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Sample records for healthy twin sisters

  1. Serotonin transporter binding of [123I]ADAM in bulimic women, their healthy twin sisters, and healthy women: a SPET study

    PubMed Central

    Koskela, Anu K; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Sihvola, Elina; Kauppinen, Tomi; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ahonen, Aapo; Rissanen, Aila

    2007-01-01

    Background Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is believed to be caused by an interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies support the existence of a bulimia-related endophenotype as well as disturbances in serotonin (5-HT) transmission. We studied serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in BN, and to investigate the possibility of a SERT-related endophenotype for BN, did this in a sample of female twins. We hypothesized clearly reduced SERT binding in BN women as opposed to healthy women, and intermediate SERT binding in unaffected co-twins. Methods We studied 13 female twins with BN (9 with purging and 4 with non-purging BN) and 25 healthy women, including 6 healthy twin sisters of BN patients and 19 women from 10 healthy twin pairs. [123I]ADAM, a selective SERT radioligand for single photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging, was used to assess SERT availability in the midbrain and the thalamus. Results No differences in SERT binding were evident when comparing the BN women, their unaffected co-twins and the healthy controls (p = 0.14). The healthy sisters of the BN patients and the healthy control women had similar SERT binding in both brain regions. In a post hoc subgroup analysis, the purging bulimics had higher SERT binding than the healthy women in the midbrain (p = 0.03), but not in the thalamus. Conclusion Our finding of increased SERT binding in the midbrain in the purging BN women raises the possibility that this subgroup of bulimics might differ in serotonergic function from the non-purging ones. The similarity of the unaffected co-twins and the healthy controls doesn't support our initial assumption of a SERT-related endophenotype for BN. Due to the small sample size, our results need to be interpreted with caution and verified in a larger sample. PMID:17511889

  2. Cochlear Implants Keep Twin Sisters Learning, Discovering Together

    MedlinePLUS

    ... University. Photo: Johns Hopkins University Keep Twin Sisters Learning, Discovering Together Mia and Isabelle Jeppsen, 10, share ... her mother, gratefully, "There's the obvious benefit of learning to read, write and communicate with facility and ...

  3. Periapical cemental dysplasia in twin sisters: a case report.

    PubMed

    Leal, Rosana Maria; Santiago, Monica de Oliveira; Silveira, Frank Ferreira; Nunes, Eduardo; Capistrano, Herminia Marques

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report a case of periapical cemental dysplasia affecting the mandibular incisors in 38-year-old twin sisters. The major concern is failure to recognize the nature of the lesion, which may result in unnecessary root canal treatment or extractions on the assumption that the lesion represents inflammatory periapical pathosis. PMID:19898708

  4. Agenesis of the Gallbladder in Monozygotic Twin Sisters

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Koki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Yamabe, Akane; Fujisawa, Mariko; Igarashi, Ryo; Sato, Ai; Maki, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Agenesis of the gallbladder, a rare anomaly, is generally regarded as an organogenic failure. Several reports suggest that this congenital defect is inherited but that supposition remains controversial. We described agenesis of the gallbladder in identical twins. A 21-year-old female presented with a history of acute pain in the epigastrium and right hypochondrium. Various imaging modalities showed “gallbladder agenesis.” Moreover, her older identical twin sister had also no visualized gallbladder in imaging modalities. This case report strongly suggested that agenesis of the gallbladder would be caused by a genetic abnormality. PMID:26925274

  5. Concordance of ulcerative colitis in monozygotic twin sisters

    PubMed Central

    Horiya, Madoka; Kakizaki, Satoru; Teshigawara, Katsunobu; Kikuchi, Yuki; Hashida, Tetsu; Tomizawa, Yoshio; Iida, Tomohiro; Masuo, Takashige; Takagi, Hitoshi; Mori, Masatomo

    2005-01-01

    The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease is multifactorial and appears to combine both genetic and environmental factors. We experienced here a rare occurrence of woman monozygotic twins with ulcerative colitis (UC). A 45-year-old woman (the elder monozygotic twin) was admitted to our hospital because of bloody diarrhea occurring over 10 times per day, abdominal pain and fever. She was diagnosed as UC at the age of 22, and repeated the relapse and remission. She was diagnosed as relapse of UC and total colitis type. Her younger monozygotic twin sister also suffered from UC at the age of 22. Human leukocyte antigen was examined serologically with DNA type in both patients. DRB1*1502, which was previously shown to be dominant in Japanese patients with UC, was not observed in this case. Although the concordance in monozygotic twin in UC is reported to be 6.3-18.8%, the concordant case like this is relatively rare. We report this rare case of UC and the previously reported cases are also discussed. PMID:16437733

  6. Having Twins? How to Stay Healthy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Having Twins? How to Stay Healthy Page Content Article Body ... the eyes of obstetricians. Many would call a twin pregnancy a high-risk pregnancy , but don’t ...

  7. Mercury poisoning in two 13-year-old twin sisters

    PubMed Central

    Khodashenas, Ezzat; Aelami, Mohammadhassan; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic agent that evaporates in room temperature and its inhalation may cause poisoning. Due to the nonspecific symptoms, diagnosis is difficult in special circumstances with no initial history of Hg exposure. We report two such cases of Hg poisoning. The patients were two sisters, presenting with pain in extremities, itchy rashes, sweating, salivation, weakness, and mood changes. They have used a compound that contains mercury, for treatment of pedicullosis three months before admission. This compound was purchased from a herbal shop and was applied locally on the scalps for 2 days. Their urinary mercury concentrations were 50 and 70 mg/L. They were successfully treated by D-penicillamine and gabapentin. In a patient with any kind of bone and joint pain, skin rash erythema and peripheral neuropathy, mercury poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis. PMID:26109979

  8. Does breastfeeding behavior run in families? Evidence from twins, their sisters and their mothers in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Merjonen, Pivi; Dolan, Conor V; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present article was to study the prevalence and the heritability of the initiation of breastfeeding in the Netherlands. The study was carried out in 5,581 participants from the Netherlands Twin Register, and included female twins, their sisters and mothers. All of the participants were born between 1911 and 1991. Breastfeeding was self-reported by the participants, and its prevalence was estimated conditional on birth cohort (born before 1955, 1955-1964, 1965-1974, 1975, or later). To estimate the heritability, we conducted extended twin-family modeling using the SEM package OpenMx in R. Mothers of twins had lower prevalence to initiate breastfeeding and the prevalence of initiation of breastfeeding increased with birth cohort: among mothers of twins 66% in the oldest (pre-1955) to 74% in the youngest (post-1974) and among mothers, who were twins themselves or sisters of twins, 79% in the oldest (pre-1955) to 85% in the youngest (post-1974). When accounting for prevalence differences between mothers of twins and other women, heritability of initiation of breastfeeding was 70%. However, the familial resemblance for sister and mother-daughter pairs was clearly lower than for DZ twin pairs, but as the number of non-twin sisters was relatively low, this observation did not lead to a significant contribution of a special shared twin environment. PMID:25728689

  9. JAGGED1 gene variations in Chinese twin sisters with Alagille syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xinbao; Lu, Yi; Wang, Xiaohong; Wu, Bingbing; Yu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the JAGGED1 gene have been found to cause Alagille syndrome. Nevertheless, no particular hotspots in the gene have been found; any part of the entire coding regions for JAGGED1 may be involved. Twin sisters with jaundice visited our hospital and were diagnosed with Alagille syndrome. The gene variations in their JAGGED1 coding sequences were evaluated by complementary DNA sequencing. The 12-month-old twin sisters have broad foreheads, deep-set eyes, pointed chins, and triangular faces with jaundice. Clinical testing showed the presence of posterior embryotoxon, butterfly vertebrae, and atrial septal defect. Biochemical indexes showed cholestasis and liver damage. Three conserved variations were identified within exons 22 (c.2612C>G), 24 (c.2957T>A), and 26 (c.3417T>C) in the JAGGED1 coding sequence. The predicted consequences for c.2612C>G, c.2957T>A, and c.3417T>C were p.Pro871Arg, p.Leu986*, and p.Tyr1139=, respectively. The T to A change in the JAGGED1 coding sequence at 2957 will generate a stop codon and might lead to deletion of amino acid 233 at the C terminal of the JAGGED1 protein. Our data suggest that gene variations of c.2612C>G, c.2957T>A, and c.3417T>C, especially c.2957T>A, might have contributed to the pathogenesis of Alagille syndrome in these Chinese twin sisters and provided new gene evidences for Alagille syndrome. PMID:26339425

  10. Diet transiently improves migraine in two twin sisters: possible role of ketogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Cherubino; Curr, Antonio; Sirianni, Giulio; Coppola, Gianluca; Bracaglia, Martina; Cardillo, Alessandra; De Nardis, Lorenzo; Pierelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Summary The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet long used to treat refractory epilepsy; ketogenesis (ketone body formation) is a physiological phenomenon also observed in patients following low-carbohydrate, low-calorie diets prescribed for rapid weight loss. We report the case of a pair of twin sisters, whose high-frequency migraine improved during a ketogenic diet they followed in order to lose weight. The observed time-lock between ketogenesis and migraine improvement provides some insight into how ketones act to improve migraine. PMID:24598400

  11. Executive functioning in twins with bipolar I disorder and healthy co-twins.

    PubMed

    Juselius, Susanna; Kiesepp, Tuula; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lnnqvist, Jouko; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari

    2009-09-01

    The aims of the study were to compare performance of twins with bipolar disorder (BPD) and healthy co-twins in neuropsychological tests assessing various aspects of executive functioning and to examine the relationship of clinical factors with executive functions. Twenty-six euthymic BPD twins, 19 co-twins, and 114 control twins were examined using the Stroop test, the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), the trail making test (TMT), and semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tests. BPD twins and co-twins performed worse than controls in the Stroop test. BPD twins scored lower than controls in semantic fluency. Clinical factors correlated with scores in TMT, WCST, and semantic fluency. Our results suggest that the response inhibition impairment may associate with genetic risk of BPD and represent a potential endophenotype for BPD. The impaired performance in the semantic fluency test among the patients may result from semantic memory retrieval problems. PMID:19661106

  12. Multiple risk factors related to familial predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament injury: fraternal twin sisters with anterior cruciate ligament ruptures

    PubMed Central

    Hewett, T E; Lynch, T R; Myer, G D; Ford, K R; Gwin, R C; Heidt, R S

    2014-01-01

    Objective A multifactorial combination of predictors may increase anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk in athletes. The objective of this twin study was to examine these risk factors to identify commonalities in risk factors that predisposed female fraternal twins to ACL injury. Methods Female twins in high-risk sports were prospectively measured prior to an injury for neuromuscular control using three-dimensional motion analysis during landing, hamstrings and quadriceps muscular strength on a dynamometer and joint laxity using a modified BeightonHoran index and a Compu-KT arthrometer. Intraoperative measures of femoral intercondylar notch width were recorded during ACL reconstruction. Results Abduction angles were increased at one knee in both of the twin sister athletes relative to uninjured controls at initial contact and at maximum displacement during landing. The twin female athletes that went on to ACL injury also demonstrated decreased peak knee flexion motion at both knees than uninjured females during landing. The twin athletes also had increased joint laxity and decreased hamstrings to quadriceps (H/Q) torque ratios compared to controls. Femoral intercondylar notch widths were also below the control mean in the twin siblings. Conclusions Prescreened mature female twins that subsequently experienced ACL injury demonstrated multiple potential risk factors including: increased knee abduction angles, decreased knee flexion angles, increased general joint laxity, decreased H/Q ratios and femoral intercondylar notch width. PMID:19158132

  13. FLOWERING LOCUS T has higher protein mobility than TWIN SISTER OF FT

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Suhyun; Jung, Hye Seung; Chung, Kyung Sook; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Ahn, Ji Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In plants, successful reproduction requires the proper timing of flowering under changing environmental conditions. Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), which encodes a proposed phloem-mobile florigen, has a close homologue, TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF). During the vegetative phase, TSF shows high levels of expression in the hypocotyl before FT induction, but the tsf mutation does not have an apparent flowering-time phenotype on its own under long-day conditions. This study compared the protein mobility of FT and TSF. With TSF-overexpressing plants as the rootstock, the flowering time of ft tsf scion plants was only slightly accelerated. Previous work has shown that FT is graft-transmissible; by contrast, this study did not detect movement of TSF from the roots into the shoot of the scion plants. This study used plants overexpressing FT/TSF chimeric proteins to map a region responsible for FT movement. A chimeric TSF with region II of FT (L28 to G98) expressed in the rootstock caused early flowering in ft tsf scion plants; movement of the chimeric protein from the rootstocks into the shoot apical region of the ft tsf scion plants was also detected. Misexpression of TSF in the leaf under the control of the FT promoter or grafting of 35S::TSF cotyledons accelerated flowering of ft-10 plants. FT was more stable than TSF. Taking these results together, we propose that protein mobility of FT is higher than that of TSF, possibly due to a protein domain that confers mobility and/or protein stability. PMID:26139827

  14. FLOWERING LOCUS T has higher protein mobility than TWIN SISTER OF FT.

    PubMed

    Jin, Suhyun; Jung, Hye Seung; Chung, Kyung Sook; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Ahn, Ji Hoon

    2015-10-01

    In plants, successful reproduction requires the proper timing of flowering under changing environmental conditions. Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), which encodes a proposed phloem-mobile florigen, has a close homologue, TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF). During the vegetative phase, TSF shows high levels of expression in the hypocotyl before FT induction, but the tsf mutation does not have an apparent flowering-time phenotype on its own under long-day conditions. This study compared the protein mobility of FT and TSF. With TSF-overexpressing plants as the rootstock, the flowering time of ft tsf scion plants was only slightly accelerated. Previous work has shown that FT is graft-transmissible; by contrast, this study did not detect movement of TSF from the roots into the shoot of the scion plants. This study used plants overexpressing FT/TSF chimeric proteins to map a region responsible for FT movement. A chimeric TSF with region II of FT (L28 to G98) expressed in the rootstock caused early flowering in ft tsf scion plants; movement of the chimeric protein from the rootstocks into the shoot apical region of the ft tsf scion plants was also detected. Misexpression of TSF in the leaf under the control of the FT promoter or grafting of 35S::TSF cotyledons accelerated flowering of ft-10 plants. FT was more stable than TSF. Taking these results together, we propose that protein mobility of FT is higher than that of TSF, possibly due to a protein domain that confers mobility and/or protein stability. PMID:26139827

  15. Childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in anorexia nervosa patients, their unaffected sisters and healthy controls: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Degortes, Daniela; Zanetti, Tatiana; Tenconi, Elena; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Although there is evidence that childhood perfectionistic traits predate the onset of eating disorders, few studies to date have examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of these traits in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and their unaffected sisters. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in patients with lifetime AN, their unaffected sisters and healthy women. A total of 116 AN patients, 32 healthy sisters and 119 controls were assessed by the EATATE Interview to assess traits such as perfectionism, inflexibility, rule-bound traits, drive for order and symmetry, and excessive doubt and cautiousness. Both self-report and maternal reports were collected. AN patients reported more childhood obsessive-compulsive traits than their healthy sisters and controls. In contrast, no differences between healthy controls and unaffected sisters emerged. In patients with AN, a dose-response relationship was found between the number of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits and psychopathology, including body image distortion, thus indicating that these traits are an important feature to be considered in assessing and treating eating disorders. PMID:24851802

  16. Assessment of a symptomatic Duchenne muscular dystrophy carrier 20 years after myoblast transplantation from her asymptomatic identical twin sister.

    PubMed

    Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Zagnoli, Fabien; Canal, Aurlie; Fraysse, Bodvael; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Skuk, Daniel; Fardeau, Michel; Tremblay, Jacques P

    2013-07-01

    Because it is due to a mutation on the X-chromosome, Duchenne muscular dystrophy rarely affects women, unless there is an unequal lyonisation of the X-chromosome containing the normal dystrophin gene. We report here the unique situation of a symptomatic Duchenne muscular dystrophy woman who was transplanted with myoblasts received from her asymptomatic monozygotic twin sister 20 years ago. Specific dynamometry was performed to possibly detect a long-term effect of this cell therapy. Long-term safety of myoblast transplantation was established by this exceptional case. However, long-term efficacy could not be definitively asserted for this patient, in spite of several clues suggesting beneficial effects. PMID:23731976

  17. Does telomere length predict decline in physical functioning in older twin sisters during an 11-year follow-up?

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, Elina; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantanen, Taina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2016-04-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is known to be associated with mortality, but its association with age-related decline in physical functioning and the development of disability is less clear. This study examined the associations between LTL and physical functioning, and investigated whether LTL predicts level of physical functioning over an 11-year follow-up. Older mono- (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin sisters (n = 386) participated in the study. Relative LTL was measured by qPCR at baseline. Physical functioning was measured by 6-min walking distance and level of physical activity (PA). Walking distance was measured at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. PA was assessed by questionnaire at baseline and at 3- and 11-year follow-ups. The baseline analysis was performed with path models, adjusted with age and within-pair dependence of twin pairs. The longitudinal analysis was performed with a repeated measures linear model adjusted for age and longitudinal within-pair dependence. A nonrandom missing data analysis was utilized. At baseline, in all individuals, LTL was associated with PA (est. 0.14, SE 0.06, p = 0.011), but not with walking distance. Over the follow-up, a borderline significant association was observed between LTL and walking distance (est. 0.14, SE 0.07, p = 0.060) and a significant association between LTL and PA (est. 0.19, SE 0.06, p = 0.001). The results suggest that LTL is associated with PA and may, therefore, serve as a biomarker predicting the development of disability. Longitudinal associations between LTL and PA were observed only when nonrandom data missingness was taken into account in the analysis. PMID:26940017

  18. Prognostic and survival analysis of presbyopia: The healthy twin study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, Adiyani; Sung, Joohon

    2015-12-01

    Presbyopia, a vision condition in which the eye loses its flexibility to focus on near objects, is part of ageing process which mostly perceptible in the early or mid 40s. It is well known that age is its major risk factor, while sex, alcohol, poor nutrition, ocular and systemic diseases are known as common risk factors. However, many other variables might influence the prognosis. Therefore in this paper we developed a prognostic model to estimate survival from presbyopia. 1645 participants which part of the Healthy Twin Study, a prospective cohort study that has recruited Korean adult twins and their family members based on a nation-wide registry at public health agencies since 2005, were collected and analyzed by univariate analysis as well as Cox proportional hazard model to reveal the prognostic factors for presbyopia while survival curves were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Besides age, sex, diabetes, and myopia; the proposed model shows that education level (especially engineering program) also contribute to the occurrence of presbyopia as well. Generally, at 47 years old, the chance of getting presbyopia becomes higher with the survival probability is less than 50%. Furthermore, our study shows that by stratifying the survival curve, MZ has shorter survival with average onset time about 45.8 compare to DZ and siblings with 47.5 years old. By providing factors that have more effects and mainly associate with presbyopia, we expect that we could help to design an intervention to control or delay its onset time.

  19. First Language Attrition in the Speech of Dutch-English Bilinguals: The Case of Monozygotic Twin Sisters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Robert; Price, Sacha; Mennen, Ineke

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a proliferation of research on attrition in L1 speech (de Leeuw, Mennen & Scobbie, in press; de Leeuw, Schmid & Mennen, 2010; Dmitrieva, Jongman & Sereno, 2010; Mennen, 2004). Adding to this line of inquiry, the present study investigates the speech of a 62-year-old bilingual monozygotic twin who emigrated to an L2-speaking

  20. First Language Attrition in the Speech of Dutch-English Bilinguals: The Case of Monozygotic Twin Sisters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Robert; Price, Sacha; Mennen, Ineke

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a proliferation of research on attrition in L1 speech (de Leeuw, Mennen & Scobbie, in press; de Leeuw, Schmid & Mennen, 2010; Dmitrieva, Jongman & Sereno, 2010; Mennen, 2004). Adding to this line of inquiry, the present study investigates the speech of a 62-year-old bilingual monozygotic twin who emigrated to an L2-speaking…

  1. Modest genetic influence on bronchodilator response: a study in healthy twins

    PubMed Central

    Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Medda, Emanuela; Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Bikov, Andras; Lazar, Zsofia; Fagnani, Corrado; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Karlinger, Kinga; Garami, Zsolt; Berczi, Viktor; Horvath, Ildiko

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the reasons for large standard deviation of bronchodilator response (BDR) and establish whether there is a potential heritable component in healthy subjects. Methods 67 monozygotic and 42 dizygotic adult twin pairs were assessed for bronchodilator response (%change in FEV1 after inhaling 400 µg salbutamol). Univariate quantitative genetic modeling was performed. Results Multiple regression modeling showed a significant association between BDR and sex and baseline FEV1 (P < 0.05), while no association was found with smoking habits, body mass index, or age. Within pair correlation in monozygotic twins was modest (0.332), but higher than in dizygotic twins (0.258). Age-, sex-, and baseline FEV1-adjusted genetic effect accounted for 14.9% (95% confidence interval, CI 0%-53.1%) of the variance of BDR, shared environmental effect for 18.4% (95% CI 0%-46.8%), and unshared environmental effect for 66.8% (95% CI 46.8%-88.7%). Conclusion Our twin study showed that individual differences in BDR can be mostly explained by unshared environmental effects. In addition, it is the first study to show low, insignificant hereditary influences, independently from sex, age, and baseline FEV1. PMID:25891875

  2. Environmental Factors Responsible for Variability of Hepatic Vein Flow: A Doppler Assessment in Healthy Twins.

    PubMed

    Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Littvay, Levente; Garami, Zsolt; Molnar, Andrea Agnes; Berczi, Viktor; Karlinger, Kinga; Baffy, Gyorgy

    2016-02-29

    Doppler interrogation studies of the liver blood flow indicate altered hepatic vein waveforms in association with impaired hepatocellular function. However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for variations of these parameters in the absence of disease. We aimed to investigate the contribution of heritable and environmental factors to the physiological variability of hepatic vein flow in a twin cohort. Two hundred twenty-eight healthy adult Hungarian twins (69 monozygotic, 45 same-sex dizygotic pairs) underwent Doppler sonography of the hepatic vein. Age- and sex-adjusted heritability of the highest velocity (amplitude of S wave) of hepatic vein flow was negligible. Shared environment contributed to 33% (95% CI, 16%-51%), and unshared environment was responsible for the largest portion (67%; 95% CI, 49%-84%) of the variance. Duration of sports activities was significantly (P < 0.05) related to the magnitude of hepatic vein flow, while other risk factors and lifestyle characteristics had no significant influence. The data suggest that genetic factors have little impact on the parameters of hepatic venous blood flow. The variability observed in healthy twins by the Doppler interrogation can be explained by the effect of unshared environmental components primarily related to regular physical activity. These findings underscore the importance of unique environments in physiological variations of hepatic venous blood flow. PMID:26875560

  3. The Relationship of DNA Methylation with Age, Gender and Genotype in Twins and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Boks, Marco P.; Derks, Eske M.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Strengman, Erik; Janson, Esther; Sommer, Iris E.; Kahn, Ren S.; Ophoff, Roel A.

    2009-01-01

    Cytosine-5 methylation within CpG dinucleotides is a potentially important mechanism of epigenetic influence on human traits and disease. In addition to influences of age and gender, genetic control of DNA methylation levels has recently been described. We used whole blood genomic DNA in a twin set (23 MZ twin-pairs and 23 DZ twin-pairs, N?=?92) as well as healthy controls (N?=?96) to investigate heritability and relationship with age and gender of selected DNA methylation profiles using readily commercially available GoldenGate bead array technology. Despite the inability to detect meaningful methylation differences in the majority of CpG loci due to tissue type and locus selection issues, we found replicable significant associations of DNA methylation with age and gender. We identified associations of genetically heritable single nucleotide polymorphisms with large differences in DNA methylation levels near the polymorphism (cis effects) as well as associations with much smaller differences in DNA methylation levels elsewhere in the human genome (trans effects). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of array-based approaches in studies of DNA methylation and highlight the vast differences between individual loci. The identification of CpG loci of which DNA methylation levels are under genetic control or are related to age or gender will facilitate further studies into the role of DNA methylation and disease. PMID:19774229

  4. SISTER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sister Study will investigate the role of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors on the risk of breast cancer and other diseases in sisters of women with breast cancer. This research study will enroll 50,000 women who live in the United States and who are the cancer-fr...

  5. Socioeconomic Status and Number of Children Among Korean Women: The Healthy Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinseob

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate whether the birth rate is associated with socioeconomic status in the women of the Republic of Korea, where the birth rate is rapidly decreasing. Methods This study included 732 females from the Healthy Twin Study, a family-twin cohort. The participants were classified into 3 socioeconomic groups according to their average income, education, and occupation. The association between socioeconomic status and number of children was assessed using gamma regression analysis with a generalized linear mixed model, adjusting for the age group, smoking/alcohol status, and family relationships. Results The group with the highest education level had significantly fewer children compared with the group with the lowest education level (p=0.004). However, no significant associations were found according to household income level. The non-manual labor group had significantly fewer children compared with those working as homemakers (p=0.008). Conclusions This study aimed to explain the causal relationship between socioeconomic status and number of children. Associations between some socioeconomic status and number of children were found in Korea. PMID:23407625

  6. Transition from peridotite-mylonite to serpentine-rich fault rocks along a strike-slip fault system, Twin Sisters ultramafic massif, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, K.; Newman, J.; Wojtal, S. F.; Toy, V. G.; Lamb, W.; Tikoff, B.

    2009-12-01

    A long-lived, strike-slip, serpentine-rich fault system crosscuts high-temperature mantle fabrics in the Twin Sisters ultramafic massif, Washington. The fault system is well-exposed along a ~500 m long segment that provides ~150 m of vertical relief, and consists of 1-3 subparallel fault zones with trace lengths >100 m and widths < 2 m, separated by up to 10 m of host peridotite. Each fault branch is defined by macroscopic bounding faults linked by anastomozing splay faults of foliated serpentine that separate lenticular masses of fine-grained, foliated serpentine and lens-shaped lithons. Adjacent to each fault branch is a zone 1-12 m thick, often observed on only one side of a fault branch, of fractured and serpentinized peridotite that does not exhibit the regional high-temperature fabrics. Microstructures from wall rocks, lithons and highly serpentinized zones suggest 3-4 stages of overprinting deformation along a path of decreasing temperatures: 1) High-temperature ductile deformation of peridotite; 2) cataclastic deformation; and 3) brittle-ductile deformation of serpentine. The first stage is characterized by olivine porphyroclasts with tails of fine-grained olivine, aggregates of fine-grained (~10 m) equant olivine that lack a lattice preferred orientation, and a fine-grained (~10 m) assemblage of equant olivine, clinopyroxene and amphibole. These microstructures are characteristic of high-temperature ductile deformation and are observed within the zone of peridotite host rock lacking regional high-temperature fabrics. The second phase of deformation is cataclastic. Angular fragments of varying grain sizes of olivine and pyroxene, with serpentine along grain boundaries, are common in zones that are often subparallel to, or cross-cut, the fine-grained, ductilely deformed peridotite. These zones contain fragments of aggregates of the ductilely deformed rocks, as well as fragments containing aggregates of angular grains. The youngest features involve brittle-ductile deformation of serpentine that followed the earlier cataclasis. Within the highly serpentinized and foliated fault splays, massive serpentine contains crosscutting layers associated with steps in slip surfaces. These layers are frequently folded and crenulated, and often recrystallized. Locally, serpentine exhibits S-C structures or small duplexes that resemble the macro- and mesoscale splay structures within the fault system. These meso- and microstructures suggest a high-temperature ductile deformation zone is adjacent to, and overprinted by, the serpentine-dominated fault rocks. The observation that the serpentine-dominated fault rocks are most common at the boundary between the high-temperature ductile deformation zone and the wall rocks suggests that the rheological contrast between the coarse-grained wall rocks and fine-grained high-temperature deformation zone may have served as a heterogeneity that localized later deformation, associated with the introduction of water-bearing fluids.

  7. Microscopic Particles in Two Fractions of Fresh Cerebrospinal Fluid in Twins with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder and in Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Viktoria; Nybom, Rolf; Wetterberg, Lennart; Hultman, Christina M.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Johansson, Anette G. M.; Ekman, Carl Johan; Landn, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Background Using scanning electron microscopy, microscopic structures have been identified in fresh cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but only rarely in control subjects. However, it has not been determined whether these microscopic particles represent state or trait markers, i.e. if their presence is related to clinical manifestations of the disease or if they also can be found in as yet asymptomatic individuals with a genetic liability. This question can be addressed by studying twins discordant or concordant for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated microscopic structures in CSF in 102 individuals: 21 monozygotic and 16 dizygotic twins affected or not affected with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder and in 65 healthy singleton controls. A first and a second fraction of CSF was freshly applied on filters and examined by scanning electron microscopy technique. Spherical particles with lipid appearance averaging between 0.1 to 8.0 m in diameter were detected in the center of the filter as well as located in the margins of larger aggregates binding in a viscous state. Structures were found in 12 of 17 probands, 5 of 12 healthy co-twins and 3 of 73 healthy controls. Thus, a positive microscopic finding significantly increased the likelihood of belonging to the proband group (OR?=?48, 95% CL: 8.2550, p<0.0001) and the co-twin-group (OR?=?16, 95% CL: 2.0218, p?=?0.006). Age, sex, history of alcohol abuse or anxiety syndrome, somatic disorder and markers of acute inflammatory activity did not account for group differences; nor did exposure to psychotropic medication. Conclusion Presence of microscopic particles in CSF may possibly reflect trait dependent genetic or environmental vulnerability in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder. PMID:23049916

  8. Social activity and healthy aging: a study of aging Danish twins.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2007-04-01

    Although social and intellectual engagement have been consistently associated with late-life functioning, rather than true causation, these associations may reflect the experiential choices of high functioning individuals (i.e., selection effects). We investigated the association of social activity with late-life physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology using data from 1112 pairs of like-sex twins who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Consistent with previous research, we found that social activity was significantly correlated with overall level of physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology. We also found that social activity was significantly and moderately heritable (estimate of .36), raising the possibility that its association with late-life functioning might reflect selection processes. Further, social activity did not predict change in functioning and in monozygotic twin pairs discordant on level of social activity, the more socially active twin was not less susceptible to age decreases in physical and cognitive functioning and increases in depression symptomatology than the less socially active twin. These results are interpreted in the context of the additional finding that nonshared environmental factors, although apparently not social activity, are the predominant determinant of changes in late-life functioning. PMID:17564515

  9. Severe, neonatal-onset OTC deficiency in twin sisters with a de novo balanced reciprocal translocation t(X;5)(p21.1;q11).

    PubMed

    Zenker, Martin; Wermuth, Bendicht; Trautmann, Udo; Knerr, Ina; Kraus, Cornelia; Rauch, Anita; Reis, Andr

    2005-01-15

    OTC deficiency, the most common urea cycle defect, is transmitted as a partially dominant X-linked trait. The most severe form of the disease, however, is usually restricted to males. We report on monozygotic female twins with severe neonatal-onset OTC deficiency and a de novo balanced reciprocal translocation t(X;5)(p21.1;q11). Disruption of the OTC gene on the derivative X-chromosome was confirmed by FISH analysis. Consistent inactivation of the normal X could be demonstrated by RGB staining. Manifestation of X-linked recessive disorders in females due to a balanced reciprocal X-autosome translocation has previously been described in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and several other disorders but not in OTC deficiency. This report emphasizes the importance of chromosome analysis in any female manifesting severe OTC deficiency. PMID:15578616

  10. One Sister's Story

    MedlinePLUS

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues One Sister's Story Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... NIH/NIEHS By Tina Hall Sister Study participant One day in April, after my sister returned from ...

  11. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology: The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS).

    PubMed

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J; Spector, Timothy D; Steves, Claire J

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal clinical data were collected on 3,508 female twins in the TwinsUK registry (complete pairs:740 monozygotic (MZ), 986 dizygotic (DZ), mean age at entry 48.9 ± 10.4, range 18-75 years; mean follow-up 10.2 ± 2.8 years, range 4-17.8 years). Panel data on multiple age-related variables were used to estimate biological ages for each individual at each time point, in linear mixed effects models. A weighted average approach was used to combine variables within predefined body system groups. Aging trajectories for each system in each individual were then constructed using linear modeling. Multivariate structural equation modeling of these aging trajectories showed low genetic effects (heritability), ranging from 2% in metabolic aging to 22% in cardiovascular aging. However, we found a significant effect of shared environmental factors on the variations in aging trajectories in cardiovascular (54%), skeletal (34%), morphometric (53%), and metabolic systems (53%). The remainder was due to environmental factors unique to each individual plus error. Multivariate Cholesky decomposition showed that among aging trajectories for various body systems there were significant and substantial correlations between the unique environmental latent factors as well as shared environmental factors. However, there was no evidence for a single common factor for aging. This study, the first of its kind in aging, suggests that diverse organ systems share non-genetic sources of variance for aging trajectories. Confirmatory studies are needed using population-based twin cohorts and alternative methods of handling missing data. PMID:26810865

  12. Heritability of head motion during resting state functional MRI in 462 healthy twins

    PubMed Central

    Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; Blokland, Gabrilla A. M.; Hickie, Ian B.; Thompson, Paul M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; McMahon, Katie L.; Wright, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Head motion (HM) is a critical confounding factor in functional MRI. Here we investigate whether HM during resting state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) is influenced by genetic factors in a sample of 462 twins (65% female; 101 MZ (monozygotic) and 130 DZ (dizygotic) twin pairs; mean age: 21 (SD=3.16), range 1629). Heritability estimates for three HM componentsmean translation (MT), maximum translation (MAXT) and mean rotation (MR)ranged from 37 to 51%. We detected a significant common genetic influence on HM variability, with about two-thirds (genetic correlations range 0.761.00) of the variance shared between MR, MT and MAXT. A composite metric (HM-PC1), which aggregated these three, was also moderately heritable (h2=42%). Using a sub-sample (N=35) of the twins we confirmed that mean and maximum translational and rotational motions were consistent traits over repeated scans (r=0.530.59); reliability was even higher for the composite metric (r=0.66). In addition, phenotypic and cross-trait cross-twin correlations between HM and resting state functional connectivities (RS-FCs) with Brodmann areas (BA) 44 and 45, in which RS-FCs were found to be moderately heritable (BA44: h2=0.23 (sd=0.041), BA45: h2=0.26 (sd=0.061)), indicated that HM might not represent a major bias in genetic studies using FCs. Even so, the HM effect on FC was not completely eliminated after regression. HM may be a valuable endophenotype whose relationship with brain disorders remains to be elucidated. PMID:25132021

  13. Fractal and twin SVM-based handgrip recognition for healthy subjects and trans-radial amputees using myoelectric signal.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Sridhar Poosapadi; Kumar, Dinesh Kant; Jayadeva J

    2016-02-01

    Identifying functional handgrip patterns using surface electromygram (sEMG) signal recorded from amputee residual muscle is required for controlling the myoelectric prosthetic hand. In this study, we have computed the signal fractal dimension (FD) and maximum fractal length (MFL) during different grip patterns performed by healthy and transradial amputee subjects. The FD and MFL of the sEMG, referred to as the fractal features, were classified using twin support vector machines (TSVM) to recognize the handgrips. TSVM requires fewer support vectors, is suitable for data sets with unbalanced distributions, and can simultaneously be trained for improving both sensitivity and specificity. When compared with other methods, this technique resulted in improved grip recognition accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, and this improvement was significant (κ=0.91). PMID:26354833

  14. Reunited twins: spouse relations / twin research reports / timely topics.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2011-06-01

    The present article explores the social attraction that may evolve on the part of reared apart twins' spouses toward their brothers- and sisters-in-law, that is, their spouses' newly found co-twin. This topic was inspired by the fascinating story of monozygotic reared apart (MZA) twins who were reunited in Perth, Australia in 2008, at age 50. It is followed by brief reviews of twin research articles concerning divorce rates among mothers of multiples and X-chromosome inactivation in MZ female twin pairs. The final section presents informative human interest stories involving twins. PMID:21623660

  15. Healthy co-twins of patients with affective disorders show reduced risk-related activation of the insula during a monetary gambling task

    PubMed Central

    Macoveanu, Julian; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders are at increased risk for affective disorders and express discrete structural and functional abnormalities in the brain reward system. However, value-based decision making is not well understood in these at-risk individuals. Methods We investigated healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorders (high-risk and low-risk groups, respectively) using functional MRI during a gambling task. We assessed group differences in activity related to gambling risk over the entire brain. Results We included 30 monozygotic and 37 dizygotic twins in our analysis. Neural activity in the anterior insula and ventral striatum increased linearly with the amount of gambling risk in the entire cohort. Individual neuroticism scores were positively correlated with the neural response in the ventral striatum to increasing gambling risk and negatively correlated with individual risk-taking behaviour. Compared with low-risk twins, the high-risk twins showed a bilateral reduction of risk-related activity in the middle insula extending into the temporal cortex with increasing gambling risk. Post hoc analyses revealed that this effect was strongest in dizygotic twins. Limitations The relatively old average age of the mono- and dizygotic twin cohort (49.2 yr) may indicate an increased resilience to affective disorders. The size of the monozygotic high-risk group was relatively small (n = 13). Conclusion The reduced processing of risk magnitude in the middle insula may indicate a deficient integration of exteroceptive information related to risk-related cues with interoceptive states in individuals at familial risk for affective disorders. Impaired risk processing might contribute to increased vulnerability to affective disorders. PMID:26395812

  16. Myasthenia gravis occurring in twins

    PubMed Central

    Namba, T.; Shapiro, M. S.; Brunner, N. G.; Grob, D.

    1971-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis in one member each of two sets of twins is described. A 17 year old girl developed generalized myasthenia gravis at the age of 14 years, while her monozygotic twin sister has remained in good health during a three year period of observation. Another patient was a 19 year old woman with the onset of generalized myasthenia gravis at the age of 11 years, and her dizygotic twin sister has been in good health. Myasthenia gravis has been described in 13 sets of monozygotic twins, seven sets of dizygotic twins, and one set of twins with undetermined zygosity. Both members of twins were affected in five sets of monozygotic twins and one set of twins with undetermined zygosity, and only one twin was affected in the remaining sets of twins. Occurrence of myasthenia gravis in both members of monozygotic twins and in none of dizygotic twins, and frequent familial occurrence of the disease suggest the role of a genetic factor in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:5122380

  17. A healthy delivery of twins by assisted reproduction followed by preimplantation genetic screening in a woman with X-linked dominant incontinentia pigmenti

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung Joo; Lyu, Sang Woo; Seok, Hyun Ha; Park, Ji Eun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report a successful twin pregnancy and delivery in a female patient with X-linked dominant incontinentia pigmenti (IP) who underwent assisted reproductive technology followed by preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). A 29-year-old female with IP had a previous history of recurrent spontaneous abortion. A molecular analysis revealed the patient had a de novo mutation, 1308_1309insCCCCTTG(p.Ala438ProfsTer26), in the inhibitor of the kappa B kinase gamma gene located in the Xq28 region. IVF/ICSI and PGS was performed, in which male embryos were sexed using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). After IVF/ICSI and PGS using aCGH on seven embryos, two euploid male blastocysts were transferred with a 50% probability of a viable male pregnancy. The dizygotic twin pregnancy was confirmed and the amniocentesis results of each twin were normal with regard to the mutation found in the mother. The patient delivered healthy twin babies during the 37th week of gestation. This case shows the beneficial role of PGS in achieving a successful pregnancy through euploid male embryo gender selection in a woman with X-linked dominant IP with a history of multiple male miscarriages. PMID:25599040

  18. One CNV Discordance in NRXN1 Observed Upon Genome-wide Screening in 38 Pairs of Adult Healthy Monozygotic Twins.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Patrik K E; Lee, Donghwan; Chen, Xu; Szatkiewicz, Jin; Pramana, Setia; Teo, Shumei; Sullivan, Patrick F; Feuk, Lars; Pawitan, Yudi

    2016-04-01

    Monozygotic (MZ) twins stem from the same single fertilized egg and therefore share all their inherited genetic variation. This is one of the unequivocal facts on which genetic epidemiology and twin studies are based. To what extent this also implies that MZ twins share genotypes in adult tissues is not precisely established, but a common pragmatic assumption is that MZ twins are 100% genetically identical also in adult tissues. During the past decade, this view has been challenged by several reports, with observations of differences in post-zygotic copy number variations (CNVs) between members of the same MZ pair. In this study, we performed a systematic search for differences of CNVs within 38 adult MZ pairs who had been misclassified as dizygotic (DZ) twins by questionnaire-based assessment. Initial scoring by PennCNV suggested a total of 967 CNV discordances. The within-pair correlation in number of CNVs detected was strongly dependent on confidence score filtering and reached a plateau of r = 0.8 when restricting to CNVs detected with confidence score larger than 50. The top-ranked discordances were subsequently selected for validation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), from which one single ~120kb deletion in NRXN1 on chromosome 2 (bp 51017111-51136802) was validated. Despite involving an exon, no sign of cognitive/mental consequences was apparent in the affected twin pair, potentially reflecting limited or lack of expression of the transcripts containing this exon in nerve/brain. PMID:26899349

  19. Comparison of the Gut Microbiotas of Healthy Adult Twins Living in South Korea and the United States ?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sunghee; Sung, Joohon; Lee, JungEun; Ko, GwangPyo

    2011-01-01

    We compared the composition of the fecal microbiotas of Korean and U.S. adult twins. Our data indicated that the gut microbiota shows some signature of biogeography, potentially mediated by differences in diet and/or other environmental factors; however, these regional differences may be masked by other phenotypic variations, such as obesity. PMID:21873488

  20. Dietary Restraint Is Non-Genetically Associated with Change in Body Mass Index: The Healthy Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to examine if past and more recent body mass index (BMI) changes are associated with eating behavior (EB) traits and whether these associations are due to non-genetic factors. Materials and Methods In 1321 Korean twins and family members, recent and past BMI change groups were defined using quartiles of BMI change between first and second visits over 2.4±0.9 years and BMI change between 20 years old and second visit, respectively. We applied linear mixed analysis for relationships of past or recent BMI change groups and each EB (restrained, external, and emotional EB using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) assessed at second visit after adjusting for household effect and covariates (age, gender, education, medical history of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, alcohol use, physical activity, smoking habit, and calorie intake). In monozygotic twin pairs, paired t-test for within-pair comparison and conditional logistic regression analysis were conducted regarding EB. Results Greater past BMI change was associated with higher restrained eating scores (P for trend=0.031), whereas greater recent BMI change was associated with higher external eating scores (P for trend=0.046). In co-twin-control analysis, twins with greater past BMI change were more likely to have higher restrained eating scores as compared with their co-twins with lower past BMI change (odds ratio 1.80; 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.87), whereas there were no associations between recent BMI change and external eating scores. Conclusion Greater BMI change since 20 years old is associated with higher dietary restraint, and non-genetic factors explain this relationship. PMID:24954348

  1. “Do You Want Somebody Treating Your Sister Like That?”: Qualitative Exploration of How African American Families Discuss and Promote Healthy Teen Dating Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Akers, Aletha Y.; Yonas, Michael; Burke, Jessica; Chang, Judy C.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses a study conducted between December 2007 and March 2008 that involved 19 gender-stratified focus groups with African American parents and adolescents from Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, to explore the process and content of parent–adolescent communication about sex. Discussions about intimate partner violence (IPV) and healthy relationships emerge inductively as critical topics in these conversations. The authors use a grounded theory approach to content analysis to identify and organize themes related to discussions on these topics. A total of 125 participants from 52 families are recruited for the study. Family history of child sexual abuse often motivates discussions. Mothers are described as the primary parent discussing sexual issues with children. Fathers primarily role model ideal male partnership behavior for sons and daughters. Parents seek to prevent daughters from experiencing sexual abuse or emotional manipulation by partners and focus on instilling a sense of responsibility to and respect for romantic partners in sons. Parents prioritize and express the need for tools to influence their adolescent’s socialization as romantic partners. Mothers and fathers approach this process differently. Family-focused interventions to prevent unhealthy relationships can build on parent’s efforts. PMID:20889536

  2. Cysticercosis with an Orbital Tropism in Twins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bradford W; Kumar, Usha R; Lin, Jonathan H; Amaro, Deirdre E; Kikkawa, Don O; Alameddine, Ramzi M; Lowe, Maureen C; Hilger, Peter A; Vinetz, Joseph M; Korn, Bobby S

    2015-10-01

    Two fraternal twin sisters developed cysticercosis localizing to the right lateral orbit over the same period after a presumed common-source exposure in China. This case demonstrates that cysticercosis can be related to travel. Similar temporal and spatial occurrences of these infections suggest a genetic tropism of the infecting organism in these twins. PMID:26217041

  3. Sibling Conversations about Dating and Sexuality: Sisters as Confidants, Sources of Support, and Mentors

    PubMed Central

    Killoren, Sarah E.; Roach, Andrea L.

