus on exploring effect sizes of such an intervention by conducting randomised controlled trials. PMID:26526286

  6. Managing a Bone Healthy Lifestyle After Attending Multifaceted Group Education.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Annesofie Lunde; Lomborg, Kirsten; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Wind, Gitte

    2016-09-01

    We examined patients with osteoporosis implementation of recommendations regarding a bone healthy lifestyle after the patients attended multifaceted osteoporosis group education (GE). Our findings suggest that GE can support and influence patients' transfer of preventive actions. Still patients are challenged by concerns related to social roles and physical ability. We investigated if and how patients implemented knowledge from attending multifaceted osteoporosis GE in their daily lives. An interpretive description design using ethnographic field work was applied. In all 14 women and three men diagnosed with osteoporosis who attended multifaceted GE at a Danish hospital participated. Data consisted of field work and individual interviews in the participants' everyday environment after completion of GE. After attending multifaceted GE, participants experienced increased attention to and reflected more on how to implement osteoporosis preventive actions or activities. Participants who felt confident on how to act and experienced a clear need and motivation, or who could make the preventive activity into a social event, demonstrated an increased implementation of the preventive activity. On the contrary, attending GE was in some cases not sufficient to overcome social and physical concerns, or to eliminate uncertainty about recommendations or to make participants identify with the osteoporosis diagnosis, which thus impeded implementation of a bone healthy lifestyle. Attending multifaceted GE can support and influence participants' transfer of preventive actions into daily life. Being aware of how concerns about valued social roles and physical ability interfere with the implementation of medical recommendations obviously needs attention during GE. PMID:27146664

  7. A "Healthy" Color: Information About Healthy Eating Attenuates the "Red Effect".

    PubMed

    Gilston, Alyssa; Privitera, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the color red on our evaluative processes and psychological, emotional, and cognitive decision making is known as the "red effect." The present study tested the hypothesis that this "red effect" could be attenuated by information about the healthfulness of an individual's diet. To test this hypothesis 122 participants rated the attractiveness and healthfulness of a picture of the same female wearing a red or white (neutral color) shirt who was described as eating a healthy or unhealthy food.  Results showed that participants did rate the female wearing the red shirt as more attractive (evidence of the "red effect"). However, when the female was described as eating an unhealthy food, the red effect was not significant. These findings suggest that the red effect is robust, but can be attenuated by manipulating the perceptions of health. PMID:26234987

  8. 78 FR 34385 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... services, healthy and safe school environment, faculty and staff health promotion, and family and community.../60 District Nutrition Services 685 1 30/60 District Healthy and Safe 685 1 60/60 School Environment... Nutrition Services.. 640 1 40/60 School Healthy and Safe 640 1 75/60 School Environment. School...

  9. 77 FR 34951 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... employee access and opportunity to engage in activities that support a healthy lifestyle; and to quantify... should be received within 30 days of this notice. Proposed Project National Healthy Worksite Program--New... (CDC) is establishing the National Healthy Worksite Program (NHWP), a comprehensive workplace...

  10. Sleep Disorders in ESRD Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Abassi, Mohammad Reza; Safavi, Amin; Haghverdi, Masoumeh; Saedi, Babak

    2016-03-01

    Kidney failure affects different aspects of normal life. Among different manifestations, sleep problem can be considered as a common complaint of ESRD (End Stage Renal Disease) patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate the interrelationship between sleep disorders in ESRD patients and their characteristics. Through a cross-sectional study (2010-2011), 88 ESRD patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis thrice weekly were recruited to enter the study. We used a self-administered questionnaire into which the data were reflected. The patients selected their specific sleep disorders using a nine-item scale while the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) determined both the presence and severity of sleep disorders. The data was finally analyzed with their baseline characteristics, dialysis characteristics, medication/stimulants use, and clinical and biochemical parameters. Over 95% of the patients had, at least, one specific sleep disorder while the ESS revealed 36.36% of patients as normal, 59.09% as having mild sleep disorders, and 4.54% as having moderate to severe sleep disorders. Sleep disorders were significantly correlated with older ages (P=0.035), dialysis dose (P=0.001), blood creatinine levels (P=0.037), upper airways obstruction (P=0.035), hepatomegaly (P=0.006), hepatic failure (P=0.001), higher blood TSH levels (P=0.039), history of hypothyroidism (P=0.005), and the use of levodopa (P=0.004), anti-hypertensive medications (P=0.006), benzodiazepines (P=0.006), Eprex (Erythropoietin) (P=0.001), Venofer (Iron Sucrose Injection) (P=0.013), and phosphate-binders agents (P=0.018). Sleep disorders are common findings among ESRD patients and seem to be a more complicated issue than a simple accumulation of the wastes products in the body. Whatever the causes of sleep disorders are, disorder-specific treatments should be considered. PMID:27107522

  11. Hearing Preservation Among Patients Undergoing Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Van Abel, Kathryn M.; Dunn, Camille C.; Sladen, Douglas P.; Oleson, Jacob J.; Beatty, Charles W.; Neff, Brian A.; Hansen, Marlan; Gantz, Bruce J.; Driscoll, Colin L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite successful preservation of low-frequency hearing in patients undergoing cochlear implantation (CI) with shorter electrode lengths, there is still controversy regarding which electrodes maximize hearing preservation (HP). The thin straight electrode array (TSEA) has been suggested as a full cochlear coverage option for HP. However, very little is known regarding its HP potential. Methods A retrospective review was performed at two tertiary academic medical centers, reviewing the electronic records for 52 patients (mean, 58.2 yr; range, 11–85 yr) implanted with the Cochlear Nucleus CI422 Slim Straight (Centennial, CO, USA) electrode array, referred to herein as the thin straight electrode array or TSEA. All patients had a preoperative low-frequency pure-tone average (LFPTA) of 85 dB HL or less. Hearing thresholds were measured at initial activation (t1) and 6 months after activation (t2). HP was assessed by evaluating functional HP using a cutoff level of 85 dB HL PTA. Results At t1, 54% of the subjects had functional hearing; 33% of these subjects had an LFPTA between 71 and 85 dB HL, and 17% had an LFPTA between 56 and 70 dB HL. At t2, 47% of the patients had functional hearing, with 31% having an LFPTA between 71 and 85 dB HL. Discussion Preliminary research suggests that the TSEA has the potential to preserve functional hearing in 54% of patients at t1. However, 22% (n = 6) of the patients who had functional hearing at t1 (n = 28) lost their hearing between t1 and t2. Further studies are needed to evaluate factors that influence HP with the TSEA electrode and determine the speech perception benefits using electric and acoustic hearing over electric alone. PMID:25575373

  12. Challenging Assumptions About Minority Participation in US Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Kalbaugh, Corey A.

    2011-01-01

    Although extensive research addresses minorities’ low participation in clinical research, most focuses almost exclusively on therapeutic trials. The existing literature might mask important issues concerning minorities’ participation in clinical trials, and minorities might actually be overrepresented in phase I safety studies that require the participation of healthy volunteers. It is critical to consider the entire spectrum of clinical research when discussing the participation of disenfranchised groups; the literature on minorities’ distrust, poor access, and other barriers to trial participation needs reexamination. Minority participation in clinical trials is an important topic in public health discussions because this representation touches on issues of equality and the elimination of disparities, which are core values of the field. PMID:22021285

  13. Healthy Aging in Community for Older Lesbians

    PubMed Central

    Putney, Jennifer M.; Shepard, Bonnie L.; Sass, Samantha E.; Rudicel, Sally; Ladd, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: In Boston and Outer Cape, Massachusetts, we explored the expectations of lesbians 60 years and older regarding healthy aging and community importance. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with participants after completing an anonymous demographic questionnaire. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes and identify how they varied by urban versus rural settings. Results: Group discussions focused on community, finances, housing, and healthcare. Primary concerns included continued access to supportive and lesbian communities as a source of resilience during aging. Conclusion: Concerns about discrimination and isolation mirror themes found in national research. The study findings suggest a need for more research into the housing and transportation needs of lesbians approaching later life, with a focus on how those needs relate to affordability, accessibility, and proximity to social support and healthcare. These findings also suggest the need for substantial investments in strengthening the LGBT-related cultural competence of providers of services for the elderly. PMID:27046541

  14. Consumers' practical understanding of healthy food choices: a fake food experiment.

    PubMed

    Mötteli, Sonja; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael; Barbey, Jana; Bucher, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about laypeople's practical understanding of a healthy diet, although this is important to successfully promote healthy eating. The present study is the first to experimentally examine how consumers define healthy and balanced food choices for an entire day compared with normal choices and compared with dietary guidelines. We used an extensive fake food buffet (FFB) with 179 foods commonly consumed in the Swiss diet. The FFB is a validated method to investigate food choice behaviour in a well-controlled laboratory setting. People from the general population in Switzerland (n 187; 51·9 % females), aged between 18 and 65 years, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the control group, the participants were instructed to serve themselves foods they would eat on a normal day, whereas in the 'healthy' group they were instructed to choose foods representing a healthy diet. Participants chose significantly more healthy foods, with 4·5 g more dietary fibre, 2 % more protein and 2 % less SFA in the 'healthy' group compared with the control group. However, in both experimental conditions, participants served themselves foods containing twice as much sugar and salt than recommended by dietary guidelines. The results suggest that laypeople lack knowledge about the recommended portion sizes and the amounts of critical nutrients in processed food, which has important implications for communicating dietary guidelines. Furthermore, the energy of the food served was substantially correlated with the energy needs of the participants, demonstrating the potential of the fake food buffet method. PMID:27256562

  15. Peripapillary choroidal thickness in healthy Turkish subjects

    PubMed Central

    Erbagci, Hulya; Oren, Burak; Okumus, Seydi; Kenan, Serhat; Celemler, Pelin; Erbagci, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Aim The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the normal peripapillary choroidal thickness (CT), measured by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), in healthy Turkish volunteers. Materials and methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, 57 eyes of 57 healthy Turkish subjects were enrolled. Each participant underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination and peripapillary CT measurement using EDI-OCT. Results The mean age of the 25 female and 32 male patients in the study was 30.9±10.6 years (range, 18–56 years). The mean peripapillary CT at the superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal sites was 225±57, 183±47, 220±57, and 233±59 μm, respectively. The inferior peripapillary CT value was significantly lower than the peripapillary CT values (P<0.001 for all), whereas no significant differences were found between the superior, nasal, and temporal peripapillary CT values. Conclusion The findings of the study revealed that Turkish people had significantly lower peripapillary CT values in the inferior quadrant than in the superior, nasal, and temporal quadrants. PMID:26257510

  16. Healthy Bodegas: Increasing and Promoting Healthy Foods at Corner Stores in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Donya A.; Baronberg, Sabrina; Silver, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of an initiative to increase the stock and promotion of healthy foods in 55 corner stores in underserved neighborhoods. Methods. We evaluated the intervention through in-store observations and preintervention and postintervention surveys of all 55 store owners as well as surveys with customers at a subset of stores. Results. We observed an average of 4 changes on a 15-point criteria scale. The most common were placing refrigerated water at eye level, stocking canned fruit with no sugar added, offering a healthy sandwich, and identifying healthier items. Forty-six (84%) store owners completed both surveys. Owners reported increased sales of healthier items, but identified barriers including consumer demand and lack of space and refrigeration. The percentage of customers surveyed who purchased items for which we promoted a healthier option (low-sodium canned goods, low-fat milk, whole-grain bread, healthier snacks and sandwiches) increased from 5% to 16%. Conclusions. Corner stores are important vehicles for access to healthy foods. The approach described here achieved improvements in participating corner stores and in some consumer purchases and may be a useful model for other locales. PMID:22897534

  17. Nova Survey participation requested

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-03-01

    The AAVSO solicits participation in an online nova survey from our member and observer communities. The survey is being conducted in advance of an upcoming long-term observing campaign that will be launched in mid-April 2013. We are seeking participation in this survey from as broad a sample of the AAVSO community as possible, and your responses will help us gauge the effectiveness of the campaign and serve the observer community better. The survey may be completed anonymously, but you will have the option of providing us with your name and AAVSO observer code if you choose. Please visit the following website to complete the survey: https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/ZQHDYWB. The survey should take no more than five minutes to complete. We ask that you complete the survey by Monday, April 15, 2013.