    2013-01-01

    Using an observational methodology to examine sibling communication, sisters (N = 28 dyads) were videotaped discussing their ideas about dating and sexuality. Social provision theory was used as a framework for the examination of roles enacted by sisters during these conversations. Inductive thematic analytic procedures were conducted and three roles were identified: sisters as confidants, sources of support, and mentors. Older and younger sisters both served as confidants and sources of support for one another, whereas, older sisters were more likely to be mentors for their younger sisters than vice versa. Findings indicate the potential importance of sisters in the formation of adolescent girls’ ideas about romantic relationships and sexuality, sibling communication as a socialization mechanism of sisters’ similarities in romantic experiences and sexual behaviors/attitudes, and the inclusion of older sisters in prevention intervention programs focused on reducing adolescent sexual risk behaviors and promoting healthy romantic relationships and sexuality development. PMID:24659843

  4. The sisters of mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, Debra

    2013-08-01

    This article introduces the issue of Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session entitled "Beyond Meditation: Mindfulness-Related Clinical Practices." In the article, I describe how the "sisters of mindfulness"-forgiveness, gratitude, loving-kindness, compassion, acceptance, and best-self visualization-are each interconnected and important forms of mindfulness as well as tenets of Buddhist psychology. Each of these practices reflect mental strengths that are being integrated into the brain's neuroplastic development as a function of modern day psychotherapy. PMID:23775372

  5. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome is a rare condition that occurs only in identical twins while they are in the womb. ... Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) occurs when the blood supply of 1 twin moves to the ...

  6. Sister-sister incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    PubMed

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Griffee, Karen; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Beard, Keith W; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using a computer-assisted self-interview. Thirty-one participants were victims of sister-sister incest, 40 were victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were victims of father-daughter incest, 8 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult female (including one mother), and 232 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult male other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The rest (1,203) served as controls. The victims of sister-sister incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures as adults. Victims of sister-sister incest were more depressed and more likely than controls to be distant from the perpetrator-sister and to have traded sex for money, experienced an unplanned pregnancy, engaged in four different types of masturbation, and engaged in 13 different same-sex behaviors. Our findings were consistent with other reports of early eroticization and persistent hypereroticization of incest victims. PMID:23924178

  7. Sister kinetochores are mechanically fused during meiosis I in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Sarangapani, Krishna K.; Duro, Eris; Deng, Yi; Alves, Flavia de Lima; Ye, Qiaozhen; Opoku, Kwaku N.; Ceto, Steven; Rappsilber, Juri; Corbett, Kevin D.; Biggins, Sue; Marston, Adle L.; Asbury, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Production of healthy gametes requires a reductional meiosis I division in which replicated sister chromatids co-migrate, rather than separating as in mitosis or meiosis II. Fusion of sister kinetochores during meiosis I may underlie sister chromatid co-migration in diverse organisms, but direct evidence for such fusion has been lacking. Here we studied native kinetochore particles isolated from yeast using laser trapping and quantitative fluorescence microscopy. Meiosis I kinetochores formed stronger attachments and carried more microtubule-binding elements than kinetochores isolated from cells in mitosis or meiosis II. The meiosis I-specific monopolin complex was both necessary and sufficient to drive these modifications. Thus, kinetochore fusion directs sister chromatid co-migration, a conserved feature of meiosis that is fundamental to Mendelian inheritance. PMID:25213378

  8. Identical twins discordant for Kallmann's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Hipkin, L J; Casson, I F; Davis, J C

    1990-01-01

    A 20 year old male patient presented with lack of sexual development. On examination he was eunuchoidal and hypogonadal, and olfactory function testing showed he was anosmic. Biochemical investigations proved he was hypogonadotrophic. Kallmann's syndrome was therefore diagnosed. His appearance was very different from his alleged identical twin who had undergone a normal puberty and had normal plasma testosterone and gonadotrophin levels. However, the twin was hyposmic. Genetic fingerprinting confirmed the twins were identical. Why Kallman's syndrome was incompletely expressed in one of them is unexplained. The parents and a normally menstruating sister had normal olfactory function. Images PMID:2325096

  9. Where are Sedna's Sisters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, D. F.

    2005-05-01

    Simulations of the formation of the Oort cloud from the Kuiper Belt typically are presented as an animated scatter diagram. Here the orbit of each object appears as a point of perihelion distance q and semi-major axis a. (eg. Levison, Morbidelli, & Dones 2004). These plots show a conspicuous void, bounded by the inequalities: q < a, q > 50 AU, and a < 5000-10000 AU. Brown (2005) calls this void the ``Bermuda Triangle". The only present occupant is Sedna (q=76 AU, a=501 AU). Brown, Trujillo, & Rabinowitz , the discovers of Sedna, have challenged others to explain how Sedna got inside the triangle and to predict where similar objects might be found. Sedna could not have simply formed in its current orbit by the accumulation of smaller objects (Stern 2005). Several authors have suggested that a passing star scattered Sedna into the triangle shortly after the birth of the solar system. Here I offer an alternative which uses the very strong galactic tidal forces of the Sinusoidal potential (Bartlett 2001, 2004). In this potential, the numerator of Newton's law is replaced by GM cos(ko r) where ko = 2 ? / lambdao and the 'wavelength' ? o is 425 pc. The 20 radial oscillations between the sun and the center of the Galaxy give tidal forces that are 120 times as big as generally expected. I will show how this tidal force, acting over the lifetime of the solar system, could move the perihelion of Sedna from about 40 to 76 AU. Sedna's sisters are likely to have still larger q & a and to have perihelia in two specific quadrants of the ecliptic plane.

  10. Heritability of eating behavior assessed using the DEBQ (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) and weight-related traits: the Healthy Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Sung, Joohon; Lee, Kayoung; Song, Yun-Mi; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2010-05-01

    The heritability of eating behavior and body weight-related traits in Asian populations has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to estimate the heritability of eating behavior and the body weight-related traits of current weight and self-reported past weight among twins and their families. Study subjects were 2,144 Korean, adult, same-sex twins and their families at the ages between 20 and 65 years (443 monozygotic (MZ) and 124 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, and 1,010 individuals of their family). The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to assess three eating behavior subscales measuring restraint, emotional eating, and external eating. A variance component approach was used to estimate heritability. After consideration of shared environmental effects and adjustment for age and sex effects, the heritability estimates +/- s.e. among twins and their family members were 0.31 +/- 0.036 for restraint, 0.25 +/- 0.098 for emotional eating, 0.25 +/- 0.060 for external eating, 0.77 +/- 0.032 for measured current body weight, and 0.70 +/- 0.051 for self-reported weight at 20 years old. The three DEBQ subscales were associated with all weight related traits after adjustment for age and sex. These results suggest eating behaviors and weight-related traits have a genetic influence, and eating behaviors are associated with obesity indexes. Our findings from Korean twin family were similar to those reported in Western populations. PMID:19876000

  11. Becker muscular dystrophy recombinant DNA studies in identical twins.

    PubMed

    Ionasescu, V; Ionasescu, R; Searby, C; Burns, T

    1988-04-01

    Two identical twins with Becker Muscular Dystrophy are reported. Both twins had the same red cell types for ABO, Rh, CDE, MNSs, Kelly, Lewis, Duffy, and Kidd. HLA typing detected the same antigens in both twins: A1, A26, B8, B17, DR3, DR7. Family history was negative. The twin patients showed identical haplotypes that were different from the haplotypes of the normal male members of the family. The sister of the twins showed a recombinant X chromosome. The informative haplotype with respect to the gene of BMD, present in the twins, was ascertained in their mother as well. Our findings strongly suggest that a mutation has occurred either in the mother or in the twins. PMID:3398874

  12. [Cutaneomucous hyalinosis in monozygotic twins].

    PubMed

    Bravo-Piris, J; Unamuno Perez, P; Armijo, M

    1985-01-01

    Two Urbach-Wiethe disease cases in both univitelline twins sisters, 8 years old, are presented. Consanguinity is demonstrated in their parents and we consider this to be the second study of this type described in Spain and the first one in the world with such genetic features. We emphasize the early process apparition--just after birth--clinically characterised only by hoarseness. In consecutive years, both sisters developed varioliform scars on elbows, knees, and forehead and induration of lips on their mucous surface and palpebral margins. The histological and ultrastructural findings superposed in both patient--typical and confirmatory of the clinical picture--are commented as well as present histopathogenetic interpretations. PMID:4062170

  13. Sister R. Leadership: Doing the Seemingly Impossible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sena, Rachel; Schoorman, Dilys; Bogotch, Ira

    2013-01-01

    Sister R., the first author, is a Dominican Sister of Peace. Until recently, Sister R. had been the director of the Maya Ministry Family Literacy Program, working with the Maya Community in Lake Worth, Palm Beach County, Florida. She described her work with these indigenous, preliterate, hardworking peoples as "a university of the poor" in which…

  14. Sister R. Leadership: Doing the Seemingly Impossible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sena, Rachel; Schoorman, Dilys; Bogotch, Ira

    2013-01-01

    Sister R., the first author, is a Dominican Sister of Peace. Until recently, Sister R. had been the director of the Maya Ministry Family Literacy Program, working with the Maya Community in Lake Worth, Palm Beach County, Florida. She described her work with these indigenous, preliterate, hardworking peoples as "a university of the poor" in which

  15. Two Sisters with Rett Syndrome. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haenggeli, Charles A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Clinical histories and physical findings are presented for 2 sisters with Rett syndrome. The older sister, age 25, was typically affected, whereas the younger sister, 22 years old, was affected with a seizure disorder showing an unusually early onset. The paper discusses hypotheses in genetic causation of Rett syndrome. (JDD)

  16. Sulcus vocalis in monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Zeynep Alkan; Yigit, Ozgur; Kocak, Ismail; Sunter, A Volkan; Dogan, Muzeyyen

    2010-04-01

    Sulcus vocalis is the presence of a groove extending along the vibratory surface of a vocal fold and may result in dysphonia. Depending on the level of severity, this condition may require treatment involving complicated surgical techniques. Cases of sulcus vocalis are classified as physiological, vergeture, or pouch type. A clear explanation of the etiology has not been established, and the currently proposed congenital origin, as described in the literature, remains controversial. This paper presents findings from monozygotic twin sisters with bilateral sulcus vocalis; these patients had similar morphologies, vibratory characteristics, and vocal quality measurements, which support the theory of a congenital etiology. PMID:19427145

  17. Sister-sister in vitro fertilization surrogate pregnancy with donor sperm: the case for surrogate gestational pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Leeton, J; King, C; Harman, J

    1988-10-01

    A case of surrogate pregnancy is described in the sister of a 40-year-old hysterectomized woman where two oocytes of the latter were fertilized in vitro with known donor sperm and transferred into the surrogate. A normal singleton pregnancy developed which was complicated after 24 weeks of gestation with recurrent antepartum hemorrhages due to grade 3 placenta praevia. A healthy female baby was delivered by elective cesarean section at 36 weeks of gestation. The legal, social, psychological, and ethical issues of surrogacy remain unsettled and are discussed in this case report. PMID:3230346

  18. P-ANCA in monozygotic twins with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, P; Jrnerot, G; Danielsson, D; Tysk, C; Lindberg, E

    1995-01-01

    Perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (P-ANCA) have been demonstrated in patients with ulcerative colitis and in a higher frequency than expected in their first degree relatives. A hypothesis was proposed that P-ANCA is genetically determined and may represent a subclinical marker of genetic susceptibility to ulcerative colitis. This study analysed P-ANCA in monozygotic twins with inflammatory bowel disease to evaluate this hypothesis further. P-ANCA was analysed with indirect immunofluorescence technique in 12 monozygotic twin pairs with ulcerative colitis and 14 twin pairs with Crohn's disease. Furthermore, the study included 21 non-twin patients with ulcerative colitis, 18 non-twin patients with Crohn's disease, and 52 healthy controls matched for sex and age. In ulcerative colitis P-ANCA occurred in nine of 14 (64.3%) monozygotic twins and in 13 of 21 (61.9%) non-twin cases, which was significantly different compared with healthy controls who were positive in three of 52 (5.8%) cases (p < 0.0001). P-ANCA was found in two of 10 (20%) healthy twin siblings to twins with ulcerative colitis, which was not significantly different from healthy controls (p = 0.18). The results in Crohn's disease did not differ from healthy controls. Previous findings of P-ANCA occurring in ulcerative colitis but not in Crohn's disease are supported. This study does not support the hypothesis that P-ANCA is a subclinical marker of genetic susceptibility to ulcerative colitis. PMID:7615278

  19. Natural gene therapy in monozygotic twins with Fanconi anemia

    PubMed Central

    Mankad, Anuj; Taniguchi, Toshiyasu; Cox, Barbara; Akkari, Yassmine; Rathbun, R. Keaney; Lucas, Lora; Bagby, Grover; Olson, Susan; D'Andrea, Alan; Grompe, Markus

    2006-01-01

    Monozygotic twin sisters, with nonhematologic symptoms of Fanconi anemia (FA), were discovered to be somatic mosaics for mutations in the FANCA gene. Skin fibroblasts, but not lymphocytes or committed hematopoietic progenitors, were sensitive to DNA cross-linking agents. Molecular analysis revealed, in skin cells of both twins, a frameshift causing deletion in exon 27 (2555?T) and an exon 28 missense mutation (2670G>A/R880Q). The latter resulted in primarily cytoplasmic expression and reduced function of the mutant FANCA (R880Q) protein. Surprisingly, the same acquired exon 30 missense change (2927G>A/E966K) was detected in the hematopoietic cells of both sisters, but not in their fibroblasts, nor in either parent. This compensatory mutation existed in cis with the maternal exon 28 mutation, and it restored function and nuclear localization of the resulting protein. Both sisters have been free of hematologic symptoms for more than 2 decades, suggesting that this de novo mutation occurred prenatally in a single hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) in one twin and that descendants of this functionally corrected HSC, via intra-uterine circulation, repopulated the blood lineages of both sisters. This finding suggests that treating FA patients with gene therapy might require transduction of only a few hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:16397136

  20. Family Adaptation and Coping among Siblings of Cancer Patients, Their Brothers and Sisters, and Nonclinical Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan-Swain, Avi; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined coping and family adaptation in siblings (n=32) of cancer patients, their ill brothers and sisters (n=19), and control group of nonclinical children (n=10) with healthy siblings. Gender and age of sibling, birth order, and number of siblings were examined. Found better adaptation in larger families and decreased family involvement among…

  1. The twin paradox revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dray, Tevian

    1990-09-01

    The twin paradox of special relativity results from failing to recognize the fundamental asymmetry between the two twins: One and only one twin changes direction and thus undergoes acceleration. What happens if the universe is closed, so that the twin in the rocket can return to Earth without changing direction? The twin paradox is reformulated in a closed universe (a cylinder) and then resolved by showing that there is still a (much more subtle!) asymmetry between the two twins.

  2. Twin Peaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after its deployment on Sol 3. Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  3. SCE (SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGES) ANALYSIS IN LYMPHOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Expectations are high that sister chromatid exchange analyses in lymphocytes removed from individuals in various occupational settings may serve as monitors of preventable hazardous chemical exposures in much the same way that chromosome aberration analyses have been useful for d...

  4. All in the Family: The Sister Study

    MedlinePLUS

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues All in the Family: The Sister Study Past Issues / ... that may ultimately eliminate this dreaded disease. We all know that breast cancer does not discriminate. Whether ...

  5. Goddard Welcomes SISTER - Duration: 90 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., hosted a weeklong summer institute, SISTER, for the purpose of increasing the awareness of and providing opportunities for middle school girls to ...

  6. When Your Brother or Sister Has Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Tips on what to say to your friends, how to deal with stress, and where to find support – as well as information about cancer and cancer treatments, for young people who have a brother or sister with cancer.

  7. Eruptive history of South Sister, Oregon Cascades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fierstein, J.; Hildreth, W.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    South Sister is southernmost and highest of the Three Sisters, three geologically dissimilar stratovolcanoes that together form a spectacular 20km reach along the Cascade crest in Oregon. North Sister is a monotonously mafic edifice as old as middle Pleistocene, Middle Sister a basalt-andesite-dacite cone built between 48 and 14ka, and South Sister is a basalt-free edifice that alternated rhyolitic and intermediate modes from 50ka to 2ka (largely contemporaneous with Middle Sister). Detailed mapping, 330 chemical analyses, and 42 radioisotopic ages show that the oldest exposed South Sister lavas were initially rhyolitic ~50ka. By ~37ka, rhyolitic lava flows and domes (72-74% SiO2) began alternating with radially emplaced dacite (63-68% SiO2) and andesite (59-63% SiO2) lava flows. Construction of a broad cone of silicic andesite-dacite (61-64% SiO2) culminated ~30ka in a dominantly explosive sequence that began with crater-forming andesitic eruptions that left fragmental deposits at least 200m thick. This was followed at ~27ka by growth of a steeply dipping summit cone of agglutinate-dominated andesite (56-60.5% SiO2) and formation of a summit crater ~800m wide. This crater was soon filled and overtopped by a thick dacite lava flow and then by >150m of dacitic pyroclastic ejecta. Small-volume dacite lavas (63-67% SiO2) locally cap the pyroclastic pile. A final sheet of mafic agglutinate (54-56% SiO2) - the most mafic product of South Sister - erupted from and drapes the small (300-m-wide) present-day summit crater, ending a summit-building sequence that lasted until ~22ka. A 20kyr-long-hiatus was broken by rhyolite eruptions that produced (1) the Rock Mesa coulee, tephra, and satellite domelets (73.5% SiO2) and (2) the Devils Chain of ~20 domes and short coulees (72.3-72.8% SiO2) from N-S vent alignments on South Sister's flanks. The compositional reversal from mafic summit agglutinate to recent rhyolites epitomizes the frequently changing compositional modes of the South Sister locus throughout its lifetime. South Sister is part of a reach of the Cascades unusually active in the last 50kyr, characterized by high vent density, N-S vent alignments, and numerous eruptive units of true rhyolite (≥ 72% SiO2) that distinguishes it from much of the Quaternary Cascade arc; these are eruptive expressions of the complex confluence of arc and intraplate magmatic-tectonic regimes.

  8. Monozygotic twins discordant for constitutive BRCA1 promoter methylation, childhood cancer and secondary cancer

    PubMed Central

    Galetzka, Danuta; Hansmann, Tamara; El Hajj, Nady; Weis, Eva; Irmscher, Benjamin; Ludwig, Marco; Schneider-Rtzke, Brigitte; Kohlschmidt, Nicolai; Beyer, Vera; Bartsch, Oliver; Zechner, Ulrich; Spix, Claudia; Haaf, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We describe monozygotic twins discordant for childhood leukemia and secondary thyroid carcinoma. We used bisulfite pyrosequencing to compare the constitutive promoter methylation of BRCA1 and several other tumor suppressor genes in primary fibroblasts. The affected twin displayed an increased BRCA1 methylation (12%), compared with her sister (3%). Subsequent bisulfite plasmid sequencing demonstrated that 13% (6 of 47) BRCA1 alleles were fully methylated in the affected twin, whereas her sister displayed only single CpG errors without functional implications. This between-twin methylation difference was also found in irradiated fibroblasts and untreated saliva cells. The BRCA1 epimutation may have originated by an early somatic event in the affected twin: approximately 25% of her body cells derived from different embryonic cell lineages carry one epigenetically inactivated BRCA1 allele. This epimutation was associated with reduced basal protein levels and a higher induction of BRCA1 after DNA damage. In addition, we performed a genome-wide microarray analysis of both sisters and found several copy number variations, i.e., heterozygous deletion and reduced expression of the RSPO3 gene in the affected twin. This monozygotic twin pair represents an impressive example of epigenetic somatic mosaicism, suggesting a role for constitutive epimutations, maybe along with de novo genetic alterations in recurrent tumor development. PMID:22207351

  9. Twin Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda; Bozak, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Many subsonic and supersonic vehicles in the current fleet have multiple engines mounted near one another. Some future vehicle concepts may use innovative propulsion systems such as distributed propulsion which will result in multiple jets mounted in close proximity. Engine configurations with multiple jets have the ability to exploit jet-by-jet shielding which may significantly reduce noise. Jet-by-jet shielding is the ability of one jet to shield noise that is emitted by another jet. The sensitivity of jet-by-jet shielding to jet spacing and simulated flight stream Mach number are not well understood. The current experiment investigates the impact of jet spacing, jet operating condition, and flight stream Mach number on the noise radiated from subsonic and supersonic twin jets.

  10. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski... to take place in the vicinity of the Sister Bay Marina. The Coast Guard anticipates a large number...

  11. Genital divergence in sympatric sister snails.

    PubMed

    Hollander, J; Smadja, C M; Butlin, R K; Reid, D G

    2013-01-01

    A pattern of greater divergence in mating traits between sister-species pairs with overlapping ranges than between allopatric species pairs is expected if reinforcement commonly contributes to speciation. Few large-scale comparative analyses have addressed this prediction, especially for genital form. Here, we show that penial morphology follows the predicted pattern in 40 robustly identified sister-species pairs in the marine gastropod subfamily Littorininae. Further work is needed to exclude other processes that may contribute to genital divergence between sympatric species, but the clear pattern we observe strongly suggests a role for genital form in reproductive isolation in this large clade. PMID:23163483

  12. A circular twin paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranor, Maria B.; Heider, Elizabeth M.; Price, Richard H.

    2000-11-01

    In the special relativistic twin paradox presented here, each twin lives on one ring of a counterrotating pair of infinitesimally separated rings, so that the twins travel on the same circular path but in opposite directions. The observers on the ring of one twin should see the clock of the other twin slowed by time dilation, but at each meeting of the twins symmetry demands that they agree on the amount of time that has passed since their previous meeting. The resolution of the paradox focuses attention on the relation of time dilation to clock synchronization.

  13. Both Twins Traveling Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2012-10-01

    Two twins T1 and T2 synchronize their clocks at the same location L, then both of them leave with the same uniform high speed v and on the same large distance d on opposite linear directions to the locations A and respectively B (of course LA = LB = d) on that planet. Each twin sees the other twin moving away from him with the relativistic speed 2v, so each twin considers the other twin younger than him. The time dilation is the same in both twins' inertial reference frames. Here it is a forth symmetry. They stop there at A and respectively at B. Afterwards, the twin T1 from A travels on a linear route back to B (passing through L) at a uniform high speed 2v. Again, each twin sees the other twin traveling towards him with a speed 2v. And again each twin considers the other twin being younger than him, since there is the same time dilation and same space contraction. Again one has a back symmetry. But, when the twin T1 from A gets to B, he finds out that he is younger than the twin T2 in B since he has traveled more that T2.

  14. SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGES IN MAMMALIAN MEIOTIC CHROMOSOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Very little is known about sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in meiotic cells--only that they occur (1) and reveal frequency and distribution patterns apparently unaffected by cross-over (CO) exchange conditions in those cells; (2) unfortunately, the number of studies from which ...

  15. Supersymmetry with a sister Higgs boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Daniele S. M.; Fox, Patrick J.; Weiner, Neal

    2015-03-01

    We consider a simple addition to the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) of a "sister Higgs" (Σd), a Higgs field that participates in electroweak symmetry breaking but does not give any direct masses to Standard Model matter fields. If this new field carries charge under a new gauge group, Gs, the Higgs mass is naturally much larger than in the MSSM due to a next-to-minimal supersymmetric Standard Model-type interaction, but with Σd playing the role of Hd. The addition of the sister Higgs allows new R -parity violating operators ΣdHdE , which are less constrained than a conventional leptonic R -parity violation. Unification motivates the presence of colored Gs-charged fields, whose production can lead to new b -rich final states and modifications to decays of gluinos, as well as new opportunities for R -parity violation. The presence of additional sister charges allows the possibilities that a lightest sister-charged particle (LSiP) could be stable, although we find the possibility of a LSiP dark matter candidate is generally very constrained.

  16. Preparing for Twins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... identical or fraternal, all twins have their individual personalities, styles, and temperament. Both identical and fraternal twins ... Source Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5 (Copyright © 2009 American Academy of ...

  17. Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia: a case report of pediatric twins undergoing matched unrelated bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rao, Amulya A N; Gourde, Julia A; Marri, Preethi; Galardy, Paul J; Khan, Shakila P; Rodriguez, Vilmarie

    2015-05-01

    Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (CAMT) is a rare inherited disorder that presents with thrombocytopenia in infancy and evolves into bone marrow failure over time. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant remains the only curative treatment option. We report our experience with identical twin sisters diagnosed with CAMT and treated successfully with matched unrelated donor bone marrow transplants. Before the transplant, 1 twin developed pancytopenia, whereas the other had a relatively benign clinical course. Choice of conditioning regimens was based on their pretransplant bone marrow cellularity and presence or absence of panyhypoplasia. Both twins tolerated the procedure well with no significant complications. PMID:25171451

  18. Deformation twins in Hornblende

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rooney, T.P.; Riecker, R.E.; Ross, M.

    1970-01-01

    Hornblende deformation twins with twin planes parallel to (101) are produced experimentally in single crystals by compression parallel to the c axis. Twinning occurs at confining pressures from 5 to 15 kilobars and temperatures from 400?? to 600??C (strain rate, 10-5 per second).

  19. Naturally-occurring anti-Jka in infant twins.

    PubMed

    Rumsey, D H; Nance, S J; Rubino, M; Sandler, S G

    1999-01-01

    Anti-Jka was detected by solid-phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) antibody detection and identification tests in the plasma of a 9-month-old female infant during a routine presurgical evaluation. The patient and her nonidentical twin sister, who also had anti-Jka in her plasma, were products of an uncomplicated in vitro fertilization, full-term pregnancy, and vaginal delivery. Neither twin had been transfused, recently infected, or treated with medication. Their mother had no prior pregnancies or transfusions. Red blood cells (RBCs) from the patient and her sister typed as Jk(a-b+) by direct hemagglutination, and this phenotype was confirmed by negative adsorption and elution studies. Both infants' plasma samples were strongly reactive with 20 examples of Jk(a+) RBCs and nonreactive with 20 examples of Jk(a-) RBCs by SPRCA assays. Anti-Jka was not detected in either twins' plasma by indirect antiglobulin tests by tube method in low-ionic- strength saline solution or polyethylene glycol, or with ficin- or papain-treated RBCs. Monocyte monolayer assays using Jk(a+) RBCs sensitized by either twins' serum were nonreactive (0%). RBCs from both parents typed as Jk(a+b+). Both parents' antibody detection test results by SPRCA assay were negative. The absence of a history of exposure to allogeneic RBCs or possible passive transfer of maternal or other alloantibody classifies these antibodies as naturally-occurring anti-Jka. PMID:15373637

  20. Crocodile Talk: Attributions of Incestuously Abused and Nonabused Sisters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzed the retrospective attributions of adult sisters (five abused sister dyads, and five abused and nonabused sister dyads) who grew up in incestuous families. It examined the attributions of subjects regarding the general sibling group; victim selection and nonselection; and attributions regarding jealousy, protection,…

  1. Relative birthweights of twins.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E A; Sachtleben, M R; Friedman, L M

    1977-06-01

    In a series of 182 twin gestations second-born twins were more often heavier than first-born twins (55%), but overall they weighed less by an average of 21 g. This paradox was shown to be due to the skewed distribution of weight differences favoring the first-born twin, most apparent among pairs in which one or both weighed at least 3000 g. The larger the difference between birthweights, the greater the likelihood that the heavier twin would be delivered first. PMID:865737

  2. 77 FR 13585 - Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting..., 2012. d. Applicant: Three Sisters Irrigation District. e. Name of Project: Three Sisters Irrigation District Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The proposed Three Sisters Irrigation District...

  3. Merohedral twins revisited: quinary twins and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Quiquandon, Marianne; Gratias, Denis; Sirindil, Abdullah; Portier, Richard

    2016-01-01

    A twin is defined as being an external operation between two identical crystals that share a fraction of the atomic structure with no discontinuity from one crystal to the other. This includes merohedral twins, twins by reticular merohedry as well as coherent twins by contact where only the habit plane is shared by the two adjacent crystals (epitaxy). Interesting and original cases appear when the invariant substructure is built with positions belonging to the same -module as, for example, the quinary twin structure first drawn by Albrecht Dürer [(1525 ▸). The Painter’s Manual: a Manual of Measurement of Lines, Areas and Solids by Means of Compass and Ruler. Facsimile Edition (1977), translated with commentary by W. L. Strauss. New York: Abaris Books]. This paper will show that the Dürer twins, once defined in five-dimensional space, are simple merohedral twins, in the sense of Georges Friedel, leaving the five-dimensional lattice invariant. This analysis will be generalized to some other higher-order -modules. PMID:26697867

  4. Merohedral twins revisited: quinary twins and beyond.

    PubMed

    Quiquandon, Marianne; Gratias, Denis; Sirindil, Abdullah; Portier, Richard

    2016-01-01

    A twin is defined as being an external operation between two identical crystals that share a fraction of the atomic structure with no discontinuity from one crystal to the other. This includes merohedral twins, twins by reticular merohedry as well as coherent twins by contact where only the habit plane is shared by the two adjacent crystals (epitaxy). Interesting and original cases appear when the invariant substructure is built with positions belonging to the same {\\bb Z}-module as, for example, the quinary twin structure first drawn by Albrecht Drer [(1525). The Painter's Manual: a Manual of Measurement of Lines, Areas and Solids by Means of Compass and Ruler. Facsimile Edition (1977), translated with commentary by W. L. Strauss. New York: Abaris Books]. This paper will show that the Drer twins, once defined in five-dimensional space, are simple merohedral twins, in the sense of Georges Friedel, leaving the five-dimensional lattice invariant. This analysis will be generalized to some other higher-order {\\bb Z}-modules. PMID:26697867

  5. Asymmetric twin Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, Marco

    2015-11-09

    We study a natural implementation of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Twin Higgs models. The mirroring of the Standard Model strong sector suggests that a twin baryon with mass around 5 GeV is a natural Dark Matter candidate once a twin baryon number asymmetry comparable to the SM asymmetry is generated. We explore twin baryon Dark Matter in two different scenarios, one with minimal content in the twin sector and one with a complete copy of the SM, including a light twin photon. The essential requirements for successful thermal history are presented, and in doing so we address some of the cosmological issues common to many Twin Higgs models. The required interactions we introduce predict signatures at direct detection experiments and at the LHC.

  6. Asymmetric twin Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, Marco

    2015-11-01

    We study a natural implementation of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Twin Higgs models. The mirroring of the Standard Model strong sector suggests that a twin baryon with mass around 5 GeV is a natural Dark Matter candidate once a twin baryon number asymmetry comparable to the SM asymmetry is generated. We explore twin baryon Dark Matter in two different scenarios, one with minimal content in the twin sector and one with a complete copy of the SM, including a light twin photon. The essential requirements for successful thermal history are presented, and in doing so we address some of the cosmological issues common to many Twin Higgs models. The required interactions we introduce predict signatures at direct detection experiments and at the LHC.

  7. Partial dystrophin deficiency in monozygous twin carriers of the Duchenne gene discordant for clinical myopathy.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, E; Younger, D S; Chang, H W; Tantravahi, U; Miranda, A F; Medori, R; DiMauro, S; Warburton, D; Rowland, L P

    1990-08-01

    We studied monozygous twin women, age 63. One, asymptomatic, had a serum creatine kinase (CK) level of 191 units (normal, 1 to 50); her son died of typical Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) at age 18. Her twin sister had symptomatic limb weakness from about age 40. Her serum CK was 495 units. EMG and muscle biopsy were compatible with myopathy. In the asymptomatic twin, the peripheral blood lymphocyte karyotype was 46,XX. In the affected twin, 18% of cells were 45,X, and the others 46,XX, without X/autosome translocation. DNA analysis did not reveal a deletion at the DMD locus. Immunologic studies of dystrophin showed a partial deficiency of the protein that was more severe in the symptomatic twin. The clinical discordance and the different severity of dystrophin deficiency may have resulted from the effects of lyonization. PMID:2199849

  8. Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to Nephrozoa.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Johanna Taylor; Vellutini, Bruno Cossermelli; Smith, Julian; Ronquist, Fredrik; Jondelius, Ulf; Hejnol, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    The position of Xenacoelomorpha in the tree of life remains a major unresolved question in the study of deep animal relationships. Xenacoelomorpha, comprising Acoela, Nemertodermatida, and Xenoturbella, are bilaterally symmetrical marine worms that lack several features common to most other bilaterians, for example an anus, nephridia, and a circulatory system. Two conflicting hypotheses are under debate: Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to all remaining Bilateria (=?Nephrozoa, namely protostomes and deuterostomes) or is a clade inside Deuterostomia. Thus, determining the phylogenetic position of this clade is pivotal for understanding the early evolution of bilaterian features, or as a case of drastic secondary loss of complexity. Here we show robust phylogenomic support for Xenacoelomorpha as the sister taxon of Nephrozoa. Our phylogenetic analyses, based on 11 novel xenacoelomorph transcriptomes and using different models of evolution under maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, strongly corroborate this result. Rigorous testing of 25 experimental data sets designed to exclude data partitions and taxa potentially prone to reconstruction biases indicates that long-branch attraction, saturation, and missing data do not influence these results. The sister group relationship between Nephrozoa and Xenacoelomorpha supported by our phylogenomic analyses implies that the last common ancestor of bilaterians was probably a benthic, ciliated acoelomate worm with a single opening into an epithelial gut, and that excretory organs, coelomic cavities, and nerve cords evolved after xenacoelomorphs separated from the stem lineage of Nephrozoa. PMID:26842059

  9. Genomics of ageing in twins.

    PubMed

    Mangino, Massimo

    2014-11-01

    Ageing is a complex multifactorial process, reflecting the progression of all degenerative pathways within an organism. Due to the increase of life expectancy, in recent years, there is a pressing need to identify early-life events and risk factors that determine health outcomes in later life. So far, genetic variation only explains ~20-25 % of the variability of human survival to age 80+. This clearly implies that other factors (environmental, epigenetic and lifestyle) contribute to lifespan and the rate of healthy ageing within an individual. Twin studies in the past two decades proved to be a very powerful tool to discriminate the genetic from the environmental component. The aim of this review is to describe the basic concepts of the twin study design and to report some of the latest studies in which high-throughput technologies (e.g. genome/epigenome-wide assay, next generation sequencing, MS metabolic profiling) combined with the classical twin design have been applied to the analysis of novel 'omics' to further understand the molecular mechanisms of human ageing. PMID:24984159

  10. 149. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    149. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER DAM; CLOSE-UP OF MAIN CANAL GATES, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  11. 99. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET SIDE OF GATES, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  12. 137. TWIN FALLS SOUTH SIDE MAIN CANAL DIVERSION HEADGATES, TWIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    137. TWIN FALLS SOUTH SIDE MAIN CANAL DIVERSION HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF MAIN HEADGATES, DAM IN BACKGROUND. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  13. 98. SHOESTRING, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. SHOESTRING, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; PROFILE VIEW, SOUTH. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  14. 141. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    141. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF MAIN HEADGATES, RADIAL GATES INSIDE, SOUTHEAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  15. 97. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; OVERALL WEST VIEW FROM CANAL SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  16. 147. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    147. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; VIEW OF MAIN HEADGATES, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  17. 148. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    148. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER DAM; HEADGATES AT INLET, SOUTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  18. Effect of borax on immune cell proliferation and sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Pongsavee, Malinee

    2009-01-01

    Background Borax is used as a food additive. It becomes toxic when accumulated in the body. It causes vomiting, fatigue and renal failure. Methods The heparinized blood samples from 40 healthy men were studied for the impact of borax toxicity on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) and sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. The MTT assay and Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) technic were used in this experiment with the borax concentrations of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml. Results It showed that the immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) was decreased when the concentrations of borax increased. The borax concentration of 0.6 mg/ml had the most effectiveness to the lymphocyte proliferation and had the highest cytotoxicity index (CI). The borax concentrations of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml significantly induced sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes (P < 0.05). Conclusion Borax had effects on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) and induced sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. Toxicity of borax may lead to cellular toxicity and genetic defect in human. PMID:19878537

  19. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... multiples that share a single placenta containing blood vessels going from one baby to the other. Blood ... transferred to the larger "recipient" twin through interconnecting vessels causing an unequal exchange of blood. The recipient ...

  20. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  1. Separation of Craniopagus Twins.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Reuben; Weir, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Separation of craniopagus twins is fraught by ethical issues. The surgery is high risk and may involve the sacrifice of one twin. We review surgical successes in separation of craniopagus twins and consider ethical and legal concepts affecting the decision to undertake such procedures. Our discussion considers how Gillett's potentiality principle and the concept of moral permissibility may be used to arrive at fair and realistic decisions. PMID:26788945

  2. Childbirth, hospitalisation and sickness absence: a study of female twins

    PubMed Central

    Bjrkenstam, Emma; Alexanderson, Kristina; Narusyte, Jurgita; Kjeldgrd, Linnea; Ropponen, Annina; Svedberg, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations of giving birth with morbidity in terms of hospitalisation and social consequences of morbidity in terms of sickness absence (SA), while taking familial (genetics and shared environmental) factors into account. Design Prospective register-based cohort study. Estimates of risk of hospitalisation and SA were calculated as HRs with 95% CIs. Setting All female twins, that is, women with a twin sister, born in Sweden. Participants 5118 Swedish female twins (women with a twin sister), born during 19591990, where at least one in the twin pair had their first childbirth (T0) during 19942009 and none gave birth before 1994. Main outcome measures Hospitalisation and SA during year 35 after first delivery or equivalent. Results Preceding the first childbirth, the mean annual number of SA days increased for mothers, and then decreased again. Hospitalisation after T0 was associated with higher HRs of short-term and long-term SA (HR for short-term SA 3.0; 95% CI 2.5 to 3.6 and for long-term SA 2.3; 95% CI 1.6 to 3.2). Hospitalisation both before and after first childbirth was associated with a higher risk of future SA (HR for long-term SA 4.2; 95% CI 2.7 to 6.4). Familial factors influenced the association between hospitalisation and long-term SA, regardless of childbirth status. Conclusions Women giving birth did not have a higher risk for SA than those not giving birth and results indicate a positive health selection into giving birth. Mothers hospitalised before and/or after giving birth had higher risks for future SA, that is, there was a strong association between morbidity and future SA. PMID:25573523

  3. Sister Mary Emil Penet, I.H.M.: Founder of the Sister Formation Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisky, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Mary Emil Penet, I.H.M., (1916-2001) used her talents and charisma to shape the first national organization of American women religious, the Sister Formation Conference (SFC; 1954-1964), facilitating the integrated intellectual, spiritual, psychological, and professional development of vowed women religious. In the decade preceding Vatican II, her

  4. First report on concordant monozygotic twins with Silver-Russell syndrome and ICR1 hypomethylation.

    PubMed

    Rie, Angelika; Binder, Gerhard; Ziegler, Julian; Begemann, Matthias; Soellner, Lukas; Eggermann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Twin pairs with the imprinting disorder Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) have rarely been reported. All six monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs described so far were clinically discordant. In two of the four SRS twin pairs with molecularly proven 11p15.5 epimutation, the healthy twin also showed the molecular alteration in blood cells, but not in the other tested tissues. The clinical discordance is a well-known but poorly understood observation because MZ twins derive from the same zygote. For the second 11p15.5-associated imprinting disorder, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, a larger number of twins has been described, here the majority of pairs are MZ but clinically discordant as well. Interestingly, there is a considerable preponderance of females among the MZ twins with BWS, and a functional link between altered imprinting and X chromosome inactivation has been suggested. We now describe two further MZ SRS twins with H19/IGF2:IG-DMR hypomethylation, including the first clinically concordant pair. By summarizing the existing data, an excess of females in MZ twins with SRS is observed, thus confirming the hypothesis that X-chromosome inactivation might trigger the inaccurate methylation of imprinted loci at least in female twin conceptions. The occurrence of a MZ concordant SRS twin pair is exceptional. The detailed molecular characterization of both siblings of a twin pair enables a reliable diagnosis, furthermore it allows insights in the etiology of twinning in association with (aberrant) imprinting marking. PMID:26691664

  5. Rotational Twin Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2012-10-01

    Two twins settle on a massive spherical planet at a train station S. Let's consider that each twin has an accompanying clock, and the two clocks are synchronized. One twin T1 remains in the train station, while the other twin T2 travels at a uniform high speed with the train around the planet (on the big circle of the planet) until he gets back to the same train station S. Assume the planet is not rotating. Since the planet is massive, we can consider that on a very small part on its surface the train rail road is linear, so the train is in a linear uniform motion. The larger is the planet's radius the more the rail road approaches a linear trajectory. Because the GPS clocks are alleged to be built on the Theory of Relativity, one can consider the twin T2 train's circular trajectory alike the satellite's orbit. In addition, the gravitation is the same for the reference frames of T1 and T2. Each twin sees the other twin as traveling, therefore each twin finds the other one has aged slower than him. Thus herein we have a relativistic symmetry. When T2 returns to train station S, he finds out that he is younger than T1 (therefore asymmetry). Thus, one gets a contradiction between symmetry and asymmetry.

  6. Guidelines on Library Twinning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Robert P., Comp.; Scarry, Patricia, Comp.

    This document serves as an overview of the many forms of library twinning, or formal exchanges of materials and/or staff between two institutions. Twinning can be reciprocal, but often involves a one-way arrangement whereby a library in a developing country receives a visit from a librarian of a developed country. Either way, both institutions can

  7. Crocodile talk: attributions of incestuously abused and nonabused sisters.

    PubMed

    Monahan, K

    1997-01-01

    This study is a qualitative analysis of the attributions of sisters (abused and nonabused sister dyads, n = 10 and abused sister dyads, n = 10) who grew up in an incestuous family. While the sibling subsystem is reported to be the most important and enduring relational environment in the life of the family, little is known about the cognitions and attributions of siblings, regarding incest. This study examines the attributions of participants regarding the general sibling group, victim selection and nonselection, as well as attributions regarding jealousy, protection, and guilt within the sister relationship. PMID:9023020

  8. Twins and endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    Hari Kumar, K. V. S.; Modi, K. D.

    2014-01-01

    Twins are two independent babies delivered during the same pregnancy and are divided as monozygotic or dizygotic based on their origin. Dizygotic twins are similar to two siblings and have different genetic information. In contrary, monozygotic twins have a similar genetic identity and provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors of the disease. The endocrine and metabolic disorders affect a large number of the population including the twins. Diabetes, obesity, and autoimmune thyroid disease are the most common endocrine disorders in general practice. It is essential to understand the genetic basis of endocrine disorders for therapy, prognostication and risk assessment for future generations. In this article, we review the endocrine disorders in relation to their occurrence in monozygotic twins to highlight the genetic and environmental contribution. PMID:25538877

  9. EarthLabs Meet Sister Corita Kent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartini, E.; Ellins, K. K.; Cavitte, M. G.; Thirumalai, K.; Ledley, T. S.; Haddad, N.; Lynds, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthLabs project provides a framework to enhance high school students' climate literacy and awareness of climate change. The project provides climate science curriculum and teacher professional development, followed by research on students' learning as teachers implement EarthLabs climate modules in the classroom. The professional development targets high school teachers whose professional growth is structured around exposure to current climate science research, data observation collection and analysis. During summer workshops in Texas and Mississippi, teachers work through the laboratories, experiments, and hand-on activities developed for their students. In summer 2013, three graduate students from the University of Texas at Austin Institute for Geophysics with expertise in climate science participated in two weeklong workshops. The graduate students partnered with exemplary teacher leaders to provide scientific content and lead the EarthLabs learning activities. As an experiment, we integrated a visit to the Blanton Museum and an associated activity in order to motivate participants to think creatively, as well as analytically, about science. This exercise was inspired by the work and educational philosophy of Sister Corita Kent. During the visit to the Blanton Museum, we steered participants towards specific works of art pre-selected to emphasize aspects of the climate of Texas and to draw participants' attention to ways in which artists convey different concepts. For example, artists use of color, lines, and symbols conjure emotional responses to imagery in the viewer. The second part of the exercise asked participants to choose a climate message and to convey this through a collage. We encouraged participants to combine their experience at the museum with examples of Sister Corita Kent's artwork. We gave them simple guidelines for the project based on techniques and teaching of Sister Corita Kent. Evaluation results reveal that participants enjoyed the activity and saw its value for enhancing their own appreciation of climate science. However, participants expressed skepticism about using the exercise with their own students. Teachers' perception was that students would not make the same connections that they did. From our perspective and participants' enthusiasm we encourage collaboration between art and science teachers in joint activities that emphasize the link between art and science.

  10. Insights on Solar Twins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa Duarte, Tharcisyo Sa e.; Soares da Costa, Jefferson; Dias do Nascimento Jnior, Jos

    2015-08-01

    The question about how to define a real solar twin are still active. Cayrel de Strobe et al. (1981) defined a solar twin like a star having at the same time the physical parameters, Teff, gravity, bolometric magnitude, microturbulent velocity, and chemical composition. We presented the more extensive sample of solar twins known to date. From these targets we will study the behavior of the solar twins as a function of fundamentals stellar parameters, effective temperature, luminosity, age, convective envelope mass deepening (1 - M*/M?), lithium abundance and rotation period. We selected the solar twins from observations with the spectropolarimeters ESPaDOnS at CFHT and the Narval at TBL and also on literature. All objects have high resolution and high signal to noise. Analyze this sample of solar twins will help us to understand how these stars whether located around of the Sun's place. Our preliminary results show that the lithium abundance presents one clear correlation with stellar age. The (1 - M*/M?) values obtained through our method provided good agreement with the solar value. The rotation periods allow us to assess the solar twins as a function of gyrochronology.

  11. Healthy Mouth, Healthy Body

    MedlinePLUS

    ... DENTAL PATIENT ... Healthy mouth, healthy body T he mouth is a window into the health of the body. It can show signs of nutri- tional deficiencies or general infection. For example, systemic diseases—those that affect the entire body, such ...

  12. An Investigation of Exceptional Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crismore, Avon

    The author, herself a mother of twins, reviews research on exceptional twins. She considers reasons for fascination with twins and comments upon important advances in technology. Current research in Indianapolis to measure cognitive, perceptual, personality, and chromosome patterns of twins is described. Differences in the makeup of identical and

  13. Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahieu-Caputo, Dominique; Dommergues, Marc; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Lacoste, Mireille; Cai, Yi; Narcy, Franoise; Jolly, Dominique; Gonzales, Marie; Dumez, Yves; Gubler, Marie-Claire

    2000-01-01

    The twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTS) results from an unbalanced blood supply through placental anastomoses in monochorionic twins. It induces growth restriction, renal tubular dysgenesis, and oliguria in the donor and visceromegaly and polyuria in the recipient. A better understanding of its pathophysiology could contribute to improving the management of TTS, which still carries a high perinatal mortality in both twins. As well as several other candidates, the renin-angiotensin system might be involved in TTS. To evaluate its role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome, we studied the kidneys of 21 twin pairs who died from TTS at 19 to 30 weeks, compared with 39 individuals in a control group, using light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. The overexpression of the renin protein and transcript with frequent evidence of renin synthesis by mesangial cells was observed in the donor kidneys, presumably as a consequence of chronic renal hypoperfusion. This upregulation of renin synthesis might be beneficial to restore euvolemia. In severe cases of TTS, however, angiotensin-II-induced vasoconstriction acts as an additional deleterious factor by further reducing the renal blood flow in donors. In recipients, renin expression was virtually absent, possibly because it was down-regulated by hypervolemia. However, in addition to congestion and hemorrhagic infarction, there were severe glomerular and arterial lesions resembling those observed in polycythemia- or hypertension-induced microangiopathy. We speculate that fetal hypertension in the recipient might be partly mediated by the transfer of circulating renin produced by the donor, through the placental vascular shunts. PMID:10666392

  14. Wisconsin Twin Panel.

    PubMed

    Van Hulle, Carol A; Lemery, Kathryn S; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2002-10-01

    The Wisconsin Twin Panel was initiated in 1994 to serve a study of the development of childhood mood and behavioral disorders. Families who give birth to twins within the state of Wisconsin are recruited within 6 months of the birth. The panel currently supports three ongoing, longitudinal research projects. Research foci include studying epigenetic contributions to emotional, physical, cognitive, and motoric development of infant and toddler twins; physiological concomitants of childhood temperament; and early risk and resiliency factors related to child psychopathology. All three studies include videotaped observational assessments and biological measures. PMID:12537886

  15. 46 CFR 169.307 - Plans for sister vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plans for sister vessels. 169.307 Section 169.307 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Plans 169.307 Plans for sister vessels. Plans are not required for any...

  16. 46 CFR 169.307 - Plans for sister vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plans for sister vessels. 169.307 Section 169.307 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Plans 169.307 Plans for sister vessels. Plans are not required for any...

  17. 46 CFR 169.307 - Plans for sister vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plans for sister vessels. 169.307 Section 169.307 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Plans 169.307 Plans for sister vessels. Plans are not required for any...

  18. 46 CFR 169.307 - Plans for sister vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plans for sister vessels. 169.307 Section 169.307 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Plans 169.307 Plans for sister vessels. Plans are not required for any...

  19. 46 CFR 169.307 - Plans for sister vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plans for sister vessels. 169.307 Section 169.307 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Plans 169.307 Plans for sister vessels. Plans are not required for any...

  20. Mentoring At-Risk Adolescent Girls: Listening to "Little Sisters"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Nancy L.; Quarles, Alice; Lacey, Candace H.; Thompson, Steve D.

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop an understanding of mentoring relationships and the impact these relationships might have on the development of high-risk adolescent girls, this qualitative study explored the relationships between six "Little Sisters" and their "Big Sister" mentors. The purposefully-selected sample includes women and girls who were actively

  1. 46 CFR 177.210 - Plans for sister vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plans for sister vessels. 177.210 Section 177.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Plans 177.210 Plans for sister vessels. (a) Plans are not...

  2. 46 CFR 116.210 - Plans for sister vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plans for sister vessels. 116.210 Section 116.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... ARRANGEMENT Plans 116.210 Plans for sister vessels. (a) Plans are not required for a vessel that is a...

  3. 46 CFR 116.210 - Plans for sister vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plans for sister vessels. 116.210 Section 116.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... ARRANGEMENT Plans 116.210 Plans for sister vessels. (a) Plans are not required for a vessel that is a...

  4. 46 CFR 177.210 - Plans for sister vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plans for sister vessels. 177.210 Section 177.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Plans 177.210 Plans for sister vessels. (a) Plans are not...

  5. Andromeda and the Milky Way: Twin sisters, distant relations, or strangers in the night?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnachie, A.; Richardson, J.; Mackey, D.

    2012-02-01

    I summarize some recent key results from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS), in particular showing how recent discoveries in and around M31 compare to the known structure of the Milky Way and its satellite population.

  6. Healthy Eyes, Healthy Body

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What Else Should I Eat? Lutein, zeaxanthin and omega‐3 fatty acids have all been proven to be ... like corn, broccoli, collard greens, asparagus and spinach. • Omega‐3 fatty acids: For a body to be healthy ...

  7. Intravenous iron administration together with parenteral nutrition to very preterm Jehovah's Witness twins.

    PubMed

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva; Schroeder, Allan Mikael; Greisen, Gorm; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    Preterm twin sisters (monozygotic) were born at gestational age 27?weeks and 5?days with birth weights of 935 and 735?g. They were admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit for a period of 1?month. Their parents were Jehovah's Witnesses and refused blood transfusion for their preterm daughters. Subcutaneous erythropoietin and intravenous iron were given as a prophylactic to avoid anaemia. PMID:24891477

  8. Preadolescent development: case studies in twins.

    PubMed Central

    Frank, R. A.; Cohen, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The authors studied eight sets of healthy twins, ranging in physical maturity from prepubertal to late pubertal, and their parents, to assess psychological changes in early adolescence. A phase-specific psychosocial regression correlates with the biological onset of puberty. We present preliminary findings related to twinship, parental reactions, and longitudinal development, based on detailed case studies. Parents experienced increased conflict, detachment, and pride in response to their twins' psychosocial development at puberty. The more advanced child in a pair tended to lead in all spheres of adjustment-school success, heterosexual interest, peer friendships, and independent behavior. Although the more advanced child began to break away from his twin, in general the twin relationships remained close. Differences in personality traits and rate of psychosocial development within a twinship tended to remain consistent or to become accentuated. They were occasionally narrowed but rarely reversed from early childhood through early adolescence. Some of the differences were fostered by dissimilar patterns of identifying with the parents. PMID:7195631

  9. Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy

    MedlinePLUS

    Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  10. Gestational age in twins.

    PubMed Central

    James, W H

    1980-01-01

    Dubowitz et al. have offered a scoring system for estimating the gestational age of newborn babies. If the system is applied to twin pairs, the heavier twin is generally estimated to have a greater gestational age than the lighter one. Previously this has been interpreted as a flaw in the scoring system. However, it may well be that in some twin pairs the gestational ages are slightly different and that therefore, the heavier twin would be expected to have a greater gestational age. Such cases would arise through superfecundation (the formation of two zygotes from different coitions). Superfecundation can be proved only in rare case (those with two fathers). It can be argued that the rarity of such cases is accounted for by the rarity with which women expose themselves to the risk of bearing such twins (and by the improbability of detection), rather than by the rarity of superfecundation. It is inferred that superfecundation by the same man is relatively common and that therefore dizygotic twins quite often have different gestational ages. The scoring system of Dubowitz can be tested for bias by submitting monozygotic pairs to it: the association between weight and estimated gestational age should be absent in such pairs. If the system proves free of such bias, then a finding first reported here will assume some interest: it is that in opposite-sexed twin pairs, the male is significantly more often assessed as having the greater gestational age. It is suggested that this finding should be provisionally accepted as evidence for the hyopthesis that male zygotes are formed earlier than females. PMID:7191240

  11. Serial MR imaging and 1H-MR spectroscopy in monozygotic twins with Tay-Sachs disease.

    PubMed

    Imamura, A; Miyajima, H; Ito, R; Orii, K O

    2008-10-01

    Four-year-old monozygotic female twins with early onset Tay-Sachs disease are described. The sisters showed similar slowly progressive clinical symptoms and deterioration, however the younger sister also demonstrated intractable myoclonus in the right leg. The serial MR images and (1)H-MR spectroscopy of the brain were obtained in both twins. MR images showed high intensity on T (2)-weighted image in the bilateral white matter, however there were no signal changes in the basal ganglia and thalamus during any of the phases. The ratio of N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) was decreased in the both white matter lesions and the corpus striatum, and that of myoinositol (mI)/Cr was increased in the damaged white matter on MR spectroscopy. The elevation of the lactate peak was clearly demonstrated in the left basal ganglia of the younger sister; however it was not shown in cerebral lesions of the elder sister. Changes in metabolites on MR spectroscopy were closely linked to the respective clinical features of each twin. Follow-up examination by (1)H-MR spectroscopy is useful for the evaluation of neuronal changes in children with Tay-Sachs disease. PMID:19294598

  12. Creating Sister Cities: An Exchange Across Hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. T.; Cabezon, S. A.; Hardy, E.; Harrison, R. J.

    2008-06-01

    Sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), this project creates a cultural and educational exchange program between communities in South and North America, linking San Pedro de Atacama in Chile and Magdalena, New Mexico in the United States. Both communities have similar demographics, are in relatively undeveloped regions of high-elevation desert, and are located near major international radio astronomy research facilities. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is just 40 km east of San Pedro; the Very Large Array (VLA) is just 40 km west of Magdalena. In February 2007, the Mayor of San Pedro and two teachers visited Magdalena for two weeks; in July 2007 three teachers from Magdalena will visit San Pedro. These visits enable the communities to lay the foundation for a permanent, unique partnership. The teachers are sharing expertise and teaching methodologies for physics and astronomy. In addition to creating science education opportunities, this project offers students linguistic and cultural connections. The town of San Pedro, Chile, hosts nearly 100,000 tourists per year, and English language skills are highly valued by local students. Through exchanges enabled by email and distance conferencing, San Pedro and Magdalena students will improve English and Spanish language skills while teaching each other about science and their respective cultures. This poster describes the AUI/NRAO Sister Cities program, including the challenges of cross-cultural communication and the rewards of interpersonal exchanges between continents and cultures.

  13. Evolutionary trajectories of hyperdiploid ALL in monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Bateman, C M; Alpar, D; Ford, A M; Colman, S M; Wren, D; Morgan, M; Kearney, L; Greaves, M

    2015-01-01

    Identical twins have provided unique insights on timing or sequence of genetic events in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). To date, this has mainly focused on ALL with MLL or ETV6-RUNX1 fusions, with hyperdiploid ALL remaining less well characterised. We examined three pairs of monozygotic twins, two concordant and one discordant for hyperdiploid ALL, for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-defined copy number alterations (CNAs), IGH/L plus TCR gene rearrangements and mutations in NRAS, KRAS, FLT3 and PTPN11 genes. We performed whole exome sequencing in one concordant twin pair. Potential 'driver' CNAs were low, 0-3 per case, and all were different within a pair. One patient had an NRAS mutation that was lacking from leukaemic cells of the twin sibling. By exome sequencing, there were 12 nonsynonymous mutations found in one twin and 5 in the other, one of which in SCL44A2 was shared or identical. Concordant pairs had some identical IGH/L and TCR rearrangements. In the twin pair with discordant hyperdiploid ALL, the healthy co-twin had persistent low level hyperdiploid CD19+ cells that lacked a CNA present in the ALL cells of her sibling. From these data, we propose that hyperdiploid ALL arises in a pre-B cell in utero and mutational changes necessary for clinical ALL accumulate subclonally and postnatally. PMID:24897505

  14. Horsetails are the sister group to all other monilophytes and Marattiales are sister to leptosporangiate ferns.

    PubMed

    Knie, Nils; Fischer, Simon; Grewe, Felix; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Knoop, Volker

    2015-09-01

    The "Monilophyte" clade comprising ferns, horsetails and whisk ferns receives unequivocal support from molecular data as the sister clade to seed plants. However, the branching order of its earliest emerging lineages, the Equisetales (horsetails), the Marattiales, the Ophioglossales/Psilotales and the large group of leptosporangiate ferns has remained dubious. We investigated the mitochondrial nad2 and rpl2 genes as two new, intron-containing loci for a wide sampling of taxa. We found that both group II introns - nad2i542g2 and rpl2i846g2 - are universally present among monilophytes. Both introns have orthologues in seed plants where nad2i542g2 has evolved into a trans-arrangement. In contrast and despite substantial size extensions to more than 5kb in Psilotum, nad2i542g2 remains cis-arranged in the monilophytes. For phylogenetic analyses, we filled taxonomic gaps in previously investigated mitochondrial (atp1, nad5) and chloroplast (atpA, atpB, matK, rbcL, rps4) loci and created a 9-gene matrix that also included the new mitochondrial nad2 and rpl2 loci. We extended the taxon sampling with two taxa each for all land plant outgroups (liverworts, mosses, hornworts, lycophytes and seed plants) to minimize the risk of phylogenetic artefacts. We ultimately obtained a well-supported molecular phylogeny placing Marattiales as sister to leptosporangiate ferns and horsetails as sister to all remaining monilophytes. In addition, an indel in an exon of the here introduced rpl2 locus independently supports the placement of horsetails. We conclude that under dense taxon sampling, phylogenetic information from a prudent choice of loci is currently superior to character-rich phylogenomic approaches at low taxon sampling. As here shown the selective choice of loci and taxa enabled us to resolve the long-enigmatic diversifications of the earliest monilophyte lineages. PMID:25999055

  15. Familiality of gender identity disorder in non-twin siblings.

    PubMed

    Gmez-Gil, Esther; Esteva, Isabel; Almaraz, M Cruz; Pasaro, Eduardo; Segovia, Santiago; Guillamon, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Familial studies and reports of co-occurrence of gender identity disorder (GID) within a family may help to clarify the question of whether transsexualism is a familial phenomenon. In a sample of 995 consecutive transsexual probands (677 male-to-female [MF] and 318 female-to-male [FM]), we report 12 pairs of transsexual non-twin siblings (nine pairs of MF siblings, two pairs of MF-FM siblings, and one pair of FM siblings). The present study doubles the number of case reports of co-occurrence of transsexualism in non-twin siblings available in the literature. According to our data, the probability that a sibling of a transsexual will also be transsexual was 4.48 times higher for siblings of MF than for siblings of FM transsexual probands, and 3.88 times higher for the brothers than for the sisters of transsexual probands. Moreover, the prevalence of transsexualism in siblings of transsexuals (1/211 siblings) was much higher than the range expected according to the prevalence data of transsexualism in Spain. The study suggests that siblings of transsexuals may have a higher risk of being transsexual than the general population, and that the risk is higher for brothers than sisters of transsexuals, and for siblings of MF than FM transsexuals. Nevertheless, the risk is low. PMID:19639402

  16. When You Are a Twin or Triplet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Types of Twins There are two kinds of twins — fraternal and identical. The difference comes from the way the egg is fertilized when a woman becomes pregnant . In fraternal twins, two different eggs are fertilized. With identical twins, ...

  17. Dicephalic Parapagus Tribrachius Conjoined Twins in a Triplet Pregnancy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kamrani, Kamyar; Naseri, Mohsen; Danaeian, Morteza; Asadi, Farhad; Davari-Tanha, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Dicephalic parapagus tribrachius conjoined twin is a very rare condition. We present a case of 5-days-old male dicephalic parapagus conjoined twins. The conjoined twins were diagnosed in 4th month of pregnancy by ultrasonography. The pregnancy terminates at 36 weeks by cesarean section and triplets were born. The babies were male conjoined twins and another healthy male baby. Many congenital defects of interest can now be detected before birth. Sever form of this malformation precludes postpartum life. It is supposed that with advances in screening methods for prenatal diagnosis these cases are terminated in first or second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:24971140

  18. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF 'NEANTHES ARENACEODENTATA', SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a statistical evaluation of the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay using Neanthes arenaceodentata. Specific issues discussed are distribution of baseline SCE frequencies, transformations of SCE data, statistical sensitivity of the assay, repeatability of te...

  19. 38. 8 sisters and powerhouse, pulverizer building for powerhouse, coal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. 8 sisters and powerhouse, pulverizer building for powerhouse, coal conveyor, blast stoves, "A" furnace, stoves, "B" furnace, stoves, "C" furnace, bottle cars. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

  20. Developing skills in clinical leadership for ward sisters.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Katherine; Phillips, Natasha

    The Francis report has called for a strengthening of the ward sister's role. It recommends that sisters should operate in a supervisory capacity and should not be office bound. Effective ward leadership has been recognised as being vital to high-quality patient care and experience, resource management and interprofessional working. However, there is evidence that ward sisters are ill equipped to lead effectively and lack confidence in their ability to do so. University College London Hospitals Foundation Trust has recognised that the job has become almost impossible in increasingly large and complex organisations. Ward sisters spend less than 40% of their time on clinical leadership and the trust is undertaking a number of initiatives to support them in this role. PMID:23550483

  1. Linking Chromosome Duplication and Segregation via Sister Chromatid Cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Leman, Adam R.; Noguchi, Eishi

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication during S phase generates two identical copies of each chromosome. Each chromosome is destined for a daughter cell, but each daughter must receive one and only one copy of each chromosome. To ensure accurate chromosome segregation, eukaryotic cells are equipped with a mechanism to pair the chromosomes during chromosome duplication and hold the pairs until a bi-oriented mitotic spindle is formed and the pairs are pulled apart. This mechanism is known as sister chromatid cohesion, and its actions span the entire cell cycle. During G1, before DNA is copied during S phase, proteins termed cohesins are loaded onto DNA. Paired chromosomes are held together through G2 phase, and finally the cohesins are dismantled during mitosis. The processes governing sister chromatid cohesion ensure that newly replicated sisters are held together from the moment they are generated to the metaphase–anaphase transition, when sisters separate. PMID:24906310

  2. How-to-Do-It: Demonstrating Sister Chromatid Exchanges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Frank J.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines procedures for demonstrating and preparing a permanent slide of sister chromatid exchanges and recombination events between the two chromatids of a single chromosome. Provides the name of an additional resource for making preparations of exchanges. (RT)

  3. 14. UPPER THREE SISTERS FALLS, LOOKING NORTHWEST Photocopy of photograph, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. UPPER THREE SISTERS FALLS, LOOKING NORTHWEST Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 8. STREAMSIDE PATH NEAR MIDDLE OF THREE SISTERS FALLS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. STREAM-SIDE PATH NEAR MIDDLE OF THREE SISTERS FALLS, LOOKING WEST Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. Sister chromatid exchanges and mitotic crossing-over

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 12, discusses sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and mitotic crossing-over. The detection, occurrence and use of SCE in mutagenesis research is covered, as is segregation, chiasmata and gene amplification. 28 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Accommodation at deformation twins in bcc crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, S.

    1981-03-01

    The accommodation processes occurring at terminating twins, twin intersections and grain boundary-twin interactions are reviewed. It is shown that in the three situations, accommodation by slip and twinning can occur. Occasionally, microcracking is observed at a <110> twin intersection and a grain boundary-twin intersection. Argument is developed to reconcile these two sets of observations.

  7. Cancer risks in twins and singletons from twin and non-twin families.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingjing; Cnattingius, Sven; Nyman Iliadou, Anastasia; Oberg, Anna Sara

    2016-03-01

    The unique intrauterine environment has been proposed to put twins at increased risk of certain cancers compared to singletons, still large population comparisons have generally indicated lower risks in twins. To improve the understanding of potential twin influence on cancer we compared twins to their singletons siblings, to target a unique twinning influence. Singletons from twin families were contrasted to singletons from non-twin families to further capture potential twin family influence on risk of cancer. Family relations were identified using the Swedish Multi-Generation Register. Among individuals born between 1932 and 1958, 49,156 twins and N = 35,227 singletons were identified from 18,098 unique twin families. All incident cases of specific cancer types were identified in the National Cancer Register up to the end of 2007. Standardized survival functions were estimated using weighted Cox proportional hazard regression and the corresponding cumulative risks plotted against age. Overall, primary cancers were identified in 9% and 18% of all male and female twins, compared to 11% and 19% of their male and female singleton siblings. When specific cancer sites were compared using standardized cumulative risk plots, no consistent statistically significant differences were noted either between twins and singletons of twin families or between singletons of twin and non-twin families. Despite a different intrauterine experience, twinning does not seem to have any greater negative influence on life-time risks of cancer. The findings also indicate that twin family membership has no substantial influence on cancer risks. PMID:26414953

  8. Relativistic twins or sextuplets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Eric

    2003-01-01

    A recent study of the relativistic twin 'paradox' by Soni in this journal affirmed that 'A simple solution of the twin paradox also shows anomalous behaviour of rigidly connected distant clocks' but entailed a pedagogic hurdle which the present treatment aims to surmount. Two scenarios are presented: the first 'flight-plan' is akin to that depicted by Soni, with constant-velocity segments, while the second portrays an alternative mission undertaken with sustained acceleration and deceleration, illustrated quantitatively for a two-way spacecraft flight from Earth to Polaris (465.9 light years distant) and back.

  9. Cerebral metabolism, anatomy, and cognition in monozygotic twins discordant for dementia of the Alzheimer type.

    PubMed Central

    Luxenberg, J S; May, C; Haxby, J V; Grady, C; Moore, A; Berg, G; White, B J; Robinette, D; Rapoport, S I

    1987-01-01

    One pair of monozygotic twins discordant for dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) was studied using neuropsychological testing, quantitative x-ray computed tomography (QCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Cerebral glucose metabolism was measured using positron emission tomography (PET) and 2-[18-F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). The affected twin had a seven year history of progressive cognitive impairment and was severely demented. Neuropsychological testing of the affected twin demonstrated marked deficits in all areas of cognitive function. The asymptomatic twin showed some impairment on tests of perceptual organisation and delayed recall. The affected twin had loss of gray matter and ventricular enlargement on QCT and MRI compared with healthy controls (p less than 0.05). He also had frontal and parietal lobe hypometabolism and increased asymmetry of metabolism on PET compared to both his twin and healthy age-matched controls (p less than 0.05). PET, QCT, and MRI distinguished changes in the twin with DAT compared with his brother and healthy controls. Although the subtle neuropsychological abnormalities of the asymptomatic twin may be signs of early DAT, they were not accompanied by any changes in regional cerebral metabolism or brain structure. Images PMID:3494105

  10. Staying Healthy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1 > Staying Healthy Font: What is Alpha-1? Emphysema Alpha-1 Symptoms Diagnosing Alpha-1 Current Treatments ... Healthy What can people with Alpha-1-related emphysema do to stay as healthy as possible? First ...

  11. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en espaol ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  12. Healthy Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Who Keep Drinking Water Safe Healthy and Safe Swimming Week May 23-29, 2016 - Make a Healthy ... which is necessary for recreational water activities like swimming, also helps promote healthy living. Often, water’s vital ...

  13. Healthy doctors, healthy communities.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Donna; Katch, Ellen; Anderson, Patricia; Furlong, Mary A

    2004-01-01

    Promoting health and eliminating disease are goals of Healthy People 2010, a national initiative for all communities. Physician-directed interventions that advance these principles are most effective when directed by clinicians who regularly participate in such healthy behaviors themselves. This pilot study describes an 8-week intervention, "Well-being for You and Your Patients," for first-year medical students to experience health behavior change. In the 2-hour sessions, students set goals for changing health behavior in 6 dimensions of wellness; report their progress; and enjoy a 30-minute change-of-pace wellness activity. The authors recommend adapting the course for medical student alumni to facilitate health behavior change with small groups of adults, school-age children, teens, and elders in churches, schools, community health centers, and other community-based organizations. Through continuing medical education and Grand Rounds, residents and physicians in practice could also be trained to implement specific behavioral change strategies. PMID:15495745

  14. Do assisted-reproduction twin pregnancies require additional antenatal care?

    PubMed

    Jauniaux, E; Ben-Ami, I; Maymon, R

    2013-02-01

    Iatrogenic twinning has become the main side-effect assisted reproduction treatment. We have evaluated the evidence for additional care that assisted-reproduction twins may require compared with spontaneous twins. Misacarriages are increased in women with tubal problems and after specific treatments. Assisted-reproduction twin pregnancies complicated by a vanishing twin after 8 weeks have an increased risk of preterm delivery and of low and very low birthweight compared with singleton assisted-reproduction pregnancies. Monozygotic twin pregnancies occur at a higher rate after assisted reproduction treatment and are associated with a higher risk of perinatal complications. The incidence of placenta praevia and vasa praevia is increased in assisted-reproduction twin pregnancies. Large cohort studies do not indicate a higher rate of fetal congenital malformations in assisted-reproduction twins. Overall, assisted-reproduction twins in healthy women <45 years of age are not associated with a notable increase in antenatal complication rates and thus do not require additional antenatal care compared with spontaneous twins. The risks of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality associated with assisted-reproduction twins is only increased in women with a pre-existing medical condition such as hypertensive disorders and diabetes and most of these risks can be avoided with single-embryo transfer. Following the birth of the first IVF baby, rumours started to spread in both the medical literature and the media about the long-term health effects for children born following assisted reproduction treatment. However, after more than 30 years, the most common complications associated with IVF treatment remain indirect and technical such as the failure of treatment and ovarian hyperstimulation. Iatrogenic twinning has become the main side-effect of assisted reproduction treatment and the increasing number of twin pregnancies, in particular in older women, has generated numerous debates on the need for additional healthcare provision. In this review, we have evaluated the evidence for additional care that assisted-conception twin pregnancies may require compared with spontaneous twin pregnancies. Twin pregnancies are obviously at higher risk of perinatal complications than singletons due to a natural increase in the incidence of fetal anomalies, antenatal disorders and obstetric and neonatal complications associated with the development of two fetuses instead of one. Overall, our review indicates that some antenatal complications are more frequent in assisted-conception twin pregnancies than in spontaneous twin pregnancies but their prevalence is low and thus their impact on the morbidity and mortality of an individual assisted-conception twin pregnancy is limited. Assisted reproduction treatment has become available to older women with pre-existing maternal medical conditions such as chronic hypertension and diabetes. The increased obstetrical risks in this population must be considered prior to attempts at assisted conception, and the transfer of more than one embryo should be avoided in women with a pre-existing maternal medical condition. PMID:23273753

  15. Twin Signature Schemes, Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäge, Sven

    In this paper, we revisit the twin signature scheme by Naccache, Pointcheval and Stern from CCS 2001 that is secure under the Strong RSA (SRSA) assumption and improve its efficiency in several ways. First, we present a new twin signature scheme that is based on the Strong Diffie-Hellman (SDH) assumption in bilinear groups and allows for very short signatures and key material. A big advantage of this scheme is that, in contrast to the original scheme, it does not require a computationally expensive function for mapping messages to primes. We prove this new scheme secure under adaptive chosen message attacks. Second, we present a modification that allows to significantly increase efficiency when signing long messages. This construction uses collision-resistant hash functions as its basis. As a result, our improvements make the signature length independent of the message size. Our construction deviates from the standard hash-and-sign approach in which the hash value of the message is signed in place of the message itself. We show that in the case of twin signatures, one can exploit the properties of the hash function as an integral part of the signature scheme. This improvement can be applied to both the SRSA based and SDH based twin signature scheme.

  16. Identical Twins Raised Apart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a bivariate data set that is interesting to students. Indeed, this particular data set, which involves twins and IQ, has sparked more student interest than any other set that I have presented. Specific uses of the data set are presented.

  17. Uncomplicated monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nair, M; Kumar, G

    2009-02-01

    There have been significant advances in our understanding of the aetiology and management of disorders specific to Monochorionic Diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies like Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS) and Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion (TRAP) but there is paucity of data about the management of uncomplicated MCDA twins pregnancies. It is accepted that even in the absence of specific complications, these pregnancies are associated with increased perinatal morbidity & mortality. The aim of this review is to gather evidence regarding the management of seemingly uncomplicated monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies. PMID:19274536

  18. Identical twin discordance for the Brachmann-de Lange syndrome revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Carakushansky, G.; Goncalves, M.R.; Kahn, E.

    1996-06-14

    The only known twin pair evidently discordantly affected for the BDLS (Brachmann-de Lange syndrome) and who had been considered monozygotic (MZ) based on blood analysis remained a problem because biological zygosity determination needed further typing. In this report we review the clinical findings of this pair of twins at the age of 20. The use of DNA fingerprinting with three multilocus probes, F10, DNT24, and 33.6, allowed us to present evidence of monozygosity with a high degree of certainty. The significance of this confirmation of discordance in determining the cause of BDLS is discussed. Intensive comparative genomic studies of the discordant twin sisters may be useful to unravel the molecular genetics of this enigmatic pattern of malformation. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Obstetric complications of twin pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Rao, Anita; Sairam, Shanthi; Shehata, Hassan

    2004-08-01

    Advances in assisted reproductive technology and increases in the proportion of maternities in older women have both contributed to the steep increase in the incidence of twin pregnancies since the 1980s. Maternal and perinatal complications are higher in twins than in singleton pregnancies. A significant proportion of perinatal mortality and morbidity among twins is due to the high incidence of preterm delivery and the added complication of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in monochorionic twins. Monochorionic twins also have a much higher rate of perinatal mortality than dichorionic twins, the greatest risk being before fetal viability (<24 weeks gestation). Early diagnosis of twins and their chorionicity, close fetal surveillance, particularly of monochorionic twins, and prompt therapeutic intervention in TTS are necessary to reduce perinatal mortality. Intrapartum management in the hospital setting with anaesthetic and neonatal facilities, as well as critical assessment of mode of delivery, have led to better outcomes. Ultrasonography is a valuable tool in the management of twin pregnancy. This chapter briefly summarises these topics, with a particular focus on recent literature. PMID:15279817

  20. Chimerism of buccal membrane cells in a monochorionic dizygotic twin.

    PubMed

    Fumoto, Seiko; Hosoi, Kenichiro; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Hoshina, Hiroaki; Yan, Kunimasa; Saji, Hiroh; Oka, Akira

    2014-04-01

    No monochorionic dizygotic twins (MCDZTs) with cellular chimerism involving cells other than blood cells have been reported in the literature to date. Here we report a probable first case of MCDZTs with buccal cell chimerism. A 32-year-old woman conceived twins by in vitro fertilization by using 2 cryopreserved blastocysts that were transferred into her uterus. An ultrasound scan at 8 weeks' gestation showed signs indicative of monochorionic twins. A healthy boy and a healthy girl were born, showing no sexual ambiguity. Cytogenetic analyses and microsatellite studies demonstrated chimerism in blood cells of both twins. Notably, repeated fluorescence in situ hybridization and microsatellite studies revealed chimerism in buccal cells obtained from 1 of the twins. Although the mechanism through which buccal cell chimerism was generated remains to be elucidated, ectopic differentiation of chimeric hematopoietic cells that migrated to the buccal membrane or the cellular transfer between the 2 embryos at the early stage of development might be responsible for the phenomenon. This hypothesis raises an interesting issue regarding embryonic development and cellular differentiation into organs during fetal development. Given the possibility of cryptic chimerism in various organs including gonadal tissues in MCDZTs, close observation will be required to determine whether complications develop in the course of the patients' growth. PMID:24685957

  1. The twin paradox and the principle of relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gron, Oyvind

    2013-02-01

    The twin paradox is intimately related to the principle of relativity. Two twins A and B meet, travel away from each other and meet again. From the point of view of A, B is the traveller. Thus, A predicts B to be younger than A herself, and vice versa. Both cannot be correct. The special relativistic solution is to say that if one of the twins, say A, was inertial during the separation, she will be the older one. Since the principle of relativity is not valid for accelerated motion according to the special theory of relativity B cannot consider herself as at rest permanently because she must accelerate in order to return to her sister. A general relativistic solution is to say that due to the principle of equivalence B can consider herself as at rest, but she must invoke the gravitational change of time in order to predict correctly the age of A during their separation. However one may argue that the fact that B is younger than A shows that B was accelerated, not A, and hence the principle of relativity is not valid for accelerated motion in the general theory of relativity either. I here argue that perfect inertial dragging may save the principle of relativity, and that this requires a new model of the Minkowski spacetime where the cosmic mass is represented by a massive shell with radius equal to its own Schwarzschild radius.

  2. Monozygotic twins discordant for Aicardi syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, T; Greer, W; Rysiecki, G; Buncic, J R; Ray, P N

    1997-01-01

    Aicardi syndrome is a developmental disorder characterised by agenesis of the corpus callosum, retinal lacunae, seizures, and developmental delay. It is believed to be X linked with lethality in males. We report a set of monozygotic female twins one of whom is healthy and intellectually normal while the other has the classical Aicardi phenotype with profound retardation. Family history is negative. Both had normal karyotypes. Monozygosity was established by blood grouping, chromosomal heteromorphisms, and DNA analysis using six hypervariable probes (five autosomal and one X linked) and three X linked RFLP probes. We tested the hypothesis that preferential inactivation of a different X chromosome had occurred in each girl. Methylation sensitive RFLP analysis of DNA from EBV transformed B lymphocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts using MspI/HpaII digestion and probing with M27 beta showed a very similar pattern of X inactivation in both twins with no evidence of preferential expression of one particular X chromosome. We conclude that the abnormalities in the affected twin are probably the consequence of a postzygotic mutation in early embryonic development. Images PMID:9279766

  3. Challenges of Twin Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Lynn M.; Hose, Patricia M.

    1991-01-01

    Family physicians have an important role in the diagnosis and management of twin pregnancies. Optimal antepartum management begins with early detection. Provision of patient education about the risks of the pregnancy is important. Intrapartum management is dependent on gestation age, placentation, fetal presentation, and fetal well-being. Anticipatory guidance and ongoing support should be provided for postpartum issues, such as breast-feeding and family adjustment. PMID:21229108

  4. Multicore disease in twins.

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, R; Cohen, M; Duffner, P; Daigler, G

    1976-01-01

    Multicore disease in identical twin boys presented in infancy as generalized weakness and torticollis. Motor milestones such as sitting, standing, and running were delayed, although by the age of 6 years marked improvement in muscle strength had occurred. Serum enzymes were normal. Muscle biopsy revealed multifocal areas of decreased oxidative enzyme activity. Ultrastructurally, these areas were characterized by myofilament disruption and Z-band streaming. Images PMID:985853

  5. Twin engine afterbody model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    1994-01-01

    This test was originally conducted to determine the effects of several empennage and afterbody parameters on the aft-end aerodynamic characteristics of a twin-engine fighter-type configuration. Model variables were as follows: horizontal tail axial location and incidence, vertical tail axial location and configuration (twin-vs single-tail arrangements), tail booms, and nozzle power setting. Jet propulsion was simulated by exhausting high-pressure, cold-flow air from the nozzles. Following a successful test conducted on a single engine nacelle model to validate a CFD code, this model was chosen to be instrumented with pressure taps on the afterbody and nozzles and used as a follow-on test, providing a more complex geometry for the CFD code validation. A more limited test matrix was run to collect the pressure data, employing only the twin-tail configuration and varying only the horizontal and vertical tail locations. Mach number was varied from 0.6 to 1.2. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from jet-off to 8. Angle-of-attack varied from 0 to 8 deg.

  6. Salvaging twin 2 after abortion of twin 1: a case report.

    PubMed

    Onakewhor, J U E; Ohiosimuan, O; Onyiriuka, A N

    2008-06-01

    We present intentional delayed delivery of twin 2 after a spontaneous membrane rupture and abortion oftwin1 in a dichorionic twin pregnancy at 14 weeks. As signs of infection were missing, we adopted a conservative (not expectant) management. The pregnancy was prolonged to 35 weeks' gestation. In the absence of additional risk factors, the role of conservative management of multiple pregnancies after loss of one fetus in prolonging the pregnancy to fetal viability in resource-poor setting is highlighted. The gained gestational age of 20 weeks and 4 days (144 days in all), for the remaining fetus and the healthy mother and child pair after delivery at 35 weeks are discussed. The perinatal, economic and psychological implications are highlighted. The importance of good clinical assessment in the diagnosis of cervical incompetence and using ultrasound scan as a complimentary instrument is emphasized. PMID:18817057

  7. Catholic Sister Nurses in Selma, Alabama, 19401972

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the activities of religious sister nurses as they confronted racism in the American South from 1940 to 1972. Selma was chosen as a case study because, in the 1960s, events in that southern town marked a turning point in the civil rights movement in the United States. This is a story about the workings of gender, race, religion, and nursing. The sisters work demonstrates how an analysis of race in nursing history is incomplete without an understanding of the roles that a number of Catholic religious women took in reaching out to African Americans in the Deep South. PMID:19218843

  8. Catholic sister nurses in Selma, Alabama, 1940-1972.

    PubMed

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the activities of religious sister nurses as they confronted racism in the American South from 1940 to 1972. Selma was chosen as a case study because, in the 1960s, events in that southern town marked a turning point in the civil rights movement in the United States. This is a story about the workings of gender, race, religion, and nursing. The sisters' work demonstrates how an analysis of race in nursing history is incomplete without an understanding of the roles that a number of Catholic religious women took in reaching out to African Americans in the Deep South. PMID:19218843

  9. Tribute to dr louis keith: twin and physician extraordinaire/twin research reports: influences on asthma severity; chimerism revisited; DNA strand break repair/media reports: twins born apart; elevated twin frequencies; celebrity father of twins; conjoined twinning.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2014-10-01

    The International Society for Twin Studies has lost a valued friend and colleague. Dr Louis Keith, Emeritus Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Northwestern University, in Chicago, passed away on Sunday, July 6, 2014. His life and work with twins will be acknowledged at the November 2014 International Twin Congress in Budapest, Hungary. Next, twin research reports on the severity of asthma symptoms, a case of chimerism, and factors affecting DNA breakage and repair mechanisms are reviewed. Media reports cover twins born apart, elevated twin frequencies, a celebrity father of twins, and a family's decision to keep conjoined twins together. PMID:25213730

  10. Healthy Snacking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Plate? Smart Food Choices for Healthy Aging. Download the Tip Sheet Healthy Snacking (PDF, 494.94 ... Health and Human Services. About Go4Life Policies & Disclaimer Download Acrobat Reader En Español United States Department of ...