  18. Evaluation of self-esteem in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment1

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marilia Aparecida Carvalho; Nogueira, Denismar Alves; Terra, Fábio de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the self-esteem of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Method: descriptive analytical cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. Around 156 patients that attended an oncology unit of a mid-sized hospital participated in the study. Results: we found a higher frequency of patients with high self-esteem, but some of them showed average or low self-esteem. The scale showed a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.746, by considering its acceptable internal consistency for the evaluated items. No independent variables showed significant associations with self-esteem. Conclusion: the cancer patients evaluated have presented high self-esteem; thus, it becomes crucial for nursing to plan the assistance of patients undergoing chemotherapy treatments, which enables actions and strategies that meet their physical and psychosocial conditions, aiming to maintain and rehabilitate these people's emotional aspects. PMID:26625999

  19. Coping strategies of adults with leukemia undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Iran: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Farsi, Zahra; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid; Negarandeh, Reza

    2010-12-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) causes significant physical, social, psychological, and emotional stress in patients with leukemia. This qualitative study using semi-structured interviews explored the coping strategies of 10 adults with acute leukemia who were undergoing this form of treatment in transplantation units in a major hospital in Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2010. A content analysis identified eight themes and 13 subthemes that described the participants' coping strategies. The major themes were: attribution, denial and avoidance, connection with divine purpose, organizing treatment, seeking social support, modifying, reflection, and patience and resignation. A deeper understanding of the coping strategies that are used by patients with leukemia undergoing HSCT can help healthcare providers to encourage patients to use strategies that are likely to be more effective. Such coping strategies also can help patients to achieve a greater sense of empowerment. PMID:21210928

  20. Autobiographical memory after acute stress in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Tollenaar, Marieke S; Elzinga, Bernet M; Spinhoven, Philip; Everaerd, Walter

    2009-04-01

    Autobiographical memories have been found to be less specific after hydrocortisone administration in healthy men, resembling memory deficits in, for example, depression. This is the first study to investigate the effects of stress-induced elevated cortisol levels on autobiographic memory specificity and experience in healthy young men. Autobiographical memories were elicited by neutral and negative cue words, with instructions to recall either recent or remote memories. No effect of psychosocial stress was found on memory specificity or experience, but cortisol increases tended to be related to less specific, recent memories elicited by neutral cue words, especially when participants were physically aroused during memory retrieval. These results indicate that autobiographical memories are fairly resistant to an acute stressor in healthy young men, but that endogenous cortisol increases might be related to autobiographical memory retrieval. More research into the relation between endogenous cortisol increases and autobiographic memory retrieval is needed, especially in stress-related disorders. PMID:19156564

  1. Clearance and synthesis rates of beta 2-microglobulin in patients undergoing hemodialysis and in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Floege, J.; Bartsch, A.; Schulze, M.; Shaldon, S.; Koch, K.M.; Smeby, L.C. )

    1991-08-01

    Retention of {beta} 2-microglobulin in patients undergoing hemodialysis is associated with a {beta} 2-microglobulin-derived amyloidosis. Removal of {beta} 2-microglobulin by renal replacement therapy has been proposed for the prevention of this amyloidosis. Currently, however, data on the {beta} 2-microglobulin synthesis rate in patients undergoing hemodialysis are scarce, and consequently it remains speculative how much removal would be necessary to counterbalance synthesis. The plasma kinetics of iodine 131-labeled {beta} 2-microglobulin were therefore examined in 11 patients with anuria who were undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Five healthy persons served as controls. Kinetic modeling of the plasma curves showed that the data fitted a two-pool model (r2 greater than 0.96) consisting of a rapid 2 to 4 hour distribution phase followed by a less steep curve, described by the plasma (metabolic) clearance (Clp). Synthetic rates were calculated from Clp and the {beta} 2-microglobulin steady state plasma concentration (plus {beta} 2-microglobulin removal during hemodialysis in the case of high flux hemodialysis). The results showed a significantly higher Clp in normal controls as compared with patients undergoing hemodialysis (65.5 {plus minus} 12.8 ml/min (mean {plus minus} SD) versus 3.4 {plus minus} 0.7 ml/min). In contrast, the {beta} 2-microglobulin synthesis rate in the patient group (3.10 {plus minus} 0.79 mg/kg/day) was not significantly different from that of normal controls (2.40 {plus minus} 0.67 mg/kg/day), which was due to markedly elevated {beta} 2-microglobulin plasma concentrations in the patients (37.6 {plus minus} 14.1 mg/L vs 1.92 {plus minus} 0.27 mg/L). These findings suggest that the presence of end-stage renal disease does not have a significant impact on the beta 2-microglobulin generation rate.

  2. [The decision to undergo tubal ligation].

    PubMed

    Fontaine, J G

    1984-07-01

    approve the definitive contraception that her past deprivation caused her to desire, even though it would prevent her in the future from fulfilling herself through motherhood. A review of the literature from the past decade on psychological aspects of sterilization indicates that sterilization has no therapeutic effect in the sense of making psychiatric problems disappear. A psychological evaluation should be sought if the candidate is young, feels ambivalent about the sterilization, or feels obligated to undergo sterilization for some reason. PMID:6485177

  3. Family-Related Opinions and Stressful Situations Associated with Psychological Distress in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05) and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that “women should devote themselves to their household duties” those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that “married life without children is favorable” and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment. PMID:25184788

  4. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05) and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that "women should devote themselves to their household duties" those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that "married life without children is favorable" and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment. PMID:25184788

  5. An investigation of the effects of music on anxiety and pain perception in patients undergoing haemodialysis treatment.

    PubMed

    Pothoulaki, M; Macdonald, R A R; Flowers, P; Stamataki, E; Filiopoulos, V; Stamatiadis, D; Stathakis, Ch P

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of preferred music listening on anxiety and pain perception in patients undergoing haemodialysis. A two group experimental design was used. Sixty people diagnosed with end stage renal failure undergoing haemodialysis treatment participated in this study. Preferred music listening was applied as an intervention. Anxiety and pain were measured pre-test and post-test. The control group scored significantly higher in state anxiety than the experimental group and experienced significantly higher pain intensity in post-test phase. Findings provide experimental evidence to support the effectiveness of preferred music listening in medical settings. PMID:18809642

  6. More than the money: A review of the literature examining healthy volunteer motivations

    PubMed Central

    Stunkel, Leanne; Grady, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Few existing data report the motivations of healthy volunteers in clinical research trials. Some worry that volunteers consider only financial motivations. This study summarized and analyzed existing empirical research on self-reported motivations of healthy volunteers participating in studies not intended to offer benefit from participation. Study Selection A systematic PubMed search was conducted. Inclusion criteria captured English-language empirical studies on the self-reported motivations, reasons, or factors influencing the decision of healthy volunteers to enroll in clinical research. Twelve studies involving more than 2000 healthy volunteers met the criteria and were included in this review. Data Extraction Independent review by the authors and extraction of information about the sample, methodology and objective of the motivations study, description of the clinical trial and whether participation was actual or hypothetical, reported primary and secondary motivations of the healthy volunteers, risk evaluation, and reported differences in motivations related to sociodemographic variables. Results This review showed that although financial reward is the primary motivation for healthy volunteers to participate in clinical trials, financial motivations are one among many other reported motivations, including contributing to science or the health of others, accessing ancillary healthcare benefits, scientific interest or interest in the goals of the study, as well as meeting people and curiosity. Volunteers consider risk when making a decision about participation. Conclusions Although financial incentives are important in recruiting healthy volunteers, their motivations are not limited to financial motivations. Further research is needed to examine motivations in different contexts and countries, the decision making of healthy volunteers, and the dynamics of repeat participation. PMID:21146635

  7. Clinical utility of breath ammonia for evaluation of ammonia physiology in healthy and cirrhotic adults

    PubMed Central

    Spacek, Lisa A; Mudalel, Matthew; Tittel, Frank; Risby, Terence H; Solga, Steven F

    2016-01-01

    Blood ammonia is routinely used in clinical settings to assess systemic ammonia in hepatic encephalopathy and urea cycle disorders. Despite its drawbacks, blood measurement is often used as a comparator in breath studies because it is a standard clinical test. We sought to evaluate sources of measurement error and potential clinical utility of breath ammonia compared to blood ammonia. We measured breath ammonia in real time by quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectrometry and blood ammonia in 10 healthy and 10 cirrhotic participants. Each participant contributed 5 breath samples and blood for ammonia measurement within 1 h. We calculated the coefficient of variation (CV) for 5 breath ammonia values, reported medians of healthy and cirrhotic participants, and used scatterplots to display breath and blood ammonia. For healthy participants, mean age was 22 years (±4), 70% were men, and body mass index (BMI) was 27 (±5). For cirrhotic participants, mean age was 61 years (±8), 60% were men, and BMI was 31 (±7). Median blood ammonia for healthy participants was within normal range, 10 μmol L−1 (interquartile range (IQR), 3–18) versus 46 μmol L−1 (IQR, 23–66) for cirrhotic participants. Median breath ammonia was 379 pmol mL−1 CO2 (IQR, 265–765) for healthy versus 350 pmol mL−1 CO2 (IQR, 180–1013) for cirrhotic participants. CV was 17 ± 6%. There remains an important unmet need in the evaluation of systemic ammonia, and breath measurement continues to demonstrate promise to fulfill this need. Given the many differences between breath and blood ammonia measurement, we examined biological explanations for our findings in healthy and cirrhotic participants. We conclude that based upon these preliminary data breath may offer clinically important information this is not provided by blood ammonia. PMID:26658550

  8. Building the Group: Using Personal Affirming to Create Healthy Group Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitten, Denise

    1995-01-01

    Group leaders who offer affirmations to participants in outdoor education encourage healthy relationships and group cohesion and increase individuals' self-esteem. Personal affirming includes actions and statements that make participants feel comfortable in their environment, support capable work, and encourage behavior change in a supportive and…

  9. Parametric Quantitative Acoustic Analysis of Conversation Produced by Speakers with Dysarthria and Healthy Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Kristin M.; Kent, Raymond D.; Delaney, Amy L.; Duffy, Joseph R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study's main purpose was to (a) identify acoustic signatures of hypokinetic dysarthria (HKD) that are robust to phonetic variation in conversational speech and (b) determine specific characteristics of the variability associated with HKD. Method: Twenty healthy control (HC) participants and 20 participants with HKD associated with…

  10. Healthy public policies: looking ahead.

    PubMed

    Krech, Rüdiger

    2011-12-01

    Health has moved up on the political agendas of most governments around the globe. The interdependence of economic, environmental and social conditions and health is increasingly understood. In turn, the experiences in health promotion with building healthy public policies become more important. Future "health in all policies" efforts, however, need to consider changing political contexts. There is some scope to review the focus on GDP when measuring economic development, and how health promotion considers both the opportunities and responsibilities of industry as part of healthy public policies. PMID:22080083

  11. Promoting healthy habits in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, William F; Phelan, Sharon T

    2008-09-01

    Most women have an appreciation of what are generally considered healthy habits including more exercise; eating a healthy diet; avoiding cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs; using seatbelts; and being current on preventive care, such as good dental status. Being pregnant can be a strong motivator to change or modify behavioral choices. This is an optimal time for a provider to build on this potential motivator to effect change. Frequent follow-up visits allow re-enforcement of attempted change. This constant encouragement and support helps to impress on the woman and her family the importance of change. PMID:18760226

  12. Barriers to healthy nutrition: perceptions and experiences of Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A sound understanding of community perceptions and experiences regarding barriers to a healthy diet is a prerequisite for the design of effective interventions aimed at prevention of diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study focused on exploring barriers to healthy nutrition as experienced by women participating in the Tehran Lipid Glucose Study (TLGS). Methods A grounded theory approach was used for analyzing the participants’ experiences and their perceptions regarding these barriers. Data collection was conducted through sixteen semi-structured focus group discussions, between 2008 and 2009. Participants were 102 women, aged 25-65 years, selected and recruited from the TGLS cohort. All interviews and focus group discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Constant comparative analysis of the data was conducted manually according to the Strauss and Corbin analysis method. Results The study revealed that the most important barriers to healthy nutrition were: 1) Interpersonal/cultural effects, 2) Lack of access to healthy foods, and 3) Food preferences. Conclusions Understanding these barriers might contribute to existing literature by providing evidence from a different culture, and help design effective preventive strategies, and implement appropriate interventions among Tehranian families. PMID:23227832

  13. Women's attitudes towards a pre-conception healthy lifestyle programme.

    PubMed

    Funk, K L; LeBlanc, E S; Vesco, K K; Stevens, V J

    2015-04-01

    Nearly half of US women begin pregnancy overweight or obese and more than half of overweight or obese pregnant women experience excessive gestational weight gain. Recent lifestyle intervention programmes have helped women avoid excessive weight gain during pregnancy, but helping women lose weight before pregnancy may be a more effective way to improve pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed women's attitudes towards pre-conception diet and weight management interventions. An anonymous survey was conducted in patients waiting in a health maintenance organization's obstetrics and primary care waiting rooms. It focused on attitudes towards participating in a pre-conception, lifestyle change programme. Eighty percent of the 126 women surveyed were pregnant or considering pregnancy within 5 years. Of the 126 respondents, 60 (48%) were overweight or obese. Of these, 96% rated healthy diet and healthy weight before pregnancy as very important or important and 77% favoured a healthy lifestyle programme (diet, weight management and physical activity) before becoming pregnant. Likewise, overweight or obese women reported being likely or highly likely to participate in specific intervention programme aspects such as keeping phone appointments (77%), using a programme website (70%) and keeping food and exercise records (63%). Survey results show that women in this population believe that adopting a healthy lifestyle and losing weight are important before pregnancy and that they are enthusiastic about programmes that will help them achieve those goals in preparation for pregnancy. PMID:25735259

  14. Reactivity of allergy skin test in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Supakthanasiri, Phisit; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Healthy individuals may be exposed and sensitised to allergens, and have a positive response to a skin prick test despite being asymptomatic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of atopic sensitisation and identify the reactivity of healthy volunteers to common aeroallergens. METHODS Healthy volunteers with no known allergic symptoms were recruited in this study. All volunteers were scheduled to undergo a skin prick test with 16 common aeroallergens that were previously identified among atopic patients. RESULTS A total of 100 volunteers (mean age 28 years) were enrolled in this study. 42 volunteers had positive skin prick tests for at least one allergen. The median number of sensitised allergen was 2 (range 1–7). Volunteers with positive skin tests (n = 42) were younger than those with negative skin tests (n = 58) (mean age 25.5 vs. 29.2 years; p < 0.05). The group with positive skin tests also had a higher proportion of males (57.1% vs. 31.0%; p < 0.01) and first-degree relatives with a history of atopic diseases (31.0% vs. 10.3%; p < 0.05). The most common sensitised allergens in these healthy asymptomatic volunteers were mite (n = 33), house dust (n = 23) and American cockroach (n = 20). CONCLUSION In this study, up to 42% of healthy volunteers, particularly those with a family history of atopy, were sensitised to allergens. Reactivity of the skin test without allergic symptoms, however, does not indicate allergic disease. Therefore, the skin test should only be indicated in atopic symptomatic individuals. PMID:24452975