  11. A twin study of cognitive function in chronic fatigue syndrome: the effects of sudden illness onset.

    PubMed

    Claypoole, Keith H; Noonan, Carolyn; Mahurin, Roderick K; Goldberg, Jack; Erickson, Tom; Buchwald, Dedra

    2007-07-01

    Variable reports of neuropsychological deficits in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) may, in part, be attributable to methodological limitations. In this study, these limitations were addressed by controlling for genetic and environmental influences and by assessing the effects of comorbid depression and mode of illness onset. Specifically, the researchers conducted a co-twin control study of 22 pairs of monozygotic twins, in which 1 twin met strict criteria for CFS and the co-twin was healthy. Twins underwent a structured psychiatric interview and comprehensive neuropsychological assessment evaluating 6 cognitive domains. Results indicated that twin groups had similar intellectual and visual memory functioning, but fatigued twins exhibited decreases in motor functions (p = .05), speed of information processing (p = .02), verbal memory (p = .02), and executive functioning (p = .01). Major depression did not affect neuropsychological functioning among fatigued twins, although twins with sudden illness onset demonstrated slowed information processing compared with those with gradual onset (p = .01). Sudden onset CFS was associated with reduced speed of information processing. If confirmed, these findings suggest the need to distinguish illness onset in future CFS studies and may have implications for treatment, cognitive rehabilitation, and disability determination. PMID:17605583

  12. [Twins in myth (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    de Rachewiltz, B; Parisi, P; Castellani, V

    1976-01-01

    Twins have an important place in mythology and a sacred character appears to be attached to them since the most ancient times. In ancient Egypt, the royal placenta was worshipped, being considered as the Pharao's twin (a conception that is still alive among certain African populations), and actually everyone was considered to possess a spiritual twin, the Ka or astral body, through whom it was supposed to be possible to operate with magic rituals and hit enemies. Twin gods were worshipped by Babylonians and Assyrians (who even introduced them among astronomic constellations), and may be also found in the Persian and Veda religions. In the classic, Greco-Roman world, the examples of twin gods and heroes are innumerable: from the twin sons of Zeus, the Dioscuri, to the opposite-sexed twin gods Apollo and Diana, to Rome's founders, Romulus and Remus, etc. Since the most ancient times, a magic conception is connected to the twins, either in a positive or a negative sense, but often with some kind of a "fatidic" aspect. Such a two-faced approach to the phenomenon of twinning, that variously characterizes near-east, protomediterranean, classic, and other ancient civilizations, may still be found in contemporary primitive societies. PMID:801409

  13. X-CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION PATTERNS IN MONOZYGOTIC TWINS AND SIB PAIRS DISCORDANT FOR NON-SYNDROMIC CLEFT LIP AND/OR PALATE

    PubMed Central

    Kimani, Jane W.; Shi, Min; Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Christensen, Kaare; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Marazita, Mary L.; Field, Leigh L.; Canady, John W.; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Orofacial clefts are common birth defects with a complex etiology. While underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown, altered gender ratios for clefting phenotypes, evidence for linkage to the X chromosome and the occurrence of several X-linked clefting syndromes suggest that skewed X chromosome inactivation (XCI) may contribute to the etiology of orofacial clefting. We tested this hypothesis in a sample set of female monozygotic (MZ) twins and sister pairs discordant for clefting. Methods We determined XCI in peripheral blood lymphocyte DNA using a methylation based androgen receptor gene assay. We measured skewing of XCI as the deviation in XCI pattern from a 50:50 ratio and used a paired t-test to compare the degree of skewing in cases and their unaffected sisters. Results Our analysis revealed no significant difference in the degree of skewing between twin pairs (P=0.3). However, significant differences were observed in the sister pairs (P=0.02), with the cleft lip with cleft palate (CL+P) group showing the most significant result (P=0.01). Results from the cleft lip only (P=0.79) and cleft palate only (P=0.75) groups were not significant. Conclusions We did not find evidence for involvement of skewed XCI in the discordance for clefting in our sample of female MZ twins. However, results from the paired sister study suggest that skewed XCI may be important in orofacial clefting, particularly CL+P. PMID:18000982

  14. Difference Between Identical and Fraternal Twins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... egg divides into 2. If twins are a boy and a girl, clearly they are fraternal twins, as they do ... XY chromosomes and a girl has XX chromosomes. Girl-boy twins occur when one X egg is fertilized ...

  15. A Computational Discriminability Analysis on Twin Fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Srihari, Sargur N.

    Sharing similar genetic traits makes the investigation of twins an important study in forensics and biometrics. Fingerprints are one of the most commonly found types of forensic evidence. The similarity between twins prints is critical establish to the reliability of fingerprint identification. We present a quantitative analysis of the discriminability of twin fingerprints on a new data set (227 pairs of identical twins and fraternal twins) recently collected from a twin population using both level 1 and level 2 features. Although the patterns of minutiae among twins are more similar than in the general population, the similarity of fingerprints of twins is significantly different from that between genuine prints of the same finger. Twins fingerprints are discriminable with a 1.5%~1.7% higher EER than non-twins. And identical twins can be distinguished by examine fingerprint with a slightly higher error rate than fraternal twins.

  16. Adult Sibling Relationships with Brothers and Sisters with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zach; Hall, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions of adult sibling relationships with a brother or sister with severe disabilities and the contexts affecting the relationships. Adult siblings without disabilities (N = 79) from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with four open-ended questions about their relationship

  17. Clinical Design Sciences: A View from Sister Design Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaritsky, Raul; Kelly, Anthony E.; Flowers, Woodie; Rogers, Everett; O'Neill, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that the social sciences are clinical-like endeavors, and the way that "sister" fields discover and validate their results may inform research practice in education. Describes three fields of design that confront similar societal demands for improvement (engineering product design, research on the diffusion of innovations, and management

  18. Neuroectodermal tumours in the cerebellum in two sisters

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Myfanwy; Adams, J. Hume; Doyle, David

    1977-01-01

    Two sisters, one 5 years and the other 2 years old, with intrinsic tumours of the cerebellum are reported. One of the tumours was interpreted as being a ganglioneuroma with neuroblastomatous change. The other was a desmoplastic medulloblastoma. Images PMID:599365

  19. Freud on Brothers and Sisters: A Neglected Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwin-White, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores Freud's developing thought on brothers and sisters, and their importance in his psychoanalytical writings and clinical work. Freud's work on sibling psychology has been seriously undervalued. This paper aims to give due recognition to Freud's work in this area. (Contains 1 note.)

  20. Hearing My Mother's Voice: A Study of Sisters and Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Beverley

    There seems to be an assumption among many people that parents can mold the later adult personality of their offspring by manipulating their childhood upbringing. To tease out the variables in childrearing and to discover some of the sources of the childbearing practices of mothers in the 1980s, a study of sisters and their mothers (N=48) in the…

  1. 7. STREAMSIDE PATH BETWEEN THREE BRIDGE FALLS AND THREE SISTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. STREAM-SIDE PATH BETWEEN THREE BRIDGE FALLS AND THREE SISTERS FALLS, LOOKING WEST Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. Clinical Design Sciences: A View from Sister Design Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaritsky, Raul; Kelly, Anthony E.; Flowers, Woodie; Rogers, Everett; O'Neill, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that the social sciences are clinical-like endeavors, and the way that "sister" fields discover and validate their results may inform research practice in education. Describes three fields of design that confront similar societal demands for improvement (engineering product design, research on the diffusion of innovations, and management…

  3. Standard sister clade comparison fails when testing derived character States.

    PubMed

    Kfer, Jos; Mousset, Sylvain

    2014-07-01

    Comparing species richness in sister clades that differ in a character state is one of the ways to study factors influencing diversification. While most of its applications have focussed on traits that increase diversification, some have been used to study the association of a trait with lower species richness, e.g., the occurrence of dioecy in flowering plants. We show here, using simulations and an analytical model, that the null expectation of equal species richness that is generally used in sister clade comparisons is wrong in the case of a derived trait occurring independently from speciation: one should expect fewer species in the clade with the derived character state when there is no difference in diversification rates. This is due to the waiting time for the derived state to appear, which causes it to occur more often on longer branches. This has the important implication that the probability for a clade to possess the derived state depends on the tree geometry, and thus on species richness: species-poorer clades are more likely to possess the derived state. We develop a statistical test for sister clade comparisons to study the effect of a derived character state. Applying it to a data set of dioecious clades, we find that we cannot confirm earlier work that concluded that dioecy decreases diversification; on the contrary, it seems to be associated to higher species richness than expected. [angiosperms; dioecy; diversification; sister clades; species richness.]. PMID:24671619

  4. TWINS Geomagnetic Storm Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, J. D.; Buzulukova, N.; Fok, M. C. H.; Goldstein, J.; McComas, D. J.; Valek, P. W.; Wood, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    Results from TWINS 1 & 2 observations and CIMI simulations have been cataloged for geomagnetic storms with Dst or SYM/H below -100 nT in the years 2008-2013. TWINS (Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers) provides ENA (Energetic Neutral Atom) images on a nearly continuous basis over a broad energy range (1-100 keV/amu). CIMI (Comprehensive Inner-Magnetosphere Ionosphere) model combines the ability to simulate ringcurrent dynamics solving for particle distributions and corresponding ENA fluxes with the ability to calculate radiation belt particle fluxes and inner plasma sheet electron precipitation. For each storm, the TWINS Storm Catalog provides 1-hour-samples ENA images, corresponding deconvolved 2D equatorial ion number flux and pitch angle anisotropy, and the energy spectrum and pitch angle distribution at the position of the peak of the number flux. Also included for direct comparison are results from CIMI simulations for the same quantities. The catalog is available to all interested parties. It will be shown how users of the Catalog will have the opportunity to perform a number of studies related to the dynamics of the ring current during geomagnetic storms. For example, the storms cataloged to date show trends in changes of the energy spectrum from high energy tails deficient in ions as compared to a Maxwellian, to a high energy tail and finally approaching a Maxwellian. Likewise, pitch angle distributions are shown to evolve from having more perpendicular than parallel ions to a nearly isotropic distribution. It is also possible to investigate differences in ring current behavior for CIR and ICME driven storms.It is to be noted that in this context, opportunities for results from the measurements and simulations on a finer time scale, for spectra as a function of equatorial position, and similarly for pitch angle distributions are available by request.

  5. Holographic Twin Higgs Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-01

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at mKK , naturally allowing for mKK beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider.

  6. Holographic twin Higgs model.

    PubMed

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-15

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at m_{KK}, naturally allowing for m_{KK} beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider. PMID:26024160

  7. Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  8. Calpain-1 cleaves Rad21 to promote sister chromatid separation.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Anil K; Zhang, Nenggang; Mao, Qilong; Pati, Debananda

    2011-11-01

    Defining the mechanisms of chromosomal cohesion and dissolution of the cohesin complex from chromatids is important for understanding the chromosomal missegregation seen in many tumor cells. Here we report the identification of a novel cohesin-resolving protease and describe its role in chromosomal segregation. Sister chromatids are held together by cohesin, a multiprotein ring-like complex comprised of Rad21, Smc1, Smc3, and SA2 (or SA1). Cohesin is known to be removed from vertebrate chromosomes by two distinct mechanisms, namely, the prophase and anaphase pathways. First, PLK1-mediated phosphorylation of SA2 in prophase leads to release of cohesin from chromosome arms, leaving behind centromeric cohesins that continue to hold the sisters together. Then, at the onset of anaphase, activated separase cleaves the centromeric cohesin Rad21, thereby opening the cohesin ring and allowing the sister chromatids to separate. We report here that the calcium-dependent cysteine endopeptidase calpain-1 is a Rad21 peptidase and normally localizes to the interphase nuclei and chromatin. Calpain-1 cleaves Rad21 at L192, in a calcium-dependent manner. We further show that Rad21 cleavage by calpain-1 promotes separation of chromosome arms, which coincides with a calcium-induced partial loss of cohesin at several chromosomal loci. Engineered cleavage of Rad21 at the calpain-cleavable site without activation of calpain-1 can lead to a loss of sister chromatid cohesion. Collectively, our work reveals a novel function of calpain-1 and describes an additional pathway for sister chromatid separation in humans. PMID:21876002

  9. Twin classics: research that always inspires/Twin studies: elder twin relationships; Superfecundated twinning in chimpanzees; Conjoined twinning and embryo transfer; Reduced frequency of in vitro multiples/Professional and human interest: first identical twin renal transplant; Identical triplet wedding; Spanakos twins: boxers; Twins in space; Political twins.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-08-01

    Ten classic works in twin research are described. These volumes are rich in data, interpretation, and impact, and contain life history material that adds depth and dimension to the quantitative findings. Next, research on social relationships in older twins, superfecundated twinning in chimpanzees; effects of embryo transfer on conjoined twinning and the reduced frequency of in vitro multiples is reviewed. Finally, there has been considerable public interest surrounding the first identical twin renal transplant, an identical triplet wedding; identical twin boxers, a twin living in space, and a politically active twin pair. PMID:26148718

  10. Twin Legacies: Victor and Vincent McKusick / Twin Studies: Twinning Rates I; Twinning Rates II; MZ Twin Discordance for Russell-Silver Syndrome; Twins' Language Skills / Headlines: Babies Born to Identical Twin Couples; Identity Exchange; Death of Princess Ashraf (Twin); Yahoo CEO Delivers Identical Twins.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-04-01

    The lives of the illustrious monozygotic (MZ) twins, Victor A. and Vincent L. McKusick, are described. Victor earned the distinction as the 'Father of Medical Genetics', while Vincent was a legendary Chief Justice of the Maine Supreme Court. This dual biographical account is followed by two timely reports of twinning rates, a study of MZ twin discordance for Russell-Silver Syndrome (RSS) and a study of twins' language skills. Twin stories in the news include babies born to identical twin couples, a case of switched identity, the death of Princess Ashraf (Twin) and a new mother of twins who is also Yahoo's CEO. PMID:26934824

  11. TISSUE-SPECIFIC SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGE ANALYSES IN MUTAGEN-CARCINOGEN EXPOSED ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phenomenon of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) has been extensively reviewed. Sister chromatid exchanges are intrachromosomal events, wherein segments of DNA are reciprocally swapped between the chromatids. They are most easily studied with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) dye metho...

  12. The early parenting of twins.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J G

    1996-04-01

    The anticipatory guidance for the parents of twins involves information on feeding, the parent-twin relationship, and promoting a sense of self. Parents optimally attach to one infant only, a concept known as monotropy. Ambivalence, anxiety, and unequal attachments may result from the stressful nature of raising twins. The early diagnosis of twins, visualization via ultrasound, and postpartum identification of the distinctive aspects of each infant help establish separate bonds. This individualization promotes a sense of self, self-esteem, and enhances individuation, the process by which the personality is differentiated, developed, and expressed. The twin situation is triadic; the infants develop attachments to the primary care giver and their co-twin. Problems with this complex association include delayed onset of speech, decreased speech production, and cryptophasia (secret language) between twins. Strategies to prevent speech delay include as much one-on-one time as possible and consistent intervention and correction of speech errors. Anticipatory guidance seeks to identify potential sources of stress with the goal of seeking out advice, accepting any assistance offered, and attending to twins at the desired level of individualization. PMID:8935514

  13. Transformation: From Twin to Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magagna, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    This article explores some of the complexities of psychotherapy with an identical twin. The difficulty of developing in psychotherapy while so much of what is oneself is located in the other twin will also be explored. The use of the countertransference as a therapeutic method will be considered as the young person develops her unique, separate

  14. A Principal's Reflections on Twinning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelliher, Shirley; Rees, Ruth

    1997-01-01

    A principal of three Ontario "twinned" schools (sharing principal and services) discusses the arrangement's advantages: greater sharing of both human and technical resources and increased opportunities for broader budget negotiations between schools. The disadvantages of twinning relate to the additional stress placed on the principal

  15. Transformation: From Twin to Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magagna, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    This article explores some of the complexities of psychotherapy with an identical twin. The difficulty of developing in psychotherapy while so much of what is oneself is located in the other twin will also be explored. The use of the countertransference as a therapeutic method will be considered as the young person develops her unique, separate…

  16. Monozygotic female twin carriers discordant for the clinical manifestations of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Chutkow, J G; Hyser, C L; Edwards, J A; Heffner, R R; Czyrny, J J

    1987-07-01

    We studied twin sisters, in their sixth decade, who were obligate carriers of Duchenne dystrophy. One had a slowly progressing limb-girdle myopathy since her mid-20s. The other sister showed no evidence of neuromuscular disease by history or on physical examination but had high serum CK values and degeneration and regeneration of fibers in a muscle biopsy. Otherwise, they were phenotypically identical, karyotypically normal females with cytogenetically normal X-chromosomes. Based on red cell and HLA loci antigen determinations, there was a 99.2% probability that they were monozygotic. The mutant gene segregating in the family is probably linked to the Xp21 DNA marker pERT87. PMID:2885783

  17. Size effects in twinned nanopillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammami, Farah; Kulkarni, Yashashree

    2014-07-01

    Nanotwinned structures are becoming increasingly attractive owing to their potential as optimal motifs for strength, ductility, and grain stability in metals. In this work, we use nanopillar compression as a paradigmatic problem to investigate the interplay between size effects associated with the twin spacing and the finite size of the nanopillars by way of molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulations reveal that the aspect ratio plays an important role in governing the weakening or strengthening effect of coherent twin boundaries under uniaxial compression. We find that there exists an optimal aspect ratio for which the yield strength of twinned nanopillars is slightly higher than even single crystal nanopillars. In addition, we observe that twin boundaries facilitate dislocation-starvation as defects glide along twin boundaries and are eliminated at the free surface.

  18. Geologic map of Three Sisters volcanic cluster, Cascade Range, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    The cluster of glaciated stratovolcanoes called the Three Sisters—South Sister, Middle Sister, and North Sister—forms a spectacular 20-km-long reach along the crest of the Cascade Range in Oregon. The three eponymous stratocones, though contiguous and conventionally lumped sororally, could hardly display less family resemblance. North Sister (10,085 ft), a monotonously mafic edifice at least as old as 120 ka, is a glacially ravaged stratocone that consists of hundreds of thin rubbly lava flows and intercalated falls that dip radially and steeply; remnants of two thick lava flows cap its summit. Middle Sister (10,047 ft), an andesite-basalt-dacite cone built between 48 and 14 ka, is capped by a thick stack of radially dipping, dark-gray, thin mafic lava flows; asymmetrically glaciated, its nearly intact west flank contrasts sharply with its steep east face. Snow and ice-filled South Sister is a bimodal rhyolitic-intermediate edifice that was constructed between 50 ka and 2 ka; its crater (rim at 10,358 ft) was created between 30 and 22 ka, during the most recent of several explosive summit eruptions; the thin oxidized agglutinate that mantles its current crater rim protects a 150-m-thick pyroclastic sequence that helped fill a much larger crater. For each of the three, the eruptive volume is likely to have been in the range of 15 to 25 km³, but such estimates are fairly uncertain, owing to glacial erosion. The map area consists exclusively of Quaternary volcanic rocks and derivative surficial deposits. Although most of the area has been modified by glaciation, the volcanoes are young enough that the landforms remain largely constructional. Furthermore, twelve of the 145 eruptive units on the map are postglacial, younger than the deglaciation that was underway by about 17 ka. The most recent eruptions were of rhyolite near South Sister, about 2,000 years ago, and of mafic magma near McKenzie Pass, about 1,500 years ago. As observed by trailblazing volcanologist, Howel Williams, "For magnificence of glacial scenery, for wealth of recent lavas, and for graphic examples of dissected volcanoes, no part of this range surpasses the area embracing the Sisters and McKenzie Pass." Scientific and journalistic interest in the Three Sisters volcanic cluster was aroused a few years ago when ongoing uplift centered about 5 km west of South Sister was identified, first recognized by satellite imagery in 2001. Subsequent geodetic measurements and continuing satellite imagery analysis confirmed 3 to 4 cm/yr uplift during the interval from 1997 to 2004; the uplift has been modelled as inflation thought to be caused by an intracrustal intrusion, largely aseismic and plausibly involving mafic magma.

  19. Uneven X inactivation in a female monozygotic twin pair with Fabry disease and discordant expression of a novel mutation in the alpha-galactosidase A gene.

    PubMed Central

    Redonnet-Vernhet, I; Ploos van Amstel, J K; Jansen, R P; Wevers, R A; Salvayre, R; Levade, T

    1996-01-01

    We describe two female monozygotic (MZ) twins heterozygous for Fabry disease, an X linked disorder resulting from the deficient activity of alpha-galactosidase A. While one of the twins was clinically affected, the other was asymptomatic. Enzymatic assay of alpha-galactosidase in blood leucocytes, skin fibroblasts, Epstein-Barr virus transformed lymphoid cell lines, and hair follicles of the twins and their parents confirmed the heterozygous status of the twins and indicated that Fabry disease had occurred as a result of a de novo mutation. The son of the unaffected twin sister was shown to be hemizygous. Molecular analysis of the alpha-galactosidase A gene permitted the identification of an as yet undescribed point mutation at position 10182 of exon 5 which causes an Asp to Asn substitution at codon 231. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis again showed the heterozygous status of the twins and a normal pattern in their parents. The basis for the discordant expression of this d novo mutation in the twins was investigated by studying their X inactivation status. Analysis of the inactive X specific methylation at the androgen receptor gene showed unbalanced inactivation in the twins' fibroblasts and in opposite directions. While the maternally derived X chromosome was preferentially active in the asymptomatic twin, the paternal X chromosome was active in the other, affected twin and was found in her hemizygotic nephew. These data suggest that the paternal X chromosome carries the de novo alpha-galactosidase A mutation and that uneven X inactivation is the underlying mechanism for disease expression in this novel female MZ twin pair. This is the first documented case of female twins discordant for Fabry disease. Images PMID:8863162

  20. Monozygotic twins with discordant karyotypes following preimplantation genetic screening and single embryo transfer: case report

    PubMed Central

    Gaillyova, Renata; Travnik, Pavel; Oracova, Eva; Vesela, Katerina; Hromadova, Lenka; Vesely, Jan; Musilova, Petra; Rubes, Jiri; Kadlecova, Jitka; Slamova, Iva; Makaturova, Eva; Vranova, Vladimira

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of monozygotic monochorial diamniotic twins with discordant karyotypes. Methods and results The pregnancy was achieved following a treatment cycle with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) for chromosomes X, Y, 13, 16, 18, 21, 22. One embryo euploid for studied chromosomes was transferred. Prenatal ultrasonography revealed monozygotic twins. One fetus had growth retardation, multiple organ abnormalities and polyhydramnion. The other twin had normal ultrasound appearance. Delivery on week29 of gestation resulted in the birth of two females, a stillborn twin with karyotype 45,XX,-13[12]/46,XX,r(13)[3] and a healthy twin with normal karyotype. Conclusions The discordance in the twins karyotypes originated from a mosaic embryo. Structural chromosomal abnormality of the affected twin could not be revealed using standard PGS investigation. Embryo splitting occurred probably due to apoptotic process in an early stage of embryo development. Apoptosis represents one of the possible mechanisms which can explain the embryo twinning process globally. PMID:20700760

  1. Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    García García, Isabel; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John

    2015-09-18

    We study asymmetric dark matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (fraternal) twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged SU(3)^{'}×SU(2)^{'}, a twin Higgs doublet, and only third-generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD^{'} scale Λ_{QCD}^{'}≃0.5-20  GeV, and that t^{'} is heavy. We focus on the light b^{'} quark regime, m_{b^{'}}≲Λ_{QCD}^{'}, where QCD^{'} is characterized by a single scale Λ_{QCD}^{'} with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful dark matter (DM) candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, Δ^{'}∼b^{'}b^{'}b^{'}, with a dynamically determined mass (∼5Λ_{QCD}^{'}) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio Ω_{DM}/Ω_{baryon}≃5. Gauging the U(1)^{'} group leads to twin atoms (Δ^{'}-τ^{'}[over ¯] bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo properties. Direct detection signatures satisfy current bounds, at times modified by dark form factors. PMID:26430985

  2. Twin methodology in epigenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qihua; Christiansen, Lene; von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob; Christensen, Kaare

    2015-01-01

    Since the final decades of the last century, twin studies have made a remarkable contribution to the genetics of human complex traits and diseases. With the recent rapid development in modern biotechnology of high-throughput genetic and genomic analyses, twin modelling is expanding from analysis of diseases to molecular phenotypes in functional genomics especially in epigenetics, a thriving field of research that concerns the environmental regulation of gene expression through DNA methylation, histone modification, microRNA and long non-coding RNA expression, etc. The application of the twin method to molecular phenotypes offers new opportunities to study the genetic (nature) and environmental (nurture) contributions to epigenetic regulation of gene activity during developmental, ageing and disease processes. Besides the classical twin model, the case co-twin design using identical twins discordant for a trait or disease is becoming a popular and powerful design for epigenome-wide association study in linking environmental exposure to differential epigenetic regulation and to disease status while controlling for individual genetic make-up. It can be expected that novel uses of twin methods in epigenetic studies are going to help with efficiently unravelling the genetic and environmental basis of epigenomics in human complex diseases. PMID:25568460

  3. Twins and Kindergarten Separation: Divergent Beliefs of Principals, Teachers, Parents, and Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Lynn Melby

    2015-01-01

    Should principals enforce mandatory separation of twins in kindergarten? Do school separation beliefs of principals differ from those of teachers, parents of twins, and twins themselves? This survey questioned 131 elementary principals, 54 kindergarten teachers, 201 parents of twins, and 112 twins. A majority of principals (71%) believed that…

  4. Twins and Kindergarten Separation: Divergent Beliefs of Principals, Teachers, Parents, and Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Lynn Melby

    2015-01-01

    Should principals enforce mandatory separation of twins in kindergarten? Do school separation beliefs of principals differ from those of teachers, parents of twins, and twins themselves? This survey questioned 131 elementary principals, 54 kindergarten teachers, 201 parents of twins, and 112 twins. A majority of principals (71%) believed that

  5. Best Practices for Twin Placement in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacina, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The children's book "Two Is for Twins" celebrates twins and illustrates the many "twos" in a child's world. The uniqueness of twos does not have to mean separate classrooms for twins in child development programs, preschool, or elementary school settings. With recent dramatic increases in the US twin population, how should educators address the…

  6. Best Practices for Twin Placement in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacina, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The children's book "Two Is for Twins" celebrates twins and illustrates the many "twos" in a child's world. The uniqueness of twos does not have to mean separate classrooms for twins in child development programs, preschool, or elementary school settings. With recent dramatic increases in the US twin population, how should educators address the

  7. The Genetic Relationship between Indentical Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Rosemary

    1984-01-01

    Reviews current research on a woman's chances of bearing twins and the genetic relationship, prenatal competition, and personality similarities between twins. In addition, the nature/nurture controversy is discussed in terms of evidence from studies of identical twins reared apart. Future studies are suggested to discover the ways twinning might

  8. Two sisters with Reed's syndrome: treatment with pregabalin.

    PubMed

    Yaldiz, Mahizer; Metin, Murcan; Erdem, Mustafa Teoman; Dikicier, Bahar Sevimli; Kahyaoglu, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leiomyomas, which originate in the arrector pili muscles of the skin are rarely seen benign cutaneous tumors. Sometimes familial cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis can occur together, an autosomal dominant genetic condition called Reed syndrome or familial leiomyomatosis cutis et uteri. This disorder can be accompanied by malignancies, particularly by renal carcinoma. In this paper, two sisters with Reed syndrome are presented in view of the rarity of the disorder and good response to pregabalin therapy. PMID:26437289

  9. [The duties of Sisters of Mercy in light of documents].

    PubMed

    Hałat, S M

    1999-01-01

    There are numerous documents in the Archives kept by the Convent of the Sisters of Mercy that refer to the taking care of the sick and hospitalization. The article depicts the regulations applicable in the hospital of Angers dating back to the 17th century (reprinted from the French work about St. Vincent a Paulo) and the Polish regulations from the period between the World War I and II kept in the Polish archives. PMID:14631983

  10. Sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes of petroleum retailers.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J W; Priestly, B G

    1993-01-01

    Occupational exposure to petroleum vapour was assessed in workers employed in suburban petroleum retail outlets. Urinary output of thioethers provided a non-specific estimate of exposure to chemicals metabolised via a mercapturic acid pathway. Urinary d-glucaric acid (DGA) excretion was taken as an estimate of hepatic enzyme activity. Sister chromatid exchange frequency in lymphocytes was used as an indicator of genotoxic response to exposure. Workers were classified according to their employment at self service (where customers operate petrol pumps) or at driveway attended service stations (at which an employee operates the pumps), and according to exposure to cigarette smoke on the basis of urinary cotinine excretion. Prework and postwork urine samples of workers employed at driveway attended petrol stations contained more thioether than did those of self serve workers. When classified according to smoking behaviour there were no statistically significant differences, although thioether excretion tended to be higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. Urinary DGA excretion was similar in the two exposure groups. Cigarette smokers excreted more DGA, however, than nonsmokers. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies were higher in driveway attendants than in self serve personnel. When the influence of cigarette smoking was investigated there was a significant increase of sister chromatid exchange with combined exposure to petrol and cigarette smoking, but not with either factor alone. Correlation analysis showed that urinary cotinine concentrations were positively associated with urinary excretion of thioether and DGA, indicating that cigarette smoke induces the activity of hepatic enzymes and acts as a source of substrates metabolised through a thioether pathway. In conclusion it seems that exposure to petroleum vapour causes increased sister chromatid exchange in circulating lymphocytes of cigarette smokers, possibly as a result of enhanced hepatic conversion of vapour components to reactive metabolites. Urinary thioether output does not clearly discriminate between workers exposed to different amounts of petroleum vapour at retail outlets. PMID:8435347

  11. Failure of vincristine induce twinning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, M.

    1984-01-01

    Mammalian ova do not contain axes of symmetry from which are derived embryonic axes of symmetry. Mammalian axis determination is an early embryologic event occurring at about the time that monozygous twinning in mice. (Kaufma MH & O'Shea KS, 1978, Nature 276:707) and an attempt was made to reproduce their work in several strains of mice. Over 3200 embryos were examined without any twins being found. To rule out the possibility that vincristine caused twinning plus some lethal malformation (with subsequent resorption of the embryo) the embryos were examined 36-60 hours after vincristine treatment.

  12. Mechanism of slip and twinning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastani, Mansur

    1992-01-01

    The objectives are to: (1) demonstrate the mechanisms of deformation in body centered cubic (BCC), face centered cubic (FCC), and hexagonal close-packed (HCP)-structure metals and alloys and in some ceramics as well; (2) examine the deformed microstructures (slip lines and twin boundaries) in different grains of metallic and ceramic specimens; and (3) study visually the deformed macrostructure (slip and twin bands) of metals and alloys. Some of the topics covered include: deformation behavior of materials, mechanisms of plastic deformation, slip bands, twin bands, ductile failure, intergranular fracture, shear failure, slip planes, crystal deformation, and dislocations in ceramics.

  13. Twin paradox in compact spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.; Levin, Janna

    2001-04-01

    Twins traveling at constant relative velocity will each see the other's time dilate leading to the apparent paradox that each twin believes the other ages more slowly. In a finite space, the twins can both be on inertial, periodic orbits so that they have the opportunity to compare their ages when their paths cross. As we show, they will agree on their respective ages and avoid the paradox. The resolution relies on the selection of a preferred frame singled out by the topology of the space.

  14. Mechanism of slip and twinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastani, Mansur

    1992-06-01

    The objectives are to: (1) demonstrate the mechanisms of deformation in body centered cubic (BCC), face centered cubic (FCC), and hexagonal close-packed (HCP)-structure metals and alloys and in some ceramics as well; (2) examine the deformed microstructures (slip lines and twin boundaries) in different grains of metallic and ceramic specimens; and (3) study visually the deformed macrostructure (slip and twin bands) of metals and alloys. Some of the topics covered include: deformation behavior of materials, mechanisms of plastic deformation, slip bands, twin bands, ductile failure, intergranular fracture, shear failure, slip planes, crystal deformation, and dislocations in ceramics.

  15. Centenary Celebration for Scottish Missionary Mary Slessor: A Lasting Legacy for Twins/Twin Research: Twins With Kleinfelter's Syndrome; Twin Research on Atopic Diseases; Twin Study of Autism; Psychotherapy with Twins / General Interest: Female Twin Pole-Vaulters; Longest Twin Birth Interval; Pair of Franco-Cuban Vocalists; Croatian Twin Models.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-06-01

    The centenary celebration for Scottish missionary, Mary Slessor, took place on February 14, 2015 in Melle, Belgium. Slessor saved many newborn twins and their mothers from death and disownment by members of their community, including their families, who believed twins harbored evil spirits. The events of this unusual and significant gathering are described. Next, twin research and reports concerning Kleinfelter's disease, atopic diseases, autism and psychotherapy are presented. General interest subjects include identical female twin pole-vaulters, the longest twin birth interval, Franco-Cuban twin vocalists, and Croatian twin models. PMID:25906830

  16. Southall Black Sisters. Hannana Siddiqui speaks to Rasna Warah.

    PubMed

    Warah, R

    1994-01-01

    Southall Black Sisters, an organization for Asian and Afro-Caribbean women in Great Britain, was established in 1979 at the height of anti-racist protests to address the otherwise neglected issue of women's oppression. The group has campaigned against discriminatory immigration laws, illegal virginity tests at Heathrow airport, domestic violence, and other issues of particular concern to British Asian women. Women who migrate to England for an arranged marriage must remain with their husband at least 1 year or face deportation and denial of any public assistance, placing them at risk of unreported domestic violence. Southall Black Sisters has attempted to raise the public consciousness about domestic violence as a criminal issue and garner support for Asian women who leave abusive husbands. However, no support has been forthcoming from the anti-racist movement, which fears that publicity on domestic violence will create a racist backlash against Asian men. More support has been available for the group's campaign to protect battered women who kill their husbands by removing from the law on provocation the need for an immediate response. Another campaign has involved protests against "bounty hunters" hired by Asian families to return girls who have escaped from arranged marriages in their home country or sexual abuse within their family. Southall Black Sisters attributes many of the problems faced by its clients to a rise in religious fundamentalism and Muslim attempts to reverse the gains of the feminist movement. PMID:12287625

  17. Malignant Triton Tumors in Sisters with Clinical Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Alina, Basnet; Sebastian, Jofre A.; Gerardo, Capo

    2015-01-01

    Malignant triton tumors (MTTs) are rare and aggressive sarcomas categorized as a subgroup of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). MTTs arise from Schwann cells of peripheral nerves or existing neurofibromas and have elements of rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. We report the occurrence of MTTs in two sisters. The first patient is a 36-year-old female who presented with left sided chest wall swelling. She also had clinical features consistent with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). Debulking of the mass showed high-grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with skeletal muscle differentiation (MTT). The patient was treated with ifosfamide and adriamycin along with radiation. Four years after treatment, she still has no evidence of disease recurrence. Her sister subsequently presented to us at the age of 42 with left sided lateral chest wall pain. Imaging showed a multicompartmental retroperitoneal cystic mass with left psoas involvement. The tumor was resected and, similarly to her sister, it showed high-grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation (MTT). The patient was started on chemotherapy and radiation as described above. PMID:26114002

  18. [The umbilical metastasis. Sister Mary Joseph and her time].

    PubMed

    Trebing, D; Gring, H-D

    2004-02-01

    Although Baluff in 1854 and Nelaton in 1860 had already described umbilical metastases, the best known description of the metastasis of carcinomas to this site as "trouser button navel" was published in 1928 by William James Mayo (1861-1939), son of William Worrall Mayo (1815-1911), the founder of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, This phenomenon is supposed to have been pointed out to Mayo by his long-serving head surgical nurse Sister Mary Joseph (1856-1939). The English surgeon Hamilton Bailey, in his famous textbook "Physical Signs in Clinical Surgery" in 1949, coined the term "Sister Joseph's nodule" for an umbilical metastasis. The expression has become widely accepted and used. Sister Mary Joseph, daughter of Irish immigrants, belonged to the 3rd order of the Holy Francis, was distinguished for her skills, intelligence and devotion to nursing which was also her calling. She worked for many decades at the world-famous Mayo Clinic and taught generations of young nurses. In recent years, the original surgical building at Saint Mary's Hospital has been named "Joseph Building" in her memory. Among the numerous eponyms occurring in the dermatology and the medicine, the association with the name of a nurse represents beyond doubt a special feature. PMID:14968331

  19. Genomic sister-disorders of neurodevelopment: an evolutionary approach

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Bernard; Summers, Kyle; Dorus, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Genomic sister-disorders are defined here as diseases mediated by duplications versus deletions of the same region. Such disorders can provide unique information concerning the genomic underpinnings of human neurodevelopment because effects of diametric variation in gene copy number on cognitive and behavioral phenotypes can be inferred. We describe evidence from the literature on deletions versus duplications for the regions underlying the best-known human neurogenetic sister-disorders, including Williams syndrome, Velocardiofacial syndrome, and Smith–Magenis syndrome, as well as the X-chromosomal conditions Klinefelter and Turner syndromes. These data suggest that diametric copy-number alterations can, like diametric alterations to imprinted genes, generate contrasting phenotypes associated with autistic-spectrum and psychotic-spectrum conditions. Genomically based perturbations to the development of the human social brain are thus apparently mediated to a notable degree by effects of variation in gene copy number. We also conducted the first analyses of positive selection for genes in the regions affected by these disorders. We found evidence consistent with adaptive evolution of protein-coding genes, or selective sweeps, for three of the four sets of sister-syndromes analyzed. These studies of selection facilitate identification of candidate genes for the phenotypes observed and lend a novel evolutionary dimension to the analysis of human cognitive architecture and neurogenetic disorders. PMID:25567849

  20. 184. Photocopy of drawing (taken from right corner of Twin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    184. Photocopy of drawing (taken from right corner of Twin Falls Canal Company drawing #7017, located in Twin Falls Canal Company office, Twin Falls, Idaho). ORIGINAL 1900 SEGREGATION DAM PLAN, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  1. Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation, copy number variation, and gene expression in monozygotic twins discordant for primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Carlo; Cavaciocchi, Francesca; Lleo, Ana; Cheroni, Cristina; De Francesco, Raffaele; Lombardi, Simone A; De Santis, Maria; Meda, Francesca; Raimondo, Maria Gabriella; Crotti, Chiara; Folci, Marco; Zammataro, Luca; Mayo, Marlyn J; Bach, Nancy; Shimoda, Shinji; Gordon, Stuart C; Miozzo, Monica; Invernizzi, Pietro; Podda, Mauro; Scavelli, Rossana; Martin, Michelle R; Seldin, Michael F; Lasalle, Janine M; Gershwin, M Eric

    2014-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an uncommon autoimmune disease with a homogeneous clinical phenotype that reflects incomplete disease concordance in monozygotic (MZ) twins. We have taken advantage of a unique collection consisting of genomic DNA and mRNA from peripheral blood cells of female MZ twins (n?=?3 sets) and sisters of similar age (n?=?8 pairs) discordant for disease. We performed a genome-wide study to investigate differences in (i) DNA methylation (using a custom tiled four-plex array containing tiled 50-mers 19,084 randomly chosen methylation sites), (ii) copy number variation (CNV) (with a chip including markers derived from the 1000 Genomes Project, all three HapMap phases, and recently published studies), and/or (iii) gene expression (by whole-genome expression arrays). Based on the results obtained from these three approaches we utilized quantitative PCR to compare the expression of candidate genes. Importantly, our data support consistent differences in discordant twins and siblings for the (i) methylation profiles of 60 gene regions, (ii) CNV of 10 genes, and (iii) the expression of 2 interferon-dependent genes. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that 17 of these genes are differentially expressed in discordant sibling pairs. In conclusion, we report that MZ twins and sisters discordant for PBC manifest particular epigenetic differences and highlight the value of the epigenetic study of twins. PMID:24734033

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation, Copy Number Variation, and Gene Expression in Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Selmi, Carlo; Cavaciocchi, Francesca; Lleo, Ana; Cheroni, Cristina; De Francesco, Raffaele; Lombardi, Simone A.; De Santis, Maria; Meda, Francesca; Raimondo, Maria Gabriella; Crotti, Chiara; Folci, Marco; Zammataro, Luca; Mayo, Marlyn J.; Bach, Nancy; Shimoda, Shinji; Gordon, Stuart C.; Miozzo, Monica; Invernizzi, Pietro; Podda, Mauro; Scavelli, Rossana; Martin, Michelle R.; Seldin, Michael F.; LaSalle, Janine M.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an uncommon autoimmune disease with a homogeneous clinical phenotype that reflects incomplete disease concordance in monozygotic (MZ) twins. We have taken advantage of a unique collection consisting of genomic DNA and mRNA from peripheral blood cells of female MZ twins (n?=?3 sets) and sisters of similar age (n?=?8 pairs) discordant for disease. We performed a genome-wide study to investigate differences in (i) DNA methylation (using a custom tiled four-plex array containing tiled 50-mers 19,084 randomly chosen methylation sites), (ii) copy number variation (CNV) (with a chip including markers derived from the 1000 Genomes Project, all three HapMap phases, and recently published studies), and/or (iii) gene expression (by whole-genome expression arrays). Based on the results obtained from these three approaches we utilized quantitative PCR to compare the expression of candidate genes. Importantly, our data support consistent differences in discordant twins and siblings for the (i) methylation profiles of 60 gene regions, (ii) CNV of 10 genes, and (iii) the expression of 2 interferon-dependent genes. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that 17 of these genes are differentially expressed in discordant sibling pairs. In conclusion, we report that MZ twins and sisters discordant for PBC manifest particular epigenetic differences and highlight the value of the epigenetic study of twins. PMID:24734033

  3. Effects of infliximab on sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Atteritano, M; Mazzaferro, S; Mantuano, S; Bagnato, G L; Bagnato, G F

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in a 24-weeks the effect of anti-TNF-alpha, infliximab, on cytogenetic biomarkers in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 40 patients with RA met the criteria to be treated with methotrexate (15mg/week) were evaluated. Twenty patients, randomly selected, were treated with infliximab in addition to methotrexate (group I), whereas the other 20 patients continued with only methotrexate treatment (group M). Twenty healthy volunteers matched for age, gender and smoking habits served as control group (group C). At baseline, sister chromatid exchange rate was 7.202.21 in group I, 7.401.60 in group M and 4.971.32 in group C (P<0.01 vs group I and M). After 24-weeks, sister chromatid exchange rate was 7.872.54 in group I and 7.811.95 in group M (P=ns). High frequency cells count was 4.9% and 4.7% in the groups I and M, respectively, at the end of the study (P=ns). The basal chromosomal aberration frequency was 4.90% in group I and 5.20% in groups M; after 24-weeks, this was 5.10% in group I and 5.10% in groups M (P=ns). Infliximab treatment, for 24weeks, did not increase the cytogenetic biomarkers in patients with RA. Our data show that the use of infliximab has not a genotoxic effect in patients with RA. PMID:26012953

  4. Twins, Triplets, and Other Multiples

    MedlinePLUS

    ... no more alike than they are to their siblings from different pregnancies. Fraternal twins tend to run in some families. Multiple births can be fraternal, identical, or a combination. Multiples ...

  5. Twinning of rhombic colloidal crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kun; Mason, Thomas G

    2012-10-31

    We observe twinning of two-dimensional (2D) rhombic colloidal crystals of hard Brownian rhombic platelets. By contrast to square particles, which have higher symmetry but can also form rhombic lattices at high densities, each rhombic particle has a distinguishable bidirectional pointing axis. This key feature, which is not readily seen in rhombic crystals of square colloids, facilitates observations of different types of twinning: contact, polysynthetic, and cyclic. Moreover, we find that the twinned crystals are slightly offset spatially along their shared mirror line. In addition, the average pointing axis of the particles in a single crystal is also offset on average by a small angle, either clockwise or counterclockwise, from the average pointing axis of the rhombic lattice yielding a form of nonlocal chiral symmetry breaking. Because mirror lines between contact twins introduce only a small reduction in the total number of accessible states, compared to a perfect single crystal, twinning and piecewise linear defects are commonly observed. Thus, twinning, which is usually associated with complex compositions in certain minerals, also emerges in a simpler 2D system of entropically driven, hard, achiral objects. PMID:23075224

  6. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  7. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  8. LINE-1 DNA methylation: A potential forensic marker for discriminating monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Fu, Guangping; Yan, Lina; Craig, Jeffery M; Zhang, Xiaojing; Fu, Lihong; Ma, Chunling; Li, Shujin; Cong, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Discriminating individuals within a pair of monozygotic (MZ) twins using genetic markers remains unresolved. This inability causes problems in criminal or paternity cases involving MZ twins as suspects or alleged fathers. Our previous study showed DNA methylation differences in interspersed repeat sequences such as Alu and LINE-1 within pairs of newborn MZ twins. To further evaluate the possible value of LINE-1 DNA methylation for discriminating MZ twins, this study investigated the LINE-1 DNA methylation of a large number of twins. We collected blood samples and buccal cell samples from 119 pairs of MZ and 57 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins. Genomic DNA was extracted and LINE-1 methylation level was detected using bisulfite pyrosequencing. The mean methylation level of the three CpG sites in the blood sample among the 176 unrelated individuals was 76.60% and 70.08% in buccal samples. This difference was significant, indicating the tissue specificity of LINE-1 DNA methylation. Among 119 pairs of MZ twins, 15 pairs could be discriminated according to the difference of CpG methylation level between them, which accounted for 12.61% of total number of MZ pairs. As for DZ twins, 10 pairs had significant differences between two individuals, which accounted for 17.54% of the total 57 DZ pairs. In conclusion, there are global DNA methylation differences within some healthy concordant monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. LINE-1 DNA methylation might be a potential marker for helping to discriminate individuals within MZ twin pairs, and the tissue specificity must be considered in practice. PMID:26223032

  9. Twin Dimples Intrigue Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is part of the first set of pictures that was returned to Earth after the rover exited 'Eagle Crater.' Scientists are busy analyzing Opportunity's new view of the plains of Meridiani Planum. The plentiful ripples are a clear indication that wind is the primary geologic process currently in effect on the plains. On the left of the image are two depressions--each about a meter (about 3.3 feet) across--that feature bright spots in their centers. One possibility is that the bright material is similar in composition to the rocks in Eagle Crater's outcrop and the surrounding darker material is what's referred to as 'lag deposit,' or erosional remnants that are much harder and more difficult to wear away. These twin dimples might be revealing pieces of a larger outcrop that lies beneath. The depression closest to Opportunity is whimsically referred to as 'Homeplate' and the one behind it as 'First Base.' The rover's panoramic camera is set to take detailed images of the depressions today, on Opportunity's 58th sol. The backshell and parachute that helped protect the rover and deliver it safely to the surface of Mars are also visible near the horizon, in the center of the image. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera.

  10. Sunset over Twin Peaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) about one minute after sunset on Mars on Sol 21. The prominent hills dubbed 'Twin Peaks' form a dark silhouette at the horizon, while the setting sun casts a pink glow over the darkening sky. The image was taken as part of a twilight study which indicates how the brightness of the sky fades with time after sunset. Scientists found that the sky stays bright for up to two hours after sunset, indicating that Martian dust extends very high into the atmosphere.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  11. The Twin Jet Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    M2-9 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or a bipolar planetary nebula. Another more revealing name might be the 'Twin Jet Nebula.' If the nebula is sliced across the star, each side of it appears much like a pair of exhausts from jet engines. Indeed, because of the nebula's shape and the measured velocity of the gas, in excess of 200 miles per second, astronomers believe that the description as a super-super-sonic jet exhaust is quite apt. This is much the same process that takes place in a jet engine: The burning and expanding gases are deflected by the engine walls through a nozzle to form long, collimated jets of hot air at high speeds. M2-9 is 2,100 light-years away in the constellation Ophiucus. The observation was taken Aug. 2, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. In this image, neutral oxygen is shown in red, once-ionized nitrogen in green, and twice-ionized oxygen in blue.

  12. Twinsters the Movie: Reared Apart Twins in Real Time/Research Reviews: Heteropagus Twin; Schizophrenia Liability; Twin Study of Epigenetics and Homosexuality; Transgender-Discordant Twins/In the News: The Passing of Jack Yufe; An Unusual Twin Father; Identical Twin Models I; Identical Twin Models II; Twin Marines of World War II.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-02-01

    The 2015 documentary film Twinsters, tells the story of reared-apart MZ female twins, Samantha (Sam) Futerman and Anaïs Bordier. Born in South Korea, the twins were adopted separately as babies by couples living in the United States (Sam) and France (Anaïs). Their chance discovery of one another and their subsequent reunion and relationship are beautifully captured in the 2015 documentary film, Twinsters. Recent interviews with some of their family members are presented in Twin Research and Human Genetics for the first time. This is followed by brief reviews of recent twin research on a heteropagus twin, schizophrenia liability, epigenetics and homosexuality, and transgender-discordant twins. Finally, some newsworthy items are summarized, including the passing of reared-apart MZ twin Jack Yufe, an unusual twin father; identical twin models I; identical twin models II; and a pair of twin marines. PMID:26810868

  13. 10. Photocopy of photograph showing the three Walker sisters ginning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph showing the three Walker sisters ginning cotton. Misses Hettie, Martha and Louisa are from left to right. The original photograph was taken on May 21, 1936 by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is III-A-HSE-9642. - Walker Family Farm (General views), Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. Integration of DNA sequence and DNA methylation changes in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Castellani, C A; Melka, M G; Gui, J L; O'Reilly, R L; Singh, S M

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability (80%), extensive genetic heterogeneity, environmental contributions and only 50% concordance in discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins. Discordant MZ twins provide an exceptional opportunity to assess patient specific genome-wide genetic and epigenetic changes that may account for the disease phenotype. A combined analysis of genetic and epigenetic changes on the same twin pairs is expected to provide a more effective approach for two reasons. First, it is now possible to generate relatively reliable complete genome sequences as well as promoter methylation states on an individual level and second, the unaffected twin that originated from the same zygote provides a near perfect genetic match for contrast and comparison. This report deals with the combined analysis of DNA sequence data and methylation data on two pairs of discordant MZ twins that have been clinically followed for over 20years. Results on Family 1 show that 58 genes differ in DNA sequence as well as promoter methylation in a schizophrenia-affected twin as compared to her healthy co-twin. The corresponding number for family 2 was 13. The two lists are over represented by neuronal genes and include a number of known schizophrenia candidate genes and drug targets. The results argue that changes in multiple genes via co-localized genetic and epigenetic alteration contribute to a liability threshold that is necessary for development of schizophrenia. This novel hypothesis, although logical, remains to be validated. PMID:26441003

  15. Successful skin homografting from an identical twin in a severely burned patient.

    PubMed

    Turk, Emin; Karagulle, Erdal; Turan, Hale; Oguz, Hakan; Abali, Ebru Sakallioglu; Ozcay, Necdet; Moray, Gokhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Flame burns are a serious condition and usually have high morbidity and mortality because they affect large areas of the body surface as well as the lungs. In these patients, it is especially difficult to find healthy skin for grafting if they have more than 70% third-degree burns. Repeated autografting or synthetic wound care materials are the only treatment options to cover burned areas. Partial-thickness skin grafting from the patient's identical twin sibling may be an alternative treatment option, if possible. Here, we report a patient with severe flame injury treated with skin from his identical twin. The patient had third-degree burns covering 70% of his body surface. Initial treatment consisted of fluid and electrolyte replacement, daily wound care, and surgical debridements, as well as nutritional support. After initial treatment, we performed a successful skin grafting from his identical twin. Skin grafting between identical twins might be an alternate method for severely burned patients. PMID:23811789

  16. Post-operative Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis complicating surgery for acromegaly in an identical twin.

    PubMed

    Cote, David J; Iuliano, Sherry L; Smith, Timothy R; Laws, Edward R

    2015-06-01

    This case report provides provocative and useful data regarding two aspects of acromegaly and its management. The patient, who is one of a pair of identical twins, has no known hereditary, genetic or otherwise potentially etiologic factors as compared to her unaffected sister. Secondly, transsphenoidal surgery, which was ultimately successful, was complicated by pneumococcal meningitis, an unusual event with only four previously reported patients, three of whom ended in death or major neurologic deficits. In this case, a 57-year-old woman gradually developed classical signs and symptoms of acromegaly while her identical twin sister remained normal with no evidence of endocrine disease. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery was complicated by the development of meningitis 25 days after surgery. This was controlled following a difficult hospital course. Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis is a rare but life-threatening complication of transsphenoidal surgery. A high index of suspicion for incipient meningitis should be maintained when patients present with severe headache and increased intracranial pressure, even if they initially lack the typical symptoms and signs. Immediate and aggressive treatment is necessary to avoid significant neurologic deficit. PMID:25861890

  17. 139. MILNER DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    139. MILNER DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF SPILLWAY, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  18. 29. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM UPSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM UPSTREAM LOOKING DOWNSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  19. 31. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM DOWNSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM DOWNSTREAM LOOKING UPSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  20. 24. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, DOWNSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, DOWNSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD THE EAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  1. 125. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW OF CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  2. 32. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM VICINITY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM VICINITY OF PROPOSED POWER CANAL, LOOKING UPSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  3. 30. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM BRIDGE LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM BRIDGE LOOKING WEST DOWNSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  4. 107. MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; WEST VIEW OF LAKE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  5. 27. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADGATE WITH CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADGATE WITH CANAL BRIDGE IN DISTANCE; LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  6. 22. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN DISTANCE; LOOKING EAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  7. 108. MURTAUGH LAKE HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. MURTAUGH LAKE HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW SOUTH. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  8. 26. DETAIL OF HEADGATE HOIST MACHINERY, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. DETAIL OF HEADGATE HOIST MACHINERY, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  9. 127. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  10. 23. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN DISTANCE; LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  11. 128. COTTONWOOD CUT, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. COTTONWOOD CUT, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  12. 100. MURTAUGH LAKE HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. MURTAUGH LAKE HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW OF HEADGATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  13. Vasospastic Angina in Identical Twins

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Takayuki; Otsui, Kazunori; Suzuki, Atsushi; Ozawa, Toru; Iwata, Sachiyo; Takei, Asumi; Inoue, Nobutaka

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 58 Final Diagnosis: Vasospastic angina Symptoms: Chest pain Medication: Clinical Procedure: Medical treatment Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare disease Background: The clinical conditions of various diseases, including coronary artery disease, are determined by genetics and the environment. Previous investigations noted the significance of genetic mutations and polymorphisms in cases of coronary spasm. Case Report: We report on monozygotic identical twins who almost simultaneously presented with vasospastic angina. The 58-year-old younger twin was admitted to our hospital because of persistent chest pain. An electrocardiogram showed an inverted T wave in the left precordial leads. Coronary angiographies revealed a short left main trunk (LMT) and 50% stenosis at the proximal portion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Infusion of acetylcholine to his left coronary artery caused marked vasoconstriction associated with a sensation of chest oppression. Nitroglycerine completely reversed this response. Based on these findings, we diagnosed Twin A with vasospastic angina. At nearly the same time, his identical twin brother was diagnosed with vasospastic angina at another hospital. Comparison of both coronary angiograms indicated similar structure of coronary vessels, including short LMT and mild stenosis at the proximal portion of LAD. Conclusions: These 2 cases highlight the importance of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of vasospastic angina. It may be important for individuals to receive medical attention if their identical twin presents with vasospastic angina. PMID:26347942

  14. Exposure to ethylene oxide at work increases sister chromatid exchanges in human peripheral lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yager, J.W.; Hines, C.J.; Spear, R.C.

    1983-03-11

    Sister chromatid exchange rates increased significantly in the peripheral lymphocytes of a small group of hospital workers exposed to ethylene oxide for as little as 3.6 minutes per day regularly over a period of months. Results based on breathing zone exposure and task frequency estimates over a 6-month period for 14 workers suggest that sister chromatid exchanges are a sensitive indicator of exposure and that cumulative dose and dose rate are important predictors of sister chromatid exchange response.

  15. Sister chromatid exchanges and cell division delays induced by diethylstilbestrol, estradiol, and estriol in human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, A.; Wolff, S.

    1983-09-01

    It had been found previously that exposure of human lymphocytes in vitro to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen and known human carcinogen, led to the induction of sister chromatid exchangers. More sister chromatid exchanges were induced in cells from pregnant women than from men. To see if the effects of DES could be induced by other estrogens, lymphocytes from a man and a pregnant woman were treated in vitro with the natural estrogens estradiol and estriol. These did not induce sister chromatid exchanges.

  16. Pregnancy risk among the younger sisters of pregnant and childbearing adolescents.

    PubMed

    East, P L; Felice, M E

    1992-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that younger sisters of childbearing teenagers are at increased risk for adolescent childbearing. We critically review this research and discuss three plausible theoretical explanations (social modeling, shared parenting influences, and shared societal risk) why the younger sisters of childbearing adolescents would themselves be at risk for teenage pregnancy. Considerations for preventive interventions aimed at the younger sisters of pregnant teenagers and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:1577959

  17. Unrelated ART twins / Tribute: Dr Robert Derom / Twin research reviews: Transfusion syndrome; Discordant MZ-twin method / Matched talents: Tennis twins: (Mike and Bob Bryan; Sonchai and Sonchat Ratiwatana); Television twins: (Ellen and Lynda Kahn).

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2009-12-01

    A unique case of artificially conceived twins is described. The infants involved are unrelated to one another, as well as to the mother who carried them. The question of whether these individuals meet scientific criteria for being twins is considered, as is the issue of whether their parents are really parents of twins. Next, the International Society for Twin Studies acknowledges the life and work of its late esteemed colleague, Dr Robert Derom. His professional accomplishments on behalf of twins and twin research will be remembered, as will his helpfulness and generosity to fellow investigators. This tribute to Dr Derom is followed by reviews of new research on the pathophysiology of the twin transfusion syndrome and the use of discordant MZ twins (co-twin control) in behavioral research. The final section provides a review of the athletic talents of two sets of MZ twin tennis players, and the creative skills of a set of MZ twin designers. PMID:19943729

  18. Chromosome breakage and sister chromatid exchange analysis in computer operators

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.G.; Yost, J.; Jenkins, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    Chromosome breakage analysis with Mitomycin C (MMC) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) were obtained on 10 computer operators with computer exposure for a minimum of 3 hours per day for 4 years and 10 control subjects matched for age and personal lifestyle. No difference was found between the two groups in the total number of chromatid and chromosome aberrations in cells grown at 48 and/or 96 hours in Mitomycin C (20 or 50 ng/ml-final concentration). The average number of SCE per cell in approximately 30 cells from each person was 6.4 +/- 1.1 (mean +/- standard deviation) for the computer operators and 9.2 +/- 1.6 for the controls. This difference was significant (p < .001). The replicative index was significantly higher (p < .01) in computer operators than in control subjects. The number of SCE appeared not to be influenced by the years of computer exposure. Additional studies with larger sample sizes will be needed to identify if significant differences exist in cell kinetics and sister chromatid exchanges in individuals employed as computer operators.

  19. Intensive care of conjoined twins.

    PubMed

    Kobylarz, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Conjoined twinning is one of the most uncommon congenital anomalies. Maintenance in an intensive care setting during this time allows for close monitoring, stabilisation, and nutritional supplementation of the infants as necessary to optimise preoperative growth and development. The birth of conjoined twins is a very difficult and dramatic moment for parents. It is also a very difficult situation for the team of physicians, nurses and other required hospital staff to carry out treatment and care of these specific developmental anomalies. The diagnostics and treatment in this extraordinary situation requires close cooperation of the multidisciplinary medical team, which includes their personal experience and medical knowledge, with a team of intensive care unit nurses. This report presents the rules in cease of conjoined twins during their intensive care unit stay with special reference to the proceedings before and after complete separation. PMID:24858974

  20. A Little Twin Higgs Model

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, Hock-Seng; Goh, Hock-Seng; Krenke, Christopher A.

    2007-07-25

    We present a twin Higgs model based on left-right symmetry with a tree level quartic. This is made possible by extending the symmetry of the model to include two Z_2 parities, each of which is sufficient to protect the Higgs from getting a quadratically divergent mass squared. Although both parities are brokenexplicitly, the symmetries that protect the Higgs from getting a quadratically divergent mass are broken only collectively. The quadratic divergences of the Higgs mass are thus still protected at one loop. We find that the fine-tuning in this model is reduced substantially compared to the original left-right twin Higgs model. This mechanism can also be applied to the mirror twin Higgs model to get a significant reduction of the fine-tuning, while keeping the mirror photon massless.

  1. Nike Twins Seven Seven: Nigerian Batik Artist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Betty

    1987-01-01

    Chronicles the personal and professional life of Nike Twins Seven Seven (born 1951), a Nigerian batik artist, and her husband, Twins Seven Seven, a musician-artist, both of whom have received international acclaim. (BJV)

  2. Twin paradox on the photon sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, Marek A.; Bajtlik, Stanisław; Kluźniak, Włodek

    2007-04-01

    We consider another version of the twin paradox. The twins move along the same circular free photon path around the Schwarzschild center. In this case, despite their different velocities, all twins have the same nonzero acceleration. On the circular photon path, the symmetry between the twins situations is broken not by acceleration (as it is in the case of the classic twin paradox), but by the existence of an absolute standard of rest (timelike Killing vector). The twin with the higher velocity with respect to the standard of rest is younger on reunion. This closely resembles the case of periodic motions in compact (nontrivial topology) three-dimensional (3D) space recently considered in the context of the twin paradox by Barrow and Levin [Phys. Rev. A 63, 044104 (2001)], except that in that paper accelerations of all twins were equal to zero and that, in the case considered here, the 3D space has trivial topology.

  3. Brief Report: Autistic Traits in Twins vs. Non-Twins--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Alexander; Todd, Richard D.; Constantino, John N.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that among affected sib pairs with autism there is an increase in the frequency of twins over what would be expected in comparison to the prevalence of twins in the general population. In this study we sought to determine whether "sub-threshold" autistic traits were more pronounced in twins than in non-twins. The…

  4. Brief Report: Autistic Traits in Twins vs. Non-Twins--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Alexander; Todd, Richard D.; Constantino, John N.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that among affected sib pairs with autism there is an increase in the frequency of twins over what would be expected in comparison to the prevalence of twins in the general population. In this study we sought to determine whether "sub-threshold" autistic traits were more pronounced in twins than in non-twins. The

  5. Impact of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome, Preterm Birth, and Vision Loss on Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, Marie

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the developmental outcomes of twin boys (one who is blind and one who is sighted) who were born prematurely and diagnosed with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) at age 24 months. The results indicate a disparity in the developmental outcomes of the twins. Although the medical risk factors that are associated with TTTS

  6. 180. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. E. Pettygro, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. E. Pettygro, Photographer, date unknown. BLASTING TWIN FALLS CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; BLASTING COTTONWOOD AREA TO REPLACE FLUME BY RUNNING HIGH LINE THROUGH SOLID ROCK. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  7. 150. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    150. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Book #363, Page 42, entitled, 'Diversion Tunnels', located in Twin Falls Canal Company office, Twin Falls, Idaho). PLAN OF DIVERSION TUNNELS, MILNER DAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  8. Healthy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  9. Healthy Living

    MedlinePLUS

    Many factors affect your health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age. But you can make changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke and other serious diseases: Get the screening tests you ...

  10. Twins' injuries: genetic and environmental risks / twin research reports / human interest stories.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2011-04-01

    The relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to unintentional injuries are of interest to families with young twins. A recent study found that childhood injuries are explained mostly by child-specific environmental factors. Next, twin research reviews of the association between periodontal disease and cancer, secular trends in gestational age and birthweight, and language development in hearing and deaf co-twins are also summarized. Interesting reports of newborn twins, twin-like relationships, twin interactions and missed twin relationships are presented. PMID:21425906

  11. The Fourth International Network of Twin Registries: Overview from Osaka/Research Reviews: Familial Fraternal Twinning; Twin Study of Masculine Faces; Physical Aggression and Epigenetics; Prenatal Education for Parents of Twins/Current Events: 2016 Guinness Book of World Records; Oldest Living Male Twins; Twins Reunited at Sixty-Nine; Panda Twins; Twins.com.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-12-01

    The 4th International Network of Twin Registries (INTR) Consortium Meeting took place in Osaka, Japan, September 28-29, 2015. The venue was the Osaka Medical Center for Medical Innovation and Translational Research. An overview of presentations and other activities is provided. Next, 1930s research on familial fraternal twinning, preference for masculine faces, physical aggression and epigenetics, and a prenatal education program for parents of multiples are described. Current twin-related events include the 2016 Guinness Book of World Records (GWR), the oldest living male twins, newly reunited twins, the birth of panda twins and a controversial twin-based website. PMID:26678055

  12. Geographic Tongue in Monozygotic Twins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a case of 5-year-old girl monozygotic twins who were suffering from geographic tongue (GT), a benign inflammatory disorder of the tongue which is characterized by circinate, irregular erythematous lesions on the dorsum and lateral borders of the tongue caused by loss of filiform papillae of the tongue epithelium. Whilst geographic tongue is a common entity, reports on this condition are uncommon in the literature. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report which has described monozygotic twins with geographic tongue in the literature. PMID:24959517

  13. Twins reunited: scientific and personal perspectives/twin research studies: multiple birth effects on IQ and body size; life style, muscles, and metabolism; monochorionic dizygotic twin with blood chimerism; amniocentesis for twins/twins in the media: identical doctors; freedom fighter for twins; twin scholarships; Auguste and Jean-Felix Piccard; twins born apart.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L; Mulligan, Christy A

    2014-04-01

    A reunion of 38-year-old female monozygotic twins took place in Daegu, South Korea, on January 14, 2014. Scientific and personal perspectives on this extraordinary event are provided. A review of timely twin research follows, covering the effects of multiple births on IQ and body size, lifestyle and physical fitness associations, a rare case of a dizygotic twin with blood chimerism and definitional issues surrounding amniocentesis-related loss in multiple birth pregnancies. Interesting and informative mention of twins in the media includes twin doctors, a twin freedom fighter, the availability of college scholarships for twins, a new book about the Piccard family (two of whose members were twins), and co-twins born before and after the new year. A follow-up to a previous mention of identical twin biatheletes is also provided. PMID:24589452

  14. Simulations of Stress-induced Twinning and De-twinning: a Phase-field Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Chen , L.Q.

    2010-11-01

    Twinning in metals is a major plastic deformation mode. Here we present a phase-field model to describe twin formation and evolution in a polycrystalline FCC metal under loading and unloading. The model assumes that the twin nucleation, growth and de-twinning is a process of partial dislocation nucleation and slip on successive habit planes. Stacking fault energies, energy pathways ( surfaces), critical shear stresses for the formation of stacking faults, and dislocation core energies are used to construct the thermodynamic model. The simulation results demonstrate that the model is able to predict the nucleation of twins and partial dislocations as well as the morphology of the twin nuclei, and reasonably to describe twin growth and interaction. The twin microstructures at grain boundaries are in agreement with experimental observation . It is found that de-twinning occurs during unloading in performed simulations. However, strong dependence of twin structure evolution on loading history is observed.

  15. Speech and Language Delays in Identical Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Pat

    Following a literature review on speech and language development of twins, case studies are presented of six sets of identical twins screened for entrance into kindergarten. Five sets of the twins and one boy from the sixth set failed to pass the screening test, particularly the speech and language section, and were referred for therapy to correct

  16. On Teaching About Twins and Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a four-step instructional presentation in which the twin on the earth is demonstrated older than the twin aboard a spaceship on the basis of the relativistic Doppler effect. Concludes that both twins can meet again at the same place in space at the expense of time. (CC)

  17. Twinned Schools: The Principals' Perspective. Part Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    Survey responses from 68 Ontario principals who administered 141 "twinned" schools indicate that schools were twinned mainly to save money and offer full and better educational programs, yet not much money had been saved nor had educational programs been expanded or improved. From the principals' perspective, the main benefits of twinning were

  18. The 'Planemo' Twins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    The cast of exoplanets has an extraordinary new member. Using ESO's telescopes, astronomers have discovered an approximately seven-Jupiter-mass companion to an object that is itself only twice as hefty. Both objects have masses similar to those of extra-solar giant planets, but they are not in orbit around a star - instead they appear to circle each other. The existence of such a double system puts strong constraints on formation theories of free-floating planetary mass objects. ESO PR Photo 29a/06 ESO PR Photo 29a/06 Double System of Planetary Mass Objects (Artist's View) Ray Jayawardhana of the University of Toronto (Canada) and Valentin D. Ivanov of ESO report the discovery in the August 3 issue of Science Express, the rapid online publication service of the journal Science. "This is a truly remarkable pair of twins - each having only about one percent the mass of our Sun," said Jayawardhana. "Its mere existence is a surprise, and its origin and fate a bit of a mystery." Roughly half of all Sun-like stars come in pairs. So do about a sixth of brown dwarfs, 'failed stars' that have less than 75 Jupiter masses and are unable to sustain nuclear fusion in their cores. During the past five years, astronomers have identified a few dozen of even smaller free-floating planetary mass objects, or planemos, in nearby star forming regions. Oph 162225-240515, or Oph1622 for short, is the first planemo found to be a double. The researchers discovered the companion candidate in an optical image taken with ESO's 3.5-m New Technology Telescope at La Silla, Chile. They decided to take optical spectra and infrared images of the pair with ESO's 8.2-m Very Large Telescope to make sure that it is a true companion, instead of a foreground or background star that happens to be in the same line of sight. These follow up observations indeed confirmed that both objects are young, at the same distance, and much too cool to be stars. This suggests the two are physically associated. ESO PR Photo 29b/06 ESO PR Photo 29b/06 The System Oph 1622 (ISAAC/VLT) By comparing to widely used theoretical models, Jayawardhana and Ivanov estimate that the companion is about seven times the mass of Jupiter, while the more massive object comes in at about 14 times Jupiter's mass. The newborn pair, barely a million years old, is separated by about six times the distance between the Sun and Pluto, and is located in the Ophiuchus star-forming region approximately 400 light years away. Planets are thought to form out of discs of gas and dust that surround stars, brown dwarfs, and even some free-floating planetary mass objects (see ESO 19/06). But, "it is likely that these planemo twins formed together out of a contracting gas cloud that fragmented, like a miniature stellar binary," said Jayawardhana. "We are resisting the temptation to call it a 'double planet' because this pair probably didn't form the way that planets in our Solar system did," added Ivanov. Oph1622B is only the second or third directly imaged planetary mass companion to be confirmed spectroscopically (see ESO 23/04 [1]), and the first one around a primary that is itself a planetary mass object. What's more, its existence poses a challenge to a popular theoretical scenario, which suggests that brown dwarfs and free-floating planetary mass objects are embryos ejected from multiple proto-star systems. Since the two objects in Oph1622 are so far apart, and only weakly bound to each other by gravity, they would not have survived such a chaotic birth. "Recent discoveries have revealed an amazing diversity of worlds out there. Still, the Oph1622 pair stands out as one of the most intriguing, if not peculiar," said Jayawardhana. "Now we're curious to find out whether such pairs are common or rare. The answer could shed light on how free-floating planetary-mass objects form," added Ivanov.

  19. Sports pairs: insights on athletic talent; research reviews: twins with leukemia; parents and twins.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2007-06-01

    Twin research exploring genetic and environmental influences on athletic interests and talents is reviewed. Illustrative examples of twin athletes representing a variety of sports activities are presented. This is followed by an overview of twin studies offering critical insights into the onset and progress of leukemia. In the last section, timely events involving twins and parents of twins will be described--each case provides a new look at an old question. PMID:17564512

  20. Four twins for a paradox: On ``sensitive'' twins and the biological counterpart of the ``twin paradox''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascioti, Fortunato A.

    2009-03-01

    Monozygotic twin (MZT) epigenetic development, i.e., aging, diverges largely in time despite the initially very small genetic differences between MZTs. This fact is interpreted as a "sensitivity to initial conditions" phenomenon, a common property of either deterministic or stochastic chaotic systems. Some of the biotheoretical implications stemming from this empirical observation are briefly discussed here, while an actual measure of MZT epigenetic time divergence is given through an estimate of the (Stochastic) Lyapunov exponents (LEs) (i.e., the rate of exponential time divergence). These results suggest a reconsideration of the Langevin-Einstein thought experiment known as the "twin paradox." At least four twins are necessary in order to take into account the inertially independent divergent aging described here. Alternatively, LE estimates, like those given here, should be used. Finally suggested in the actual special-relativity experiments is the replacement of clocks with some nonlinear (chaotic) forced oscillator.

  1. Four twins for a paradox: on "sensitive" twins and the biological counterpart of the "twin paradox".

    PubMed

    Ascioti, Fortunato A

    2009-03-01

    Monozygotic twin (MZT) epigenetic development, i.e., aging, diverges largely in time despite the initially very small genetic differences between MZTs. This fact is interpreted as a "sensitivity to initial conditions" phenomenon, a common property of either deterministic or stochastic chaotic systems. Some of the biotheoretical implications stemming from this empirical observation are briefly discussed here, while an actual measure of MZT epigenetic time divergence is given through an estimate of the (Stochastic) Lyapunov exponents (LEs) (i.e., the rate of exponential time divergence). These results suggest a reconsideration of the Langevin-Einstein thought experiment known as the "twin paradox." At least four twins are necessary in order to take into account the inertially independent divergent aging described here. Alternatively, LE estimates, like those given here, should be used. Finally suggested in the actual special-relativity experiments is the replacement of clocks with some nonlinear (chaotic) forced oscillator. PMID:19334992

  2. Increased sister chromatid exchange frequency in peripheral lymphocytes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and cervical cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, L Y; Lai, M S; Huang, S J; Hsieh, C Y; Hsu, M M; Chen, C J

    1994-01-01

    The specific aim of this study was to compare the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in peripheral lymphocytes using it as a biomarker of integral exposures to carcinogens in 14 untreated newly-diagnosed nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients, 16 untreated newly-diagnosed cervical cancer patients, and 30 healthy controls matched with patients on age, sex, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking. Peripheral lymphocytes were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium containing 20% fetal calf serum and 6 microM phytohemagglutinin. After culture for 24 hours, 20 microM 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine was added into the medium. Colcemid solution was further added after 70 hours. Harvested cells were stained with Hoesch 33258, illuminated, and restained with Giemsa. The SCE frequency was scored by two readers independently and blindly. The results showed a significantly increased SCE frequency in lymphocytes for NPC patients (mean +/- standard error = 14.7 +/- 1.7 SCEs/cell) compared with their matched controls (10.1 +/- 0.7 SCEs/cell) and for cervical cancer patients (12.0 +/- 0.9 SCEs/cell) compared with their matched controls (9.2 +/- 0.7 SCEs/cell). These results suggest that NPC and cervical cancer patients have a higher integral exposures to both viral and chemical carcinogens than matched controls. PMID:8166434

  3. Enhanced response to the induction of sister chromatid exchange by gamma radiation in neurofibromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hafez, M.; Abd el-Nabi, S.M.; el-Wehedi, G.; Al-Tonbary, Y.

    1986-05-15

    The study included 8 unrelated patients with neurofibromatosis, and 10 unrelated normal and healthy persons as controls. Whole blood samples were divided into plastic T flasks and exposed at room temperature to gamma rays. The radiation dose was 36 rad/minute, and the doses delivered were 0, 75, 150 and 300 rad. The lymphocytes were cultured in (RPMI) 1640 tissue culture medium and autologous serum (20%). Phytohemagglutinin and bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu) (10 microM) were added at initiation of culture and harvesting was done 64 to 68 hours after culture initiation. Slides were coded, differential staining was done, and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and aberrations (gaps, breaks, dicentrics, fragments and minutes) were counted. In the controls no significant increase in frequency of SCE has been found (P greater than 0.5). In the patients, the frequencies significantly increased with the increase of dose of irradiation (P less than 0.001). Furthermore, after irradiation, the incidence of gaps, breaks, and dicentrics were significantly increased in patients compared with controls. Moreover, the incidence increased with the increase in the dose of radiation. The results are discussed with a conclusion that the results add to the indication of a genetic predisposition to develop cancer in neurofibromatosis patients.

  4. Is That Me or My Twin? Lack of Self-Face Recognition Advantage in Identical Twins

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Matteo; Bufalari, Ilaria; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing interest in twin studies and the stunning amount of research on face recognition, the ability of adult identical twins to discriminate their own faces from those of their co-twins has been scarcely investigated. Ones own face is the most distinctive feature of the bodily self, and people typically show a clear advantage in recognizing their own face even more than other very familiar identities. Given the very high level of resemblance of their faces, monozygotic twins represent a unique model for exploring self-face processing. Herein we examined the ability of monozygotic twins to distinguish their own face from the face of their co-twin and of a highly familiar individual. Results show that twins equally recognize their own face and their twins face. This lack of self-face advantage was negatively predicted by how much they felt physically similar to their co-twin and by their anxious or avoidant attachment style. We speculate that in monozygotic twins, the visual representation of the self-face overlaps with that of the co-twin. Thus, to distinguish the self from the co-twin, monozygotic twins have to rely much more than control participants on the multisensory integration processes upon which the sense of bodily self is based. Moreover, in keeping with the notion that attachment style influences perception of self and significant others, we propose that the observed self/co-twin confusion may depend upon insecure attachment. PMID:25853249

  5. NOTE: Increasing cardiac output and decreasing oxygenation sequence in pump twins of acardiac twin pregnancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Umur, Asli; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Van Bavel, Ed; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.

    2005-02-01

    An acardiac twin pregnancy is a rare but serious complication of monochorionic twinning and consists of an acardiac twin and a pump twin. The acardiac twin is a severely malformed fetus that lacks most organs, particularly a heart, but grows during pregnancy because it is perfused by the developmentally normal pump twin via a set of arterioarterial and venovenous placental anastomoses. Pump twins die intrauterine or neonatally in about 50% of the cases. Because the effects of an acardiac mass on the pump twin's development are incompletely known, methods for outcome prognosis are currently not available. We sought to derive simple relations for the pump twin's excess cardiac output and decreased oxygenation and to use available clinical cases for a preliminary test of the model. As a method, we used a theoretical flow model to represent the fetoplacental circulation of an acardiac twin pregnancy and estimated blood deoxygenation and reoxygenation following perfusion of the two bodies and placentas, respectively. The results show the pump twin's excess cardiac output and decrease of venous oxygen saturation to depend on the ratio of pump twin to acardiac twin umbilical blood flow, whose ratio can be measured by ultrasonography. The clinical cases show a decreasing umbilical flow ratio with gestation. In conclusion, prospective serial study is necessary to test whether measurement of umbilical flow ratios allows monitoring the pump twin's pathophysiologic development, possibly resulting in a guideline for prognosis of pump twin survival.

  6. Establishing a twin register in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sumathipala, A; Fernando, D J; Siribaddana, S H; Abeysingha, M R; Jayasekare, R W; Dissanayake, V H; De Silva, N

    2000-12-01

    Nearly all twin registers are based in developed countries and there is no twin register in the developing world. Our objectives were to initiate the process of establishing a nationwide twin register in Sri Lanka by starting a volunteer register first and working towards a population-based register. Regular newspaper advertisements, feature articles, radio talks, and television programmes were used to publicise a competition for twins, their parents/relatives and friends requesting them to participate by sending in details of twins. The competition ran from 28 March 1997 for a period of 3 months. It offered prizes for three winners selected by drawing lots. Advertisements highlighted the objective of the competition as establishing a twin register for future research and emphasised that informed consent would be obtained for individual research projects. Those who registered comprise 4602 twin pairs (same sex: male--1564, female--1885; different sex--1153), 80 sets of triplets (same sex: male--17, female--31; different sex--42) and two sets of quadruplets (different sex). The oldest twins, triplets, quadruplets are 85, 46, and 5 years old, respectively; 88.0% of twins are less than 30 years old. Although others have previously used media publicity to enrol twins in twin registers, we believe this to be the first time that twins have been enrolled through competition. We have more young twins, and our gender and zygosity proportions after applying Weinburg's rule do not match the proportions expected from a volunteer twin sample. Establishing a twin register for research purposes has proved possible in a developing country. PMID:11463139

  7. Twin Peaks (B/W)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Twin Peaks are modest-size hills to the southwest of the Mars Pathfinder landing site. They were discovered on the first panoramas taken by the IMP camera on the 4th of July, 1997, and subsequently identified in Viking Orbiter images taken over 20 years ago. The peaks are approximately 30-35 meters (-100 feet) tall. North Twin is approximately 860 meters (2800 feet) from the lander, and South Twin is about a kilometer away (3300 feet). The scene includes bouldery ridges and swales or 'hummocks' of flood debris that range from a few tens of meters away from the lander to the distance of the South Twin Peak. The large rock at the right edge of the scene is nicknamed 'Hippo'. This rock is about a meter (3 feet) across and 25 meters (80 feet) distant.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  8. Bold vision: Catholic sisters and the creation of American hospitals.

    PubMed

    Levin, Peter J

    2011-06-01

    American hospitals were started by religious, ethnic and community groups to serve local health care needs. Immigration into the eastern cities and the constant movement west of the frontier required the creation of educational and service facilities to serve these populations and localities. In the nineteenth century, Catholic sisters went all across the country establishing schools and hospitals. They were motivated to care for the sick, establish charitable institutions and spread their religious beliefs. Their impact on the development of the American health system was enormous. They also supported the importance of nursing for the provision of scientifically based medical care and created schools of nursing. Their historical record as founders, builders, financiers and managers of hospitals is unmatched by any other group between 1850 and 1950. And, this was accomplished at a time when women played no similar leadership and institutional ownership role elsewhere in society. PMID:21452027

  9. A Bangladeshi family with three sisters 'Bombay' or Oh phenotype.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M; Abdullah, A Z; Husain, M; Hague, K M; Hossain, M M

    1990-12-01

    Three sisters in a same family (MIAH FAMILY) are of 'Bombay' phenotype. These being the first known female examples of 'Bombay' blood group have been detected in Bangladesh. As predicted by current theory their red cells are Le(a+b-) and their saliva do not contain any of the antigens A, B and H except Lea substance. Family studies showed that individuals with 'Bombay' or Oh phenotype may have A or B gene which are not expressed. This very particular type of blood is one of the rarest in any other parts of world except in India. Due to the presence of anti-H antibody in the plasma of Oh phenotype, when considering such patients for transfusion only blood of identical Bombay type can be safely transfused. PMID:2096814

  10. Sisters in Science: Confronting Equity in Science and Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammrich, Penny L.; Richardson, Greer M.; Livingston, Beverly D.

    The Sisters in Science (SIS) program seeks to increase elementary school girls' interest and achievement in science and mathematics, create a more positive learning climate for minority school girls and their families on academic and community/social levels, and increase the knowledge base and understanding of parents with respect to their influence in promoting girls' interest and achievement in science and mathematics. This article reports on how 577 fourth grade girls changed their interest and achievement in science and mathematics during their involvement in year 1 of the program. Findings show that the girls started the program with positive attitudes and perceptions of science and about science career possibilities. The girls significantly (p < 0.001) increased their science and mathematics skill levels after having participated in the program. It could be stated that the girls' achievement scores on the skills test increased significantly because the girls' attitudes and perceptions were positive before program implementation.

  11. Increased sister chromatid exchange associated with smoking and coffee consumption.

    PubMed

    Reidy, J A; Annest, J L; Chen, A T; Welty, T K

    1988-01-01

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is a very sensitive cytogenetic assay for detecting exposure to chemical mutagens and carcinogens. One application of SCE is the monitoring of populations believed to be exposed to such agents. We have, however, relatively little knowledge about common lifestyle factors that may influence SCE and therefore complicate any study designed to examine the effects of exposure to genotoxins. In this study, we assessed the effect of cigarette smoking and coffee consumption on SCE. Smoking was associated with an increase of approximately 2 SCEs per cell and a decrease in cell proliferation. A positive linear relationship between SCE and coffee consumption was also observed. This effect was similar for smokers and nonsmokers. Additionally, the folic acid content of cell culture medium seemed to affect neither SCE nor cell proliferation. PMID:3169009

  12. Telomere sister chromatid exchange in telomerase deficient murine cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yisong; Giannone, Richard J; Liu, Yie

    2005-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that several types of genomic rearrangements (i.e., telomere sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE), genomic-SCE, or end-to-end fusions) were more often detected in long-term cultured murine telomerase deficient embryonic stem (ES) cells than in freshly prepared murine splenocytes, even through they possessed similar frequencies of critically short telomeres. The high rate of genomic rearrangements in telomerase deficient ES cells, when compared to murine splenocytes, may reflect the cultured cells' gained ability to protect chromosome ends with eroded telomeres allowing them to escape 'end crisis'. However, the possibility that ES cells were more permissive to genomic rearrangements than other cell types or that differences in the microenvironment or genetic background of the animals might consequentially determine the rate of T-SCEs or other genomic rearrangements at critically short telomeres could not be ruled out.

  13. Heritable breast cancer in twins

    PubMed Central

    Mack, T M; Hamilton, A S; Press, M F; Diep, A; Rappaport, E B

    2002-01-01

    Known major mutations such as BRCA1/2 and TP53 only cause a small proportion of heritable breast cancers. Co-dominant genes of lower penetrance that regulate hormones have been thought responsible for most others. Incident breast cancer cases in the identical (monozygotic) twins of representative cases reflect the entire range of pertinent alleles, whether acting singly or in combination. Having reported the rate in twins and other relatives of cases to be high and nearly constant over age, we now examine the descriptive and histological characteristics of the concordant and discordant breast cancers occurring in 2310 affected pairs of monozygotic and fraternal (dizygotic) twins in relation to conventional expectations and hypotheses. Like other first-degree relatives, dizygotic co-twins of breast cancer cases are at higher than usual risk (standardised incidence ratio (SIR)=1.7, CI=1.1–2.6), but the additional cases among monozygotic co-twins of cases are much more numerous, both before and after menopause (SIR=4.4, CI=3.6–5.6), than the 100% genetic identity would predict. Monozygotic co-twin diagnoses following early proband cancers also occur more rapidly than expected (within 5 years, SIR=20.0, CI=7.5–53.3). Cases in concordant pairs represent heritable disease and are significantly more likely to be oestrogen receptor-positive than those of comparable age from discordant pairs. The increase in risk to the monozygotic co-twins of cases cannot be attributed to the common environment, to factors that cumulate with age, or to any aggregate of single autosomal dominant mutations. The genotype more plausibly consists of multiple co-existing susceptibility alleles acting through heightened susceptibility to hormones and/or defective tumour suppression. The resultant class of disease accounts for a larger proportion of all breast cancers than previously thought, with a rather high overall penetrance. Some of the biological characteristics differ from those of breast cancer generally. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 294–300. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600429 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12177798

  14. The Nigerian Twin and Sibling Registry.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yoon-Mi; Kim, Jong Woo; Chung, Kee Wha; Shin, Joong Sik; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Auta, Emmanuel

    2013-02-01

    Twin studies of Africans have been scarce although Africans have shown the highest twin birth rate in the world. As a parallel study of the South Korean Twin Registry, the Nigerian Twin and Sibling Registry (NTSR) was developed to understand causal influences on the development of cognitive abilities, personality, and mental health among Nigerians. Currently, 1,134 twins and 404 full- and half-siblings have been registered with NTSR. This article describes research background, goals, major recruitment strategies, measures, and future directions of the NTSR. PMID:23186589

  15. Maternal Hypomethylation of KvDMR in a Monozygotic Male Twin Pair Discordant for Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Elalaoui, S.C.; Garin, I.; Sefiani, A.; Perez de Nanclares, G.