  15. Optimism in Women Undergoing Abdominal Sacrocolpopexy for Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Wren, Patricia A; Janz, Nancy K; FitzGerald, Mary P; Barber, Matthew D; Burgio, Kathryn L; Cundiff, Geoffrey W; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Zyczynski, Halina M; Gao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Background While studies suggest optimism can predict health outcomes, the relationship has not been tested in women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This study seeks to (1) explore the relationship between optimism, prolapse severity, and symptoms before surgery; and (2) examine whether optimism predicts post-surgical functional status, treatment satisfaction, and treatment success. Study Design Data from the randomized Colpopexy And Urinary Reduction Efforts (CARE) study in which stress continent women undergoing sacrocolpopexy to repair Stage II-IV POP completed a baseline assessment of optimism and validated symptom and quality of life (QOL) measures at baseline and 24-months. Relationships between optimism and demographics, clinical status, and functional and QOL outcomes were assessed. Results Of 322 CARE participants, 305 (94.7%) completed 24-month follow-up interviews. At baseline, there were no significant differences in optimism with respect to POP stage or history of prior surgery for prolapse or urinary incontinence. At baseline, women with greater optimism reported significantly better physical and mental functioning (p≤0.001), and less symptom distress (p≤0.01). Two years after surgery, the difference in symptom experience across the three optimism categories narrowed as all women reported improved health status, fewer symptoms, and less impact on daily activities. Satisfaction with treatment and perception of treatment success were not associated with optimism. Conclusions In women planning surgery for POP, optimism is related to pelvic symptom severity but is not associated with satisfaction with treatment or treatment success. Abdominal sacrocolpopexy resulted in substantial improvements in QOL and functional outcomes that were not significantly influenced by optimism. PMID:18656053

  16. Perceptions and dietary intake of self-described healthy and unhealthy eaters with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Carson, Nancy E; Blake, Christine E; Saunders, Ruth

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine how community-dwelling adults with severe mental illness describe themselves as eaters and how these eating identities relate to dietary intake. Twenty participants completed one in-depth qualitative interview and three 24-h dietary recalls. Two distinct groups were identified; self-described healthy eaters (n = 10) and self-described unhealthy eaters (n = 10). Healthy eaters emphasized fruits and vegetables, limiting sweets, three meals a day, overcoming cost concerns, and benefits of healthy eating. Unhealthy eaters emphasized junk foods, fried foods, few fruits and vegetables, cost and household barriers to healthy eating, and concerns about consequences of unhealthy eating. Self-described healthy eaters consumed significantly more vegetables and less kilocalories, carbohydrates, fat, and saturated fat than self-described unhealthy eaters. Understanding how eating identities relate to dietary intake provides important insights for development of more effective approaches to promote healthy eating in this high risk population. PMID:25535051

  17. Quantitative EEG and Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) Imaging of Patients Undergoing Methadone Treatment for Opiate Addiction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Grace Y; Kydd, Robert R; Russell, Bruce R

    2016-07-01

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been used as a treatment for opiate dependence since the mid-1960s. Evidence suggests that methadone binds to mu opiate receptors as do other opiates and induces changes in neurophysiological function. However, little is known, about how neural activity within the higher frequency gamma band (>30 Hz) while at rest changes in those stabilized on MMT despite its association with the excitation-inhibition balance within pyramidal-interneuron networks. Our study investigated differences in resting gamma power (37-41 Hz) between patients undergoing MMT for opiate dependence, illicit opiate users, and healthy controls subjects. Electroencephalographic data were recorded from 26 sites according to the international 10-20 system. Compared with the healthy controls subjects, people either undergoing MMT (mean difference [MD] = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.09-0.55, P < .01) or currently using illicit opiates (MD = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.06-0.56, P = .01) exhibited significant increased gamma power. The sLORETA (standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography) between-group comparison revealed dysfunctional neuronal activity in the occipital, parietal, and frontal lobes in the patients undergoing MMT. A more severe profile of dysfunction was observed in those using illicit opiates. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to opioids is associated with disrupted resting state network, which may be reduced after MMT. PMID:26002855

  18. 14 CFR 204.5 - Certificated and commuter air carriers undergoing or proposing to undergo substantial change in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operations, management, or ownership, including changes that may affect the air carrier's citizenship, shall... undergoing or proposing to undergo substantial change in operations, ownership, or management. 204.5 Section..., ownership, or management. (a) A certificated or commuter air carrier proposing a substantial change...

  19. [Women's participation in science].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guzmán, María Alejandra; Corona-Vázquez, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The participation of women in higher education in Mexico took place in the late 19th and early 20th century. The rise of women's enrollment in universities known as the "feminization of enrollment" occurred in the last thirty years. In this review we analyze how the new conditions that facilitated better access to higher education are reflected in the inclusion of women in science. We include an overview of the issues associated with a change in the demographics of enrollment, segregation of academic areas between men and women and participation in post graduate degrees. We also review the proportion of women in science. While in higher education the ratio between male and women is almost 50-50 and in some areas the presence of women is even higher, in the field of scientific research women account for barely 30% of professionals. This is largely due to structural conditions that limit the access of women to higher positions of power that have been predominantly taken by men. PMID:19256415

  20. Tongue Adiposity and Strength in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Susan G.; Lintzenich, Catherine Rees; Leng, Xiaoyan; Stuart, Andrew; Feng, Xin; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To identify treatable risk factors for aspiration in older adults—particularly those associated with sarcopenia – we examined tongue composition. We hypothesized that 1) isometric and swallowing posterior tongue strength would positively correlate with posterior tongue adiposity, and 2) healthy older adults who aspirate would have greater tongue adiposity than healthy older adults who did not aspirate. Study Design Prospective Methods Participants were 40 healthy adults, comprised of 20 aspirators (Mean age = 78 years) and 20 non-aspirators (Mean age = 81 years), as identified via flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Measures of maximal isometric posterior tongue strength and posterior swallowing tongue strength were acquired via tongue manometry. An index of posterior tongue adiposity was acquired via computed tomography for a 1 cm region of interest. Result(s) Posterior tongue adiposity was correlated with posterior tongue isometric (r = .32, p = 0.05) but not swallowing pressures (p > 0.05) as examined with separate partial correlation analyses. Tongue adiposity did not significantly differ as a function of age, gender, or aspiration status (p > 0.05). Conclusion(s) Lower posterior isometric tongue strength was associated with greater posterior tongue adiposity. However, aspiration in healthy older adults was not affected by posterior tongue adiposity. This finding offers insight into the roles of tongue composition and strength in healthy older adults. PMID:22522371

  1. Essential Ideas for Healthy Childhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents essential ideas from various people on how to cultivate healthy childhood. Amelia Gambetti says that in terms of young children, the element of complexity offers to them the possibility to have an opportunity to learn how to think and to generate ideas. Diane Levin shares how a three-year-old kid taught her that children do…

  2. Methionine requirements in healthy adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate methionine requirements in healthy adolescents, we conducted an experiment in 28 children age 15.6+2.1 years, wt. 57.8+9.7 kg, using the intravenous indicator amino acid oxidation and balance (IV-IAAOB) technique. Children were randomly assigned to 7 different levels of methionine int...

  3. Program Review: Raising Healthy Eaters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Christine M.; Fetsch, Robert J.; Benavente, Janet C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight children and adults has been increasing steadily over the past three decades. Behaviors related to diet and nutrition are often established in early childhood. Toddlers most often develop healthy eating habits through parent modeling. Due to the steady increase in obesity in children, there is a clear need for…

  4. Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Institute on Aging at NIH Search form Search this site Menu Get Started Try These Exercises Go to My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating Sometimes it’s hard to make smart food choices . Here are some suggestions from Go4Life ...

  5. Review of Healthy, Happy Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Christine M.; Fetsch, Robert J.; Jefferson, Gisele

    2011-01-01

    The number of obese children has nearly tripled in the past 30 years. Research has identified a clear connection between parental income, education, ethnicity, and the risk for obesity. Recent research demonstrates that parenting style may also impact the ability to establish healthy eating environments. This article reviews a program, currently…

  6. Partnerships To Keep Students Healthy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Eva; Northrop, Daphne

    2000-01-01

    A 1987 model for a coordinated school health program included a healthy environment, comprehensive health education, physical education, health and nutrition services, counseling, staff health promotion, and family and community involvement. Effective programs in two low-resource areas--Providence, Rhode Island, and Animas, New Mexico--are…

  7. Healthy Behaviors or Age Denials?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Erdman B.

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable confusion in the media and the public about healthy behaviors in contrast to "antiaging" behaviors designed to make one look "younger." As an aid in clarifying the differences between these two types of behaviors, we have developed a questionnaire called the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI). We also wanted to estimate…

  8. Participation Training for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergevin, Paul; McKinley, John

    Participation Training for Adult Education serves as a manual, guide, and resource for leaders and participants interested in establishing a program of adult learning called group-participation training. Goals emphasize participants learning about themselves as learners, how they relate to and can help others, and exploring the dynamics of a…

  9. [Current Status of Perioperative Rehabilitation in Patients who Undergo Esophagectomy for Cancer].

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Masato; Hanada, Masatoshi; Hidaka, Shigekazu; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Kozu, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    The esophagectomy for esophageal cancer is major surgery and has the highest rate of postoperative pulmonary complications. Respiratory physiotherapy in patients undergoing esophagectomy has been applied to improve oxygenation and airway secretion clearance. Recently, the utility and effectiveness of enhanced recovery after surgery for gastroenterological surgery have been reported in Japan, and patients should be encouraged to participate in early mobilization. Perioperative rehabilitation which includes early mobilization reduces postoperative complications and improves fast-track recovery after esophagectomy. These interventions play important role in postoperative care. PMID:26975645

  10. Factors Affecting Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Rafie, Seyyed Reza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although, there have been extensive research on the motivations driving patient to undergo cosmetic procedures, there is still a big question mark on the persuasive factors which may lead individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery. The present study evaluated various factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran. METHODS From 24th March 2011 to 24th March 2012, eighty-one women and 20 men who wished to be operated in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Bushehr, Southern Iran and Pars Clinic, Iran were enrolled by a simple random sampling method. They all completed a questionnaire to consider reasons for cosmetic procedures. The collected data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS Demographical, sociological and psychological factors such as age, gender, educational level, marital status, media, perceived risks, output quality, depression and self-improvement were determined as factors affecting tendency of individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery in this region. Trend to undergo cosmetic surgery was more prevalent in educational below bachelor degree, married subjects, women population of 30-45 years age group. Education level, age, marital status and gender were respectively the influential factors in deciding to undergo cosmetic surgery. Among the socio-psychological factors, self-improvement, finding a better job opportunity, rivalry, media, health status as well as depression were the most persuasive factors to encourage people to undergo cosmetic surgery too. Cost risk was not important for our samples in decision making to undergo cosmetic surgery. CONCLUSION We need to fully understand the way in which the combination of demographic, social and psychological factors influence decision-making to undergo cosmetic surgery. PMID:25734051

  11. Researching participant recruitment times.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Rachel; Black, Polly

    2015-11-01

    Conducting research in emergency departments is relatively new, and there are a number of ethical and practical challenges to recruiting patients in these settings. In 2008, the Emergency Medicine Research Group Edinburgh (EMERGE) was set up at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh emergency department to support researchers and encourage the growth of research in emergency medicine. As part of a review of their working methods, the group's clinical nurse researchers undertook a small study to identify participant recruitment times. The results showed a significant difference between perceived and actual recruitment times, which has implications for planning staff numbers and budgets. This article describes the evaluation process and methods of data collection, and discusses the results. PMID:26542924

  12. Yough, literacy and participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Arthur

    1985-12-01

    The number of illiterates in the world continues to grow. Simultaneously, there are few if any literacy efforts in the world today that do not depend upon the energies and skills (and sometimes ideas) of young people. Youth's participation in the provision of literacy, in some industrialized as well as in many developing countries, is classified according to three patterns: the project pattern, the programme pattern, and the campaign pattern. The project pattern is not seen to hold out the prospect of enabling youth to make serious inroads into growing illiteracy. Conversely, the campaign pattern seemed largely exceptional. Suggestions are made to draw on elements of both the project and the campaign patterns to show ways of enrichting, systematizing and generalizing the programme pattern.

  13. Worksite health promotion program participation: a study to examine the determinants of participation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michael Edward; Bergman, Randall J; Nivens, Samantha

    2014-09-01

    This study explores the relationship between organizational health climate and worksite health promotion program participation, specifically engaging individuals who are unlikely to make positive health behavior choices on their own. Participants consisted of employees at three separate furniture-manufacturing facilities completing a voluntary survey. Using responses (n = 349) from the health climate instrument, which is a measure of the collective attitudes, beliefs, and readiness to change a health behavior, this study identified two factors that were significant contributors to worksite health promotion program participation. Health norms, the collective attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle, as measured by the subscales-health scale and intention to make a behavior change-and "optimistic bias," the overassessment of one's personal health, were found to be predictors of participation. Additionally, significant (p < .05) predictors of self-assessed health, included perceived control to initiate, competence to carry out, and the organizational support of the health behavior change. The findings suggest that the organization's health norms and self-assessed health are associated with the worker's motivation to become involved with health promotion interventions. Offering worksite health screenings and advanced programming and creating a culture of health at work can help address program participation. PMID:24231632

  14. Thigh Muscle Strength in Senior Athletes and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, Jean L; Salacinski, Amanda J; Hunt, Sarah E; Greenspan, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is commonly recommended to counteract aging-related muscle weakness. While numerous exercise intervention studies on the elderly have been performed, few have included elite senior athletes, such as those who participate in the National Senior Games. The extent to which participation in highly competitive exercise affects muscle strength is unknown, as well as the extent to which such participation mitigates any aging-related strength losses. The purpose of this study was to examine isometric thigh muscle strength in selected athletes of the National Senior Games and healthy noncompetitive controls of similar age, as well as to investigate strength changes with aging in both groups. In all, 95 athletes of the Games and 72 healthy controls participated. Of the senior athletes, 43 were runners, 12 cyclists, and 40 swimmers. Three trials of isometric knee flexion and extension strength were collected using a load cell affixed to a custom-designed chair. Strength data were normalized to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-obtained lean mass of the leg. A 3-factor multivariate analysis of variance (group × gender × age group) was performed, which included both the extension and flexion variables ([alpha] = 0.05). Athletes exhibited 38% more extension strength and 66% more flexion strength than the controls (p < 0.001). Strength did not decrease with advancing age in either the athletes or the controls (p = 0.345). In conclusion, senior athletes who participate in highly competitive exercise have greater strength than healthy aged-matched individuals who do not. Neither group displayed the expected strength losses with aging. Our subject cohorts, however, were not typical of those over age 65 years because individuals with existing health conditions were excluded from the study. PMID:19972628