    2014-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS; OMIM 130650) is a heterogeneous overgrowth syndrome characterized by visceromegaly, macroglossia, tumor predisposition, and other congenital abnormalities. BWS is usually associated with abnormalities of chromosome 11p15, including (epi)genetic changes, paternal disomy and point mutations. A number of identical twin pairs, mostly female, have been reported to be clinically discordant for BWS. Studies of monozygotic twins discordant for BWS provide more information about failure in the DNA methylation maintenance machinery during very early embryonic development. Here, we report a case of monozygotic male twins discordant for BWS phenotype. Methylation analysis of the 2 imprinted domains at 11p15.5 (H19DMR and KvDMR) was performed by methylation-specific MLPA and pyrosequencing of DNA extracted from peripheral blood and buccal swabs of both twins. Hypomethylation at KvDMR was identified in both cell types of the affected twin, whereas his healthy brother presented hypomethylation only in blood cells and a normal methylation profile in buccal swab. For diagnostic purposes, it is important to remember that twins can share fetal circulation and possibly share hematopoietic stem cells early in development; therefore, the affected and unaffected twins can share an epigenotype that will resemble partial hypomethylation. If a patient is a twin, it is valuable to obtain a sample from a tissue other than blood. PMID:24550765

  16. Youths' Caretaking of Their Adolescent Sisters' Children: Results from Two Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.; Slonim, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    The extent and experiences of youths' caretaking of their adolescent sisters' children have been assessed in two longitudinal studies. The first study examines the caretaking patterns of 132 Latino and African American youth during middle and late adolescence. The second study involves 110 Latino youth whose teenage sister has recently given…

  17. Brothers and Sisters of Children with Disabilities: An Annotated Bibliography. Families as Allies Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smieja, Linda L.; And Others

    This annotated bibliography provides a comprehensive review of literature focusing on brothers and sisters of children with emotional disorders. Some material addressing brothers and sisters of children who have physical, mental, or developmental disabilities is also included. The bibliography lists approximately 80 references covering a 10-year

  18. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  19. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  20. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  1. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  2. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  3. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  4. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  5. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  6. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  7. 20 CFR 410.215 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or...; Duration of Entitlement; Filing of Claims and Evidence 410.215 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) parent, brother, or sister is entitled to benefits beginning with the month all...

  8. 20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or sister if all of the following requirements are met:...

  9. 20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or sister if all of the following requirements are met:...

  10. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  11. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  12. 20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or sister if all of the following requirements are met:...

  13. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  14. 20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or sister if all of the following requirements are met:...

  15. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  16. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  17. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  18. Addressing the Apparent Paradox of the Catholic Sister Principal: 1940-1965

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Tom; Harford, Judith

    2013-01-01

    A body of scholarship on the history of the lives of Catholic teaching sisters has thrown up various challenges to educational historians. One challenge can be posed by asking how teaching sisters were able to go on to take up leadership positions. This is prompted by the observation that a particular body of literature for the period 1940-1965

  19. Evaluation of the Eugene, Oregon Big Brother-Big Sister Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Diane L.

    This document reports on parent and elementary pupil expectations regarding participation in a Big Brother-Big Sister type program. The parents and students included were all new to the program and experiencing the relationship with a Big Brother or Sister for the first time. In the program a community volunteer befriended a youngster at the

  20. 40 CFR 79.65 - In vivo sister chromatid exchange assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... references should be consulted. (1) 40 CFR 798.5915, In vivo Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay. (2) Kato, H...) assay detects the ability of a chemical to enhance the exchange of DNA between two sister chromatids of... ligation of at least two DNA helices. (c) Test method—(1) Principle of the test method. (i) Groups...

  1. 40 CFR 79.65 - In vivo sister chromatid exchange assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... references should be consulted. (1) 40 CFR 798.5915, In vivo Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay. (2) Kato, H...) assay detects the ability of a chemical to enhance the exchange of DNA between two sister chromatids of... ligation of at least two DNA helices. (c) Test method—(1) Principle of the test method. (i) Groups...

  2. 40 CFR 79.65 - In vivo sister chromatid exchange assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... references should be consulted. (1) 40 CFR 798.5915, In vivo Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay. (2) Kato, H...) assay detects the ability of a chemical to enhance the exchange of DNA between two sister chromatids of... ligation of at least two DNA helices. (c) Test method—(1) Principle of the test method. (i) Groups...

  3. Having a Brother or Sister with Down Syndrome: Perspectives from Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Skotko, Brian G.; Levine, Susan P.; Goldstein, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study asks brothers and sisters about their feelings and perceptions toward their sibling with Down syndrome. We analyzed valid and reliable surveys from 822 brothers and sisters whose families were on the mailing lists of six non-profit Down syndrome organizations around the country. More than 96% of brothers/sisters that responded to the survey indicated that they had affection toward their sibling with Down syndrome; and 94% of older siblings expressed feelings of pride. Less than 10% felt embarrassed, and less than 5% expressed a desire to trade their sibling in for another brother or sister without Down syndrome. Among older siblings, 88% felt that they were better people because of their siblings with Down syndrome, and more than 90% plan to remain involved in their siblings lives as they become adults. The vast majority of brothers and sisters describe their relationship with their sibling with Down syndrome as positive and enriching. PMID:21910244

  4. Sgo1 is required for co-segregation of sister chromatids during achiasmate meiosis I

    PubMed Central

    Dudas, Andrej; Ahmad, Shazia

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of chromosome number during meiosis is achieved by two successive rounds of chromosome segregation, called meiosis I and meiosis II. While meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that sister kinetochores are bi-oriented and segregate to opposite poles, recombined homologous chromosomes segregate during the first meiotic division. Formation of chiasmata, mono-orientation of sister kinetochores and protection of centromeric cohesion are three major features of meiosis I chromosomes which ensure the reductional nature of chromosome segregation. Here we show that sister chromatids frequently segregate to opposite poles during meiosis I in fission yeast cells that lack both chiasmata and the protector of centromeric cohesion Sgo1. Our data are consistent with the notion that sister kinetochores are frequently bi-oriented in the absence of chiasmata and that Sgo1 prevents equational segregation of sister chromatids during achiasmate meiosis I. PMID:21330786

  5. fMRI and corpus callosum relationships in monozygotic twins discordant for handedness.

    PubMed

    Gurd, J M; Cowell, P E; Lux, S; Rezai, R; Cherkas, L; Ebers, G C

    2013-03-01

    To further investigate brain structure and function in 26 handedness discordant monozygotic twin pairs (MzHd), MRI and behavioural assessments were carried out. These showed significant correlation between language-specific functional laterality in inferior and middle frontal gyri, and anterior corpus callosum. Previous studies of handedness discordant monozygotic twins failed to resolve the issue concerning handedness and hemispheric laterality for language due to methodological disparities. The results would be relevant to genetic theories as well as to brain structure:function explanations. MzHd twins underwent MRI and fMRI scanning as well as behavioural assessment of motor performance and cognition. There were significant differences on MRI and fMRI laterality measures, as well as a significant correlation between anterior callosal widths and functional laterality. LH twins showed higher frequencies of atypical functional laterality. There was no significant within-twin pair correlation on fMRI verbal laterality, nor did results show within-twin pair differences on verbal fluency or IQ. Implications for the field of laterality research pertain to frontal hemispheric equipotentiality for verbal processes in healthy individuals. In particular, there can be an apparent lack of cognitive 'cost' to atypical laterality. An fMRI verbal laterality index correlated significantly with corpus callosum widths near Broca's area. PMID:22527119

  6. A Genome-Wide Scan of DNA Methylation Markers for Distinguishing Monozygotic Twins.

    PubMed

    Du, Qingqing; Zhu, Guijun; Fu, Guangping; Zhang, Xiaojing; Fu, Lihong; Li, Shujin; Cong, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Identification of individuals within pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins remains unresolved using common forensic DNA typing technology. For some criminal cases involving MZ twins as suspects, the twins had to be released due to inability to identify which of the pair was the perpetrator. In this study, we performed a genome-wide scan on whole blood-derived DNA from four pairs of healthy phenotypically concordant MZ twins using the methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing technology to identify candidate DNA methylation markers with capacity to distinguish MZ twins within a pair. We identified 38 differential methylation regions showing within-pair methylation differences in all four MZ pairs. These are all located in CpG islands, 17 of which are promoter-associated, 17 are intergenic islands, and four are intragenic islands. Genes associated with these markers are related with cell proliferation, differentiation, and growth and development, including zinc finger proteins, PRRX2, RBBP9, or are involved in G-protein signaling, such as the regulator of G-protein signaling 16. Further validation studies on additional MZ twins are now required to evaluate the broader utility of these 38 markers for forensic use. PMID:26500037

  7. Risk of Oral Clefts in twins

    PubMed Central

    Grosen, Dorthe; Bille, Camilla; Petersen, Inge; Skytthe, Axel; von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe; Murray, Jeffrey Clark; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    Background Small studies have indicated that twinning increases the risk of oral cleft. Methods We used data from a Danish national population-based cohort study to investigate whether twinning was associated with isolated oral cleft, and to estimate the twin probandwise concordance rate and heritability. Twins (207 affected/130,710) and singletons (7766 affected/4,798,526) born from 1936 through 2004 in Denmark were ascertained by linkage among the Danish Facial Cleft Database, the Danish Twin Registry and the Civil Registration System. We computed oral cleft prevalence and prevalence proportion ratio for twins versus singletons, stratified for three sub-phenotypes. Probandwise concordance rates and heritability for twins were estimated for two phenotypescleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate (CP). Results The prevalence of oral cleft was 15.8 per 10,000 twins and 16.6 per 10,000 singletons (prevalence proportion ratio = 0.95; 95% confidence interval = 0.83 1.1). This prevalence was similar for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. The probandwise concordance rate was higher for CL/P for monozygotic twins than for dizygotic twins (50 % vs. 8%, respectively). A similar contrast was present for CP. Recurrence risk for both types of clefts was greater in dizygotic twins than in non-twin siblings. Heritability estimates were above 90% for both CL/P and CP. Conclusion No excess risk of oral cleft could be demonstrated for twins compared with singletons. The concordance rates and heritability estimates for both types of clefts show a strong genetic component. PMID:21423016

  8. The geography and ecology of plant speciation: range overlap and niche divergence in sister species.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Brian L; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2014-03-01

    A goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the roles of geography and ecology in speciation. The recent shared ancestry of sister species can leave a major imprint on their geographical and ecological attributes, possibly revealing processes involved in speciation. We examined how ecological similarity, range overlap and range asymmetry are related to time since divergence of 71 sister species pairs in the California Floristic Province (CFP). We found that plants exhibit strikingly different age-range correlation patterns from those found for animals; the latter broadly support allopatric speciation as the primary mode of speciation. By contrast, plant sisters in the CFP were sympatric in 80% of cases and range sizes of sisters differed by a mean of 10-fold. Range overlap and range asymmetry were greatest in younger sisters. These results suggest that speciation mechanisms broadly grouped under 'budding' speciation, in which a larger ranged progenitor gives rise to a smaller ranged derivative species, are probably common. The ecological and reproductive similarity of sisters was significantly greater than that of sister-non-sister congeners for every trait assessed. However, shifts in at least one trait were present in 93% of the sister pairs; habitat and soil shifts were especially common. Ecological divergence did not increase with range overlap contrary to expectations under character displacement in sympatry. Our results suggest that vicariant speciation is more ubiquitous in animals than plants, perhaps owing to the sensitivity of plants to fine-scale environmental heterogeneity. Despite high levels of range overlap, ecological shifts in the process of budding speciation may result in low rates of fine-scale spatial co-occurrence. These results have implications for ecological studies of trait evolution and community assembly; despite high levels of sympatry, sister taxa and potentially other close relatives, may be missing from local communities. PMID:24452025

  9. The geography and ecology of plant speciation: range overlap and niche divergence in sister species

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Brian L.; Strauss, Sharon Y.

    2014-01-01

    A goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the roles of geography and ecology in speciation. The recent shared ancestry of sister species can leave a major imprint on their geographical and ecological attributes, possibly revealing processes involved in speciation. We examined how ecological similarity, range overlap and range asymmetry are related to time since divergence of 71 sister species pairs in the California Floristic Province (CFP). We found that plants exhibit strikingly different age-range correlation patterns from those found for animals; the latter broadly support allopatric speciation as the primary mode of speciation. By contrast, plant sisters in the CFP were sympatric in 80% of cases and range sizes of sisters differed by a mean of 10-fold. Range overlap and range asymmetry were greatest in younger sisters. These results suggest that speciation mechanisms broadly grouped under budding speciation, in which a larger ranged progenitor gives rise to a smaller ranged derivative species, are probably common. The ecological and reproductive similarity of sisters was significantly greater than that of sisternon-sister congeners for every trait assessed. However, shifts in at least one trait were present in 93% of the sister pairs; habitat and soil shifts were especially common. Ecological divergence did not increase with range overlap contrary to expectations under character displacement in sympatry. Our results suggest that vicariant speciation is more ubiquitous in animals than plants, perhaps owing to the sensitivity of plants to fine-scale environmental heterogeneity. Despite high levels of range overlap, ecological shifts in the process of budding speciation may result in low rates of fine-scale spatial co-occurrence. These results have implications for ecological studies of trait evolution and community assembly; despite high levels of sympatry, sister taxa and potentially other close relatives, may be missing from local communities. PMID:24452025

  10. Spontaneous Posterior Uterine Rupture in Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smid, Marcela C; Waltner-Toews, Rebecca; Goodnight, William

    2016-03-01

    Background?The maternal and fetal risks of uterine distension in rapidly progressive twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in the setting of prior uterine scar are poorly characterized. Case?We present the case of a 42-year-old woman, G4P1201, at 21 weeks gestation with stage-1 TTTS who developed a spontaneous posterior uterine rupture necessitating emergent laparotomy and delivery of previable fetuses, possibly due to prior uterine scar from a displaced intrauterine device. Conclusion?TTTS may be a risk factor for uterine rupture, including uterine rupture in atypical anatomic locations. Prior unrecognized uterine scars, including perforations, may magnify the risk for atypical uterine rupture in the setting of excessive uterine distension. PMID:26929874

  11. Cohort Profile: Swedish Twin Study on Prediction and Prevention of Asthma (STOPPA).

    PubMed

    Almqvist, Catarina; rtqvist, Anne K; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Lundholm, Cecilia; Lichtenstein, Paul; Magnusson, Patrik K E

    2015-06-01

    Asthma is a common childhood disease and several risk factors have been identified; however, the impact of genes and environment is not fully understood. The aim of the Swedish Twin study On Prediction and Prevention of Asthma (STOPPA) is to identify environmental (birth characteristics and early life) and genetic (including epigenetic) factors as determinants for asthmatic disease. Based on the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) (parental interview at 9 or 12 years, N ~23,900) and an asthma and/or wheezing algorithm, we identified a sample of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) same-sexed twin pairs. The twin pairs were classified as asthma concordant (ACC), asthma discordant (ADC) and healthy concordant (HCC). A sample of 9- to 14-year-old twins and their parents were invited to participate in a clinical examination. Background characteristics were collected in questionnaires and obtained from the National Health Registers. A clinical examination was performed to test lung function and capacity (spirometry with reversibility test and exhaled nitric oxide) and collect blood (serology and DNA), urine (metabolites), feces (microbiota), and saliva (cortisol). In total, 376 twin pairs (752 individual twins) completed the study, response rate 52%. All participating twins answered the questionnaire and >90% participated in lung function testing, blood-, and saliva sampling. This article describes the design, recruitment, data collection, measures, and background characteristics, as well as ongoing and planned analyses in STOPPA. Potential gains of the study include the identification of biomarkers, the emergence of candidates for drug development, and new leads for prevention of asthma and allergic disease. PMID:25900604

  12. Twinning in magnesium under dynamic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Neha; Hazeli, Kavan; Ramesh, Kaliat T.

    2015-09-01

    Twinning is an important mode of deformation in magnesium (Mg) and its alloys at high strain rates. Twinning in this material leads to important effects such as mechanical anisotropy, texture evolution, tension-compression asymmetry, and sometimes non-Schmid effects. Extension twins in Mg can accommodate significant plastic deformation as they grow, and thus twinning affects the overall rate of plastic deformation. We use an experimental approach to study the deformation twinning mechanism under dynamic loading. We perform normal plate impact recovery experiments (with microsecond pulse durations) on pure polycrystalline Mg specimens. Estimates of average TB velocity under the known impact stress are obtained by characterization of twin sizes and aspect ratios developed within the target during the loading pulse. The measured average TB velocities in our experiments are of the order of several m s-1. These velocities are several orders of magnitude higher than those so far measured in Mg under quasi-static loading conditions. Electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) is then used to characterize the nature of the twins and the microstructural evolution. Detailed crystallographic analysis of the twins enables us to understand twin nucleation and growth of twin variants under dynamic loading.

  13. Why the Healing Gods Are Twins

    PubMed Central

    Hankoff, Leon D.

    1977-01-01

    The association of twins with health-giving powers is widespread in mythology, folklore, and religion. The Ashvins of the Rig-Veda, the classical Dioscuri, and the early Christian saints Cosmos and Damian are among the many examples of twins divinely empowered in the area of health and fertility. A characteristic set of attributes of twins recurs in different mythologies of wide distribution. In addition to healing, divine twins are often empowered with the ability to revive the dead, increase the fertility of man, animals, and crops, influence the weather, predict the future, and insure victory in battle. In some traditional societies these special attributes are thought to extend to all of the twins and their parents in the tribe. Ancient and primitive societies supposed that the birth of twins was associated with divine influence, the mother having been visited or otherwise affected by supernatural powers. A frequent explanation was that twins were the result of superfetation, a divine impregnation occurring along with that by the lawful husband. The specific powers of divine twins appear to be a reflection of the particular form of origin of twins through divine interference with the fertilization process. The twins thus share some of the powers of the divine parent, particularly those pertaining to fertility. Their dual paternity and its inherent competition is related to their martial interests as well as their ability to resolve ambivalent or ambiguous situations and predict outcomes. PMID:560764

  14. Why the healing gods are twins.

    PubMed

    Hankoff, L D

    1977-01-01

    The association of twins with health-giving powers is widespread in mythology, folklore, and religion. The Ashvins of the Rig-Veda, the classical Dioscuri, and the early Christian saints Cosmos and Damian are among the many examples of twins divinely empowered in the area of health and fertility. A characteristic set of attributes of twins recurs in different mythologies of wide distribution. In addition to healing, divine twins are often empowered with the ability to revive the dead, increase the fertility of man, animals, and crops, influence the weather, predict the future, and insure victory in battle. In some traditional societies these special attributes are thought to extend to all of the twins and their parents in the tribe.Ancient and primitive societies supposed that the birth of twins was associated with divine influence, the mother having been visited or otherwise affected by supernatural powers. A frequent explanation was that twins were the result of superfetation, a divine impregnation occurring along with that by the lawful husband. The specific powers of divine twins appear to be a reflection of the particular form of origin of twins through divine interference with the fertilization process. The twins thus share some of the powers of the divine parent, particularly those pertaining to fertility. Their dual paternity and its inherent competition is related to their martial interests as well as their ability to resolve ambivalent or ambiguous situations and predict outcomes. PMID:560764

  15. Deformation twinning: Influence of strain rate

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.T. III

    1993-11-01

    Twins in most crystal structures, including advanced materials such as intermetallics, form more readily as the temperature of deformation is decreased or the rate of deformation is increased. Both parameters lead to the suppression of thermally-activated dislocation processes which can result in stresses high enough to nucleate and grow deformation twins. Under high-strain rate or shock-loading/impact conditions deformation twinning is observed to be promoted even in high stacking fault energy FCC metals and alloys, composites, and ordered intermetallics which normally do not readily deform via twinning. Under such conditions and in particular under the extreme loading rates typical of shock wave deformation the competition between slip and deformation twinning can be examined in detail. In this paper, examples of deformation twinning in the intermetallics TiAl, Ti-48Al-lV and Ni{sub 3}A as well in the cermet Al-B{sub 4}C as a function of strain rate will be presented. Discussion includes: (1) the microstructural and experimental variables influencing twin formation in these systems and twinning topics related to high-strain-rate loading, (2) the high velocity of twin formation, and (3) the influence of deformation twinning on the constitutive response of advanced materials.

  16. Congenital malaria in newborn twins.

    PubMed

    Opare, D A

    2012-09-01

    A 28-year-old woman (G2P1A), with 36 weeks gestation, reported to a health facility in Sunyani on 22(nd) February 2009 with history of labour pains, without fever. She was reported to have taken sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria prophylaxis during the pregnancy but did not use insecticide-treated net. She delivered twins on the same day. The mother and the twins developed fever on the same day. A laboratory investigation on the three of them was positive for malaria parasites. The three were successfully treated with quinine. Congenital malaria is real and it is therefore recommended that babies born to mothers with malaria should be screened for congenital malaria. PMID:23661831

  17. Birdshot retinochoroidopathy in monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Fich, M; Rosenberg, T

    1992-10-01

    Birdshot retinochoroidopathy is a rare ocular disorder which was named and delineated as a separate clinical entity by Ryan & Maumenee in 1980. We diagnosed birdshot retinochoroidopathy in a monozygotic pair of twins, who were affected with a time interval of 12 years, respectively. These are the first with birdshot retinochoroidopathy to be reported from the Nordic countries and the first report on this disorder in monozygotic twins. Due to night-blindness, visual field defects and a severely affected electroretinogram one of our cases initially was diagnosed as a choroidoretinal dystrophy. Birdshot retinochoroidopathy should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in retinitis pigmentosa-like disorders with widespread choroidal involvement. Our cases substantiated the evidence of a strong correlation with the presence of HLA-A29 antigen. PMID:1471497

  18. Twin tower gas fractionation apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Null, R. A.; laughlin, L. C.; Goldberg, M. L.

    1985-12-17

    An apparatus for adsorptive fractionation of a gaseous mixture. The apparatus is a twin tower fractionator or dryer including a pair of sorbent beds. A filter and valve assembly directs a flow of the gaseous mixture from a source thereof to one of the beds for removing a gaseous component of said mixture while simultaneously directing a flow of purge gas through the outer of said beds for stripping the adsorbed gas component therefrom and regenerating the bed. Microprocessor controlled valves control the flow of gases to and from said beds. The towers and associated manifolds are twin bore extrusion prism shaped of heat conductive material. The parallel bores extend axially longitudinally through the tower extrusion with each bore adapted to contain a sorbent bed or bed cartridge. conductivity probes are used to sense the moisture or adsorbed component front in the sorbent bed.

  19. Molecular analysis of the gut microbiota of identical twins with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Dicksved, Johan; Halfvarson, Jonas; Rosenquist, Magnus; Jrnerot, Gunnar; Tysk, Curt; Apajalahti, Juha; Engstrand, Lars; Jansson, Janet K

    2008-07-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that a combination of host genetics and the composition of the gut microbiota are important for development of Crohn's disease (CD). Our aim was to study identical twins with CD to determine microbial factors independent of host genetics. Fecal samples were studied from 10 monozygotic twin pairs with CD (discordant n=6 and concordant n=4) and 8 healthy twin pairs. DNA was extracted, 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified and T-RFLP fingerprints generated using general bacterial and Bacteroides group-specific primers. The microbial communities were also profiled based on their percentage G+C contents. Bacteroides 16S rRNA genes were cloned and sequenced from a subset of the samples. The bacterial diversity in each sample and similarity indices between samples were estimated based on the T-RFLP data using a combination of statistical approaches. Healthy individuals had a significantly higher bacterial diversity compared to individuals with CD. The fecal microbial communities were more similar between healthy twins than between twins with CD, especially when these were discordant for the disease. The microbial community profiles of individuals with ileal CD were significantly different from healthy individuals and those with colonic CD. Also, CD individuals had a lower relative abundance of B. uniformis and higher relative abundances of B. ovatus and B. vulgatus. Our results suggest that genetics and/or environmental exposure during childhood, in part, determine the gut microbial composition. However, CD is associated with dramatic changes in the gut microbiota and this was particularly evident for individuals with ileal CD. PMID:18401439

  20. Molecular analysis of the gut microbiota of identical twins with Crohn's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, Janet; Dicksved, Johan; Halfvarson, Jonas; Rosenquist, Magnus; Jarnerot, Gunnar; Tysk, Curt; Apajalahti, Juha; Engstrand, Lars; Jansson, Janet K.

    2008-03-14

    Increasing evidence suggests that a combination of host genetics and the composition of the gut microbiota are important for development of Crohn's disease (CD). Our aim was to study identical twins with CD to determine microbial factors independently of host genetics. Fecal samples were studied from 10 monozygotic twin pairs with CD (discordant n=6, concordant n=4) and 8 healthy twin pairs. DNA was extracted, 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified and T-RFLP fingerprints generated using general bacterial and Bacteroides group specific primers. The microbial communities were also profiled based on their % G+C contents. Bacteroides 16S rRNA genes were cloned and sequenced from a subset of the samples. The bacterial diversity in each sample and similarity indices between samples were estimated based on the T-RFLP data using a combination of statistical approaches. Healthy individuals had a significantly higher bacterial diversity compared to individuals with CD. The fecal microbial communities were more similar between healthy twins than between twins with CD, especially when these were discordant for the disease. The microbial community profiles of individuals with ileal CD were significantly different from healthy individuals and those with colonic CD. Also, CD individuals had a lower relative abundance of B. uniformis and higher relative abundances of B. ovatus and B. vulgatus. Our results suggest that genetics and/or environmental exposure during childhood in part determine the gut microbial composition. However, CD is associated with dramatic changes in the gut microbiota and this was particularly evident for individuals with ileal CD.

  1. Einstein and the twin paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesic, Peter

    2003-11-01

    Einstein was the first to discuss and resolve the 'twin paradox', which in 1905 he did not consider paradoxical and treated as a consequence of lack of simultaneity. He maintained this view until at least 1914. However, in 1918 Einstein brought forward arguments about accelerated frames of reference that tended to overshadow his initial resolution. His earlier arguments were gradually rediscovered during the subsequent controversy about this 'paradox'.

  2. Fossil sister group of craniates: predicted and found.

    PubMed

    Mallatt, Jon; Chen, Jun-yuan

    2003-10-01

    This study investigates whether the recently described Cambrian fossil Haikouella (and the very similar Yunnanozoon) throws light on the longstanding problem of the origin of craniates. In the first rigorous cladistic analysis of the relations of this animal, we took 40 anatomical characters from Haikouella and other taxa (hemichordates, tunicates, cephalochordates, conodont craniates and other craniates, plus protostomes as the outgroup) and subjected these characters to parsimony analysis. The characters included several previously unrecognized traits of Haikouella, such as upper lips resembling those of larval lampreys, the thick nature of the branchial bars, a mandibular branchial artery but no mandibular branchial bar, muscle fibers defining the myomeres, a dark fibrous sheath that defines the notochord, conclusive evidence for paired eyes, and a large hindbrain and diencephalon in the same positions as in the craniate brain. The cladistic analysis produced this tree: (protostomes, hemichordates (tunicates, (cephalochordates, (Haikouella, (conodonts + other craniates))))), with the "Haikouella + craniate" clade supported by bootstrap values that ranged from 81-96%, depending on how the analysis was structured. Thus, Haikouella is concluded to be the sister group of the craniates. Alternate hypotheses that unite Haikouella with hemichordates or cephalochordates, or consider it a basal deuterostome, received little or no support. Although it is the sister group of craniates, Haikouella is skull-less and lacks an ear, but it does have neural-crest derivatives in its branchial bars. Its craniate characters occur mostly in the head and pharynx; its widely spaced, robust branchial bars indicate it ventilated with branchiomeric muscles, not cilia. Despite its craniate mode of ventilation, Haikouella was not a predator but a suspension feeder, as shown by its cephalochordate-like endostyle, and tentacles forming a screen across the mouth. Haikouella was compared to pre-craniates predicted by recent models of craniate evolution and was found to fit these predictions closely. Specifically, it fits Northcutt and Gans' prediction that the change from ciliary to muscular ventilation preceded the change from suspension feeding to predatory feeding; it fits Butler's claim that vision was the first craniate sense to start elaborating; it is consistent with the ideas of Donoghue and others about the ancestor of conodont craniates; and, most strikingly, it resembles Mallatt's prediction of the external appearance of the ancestral craniate head. By contrast, Haikouella does not fit the widespread belief that ancestral craniates resembled hagfishes, because it has no special hagfish characters. Overall, Haikouella agrees so closely with recent predictions about pre-craniates that we conclude that the difficult problem of craniate origins is nearly solved. PMID:12905532

  3. DNA damage response in monozygotic twins discordant for smoking habits.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Francesca; Carotti, Daniela; Andreoli, Cristina; Siniscalchi, Ester; Leopardi, Paola; Caiola, Stefania; Biffoni, Mauro; Zijno, Andrea; Medda, Emanuela; Nistic, Lorenza; Rossi, Sabrina; Crebelli, Riccardo

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies in twins indicate that non-shared environment, beyond genetic factors, contributes substantially to individual variation in mutagen sensitivity; however, the role of specific causative factors (e.g. tobacco smoke, diet) was not elucidated. In this investigation, a population of 22 couples of monozygotic twins with discordant smoking habits was selected with the aim of evaluating the influence of tobacco smoke on individual response to DNA damage. The study design virtually eliminated the contribution of genetic heterogeneity to the intra-pair variation in DNA damage response, and thus any difference in the end-points investigated could directly be attributed to the non-shared environment experienced by co-twins, which included as main factor cigarette smoke exposure. Peripheral lymphocytes of study subjects were challenged ex vivo with ?-rays, and the induction, processing, fixation of DNA damage evaluated through multiple approaches. Folate status of study subjects was considered significant covariate since it is affected by smoking habits and can influence radiosensitivity. Similar responses were elicited by ?-rays in co-twins for all the end-points analysed, despite their discordant smoking habits. Folate status did not modify DNA damage response, even though a combined effect of smoking habits, low-plasma folic acid level, and ionising radiation was observed on apoptosis. A possible modulation of DNA damage response by duration and intensity of tobacco smoke exposure was suggested by Comet assay and micronucleus data, but the effect was quantitatively limited. Overall, the results obtained indicate that differences in smoking habits do not contribute to a large extent to inter-individual variability in the response to radiation-induced DNA damage observed in healthy human populations. PMID:23132286

  4. Sisters Helping Sisters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Madeleine E.

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the philosophy, organization, and management of a mentoring program for African American girls. It is based on a program sponsored by the Wheeler Avenue Baptist Church in Houston (Texas). This program matches between 25 and 50 young women with Christian women mentors. The program emphasizes Christian values,

  5. Twin and family studies reveal strong environmental and weaker genetic cues explaining heritability of eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Eileen S.; Martin, Lisa J.; Collins, Margaret H.; Kottyan, Leah; Sucharew, Heidi; He, Hua; Mukkada, Vincent A.; Succop, Paul A.; Abonia, J. Pablo; Foote, Heather; Eby, Michael D.; Grotjan, Tommie M.; Greenler, Alexandria J.; Dellon, Evan S.; Demain, Jeffrey G.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Gurian, Larry E.; Harley, John B.; Hopp, Russell J.; Kaul, Ajay; Nadeau, Kari C.; Noel, Richard J.; Putnam, Philip E.; von Tiehl, Karl F.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic antigen-driven allergic inflammatory disease, likely involving the interplay of genetic and environmental factors, yet their respective contributions to heritability are unknown. Objective To quantify risk associated with genes and environment on familial clustering of EoE. Methods Family history was obtained from a hospital-based cohort of 914 EoE probands, (n=2192 first-degree “Nuclear-Family” relatives) and the new international registry of monozygotic and dizygotic twins/triplets (n=63 EoE “Twins” probands). Frequencies, recurrence risk ratios (RRRs), heritability and twin concordance were estimated. Environmental exposures were preliminarily examined. Results Analysis of the Nuclear-Family–based cohort revealed that the rate of EoE, in first-degree relatives of a proband, was 1.8% (unadjusted) and 2.3% (sex-adjusted). RRRs ranged from 10–64, depending on the family relationship, and were higher in brothers (64.0; p=0.04), fathers (42.9; p=0.004) and males (50.7; p<0.001) compared to sisters, mothers and females, respectively. Risk of EoE for other siblings was 2.4%. In the Nuclear-Families, combined gene and common environment heritability (hgc2) was 72.0±2.7% (p<0.001). In the Twins cohort, genetic heritability was 14.5±4.0% (p<0.001), and common family environment contributed 81.0±4% (p<0.001) to phenotypic variance. Proband-wise concordance in MZ co-twins was 57.9±9.5% compared to 36.4±9.3% in DZ (p=0.11). Greater birth-weight difference between twins (p=0.01), breastfeeding (p=0.15) and Fall birth season (p=0.02) were associated with twin discordance in disease status. Conclusions EoE recurrence risk ratios are increased 10–64-fold compared with the general population. EoE in relatives is 1.8–2.4%, depending upon relationship and sex. Nuclear-Family heritability appeared to be high (72.0%). However, Twins cohort analysis revealed a powerful role for common environment (81.0%) compared with additive genetic heritability (14.5%). PMID:25258143

  6. Chromosome orientation fluorescence in situ hybridization (CO-FISH) to study sister chromatid segregation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Ester; Chavez, Elizabeth; Henderson, Alexander; Lansdorp, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, assays for sister chromatid segregation patterns relied on incorporation of BrdU and indirect methods to infer segregation patterns after two cell divisions. Here we describe a method to differentially label sister chromatids of murine cells and directly assay sister chromatid segregation patterns following one cell division in vitro and in vivo by adaptation of the well-established CO-FISH (chromosome orientation fluorescent in situ hybridization) technique. 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is incorporated into newly-formed DNA strands, followed by photolysis and exonuclease digestion to create single-stranded sister chromatids containing parental template DNA only. Such single-stranded sister chromatids are differentially labeled using unidirectional probes to major satellite sequences coupled to fluorescent markers. Differentially-labeled sister chromatids in post-mitotic cells are visualized using fluorescence microscopy and sister chromatid segregation patterns can be directly assayed after one cell division. This procedure requires four days for in vivo mouse tissues, and two days for in vitro cultured cells. PMID:20595964

  7. A Powerful Twin Arrives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    First Images from FORS2 at VLT KUEYEN on Paranal The first, major astronomical instrument to be installed at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) was FORS1 ( FO cal R educer and S pectrograph) in September 1998. Immediately after being attached to the Cassegrain focus of the first 8.2-m Unit Telescope, ANTU , it produced a series of spectacular images, cf. ESO PR 14/98. Many important observations have since been made with this outstanding facility. Now FORS2 , its powerful twin, has been installed at the second VLT Unit Telescope, KUEYEN . It is the fourth major instrument at the VLT after FORS1 , ISAAC and UVES.. The FORS2 Commissioning Team that is busy installing and testing this large and complex instrument reports that "First Light" was successfully achieved already on October 29, 1999, only two days after FORS2 was first mounted at the Cassegrain focus. Since then, various observation modes have been carefully tested, including normal and high-resolution imaging, echelle and multi-object spectroscopy, as well as fast photometry with millisecond time resolution. A number of fine images were obtained during this work, some of which are made available with the present Press Release. The FORS instruments ESO PR Photo 40a/99 ESO PR Photo 40a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 345 pix - 203k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 689 pix - 563kb] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1280 x 1103 pix - 666kb] Caption to PR Photo 40a/99: This digital photo shows the twin instruments, FORS2 at KUEYEN (in the foreground) and FORS1 at ANTU, seen in the background through the open ventilation doors in the two telescope enclosures. Although they look alike, the two instruments have specific functions, as described in the text. FORS1 and FORS2 are the products of one of the most thorough and advanced technological studies ever made of a ground-based astronomical instrument. They have been specifically designed to investigate the faintest and most remote objects in the universe. They are "multi-mode instruments" that may be used in several different observation modes. FORS2 is largely identical to FORS1 , but there are a number of important differences. For example, it contains a Mask Exchange Unit (MXU) for laser-cut star-plates [1] that may be inserted at the focus, allowing a large number of spectra of different objects, in practice up to about 70, to be taken simultaneously. Highly sophisticated software assigns slits to individual objects in an optimal way, ensuring a great degree of observing efficiency. Instead of the polarimetry optics found in FORS1 , FORS2 has new grisms that allow the use of higher spectral resolutions. The FORS project was carried out under ESO contract by a consortium of three German astronomical institutes, the Heidelberg State Observatory and the University Observatories of Göttingen and Munich. The participating institutes have invested a total of about 180 man-years of work in this unique programme. The photos below demonstrate some of the impressive possibilities with this new instrument. They are based on observations with the FORS2 standard resolution collimator (field size 6.8 x 6.8 armin = 2048 x 2048 pixels; 1 pixel = 0.20 arcsec). In addition, observations of the Crab pulsar demonstrate a new observing mode, high-speed photometry. Protostar HH-34 in Orion ESO PR Photo 40b/99 ESO PR Photo 40b/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 444 pix - 220kb] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 887 pix - 806kb] [Full-Res - JPEG: 2000 x 2217 pix - 3.6Mb] The Area around HH-34 in Orion ESO PR Photo 40c/99 ESO PR Photo 40c/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 494 pix - 262kb] [Full-Res - JPEG: 802 x 991 pix - 760 kb] The HH-34 Superjet in Orion (centre) PR Photo 40b/99 shows a three-colour composite of the young object Herbig-Haro 34 (HH-34) , now in the protostar stage of evolution. It is based on CCD frames obtained with the FORS2 instrument in imaging mode, on November 2 and 6, 1999. This object has a remarkable, very complicated appearance that includes two opposite jets that ram into the surrounding interstellar matter. This structure is produced by a machine-gun-like blast of "bullets" of dense gas ejected from the star at high velocities (approaching 250 km/sec). This seems to indicate that the star experiences episodic "outbursts" when large chunks of material fall onto it from a surrounding disk. HH-34 is located at a distance of approx. 1,500 light-years, near the famous Orion Nebula , one of the most productive star birth regions. Note also the enigmatic "waterfall" to the upper left, a feature that is still unexplained. PR Photo 40c/99 is an enlargement of a smaller area around the central object. Technical information : Photo 40b/99 is based on a composite of three images taken through three different filters: B (wavelength 429 nm; Full-Width-Half-Maximum (FWHM) 88 nm; exposure time 10 min; here rendered as blue), H-alpha (centered on the hydrogen emission line at wavelength 656 nm; FWHM 6 nm; 30 min; green) and S II (centrered at the emission lines of inonized sulphur at wavelength 673 nm; FWHM 6 nm; 30 min; red) during a period of 0.8 arcsec seeing. The field shown measures 6.8 x 6.8 arcmin and the images were recorded in frames of 2048 x 2048 pixels, each measuring 0.2 arcsec. The Full Resolution version shows the original pixels. North is up; East is left. N 70 Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud ESO PR Photo 40d/99 ESO PR Photo 40d/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 444 pix - 360kb] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 887 pix - 1.0Mb] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1997 x 2213 pix - 3.4Mb] The N 70 Nebula in the LMC ESO PR Photo 40e/99 ESO PR Photo 40e/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 485 pix - 346kb] [Full-Res - JPEG: 986 x 1196 pix - 1.2Mb] The N70 Nebula in the LMC (detail) PR Photo 40d/99 shows a three-colour composite of the N 70 nebula. It is a "Super Bubble" in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) , a satellite galaxy to the Milky Way system, located in the southern sky at a distance of about 160,000 light-years. This photo is based on CCD frames obtained with the FORS2 instrument in imaging mode in the morning of November 5, 1999. N 70 is a luminous bubble of interstellar gas, measuring about 300 light-years in diameter. It was created by winds from hot, massive stars and supernova explosions and the interior is filled with tenuous, hot expanding gas. An object like N70 provides astronomers with an excellent opportunity to explore the connection between the lifecycles of stars and the evolution of galaxies. Very massive stars profoundly affect their environment. They stir and mix the interstellar clouds of gas and dust, and they leave their mark in the compositions and locations of future generations of stars and star systems. PR Photo 40e/99 is an enlargement of a smaller area of this nebula. Technical information : Photos 40d/99 is based on a composite of three images taken through three different filters: B (429 nm; FWHM 88 nm; 3 min; here rendered as blue), V (554 nm; FWHM 111 nm; 3 min; green) and H-alpha (656 nm; FWHM 6 nm; 3 min; red) during a period of 1.0 arcsec seeing. The field shown measures 6.8 x 6.8 arcmin and the images were recorded in frames of 2048 x 2048 pixels, each measuring 0.2 arcsec. The Full Resolution version shows the original pixels. North is up; East is left. The Crab Nebula in Taurus ESO PR Photo 40f/99 ESO PR Photo 40f/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 446 pix - 262k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 892 pix - 839 kb] [Full-Res - JPEG: 2036 x 2269 pix - 3.6Mb] The Crab Nebula in Taurus ESO PR Photo 40g/99 ESO PR Photo 40g/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 444 pix - 215kb] [Full-Res - JPEG: 817 x 907 pix - 485 kb] The Crab Nebula in Taurus (detail) PR Photo 40f/99 shows a three colour composite of the well-known Crab Nebula (also known as "Messier 1" ), as observed with the FORS2 instrument in imaging mode in the morning of November 10, 1999. It is the remnant of a supernova explosion at a distance of about 6,000 light-years, observed almost 1000 years ago, in the year 1054. It contains a neutron star near its center that spins 30 times per second around its axis (see below). PR Photo 40g/99 is an enlargement of a smaller area. More information on the Crab Nebula and its pulsar is available on the web, e.g. at a dedicated website for Messier objects. In this picture, the green light is predominantly produced by hydrogen emission from material ejected by the star that exploded. The blue light is predominantly emitted by very high-energy ("relativistic") electrons that spiral in a large-scale magnetic field (so-called syncrotron emission ). It is believed that these electrons are continuously accelerated and ejected by the rapidly spinning neutron star at the centre of the nebula and which is the remnant core of the exploded star. This pulsar has been identified with the lower/right of the two close stars near the geometric center of the nebula, immediately left of the small arc-like feature, best seen in PR Photo 40g/99 . Technical information : Photo 40f/99 is based on a composite of three images taken through three different optical filters: B (429 nm; FWHM 88 nm; 5 min; here rendered as blue), R (657 nm; FWHM 150 nm; 1 min; green) and S II (673 nm; FWHM 6 nm; 5 min; red) during periods of 0.65 arcsec (R, S II) and 0.80 (B) seeing, respectively. The field shown measures 6.8 x 6.8 arcmin and the images were recorded in frames of 2048 x 2048 pixels, each measuring 0.2 arcsec. The Full Resolution version shows the original pixels. North is up; East is left. The High Time Resolution mode (HIT) of FORS2 ESO PR Photo 40h/99 ESO PR Photo 40h/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 304 pix - 90kb] [Normal - JPEG: 707 x 538 pix - 217kb] Time Sequence of the Pulsar in the Crab Nebula ESO PR Photo 40i/99 ESO PR Photo 40i/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 324 pix - 42kb] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 647 pix - 87kb] Lightcurve of the Pulsar in the Crab Nebula In combination with the large light collecting power of the VLT Unit Telescopes, the high time resolution (25 nsec = 0.000000025 sec) of the ESO-developed FIERA CCD-detector controller opens a new observing window for celestial objects that undergo light intensity variations on very short time scales. A first implementation of this type of observing mode was tested with FORS2 during the first commissioning phase, by means of one of the most fascinating astronomical objects, the rapidly spinning neutron star in the Crab Nebula . It is also known as the Crab pulsar and is an exceedingly dense object that represents an extreme state of matter - it weighs as much as the Sun, but measures only about 30 km across. The result presented here was obtained in the so-called trailing mode , during which one of the rectangular openings of the Multi-Object Spectroscopy (MOS) assembly within FORS2 is placed in front of the lower end of the field. In this way, the entire surface of the CCD is covered, except the opening in which the object under investigation is positioned. By rotating this opening, some neighbouring objects (e.g. stars for alignment) may be observed simultaneously. As soon as the shutter is opened, the charges on the chip are progressively shifted upwards, one pixel at a time, until those first collected in the bottom row behind the opening have reached the top row. Then the entire CCD is read out and the digital data with the full image is stored in the computer. In this way, successive images (or spectra) of the object are recorded in the same frame, displaying the intensity variation with time during the exposure. For this observation, the total exposure lasted 2.5 seconds. During this time interval the image of the pulsar (and those of some neighbouring stars) were shifted 2048 times over the 2048 rows of the CCD. Each individual exposure therefore lasted exactly 1.2 msec (0.0012 sec), corresponding to a nominal time-resolution of 2.4 msec (2 pixels). Faster or slower time resolutions are possible by increasing or decreasing the shift and read-out rate [2]. In ESO PR Photo 40h/99 , the continuous lines in the top and bottom half are produced by normal stars of constant brightness, while the series of dots represents the individual pulses of the Crab pulsar, one every 33 milliseconds (i.e. the neutron star rotates around its axis 30 times per second). It is also obvious that these dots are alternatively brighter and fainter: they mirror the double-peaked profile of the light pulses, as shown in ESO PR Photo 40i/99 . In this diagramme, the time increases along the abscissa axis (1 pixel = 1.2 msec) and the momentary intensity (uncalibrated) is along the ordinate axis. One full revolution of the neutron star corresponds to the distance from one high peak to the next, and the diagramme therefore covers six consecutive revolutions (about 200 milliseconds). Following thorough testing, this new observing mode will allow to investigate the brightness variations of this and many other objects in great detail in order to gain new and fundamental insights in the physical mechanisms that produce the radiation pulses. In addition, it is foreseen to do high time resolution spectroscopy of rapidly varying phenomena. Pushing it to the limits with an 8.2-m telescope like KUEYEN will be a real challenge to the observers that will most certainly lead to great and exciting research projects in various fields of modern astrophysics. Technical information : The frame shown in Photo 40h/99 was obtained during a total exposure time of 2.5 sec without any optical filtre. During this time, the charges on the CCD were shifted over 2048 rows; each row was therefore exposed during 1.2 msec. The bright continuous line comes from the star next to the pulsar; the orientation was such that the "observation slit" was placed over two neighbouring stars. Preliminary data reduction: 11 pixels were added across the pulsar image to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and the background light from the Crab Nebula was subtracted for the same reason. Division by a brighter star (also background-subtracted, but not shown in the image) helped to reduce the influence of the Earth's atmosphere. Notes [1] The masks are produced by the Mask Manufacturing Unit (MMU) built by the VIRMOS Consortium for the VIMOS and NIRMOS instruments that will be installed at the VLT MELIPAL and YEPUN telescopes, respectively. [2] The time resolution achieved during the present test was limited by the maximum charge transfer rate of this particular CCD chip; in the future, FORS2 may be equipped with a new chip with a rate that is up to 20 times faster. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../ ). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  8. 179. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    179. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, September, 1912. Photographer unknown. VIEW OF LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; VIEW OF LOW LINE CANAL IN PETE LINK'S FIELD. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  9. Twins and Siblings: Concordance for School-Age Mental Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Ronald S.

    1977-01-01

    The analysis of WISC scores for 314 school-age twins and 221 of their siblings revealed high concordance of full-scale and verbal IQ for monozygotic twins. The IQ concordance for dizygotic twins, twin-sibling pairs, and sibling pairs were comparable to each other but significantly lower than that for monozygotic twins. (Author/JMB)

  10. 189. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    189. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ROCK CREEK CROSSING, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  11. 182. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    182. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and date unknown. MILNER DAM TUNNELS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; APPROACH TO TUNNELS. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  12. 36. Photocopy of Photograph (original print located in the Twin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of Photograph (original print located in the Twin Falls Library, Twin Falls, Idaho). Original Photograph, Bisbee Photo, William H. Eaton, Photographer, date unknown. COTTONWOOD FLUME SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  13. 195. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    195. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. PLAN OF CONSTRUCTION AREA PLANT, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  14. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF THE LOWER END OF TWIN LAKES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF THE LOWER END OF TWIN LAKES SHOWING THE HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS AT THE EDGE OF THE WATER NEAR CENTER OF THE PHOTO WITH THE NEW TWIN LAKES DAM JUST BEHIND. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  15. 192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP (DAM DRAWN IN), MILNER SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; RIGHT SIDE OF MAP (LEFT ON ID-15-183). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  16. 191. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    191. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. SPILLWAY GATES, MILNER DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  17. 186. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    186. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. DRY CREEK RESERVOIR, CASSIA COUNTY (NOW TWIN FALLS COUNTY); MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  18. 181. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    181. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and date unknown. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  19. 157. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    157. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Field Book #360, Page 75, entitled, 'Clay-Seam Cut-Off.' Cross-Reference: ID-15-153). MILNER DAM SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  20. 194. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    194. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. PROFILE AND GATE PLAN, NORTH ISLAND CROSS SECTION OF DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  1. 193. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    193. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. MILNER DAM PROFILE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  2. 185. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    185. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. MILNER DAM CROSS SECTION PLAN, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  3. 190. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    190. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. GENERAL PLAN OF MILNER DAM TUNNELS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  4. 183. Photocopy of map (Twin Falls Canal Company). TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    183. Photocopy of map (Twin Falls Canal Company). TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; MAP, LEFT SIDE ONLY. CROSS REFERENCE: ID-15-192. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  5. 177. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    177. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, September, 1912. Photographer unknown. COTTONWOOD FLUME, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW FROM UPPER SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  6. 187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM LOCATION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  7. 178. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. C. R. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    178. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. C. R. Savage, Photographer, March, 1905. FIRST FULL WATER OVER MILNER DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; SOUTHWEST VIEW OF SPILLWAY GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  8. 152. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    152. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #363, Page 1). 1912 CONDITION REPORT OF MILNER DAM AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  9. 155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 1, #46 Division One). STATEMENT RE: SURVEY ALIGNMENT 3/03, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  10. 158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Transit Book #404T, Page 3, #46, Division One). START OF MAIN CANAL SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  11. 151. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    151. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #363, Page 20). SURVEY PRINT SHOWING POINT SPILLWAY AND FIELD NOTES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  12. 154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 2, #46 Division One). STATEMENT OF SIGHT-SETTING FOR 1903 SURVEY TO ALIGN SOUTH SIDE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  13. 153. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    153. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Field Book #360, Page 74, entitled, 'Clay-Seam Cut-Off.' Cross-Reference: ID-15-157). MILNER DAM SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  14. Twin Talk: Manifestations of Twin Status in the Speech of Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmstrom, Patricia M.; Silva, Marilyn N.

    1986-01-01

    Crib-talk between identical twin girls and diary records of their speech were examined. It was found that the subjects developed conventional syntax and vocabulary but adapted them in ways which appropriately expressed their twin status. (Author/SED)

  15. The TWINS Science Data System after the launch of TWINS 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, J.; Valek, P.; Skoug, R.; Delapp, D.; Redfern, J.; Carruth, B.; McComas, D.

    2007-05-01

    The Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) 1 satellite is in orbit and science data are expected to commence in the near future. TWINS-1 comprises half of the TWINS stereoscopic neutral atom imaging system that will advance our knowledge of the Earth's ring current. To support the expected data return, we have developed a Science Data System (SDS) for the TWINS mission. The TWINS SDS is an IDL- and Java- driven data interface that operates primarily via a web browser, and has as its spine an SQL-queryable database. Through this interface, TWINS science data will be provided to the TWINS team, the space science community, and the public. In this paper we present the current and future capabilities of the TWINS SDS, as well as how the SDS fits into virtual observatory infrastructure.

  16. Fullerton Virtual Twin Study: an update.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L; McGuire, Shirley A; Graham, Jamie L; Stohs, Joanne Hoven

    2013-02-01

    Virtual twins (VTs) are same-age unrelated siblings reared together from early infancy. These unique sibling sets replicate twinship, but without the genetic link. The first VT pair was identified and studied at the University of Minnesota in 1990, launching the development of the Fullerton Virtual Twin Study at California State University, Fullerton (CSUF) in 1991. The registry currently includes 151 pairs, mostly children, with new pairs identified on a continuous basis. Research with VTs includes studies of general intelligence, body size, interpersonal trust, social coordination, social networks, and parenting. In some cases, VTs have been studied in conjunction with pairs of monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, full siblings, and friends as part of TAPS (Twins, Adoptees, Peers and Siblings), a collaborative project conducted between CSUF and the University of San Francisco, 2002-2006. VTs will also serve as a comparison group for epigenetic analyses of young Chinese twins reared apart and together. PMID:23218132

  17. Advanced characterization of twins using automated EBSD

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S. I.; Bingert, J. F.; Mason, T. A.; Larsen, Ryan J.

    2002-01-01

    This poster describes resuns obtained using an automated, crystallographically-based technique for twin identification. The technique is based on the automated EBSD. The key features of the analysis are identification of potential twin boundaries by their misorientation character, identification of the distinct boundary planes among the symmetrically equiwlent candidates. and validation of these boundaries through comparison with the boundary and twin plane traces in the sample cross section. Results on the application of this technique to deformation twins in zirconium are analyzed for the effect of twin type and amount and sense of uniaxial deformation. The accumulation of strain tends to increase the misorientation deviation at least to the degree of the trace deviation compared with recrystalllzation twins in nickel.

  18. Macrodeformation Twins in Single-Crystal Aluminum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, F; Wang, L; Fan, D; Bie, B X; Zhou, X M; Suo, T; Li, Y L; Chen, M W; Liu, C L; Qi, M L; Zhu, M H; Luo, S N

    2016-02-19

    Deformation twinning in pure aluminum has been considered to be a unique property of nanostructured aluminum. A lingering mystery is whether deformation twinning occurs in coarse-grained or single-crystal aluminum at scales beyond nanotwins. Here, we present the first experimental demonstration of macrodeformation twins in single-crystal aluminum formed under an ultrahigh strain rate (∼10^{6}  s^{-1}) and large shear strain (200%) via dynamic equal channel angular pressing. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the frustration of subsonic dislocation motion leads to transonic deformation twinning. Deformation twinning is rooted in the rate dependences of dislocation motion and twinning, which are coupled, complementary processes during severe plastic deformation under ultrahigh strain rates. PMID:26943543

  19. Macrodeformation Twins in Single-Crystal Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, F.; Wang, L.; Fan, D.; Bie, B. X.; Zhou, X. M.; Suo, T.; Li, Y. L.; Chen, M. W.; Liu, C. L.; Qi, M. L.; Zhu, M. H.; Luo, S. N.

    2016-02-01

    Deformation twinning in pure aluminum has been considered to be a unique property of nanostructured aluminum. A lingering mystery is whether deformation twinning occurs in coarse-grained or single-crystal aluminum at scales beyond nanotwins. Here, we present the first experimental demonstration of macrodeformation twins in single-crystal aluminum formed under an ultrahigh strain rate (˜106 s-1 ) and large shear strain (200%) via dynamic equal channel angular pressing. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the frustration of subsonic dislocation motion leads to transonic deformation twinning. Deformation twinning is rooted in the rate dependences of dislocation motion and twinning, which are coupled, complementary processes during severe plastic deformation under ultrahigh strain rates.

  20. Sister Mary Joseph Nodule: A Rare Presentation of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Tun, Nay Min; Yoe, Linus

    2015-01-01

    Background Sister Mary Joseph nodule refers to metastatic malignancy of the periumbilical region. Umbilical metastasis is an indicator of advanced malignant disease. Case Report We present the case of an 88-year-old patient presenting with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding, inguinal lymphadenopathy, and physical findings of a palpable umbilical nodule (Sister Mary Joseph nodule). Further workup was consistent with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Conclusion Because Sister Mary Joseph nodule may be the only manifestation of underlying malignancy, thorough physical examination plays an important role in diagnosing the malignancy in a more confined state that may have a positive impact on the patient's length of survival. PMID:26412998

  1. Newly discovered sister lineage sheds light on early ant evolution

    PubMed Central

    Rabeling, Christian; Brown, Jeremy M.; Verhaagh, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Ants are the world's most conspicuous and important eusocial insects and their diversity, abundance, and extreme behavioral specializations make them a model system for several disciplines within the biological sciences. Here, we report the discovery of a new ant that appears to represent the sister lineage to all extant ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The phylogenetic position of this cryptic predator from the soils of the Amazon rainforest was inferred from several nuclear genes, sequenced from a single leg. Martialis heureka (gen. et sp. nov.) also constitutes the sole representative of a new, morphologically distinct subfamily of ants, the Martialinae (subfam. nov.). Our analyses have reduced the likelihood of long-branch attraction artifacts that have troubled previous phylogenetic studies of early-diverging ants and therefore solidify the emerging view that the most basal extant ant lineages are cryptic, hypogaeic foragers. On the basis of morphological and phylogenetic evidence we suggest that these specialized subterranean predators are the sole surviving representatives of a highly divergent lineage that arose near the dawn of ant diversification and have persisted in ecologically stable environments like tropical soils over great spans of time. PMID:18794530

  2. Sororin actively maintains sister chromatid cohesion.

    PubMed

    Ladurner, Rene; Kreidl, Emanuel; Ivanov, Miroslav P; Ekker, Heinz; Idarraga-Amado, Maria Helena; Busslinger, Georg A; Wutz, Gordana; Cisneros, David A; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2016-03-15

    Cohesion between sister chromatids is established during DNA replication but needs to be maintained to enable proper chromosome-spindle attachments in mitosis or meiosis. Cohesion is mediated by cohesin, but also depends on cohesin acetylation and sororin. Sororin contributes to cohesion by stabilizing cohesin on DNA. Sororin achieves this by inhibiting WAPL, which otherwise releases cohesin from DNA and destroys cohesion. Here we describe mouse models which enable the controlled depletion of sororin by gene deletion or auxin-induced degradation. We show that sororin is essential for embryonic development, cohesion maintenance, and proper chromosome segregation. We further show that the acetyltransferases ESCO1 and ESCO2 are essential for stabilizing cohesin on chromatin, that their only function in this process is to acetylate cohesin's SMC3 subunit, and that DNA replication is also required for stable cohesin-chromatin interactions. Unexpectedly, we find that sororin interacts dynamically with the cohesin complexes it stabilizes. This implies that sororin recruitment to cohesin does not depend on the DNA replication machinery or process itself, but on a property that cohesin acquires during cohesion establishment. PMID:26903600

  3. Ecologically distinct dinosaurian sister group shows early diversification of Ornithodira.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Sterling J; Sidor, Christian A; Irmis, Randall B; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Smith, Roger M H; Tsuji, Linda A

    2010-03-01

    The early evolutionary history of Ornithodira (avian-line archosaurs) has hitherto been documented by incomplete (Lagerpeton) or unusually specialized forms (pterosaurs and Silesaurus). Recently, a variety of Silesaurus-like taxa have been reported from the Triassic period of both Gondwana and Laurasia, but their relationships to each other and to dinosaurs remain a subject of debate. Here we report on a new avian-line archosaur from the early Middle Triassic (Anisian) of Tanzania. Phylogenetic analysis places Asilisaurus kongwe gen. et sp. nov. as an avian-line archosaur and a member of the Silesauridae, which is here considered the sister taxon to Dinosauria. Silesaurids were diverse and had a wide distribution by the Late Triassic, with a novel ornithodiran bauplan including leaf-shaped teeth, a beak-like lower jaw, long, gracile limbs, and a quadrupedal stance. Our analysis suggests that the dentition and diet of silesaurids, ornithischians and sauropodomorphs evolved independently from a plesiomorphic carnivorous form. As the oldest avian-line archosaur, Asilisaurus demonstrates the antiquity of both Ornithodira and the dinosaurian lineage. The initial diversification of Archosauria, previously documented by crocodilian-line archosaurs in the Anisian, can now be shown to include a contemporaneous avian-line radiation. The unparalleled taxonomic diversity of the Manda archosaur assemblage indicates that archosaur diversification was well underway by the Middle Triassic or earlier. PMID:20203608

  4. Chloroplast Phylogenomics Indicates that Ginkgo biloba Is Sister to Cycads

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chung-Shien; Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Huang, Ya-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies have not yet reached a consensus on the placement of Ginkgoales, which is represented by the only living species, Ginkgo biloba (common name: ginkgo). At least six discrepant placements of ginkgo have been proposed. This study aimed to use the chloroplast phylogenomic approach to examine possible factors that lead to such disagreeing placements. We found the sequence types used in the analyses as the most critical factor in the conflicting placements of ginkgo. In addition, the placement of ginkgo varied in the trees inferred from nucleotide (NU) sequences, which notably depended on breadth of taxon sampling, tree-building methods, codon positions, positions of Gnetopsida (common name: gnetophytes), and including or excluding gnetophytes in data sets. In contrast, the trees inferred from amino acid (AA) sequences congruently supported the monophyly of a ginkgo and Cycadales (common name: cycads) clade, regardless of which factors were examined. Our site-stripping analysis further revealed that the high substitution saturation of NU sequences mainly derived from the third codon positions and contributed to the variable placements of ginkgo. In summary, the factors we surveyed did not affect results inferred from analyses of AA sequences. Congruent topologies in our AA trees give more confidence in supporting the ginkgocycad sister-group hypothesis. PMID:23315384

  5. Two sisters in the same dress: Heliconius cryptic species

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Sister species divergence and reproductive isolation commonly results from ecological adaptation. In mimetic Heliconius butterflies, shifts in colour pattern contribute to pre- and post-mating reproductive isolation and are commonly correlated with speciation. Closely related mimetic species are therefore not expected, as they should lack several important sources of reproductive isolation. Results Here we present phenotypic, behavioral and genetic evidence for the coexistence of two sympatric 'cryptic' species near Florencia in the eastern Andes of Colombia that share the same orange rayed colour pattern. These represent H. melpomene malleti and a novel taxon in the H. cydno group, here designated as novel race of Heliconius timareta, Heliconius timareta florencia. No-choice mating experiments show that these sympatric forms have strong assortative mating (?96%) despite great similarity in colour pattern, implying enhanced divergence in pheromonal signals. Conclusion We hypothesize that these species might have resulted from recent convergence in colour pattern, perhaps facilitated by hybrid introgression of wing pattern genes. PMID:19040737

  6. Chloroplast phylogenomics indicates that Ginkgo biloba is sister to cycads.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Shien; Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Huang, Ya-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies have not yet reached a consensus on the placement of Ginkgoales, which is represented by the only living species, Ginkgo biloba (common name: ginkgo). At least six discrepant placements of ginkgo have been proposed. This study aimed to use the chloroplast phylogenomic approach to examine possible factors that lead to such disagreeing placements. We found the sequence types used in the analyses as the most critical factor in the conflicting placements of ginkgo. In addition, the placement of ginkgo varied in the trees inferred from nucleotide (NU) sequences, which notably depended on breadth of taxon sampling, tree-building methods, codon positions, positions of Gnetopsida (common name: gnetophytes), and including or excluding gnetophytes in data sets. In contrast, the trees inferred from amino acid (AA) sequences congruently supported the monophyly of a ginkgo and Cycadales (common name: cycads) clade, regardless of which factors were examined. Our site-stripping analysis further revealed that the high substitution saturation of NU sequences mainly derived from the third codon positions and contributed to the variable placements of ginkgo. In summary, the factors we surveyed did not affect results inferred from analyses of AA sequences. Congruent topologies in our AA trees give more confidence in supporting the ginkgo-cycad sister-group hypothesis. PMID:23315384

  7. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  8. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,

  9. Exotic quarks in Twin Higgs models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cheng, Hsin -Chia; Jung, Sunghoon; Salvioni, Ennio; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2016-03-14

    The Twin Higgs model provides a natural theory for the electroweak symmetry breaking without the need of new particles carrying the standard model gauge charges below a few TeV. In the low energy theory, the only probe comes from the mixing of the Higgs fields in the standard model and twin sectors. However, an ultraviolet completion is required below ~ 10 TeV to remove residual logarithmic divergences. In non-supersymmetric completions, new exotic fermions charged under both the standard model and twin gauge symmetries have to be present to accompany the top quark, thus providing a high energy probe of themore » model. Some of them carry standard model color, and may therefore be copiously produced at current or future hadron colliders. Once produced, these exotic quarks can decay into a top together with twin sector particles. If the twin sector particles escape the detection, we have the irreducible stop-like signals. On the other hand, some twin sector particles may decay back into the standard model particles with long lifetimes, giving spectacular displaced vertex signals in combination with the prompt top quarks. This happens in the Fraternal Twin Higgs scenario with typical parameters, and sometimes is even necessary for cosmological reasons. We study the potential displaced vertex signals from the decays of the twin bottomonia, twin glueballs, and twin leptons in the Fraternal Twin Higgs scenario. As a result, depending on the details of the twin sector, the exotic quarks may be probed up to ~ 2.5 TeV at the LHC and beyond 10 TeV at a future 100 TeV collider, providing a strong test of this class of ultraviolet completions.« less

  10. Partial Meissner effect in superconductors with twins

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, A.L.; Mints, R.G. )

    1988-11-01

    Superconductivity of twinning planes, arising at critical temperature T/sub c/ exceeding the bulk point T/sub co/, may prove to be important for the understanding of the properties of high-temperature superconductors with well-developed twinning structure. This paper shows that regardless of a specific mechanism of superconductivity, twins at T/sub c/>T/sub co/ act as seeds for the growth of metastable superconducting domains whose order parameter phases differ by {pi}.

  11. Atomistic deformation mechanisms in twinned copper nanospheres

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we perform molecular dynamic simulations to investigate the compression response and atomistic deformation mechanisms of twinned nanospheres. The relationship between load and compression depth is calculated for various twin spacing and loading directions. Then, the overall elastic properties and the underlying plastic deformation mechanisms are illuminated. Twin boundaries (TBs) act as obstacles to dislocation motion and lead to strengthening. As the loading direction varies, the plastic deformation transfers from dislocations intersecting with TBs, slipping parallel to TBs, and then to being restrained by TBs. The strengthening of TBs depends strongly on the twin spacing. PMID:25024693

  12. Thoracopagus Conjoined Twins: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Osmana?ao?lu, Mehmet A.; Aran, Turhan; Gven, Sleyman; Kart, Cavit; zdemir, zgr; Bozkaya, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Conjoined twin is a rarely seen congenital anomaly together with severe mortality and morbidity. The more common types of conjoined twins include the thoracopagus type, where the fusion is anterior, at the chest, and involves the heart. We are reporting one case of conjoined thoracopagus twins diagnosed by ultrasonography at 11 weeks. Case Report. In a multigravid pregnant woman who has been admitted to our clinic with a diagnosis of conjoined twins, thoracopagus, by ultrasonography at an 11-week gestation, termination of the pregnancy was performed. Conclusion. Making an early diagnosis with ultrasonographic examination gives the parents a chance to elect pregnancy termination. PMID:21660094

  13. Thoracopagus conjoined twins: a case report.

    PubMed

    Osmana?ao?lu, Mehmet A; Aran, Turhan; Gven, Sleyman; Kart, Cavit; Ozdemir, Ozgr; Bozkaya, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Conjoined twin is a rarely seen congenital anomaly together with severe mortality and morbidity. The more common types of conjoined twins include the thoracopagus type, where the fusion is anterior, at the chest, and involves the heart. We are reporting one case of conjoined thoracopagus twins diagnosed by ultrasonography at 11 weeks. Case Report. In a multigravid pregnant woman who has been admitted to our clinic with a diagnosis of conjoined twins, thoracopagus, by ultrasonography at an 11-week gestation, termination of the pregnancy was performed. Conclusion. Making an early diagnosis with ultrasonographic examination gives the parents a chance to elect pregnancy termination. PMID:21660094

  14. Common plankton of Twin Lakes, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, D.M.

    1983-02-01

    A series of studies is being performed to evaluate the effects of the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant on the ecology of Twin Lakes. Twin Lakes are a pair of connected dimictic lakes, formed as the result of glacial action on alluvial deposits. This report presents a taxonomic species study of the common plankton collected since 1974 from Twin Lakes. A total of 11 zooplankters and 14 phytoplankters were identified from the limnetic zone of Twin Lakes and the associated Mt. Elbert Forebay. The four divisions of zooplankton included four species of Rotifera (rotifer), three species of Copepoda (copepod), three species of Cladocera (cladoceran), and one species of Mysidacea (opossum shrimp).

  15. INCREASED TWINNING AND COW PRODUCTIVITY IN BEEF CATTLE SELECTED FOR OVULATION AND TWINNING RATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1981, cattle have been selected for fraternal twin births using estimated breeding values for twinning calculated from repeated measurements of ovulation rate in all heifer progeny starting at about 12 months of age, from twinning rate in the selected females, and from progeny testing and sub...

  16. Twin Loss: Implications for Counselors Working with Surviving Twins.(practice & Theory)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withrow, Rebecca; Schwiebert, Valerie L.

    2005-01-01

    Multiple births are becoming increasingly prevalent due to the use of fertility drugs and women choosing to wait until later life to conceive. With the growth in the twin population, little research has been done to investigate the effects on the grief process when 1 twin dies. Counselors must understand the unique experience of twins to formulate…

  17. Twinned Schools: A Description of Twinned Schools in Ontario, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    Twinning (or clustering) is the joining together of two or more (usually small) schools administered by one principal, in order to share resources and services. A survey of 104 of the 170 Ontario school boards examined prevalence of twinned schools, organization and administration of twinned schools, types of resources shared, and advantages and

  18. College-age twins: university admission policies / twin research: birth weight and neuromotor performance; transfusion syndrome markers; vanishing twins and fetal sex determination; mz twin discordance for wilson's disease / media: big at birth; planned separation of conjoined twins; x factor twins; Cinema: the identical.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2014-12-01

    There is a lack of research findings addressing the unique college admissions issues faced by twins and other multiples. The advantages and disadvantage twins face, as reported by college administrators, twins and families are reviewed. Next, recent research addressing twins' birth weight and neuromotor performance, transfusion syndrome markers, the vanishing twin syndrome and monozygotic (MZ) twin discordance for Wilson's disease is described. News items concerning the birth of unusually large twins, the planned separation of conjoined twins, twin participants in the X Factor games and a film, The Identical, are also summarized. PMID:25331364

  19. Intra-Monozygotic Twin Pair Discordance and Longitudinal Variation of Whole-Genome Scale DNA Methylation in Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Zhao, Shumin; Zhang, Su-Hua; Chen, Jinzhong; Lu, Daru; Shen, Min; Li, Chengtao

    2015-01-01

    Monozygotic twins share identical genomic DNA and are indistinguishable using conventional genetic markers. Increasing evidence indicates that monozygotic twins are epigenetically distinct, suggesting that a comparison between DNA methylation patterns might be useful to approach this forensic problem. However, the extent of epigenetic discordance between healthy adult monozygotic twins and the stability of CpG loci within the same individual over a short time span at the whole-genome scale are not well understood. Here, we used Infinium HumanMethylation450 Beadchips to compare DNA methylation profiles using blood collected from 10 pairs of monozygotic twins and 8 individuals sampled at 0, 3, 6, and 9 months. Using an effective and unbiased method for calling differentially methylated (DM) CpG sites, we showed that 0.087%-1.530% of the CpG sites exhibit differential methylation in monozygotic twin pairs. We further demonstrated that, on whole-genome level, there has been no significant epigenetic drift within the same individuals for up to 9 months, including one monozygotic twin pair. However, we did identify a subset of CpG sites that vary in DNA methylation over the 9-month period. The magnitude of the intra-pair or longitudinal methylation discordance of the CpG sites inside the CpG islands is greater than those outside the CpG islands. The CpG sites located on shores appear to be more suitable for distinguishing between MZ twins. PMID:26248206

  20. Intra-Monozygotic Twin Pair Discordance and Longitudinal Variation of Whole-Genome Scale DNA Methylation in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Su-Hua; Chen, Jinzhong; Lu, Daru; Shen, Min; Li, Chengtao

    2015-01-01

    Monozygotic twins share identical genomic DNA and are indistinguishable using conventional genetic markers. Increasing evidence indicates that monozygotic twins are epigenetically distinct, suggesting that a comparison between DNA methylation patterns might be useful to approach this forensic problem. However, the extent of epigenetic discordance between healthy adult monozygotic twins and the stability of CpG loci within the same individual over a short time span at the whole-genome scale are not well understood. Here, we used Infinium HumanMethylation450 Beadchips to compare DNA methylation profiles using blood collected from 10 pairs of monozygotic twins and 8 individuals sampled at 0, 3, 6, and 9 months. Using an effective and unbiased method for calling differentially methylated (DM) CpG sites, we showed that 0.087%1.530% of the CpG sites exhibit differential methylation in monozygotic twin pairs. We further demonstrated that, on whole-genome level, there has been no significant epigenetic drift within the same individuals for up to 9 months, including one monozygotic twin pair. However, we did identify a subset of CpG sites that vary in DNA methylation over the 9-month period. The magnitude of the intra-pair or longitudinal methylation discordance of the CpG sites inside the CpG islands is greater than those outside the CpG islands. The CpG sites located on shores appear to be more suitable for distinguishing between MZ twins. PMID:26248206

  1. A molecular test of alternative hypotheses of tetraodontiform (Acanthomorpha: Tetraodontiformes) sister group relationships using data from the RAG1 gene.

    PubMed

    Holcroft, Nancy I

    2004-09-01

    Two primary competing hypotheses regarding the identity of the sister group of the order Tetraodontiformes exist. The first hypothesis holds that some or all acanthuroid fishes represent the sister of Tetraodontiformes. The second, proposed in 1984 by Rosen, holds that the order Zeiformes is sister to Tetraodontiformes and that the family Caproidae is sister to this Zeiformes + Tetraodontiformes clade. These two hypotheses were tested using data from the single-copy nuclear gene RAG1. Representatives of most major orders of acanthomorph fishes were included to provide an appropriate context in which to place Tetraodontiformes and its hypothesized sister groups. The results of an unweighted parsimony analysis indicate that Zeiformes is not the sister group of Tetraodontiformes. In addition, Caproidae appears unrelated to Zeiformes. A monophyletic Tetraodontiformes was recovered as the sister group of the clade Ephippidae + Drepanidae and was more distantly related to the included zeiform and caproid representatives. PMID:15288052

  2. Radiologic findings of Patterson-Lowry rhizomelic dysplasia in two sisters.

    PubMed

    Damar, a?r?; Boyuna?a, znur; Derinkuyu, Betl Emine; Battalo?lu, Nergiz; Ezg, Fatih Sheyl

    2014-11-01

    We report two sisters who have a rare skeletal abnormality termed Patterson-Lowry rhizomelic dysplasia. The typical findings of these cases on bone survey are isolated shortening and proximal metaphyseal enlargement and cupping of the bilateral humeri. The elder sister also has coxa vara deformity and dysplastic proximal femoral epiphyses on both sides. The younger sister has normal hip joint bones bilaterally, but her proximal femoral epiphyses are smaller than normal. All other bones of the sisters are of normal size and configuration. Our patients are two siblings, and their parents are first degree relatives, suggesting autosomal-recessive (AR) inheritance. The present patients help us to understand the genetic relationships and skeletal variabilities of this rare entity. PMID:25037730

  3. C-terminus of Sororin interacts with SA2 and regulates sister chromatid cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nenggang; Pati, Debananda

    2015-01-01

    Sororin is a conserved protein required for accurate separation of sister chromatids in each cell cycle. Sororin is recruited to chromatin during DNA replication, protects sister chromatid cohesion in S and G2 phase, and regulates the resolution of sister chromatid cohesion in mitosis. Sororin binds to cohesin complex, but how Sororin and cohesin subunits interact remains unclear. Here we report that the C-terminus of Sororin, especially the last 12 amino acid (aa) residues, is important for Sororin to bind cohesin core subunit SA2. Deletion of the last 12aa residues not only inhibits the interactions between Sororin and SA2 but also causes precocious chromosome separation. Our data suggest that the C-terminus of Sororin functions as an anchor binding to SA2, which facilitates other conserved motifs on Sororin to interact with other proteins to regulate sister chromatid cohesion and separation. PMID:25608232

  4. C-terminus of Sororin interacts with SA2 and regulates sister chromatid cohesion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nenggang; Pati, Debananda

    2015-01-01

    Sororin is a conserved protein required for accurate separation of sister chromatids in each cell cycle. Sororin is recruited to chromatin during DNA replication, protects sister chromatid cohesion in S and G2 phase, and regulates the resolution of sister chromatid cohesion in mitosis. Sororin binds to cohesin complex, but how Sororin and cohesin subunits interact remains unclear. Here we report that the C-terminus of Sororin, especially the last 12 amino acid (aa) residues, is important for Sororin to bind cohesin core subunit SA2. Deletion of the last 12aa residues not only inhibits the interactions between Sororin and SA2 but also causes precocious chromosome separation. Our data suggest that the C-terminus of Sororin functions as an anchor binding to SA2, which facilitates other conserved motifs on Sororin to interact with other proteins to regulate sister chromatid cohesion and separation. PMID:25608232

  5. Catholic nursing sisters and brothers and racial justice in mid-20th-century America.

    PubMed

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing's work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses' work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of "bearing witness," a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely. PMID:19461224

  6. Acquired right heart outflow tract anomaly without systemic hypertension in recipient twins in twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nizard, J; Bonnet, D; Fermont, L; Ville, Y

    2001-12-01

    Significant hemodynamic changes are commonly observed in both fetuses in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. In the recipient twin there is cardiac dysfunction with hypertrophy of both ventricles and overall enlargement of the heart. We describe five cases of recipient twins in twin-twin transfusion syndrome with right ventricle hypertrophy, pulmonary stenosis and tricuspid regurgitation acquired in utero. These symptoms developed with no signs of systemic hypertension. Three of the five recipient twins survived and were developing normally at 3-30 months of age. Postnatal outcome is likely to have improved as a result of prenatal diagnosis of right ventricle outflow tract obstruction and timed delivery. These acquired anomalies of the right heart might be related to the particular hemodynamic conditions of the recipient twin. A global heart dilatation is logically expected, but this hypertrophy without dilatation is probably related to the shared plasma of fetuses with opposite hemodynamic conditions. This is what we consider as the hemodynamic-hormonal paradox. These acquired anomalies, though severe, are accessible to neonatal treatment if treated early. PMID:11844213

  7. 12. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works construction drawing dated January 15, 1951. Drawn by W.A. Doe for the Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Co. (copy in possession of Bureau of Reclamation, location of original unknown) 'AS CONSTRUCTED' PLANS OF 1949-50, REHABILITATION OF TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR OUTLET WORKS, DETAILS OF DISCHARGE BASIN. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  8. 11. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works construction drawing dated January 15, 1951. Drawn by W.A. Doe for the Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Co. (copy in possession of Bureau of Reclamation, location of original unknown) 'AS CONSTRUCTED' PLANS OF 1949-1950, REHABILITATION OF TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR OUTLET WORKS, DETAILS OF UPSTREAM WING WALLS. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  9. Weak phonon scattering effect of twin boundaries on thermal transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Huicong; Xiao, Jianwei; Melnik, Roderick; Wen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    To study the effect of twin boundaries on thermal transmission, thermal conductivities of twinned diamond with different twin thicknesses have been studied by NEMD simulation. Results indicate that twin boundaries show a weak phonon scattering effect on thermal transmission, which is only caused by the additional twin boundaries’ thermal resistance. Moreover, according to phonon kinetic theory, this weak phonon scattering effect of twin boundaries is mainly caused by a slightly reduced average group velocity.

  10. Weak phonon scattering effect of twin boundaries on thermal transmission

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Huicong; Xiao, Jianwei; Melnik, Roderick; Wen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    To study the effect of twin boundaries on thermal transmission, thermal conductivities of twinned diamond with different twin thicknesses have been studied by NEMD simulation. Results indicate that twin boundaries show a weak phonon scattering effect on thermal transmission, which is only caused by the additional twin boundaries’ thermal resistance. Moreover, according to phonon kinetic theory, this weak phonon scattering effect of twin boundaries is mainly caused by a slightly reduced average group velocity. PMID:26822675

  11. Weak phonon scattering effect of twin boundaries on thermal transmission.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huicong; Xiao, Jianwei; Melnik, Roderick; Wen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    To study the effect of twin boundaries on thermal transmission, thermal conductivities of twinned diamond with different twin thicknesses have been studied by NEMD simulation. Results indicate that twin boundaries show a weak phonon scattering effect on thermal transmission, which is only caused by the additional twin boundaries' thermal resistance. Moreover, according to phonon kinetic theory, this weak phonon scattering effect of twin boundaries is mainly caused by a slightly reduced average group velocity. PMID:26822675

  12. Chronic Placental Inflammation in Twin Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Heejin; Bae, Go Eun; Park, Ha Young; Kim, Yeon Mee; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-young; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jung-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic placental inflammation, such as villitis of unknown etiology (VUE) and chronic chorioamnionitis (CCA), is considered a placental manifestation of maternal anti-fetal rejection. The aim of this study is to investigate its frequency in twin pregnancies compared to singleton pregnancies. Methods: Three hundred twin placentas and 1,270 singleton placentas were consecutively collected at a tertiary medical center in Seoul, Republic of Korea from 2009 to 2012. Hematoxylin and eosin sections of tissue samples (full-thickness placental disc and chorioamniotic membranes) were reviewed. Results: Non-basal VUE was more frequent in twin placentas than in singleton placentas (6.0% vs 3.2%, p < .05). In preterm birth, CCA was found less frequently in twin placentas than in singleton placentas (9.6% vs 14.8%, p < .05), reaching its peak at an earlier gestational age in twin placentas (29–32 weeks) than in singleton placentas (33–36 weeks). CCA was more frequent in twin pregnancies with babies of a different sex than with those with the same sex (13.8% vs 6.9%, p=.052). Separate dichorionic diamniotic twin placentas were affected by chronic deciduitis more frequently than singleton placentas (16.9% vs 9.7%, p<.05). Conclusions: The higher frequency of non-basal VUE in twin placentas and of CCA in twin placentas with different fetal sex supports the hypothesis that the underlying pathophysiological mechanism is maternal anti-fetal rejection related to increased fetal antigens in twin pregnancies. The peak of CCA at an earlier gestational age in twin placentas than in singleton placentas suggests that CCA is influenced by placental maturation. PMID:26459409

  13. NEC in Twin Pregnancies: Incidence and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    C Burjonrappa, Sathyaprasad; Shea, Brian; Goorah, Diya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in neonates. Previously established risk factors for the development of NEC include prematurity and low birth weight. However, it is not clear to date as to whether the etiology of NEC is due to host, environmental, or yet other unknown factors. We analyzed the differences in incidence of NEC in twin pregnancies to further clarify its etio-pathogenesis. Methods: After IRB approval, a retrospective search of the medical records of the Department of Pediatric Surgery was done to identify all the neonates treated for surgical NEC from 2006-2013. Patients that had been treated for NEC elsewhere and subsequently transferred in to our facility were excluded. The medical records of the resulting 45 patients were then analyzed for demographics, antenatal screening, risk factors, treatment (medical and surgical), and outcomes. The resulting data was then analyzed using relative risk calculations and standard statistical tests. Results: Of the 45 patients who developed surgical NEC, 9 neonates (20%) were born of a twin pregnancy. There were no cases in which both twin A and twin B developed NEC. NEC in twin pregnancy neonates showed a female preponderance (p less than 0.0001) and developed universally in the first born of the twins. Birth weight, time of onset of NEC, hospital stay and mortality were similar between twin and non-twin NEC. There was an average lead-time of three weeks to development of NEC in both singletons and twin pregnancies. Conclusion: There is a remarkable higher incidence of NEC amongst twins. Abnormal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract appears to be an immediate postpartum event. NEC in twin pregnancy does not appear to have a deleterious outcome compared to NEC in singleton pregnancy. PMID:26023516

  14. Partial Dosage Compensation in Strepsiptera, a Sister Group of Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Shivani; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved independently in many different taxa, and so have mechanisms to compensate for expression differences on sex chromosomes in males and females. Different clades have evolved vastly different ways to achieve dosage compensation, including hypertranscription of the single X in male Drosophila, downregulation of both Xs in XX Caenorhabditis, or inactivation of one X in female mammals. In the flour beetle Tribolium, the X appears hyperexpressed in both sexes, which might represent the first of two steps to evolve dosage compensation along the paths mammals may have taken (i.e., upregulation of X in both sexes, followed by inactivation of one X in females). Here we test for dosage compensation in Strepsiptera, a sister taxon to beetles. We identify sex-linked chromosomes in Xenos vesparum based on genomic analysis of males and females, and show that its sex chromosome consists of two chromosomal arms in Tribolium: The X chromosome that is shared between Tribolium and Strepsiptera, and another chromosome that is autosomal in Tribolium and another distantly related Strepsiptera species, but sex-linked in X. vesparum. We use RNA-seq (RNA sequencing) to show that dosage compensation along the X of X. vesparum is partial and heterogeneous. In particular, genes that are X-linked in both beetles and Strepsiptera appear fully dosage compensated probably through downregulation in both sexes, whereas genes on the more recently added X segment have evolved only partial dosage compensation. In addition, reanalysis of published RNA-seq data suggests that Tribolium has evolved dosage compensation, without hypertranscribing the X in females. Our results demonstrate that patterns of dosage compensation are highly variable across sex-determination systems and even within species. PMID:25601100

  15. Solution Radioactivated by Hadron Radiation Can Increase Sister Chromatid Exchanges

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Junko; Yurkon, Charles R.; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Kato, Sayaka; Brents, Colleen A.; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Fujimori, Akira; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kato, Takamitsu A.