  15. Healthy Pregnancies. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A woman's behaviors during pregnancy can have a significant influence on her baby's healthy development. Women who smoke or drink alcohol during pregnancy, go without prenatal care or suffer from poor nutrition are more likely to experience complications during pregnancy or childbirth, and their babies are at increased risk for developing a number…

  16. Age and gender effects on human brain anatomy: a voxel-based morphometric study in healthy elderly.

    PubMed

    Smith, Charles D; Chebrolu, Himachandra; Wekstein, David R; Schmitt, Frederick A; Markesbery, William R

    2007-07-01

    The adult human brain shrinks slowly with age, but the regional specificity and tissue class specificity of this loss is unclear. Subjects (n=122) were healthy aged participants in a longitudinal cohort who undergo periodic standardized cognitive and clinical examination. Multi-spectral segmentation of magnetic resonance images into grey matter (GM), white matter (WM) and CSF was performed on cross-sectional image data using a custom template and calculated prior probability maps. Global differences were evaluated by fitting a regression model for absolute and normalized subject GM, WM, and CSF values. Global and regional patterns of GM, WM and CSF differences were assessed using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). GM volume decreased with age at a rate of 2.4 cm(3)/year (-0.18%/year); CSF increased by 2.5 cm(3)/year (0.20%/year). Regression analyses showed no significant decrease in WM volume, but a focal WM decrease with age was detected in the anterior corpus callosum using VBM. Diffuse reductions of GM volume were seen with age in the frontal, parietal, and temporal cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia. Relative regional differences in cortical GM volume with age occurred in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, but not in medial temporal lobe or in posterior cingulate. We did not observe significant gender effects. These findings establish a baseline for comparison with pathologic changes in human brain volume between ages 58 and 95 years. PMID:16774798

  17. Prognostic understanding, quality of life and mood in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    El-Jawahri, A; Traeger, L; Kuzmuk, K; Eusebio, J; Vandusen, H; Keenan, T; Shin, J; Gallagher, E R; Greer, J A; Pirl, W F; Jackson, V A; Ballen, K K; Spitzer, T R; Graubert, T A; McAfee, S; Dey, B; Chen, Y-B A; Temel, J S

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about how patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) and their family caregivers (FC) perceive their prognosis. We examined prognostic understanding in patients undergoing HCT and their FC and its relationship with quality of life (QOL) and mood. We conducted a longitudinal study of patients (and FC) hospitalized for HCT. We used a questionnaire to measure participants' prognostic understanding and asked the oncologists to estimate patients' prognosis prior to HCT. We assessed QOL and mood weekly and evaluated the relationship between prognostic understanding, and QOL and mood using multivariable linear mixed models. We enrolled 90 patients undergoing (autologous (n=30), myeloablative (n=30) or reduced intensity allogeneic (n=30)) HCT. About 88.9% of patients and 87.1% of FC reported it is 'extremely' or 'very' important to know about prognosis. However, 77.6% of patients and 71.7% of FC reported a discordance and more optimistic prognostic perception compared to the oncologist (P<0.0001). Patients with a concordant prognostic understanding with their oncologists reported worse QOL (β=-9.4, P=0.01) and greater depression at baseline (β=1.7, P=0.02) and over time ((β=1.2, P<0.0001). Therefore, Interventions are needed to improve prognostic understanding, while providing patients with adequate psychological support. PMID:25961772

  18. Music and ambient operating room noise in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Chakib M; Rizk, Laudi B; Yaacoub, Chadi I; Gaal, Dorothy; Kain, Zeev N

    2005-05-01

    Previous studies have indicated that music decreases intraoperative sedative requirements in patients undergoing surgical procedures under regional anesthesia. In this study we sought to determine whether this decrease in sedative requirements results from music or from eliminating operating room (OR) noise. A secondary aim of the study was to examine the relationship of response to intraoperative music and participants' culture (i.e., American versus Lebanese). Eighty adults (36 American and 54 Lebanese) undergoing urological procedures with spinal anesthesia and patient-controlled IV propofol sedation were randomly assigned to intraoperative music, white noise, or OR noise. We found that, controlling for ambient OR noise, intraoperative music decreases propofol requirements (0.004 +/- 0.002 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1) versus 0.014 +/- 0.004 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1) versus 0.012 +/- 0.002 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1); P = 0.026). We also found that, regardless of group assignment, Lebanese patients used less propofol as compared with American patients (0.005 +/- 0.001 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1) versus 0.017 +/- 0.003 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1); P = 0.001) and that, in both sites, patients in the music group required less propofol (P < 0.05). We conclude that when controlling for ambient OR noise, intraoperative music decreases propofol requirements of both Lebanese and American patients who undergo urological surgery under spinal anesthesia. PMID:15845676

  19. PELVIC FLOOR SYMPTOMS AND QUALITY OF LIFE ANALYSES IN WOMEN UNDERGOING SURGERY FOR RECTAL PROLPASE

    PubMed Central

    ELLINGTON, DR; MANN, M; BOWLING, CB; DRELICHMAN, ER; GREER, WJ; SZYCHOWSKI, JM; RICHTER, HE

    2014-01-01

    Objective Characterize pelvic floor symptom distress and impact, sexual function and quality of life in women who underwent rectal prolapse surgery. Methods Subjects undergoing rectal prolapse surgery from 2004–2009 completed questionnaires including the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, and the Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire. Baseline demographic, medical, and surgical characteristics were extracted by chart review. Demographic and clinic outcomes of women undergoing transperineal and abdominal approaches were compared. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for continuous variables and Fisher’s exact test for categorical measures. Results 45 were identified; two deceased at follow-up. 28/43 subjects (65.1%) responded to the questionnaires. Mean time from original procedure was 3.9 ± 3.1 years. No differences in median total Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, and subscale scores, and Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire scores in women undergoing open rectopexy versus transperineal proctectomy were seen (all p>0.05). 26 (60%) participants answered the Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire, nine reported sexual activity within the last month. All underwent abdominal procedures. Conclusion There are few colorectal or other pelvic floor symptoms after rectal prolapse repair. Robust prospective studies are needed to more fully characterize and understand issues associated with rectal prolapse surgery in women. PMID:25379122

  20. Preventing obesity in infants: the Growing healthy feasibility trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Laws, Rachel; Russell, Catherine Georgina; Ong, Kok-leong; Taki, Sarah; Elliot, Roz; Azadi, Leva; Lymer, Sharyn; Taylor, Rachael; Lynch, John; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie; Askew, Deborah; Litterbach, Eloise Kate; J Campbell, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Early childhood is an important period for establishing behaviours that will affect weight gain and health across the life course. Early feeding choices, including breast and/or formula, timing of introduction of solids, physical activity and electronic media use among infants and young children are considered likely determinants of childhood obesity. Parents play a primary role in shaping these behaviours through parental modelling, feeding styles, and the food and physical activity environments provided. Children from low socio-economic backgrounds have higher rates of obesity, making early intervention particularly important. However, such families are often more difficult to reach and may be less likely to participate in traditional programs that support healthy behaviours. Parents across all socio-demographic groups frequently access primary health care (PHC) services, including nurses in community health services and general medical practices, providing unparalleled opportunity for engagement to influence family behaviours. One emerging and promising area that might maximise engagement at a low cost is the provision of support for healthy parenting through electronic media such as the Internet or smart phones. The Growing healthy study explores the feasibility of delivering such support via primary health care services. Methods This paper describes the Growing healthy study, a non-randomised quasi experimental study examining the feasibility of an intervention delivered via a smartphone app (or website) for parents living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, for promoting infant feeding and parenting behaviours that promote healthy rather than excessive weight gain. Participants will be recruited via their primary health care practitioner and followed until their infant is 9 months old. Data will be collected via web-based questionnaires and the data collected inherently by the app itself. Ethics and dissemination This study received

  1. Novel oral anticoagulants in patients undergoing cardioversion for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Briasoulis, Alexandros; Kottam, Anupama; Khan, Mazhar; Afonso, Luis

    2015-08-01

    Recent trials on novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) in patients undergoing cardioversion showed that NOACs are as safe and effective as treatment with vitamin K antagonists in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing electric or pharmacological cardioversion. We conducted an EMBASE and MEDLINE search for studies in which patients undergoing cardioversion were assigned to treatment with NOACs versus VKAs. We identified one prospective randomized study and three post hoc analysis of randomized trials which enrolled 2,788 controls that received NOACs and 1,729 patients that received VKAs. NOACs and VKAs had comparable effects on the rates of stroke/thromboembolism, major bleeding events and all-cause mortality. NOACs are safe and effective alternatives to VKA in patients with AF undergoing cardioversion. PMID:25542262

  2. 14. EAST ELEVATION, COTTAGE. EXTERIOR NEARLY RESTORED. INTERIOR UNDERGOING RESTORATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. EAST ELEVATION, COTTAGE. EXTERIOR NEARLY RESTORED. INTERIOR UNDERGOING RESTORATION. EUCALYPTUS TREE PLANTED BY GERTRUDE KEIL PLANNED FOR REMOVAL. - Gold Ridge Farm, 7777 Bodega Avenue, Sebastopol, Sonoma County, CA

  3. 78 FR 52770 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction... Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery--NEW--Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services (OSELS), Public...

  4. 78 FR 69092 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ...: Control Numbers 0920- 0128, (Congenital Syphilis Surveillance), 0920-0819 (Nationally Notifiable Sexually... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of...

  5. Healthy aging for older women.

    PubMed

    Young, Heather M; Cochrane, Barbara B

    2004-03-01

    Healthy aging is a multifaceted phenomenon, incorporating biological and psychosocial developmental factors. The population of older women is diverse in health, function, social context, and age. Health promotion strategies, therefore, should be customized accordingly to optimize the health of the varied subgroups of older women, according to their health trajectory and personal preferences. Research and evaluation of approaches to promote health among these subgroups is an important next step in understanding and influencing the health of older women. PMID:15062732

  6. Sustainable development is healthy development.

    PubMed

    Litsios, S

    1994-01-01

    Economic growth has brought with it substantial environmental damage. Nature has been abused and little consideration has been given to the consequences, among them the adverse effects on health. Healthy people are vital for local development that is both economically and ecologically sound. The health sector should be actively involved in the movement for sustainable development. What this would require in practice is considered below, with particular reference to the quality of life in regions of tropical forest. PMID:8018295

  7. Does Metabolically Healthy Obesity Exist?

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Cornejo-Pareja, Isabel; Tinahones, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and other metabolic diseases have been deeply studied. However, there are clinical inconsistencies, exceptions to the paradigm of “more fat means more metabolic disease”, and the subjects in this condition are referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO).They have long-standing obesity and morbid obesity but can be considered healthy despite their high degree of obesity. We describe the variable definitions of MHO, the underlying mechanisms that can explain the existence of this phenotype caused by greater adipose tissue inflammation or the different capacity for adipose tissue expansion and functionality apart from other unknown mechanisms. We analyze whether these subjects improve after an intervention (traditional lifestyle recommendations or bariatric surgery) or if they stay healthy as the years pass. MHO is common among the obese population and constitutes a unique subset of characteristics that reduce metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors despite the presence of excessive fat mass. The protective factors that grant a healthier profile to individuals with MHO are being elucidated. PMID:27258304

  8. Does Metabolically Healthy Obesity Exist?

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Cornejo-Pareja, Isabel; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and other metabolic diseases have been deeply studied. However, there are clinical inconsistencies, exceptions to the paradigm of "more fat means more metabolic disease", and the subjects in this condition are referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO).They have long-standing obesity and morbid obesity but can be considered healthy despite their high degree of obesity. We describe the variable definitions of MHO, the underlying mechanisms that can explain the existence of this phenotype caused by greater adipose tissue inflammation or the different capacity for adipose tissue expansion and functionality apart from other unknown mechanisms. We analyze whether these subjects improve after an intervention (traditional lifestyle recommendations or bariatric surgery) or if they stay healthy as the years pass. MHO is common among the obese population and constitutes a unique subset of characteristics that reduce metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors despite the presence of excessive fat mass. The protective factors that grant a healthier profile to individuals with MHO are being elucidated. PMID:27258304

  9. Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of aerobic exercise in reducing metabolic risk in healthy older people: The Hertfordshire Physical Activity Trial

    PubMed Central

    Finucane, Francis M; Horton, Jessica; Purslow, Lisa R; Savage, David B; Brage, Soren; Besson, Hervé; Horton, Kenneth; Rolfe, Ema De Lucia; Sleigh, Alison; Sharp, Stephen J; Martin, Helen J; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Ekelund, Ulf; Griffin, Simon J; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    Background While there are compelling observational data confirming that individuals who exercise are healthier, the efficacy of aerobic exercise interventions to reduce metabolic risk and improve insulin sensitivity in older people has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, while low birth weight has been shown to predict adverse health outcomes later in life, its influence on the response to aerobic exercise is unknown. Our primary objective is to assess the efficacy of a fully supervised twelve week aerobic exercise intervention in reducing clustered metabolic risk in healthy older adults. A secondary objective is to determine the influence of low birth weight on the response to exercise in this group. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 100 participants born between 1931–1939, from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study and randomly assign them to no intervention or to 36 fully supervised one hour sessions on a cycle ergometer, over twelve weeks. Each participant will undergo detailed anthropometric and metabolic assessment pre- and post-intervention, including muscle biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, objective measurement of physical activity and sub-maximal fitness testing. Discussion Given the extensive phenotypic characterization, this study will provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise as well as the efficacy, feasibility and safety of such interventions in this age group. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN60986572 PMID:19545359

  10. What Makes Teenagers Continue? a Salutogenic Approach to Understanding Youth Participation in Swedish Club Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Background: International studies have revealed that young people engage in sports because of friends, the enjoyment of participation, and the ability to feel healthy. Furthermore, it is often argued that sports should be characterized as joyful and provide both recreational and elite investment. In Sweden, many children participate in club sports…

  11. Perioperative effects of oral ketorolac and acetaminophen in children undergoing bilateral myringotomy.

    PubMed

    Watcha, M F; Ramirez-Ruiz, M; White, P F; Jones, M B; Lagueruela, R G; Terkonda, R P

    1992-09-01

    Prophylactic administration of analgesics before surgery can decrease the intraoperative anaesthetic requirement and decrease pain during the early postoperative period. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 90 healthy ASA physical status I or II children undergoing bilateral myringotomy, we compared the postoperative analgesic effects of oral acetaminophen and ketorolac, when administered 30 min before induction of anaesthesia. Patients were randomized to receive saline (0.1 ml.kg-1), acetaminophen (10 mg.kg-1) or ketorolac (1 mg.kg-1) diluted in cherry syrup to a total volume of 5 ml. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with halothane and nitrous oxide via a face mask. Postoperative pain was assessed by a blinded observer using an objective pain scale. The three study groups were similar with respect to demographic data, duration of anaesthesia and surgery, induction behaviour, oxygen saturation, incidence of postoperative emesis and, recovery times. The ketorolac group had lower postoperative pain scores and required less frequent analgesic therapy in the early postoperative period compared with the acetaminophen and placebo groups. In contrast, there were no differences in pain scores or analgesic requirements between the acetaminophen and the placebo groups. We conclude that the preoperative administration of oral ketorolac, but not acetaminophen, provided better postoperative pain control than placebo in children undergoing bilateral myringotomy. PMID:1394752

  12. Ventilation and cardiac related impedance changes in children undergoing corrective open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Schibler, Andreas; Pham, Trang M T; Moray, Amol A; Stocker, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) can determine ventilation and perfusion relationship. Most of the data obtained so far originates from experimental settings and in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that EIT measures the perioperative changes in pulmonary blood flow after repair of a ventricular septum defect in children with haemodynamic relevant septal defects undergoing open heart surgery. In a 19 bed intensive care unit in a tertiary children's hospital ventilation and cardiac related impedance changes were measured using EIT before and after surgery in 18 spontaneously breathing patients. The EIT signals were either filtered for ventilation (ΔZV) or for cardiac (ΔZQ) related impedance changes. Impedance signals were then normalized (normΔZV, normΔZQ) for calculation of the global and regional impedance related ventilation perfusion relationship (normΔZV/normΔZQ). We observed a trend towards increased normΔZV in all lung regions, a significantly decreased normΔZQ in the global and anterior, but not the posterior lung region. The normΔZV/normΔZQ was significantly increased in the global and anterior lung region. Our study qualitatively validates our previously published modified EIT filtration technique in the clinical setting of young children with significant left-to-right shunt undergoing corrective open heart surgery, where perioperative assessment of the ventilation perfusion relation is of high clinical relevance. PMID:24021191

  13. STS-87 crew participate in TCDT activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crew of the STS-87 mission, scheduled for launch Nov. 19 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia from Pad 39B at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), participates in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) at KSC. Getting a look at the Space Shuttle Columbia are, from left, Commander Kevin Kregel; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU); Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; Kadenyuks back-up, Yaroslav Pustovyi, Ph.D., also of NSAU; and Mission Specialist Winston Scott. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight providing the crew of each mission opportunities to participate in simulated countdown activities. The TCDT ends with a mock launch countdown culminating in a simulated main engine cut-off. The crew also spends time undergoing emergency egress training exercises at the pad and has an opportunity to view and inspect the payloads in the orbiter's payload bay.

  14. Cross-Referencing Program Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Donald

    1981-01-01

    In an attempt to ascertain student involvement in physical education programs, a cross-referencing participation scale was conducted to determine which activities were most popular, the extent of participation, and budget justifications. (JN)

  15. Labor Education and Organizational Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Higdon C., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Most of the leadership throughout the labor movement have been concerned about the lack of rank and file participation in labor unions. An evaluation of the relationship of labor education and union participation is explored. (WL)

  16. Privileging physical activity over healthy eating: 'Time' to Choose?

    PubMed

    Chircop, Andrea; Shearer, Cindy; Pitter, Robert; Sim, Meaghan; Rehman, Laurene; Flannery, Meredith; Kirk, Sara

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity and healthy eating have long been promoted as key strategies in tackling the 'wicked problem' of obesity. Both practices are assumed to go hand-in-hand, but whether one dominates the other has largely remained unexamined. Moreover, time, a dimension beyond the socio-ecological model, is a critical factor of families' busy lives, but related challenges are rarely articulated. We conducted 47 family interviews as part of a mixed methods study examining environmental influences on youth obesity in Nova Scotia, Eastern Canada. Participants were recruited from six schools at the junior high school level (grades 7-9; age range 12-14 years) based on location (urban, suburban and rural) and neighborhood socioeconomic status (high and low socioeconomic status). Time pressure to meet the demands associated with scheduled physical activity for youth was the dominant theme across interviews from all neighborhoods. Physical activity and healthy eating were valued differently, with greater value placed on physical activity than healthy eating. The pressure to engage youth in organized physical activity appeared to outweigh the importance of healthy eating, which led to neglecting family meals at home and consuming fast food and take out options. Our findings further reinforce the need to move beyond the socio-ecological model and integrate critical dimensions such as 'time', its challenges and opportunities, to allow for a more nuanced understanding of contemporary healthy living. It appears 'timely' to focus on healthy public policy in support of families, instead of unwittingly supporting a fast food industry that profits from time-pressured families. PMID:23945086

  17. Strategies of Healthy Adults Walking on a Laterally Oscillating Treadmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2008-01-01

    We mounted a treadmill on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform to investigate locomotor responses produced by healthy adults introduced to a dynamic walking surface. The experiment examined self-selected strategies employed by participants when exposed to continuous, sinusoidal lateral motion of the support surface while walking. Torso translation and step width were used to classify responses used to stabilize gait in a novel, dynamic environment. Two response categories emerged. Participants tended to either fix themselves in space (FIS), allowing the treadbelt to move laterally beneath them, or they fixed themselves to the base (FTB), moving laterally as the motion base oscillated. The degree of fixation in both extremes varied across participants. This finding suggests that normal adults have innate and varied preferences for reacquiring gait stability, some depending more heavily on vision (FIS group) and others on proprioception (FTB group). Keywords: Human locomotion, Unstable surface, Treadmill, Adaptation, Stability

  18. Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Tucha, Oliver; Mecklinger, Lara; Maier, Kerstin; Hammerl, Marianne; Lange, Klaus W

    2004-06-01

    In a study published previously in this journal (Wilkinson et al., 2002), the effect of chewing gum on cognitive functioning was examined. The results of this study indicated that chewing a piece of gum results in an improvement of working memory and of both immediate and delayed recall of words but not of attention. In the present study, memory and a variety of attentional functions of healthy adult participants were examined under four different conditions: no chewing, mimicking chewing movements, chewing a piece of tasteless chewing gum and chewing a piece of spearmint flavoured chewing gum. The sequence of conditions was randomised across participants. The results showed that the chewing of gum did not improve participants' memory functions. Furthermore, chewing may differentially affect specific aspects of attention. While sustained attention was improved by the chewing of gum, alertness and flexibility were adversely affected by chewing. In conclusion, claims that the chewing a gum improves cognition should be viewed with caution. PMID:15183924

  19. Increased Set Shifting Costs in Fasted Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Heather M.; Burgess, Paul W.; Gilbert, Sam J.; Serpell, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the impact of temporary food restriction on a set shifting task requiring participants to judge clusters of pictures against a frequently changing rule. 60 healthy female participants underwent two testing sessions: once after fasting for 16 hours and once in a satiated state. Participants also completed a battery of questionnaires (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]; Persistence, Perseveration and Perfectionism Questionnaire [PPPQ-22]; and Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire [EDE-Q6]). Set shifting costs were significantly increased after fasting; this effect was independent of self-reported mood and perseveration. Furthermore, higher levels of weight concern predicted a general performance decrement under conditions of fasting. We conclude that relatively short periods of fasting can lead to set shifting impairments. This finding may have relevance to studies of development, individual differences, and the interpretation of psychometric tests. It also could have implications for understanding the etiology and maintenance of eating disorders, in which impaired set shifting has been implicated. PMID:25025179

  20. Increased set shifting costs in fasted healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Heather M; Burgess, Paul W; Gilbert, Sam J; Serpell, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the impact of temporary food restriction on a set shifting task requiring participants to judge clusters of pictures against a frequently changing rule. 60 healthy female participants underwent two testing sessions: once after fasting for 16 hours and once in a satiated state. Participants also completed a battery of questionnaires (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]; Persistence, Perseveration and Perfectionism Questionnaire [PPPQ-22]; and Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire [EDE-Q6]). Set shifting costs were significantly increased after fasting; this effect was independent of self-reported mood and perseveration. Furthermore, higher levels of weight concern predicted a general performance decrement under conditions of fasting. We conclude that relatively short periods of fasting can lead to set shifting impairments. This finding may have relevance to studies of development, individual differences, and the interpretation of psychometric tests. It also could have implications for understanding the etiology and maintenance of eating disorders, in which impaired set shifting has been implicated. PMID:25025179

  1. Single dose testosterone administration reduces loss chasing in healthy females.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yin; Liu, Jinting; Qu, Lujing; Eisenegger, Christoph; Clark, Luke; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2016-09-01

    Testosterone has been linked to modulation of impulsivity and risky choice, potentially mediated by changes in reward or punishment sensitivity. This study investigated the effect of testosterone on risk-taking and the adjustment of risk-taking on trials following a gain or a loss. Loss chasing is operationalized herein as the propensity to recover losses by increasing risky choice. Healthy female participants (n=26) received a single-dose of 0.5mg sublingual testosterone in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. At 240min post-administration, participants performed a gambling task with a high and a low risk option. In the placebo condition, participants were more likely to choose the high risk option following losses compared to wins. This effect was abolished on the testosterone session. Ignoring prior outcomes, no overall changes in risk-taking were observed. Our data indicate that testosterone affects human decision-making via diminishing sensitivity to punishment. PMID:27236486

  2. Perceptions of Healthy Eating in Four Alberta Communities: A Photovoice Project

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Brent A.; Vallianatos, Helen; Nieuwendyk, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Peoples’ perceptions of healthy eating are influenced by the cultural context in which they occur. Despite this general acceptance by health practitioners and social scientists, studies suggest that there remains a relative homogeneity around peoples’ perceptions that informs a hegemonic discourse around healthy eating. People often describe healthy eating in terms of learned information from sources that reflect societies’ norms and values, such as the Canada Food Guide and the ubiquitous phrase “fruits and vegetables”. Past research has examined how built environments shape people’s access to healthy living options, such as distribution of grocers versus convenience stores and fast food restaurants. Often overlooked is an in-depth understanding of how social contexts interact with built environments, molding peoples’ perceptions of healthy eating. This paper reports on perceptions of healthy eating in four communities across Alberta, Canada. A photovoice methodology was employed to elicit perceptions of healthy eating with 35 participants. This study illustrates how participants’ photographs and their stories convey multiple meanings about healthy eating within their own lives and communities. Findings suggest that a ‘local’ context is an important part of the discourse centered around the promotion of healthy eating practices in these and potential other communities. PMID:27390390

  3. Healthy Schools-Healthy Kids: a controlled evaluation of a comprehensive universal eating disorder prevention program.

    PubMed

    McVey, Gail; Tweed, Stacey; Blackmore, Elizabeth

    2007-06-01

    This study was a controlled evaluation of a comprehensive school-based universal prevention program involving male and female students, parents, teachers, school administrators and local public health professionals. A total of 982 male and female Grades 6 and 7 middle school students (and 91 teachers/school administrators) completed self-report surveys at baseline on measures of body satisfaction, internalization of media ideals, size acceptance, disordered eating, weight-based teasing, weight loss and muscle-gaining behaviours, and perceptions of school climate (teachers only). Eighty-four percent of the students repeated the surveys immediately following the 8-month school-wide intervention and 71% again 6 months later. Repeated measures ANCOVAs revealed that participation in the Healthy Schools-Healthy Kids (HS-HK) program had a positive influence by reducing the internalization of media ideals among male and female students and by reducing disordered eating among female students. The program was also associated with reductions in weight-loss behaviours among the students, although this effect was lost by the 6-month follow-up. When the intervention students were sub-divided into low versus high-risk groups, the high-risk group appeared to benefit most from the intervention with significant reductions in internalization of media ideals, greater body satisfaction, and reduced disordered eating over time. There were no intervention effects for teachers. Challenges of engaging teachers in prevention are discussed. PMID:18089258

  4. Numerical modelling of a healthy/malaria-infected erythrocyte in shear flow using dissipative particle dynamics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ting; Phan-Thien, Nhan; Cheong Khoo, Boo; Teck Lim, Chwee

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper, the dynamics of healthy and malaria-infected erythrocytes in the shear flow are investigated using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), a particle-based method. A discrete model is developed, where the computational domain is discretized into a set of particles to represent the suspending liquid, as well as erythrocytes as suspended deformable particles. The particles on an erythrocyte surface are connected into a triangular network to represent the membrane. The interaction between any two particles is modelled by the DPD method, which conserves both mass and momentum. In order to validate this model, the deformation of a spherical capsule in the shear flow is firstly simulated, and a good agreement is found with previously published works. Then, the dynamics of a healthy biconcave erythrocyte in a shear flow is investigated. The results demonstrate that a healthy erythrocyte undergoes a tank-treading motion at a high capillary number, and a tumbling motion at a low capillary number or at a high viscosity ratio, internal (erythrocyte) to external fluids. Two other types of trembling motions, breathing with tumbling and swinging with tank-treading, are also found at an intermediate capillary number or viscosity ratio. Finally, the dynamics of malaria-infected erythrocyte in a shear flow is studied. At the same shear rate, if the healthy erythrocyte undergoes a tumbling motion, the malaria-infected one will exhibit a tumbling motion only. If the healthy erythrocyte undergoes a trembling motion, the malaria-infected one cannot exhibit tank-treading motion. If the healthy erythrocyte undergoes a tank-treading motion, the malaria-infected one will exhibit one of three dynamic motions: tumbling, trembling or tank-treading motion.

  5. Participation Performance and Behavioral Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    The value of student participation in class discussion is considered. An approach is suggested for college teachers to help them better motivate and evaluate students who participate in classroom discussion. Reliable, accurate, and meaningful assessment of students' participation in classroom discussion can be achieved if an instructor bases the…

  6. Learning beyond Competence to Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Leo

    2013-01-01

    The essence of progressive education today is a view of learning centered on participation. In adulthood, the quest to participate and the quest to learn may ultimately be regarded as one and the same. Research on the learning journeys of adults undertaking a basic computer course are used to support these ideas. The participants in this study…

  7. Personality Preferences of Outdoor Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashel, Christine; Montgomery, Diane; Lane, Suzie

    A study investigated the personality type preferences of people who voluntarily chose to participate in a structured, field-based, outdoor education program. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was administered to 87 participants prior to beginning a 10-day Wilderness Education Association outdoor leadership trip. Participants were 18-46 years…

  8. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 9 Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats Why should I choose healthy fats? Diabetes raises your chances of having a heart ... protect your heart and blood vessels by choosing fats wisely. Some kinds of fat, such as butter ...

  9. Understanding Lung Problems: Make Each Breath Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Each Breath Healthy Heath and Aging Understanding Lung Problems—Make Each Breath Healthy Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( ... time your likelihood of having a serious lung problem increases, especially if you smoke. Lung problems that ...

  10. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language URL Español Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your kidneys healthy Page Content On this page: What are ... I keep my kidneys healthy? What are my kidneys and what do they do? Your kidneys are ...

  11. Summer Travel: Plan Ahead To Stay Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... This Issue Features Summer Travel Strange Migrations and Killer Cramps Health Capsules How Secondhand Smoke Affects the ... healthy.” search Features Summer Travel Strange Migrations and Killer Cramps Wise Choices Links Plan for Healthy Travel ...

  12. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español (Spanish) ...

  13. Healthy Weight: You Can Do It, Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Healthy Weight Healthy Weight: You Can Do It, Too Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents ... with NIH MedlinePlus magazine about how he did it, and what he does to maintain his weight. ...

  14. INTERACTIVE VIDEO DANCE GAMES FOR HEALTHY OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    STUDENSKI, S.; PERERA, S.; HILE, E.; KELLER, V.; SPADOLA-BOGARD, J.; GARCIA, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity promotes health in older adults but participation rates are low. Interactive video dance games can increase activity in young persons but have not been designed for use with older adults. The purpose of this research was to evaluate healthy older adults’ interest and participation in a dance game adapted for an older user. Methods Healthy older adults were recruited from 3 senior living settings and offered three months of training and supervision using a video dance game designed for older people. Before and after the program, data was collected on vital signs, physical function and self reported quality of life. Feedback was obtained during and after training. Results Of 36 persons who entered (mean age 80.1 ± 5.4 years, 83 % female), 25 completed the study. Completers were healthier than non completers. Completers showed gains in narrow walk time, self-reported balance confidence and mental health. While there were no serious adverse events, 4 of 11 non completers withdrew due to musculoskeletal complaints. Conclusions Adapted Interactive video dance is feasible for some healthy older adults and may help achieve physical activity goals. PMID:21125204

  15. Comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviours between young haemophilia A patients and healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    González, L M; Peiró-Velert, C; Devís-Devís, J; Valencia-Peris, A; Pérez-Gimeno, E; Pérez-Alenda, S; Querol, F

    2011-07-01

    In recent studies, adolescent haemophilia A patients and healthy adolescents have been encouraged to participate in physical activity (PA) based on its many established health benefits. However, none of the studies to date has used objective measures of PA and sedentary behaviour. The aims of the current study included: (i) to determine the amount and intensity of habitual PA among haemophilia A and healthy adolescents, and in haemophilia A patients with and without bleeding episodes in the previous year, and (ii) to identify the type and determine the time spent in sedentary activities in which both groups participate to obtain a broadened view of their daily activities. A total of 41 adolescent haemophiliacs and 25 healthy adolescents, between the ages of 8 and 18 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure PA and the Adolescent Sedentary Activity Questionnaire to assess sedentary behaviours among members of both groups. Adolescent haemophilia A patients showed a higher daily mean time engaged in light, moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PAs relative to their healthy counterparts (P < 0.001). Patients who had experienced bleeding episodes during the previous year also spent more time participating in vigorous PAs than healthy adolescents (P = 0.002). With regard to sedentary behaviours, healthy adolescents spent more time listening to music than haemophilia A adolescents (P = 0.003), whereas haemophilia A adolescents spent more time watching TV (P < 0.001) and playing videogames (P = 0.003) than healthy counterparts. Findings suggest that increased participation in moderate intensity PAs and reduced sedentary behaviours should be recommended among adolescents with haemophilia A. PMID:21299746

  16. Clinical Assessment of Intraventricular Blood Transport in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, Lorenzo; Martinez-Legazpi, P.; Benito, Y.; Perez Del Villar, C.; Gonzalez-Mansilla, A.; Barrio, A.; Yotti, R.; Kahn, A. M.; Shadden, S. C.; Fernandez-Aviles, F.; Bermejo, J.; Del Alamo, J. C.

    2015-11-01

    In the healthy heart, left ventricular (LV) filling generates flow patterns which have been proposed to optimize blood transport by coupling diastole and systole phases. We present a novel image-based method to assess how flow patterns influence LV blood transport in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Solving the advection equation with time-varying inflow boundary conditions allows to track the transport of blood entering the LV in the different filling waves, as well as the transport barriers which couple filling and ejection. The velocity fields were obtained using echocardiographic color Doppler velocimetry, which provides two-dimensional time-resolved flow maps in the apical long axis three-chamber view of the LV. We analyze flow transport in a group of patients with CRT devices as well as in healthy volunteers. In the patients under CRT, the device programming was varied to analyze flow transport under different values of the atrioventricular (AV) conduction delay and to model tachycardia. This analysis illustrates how CRT influences the transit of blood inside the LV, contributes to conserving kinetic energy and favors the generation of hemodynamic forces that accelerate blood in the direction of the LV outflow tract.

  17. Healthy Watersheds Integrated Assessments Workshop Synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in partnership with others, is embarking on the new Healthy Watersheds Initiative to protect our remaining healthy watersheds, prevent them from becoming impaired, and accelerate our restoration successes. In November 2010, a Healthy Wate...

  18. 10 Healthy Breakfast and Lunch Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to School, the Healthy Way 10 Healthy Breakfast and Lunch Tips Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents School children eating a healthy lunch. Remember that nutrition is an important factor in academic performance. Studies have shown that children who eat ...

  19. Leading change to create a healthy and satisfying work environment.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Carolyn L; Krugman, Mary; Schloffman, Danielle H

    2013-01-01

    Nurse executives must take a leadership role in creating a healthy work environment for nurses and all disciplines. Engaging in partnerships and empowering clinical nurses to construct the solutions to barriers that may stand in the way of the goal of a satisfied and healthy workforce are important strategies toward success. This publication outlines many projects a 3-time Magnet-designated academic hospital has implemented, working with our shared leadership councils, to meet the standards for a healthy work environment. These initiatives, from the unit to the hospital level, included standardizing a culture change of uninterrupted meal breaks, the creation of intensive care unit Zen rooms, strategies to better manage increased patient volumes, best practices for facility design, enhancing physician-nurse relations, and a hospital wellness program. Data were benchmarked against national nurse and employee surveys to compare progress and report outcomes. Two important nursing organization structures that have contributed to the success of a healthy and satisfied nursing work environment include UEXCEL, a longstanding clinical nurse professional practice program, and the hospital's 11-year participation in the University HealthSystem Consortium/American Association of Colleges of Nursing National Post-Baccalaureate Nurse Residency Program. A highly engaged, well-educated, and committed nursing workforce, nurtured by a strong leadership team, has created a positive work environment characterized by low turnover and high retention. PMID:24022289

  20. Relationship between Food Intake and Sleep Pattern in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; dos Reis, Bruno Gomes; Diniz, Rafael Marques; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between food intake and sleep patterns in healthy individuals. Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (27 women and 25 men) were recruited to participate in the study. Volunteers underwent sleep evaluation through nocturnal polysomnography and completed a 3-day food diary to evaluate food intake. Results: No differences in sleep patterns were observed in either gender, except in the percentage of stage 1 sleep, which was greater in men. Different correlations were observed between sleep and dietary variables according to gender. The correlation between dietary and sleep variables in men indicated a negative relationship between nocturnal fat intake and the sleep latency, including REM sleep. The percentage of nocturnal fat intake correlated with sleep efficiency, sleep latency, REM latency, stage 2 sleep, REM sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO) in women. The percentage of nocturnal caloric intake correlated with sleep latency and efficiency in women. Conclusions: We conclude that food intake during the nocturnal period is correlated with negative effects on the sleep quality of healthy individuals. Indeed, food intake near the sleeping period (dinner and late night snack) was negatively associated with sleep quality variables. More studies are necessary to elucidate the real effect of food intake on sleep. Citation: Crispim CA; Zimberg IZ; dos Reis BG; Diniz RM; Tufik S; de Mello MT. Relationship between food intake and sleep pattern in healthy individuals. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):659-664. PMID:22171206

  1. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention.

    PubMed

    Hall, William J; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G

    2012-04-01

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity through delivery of structured lesson plans by PE teachers. Process evaluation data collected via class observations and interventionist interviews assessed fidelity, dose delivered, implementor participation, dose received and barriers. Process evaluation results indicate a high level of fidelity in implementing HEALTHY PE activities and offering 225 min of PE every 10 school days. Concerning dose delivered, students were active for approximately 33 min of class, representing an average of 61% of the class time. Results also indicate that PE teachers were generally engaged in implementing the HEALTHY PE curriculum. Data on dose received showed that students were highly engaged with the PE intervention; however, student misbehavior was the most common barrier observed during classes. Other barriers included teacher disengagement, large classes, limited gym space and poor classroom management. Findings suggest that the PE intervention was generally implemented and received as intended despite several barriers. PMID:22156231

  2. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hall, William J.; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L.; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity through delivery of structured lesson plans by PE teachers. Process evaluation data collected via class observations and interventionist interviews assessed fidelity, dose delivered, implementor participation, dose received and barriers. Process evaluation results indicate a high level of fidelity in implementing HEALTHY PE activities and offering 225 min of PE every 10 school days. Concerning dose delivered, students were active for approximately 33 min of class, representing an average of 61% of the class time. Results also indicate that PE teachers were generally engaged in implementing the HEALTHY PE curriculum. Data on dose received showed that students were highly engaged with the PE intervention; however, student misbehavior was the most common barrier observed during classes. Other barriers included teacher disengagement, large classes, limited gym space and poor classroom management. Findings suggest that the PE intervention was generally implemented and received as intended despite several barriers. PMID:22156231

  3. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular. PMID:20550647

  4. Participation in Quality Measurement Nationwide

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Jennifer Lynn

    2014-01-01

    In the interest of improving patient care quality and reducing costs, many hospitals across the nation participate in quality measurements. The three programs most applicable to colon and rectal surgery are the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project, the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP), and the Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program. Participation in each is variable, although many hospitals are eligible and welcome to participate. Currently, SCIP is the only one with a financial incentive to participate. This article will focus on participation; however, the motivation for such is elusive in the literature. It is likely that a combination of resource utilization and faith in the concept that participation results in improvements in patient care actually drive participation. PMID:24587700

  5. Healthy lifestyle behaviors and all-cause mortality among adults in the United States✩

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Earl S.; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Boeing, Heiner; Li, Chaoyang; Capewell, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the links between three fundamental healthy lifestyle behaviors (not smoking, healthy diet, and adequate physical activity) and all-cause mortality in a national sample of adults in the United States. Method We used data from 8375 U.S. participants aged ≥ 20 years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002 who were followed through 2006. Results During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 745 deaths occurred. Compared with their counterparts, the risk for all-cause mortality was reduced by 56% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35%–70%) among adults who were nonsmokers, 47% (95% CI: 36%, 57%) among adults who were physically active, and 26% (95% CI: 4%, 42%) among adults who consumed a healthy diet. Compared with participants who had no healthy behaviors, the risk decreased progressively as the number of healthy behaviors increased. Adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval were 0.60 (0.38, 0.95), 0.45 (0.30, 0.67), and 0.18 (0.11, 0.29) for 1, 2, and 3 healthy behaviors, respectively. Conclusion Adults who do not smoke, consume a healthy diet, and engage in sufficient physical activity can substantially reduce their risk for early death. PMID:22564893

  6. Citizen participation in the governance of community mental health centers.

    PubMed

    Cibulka, J G

    1981-01-01

    The article reviews theory undergoing citizen participation in governance and presents several models of governance. A mail survey of 220 community mental health centers revealed that most centers did not meet the participant requirements of Public Law 94-63 for broad representation of the catchment area in governance or the functional requirements for decision-making, nor did boards incorporate other typical approaches to participation. This breakdown in implementation of the law can be interpreted as a twofold problem of organizational adaptation an power redistribution. Policy solutions would need to take both these cases into account. Incremental strategies alone are unlikely to create sufficient impact. Organizational development focused on building new models of governance and direct efforts to mobilize and empower citizens are suggested. PMID:7226739

  7. Prediction of "Fear" Acquisition in Healthy Control Participants in a De Novo Fear Conditioning Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Michael W.; Leyro, Teresa M.; Christian, Kelly; Deveney, Christen M.; Reese, Hannah; Pollack, Mark H.; Orr, Scott P.

    2007-01-01

    Studies using fear-conditioning paradigms have found that anxiety patients are more conditionable than individuals without these disorders, but these effects have been demonstrated inconsistently. It is unclear whether these findings have etiological significance or whether enhanced conditionability is linked only to certain anxiety…

  8. Activation of the calcium sensing receptor stimulates gastrin and gastric acid secretion in healthy participants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastric acid secretion is a complex process regulated by neuronal and hormonal pathways. Ex vivo studies in human gastric tissues indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), expressed on the surface of G and parietal cells, may be involved in this regulation. We sought to determine whether cin...

  9. Neural Correlates of Stimulus Response and Stimulus Outcome Shifting in Healthy Participants and MS Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrandt, Helmut; Fink, Frauke; Eling, Paul; Stuke, Heiner; Klein, Jan; Lentschig, Markus; Kastrup, Andreas; Thiel, Christiane; Breckel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Adaptation to changing situations can be mediated by two strategies: (1) Evaluation of a "response" and (2) Evaluation of "outcome" values in relation to objects. Previous studies indicate that response shifting is associated with a network comprising the left frontal cortex and parietal cortex connected by the superior longitudinal…

  10. Does a single neurostimulation session really affect mood in healthy individuals? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Remue, Jonathan; Baeken, Chris; De Raedt, Rudi

    2016-05-01

    Non-invasive neurostimulation or neuromodulation techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) were welcomed as promising tools for investigating cognitive and mood processes in healthy participants as well as in patients suffering from neuropsychiatric conditions. Due to their rather easy application, both modalities have been used to experimentally examine prefrontal cognitive and emotional control. However, it remains unclear whether a single session of such stimulation may affect the mood of participants in a healthy state. We provide a systematic review of studies reporting the effects of a single session of rTMS or tDCS (…-2014) on self-reported mood in healthy participants. Although early studies reported significant effects on self-reported mood in healthy participants, more recent work investigating mood effects after a single rTMS/tDCS session has failed to find any significant changes in self-reported mood. Therefore it appears that a single session of rTMS/tDCS has no impact on mood in the healthy state. PMID:26988115

  11. Research participation registers can increase opportunities for patients and the public to participate in health services research.

    PubMed

    Leach, Verity; Redwood, Sabi; Lasseter, Gemma; Walther, Axel; Reid, Colette; Blazeby, Jane; Martin, Richard; Donovan, Jenny

    2016-07-01

    Members of the public and patients repeatedly indicate their willingness to take part in research, but current United Kingdom research governance involves complex rules about gaining consent. Research participation registers that seek consent from participants to be approached about future studies have several potential benefits, including: increased research participation across clinical and healthy populations; simplified recruitment to health care research; support for people's autonomy in decision making; and improved efficiency and generalizability of research. These potential benefits have to be balanced against ethical and governance considerations. With appropriate processes in place, seeking prospective consent from patients and members of the public to be approached about future studies could potentially increase public participation in health research without compromising informed consent and other ethical principles. PMID:26769574

  12. [Discussion paper on participation and participative methods in gerontology].

    PubMed

    Aner, Kirsten

    2016-02-01

    The concept of "participation" and the demand for the use of "participative methods" in human, healthcare, nursing and gerontological research as well as the corresponding fields of practice are in great demand; however, the targets and organization of "participation" are not always sufficiently explicated. The working group on critical gerontology of the German Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics uses this phenomenon as an opportunity for positioning and develops a catalogue of criteria for reflection and assessment of participation of elderly people in science and practice, which can also be considered a stimulus for further discussions. PMID:26809852

  13. Social discourses of healthy eating. A market segmentation approach.

    PubMed

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Askegaard, Søren; Grunert, Klaus G; Kristensen, Dorthe Brogård

    2010-10-01

    This paper proposes a framework of discourses regarding consumers' healthy eating as a useful conceptual scheme for market segmentation purposes. The objectives are: (a) to identify the appropriate number of health-related segments based on the underlying discursive subject positions of the framework, (b) to validate and further describe the segments based on their socio-demographic characteristics and attitudes towards healthy eating, and (c) to explore differences across segments in types of associations with food and health, as well as perceptions of food healthfulness.316 Danish consumers participated in a survey that included measures of the underlying subject positions of the proposed framework, followed by a word association task that aimed to explore types of associations with food and health, and perceptions of food healthfulness. A latent class clustering approach revealed three consumer segments: the Common, the Idealists and the Pragmatists. Based on the addressed objectives, differences across the segments are described and implications of findings are discussed. PMID:20600410

  14. Characterizing healthy samples for studies of human cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Geldmacher, David S.; Levin, Bonnie E.; Wright, Clinton B.

    2012-01-01

    Characterizing the cognitive declines associated with aging, and differentiating them from the effects of disease in older adults, are important goals for human neuroscience researchers. This is also an issue of public health urgency in countries with rapidly aging populations. Progress toward understanding cognitive aging is complicated by numerous factors. Researchers interested in cognitive changes in healthy older adults need to consider these complexities when they design and interpret studies. This paper addresses important factors in study design, patient demographics, co-morbid and incipient medical conditions, and assessment instruments that will allow researchers to optimize the characterization of healthy participants and produce meaningful and generalizable research outcomes from studies of cognitive aging. Application of knowledge from well-designed studies should be useful in clinical settings to facilitate the earliest possible recognition of disease and guide appropriate interventions to best meet the needs of the affected individual and public health priorities. PMID:22988440

  15. Normalizing electrocardiograms of both healthy persons and cardiovascular disease patients for biometric authentication.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meixue; Liu, Bin; Zhao, Miaomiao; Li, Fan; Wang, Guoqing; Zhou, Fengfeng

    2013-01-01

    Although electrocardiogram (ECG) fluctuates over time and physical activity, some of its intrinsic measurements serve well as biometric features. Considering its constant availability and difficulty in being faked, the ECG signal is becoming a promising factor for biometric authentication. The majority of the currently available algorithms only work well on healthy participants. A novel normalization and interpolation algorithm is proposed to convert an ECG signal into multiple template cycles, which are comparable between any two ECGs, no matter the sampling rates or health status. The overall accuracies reach 100% and 90.11% for healthy participants and cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients, respectively. PMID:23977063

  16. Normalizing Electrocardiograms of Both Healthy Persons and Cardiovascular Disease Patients for Biometric Authentication

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Miaomiao; Li, Fan; Wang, Guoqing; Zhou, Fengfeng

    2013-01-01

    Although electrocardiogram (ECG) fluctuates over time and physical activity, some of its intrinsic measurements serve well as biometric features. Considering its constant availability and difficulty in being faked, the ECG signal is becoming a promising factor for biometric authentication. The majority of the currently available algorithms only work well on healthy participants. A novel normalization and interpolation algorithm is proposed to convert an ECG signal into multiple template cycles, which are comparable between any two ECGs, no matter the sampling rates or health status. The overall accuracies reach 100% and 90.11% for healthy participants and cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients, respectively. PMID:23977063

  17. Hypoglycemia in a healthy toddler.

    PubMed

    Glatstein, Miguel; Garcia-Bournissen, Facundo; Scolnik, Dennis; Koren, Gideon; Finkelstein, Yaron

    2009-04-01

    Sulphonylurea ingestion is life-threatening in toddlers due to its strong and prolonged hypoglycemic effect, and is on the toddlers' "one pill can kill" list. Its administration to children may not be accidental. We discuss a case of non-accidental sulphonylurea ingestion by an 18-month-old girl, and the clinical reasoning process leading to identification of the causative agent for the patient's symptoms. A previously healthy 18 month-old girl presented to the Emergency Department with altered mental status and severe hypoglycaemia, which required intravenous hypertonic dextrose solutions to maintain euglycemia. A family history of type II diabetes prompted a search for sulphonylureas in the child's serum, which was positive. Further investigation led to the conclusion that the child's poisoning was the result of the mother's Munchausen-by-proxy syndrome. Sulphonylurea intoxication should be considered in previously healthy children presenting with hypoglycaemia. More than 20% of sulphonylurea poisonings reported in the literature correspond to Munchausen-by-proxy syndrome or homicide attempts. Initial management consists of rapid glucose infusion, but boluses should be avoided whenever possible to prevent rebound hyperinsulinism and worsening hypoglycemia. We stress the need to consider potential child abuse or neglect in a hypoglycaemic patient with sulphonylurea-using caregivers. PMID:19142176

  18. Spatial Compression Impairs Prism Adaptation in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Scriven, Rachel J.; Newport, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Neglect patients typically present with gross inattention to one side of space following damage to the contralateral hemisphere. While prism-adaptation (PA) is effective in ameliorating some neglect behaviors, the mechanisms involved and their relationship to neglect remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that conscious strategic control (SC) processes in PA may be impaired in neglect patients, who are also reported to show extraordinarily long aftereffects compared to healthy participants. Determining the underlying cause of these effects may be the key to understanding therapeutic benefits. Alternative accounts suggest that reduced SC might result from a failure to detect prism-induced reaching errors properly either because (a) the size of the error is underestimated in compressed visual space or (b) pathologically increased error-detection thresholds reduce the requirement for error correction. The purpose of this study was to model these two alternatives in healthy participants and to examine whether SC and subsequent aftereffects were abnormal compared to standard PA. Each participant completed three PA procedures within a MIRAGE mediated reality environment with direction errors recorded before, during and after adaptation. During PA, visual feedback of the reach could be compressed, perturbed by noise, or represented veridically. Compressed visual space significantly reduced SC and aftereffects compared to control and noise conditions. These results support recent observations in neglect patients, suggesting that a distortion of spatial representation may successfully model neglect and explain neglect performance while adapting to prisms. PMID:23675332

  19. Fibromyalgia patients have reduced hippocampal volume compared with healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    McCrae, Christina S; O’Shea, Andrew M; Boissoneault, Jeff; Vatthauer, Karlyn E; Robinson, Michael E; Staud, Roland; Perlstein, William M; Craggs, Jason G

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fibromyalgia patients frequently report cognitive abnormalities. As the hippocampus plays an important role in learning and memory, we determined whether individuals with fibromyalgia had smaller hippocampal volume compared with healthy control participants. Methods T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired from 40 female participants with fibromyalgia and 22 female healthy controls. The volume of the hippocampus was estimated using the software FreeSurfer. An analysis of covariance model controlling for potentially confounding factors of age, whole brain size, MRI signal quality, and Beck Depression Inventory scores were used to determine significant group differences. Results Fibromyalgia participants had significantly smaller hippocampi in both left (F[1,56]=4.55, P=0.037, η2p=0.08) and right hemispheres (F[1,56]=5.89, P=0.019, η2p=0.10). No significant effect of depression was observed in either left or right hemisphere hippocampal volume (P=0.813 and P=0.811, respectively). Discussion Potential mechanisms for reduced hippocampal volume in fibromyalgia include abnormal glutamate excitatory neurotransmission and glucocorticoid dysfunction; these factors can lead to neuronal atrophy, through excitotoxicity, and disrupt neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Hippocampal atrophy may play a role in memory and cognitive complaints among fibromyalgia patients. PMID:25674013

  20. Spatial compression impairs prism adaptation in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Scriven, Rachel J; Newport, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Neglect patients typically present with gross inattention to one side of space following damage to the contralateral hemisphere. While prism-adaptation (PA) is effective in ameliorating some neglect behaviors, the mechanisms involved and their relationship to neglect remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that conscious strategic control (SC) processes in PA may be impaired in neglect patients, who are also reported to show extraordinarily long aftereffects compared to healthy participants. Determining the underlying cause of these effects may be the key to understanding therapeutic benefits. Alternative accounts suggest that reduced SC might result from a failure to detect prism-induced reaching errors properly either because (a) the size of the error is underestimated in compressed visual space or (b) pathologically increased error-detection thresholds reduce the requirement for error correction. The purpose of this study was to model these two alternatives in healthy participants and to examine whether SC and subsequent aftereffects were abnormal compared to standard PA. Each participant completed three PA procedures within a MIRAGE mediated reality environment with direction errors recorded before, during and after adaptation. During PA, visual feedback of the reach could be compressed, perturbed by noise, or represented veridically. Compressed visual space significantly reduced SC and aftereffects compared to control and noise conditions. These results support recent observations in neglect patients, suggesting that a distortion of spatial representation may successfully model neglect and explain neglect performance while adapting to prisms. PMID:23675332

  1. Factors affecting postoperative blood loss in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Faraoni, David; Van der Linden, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that the influence of cyanotic disease on postoperative blood loss is closely related to age in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Here, we demonstrate that the presence of a cyanotic disease is associated with increased postoperative blood loss in children aged 1 to 6 months. Children with cyanotic disease and aged<1 month who received fresh frozen plasma during cardiopulmonary bypass had less postoperative blood loss and higher maximal clot firmness on FIBTEM than cyanotic children from all other groups. Additional studies are needed to define optimal pathophysiology-based management in children undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:24512988

  2. Payment to healthy volunteers in clinical research: the research subject's perspective.

    PubMed

    Czarny, M J; Kass, N E; Flexner, C; Carson, K A; Myers, R K; Fuchs, E J

    2010-03-01

    Although there is much discussion regarding the ethics of making payments to healthy volunteers for participating in clinical research, little data are available from the point of view of the volunteers as to what they would consider to be fair payment. The objectives of this study were to determine healthy volunteers' estimates of appropriate payments for participation in hypothetical clinical trials in order to explore the reasoning behind these estimates and to examine the association between volunteer demographics and payment expectations. Sixty participants with previous experience as healthy volunteers in research studies were presented with four hypothetical studies and interviewed about their impressions of burden and risks involved in the studies. They were also asked to estimate an appropriate payment to the volunteers for each of the studies. For each of the studies, the payment estimates made by the participants varied over a wide range. However, each individual tended to be consistent in estimate placement within this range. No demographic factor was significantly associated with the estimated study payment. Subjects frequently mentioned risk and logistical burden as factors that should determine payment levels. Healthy volunteer subjects appear to have individualized yet consistent methods of arriving at estimates of payments for participating in clinical studies. These estimates are based on each subject's perception of study burden and associated risk. PMID:20090675

  3. Astronaut Health Participant Summary Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kathy; Krog, Ralph; Rodriguez, Seth; Wear, Mary; Volpe, Robert; Trevino, Gina; Eudy, Deborah; Parisian, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) Participant Summary software captures data based on a custom information model designed to gather all relevant, discrete medical events for its study participants. This software provides a summarized view of the study participant s entire medical record. The manual collapsing of all the data in a participant s medical record into a summarized form eliminates redundancy, and allows for the capture of entire medical events. The coding tool could be incorporated into commercial electronic medical record software for use in areas like public health surveillance, hospital systems, clinics, and medical research programs.

  4. Taking up physical activity in later life and healthy ageing: the English longitudinal study of ageing

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Lavoie, Kim L; Bacon, Simon L

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated with improved overall health in those people who survive to older ages, otherwise conceptualised as healthy ageing. Previous studies have examined the effects of mid-life physical activity on healthy ageing, but not the effects of taking up activity later in life. We examined the association between physical activity and healthy ageing over 8 years of follow-up. Methods Participants were 3454 initially disease-free men and women (aged 63.7±8.9 years at baseline) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective study of community dwelling older adults. Self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline (2002–2003) and through follow-up. Healthy ageing, assessed at 8 years of follow-up (2010-2011), was defined as those participants who survived without developing major chronic disease, depressive symptoms, physical or cognitive impairment. Results At follow-up, 19.3% of the sample was defined as healthy ageing. In comparison with inactive participants, moderate (OR, 2.67, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.64), or vigorous activity (3.53, 2.54 to 4.89) at least once a week was associated with healthy ageing, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, marital status and wealth. Becoming active (multivariate adjusted, 3.37, 1.67 to 6.78) or remaining active (7.68, 4.18 to 14.09) was associated with healthy ageing in comparison with remaining inactive over follow-up. Conclusions Sustained physical activity in older age is associated with improved overall health. Significant health benefits were even seen among participants who became physically active relatively late in life. PMID:24276781

  5. Feeling Bad and Looking Worse: Negative Affect Is Associated with Reduced Perceptions of Face-Healthiness

    PubMed Central

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H.; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

    2014-01-01

    Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N = 20) or negative affectivity (N = 20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger’s faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger’s face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood. PMID:25259802

  6. Obese Employee Participation Patterns in a Wellness Program.

    PubMed

    Fink, Jennifer T; Smith, David R; Singh, Maharaj; Ihrke, Doug M; Cisler, Ron A

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to retrospectively examine whether demographic differences exist between those who participated in an employee wellness program and those who did not, and to identify the selection of employees' choice in weight management activities. A nonequivalent, 2-group retrospective design was used. This study involved employees at a large, not-for-profit integrated health system. Of the total organization employee pool (29,194), 19,771 (68%) employees volunteered to be weighed (mean body mass index [BMI]=28.9) as part of an employee wellness program. Weight management activities available included: (1) Self-directed 5% total body weight loss; (2) Healthy Solutions at home; (3) Weight Watchers group meetings; (4) Weight Watchers online; and (5) Employee Assistance Program (EAP)-directed healthy weight coaching. Measures were participation rate and available weight management activity participation rate among obese employees across demographic variables, including sex, age, race, job type, and job location. The analysis included chi-square tests for all categorical variables; odds ratios were calculated to examine factors predictive of participation. Of the total 19,771 employees weighed, 6375 (32%) employees were obese (defined as BMI ≥30); of those, 3094 (49%) participated in available weight management activities. Participation was higher among females, whites, those ages >50 years, and non-nursing staff. In conclusion, participation rate varied significantly based on demographic variables. Self-directed 5% weight loss was the most popular weight management activity selected. (Population Health Management 2016;19:132-135). PMID:26086172

  7. HEALTHY Intervention: Fitness, Physical Activity, and Metabolic Syndrome Results

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; McMurray, Robert G.; Drews, Kimberly L.; Moe, Esther L.; Murray, Tinker; Pham, Trang H.; Venditti, Elizabeth M.; Volpe, Stella L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the effect of the HEALTHY intervention on the metabolic syndrome (Met-S), fitness, and physical activity levels of US middle-school students. Methods Cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 (21 intervention) US middle schools. Participants were recruited at the start of sixth grade (2006) when baseline assessments were made, with post-assessments made 2.5 yr later at the end of eighth grade (2009). The HEALTHY intervention had four components: 1) improved school food environment, 2) physical activity and eating educational sessions, 3) social marketing, and 4) revised physical education curriculum. Met-S risk factors, 20-m shuttle run (fitness), and self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were assessed at each time point. Ethnicity and gender were self-reported. Obesity status (normal weight, overweight, or obese) was also assessed. Results At baseline, 5% of the participants were classified with Met-S, with two-thirds of the males and one-third of the females recording below average baseline fitness levels. Control group participants reported 96 min of MVPA at baseline with 103 min reported by the intervention group. There were no statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences in Met-S, fitness, or MVPA levels at the end of the study after adjustment for baseline values and confounders. There were no differences in any ethnic, obesity, or ethnic × obesity subgroups for either gender. Conclusions The HEALTHY intervention had no effect on the Met-S, fitness, or physical activity levels. Approaches that focus on how to change physical activity, fitness, and Met-S using nonschool or perhaps in addition to school based components need to be developed. PMID:21233778

  8. Feeding and Bleeding: The Institutional Banalization of Risk to Healthy Volunteers in Phase I Pharmaceutical Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jill A.

    2015-01-01

    Phase I clinical trials are the first stage of testing new pharmaceuticals in humans. The majority of these studies are conducted under controlled, inpatient conditions using healthy volunteers who are paid for their participation. This article draws on an ethnographic study of six phase I clinics in the United States, including 268 semistructured interviews with research staff and healthy volunteers. In it, I argue that an institutional banalization of risk structures the perceptions of research staff and healthy volunteers participating in the studies. For research staff, there are three mechanisms by which risk becomes banal: a perceived homogeneity of studies, Fordist work regimes, and data-centric discourse. For healthy volunteers, repeat study participation contributes to the institutional banalization of risk both through the process of desensitization to risk and the formation of trust in the clinics. I argue that the institutional banalization of risk also renders invisible ethical concerns about exploitation of underprivileged groups in pharmaceutical research. PMID:25914430

  9. 76 FR 63925 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... participants' socio-demographic information, health and healthcare, sexual activity, substance use, and other... minutes; the Success Case Study interviews 90 minutes; Outreach Recruitment Assessment 5 minutes; limited... Participant Outreach Recruitment 700 1 5/60 Assessment (screener). Prospective Participant Limited Locator...

  10. Healthy Places: Exploring the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Frumkin, Howard

    2003-01-01

    “Sense of place” is a widely discussed concept in fields as diverse as geography, environmental psychology, and art, but it has little traction in the field of public health. The health impact of place includes physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and aesthetic outcomes. In this article, the author introduces sense of place as a public health construct. While many recommendations for “good places” are available, few are based on empirical evidence, and thus they are incompatible with current public health practice. Evidence-based recommendations for healthy place making could have important public health implications. Four aspects of the built environment, at different spatial scales—nature contact, buildings, public spaces, and urban form—are identified as offering promising opportunities for public health research, and potential research agendas for each are discussed. PMID:12948962

  11. Pesticides and healthy public policy.

    PubMed

    Labonte, R N

    1989-01-01

    Despite concern over long-term human and environmental health risks, Canadian and international pesticide use continues to increase. Enormous gaps in pesticide toxicity data persist and, though equivocal, there is mounting evidence that certain pesticide families are carcinogenic. Farmworkers are at greatest risk of pesticide poisoning and long-term health effects, and unions representing farmworkers have initiated a boycott of California grapes to draw attention to the need to reduce pesticide use and improve health and safety conditions. The boycott is a model of "healthy public policy" in action, and can be one element in a public health strategy to reduce significantly pesticide use and promote less toxic alternatives and less chemically dependent forms of agriculture and silviculture. PMID:2790629

  12. Formerly incarcerated women create healthy lives through participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Mickey L; Warner-Robbins, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    The specific purpose of the participatory action research study was to facilitate formerly incarcerated women who participate in Welcome Home Ministries (WHM) to develop their own plans and specific strategies, and to take action to build their own healthy futures. The research had a duel purpose of joint generation of knowledge and intervention relative to women's capacity building. The research intervention was the creation, implementation, and follow-up of a future search conference. The outcomes, conclusions, and implications for practice are discussed. PMID:11845765

  13. Cardiac arrhythmias during exercise testing in healthy men.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, E. F.; Owen, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    Clinically healthy male executives who participate in a long-term physical conditioning program have demonstrated cardiac arrhythmia during and after periodic ergometric testing at submaximal and maximal levels. In 1,385 tests on 248 subjects, it was found that 34% of subjects demonstrated an arrhythmia at some time and 13% of subjects developed arrhythmia on more than one test. Premature systoles of ventricular origin were most common, but premature systoles of atrial origin, premature systoles of junctional origin, paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, atrioventricular block, wandering pacemaker, and pre-excitation were also seen. Careful post-test monitoring and pulse rate regulated training sessions are suggested for such programs.

  14. Right heart chamber geometry and tricuspid annulus morphology in patients undergoing mitral valve repair with and without tricuspid valve annuloplasty.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Gloria; Fusini, Laura; Muratori, Manuela; Gripari, Paola; Ghulam Ali, Sarah; Fiorentini, Cesare; Pepi, Mauro

    2016-06-01

    According to current recommendations, patients could benefit from tricuspid valve (TV) annuloplasty at the time mitral valve (MV) surgery if tricuspid regurgitation is severe or if tricuspid annulus (TA) dilatation is present. Therefore, an accurate pre-operative echocardiographic study is mandatory for left but also for right cardiac structures. Aims of this study are to assess right atrial (RA), right ventricular (RV) and TA geometry and function in patients undergoing MV repair without or with TV annuloplasty. We studied 103 patients undergoing MV surgery without (G1: 54 cases) or with (G2: 49 cases) concomitant TV annuloplasty and 40 healthy subjects (NL) as controls. RA, RV and TA were evaluated by three-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiography. Comparing the pathological to the NL group, TA parameters and 3D right chamber volumes were significantly larger. RA and RV ejection fraction and TA% reduction were lower in pathological versus NL, and in G2 versus G1. In pathological patients, TA area positively correlated to systolic pulmonary pressure and negatively with RV and RA ejection fraction. Patients undergoing MV surgery and TV annuloplasty had an increased TA dimensions and a more advanced remodeling of right heart chambers probably reflecting an advanced stage of the disease. PMID:26820739

  15. Support for healthy breastfeeding mothers with healthy term babies

    PubMed Central

    Renfrew, Mary J; McCormick, Felicia M; Wade, Angela; Quinn, Beverley; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background There is extensive evidence of important health risks for infants and mothers related to not breastfeeding. In 2003, the World Health Organization recommended infants be exclusively breastfed until six months of age, with breastfeeding continuing as an important part of the infant’s diet till at least two years of age. However, breastfeeding rates in many countries currently do not reflect this recommendation. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of support for breastfeeding mothers. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (3 October 2011). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing extra support for healthy breastfeeding mothers of healthy term babies with usual maternity care. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results Of the 67 studies that we assessed as eligible for inclusion, 52 contributed outcome data to the review (56,451 mother-infant pairs) from 21 countries. All forms of extra support analysed together showed an increase in duration of ‘any breastfeeding’ (includes partial and exclusive breastfeeding) (risk ratio (RR) for stopping any breastfeeding before six months 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 0.96). All forms of extra support together also had a positive effect on duration of exclusive breastfeeding (RR at six months 0.86, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.91; RR at four to six weeks 0.74, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.89). Extra support by both lay and professionals had a positive impact on breastfeeding outcomes. Maternal satisfaction was poorly reported. Authors’ conclusions All women should be offered support to breastfeed their babies to increase the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding. Support is likely to be more effective in settings with high initiation rates, so efforts to increase the uptake of breastfeeding should be in place. Support may be offered either by

  16. 75 FR 3736 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  17. 75 FR 67374 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  18. 77 FR 37051 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    2012-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  19. 76 FR 27326 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction... Interpretation is a national systematic study investigating how the rapid evolution of laboratory medicine...

  20. 78 FR 32252 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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  1. 78 FR 5456 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  2. 76 FR 58515 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  3. 75 FR 57960 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  4. 75 FR 38104 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  5. 75 FR 8724 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  6. 75 FR 47818 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    2010-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  7. 77 FR 11539 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  8. 76 FR 28233 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  9. 76 FR 5378 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    2011-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  10. 78 FR 14554 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    2013-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  11. 76 FR 29246 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  12. 78 FR 64942 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information... HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), Centers for Disease Control...

  13. 75 FR 39261 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  14. 75 FR 9900 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  15. 76 FR 22902 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... radiographically-apparent pneumoconiosis, miners are at risk for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of...

  16. Status of power-reactor projects undergoing licensing review

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E.G.

    1982-07-01

    Recent regulatory and other actions relating to power reactors undergoing licensing review are summarized in Table 1 as of May 1, 1982. Except as otherwise noted, all the information presented in this article is taken from NRC press releases or from the reactor docket file, both of which are available at the NRC Public Document Room, 1717 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20555.

  17. 77 FR 6803 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information...--Pregnant Women--New--National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control...

  18. 76 FR 74066 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    2011-11-30

    ... based/best practice programs and policies. Core VIPP also focuses on the integration of unintentional... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction... comments should be received within 30 days of this notice. Proposed Project Evaluation of Core Violence...

  19. 76 FR 76413 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    2011-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  20. 77 FR 58843 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  1. 75 FR 74054 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  2. Hemostatic management of patients undergoing ear-nose-throat surgery

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Thomas; Kaftan, Holger; Hosemann, Werner; Greinacher, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative hemostatic management is increasingly important in the field of otolaryngology. This review summarizes the key elements of perioperative risk stratification, thromboprophylaxis and therapies for bridging of antithrombotic treatment. It gives practical advice based on the current literature with focus on patients undergoing ENT surgery. PMID:26770281

  3. 75 FR 3737 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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  4. 78 FR 64502 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act

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    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office of...

  5. 75 FR 4824 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  6. 78 FR 26032 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction... Violence Survey (OMB No. 0920- 0822, exp. 11/30/2013)--Revision--National Center for Injury Prevention and... health burden of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV), Sexual Violence (SV) and stalking are substantial....

  7. 78 FR 23766 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...

  9. 77 FR 47073 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of...

  10. 75 FR 65489 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction..., which is the measurement of environmental chemicals in human tissues and fluids, to assess such exposure... public concern about chemicals found in the human body. The demand for answers and decreasing...

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  12. 75 FR 9902 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information...-borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Background...

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information... comments should be received within 30 days of this notice. Proposed Project Malaria Pre-travel...

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC). Background and Brief Description Formal surveillance...

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office...