    2015-01-01

    When energetic particles irradiate matter, it becomes activated by nuclear reactions. Radioactivation induced cellular effects are not clearly understood, but it could be a part of bystander effects. This investigation is aimed at understanding the biological effects from radioactivation in solution induced by hadron radiation. Water or phosphate buffered saline was activated by being exposed to hadron radiation including protons, carbon- and iron-ions. 1 mL of radioactivated solution was transferred to flasks with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells cultured in 5 mL of complete media. The induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) was used to observe any increase in DNA damage responses. The energy spectrum and the half-lives of the radioactivation were analyzed by NaI scintillation detector in order to identify generated radionuclides. In the radioactivated solution, 511 keV gamma-rays were observed, and their half-lives were approximately 2 min, 10 min, and 20 min. They respectively correspond to the beta+ decay of 15O, 13N, and 11C. The SCE frequencies in CHO cells increased depending on the amount of radioactivation in the solution. These were suppressed with a 2-hour delayed solution transfer or pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Our results suggest that the SCE induction by radioactivated solution was mediated by free radicals produced by the annihilated gamma-rays. Since the SCE induction and DMSO modulation are also reported in radiation-induced bystander effects, our results imply that radioactivation of the solution may have some contribution to the bystander effects from hadron radiation. Further investigations are required to assess if radioactivation effects would attribute an additional level of cancer risk of the hadron radiation therapy itself. PMID:26657140

  16. Cohesin-independent segregation of sister chromatids in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Guacci, Vincent; Koshland, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Cohesin generates cohesion between sister chromatids, which enables chromosomes to form bipolar attachments to the mitotic spindle and segregate. Cohesin also functions in chromosome condensation, transcriptional regulation, and DNA damage repair. Here we analyze the role of acetylation in modulating cohesin functions and how it affects budding yeast viability. Previous studies show that cohesion establishment requires Eco1p-mediated acetylation of the cohesin subunit Smc3p at residue K113. Smc3p acetylation was proposed to promote establishment by merely relieving Wpl1p inhibition because deletion of WPL1 bypasses the lethality of an ECO1 deletion (eco1? wpl1?). We find that little, if any, cohesion is established in eco1? wpl1? cells, indicating that Eco1p performs a function beyond antagonizing Wpl1p. Cohesion also fails to be established when SMC3 acetyl-mimics (K113Q or K112R,K113Q) are the sole functional SMC3s in cells. These results suggest that Smc3p acetylation levels affect establishment. It is remarkable that, despite their severe cohesion defect, eco1? wpl1? and smc3-K112R,K113Q strains are viable because a cohesin-independent mechanism enables bipolar attachment and segregation. This alternative mechanism is insufficient for smc3-K113Q strain viability. Smc3-K113Q is defective for condensation, whereas eco1? wpl1? and smc3-K112R,K113Q strains are competent for condensation. We suggest that Smc3p acetylation and Wpl1p antagonistically regulate cohesin's essential role in condensation. PMID:22190734

  17. Long-term outcome after intrauterine laser treatment for twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maschke, Cornelia; Diemert, Anke; Hecher, Kurt; Bartmann, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication occurring in about 10% of monochorionic twin pregnancies. The chronic unbalanced transfusion of blood across placental vascular communications from the donor to the recipient twin may lead to impairment of various organ systems in the affected twins. In Hamburg, Germany, since 1995 patients with TTTS were treated with fetoscopic laser coagulation as the first causal therapeutic strategy. All survivors after laser surgery were followed up in the University Children's Hospital in Bonn, Germany. In this article, we summarize long-term follow-up studies from our German study population and compare our results with data from the literature. PMID:21660996

  18. Growth of deformation twins in tantalum via coherent twin boundary migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, Luis A.; Surh, Michael P.; Chernov, Alexander A.; Richards, David F.

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate the process of twinning growth, the nucleation of twinning dislocation loops on the coherent boundary of a Tantalum twin superlattice is studied via a molecular dynamics approach. We get homogeneous nucleation rates by means of a stationarity test and the mean first-passage method. We study their dependence on driving force and temperature in a framework given by the Kolgomorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami theory. Correspondingly, the contribution to the twinning growth dictated by this nucleation mechanism, as compared to the pole mechanism, is discussed. The homogeneous loop nucleation and growth mechanism can be relevant to twinning in high strain-rate experiments as in shock waves.

  19. Increased UV-induced sister-chromatid exchange in cultured fibroblasts of first-degree relatives of melanoma patients

    SciTech Connect

    Knees-Matzen, S.; Roser, M.; Reimers, U.; Ehlert, U.; Weichenthal, M.; Breitbart, E.W.; Ruediger, H.W. )

    1991-06-01

    Cultured fibroblasts of 17 first-degree relatives of familial melanoma patients and six first-degree relatives of cutaneous melanoma (CMM) patients with multiple CMM primaries were tested for in vitro sensitivity to UV light. Fibroblasts of nine familial CMM patients with a known UV-sensitivity and 19 healthy probands served as a control. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) was used as a parameter to detect UV-induced genotoxic damage. The authors found significantly (p less than 0.001) increased UV-induced SCE levels in familial melanoma patients, as well as in first-degree relatives of familial melanoma patients (p less than 0.001) after UV-A,B irradiation (375 J/m2), compared to the healthy probands without a family history of CMM. A significant (p less than 0.001) increase of UV-induced SCE was also observed in the relatives of CMM patients with multiple CMM primaries. In addition, the spontaneous SCE were significantly increased (p less than 0.05) in familial CMM patients. This study shows that increased UV sensitivity is a familial phenomenon. It is consistent with the concept of a genetic predisposition to CMM, which is based on increased UV sensitivity and may help to define groups with an elevated risk of developing cutaneous malignant melanoma.

  20. Twin-Foucault imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Ken

    2012-02-01

    A method of Lorentz electron microscopy, which enables observation two Foucault images simultaneously by using an electron biprism instead of an objective aperture, was developed. The electron biprism is installed between two electron beams deflected by 180 magnetic domains. Potential applied to the biprism deflects the two electron beams further, and two Foucault images with reversed contrast are then obtained in one visual field. The twin Foucault images are able to extract the magnetic domain structures and to reconstruct an ordinary electron micrograph. The developed Foucault method was demonstrated with a 180 domain structure of manganite La0.825Sr0.175MnO3.

  1. Identical twins with lumbosacral lipomyelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Hanaei, Sara; Nejat, Farideh; Mortazavi, Abolghasem; Habibi, Zohreh; Esmaeili, Arash; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Lipomyelomeningocele, a congenital spine defect, is presented as skin-covered lipomatous tissue that attaches to the cord in different ways according to its subtypes. Unlike other types of neural tube defects, the exact cause of this birth defect has not been confirmed yet, but it is proposed to be a multifactorial disease with involvement of both genetic and environmental factors. The authors describe identical twins with lipomyelomeningocele of the same subtype and location without any familial history of similar abnormality. Therefore, the same genetic and/or environmental risk factors could have played a part in their condition. PMID:25396701

  2. The Solar Twin Planet Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedell, Megan; Bean, J.; Melendez, J.; Monroe, T.

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results from an ongoing radial velocity planet search around solar twins using the HARPS spectrograph. By limiting our sample to stars with Teff +/- 100 K, log(g) +/- 0.1 dex, and [Fe/H] +/- 0.1 dex of the solar values, we can obtain stellar elemental abundances [X/Fe] to a precision of 0.01 dex (Melendez et al. 2009). Our study is leveraging this unprecedented level of precision and the sensitivity of the HARPS instrument to investigate the connection between planet occurrence and stellar abundances at a new level of detail.

  3. Ecological divergence and speciation between lemur (Eulemur) sister species in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Blair, M E; Sterling, E J; Dusch, M; Raxworthy, C J; Pearson, R G

    2013-08-01

    Understanding ecological niche evolution over evolutionary timescales is crucial to elucidating the biogeographic history of organisms. Here, we used, for the first time, climate-based ecological niche models (ENMs) to test hypotheses about ecological divergence and speciation processes between sister species pairs of lemurs (genus Eulemur) in Madagascar. We produced ENMs for eight species, all of which had significant validation support. Among the four sister species pairs, we found nonequivalent niches between sisters, varying degrees of niche overlap in ecological and geographic space, and support for multiple divergence processes. Specifically, three sister-pair comparisons supported the null model that niches are no more divergent than the available background region. These findings are consistent with an allopatric speciation model, and for two sister pairs (E.collaris-E.cinereiceps and E.rufus-E.rufifrons), a riverine barrier has been previously proposed for driving allopatric speciation. However, for the fourth sister pair E.flavifrons-E.macaco, we found support for significant niche divergence, and consistent with their parapatric distribution on an ecotone and the lack of obvious geographic barriers, these findings most strongly support a parapatric model of speciation. These analyses thus suggest that various speciation processes have led to diversification among closely related Eulemur species. PMID:23865477

  4. Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Davide; Pett, Walker; Dohrmann, Martin; Feuda, Roberto; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Philippe, Herv; Lartillot, Nicolas; Wrheide, Gert

    2015-12-15

    Understanding how complex traits, such as epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, or guts, originated depends on a well-supported hypothesis about the phylogenetic relationships among major animal lineages. Traditionally, sponges (Porifera) have been interpreted as the sister group to the remaining animals, a hypothesis consistent with the conventional view that the last common animal ancestor was relatively simple and more complex body plans arose later in evolution. However, this premise has recently been challenged by analyses of the genomes of comb jellies (Ctenophora), which, instead, found ctenophores as the sister group to the remaining animals (the "Ctenophora-sister" hypothesis). Because ctenophores are morphologically complex predators with true epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, and guts, this scenario implies these traits were either present in the last common ancestor of all animals and were lost secondarily in sponges and placozoans (Trichoplax) or, alternatively, evolved convergently in comb jellies. Here, we analyze representative datasets from recent studies supporting Ctenophora-sister, including genome-scale alignments of concatenated protein sequences, as well as a genomic gene content dataset. We found no support for Ctenophora-sister and conclude it is an artifact resulting from inadequate methodology, especially the use of simplistic evolutionary models and inappropriate choice of species to root the metazoan tree. Our results reinforce a traditional scenario for the evolution of complexity in animals, and indicate that inferences about the evolution of Metazoa based on the Ctenophora-sister hypothesis are not supported by the currently available data. PMID:26621703

  5. Impact of Early Environment on Children's Mental Health: Lessons From DNA Methylation Studies With Monozygotic Twins.

    PubMed

    Chiarella, Julian; Tremblay, Richard E; Szyf, Moshe; Provençal, Nadine; Booij, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, epigenetic analyses have made important contributions to our understanding of healthy development and a wide variety of adverse conditions such as cancer and psychopathology. There is increasing evidence that DNA methylation is a mechanism by which environmental factors influence gene transcription and, ultimately, phenotype. However, differentiating the effects of the environment from those of genetics on DNA methylation profiles remains a significant challenge. Monozygotic (MZ) twin study designs are unique in their ability to control for genetic differences because each pair of MZ twins shares essentially the same genetic sequence with the exception of a small number of de novo mutations and copy number variations. Thus, differences within twin pairs in gene expression and phenotype, including behavior, can be attributed in the majority of cases to environmental effects rather than genetic influence. In this article, we review the literature showing how MZ twin designs can be used to study basic epigenetic principles, contributing to understanding the role of early in utero and postnatal environmental factors on the development of psychopathology. We also highlight the importance of initiating longitudinal and experimental studies with MZ twins during pregnancy. This approach is especially important to identify: (1) critical time periods during which the early environment can impact brain and mental health development, and (2) the specific mechanisms through which early environmental effects may be mediated. These studies may inform the optimum timing and design for early preventive interventions aimed at reducing risk for psychopathology. PMID:26608878

  6. NOTE: Haemodynamic resistance model of monochorionic twin pregnancies complicated by acardiac twinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umur, Asli; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Ross, Michael G.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.

    2004-07-01

    An acardiac twin is a severely malformed monochorionic twin fetus that lacks most organs, particularly a heart. It grows during pregnancy, because it is perfused by its developmentally normal co-twin (called the pump twin) via a set of placental arterioarterial and venovenous anastomoses. The pump twin dies intrauterine or neonatally in about 50% of the cases due to congestive heart failure, polyhydramnios and prematurity. Because the pathophysiology of this pregnancy is currently incompletely understood, we modified our previous haemodynamic model of monochorionic twins connected by placental vascular anastomoses to include the analysis of acardiac twin pregnancies. We incorporated the fetoplacental circulation as a resistance circuit and used the fetal umbilical flow that perfuses the body to define fetal growth, rather than the placental flow as done previously. Using this modified model, we predicted that the pump twin has excess blood volume and increased mean arterial blood pressure compared to those in the acardiac twin. Placental perfusion of the acardiac twin is significantly reduced compared to normal, as a consequence of an increased venous pressure, possibly implying reduced acardiac placental growth. In conclusion, the haemodynamic analysis may contribute to an increased knowledge of the pathophysiologic consequences of an acardiac body mass for the pump twin.

  7. Applied geminography--symmetry analysis of twinned crystals and definition of twinning by reticular polyholohedry.

    PubMed

    Nespolo, Massimo; Ferraris, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    The common classification of twinning into the four categories of twinning by merohedry (complete and exact overlap of the lattices of the twinned crystals), pseudomerohedry (complete but approximate overlap), reticular merohedry (partial but exact overlap) and reticular pseudomerohedry (partial and approximate overlap) is revised in terms of the complete (translational and point) lattice symmetry of the twin and of the individual. The new category of reticular polyholohedry is introduced for twins where the twin lattice has the same point symmetry but a different orientation of the individual lattice. It is shown that the degeneration to twin index 1 relates, in a parallel way, reticular merohedry to metric merohedry and reticular polyholohedry to syngonic merohedry. Some examples from the recent literature are analysed in terms of this revised classification. PMID:14691332

  8. Attractiveness Differences Between Twins Predicts Evaluations of Self and Co-Twin

    PubMed Central

    Principe, Connor P.; Rosen, Lisa H.; Taylor-Partridge, Teresa; Langlois, Judith H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in psychology shows that people prefer and make positive attributions about attractive compared with unattractive people. The goal of the current study was to determine the power of attractiveness effects by testing whether these social judgments are made where attractiveness differences are smallest: between twins. Differences in facial attractiveness predicted twins evaluations of self and their co-twin (n = 158; 54 male). In twin pairs, the more attractive twin judged their less attractive sibling as less physically attractive, athletic, socially competent, and emotionally stable. The less attractive twin did the reverse. Given that even negligible differences in facial attractiveness predicted self and co-twin attitudes, these results provide the strongest test yet of appearance-based stereotypes. PMID:23467329

  9. Information Processing Abilities in Twins Reared Apart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGue, Matt; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A battery of information processing measures and psychometric tests of specific and general cognitive abilities was administered to 34 monozygotic and 13 dizygotic reared apart twin pairs or triplets. Correlations between information processing parameters and psychometric abilities as well as twin resemblances for the information processing

  10. "The Bell Curve" on Separated Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancher, Raymond E.

    1995-01-01

    "The Bell Curve" declares that studies of separated identical twins--the "purest" of "direct" methods for estimating IQ heritability--indicate a value of +.75-+.80. But, the main study cited suggests a heritability of "two-thirds" for the middle class, and Herrnstein and Murray neglect to mention numerous complicating factors in twin studies that

  11. 49 CFR 372.221 - Twin Cities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Twin Cities. 372.221 Section 372.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.221 Twin Cities. For the purpose of...

  12. 49 CFR 372.221 - Twin Cities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Twin Cities. 372.221 Section 372.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.221 Twin Cities. For the purpose of...

  13. 49 CFR 372.221 - Twin Cities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Twin Cities. 372.221 Section 372.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.221 Twin Cities. For the purpose of...

  14. 49 CFR 372.221 - Twin Cities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Twin Cities. 372.221 Section 372.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.221 Twin Cities. For the purpose of...

  15. 49 CFR 372.221 - Twin Cities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Twin Cities. 372.221 Section 372.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.221 Twin Cities. For the purpose of...

  16. Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive…

  17. Entropic interaction between fluctuating twin boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dengke; Kulkarni, Yashashree

    2015-11-01

    Nanotwinned metals have opened up exciting avenues for the design of high-strength, high-ductility materials owing to the extraordinary properties of twin boundaries. The recent advances in the fabrication of nanostructured materials with twin lamella on the order of a mere few atomic layers call for a closer examination of the stability of these structural motifs, especially at high temperatures. This paper presents a study of the entropic interaction between fluctuating twin boundaries by way of atomistic simulations and statistical mechanics based analysis. The simulations reveal that fluctuations of twin boundaries are considerably enhanced in the presence of adjoining twin boundaries as their spacing, d, decreases. In addition, the theoretical analysis shows that fluctuating twin boundaries indeed exhibit an attractive entropic interaction which enhances their thermal fluctuations and that the entropic force decreases as 1 /d2. This finite temperature interaction between twin boundaries is fundamentally distinct from the well-known repulsive entropic interaction followed by fluctuating lipid membranes as well as many crystalline membranes and interfaces. This rather surprising attraction between fluctuating twin boundaries is attributed to their shear coupled normal motion.

  18. Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive

  19. Twinning: A Marker for Biological Insults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Robert G.; Brown, Anne M.

    1970-01-01

    Analysis of various statistics from birth records of 317 consecutive births revealed that twins are nonrepresentative of newborns with respect to birth weight and gestation, with male pairs to same-sex pairs the least representative. Differences between Negro and Caucasian twins were also found. (MH)

  20. Twinning Two Schools: What We Have Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Ruth

    1997-01-01

    Describes the implementation of twinning (sharing administrative staff) in two Ontario elementary schools; the actions that the board of education undertook to monitor and assess the demonstration project; and a survey of parents and community members evaluating whether twinning was cost effective, improved program quality in the two schools, and

  1. Statistical mechanics analysis of the ``twins paradox''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ya'Acov, Uri

    1995-12-01

    The aging of the two brothers in the twins paradox is analyzed through the space-time evolution of the densities that correspond to their internal complex structure. Taking into account their relative motion, it is shown that the traveling brother evolves over a shorter interval of time than his twin, which makes him younger than his brother.

  2. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-06-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality. PMID:26135766

  3. The conjoined twins of Löwen.

    PubMed

    Blickstein, I

    2000-12-01

    This paper discusses an unusual etching of unlike-sex conjoined twins of the syncephalus type dated 1547. The authenticity of the case is discussed in terms of the biological plausibility of such twins and in the light of mediaeval understanding of the twinning process. Unlike-sex syncephalic twins may occur as a result of dispermic fertilisation, or be an erroneous depiction of an asymmetrical anomaly of the external genitalia of a like-sex pair, mimicking the genitals of the other sex. On the other hand, the Löwen etching conforms with mediaeval beliefs that conjoined twins are divine punishment and therefore were used for ecclesiastical and perhaps commercial purposes. The historical context of the drawing, in which the relation between religion, media, and medicine satisfied the eagerness of the public for curios of Nature, is no longer valid. Thus the Löwen etching opens a window to the past from which modern medicine can be appreciated. PMID:11463137

  4. Congenital malaria in newborn twins.

    PubMed

    Opare, D A

    2010-06-01

    Malaria during first few months of life may be due to transplacental transfer of parasitized maternal erythrocytes. The most common clinical features of congenital malaria are fever, anaemia and splenomegaly. Other signs and symptoms include hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, regurgitation, loose stools, and poor feeding. A 28 year old woman (G2P1A), with 36 weeks gestation, reported to a health facility in Sunyani on 22(nd) February 2009 with history of labour pains, without fever. According to the mother, even though she did not sleep in insecticide treated bed net during her pregnancy, she took all the recommended drugs of sulfadoxine/ pyrimethamine-intermittent preventive treatment for malaria. She delivered twins on the same day. The mother and the twins developed fever on the same day. A laboratory investigation on the three of them was positive for malaria parasites. The three were successfully treated with quinine. Congenital malaria is real and it is therefore recommended that babies born to mothers with malaria should be screened for congenital malaria. PMID:21327008

  5. Neonatal hemochromatosis in monochorionic twins.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, L; Ba?tu?, O; Daar, G; Do?anay, S; Deniz, K; Kurto?lu, S

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal hemochromatosis (NH) is a form of neonatal liver failure caused by maternal-fetal alloimmune injury to hepatocytes. The etiology of neonatal hemochromatosis is not exactly understood. However, according to one theory neonatal hemochromatosis is believed to be an alloimmune disorder causing liver injury in the fetus. In order to diagnose neonatal hemochromatosis there are some criteria that should be taken into account, such as positive family history, high serum ferritin levels, high serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and siderosis demonstrated by histology or with magnetic resonance.We present a case of a monochorionic newborn twin who applied to our hospital with sepsis clinical symptoms like clinics, was diagnosed with NH and immediately treated with antioxidant therapy while the other twin with same clinical symptoms did not respond to therapy and passed away. NH should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cases with sepsis-like clinical symptoms that do not respond to antibiotics; early antioxidant therapy in these cases is lifesaving. PMID:26836824

  6. Multiples: Twins, Triplets and Beyond

    MedlinePLUS

    ... leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day World Prematurity Your support helps babies We are ... healthy foods and taking your prenatal vitamin every day. Prenatal vitamins are multivitamins made just for pregnant ...

  7. Healthy Family 2009: Practicing Healthy Adult Living

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Practicing Healthy Adult Living Past Issues / Winter ... diabetes, or if heart disease runs in your family, begin checking cholesterol at age 20. Colorectal Cancer : ...

  8. Partnership for Healthy Mouths Healthy Lives

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OUR SOLUTION The Partnership for Healthy Mouths, Healthy Lives (PHMHL) is helping 73.6 of America’s children ... together, we can all work to help children live healthier lives. Your support will assist in ensuring ...

  9. Highlights from the 15th International Congress of Twin Studies/Twin Research: Differentiating MZ Co-twins Via SNPs; Mistaken Infant Twin-Singleton Hospital Registration; Narcolepsy With Cataplexy; Hearing Loss and Language Learning/Media Mentions: Broadway Musical Recalls Conjoined Hilton Twins; High Fashion Pair; Twins Turn 102; Insights From a Conjoined Twin Survivor.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-02-01

    Highlights from the 15th International Congress of Twin Studies are presented. The congress was held November 16-19, 2014 in Budapest, Hungary. This report is followed by summaries of research addressing the differentiation of MZ co-twins by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), an unusual error in infant twin-singleton hospital registration, twins with childhood-onset narcolepsy with cataplexy, and the parenting effects of hearing loss in one co-twin. Media interest in twins covers a new Broadway musical based on the conjoined twins Violet and Daisy Hilton, male twins becoming famous in fashion, twins who turned 102 and unique insights from a conjoined twin survivor. This article is dedicated to the memory of Elizabeth (Liz) Hamel, DZA twin who met her co-twin for the first time at age seventy-eight years. Liz and her co-twin, Ann Hunt, are listed in the 2015 Guinness Book of Records as the longest separated twins in the world. PMID:25662422

  10. Twin loss: the annual convention / twin research reviews: childhood empathy; hormone replacement therapy and skeletal muscle; multiple birth conception in older women / twins in the media: twins with kidney disease; a pair of poets; the other twins in the metrodome.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2009-10-01

    Loss of a twin has been largely overlooked by bereavement counselors and clinicians. This particular type of loss is also poorly understood among the public. Consequently, some bereaved twins have established a unique organization, Twinless Twins Support Group International, for the purpose of sharing this traumatic life experience with one another. The present article reviews events from the annual convention of Twinless Twins, held in July 2009, in Denver, Colorado. Selected findings from research on twin loss are also presented. Next, twin research concerned with the origins and implications of empathy, hormone replacement therapy and multiple birth conception will be reviewed. This article concludes with summaries of real life stories of twins' kidney disease, literary talent and retirement festivities. PMID:19803780

  11. Genetic Influences on Alcohol Use Behaviors Have Diverging Developmental Trajectories: A Prospective Study among Male and Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Both alcohol-specific genetic factors and genetic factors related to externalizing behavior influence problematic alcohol use. Little is known, however, about the etiologic role of these two components of genetic risk on alcohol-related behaviors across development. Prior studies conducted in a male cohort of twins suggest that externalizing genetic factors are important for predicting heavy alcohol use in adolescence, whereas alcohol-specific genetic factors increase in importance during the transition to adulthood. In this report, we studied twin brothers and sisters and brother-sister twin pairs to examine such developmental trajectories and investigate whether sex and co-twin sex effects modify these genetic influences. Methods We used prospective, longitudinal twin data collected between ages 12 and 22 within the population-based FinnTwin12 cohort study (analytic n=1,864). Our dependent measures of alcohol use behaviors included alcohol initiation (age 12), intoxication frequency (ages 14 and 17), and alcohol dependence criteria (age 22). Each individual’s genetic risk for alcohol use disorders (AUD-GR) was indexed by his/her parents’ and co-twin’s DSM-IV Alcohol Dependence (AD) criterion counts. Likewise, each individual’s genetic risk for externalizing disorders (EXT-GR) was indexed with a composite measure of parents’ and co-twin’s DSM-IV Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder criterion counts. Results EXT-GR was most strongly related to alcohol use behaviors during adolescence while AUD-GR was most strongly related to alcohol problems in young adulthood. Further, sex of the twin and sex of the co-twin significantly moderated the associations between genetic risk and alcohol use behaviors across development: AUD-GR influenced early adolescent alcohol use behaviors in females more than in males, and EXT-GR influenced age 22 AD more in males than in females. In addition, the associations of AUD-GR and EXT-GR with intoxication frequency were greater among 14 and 17 year old females with twin brothers. Conclusions We found divergent developmental trajectories for alcohol-specific and externalizing behavior-related genetic influences on alcohol use behaviors; in early adolescence, genetic influences on alcohol use behaviors are largely non-specific, and later in adolescence and young adulthood, alcohol specific genetic influences on alcohol use are more influential. Importantly, within these overall trajectories, several interesting sex differences emerged. We found that the relationship between genetic risk and problematic drinking across development is moderated by the individual’s sex and his/her co-twin’s sex. AUD-GR influenced adolescent alcohol outcomes in females more than in males and by age 22, EXT-GR influenced AD criteria more for males than females. In addition, the association between genetic risk and intoxication frequency was greater among 14 and 17 year old females with male co-twins. PMID:25421521

  12. Silicic Eruptions of the Past 50 kyr at the Three Sisters Volcanic Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, A. T.; Hildreth, W.; Fierstein, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Three Sisters volcanic cluster in the central Oregon Cascades consists of mafic to intermediate stratovolcanoes surrounded by mafic and silicic flows and domes. The bulk of South and Middle Sister are late Pleistocene while North Sister is middle Pleistocene (Schmidt and Grunder, 2003 GSA abs.). Thick rhyolite and dacite lava flows and domes are rich in potassium, and young glaciation exposes holocrystalline groundmass textures ideal for argon geochronology. Several of these silicic flows bracket stratovolcano growth, and precise geochronology illuminates a rich basalt to rhyolite history in the cluster over the past 50 kyr. Careful step-heating 40Ar/39Ar experiments yield excellent plateau ages with radiogenic yields often above 5% on rocks as young as 20 ka. Most samples have well-determined isochrons with atmospheric (40/36 = 295.5) intercepts, although several have intercepts as low as 286. South Sister is a composite cone with an andesite/dacite base (Hodge Crest) and a young andesite summit sequence. The basal flow of the 300m-thick, youngest conformable stack of andesite lavas at the summit is 27+/-3 ka. Unconformably underlying portions date back to at least 50 ka based on ages of overlapping silicic flows. The base of Middle Sister is andesite overlain by 300m of olivine basalt. Some Middle Sister andesites and all basalts overlie a distinctive dacite agglutinate (20+/-2 ka) in the South/Middle Sister saddle. All Middle Sister lavas underlie a thick dacite flow (14+/-3 ka) that vented at 8500 ft (2600m) on its S flank. Dacite lava flows erupted from the Middle/North Sister saddle at 27+/-2 and 18+/-2 ka. Additionally, several >100m-thick rhyolite and dacite lavas vented low on the flanks of the cluster. Obsidian Cliff rhyolite (37.8+/-1.8 ka) and Lane Plateau dacite (21.4+/-1.9 ka) erupted W of Middle Sister, the Dew Lake dacite (32.3+/-1.8 ka) located near the locus of the INSAR anomaly W of South Sister flowed around a 148+/-4 ka (knob 6482) basalt and near the 149+/-5 ka (The Husband), 159+/-10 ka (Upper Mesa Creek) and 279+/-6 ka (The Sphinx) basalts. The south flank of South Sister is dominated by the late Holocene rhyolites of Rock Mesa and the Devil's Hill chain and about ten 24-50 ka rhyolite and dacite domes and flows. A 100m-thick 35+/-2 ka rhyolite lava also extends NE from South Sister into Squaw Creek. In sum, South and Middle Sisters are mafic to intermediate and their youngest activity is coeval. Silicic flows on and around the volcanic cluster are voluminous, abundant and young.

  13. NOTE: Modelling the influence of amnionicity on the severity of twin twin transfusion syndrome in monochorionic twin pregnancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Umur, Asli; Ross, Michael G.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    2004-03-01

    Clinical treatment for diamniotic monochorionic twin twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) may include conversion of diamniotic pregnancies to a monoamniotic monochorionic state by disrupting the amnion septum. We sought to test the underlying hypothesis, i.e. that a monoamniotic state reduces the severity of TTTS. With use of our previously developed mathematical model of two equal fetoplacental circulatory units connected by various sizes and types of placental anastomoses, we compared the haemodynamic and amniotic fluid dynamics of monoamniotic and diamniotic twins that develop TTTS. We used three anastomotic patterns that produce severe, moderate or mild forms of TTTS, respectively, in our diamniotic monochorionic twin model. Monoamnionicity was modelled by adding the two amniotic fluid volumes and using the volume-averaged amniotic fluid osmolality. The results were as follows: for severe TTTS, small differences develop between diamniotic and monoamniotic donor twins in fetal urine production, swallowed volume, blood volume, blood pressures, net fetofetal transfusion, and blood and amniotic fluid osmolality. However, the circulatory imbalance between the monoamniotic twins deteriorates similar to that of diamniotic twins. The pathophysiological differences tend to disappear for milder TTTS. In conclusion, our model suggests that the uncommon finding of TTTS in monoamniotic twins is not due to the presence of a single amniotic sac. Rather, clinically significant differences in anastomotic patterns and the delayed or lack of identification of manifestations in monoamniotic twins account for the reduced rate of TTTS diagnosis. Based on these results we expect the clinical disruption of the amnion septum in diamniotic monochorionic TTTS pregnancies to have only minimal benefits.

  14. A male twin infant with skull deformity and elevated neonatal 17-hydroxyprogesterone: a prismatic case of P450 oxidoreductase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wudy, Stefan A; Hartmann, Michaela F; Draper, Nicole; Stewart, Paul M; Arlt, Wiebke

    2004-11-01

    We report on a male twin infant who presented with brachy-turri-cephaly, frontal bossing, large anterior fontanelle, low set and malformed ears, and mild arachnodactyly. He had normal male genitalia. There was no evidence for maternal virilization during pregnancy. The pattern of malformations resembled Antley-Bixler-Syndrome (ABS). However, sequencing analysis of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2) did not reveal mutations. The boy's twin sister did not show any somatic or endocrine abnormalities. In the boy, neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia was positive with moderately elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone. Sequence analysis of his CYP21 gene did not reveal any mutations. The short synacthen test revealed an exaggerated 17-hydroxyprogesterone and a blunted cortisol response. Urinary steroid profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed a unique steroid metabolome suggestive of impaired activity of both 17-hydroxylase and 21-hydroxylase. Clinical and metabolic findings therefore were compatible with the recently described variant of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (ORD). Subsequently, sequencing analysis of CPR, the gene encoding P450 oxidoreductase (OR), revealed a homozygous mutation in the patient, resulting in an amino acid exchange in position 284 of the OR protein (A284P). Both the female twin sister and the parents were heterozygous for the A284P mutation. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency represents a novel autosomal recessively inherited form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Its characteristic steroid metabolome can readily be detected by GC-MS analysis of spot urine. Clinical features may include an ABS phenotype, ambiguous genitalia (virilization in girls, feminization in boys), and glucocorticoid deficiency. If required, hydrocortisone replacement should be provided. PMID:15666853

  15. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  16. NOTE: Thrombosis of anastomoses may affect the staging sequence of twin twin transfusion syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Ross, Michael G.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    2008-03-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twins, which share one single monochorionic placenta. It is caused by placental anastomoses which link the two fetoplacental circulations of the twins and allow a chronic net inter-twin transfusion to develop between the fetuses. Clinical presentation of TTTS manifestations has been classified into five different stages. In this paper, we used our computational model of TTTS and examined the possible differences between chronic and rapidly increasing inter-twin transfusion in the simulated TTTS staging sequence. Our results suggest that rapid alterations in the net inter-twin transfusion, e.g. due to thrombosis of placental anastomoses, may produce a different staging sequence than in TTTS caused by chronic inter-twin transfusion. These results may aid an improved knowledge of TTTS pathophysiology under conditions of a rapidly changing cardiovascular function, and contribute to the planning of optimal intervention under such circumstances. Supported in part by the European Community Euro-twin-2-twin project (JPHMvdW) and by the National Institutes of Health, grant HL40899 (MGR).

  17. Replication-dependent sister chromatid recombination in rad1 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisia

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyk, L.C.; Hartwell, L.H. )

    1993-03-01

    Homolog recombination and unequal sister chromatid recombination were monitored in rad1-1/rad 1-1 diploid yeast cells deficient for excision repair, and in control cells, RAD1/rad 1-1, after exposure to UV irradiation. In a rad 1-1/ rad 1-1 diploid, UV irradiation stimulated much more sister chromatid recombination relative to homolog recombination when cells were irradiated in the G[sub 1] or the G[sub 2] phases of the cell cycle than was observed in RAD1/ rad 1-1 cells. Since sister chromatids are not present during G[sub 1], this result suggested that unexcised UV dimers do not stimulate sister chromatoid recombination during the G[sub 2] phase, but only when they are present during DNA replication as a mechanism to bypass lesions obstructing the passage of DNA polymerase, and this type is analogous to the type of sister chromatoid exchange commonly observed cytologically in mammalian cells. In the second type, strand scissions created by X-irradiation or the excision of damaged bases create recombinogenic sites that result in sister chromatid recombination direct;y in G[sub 2]. Further support for the existence of two types of sister chromatid recombination is the fact that events induced in rad 1-1/ rad 1-1 were due almost entirely to gene conversion, whereas those in RAD 1/rad1-1 cells were due to a mixture of gene conversion and reciprocal recombination. 79 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Steves, Claire J.; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. Methods A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. Results A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant twin analyses, where within-pair difference in physical fitness was also predictive of within-pair difference in lateral ventricle size. There was a weak independent effect of self-reported physical activity. Conclusion Leg power predicts both cognitive ageing and global brain structure, despite controlling for common genetics and early life environment shared by twins. Interventions targeted to improve leg power in the long term may help reach a universal goal of healthy cognitive ageing. PMID:26551663

  19. Hypothesis test for synchronization: Twin surrogates revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, M. Carmen; Thiel, Marco; Kurths, Jrgen; Mergenthaler, Konstantin; Engbert, Ralf

    2009-03-01

    The method of twin surrogates has been introduced to test for phase synchronization of complex systems in the case of passive experiments. In this paper we derive new analytical expressions for the number of twins depending on the size of the neighborhood, as well as on the length of the trajectory. This allows us to determine the optimal parameters for the generation of twin surrogates. Furthermore, we determine the quality of the twin surrogates with respect to several linear and nonlinear statistics depending on the parameters of the method. In the second part of the paper we perform a hypothesis test for phase synchronization in the case of experimental data from fixational eye movements. These miniature eye movements have been shown to play a central role in neural information processing underlying the perception of static visual scenes. The high number of data sets (21 subjects and 30 trials per person) allows us to compare the generated twin surrogates with the "natural" surrogates that correspond to the different trials. We show that the generated twin surrogates reproduce very well all linear and nonlinear characteristics of the underlying experimental system. The synchronization analysis of fixational eye movements by means of twin surrogates reveals that the synchronization between the left and right eye is significant, indicating that either the centers in the brain stem generating fixational eye movements are closely linked, or, alternatively that there is only one center controlling both eyes.

  20. The Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lisa S; Beverly, William T; Corey, Linda A; Murrelle, Lenn

    2002-10-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry (MATR) is a population-based registry of twin pairs ascertained from birth records and school system records of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. The MATR was formed in 1997 with the merging of the Virginia and North Carolina Twin Registries, and it expanded to include South Carolina when access to twin birth records in that state was granted in 1998. Registered twins ("participants") number more than 51,000, with approximately 46,000 of these individuals representing complete pairs. Roughly two-thirds of MATR participants are over age 18, with a mean age of approximately 35 years. These participants have primarily been drawn from the more than 170,000 identical and fraternal twin pairs born in the three states between 1913 and 2000. Twins and their family members have participated in numerous research projects, ranging from general health surveys to studies on specific health topics such as cardiovascular disease; depression and anxiety; seizures; behavioral development; pregnancy complications; conduct disorder; drug use, abuse, and dependence; cleft lip/palate; obesity; and chronic fatigue syndrome. The MATR has established a privacy policy and strict standard operating procedures to protect the confidentiality of participant data. The MATR considers a limited number of qualified requests per year from investigators interested in recruiting MATR participants into their research studies. PMID:12537875

  1. Twin and Triplet Drugs in Opioid Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Hideaki

    Twin and triplet drugs are defined as compounds that contain respectively two and three pharmacophore components exerting pharmacological effects in a molecule. The twin drug bearing the same pharmacophores is a "symmetrical twin drug", whereas that possessing different pharmacophores is a "nonsymmetrical twin drug." In general, the symmetrical twin drug is expected to produce more potent and/or selective pharmacological effects, whereas the nonsymmetrical twin drug is anticipated to show both pharmacological activities stemming from the individual pharmacophores (dual action). On the other hand, nonsymmetrical triplet drugs, which have two of the same pharmacophores and one different moiety, are expected to elicit both increased pharmacological action and dual action. The two identical portions could bind the same receptor sites simultaneously while the third portion could bind a different receptor site or enzyme. This review will mainly focus on the twin and triplet drugs with an evaluation of their in vivo pharmacological effects, and will also include a description of their pharmacology and synthesis.

  2. Perinatal factors in twin mortality in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fakeye, O

    1986-08-01

    The results of a retrospective study involving 622 twin-pairs born over an 18-month period among 17,726 births at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria, are presented with particular reference to four variables: birthweight, presentation, parity, and intertwin delivery time interval. The twinning incidence was 35.1 per 1000. Monozygous and dizygous rates are 7 and 28 per 1000, respectively. Overall perinatal mortality (PNM) was 15.5%. Mortality was higher in second than in first twin (19.5% vs. 11.6%), and consistently higher when divided into birthweight groups. Corrected PNM increased with breech presentations: 16.3% in breech:breech compared with 3.9% in vertex:vertex presentations. The twinning rate increased with parity; PNM is low in parity 1, of little variation in birth-ranks 2-5, and high in para 6 and above. Delivery of the second twin within 15 min seems optimal, giving a corrected PNM 3.6% in contrast to rates of 10.1%, 14.0% and 19.1%, respectively when delivery occurred between 16 and 30, 31 and 60 and greater than 60 min, respectively. Prevention of preterm delivery, increased use of cesarean section delivery for malpresentation, active management of delivery of second twin within an optimal time of 15 min, and family planning are suggested in order to decrease twin PNM. PMID:2878841

  3. 25. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS FROM UPSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS FROM UPSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD THE WEST (DAM-TENDER RICHARD CARL ADJUSTING THE GATES TO ALLOW 3400 CFS THROUGH). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  4. 159. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    159. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Low Line Book #1, pp. 76,77). RECORD OF BORROW AT LOW LINE SIPHON. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  5. 156. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    156. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company, Low Line Book #1, pp.2,3). LOW LINE CONTRACTORS AND BORROW RECORD. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  6. 134. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    134. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; VIEW OF LOW LINE AND POWER GATES, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  7. 133. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    133. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; VIEW OF OUTLET SIDE OF LOW LINE GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  8. 131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF LOW LINE CANAL, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  9. Successful Separation of Omphalopagus Twins: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Prashant S; Kothari, Paras; Gupta, Abhaya; Kekre, Geeta; Dikshit, KV; Kamble, Ravi; Deshmukh, Shahaji

    2016-01-01

    Omphalopagus twins are conjoined twins sharing part of gastrointestinal system and abdominal wall. These types of twins have best chances of survival if successfully separated. We report a case of successfully separated omphalopagus twins at day six of life. PMID:26793597

  10. Successful Separation of Omphalopagus Twins: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Patil, Prashant S; Kothari, Paras; Gupta, Abhaya; Kekre, Geeta; Dikshit, K V; Kamble, Ravi; Deshmukh, Shahaji

    2016-01-01

    Omphalopagus twins are conjoined twins sharing part of gastrointestinal system and abdominal wall. These types of twins have best chances of survival if successfully separated. We report a case of successfully separated omphalopagus twins at day six of life. PMID:26793597

  11. 198. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    198. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. SEGREGATION OF PUBLIC LAND, LINCOLN AND CASSIA COUNTIES; MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  12. 197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. GATE STEMS AND LIFTING DEVICES, NO COUNTY; BLUEPRINT SKETCHES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  13. 28. VIEW FROM IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW FROM IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH CANAL BRIDGE IN DISTANCE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  14. 110. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; INLET SIDE WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  15. 88. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; WEST VIEW OF CANAL AND GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  16. 119. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    119. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF COTTONWOOD CREEK, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  17. 105. MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    105. MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; NORTHWEST VIEW OF LAKE AND HEADGATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  18. 123. MCMULLEN CREEK, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. MCMULLEN CREEK, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW OF THE CREEK EMPTYING INTO THE HIGH LINE CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  19. 96. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF CEDAR DRAW, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  20. 120. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF THE COTTONWOOD CREEK DRAW, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  1. 130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF THE HIGH LINE GATES, NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  2. 116. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET, DIVERSION SPILL IN BACKGROUND, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  3. 113. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF INLET SIDE OF SIPHON, NORTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  4. 95. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW LOOKING EAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  5. 103. DRY CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. DRY CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; INLET SIDE TO DRY CREEK, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  6. 8. BRIDGEWORK PLANKING FROM EAST SIDE WITH TWIN FALLS MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. BRIDGEWORK PLANKING FROM EAST SIDE WITH TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS IN DISTANCE; LOOKING WEST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  7. 94. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF GATES FROM THE CANAL SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  8. 109. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW LOOKING WEST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  9. 101. DRY CREEK SPILL, MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. DRY CREEK SPILL, MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; NORTHEAST VIEW OF DRY CREEK OUTLET. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  10. 90. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  11. 126. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET SIDE OF SIPHON, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  12. 122. MCMULLEN CREEK, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. MCMULLEN CREEK, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF THE CREEK, ENTRANCE INTO THE HIGH LINE CANAL, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  13. 106. DRY CREEK SPILL, MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. DRY CREEK SPILL, MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF GATES, NORTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  14. 102. MURTAUGH LAKE HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. MURTAUGH LAKE HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; LAKE SIDE OF HEADGATES, NORTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  15. 112. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  16. 111. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF SIPHON, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  17. 93. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OVERALL NORTHEAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  18. 114. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW, WEST OF INLET SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  19. 124. MCMULLEN CREEK HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. MCMULLEN CREEK HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OVERALL SOUTH VIEW OF DRAW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  20. 129. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF SIPHON UNDER CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID