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1

Twin sisters with impetigo herpetiformis.  

PubMed

Impetigo herpetiformis is a rare and serious pustular eruption resembling pustular psoriasis that mostly occurs in pregnant women. The etiology of the disease is unclear and it is not known if genetic factors play a role. We present two sisters (twins) with impetigo herpetiformis supporting an inheritance pattern. PMID:8903778

Vicdan, K; Gokay, Z; Var, T; Danisman, N; Gokmen, O

1995-12-01

2

Discordant Puberty in Monozygotic Twin Sisters with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NFl)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monozygotic twin sisters are reported who have discordant pubertal growth and sexual development. Although both sisters were physiologically appropriate for chronological age in their pubertal development, their adolescent development was considerably different from that expected of monozygotic twin sisters. The more pubertally advanced sister by magnetic resonance imaging had an optic pathway glioma while none was present in her twin

Thaddeus E. Kelly; George T. Sproul; Milagros G. Huerta; Alan D. Rogol

1998-01-01

3

Crouzon disease associated with sinus pericranii: a report on identical twin sisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crouzon disease is a form of craniosynostosis with the autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Among the anomalies associated with craniosynostosis, aberrant dural sinus is well known. We report on identical twin sisters with Crouzon disease and sinus pericranii who were successfully treated surgically. In one of the sisters hydrocephalus was present, which eventually needed a shunt operation. The association of

Susumu Yasuda; Takao Enomoto; Yuzou Yamada; Tadao Nose; Nobuaki Iwasaki

1993-01-01

4

Crouzon disease associated with sinus pericranii: a report on identical twin sisters.  

PubMed

Crouzon disease is a form of craniosynostosis with the autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Among the anomalies associated with craniosynostosis, aberrant dural sinus is well known. We report on identical twin sisters with Crouzon disease and sinus pericranii who were successfully treated surgically. In one of the sisters hydrocephalus was present, which eventually needed a shunt operation. The association of these anomalies is discussed. PMID:8319233

Yasuda, S; Enomoto, T; Yamada, Y; Nose, T; Iwasaki, N

1993-04-01

5

Social Determinants of Smoking Behavior: The Healthy Twin Study, Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify any influence of socioeconomic status on smoking and smoking cessation in a situation where genetic factors are controlled. Methods The sample for this study was 2502 members of the twins and families cohort who participated in the Korean Healthy Twins Study from 2005 to 2009. Groups of brothers or sisters, including twins and fraternal twins, were compared in terms of smoking and smoking cessation behaviors according to differences in socioeconomic status and gender. Results In a situation with complete control of genetic factors, results showed that the daily smoking amount, cumulative smoking amount, and dependence on nicotine decreased with higher-status occupations, and the rate of smoking and amount of cumulative smoking decreased with higher levels of education. Regarding smoking cessation behavior, a higher level of education was associated with a lower smoking cessation rate, and no significant gender differences were found. Conclusions Environmental factors had a stronger influence on smoking behavior than did genetic factors. Genetic factors had greater influence on smoking cessation than did environmental factors; however, this requires verification in further studies.

Kim, Youn Sik; Ko, Hansoo; Yoon, Changgyo; Lee, Dong-Hun

2012-01-01

6

Healthy Twin: a twin-family study of Korea--protocols and current status.  

PubMed

"Healthy Twin" is a twin family study extension of the existing Korean Twin-Family Register. Healthy Twin recruits adult like-sex twins over the age of 30 and their adult family members. Healthy Twin protocols are primarily tailored to the study of the quantitative trait loci of complex traits as well as to the role of environment in the etiology of complex diseases. A full-length survey is underway, including questionnaires, health examinations and the collection of biological specimens. So far, 820 individuals (169 twin pairs and their families) have participated in the survey and 1068 individual twins (608 twin pairs) have replied to the mailed zygosity questionnaire as of July 2006. The first phase (2005-2006) of Healthy Twin will recruit 1550 individuals (including about 380 twin pairs), and the second phase a proposed 1500 to 2500 additional participants. We report study protocols and zygosity and the distribution of family size of the study participants. PMID:17254419

Sung, Joohon; Cho, Sung-Il; Lee, Kayoung; Ha, Mina; Choi, Eun-Young; Choi, Ji-Sook; Kim, Ho; Kim, Jihae; Hong, Kyoung Sue; Kim, Yeonju; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Chan; Song, Yun-Mi

2006-12-01

7

Diet transiently improves migraine in two twin sisters: possible role of ketogenesis?  

PubMed Central

Summary The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet long used to treat refractory epilepsy; ketogenesis (ketone body formation) is a physiological phenomenon also observed in patients following low-carbohydrate, low-calorie diets prescribed for rapid weight loss. We report the case of a pair of twin sisters, whose high-frequency migraine improved during a ketogenic diet they followed in order to lose weight. The observed time-lock between ketogenesis and migraine improvement provides some insight into how ketones act to improve migraine.

Di Lorenzo, Cherubino; Curra, Antonio; Sirianni, Giulio; Coppola, Gianluca; Bracaglia, Martina; Cardillo, Alessandra; De Nardis, Lorenzo; Pierelli, Francesco

2013-01-01

8

Multiple risk factors related to familial predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament injury: fraternal twin sisters with anterior cruciate ligament ruptures  

PubMed Central

Objective A multifactorial combination of predictors may increase anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk in athletes. The objective of this twin study was to examine these risk factors to identify commonalities in risk factors that predisposed female fraternal twins to ACL injury. Methods Female twins in high-risk sports were prospectively measured prior to an injury for neuromuscular control using three-dimensional motion analysis during landing, hamstrings and quadriceps muscular strength on a dynamometer and joint laxity using a modified Beighton–Horan index and a Compu-KT arthrometer. Intraoperative measures of femoral intercondylar notch width were recorded during ACL reconstruction. Results Abduction angles were increased at one knee in both of the twin sister athletes relative to uninjured controls at initial contact and at maximum displacement during landing. The twin female athletes that went on to ACL injury also demonstrated decreased peak knee flexion motion at both knees than uninjured females during landing. The twin athletes also had increased joint laxity and decreased hamstrings to quadriceps (H/Q) torque ratios compared to controls. Femoral intercondylar notch widths were also below the control mean in the twin siblings. Conclusions Prescreened mature female twins that subsequently experienced ACL injury demonstrated multiple potential risk factors including: increased knee abduction angles, decreased knee flexion angles, increased general joint laxity, decreased H/Q ratios and femoral intercondylar notch width.

Hewett, T E; Lynch, T R; Myer, G D; Ford, K R; Gwin, R C; Heidt, R S

2014-01-01

9

Dominantly inherited unilateral terminal transverse defects of the hand (adactylia) in twin sisters and one daughter.  

PubMed

Most previous cases of unilateral terminal transverse defects of the hand have not been familial. Several previously reported cases of apparent autosomal dominant inheritance of such defects have subsequently been reclassified as type B brachydactyly. We report a pair of adult twin women with unilateral terminal transverse defects affecting the left hand in one woman and the right hand in the other woman. The latter woman has one daughter with a unilateral terminal transverse defect affecting the left hand. The hand anomaly is characterized by absence of the terminal portions of digits 2 to 5 with a mildly hypoplastic thumb (adactylia). Tiny nail remnants are evident on the remaining digital stumps, and no soft tissue syndactyly is apparent. At 2 years of age, the daughter has hypoplastic first, fourth, and fifth metacarpals with no ossification of the second or third metacarpals or any of the phalanges. The affected mother has hypoplastic metacarpals for digits 2 to 4 and a vestigial fifth proximal phalanx on the affected hand, with no other phalanges evident by roentgenogram other than those of the thumb. The mother's twin sister has similar findings, except the ossified phalangeal remnant is on her second and third fingers rather than her fifth finger. Doppler flow arterial patterns appeared normal in each hand of affected family members. The other hand and both feet are clinically and radiologically normal in each case, and the family history is negative for any other individuals with limb anomalies. A review of the literature suggests that this family may very well be unique. PMID:3725479

Graham, J M; Brown, F E; Struckmeyer, C L; Hallowell, C

1986-07-01

10

Mild or absent clinical signs in twin sisters with short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two HLA-identical twin sisters are reported, of whom one has remained essentially asymptomatic, and an episode of hypotonia and decreased level of conciousness being\\u000a the only relevant clinical finding in the other. Organic acid analysis revealed that ethylmalonate was constantly, although\\u000a sometimes only slightly, increased. No abnormal acylglycines or acylcarnitines could be detected. Enzyme assay in cultured\\u000a skin fibroblasts confirmed

A. Ribes; E. Riudor; B. Garavaglia; G. Martinez; A. Arranz; F. Invernizzi; P. Briones; E. Lamantea; M. Sentís; A. Barceló; M. Roig

1998-01-01

11

Novel insertion in exon 5 of the TCOF1 gene in twin sisters with Treacher Collins syndrome.  

PubMed

Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is associated with an abnormal differentiation of the first and second pharyngeal arches during fetal development. This causes mostly craniofacial deformities, which require numerous corrective surgeries. TCS is an autosomal dominant disorder and it occurs in the general population at a frequency of 1 in 50,000 live births. The syndrome is caused by mutations in the TCOF1 gene, which encodes the serine/alanine-rich protein named Treacle. Over 120 mutations of the TCOF1 gene responsible for TCS have been described. About 70% of recognized mutations are deletions, which lead to a frame shift, formation of a termination codon, and shortening of the protein product of the gene. Herewith, a new heterozygotic insertion, c.484_668ins185bp, was described in two monozygotic twin sisters suffering from TCS. This mutation was absent in their father, brother, and uncle, indicating a de novo origin. The insertion causes a shift in the reading frame and premature termination of translation at 167 aa. The novel insertion is the longest ever found in the TCOF1 gene and the only one found among monozygotic twin sisters. PMID:22415350

Marsza?ek-Kruk, Bo?ena Anna; Wójcicki, Piotr; Smigiel, Robert; Trzeciak, Wies?aw H

2012-08-01

12

Childhood Obsessive-compulsive Traits in Anorexia Nervosa Patients, Their Unaffected Sisters and Healthy Controls: A Retrospective Study.  

PubMed

Although there is evidence that childhood perfectionistic traits predate the onset of eating disorders, few studies to date have examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of these traits in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and their unaffected sisters. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in patients with lifetime AN, their unaffected sisters and healthy women. A total of 116 AN patients, 32 healthy sisters and 119 controls were assessed by the EATATE Interview to assess traits such as perfectionism, inflexibility, rule-bound traits, drive for order and symmetry, and excessive doubt and cautiousness. Both self-report and maternal reports were collected. AN patients reported more childhood obsessive-compulsive traits than their healthy sisters and controls. In contrast, no differences between healthy controls and unaffected sisters emerged. In patients with AN, a dose-response relationship was found between the number of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits and psychopathology, including body image distortion, thus indicating that these traits are an important feature to be considered in assessing and treating eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:24851802

Degortes, Daniela; Zanetti, Tatiana; Tenconi, Elena; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela

2014-07-01

13

Strain localization associated with channelized melt migration in upper mantle lithosphere: Insights from the Twin Sisters ultramafic complex, Washington, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of field, microstructural, and textural studies in the Twin Sisters ultramafic complex (Washington State) that document localized deformation associated with the formation of dunite channels in naturally deformed upper mantle. The Twin Sisters complex is a well-exposed, virtually unaltered section of upper mantle lithosphere comprised largely of dunite and harzburgite (in cm- to m-scale primary compositional layers), and variably deformed orthopyroxenite and clinopyroxenite dikes. A series of ˜N-S striking, m-scale dunite bands (typically with porphyroclastic texture) occur throughout the study area and crosscut both the primary compositional layers and older orthopyroxenite dikes. Structural relationships suggest that these dunite bands represent former zones of channelized melt migration (i.e., dunite channels), and that strain localization was associated with melt migration. Early formed orthopyroxenite dikes are either absent within cross-cutting dunite channels, or have been displaced within channels relative to their position in the adjacent host rocks. These pre-existing orthopyroxenite dikes provide strain markers illustrating that displacement was localized primarily along channel margins, which have opposite senses of shear. In all cases where offsets were noted, the center of the channel was moved southward relative to its margins. Material flow and strain was, therefore, partitioned within channels during melt migration, and dunite channels did not accommodate net shear displacement of the adjacent host peridotites. Primary compositional layers adjacent to dunite channels document opposite rotation of olivine [100] crystallographic axes on either side of channel margins, consistent with the kinematic reversal inferred from offset markers at the outcrop scale, suggesting that the formation of dunite channels also induced host rock deformation proximal to channels. Strain localization that was focused at the margin of the bands was likely facilitated by melt-induced weakening. Channelized movement within the dunite bands may have resulted from matrix compaction within channels, pressure gradients during melt migration, or a combination of these processes during coaxial deformation.

Kruckenberg, Seth C.; Tikoff, Basil; Toy, Virginia G.; Newman, Julie; Young, Laura I.

2013-05-01

14

Testing of the "Healthy 'Little' Lives Project": A Training Program for Big Sister Mentors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Big Brothers/Big Sisters is a national program aimed at providing mentors for disadvantaged children. This study tested whether Big Sister mentors could be trained to increase communication with their Little Sisters about sexual health issues. The study tested an intervention based on social cognitive theory in which a sexual health communication…

Kaufman, Michelle R.

2010-01-01

15

Testing of the Healthy “Little” Lives Project: A Training Program for Big Sister Mentors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Big Brothers\\/Big Sisters is a national program aimed at providing mentors for disadvantaged children. This study tested whether Big Sister mentors could be trained to increase communication with their Little Sisters about sexual health issues. The study tested an intervention based on social cognitive theory in which a sexual health communication program was tested against an attention-matched control condition (bullying\\/peer

Michelle R. Kaufman

2010-01-01

16

Effects of Sibship Size and Composition on Younger Brothers' and Sisters' Alcohol Use Initiation: Findings from an Australian Twin Sample  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of sibship size and structure on delinquency are well established. Specifically, having a large family and many brothers has been shown to predict offending. However, despite strong links between delinquency and alcohol use, the contribution of sibship factors to drinking behaviors remains largely unexplored. The current study investigated the impact of sibship size and composition on younger brothers’ and sisters’ ages of drinking and intoxication onset. Methods We employed a sample of 4,281 same-sex twins from the Australian Twin Register to examine whether: (1) large sibship size facilitates earlier age at first drink (AFD) and age at first intoxication (AFI) in males and females; (2) having many older brothers predicts earlier ages of AFD and AFI in males; and (3) having many older brothers results in later AFD and AFI in females. We tested whether effects were moderated by parental divorce and alcohol misuse and mediated by familial religion. Results Sibling effects were minimal before accounting for family context. However, when parental divorce and excessive parental drinking were included as moderators, sibling effects were significantly amplified among individuals from homes of divorce, and effects were strongest when siblings were close in age. Conclusions Strong close in age older (CIAO) sibling effects indicate that proximal sibling attitudes and behaviors about alcohol likely interact with structural factors to influence younger siblings' drinking. Sibship factors were much more influential in one population (individuals from homes of divorce) than another (respondents with parental history of excessive drinking), suggesting that sibling effects vary depending on the type of co-occurring familial risk. Prevention efforts performed at the family level, and introduced before first use of alcohol, are likely to delay drinking initiation and help prevent future alcohol problems.

Richmond-Rakerd, Leah S.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.

2012-01-01

17

The Relationship of DNA Methylation with Age, Gender and Genotype in Twins and Healthy Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytosine-5 methylation within CpG dinucleotides is a potentially important mechanism of epigenetic influence on human traits and disease. In addition to influences of age and gender, genetic control of DNA methylation levels has recently been described. We used whole blood genomic DNA in a twin set (23 MZ twin-pairs and 23 DZ twin-pairs, N = 92) as well as healthy

Marco P. Boks; Eske M. Derks; Daniel J. Weisenberger; Erik Strengman; Esther Janson; Iris E. Sommer; René S. Kahn; Roel A. Ophoff; Joseph Najbauer

2009-01-01

18

Art for Twins: Yorùbá Artists and Their Statues/Twin Research Studies: Twins' Education and Conceptions; Diurnal Preference; Inherited Eye Diseases; Ultrasound Counseling When Twins Are Conjoined/Popular Twin Reports: Twin Sisters (the Film); Rare Pregnancy; Diet Test; French Twins Reared Apart and Reunited.  

PubMed

The Yorùbá of Nigeria are well known for their high twinning rate and the statues they create to commemorate deceased twins. An impressive collection of this artwork was displayed at the University of California's Fowler Museum in Los Angeles between October 13, 2013 and March 2, 2014. An overview of this exhibit is provided. Next, twin research on maternal education and conception, diurnal preference, inherited eye diseases, and ultrasound counseling for couples with conjoined twins are briefly summarized. This article concludes with a discussion of media-based items related to twins. The topics include an award-winning twin film, a rare pregnancy, a diet test, and the separation and chance reunion of monozygotic female twins. PMID:24774649

Segal, Nancy L

2014-06-01

19

First Language Attrition in the Speech of Dutch-English Bilinguals: The Case of Monozygotic Twin Sisters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent years have seen a proliferation of research on attrition in L1 speech (de Leeuw, Mennen & Scobbie, in press; de Leeuw, Schmid & Mennen, 2010; Dmitrieva, Jongman & Sereno, 2010; Mennen, 2004). Adding to this line of inquiry, the present study investigates the speech of a 62-year-old bilingual monozygotic twin who emigrated to an L2-speaking…

Mayr, Robert; Price, Sacha; Mennen, Ineke

2012-01-01

20

Twins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of Web sites about twins and twin biology starts with a short feature from The Straight Dope (1), which explains the phenomenon of superfecundation. Next is a more extensive piece from Scientific American (2), offering an interesting look at the role genetics may play in the chance of having fraternal twins. The following Web site contains a brief MSNBC story on the recent findings that fraternal, or nonidentical, twins can share the same placenta (3). The Wisconsin Twin Project at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is a long-scale psychological study focused on "the genetic and environmental influences on normal development of twins in the family context." Visitors to the project's Web site (4) will find detailed information about the ongoing research as well as FAQs for general background information. On the topic of twin studies, the next Web site contains a transcript from a recent Health Report story from the Australian Broadcasting Company's Radio National. The transcript is an interview with a researcher working with the Swedish Twin Registry (the largest twin register in the world), an important resource for studying the "relative importance of genetic and environmental influences for behavioral characteristics and diseases (5). The journal Nature offers an interesting article on how the environment in the womb can have profound effects on a child's future health without altering its DNA sequence (6). The following Web site, created by Varun Tankala, offers an excellent introduction to the phenomenon of conjoined twins (7). And with the final Web site, you need not spend another restless night wondering which Star Wars character is your cosmic twin. Not as frivolous as it might seem, this Web site, created by Jeff Potter, contains a well-accepted personality test developed by a University of California-Berkeley psychologist. Users can take the test, find their Star Wars twin, and help advance the field of psychology while you're at it (8).

21

Serotonin transporter binding of [123I]ADAM in bulimic women, their healthy twin sisters, and healthy women: a SPET study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is believed to be caused by an interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies support the existence of a bulimia-related endophenotype as well as disturbances in serotonin (5-HT) transmission. We studied serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in BN, and to investigate the possibility of a SERT-related endophenotype for BN, did this in a sample of female

Anu K Koskela; Anna Keski-Rahkonen; Elina Sihvola; Tomi Kauppinen; Jaakko Kaprio; Aapo Ahonen; Aila Rissanen

2007-01-01

22

Combined Genome-Wide Linkage and Association Analyses of Fasting Glucose Level in Healthy Twins and Families of Korea  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken to identify genetic polymorphisms that are associated with the risk of an elevated fasting glucose (FG) level using genome-wide analyses. We explored a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for FG level in a genome-wide study from a Korean twin-family cohort (the Healthy Twin Study) using a combined linkage and family-based association analysis approach. We investigated 1,754 individuals, which included 432 families and 219 pairs of monozygotic twins. Regions of chromosomes 2q23.3-2q31.1, 15q26.1-15q26.3, 16p12.1, and 20p13-20p12.2, were found to show evidence of linkage with FG level, and several markers in these regions were found to be significantly associated with FG level using family-based or general association tests. In particular, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs6138953) on the PTPRA gene in the 20p13 region (combined P = 1.8 × 10-6) was found to be associated with FG level, and the PRKCB1 gene (in 16p12.1) to be possibly associated with FG level. In conclusion, multiple regions of chromosomes 2q23.3-2q31.1, 15q26.1-15q26.3, 16p12.1, and 20p13-20p12.2 are associated with FG level in our Korean twin-family cohort. The combined approach of genome-wide linkage and family-based association analysis is useful to identify novel or known genetic regions concerning FG level in a family cohort study.

Suh, Young Ju; Kim, SungHwan; Kim, So Hun; Park, Jia; Lim, Hyun Ae; Park, Hyun Ju; Choi, Hangseok; Ng, Daniel; Lee, Mi Kyeong

2013-01-01

23

Genetic and environmental relationships between change in weight and insulin resistance: the healthy twin study.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate the association between weight change from 20 years of age and insulin resistance (IR), and genetic and environmental relationships between these traits. In 594 Korean twins and family members (209 men, 385 women, 44.0 ± 10.8 years old), the percentage of weight change was calculated using self-reported body weight at 20 years of age and currently measured bodyweight. IR traits were assessed using fasting plasma glucose and insulin, the homeostasis model assessment of IR index (HOMA-IR), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Linear mixed analysis was applied after adjusting for household, body mass index (BMI) at the age of 20 years, age, sex, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, and caloric intake. Heritabilities and genetic and environmental correlations were estimated after adjusting for covariates. In 55 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for HOMA-IR level by >0.3, a conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted regarding weight change. Increases in glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR and a decrease in QUICKI were associated with a higher percentage of weight change (p < .05). Estimated heritabilities for IR traits were 0.401-0.606 (p < .001). In cross-trait relationships, environmental correlations were -0.43-0.42 (p < .05 for all IR), while genetic correlations were -0.27-0.27 (p < .05 for QUICKI, insulin, and HOMA-IR). In 55 pairs of monozygotic twins, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for having a higher level of HOMA-IR was 1.10 (1.03-1.17) with 1% increase in weight change since 20 years old, after adjusting for lifestyle-related factors. In conclusion, both genetic and environmental influences played significant roles in the positive association between weight change from 20 years of age and IR. PMID:24774861

Song, Yun-Mi; Lee, Kayoung; Sung, Joohon

2014-06-01

24

Eating behaviors and weight over time in a prospective study: the Healthy Twin Study.  

PubMed

We examined the relationships of combined initial restrained and external/emotional eating with initial BMI and change in weight and these subscales over time. BMI and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire were twicemeasured in 1361 Korean twins and families (482 men, 879 women) over a period of 2.7±0.9 years. Subjects were classified by combination of initial sex-specific restrained and external (or emotional) eating tertiles. Linear mixed models were performed after adjusting for confounders at baseline (household, sibling relations, sex, age, education level, smoking, alcohol use, energy intake, physical activity, and medical history). In adjusted models, initial BMI increased with increasing tertiles of initial restrained eating across initial external/emotional eating tertiles. Weight was less likely to increase over time with increasing tertiles of initial restrained eating in the lowest external eating tertile and middle tertile of emotional eating at baseline. Subscale scores decreased over time with increasing tertiles of corresponding subscales at baseline. These findings suggest that high dietary restraint and external/emotional eating may indicate concurrent high BMI and attenuated weight gain and decreases in corresponding subscales over time. PMID:24561975

Song, Yun-Mi; Lee, Kayoung; Sung, Joohon

2014-01-01

25

Monozygous Twins Discordant for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pair of identical female twins were discordant for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The affected twin was not breast-fed; was bitten by a poisonous snake, and was operated on for struma. She had more infections than her sister but no fractures. Her plasma insulin response to glucose loading was also higher. The twins lived separated in their early childhood.Copyright © 1978

M. Jokelainen; J. Palo; J. Lokki

1978-01-01

26

Dietary Restraint Is Non-Genetically Associated with Change in Body Mass Index: The Healthy Twin Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose We aimed to examine if past and more recent body mass index (BMI) changes are associated with eating behavior (EB) traits and whether these associations are due to non-genetic factors. Materials and Methods In 1321 Korean twins and family members, recent and past BMI change groups were defined using quartiles of BMI change between first and second visits over 2.4±0.9 years and BMI change between 20 years old and second visit, respectively. We applied linear mixed analysis for relationships of past or recent BMI change groups and each EB (restrained, external, and emotional EB using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) assessed at second visit after adjusting for household effect and covariates (age, gender, education, medical history of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, alcohol use, physical activity, smoking habit, and calorie intake). In monozygotic twin pairs, paired t-test for within-pair comparison and conditional logistic regression analysis were conducted regarding EB. Results Greater past BMI change was associated with higher restrained eating scores (P for trend=0.031), whereas greater recent BMI change was associated with higher external eating scores (P for trend=0.046). In co-twin-control analysis, twins with greater past BMI change were more likely to have higher restrained eating scores as compared with their co-twins with lower past BMI change (odds ratio 1.80; 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.87), whereas there were no associations between recent BMI change and external eating scores. Conclusion Greater BMI change since 20 years old is associated with higher dietary restraint, and non-genetic factors explain this relationship.

Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi

2014-01-01

27

Goddard Welcomes SISTER  

NASA Video Gallery

The Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., hosted a weeklong summer institute, SISTER, for the purpose of increasing the awareness of and providing opportunities for middle school girls to ...

28

"Do you want somebody treating your sister like that?": qualitative exploration of how African American families discuss and promote healthy teen dating relationships.  

PubMed

The article discusses a study conducted between December 2007 and March 2008 that involved 19 gender-stratified focus groups with African American parents and adolescents from Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, to explore the process and content of parent-adolescent communication about sex. Discussions about intimate partner violence (IPV) and healthy relationships emerge inductively as critical topics in these conversations. The authors use a grounded theory approach to content analysis to identify and organize themes related to discussions on these topics. A total of 125 participants from 52 families are recruited for the study. Family history of child sexual abuse often motivates discussions. Mothers are described as the primary parent discussing sexual issues with children. Fathers primarily role model ideal male partnership behavior for sons and daughters. Parents seek to prevent daughters from experiencing sexual abuse or emotional manipulation by partners and focus on instilling a sense of responsibility to and respect for romantic partners in sons. Parents prioritize and express the need for tools to influence their adolescent's socialization as romantic partners. Mothers and fathers approach this process differently. Family-focused interventions to prevent unhealthy relationships can build on parent's efforts. PMID:20889536

Akers, Aletha Y; Yonas, Michael; Burke, Jessica; Chang, Judy C

2011-07-01

29

Three Sisters, Oregon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earlier this month, the US Geological Survey (USGS) released a report stating that USGS scientists have detected a slight uplift of the ground surface over a broad area centered 5 kilometers west of South Sister volcano in the Three Sisters region of the central Oregon Cascade Range. This uplift was detected using a relatively new technique, Satellite Radar Interferometry (InSAR). InSAR uses satellite data to make radar images of the Earth's surface and then compares images from the same location acquired at different times to detect minor (a few centimeters) changes in the ground elevation. This page comes from the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory Website, and it contains links to the May 8 press release, current hazards report (spring 2001), geologic descriptions of the Three Sisters volcanoes, color interferograms, site photographs, earthquake maps, an overview of InSAR, daily seismicity measurements, and much more. The USGS's Cascade Volcano Observatory has been featured previously in our reports (see the September 23, 1994 Scout Report for Science & Engineering), but the Three Sisters research is particularly timely.

2001-01-01

30

Having Twins  

MedlinePLUS

What causes a twin pregnancy? Having twins runs in some families. The most important factor, however, is age. Women older than 30 years ... or even more can result. What causes fraternal twins? Usually, a woman releases one egg during ovulation . ...

31

Brothers and Sisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influences in contemporary society such as blended families created by remarriage, international adoptions, and reproductive\\u000a technology have expanded the definition of sibling relationships. Bonds with brothers and sisters occur early and exert a\\u000a profound effect on young children’s overall development. This chapter synthesizes the research on sibling relationships in\\u000a early childhood, identifies four recurring themes, and offers research-based recommendations to

Mary Renck Jalongo; Denise Dragich

32

Isolated oligodontia in monozygotic twins  

PubMed Central

This case report defines a case of isolated oligodontia of 9 and 10 permanent teeth in 9-year-old monozygotic twin sisters and gives information about the possible genetic and environmental etiology, related dental anomalies and treatment options. The twins have a negative family history of hypodontia and oligodontia in their parents, as well as their paternal and maternal grandmothers and first cousins. No other dental anomalies could be detected in either of the twins. With the occurrence of similarly located tooth agenesis, except for one tooth, in monozygotic twins, one may consider the influence of genetic and/or environmental factors in their etiology. Hereditary relationships associated with oligodontia could help the clinicians to predict the possibility of its occurrence in other family members and in the next generations. However, clinicians should consider oligodontia when it is not hereditary.

Halicioglu, Koray; Sahin, Hakan; Corekci, Bayram; Irgin, Celal; Toptas, Orcun

2013-01-01

33

Deformation twinning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts of twinning shears and twinning modes are introduced. The early attempts to predict these features are presented. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the formal theories of Bilby and Crocker and Bevis and Crocker for predicting these elements. Their formalisms are applied to predict twinning modes in single lattice structures, superlattices, hexagonal close packed structure and

J. W. Christian; S. Mahajan

1995-01-01

34

Sister-Sister in vitro fertilization surrogate pregnancy with donor sperm: The case for surrogate gestational pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of surrogate pregnancy is described in the sister of a 40-year-old hysterectomized woman where two oocytes of the latter were fertilized in vitro with known donor sperm and transferred into the surrogate. A normal singleton pregnancy developed which was complicated after 24 weeks of gestation with recurrent antepartum hemorrhages due to grade 3 placenta praevia. A healthy female

J. Leeton; C. King; J. Harman

1988-01-01

35

Where are Sedna's Sisters?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of the formation of the Oort cloud from the Kuiper Belt typically are presented as an animated scatter diagram. Here the orbit of each object appears as a point of perihelion distance q and semi-major axis a. (eg. Levison, Morbidelli, & Dones 2004). These plots show a conspicuous void, bounded by the inequalities: q < a, q > 50 AU, and a < 5000-10000 AU. Brown (2005) calls this void the ``Bermuda Triangle". The only present occupant is Sedna (q=76 AU, a=501 AU). Brown, Trujillo, & Rabinowitz , the discovers of Sedna, have challenged others to explain how Sedna got inside the triangle and to predict where similar objects might be found. Sedna could not have simply formed in its current orbit by the accumulation of smaller objects (Stern 2005). Several authors have suggested that a passing star scattered Sedna into the triangle shortly after the birth of the solar system. Here I offer an alternative which uses the very strong galactic tidal forces of the Sinusoidal potential (Bartlett 2001, 2004). In this potential, the numerator of Newton's law is replaced by GM cos(ko r) where ko = 2 ? / lambdao and the 'wavelength' ? o is 425 pc. The 20 radial oscillations between the sun and the center of the Galaxy give tidal forces that are 120 times as big as generally expected. I will show how this tidal force, acting over the lifetime of the solar system, could move the perihelion of Sedna from about 40 to 76 AU. Sedna's sisters are likely to have still larger q & a and to have perihelia in two specific quadrants of the ecliptic plane.

Bartlett, D. F.

2005-05-01

36

NK cells from an AML patient have recovered in remission and reached comparable cytolytic activity to that of a healthy monozygotic twin mediated by the single-chain triplebody SPM-2  

PubMed Central

Background The capacity of patient’s Natural Killer cells (NKs) to be activated for cytolysis is an important prerequisite for the success of antibody-derived agents such as single-chain triplebodies (triplebodies) in cancer therapy. NKs recovered from AML patients at diagnosis are often found to be reduced in peripheral blood titers and cytolytic activity. Here, we had the unique opportunity to compare blood titers and cytolytic function of NKs from an AML patient with those of a healthy monozygotic twin. The sibling’s NKs were compared with the patient’s drawn either at diagnosis or in remission after chemotherapy. The cytolytic activities of NKs from these different sources for the patient’s autologous AML blasts and other leukemic target cells in conjunction with triplebody SPM-2, targeting the surface antigens CD33 and CD123 on the AML cells, were compared. Methods Patient NKs drawn at diagnosis were compared to NKs drawn in remission after chemotherapy and a sibling’s NKs, all prepared from PBMCs by immunomagnetic beads (MACS). Redirected lysis (RDL) assays using SPM-2 and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays using the therapeutic antibody RituximabTM were performed with the enriched NKs. In addition, MACS-sorted NKs were analyzed for NK cell activating receptors (NCRs) by flow cytometry, and the release of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma from blood samples of both siblings after the addition of the triplebody were measured in ELISA-assays. Results Patient NKs isolated from peripheral blood drawn in remission produced comparable lysis as NKs from the healthy twin against the patient’s autologous bone marrow (BM) blasts, mediated by SPM-2. The NCR receptor expression profiles on NKs from patient and twin were similar, but NK cell titers in peripheral blood were lower for samples drawn at diagnosis than in remission. Conclusions Peripheral blood NK titers and ex vivo cytolytic activities mediated by triplebody SPM-2 were comparable for cells drawn from an AML patient in remission and a healthy twin. If these results can be generalized, then NKs from AML patients in remission are sufficient in numbers and cytolytic activity to make triplebodies promising new agents for the treatment of AML.

2013-01-01

37

Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a rare condition that occurs only in identical twins while they are in the womb. ... TTTS occurs when the blood supply of one twin moves to the other the shared placenta. The ...

38

Sister R. Leadership: Doing the Seemingly Impossible  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sister R., the first author, is a Dominican Sister of Peace. Until recently, Sister R. had been the director of the Maya Ministry Family Literacy Program, working with the Maya Community in Lake Worth, Palm Beach County, Florida. She described her work with these indigenous, preliterate, hardworking peoples as "a university of the poor" in which…

Sena, Rachel; Schoorman, Dilys; Bogotch, Ira

2013-01-01

39

78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard...Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This temporary safety zone is necessary...associated with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31,...

2013-07-26

40

Monochorionic-monoamniotic twins discordant for VATER association.  

PubMed

We describe a monozygotic twin discordant for VATER association with single dysplastic kidney and cloacal anomaly, who had no pulmonary hypoplasia. This twin probably had little or no urine output in utero, but still had normal lung development due to production of adequate amniotic fluid by the healthy twin preventing pulmonary hypoplasia. The discordance between monozygotic twins for VATER association indicates that factors other than inherited genetic ones may have a role in the causation of this association. PMID:25073497

Quinlan, J; Arora, P; Rane, S; Bajaj, M

2014-08-01

41

Monozygotic twins concordant and discordant for DCD: two sides to the story.  

PubMed

Being an identical twin does not necessarily mean having identical perceptions of family functioning, nor of the twin relationship. Using the co-twin control design, the aim of this study was to explore perceptions of family dynamics and the twin relationship in monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant and concordant for Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). It was hypothesized that, as has been found in twins discordant for cerebral palsy, twins without DCD would perceive family functioning as less healthy than would their co-twins with DCD. It was also hypothesized that the twin relationship would be regarded generally as mutually supportive. Questionnaire data on 866 sets of MZ twins aged 6 to 17 years were used to identify seven sets discordant, and two sets concordant for DCD. Quantitative (General Functioning Scale of the Family Assessment Device - FAD), and qualitative (semi-structured interview) measures were used to assess family dynamics and the twin relationship. In discordant sets, six of seven twins without DCD rated family functioning at a less healthy level than did their co-twins with DCD. All twins in the DCD concordant sets rated their family functioning at a healthy level. From the semi-structured interviews, emergent themes included friendship, support, minimal sibling rivalry, and minor difficulties. It was concluded that, overall, the twin relationship was regarded as close and mutually supportive, with an ambivalent polarity between the best and most difficult aspects of being an identical twin. Implications for research, policy and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:21314259

Pearsall-Jones, Jillian G; Piek, Jan P; Steed, Lyndall; McDougall, Megan R; Levy, Florence

2011-02-01

42

The twin paradox revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twin paradox of special relativity results from failing to recognize the fundamental asymmetry between the two twins: One and only one twin changes direction and thus undergoes acceleration. What happens if the universe is closed, so that the twin in the rocket can return to Earth without changing direction? The twin paradox is reformulated in a closed universe (a

Tevian Dray

1990-01-01

43

A circular twin paradox  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the special relativistic twin paradox presented here, each twin lives on one ring of a counterrotating pair of infinitesimally separated rings, so that the twins travel on the same circular path but in opposite directions. The observers on the ring of one twin should see the clock of the other twin slowed by time dilation, but at each meeting

Maria B. Cranor; Elizabeth M. Heider; Richard H. Price

2000-01-01

44

Spontaneous sister chromatid differentiation (SCD) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in mouse blastocyst chromosomes.  

PubMed

The phenomenon of spontaneous differentiation (without bromodeoxyuridine in the culture medium) of sister chromatids of mouse chromosomes at the blastocyst stage of embryogenesis is described. The frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in such differentiated chromosomes was calculated. PMID:8275704

Patkin, E L; Kustova, M E; Dyban, A P

1994-01-01

45

Netherlands Twin Register: a focus on longitudinal research.  

PubMed

In 1986 we began The Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) by recruiting young twins and multiples a few weeks or months after birth. Currently we register around 50% of all newborn multiples in The Netherlands. Their parents receive a questionnaire at registration and afterwards when the children are 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 years of age. Teachers are asked to rate the behavior of the children at ages 7, 10 and 12 years. Adolescent and young-adult twins were recruited through City Councils in the early 1990s. These twins, their parents and siblings participate in longitudinal survey studies that include items about health, fertility, lifestyle, addiction, personality and psychopathology, religion, socioeconomic status, and educational attainment. The total number of twins and multiples registered with the NTR is currently over 60,000. Subgroups of twins and siblings take part in studies of cognitive development, brain function and neuropsychological indices of attention processes, and molecular genetic studies of classical and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors. DNA samples are currently collected in selected twin families for two large linkage studies, which aim to find QTLs for anxious depression and for nicotine addiction. Sisters who are mothers of DZ twins contribute DNA samples for a linkage study of DZ twinning. Large cohorts of phenotyped family members from the general population are very valuable for genetic epidemiological studies and permit selection of informative families for gene finding studies. PMID:12537867

Boomsma, Dorret I; Vink, Jacqueline M; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; de Geus, Eco J C; Beem, A Leo; Mulder, Elles J C M; Derks, Eske M; Riese, Harriette; Willemsen, Gonneke A H M; Bartels, Meike; van den Berg, Mireille; Kupper, Nina H M; Polderman, Tinca J C; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietveld, Marjolein J H; Stubbe, Janine H; Knol, Louise I; Stroet, Therese; van Baal, G Caroline M

2002-10-01

46

Utilizing Twins as Controls for Non-Twin Case-Materials in Genome Wide Association Studies  

PubMed Central

Twin registries around the globe have collected DNA samples from large numbers of monozygotic and dizygotic twins. The twin sample collections are frequently used as controls in disease-specific studies together with non-twins. This approach is unbiased under the hypothesis that twins and singletons are comparable in terms of allele frequencies; i.e. there are no genetic variants associated with being a twin per se. To test this hypothesis we performed a genome-wide association study comparing the allele frequency of 572,352 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1,413 monozygotic (MZ) and 5,451 dizygotic (DZ) twins with 3,720 healthy singletons. Twins and singletons have been genotyped using the same platform. SNPs showing association with being a twin at P-value < 1 × 10-5 were selected for replication analysis in 1,492 twins (463 MZ and 1,029 DZ) and 1,880 singletons from Finland. No SNPs reached genome-wide significance (P-value < 5 × 10-8) in the main analysis combining MZ and DZ twins. In a secondary analysis including only DZ twins two SNPs (rs2033541 close to ADAMTSL1 and rs4149283 close to ABCA1) were genome-wide significant after meta-analysis with the Finnish population. The estimated proportion of variance on the liability scale explained by all SNPs was 0.08 (P-value=0.003) when MZ and DZ were considered together and smaller for MZ (0.06, P-value=0.10) compared to DZ (0.09, P-value=0.003) when analyzed separately. In conclusion, twins and singletons can be used in genetic studies together with general population samples without introducing large bias. Further research is needed to explore genetic variances associated with DZ twinning.

Ganna, Andrea; Ortega-Alonso, Alfredo; Havulinna, Aki; Salomaa, Veikko; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Ingelsson, Erik; Hultman, Christina M.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.

2013-01-01

47

The twin paradox revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The twin paradox of special relativity results from failing to recognize the fundamental asymmetry between the two twins: One and only one twin changes direction and thus undergoes acceleration. What happens if the universe is closed, so that the twin in the rocket can return to Earth without changing direction? The twin paradox is reformulated in a closed universe (a cylinder) and then resolved by showing that there is still a (much more subtle!) asymmetry between the two twins.

Dray, Tevian

1990-09-01

48

Twinning of dodecanedicarboxylic acid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twinning of 1,10-dodecanedicarboxyl acid (DDA) was observed in 0.1 mm thick films with a polarizing microscope. Twins originated from polycrystalline regions which tended to nucleate on twin faces, and terminated by intersection gone another. Twinning increased dramatically with addition of organic compounds with a similar molecular size and shape. Increasing the freezing rate, increasing the temperature gradient, and addition of silica particles increased twinning. It is proposed that twins nucleate with polycrystals and sometimes anneal out before they become observable. The impurities may enhance twinning either by lowering the twin energy or by adsorbing on growing faces.

Sen, R.; Wilcox, W. R.

1986-01-01

49

Twin Peaks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after its deployment on Sol 3. Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

1997-01-01

50

Cohesin: functions beyond sister chromatid cohesion.  

PubMed

Faithful segregation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis is the cornerstone process of life. Cohesin, a multi-protein complex conserved from yeast to human, plays a crucial role in this process by keeping the sister chromatids together from S-phase to anaphase onset during mitosis and meiosis. Technological advancements have discovered myriad functions of cohesin beyond its role in sister chromatid cohesion (SCC), such as transcription regulation, DNA repair, chromosome condensation, homolog pairing, monoorientation of sister kinetochore, etc. Here, we have focused on such functions of cohesin that are either independent of or dependent on its canonical role of sister chromatid cohesion. At the end, human diseases associated with malfunctioning of cohesin, albeit with mostly unperturbed sister chromatid cohesion, have been discussed. PMID:23831059

Mehta, Gunjan D; Kumar, Ravinder; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Ghosh, Santanu Kumar

2013-08-01

51

Trisomy 21 in one of twin fetuses.  

PubMed

Both the detection of twins and the successful execution of a double amniocentesis pose significant technical problems in prenatal diagnosis. A case is reported in which one of twins fetuses had trisomy 21 and the other was chromosomally normal. Following counseling, the family chose to continue the pregnancy. At term, the mother was delivered of a healthy infant and a severely macerated fetus with stigmata suggestive of Down's syndrome. PMID:150585

Heller, R H; Palmer, L S

1978-07-01

52

Monozygotic twins discordant for constitutive BRCA1 promoter methylation, childhood cancer and secondary cancer  

PubMed Central

We describe monozygotic twins discordant for childhood leukemia and secondary thyroid carcinoma. We used bisulfite pyrosequencing to compare the constitutive promoter methylation of BRCA1 and several other tumor suppressor genes in primary fibroblasts. The affected twin displayed an increased BRCA1 methylation (12%), compared with her sister (3%). Subsequent bisulfite plasmid sequencing demonstrated that 13% (6 of 47) BRCA1 alleles were fully methylated in the affected twin, whereas her sister displayed only single CpG errors without functional implications. This between-twin methylation difference was also found in irradiated fibroblasts and untreated saliva cells. The BRCA1 epimutation may have originated by an early somatic event in the affected twin: approximately 25% of her body cells derived from different embryonic cell lineages carry one epigenetically inactivated BRCA1 allele. This epimutation was associated with reduced basal protein levels and a higher induction of BRCA1 after DNA damage. In addition, we performed a genome-wide microarray analysis of both sisters and found several copy number variations, i.e., heterozygous deletion and reduced expression of the RSPO3 gene in the affected twin. This monozygotic twin pair represents an impressive example of epigenetic somatic mosaicism, suggesting a role for constitutive epimutations, maybe along with de novo genetic alterations in recurrent tumor development.

Galetzka, Danuta; Hansmann, Tamara; El Hajj, Nady; Weis, Eva; Irmscher, Benjamin; Ludwig, Marco; Schneider-Ratzke, Brigitte; Kohlschmidt, Nicolai; Beyer, Vera; Bartsch, Oliver; Zechner, Ulrich; Spix, Claudia; Haaf, Thomas

2012-01-01

53

Family Adaptation and Coping among Siblings of Cancer Patients, Their Brothers and Sisters, and Nonclinical Controls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined coping and family adaptation in siblings (n=32) of cancer patients, their ill brothers and sisters (n=19), and control group of nonclinical children (n=10) with healthy siblings. Gender and age of sibling, birth order, and number of siblings were examined. Found better adaptation in larger families and decreased family involvement among…

Madan-Swain, Avi; And Others

1993-01-01

54

Twin Jet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many subsonic and supersonic vehicles in the current fleet have multiple engines mounted near one another. Some future vehicle concepts may use innovative propulsion systems such as distributed propulsion which will result in multiple jets mounted in close proximity. Engine configurations with multiple jets have the ability to exploit jet-by-jet shielding which may significantly reduce noise. Jet-by-jet shielding is the ability of one jet to shield noise that is emitted by another jet. The sensitivity of jet-by-jet shielding to jet spacing and simulated flight stream Mach number are not well understood. The current experiment investigates the impact of jet spacing, jet operating condition, and flight stream Mach number on the noise radiated from subsonic and supersonic twin jets.

Henderson, Brenda; Bozak, Rick

2010-01-01

55

Schwesternchromatidaustausch in Lymphozyten von Patienten mit Verrucae Vulgares bzw. Condylomata Acuminata (Sister Chromatid Exchanges in Lymphocytes of Patients with Verrucae Vulgares or Condylomata Acumita).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) were examined in peripheral lymphocytes from 10 patients with wart virus infections (6 Verrucae vulgares, 4 Condylomata acuminata). 8 subjects showed an increased SCE-rate compared to healthy controls, 3 of them were stati...

M. Keck K. Turanitz H. Altmann B. Syre J. Soeltz-Szoets

1982-01-01

56

Cortical Pathology in RRMS: Taking a Cue from Four Sisters.  

PubMed

Background. Although grey matter pathology is a relevant aspect of multiple sclerosis (MS) both with physical and cognitive rebounds, its pathogenesis is still under investigation. To what extent the familial and sporadic cases of MS differ in cortical pathology has not been elucidated yet. Here we present a multiple case report of four sisters affected by MS, all of them having a very high burden of cortical pathology. Methods. The clinical and grey matter MRI parameters of the patients were compared with those of twenty-five-aged matched healthy women and 25 women affected by sporadic MS (matched for age, disease duration, EDSS, and white matter lesion load). Results. Despite their short disease duration (<5 years), the four sisters showed a significant cortical thinning compared to healthy controls (P = 0.003) and sporadic MS (P = 0.041) and higher CLs number (P < 0.001) and volume (P < 0.001) compared to sporadic MS. Discussion. Although limited to a single family, our observation is worth of interest since it suggests that familial factors may account for a peculiar involvement of the cortex in MS pathology. This hypothesis should be further evaluated in a large number of multiplex MS families. PMID:23056945

Calabrese, Massimiliano; Seppi, Dario; Cocco, Eleonora; Poretto, Valentina; Rinaldi, Francesca; Perini, Paola; Gallo, Paolo

2012-01-01

57

All in the Family: The Sister Study  

MedlinePLUS

Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues All in the Family: The Sister Study Past Issues / ... that may ultimately eliminate this dreaded disease. We all know that breast cancer does not discriminate. Whether ...

58

Sister Chromatid Exchanges in Mammalian Meiotic Chromosomes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Very little is known about sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in meiotic cells--only that they occur (1) and reveal frequency and distribution patterns apparently unaffected by cross-over (CO) exchange conditions in those cells; (2) unfortunately, the numb...

J. W. Allen C. Walters

1984-01-01

59

Eruptive history of South Sister, Oregon Cascades  

USGS Publications Warehouse

South Sister is southernmost and highest of the Three Sisters, three geologically dissimilar stratovolcanoes that together form a spectacular 20km reach along the Cascade crest in Oregon. North Sister is a monotonously mafic edifice as old as middle Pleistocene, Middle Sister a basalt-andesite-dacite cone built between 48 and 14ka, and South Sister is a basalt-free edifice that alternated rhyolitic and intermediate modes from 50ka to 2ka (largely contemporaneous with Middle Sister). Detailed mapping, 330 chemical analyses, and 42 radioisotopic ages show that the oldest exposed South Sister lavas were initially rhyolitic ~50ka. By ~37ka, rhyolitic lava flows and domes (72-74% SiO2) began alternating with radially emplaced dacite (63-68% SiO2) and andesite (59-63% SiO2) lava flows. Construction of a broad cone of silicic andesite-dacite (61-64% SiO2) culminated ~30ka in a dominantly explosive sequence that began with crater-forming andesitic eruptions that left fragmental deposits at least 200m thick. This was followed at ~27ka by growth of a steeply dipping summit cone of agglutinate-dominated andesite (56-60.5% SiO2) and formation of a summit crater ~800m wide. This crater was soon filled and overtopped by a thick dacite lava flow and then by >150m of dacitic pyroclastic ejecta. Small-volume dacite lavas (63-67% SiO2) locally cap the pyroclastic pile. A final sheet of mafic agglutinate (54-56% SiO2) - the most mafic product of South Sister - erupted from and drapes the small (300-m-wide) present-day summit crater, ending a summit-building sequence that lasted until ~22ka. A 20kyr-long-hiatus was broken by rhyolite eruptions that produced (1) the Rock Mesa coulee, tephra, and satellite domelets (73.5% SiO2) and (2) the Devils Chain of ~20 domes and short coulees (72.3-72.8% SiO2) from N-S vent alignments on South Sister's flanks. The compositional reversal from mafic summit agglutinate to recent rhyolites epitomizes the frequently changing compositional modes of the South Sister locus throughout its lifetime. South Sister is part of a reach of the Cascades unusually active in the last 50kyr, characterized by high vent density, N-S vent alignments, and numerous eruptive units of true rhyolite (? 72% SiO2) that distinguishes it from much of the Quaternary Cascade arc; these are eruptive expressions of the complex confluence of arc and intraplate magmatic-tectonic regimes.

Fierstein, J.; Hildreth, W.; Calvert, A. T.

2011-01-01

60

Eruptive history of South Sister, Oregon Cascades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South Sister is southernmost and highest of the Three Sisters, three geologically dissimilar stratovolcanoes that together form a spectacular 20 km reach along the Cascade crest in Oregon. North Sister is a monotonously mafic edifice as old as middle Pleistocene, Middle Sister a basalt-andesite-dacite cone built between 48 and 14 ka, and South Sister is a basalt-free edifice that alternated rhyolitic and intermediate modes from 50 ka to 2 ka (largely contemporaneous with Middle Sister). Detailed mapping, 330 chemical analyses, and 42 radioisotopic ages show that the oldest exposed South Sister lavas were initially rhyolitic ~ 50 ka. By ~ 37 ka, rhyolitic lava flows and domes (72-74% SiO 2) began alternating with radially emplaced dacite (63-68% SiO 2) and andesite (59-63% SiO 2) lava flows. Construction of a broad cone of silicic andesite-dacite (61-64% SiO 2) culminated ~ 30 ka in a dominantly explosive sequence that began with crater-forming andesitic eruptions that left fragmental deposits at least 200 m thick. This was followed at ~ 27 ka by growth of a steeply dipping summit cone of agglutinate-dominated andesite (56-60.5% SiO 2) and formation of a summit crater ~ 800 m wide. This crater was soon filled and overtopped by a thick dacite lava flow and then by > 150 m of dacitic pyroclastic ejecta. Small-volume dacite lavas (63-67% SiO 2) locally cap the pyroclastic pile. A final sheet of mafic agglutinate (54-56% SiO 2) - the most mafic product of South Sister - erupted from and drapes the small (300-m-wide) present-day summit crater, ending a summit-building sequence that lasted until ~ 22 ka. A 20 kyr-long-hiatus was broken by rhyolite eruptions that produced (1) the Rock Mesa coulee, tephra, and satellite domelets (73.5% SiO 2) and (2) the Devils Chain of ~ 20 domes and short coulees (72.3-72.8% SiO 2) from N-S vent alignments on South Sister's flanks. The compositional reversal from mafic summit agglutinate to recent rhyolites epitomizes the frequently changing compositional modes of the South Sister locus throughout its lifetime. South Sister is part of a reach of the Cascades unusually active in the last 50 kyr, characterized by high vent density, N-S vent alignments, and numerous eruptive units of true rhyolite (? 72% SiO 2) that distinguishes it from much of the Quaternary Cascade arc; these are eruptive expressions of the complex confluence of arc and intraplate magmatic-tectonic regimes.

Fierstein, Judy; Hildreth, Wes; Calvert, Andrew T.

2011-10-01

61

The Amoeba Sisters YouTube Videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Amoeba Sisters strive to facilitate curiosity and engagement by making biology both humorous and meaningful. The videos use real world examples and silly cartoons to demystify difficult biology concepts, such as cell anatomy, homeostasis, enzymes, and biomolecules. A new video is released weekly. The creators are sisters who both work in education. One is a high school biology teacher who found these videos made biology more approachable and easier to comprehend.

Sisters, The A.

2014-04-04

62

Nonconventional approach to twin pregnancies complicated by extremely preterm premature rupture of membranes of one twin.  

PubMed

The common management in most centers in cases of multiple pregnancies with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) before 22 weeks of gestation is termination of the pregnancy or the expectant approach. Expectant management of previable PPROM in twin pregnancies results in an increased rate of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality of both twins. Selective fetocide of the twin with early midtrimester rupture of membranes may improve the unfavorable pregnancy outcome of the remaining fetus. We report two successful cases of twin pregnancies complicated by extremely PPROM managed by selective fetocide of the affected twin, with an uneventful single pregnancy course and delivery of healthy newborns at 36 weeks of gestation. PMID:18297616

Keselman, Leandro; Perlitz, Yuri; Younis, Johnny; Ben-Ami, Moshe

2008-03-01

63

Staging of Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of sonographic and clinical parameters to develop a staging classification of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS).STUDY DESIGN:Severe TTTS was defined as the presence of polyhydramnios (maximum vertical pocket of ?8 cm) and oligohydramnios (maximum vertical pocket of ?2 cm). Nonvisualization of the bladder in the donor twin (?BDT) and absence

Rubén A Quintero; Walter J Morales; Mary H Allen; Patricia W Bornick; Patricia K Johnson; Michael Kruger

1999-01-01

64

A circular twin paradox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the special relativistic twin paradox presented here, each twin lives on one ring of a counterrotating pair of infinitesimally separated rings, so that the twins travel on the same circular path but in opposite directions. The observers on the ring of one twin should see the clock of the other twin slowed by time dilation, but at each meeting of the twins symmetry demands that they agree on the amount of time that has passed since their previous meeting. The resolution of the paradox focuses attention on the relation of time dilation to clock synchronization.

Cranor, Maria B.; Heider, Elizabeth M.; Price, Richard H.

2000-11-01

65

Twins, Triplets, and Other Multiples  

MedlinePLUS

... what? Pregnancy This information in Spanish ( en español ) Twins, triplets, and other multiples How twins are formed ... can increase the likelihood of multiple births. How twins are formed Twins form in one of two ...

66

Both Twins Traveling Paradox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two twins T1 and T2 synchronize their clocks at the same location L, then both of them leave with the same uniform high speed v and on the same large distance d on opposite linear directions to the locations A and respectively B (of course LA = LB = d) on that planet. Each twin sees the other twin moving away from him with the relativistic speed 2v, so each twin considers the other twin younger than him. The time dilation is the same in both twins' inertial reference frames. Here it is a forth symmetry. They stop there at A and respectively at B. Afterwards, the twin T1 from A travels on a linear route back to B (passing through L) at a uniform high speed 2v. Again, each twin sees the other twin traveling towards him with a speed 2v. And again each twin considers the other twin being younger than him, since there is the same time dilation and same space contraction. Again one has a back symmetry. But, when the twin T1 from A gets to B, he finds out that he is younger than the twin T2 in B since he has traveled more that T2.

Smarandache, Florentin

2012-10-01

67

Responsiveness to exercise training in juvenile dermatomyositis: a twin case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) often present strong exercise intolerance and muscle weakness. However, the role of exercise training in this disease has not been investigated. PURPOSE: this longitudinal case study reports on the effects of exercise training on a 7-year-old patient with JDM and on her unaffected monozygotic twin sister, who served as a control. METHODS: Both the

Clarissa Omori; Danilo ML Prado; Bruno Gualano; Adriana ME Sallum; Ana L Sá-Pinto; Maria B Perondi; Clovis AA Silva

2010-01-01

68

Deformation twins in Hornblende  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hornblende deformation twins with twin planes parallel to (101) are produced experimentally in single crystals by compression parallel to the c axis. Twinning occurs at confining pressures from 5 to 15 kilobars and temperatures from 400?? to 600??C (strain rate, 10-5 per second).

Rooney, T. P.; Riecker, R. E.; Ross, M.

1970-01-01

69

Twinning rates in Tamilnadu.  

PubMed Central

A prospective study of human reproduction was conducted in Tamilnadu State, South India, from 1969 to 1975. This paper reports twinning rates and relates these to maternal age, parity, and consanguinity. Birth weights and other dimensions at birth and infant mortality are also studied. The overall twinning rate was 1 in 115 births. Dizygotic twinning rates increased significantly with maternal age and parity. The measurements at birth for like-sexed twin pairs were lower than that of unlike-sexed, but the mortalities did not differ significantly. Twins, in general, had a several fold increase in mortality as compared with singletons.

Rao, P S; Inbaraj, S G; Muthurathnam, S

1983-01-01

70

Relative birthweights of twins.  

PubMed

In a series of 182 twin gestations second-born twins were more often heavier than first-born twins (55%), but overall they weighed less by an average of 21 g. This paradox was shown to be due to the skewed distribution of weight differences favoring the first-born twin, most apparent among pairs in which one or both weighed at least 3000 g. The larger the difference between birthweights, the greater the likelihood that the heavier twin would be delivered first. PMID:865737

Friedman, E A; Sachtleben, M R; Friedman, L M

1977-06-01

71

Twin Paradox Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Twin Paradox program displays the effect of time dilation on a moving twin as seen from a stationary twin. In the default scenario the light signals sent from the moving twin are depicted using a spacetime diagram and are shown as seen in the stationary twinâs reference frame (the Home Frame). The sliders can be used to change the twinâs trip distance and her trip speed relative to the stationary twin. Twin Paradox is an Open Source Physics program written for the teaching of special relativity. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the sr_twin.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other special relativity programs are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Relativity.

Simov, Kiril; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-30

72

CELL CYCLE: The Difficulty in Separating Sisters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The separation of the tightly associated sister chromatids during the anaphase step of cell division is an intricately orchestrated event. Orr-Weaver, in her Perspective, discusses new findings by Zou et al. in this issue that reveal the underlying molecular machinery involved.

Terry L. Orr-Weaver (Whitehead Institute and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology;)

1999-07-16

73

SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGES IN MAMMALIAN MEIOTIC CHROMOSOMES  

EPA Science Inventory

Very little is known about sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in meiotic cells--only that they occur (1) and reveal frequency and distribution patterns apparently unaffected by cross-over (CO) exchange conditions in those cells; (2) unfortunately, the number of studies from which ...

74

141. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

141. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF MAIN HEADGATES, RADIAL GATES INSIDE, SOUTHEAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

75

97. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

97. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; OVERALL WEST VIEW FROM CANAL SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

76

99. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

99. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET SIDE OF GATES, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

77

137. TWIN FALLS SOUTH SIDE MAIN CANAL DIVERSION HEADGATES, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

137. TWIN FALLS SOUTH SIDE MAIN CANAL DIVERSION HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF MAIN HEADGATES, DAM IN BACKGROUND. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

78

98. SHOESTRING, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

98. SHOESTRING, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; PROFILE VIEW, SOUTH. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

79

148. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

148. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER DAM; HEADGATES AT INLET, SOUTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

80

147. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

147. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; VIEW OF MAIN HEADGATES, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

81

149. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

149. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER DAM; CLOSE-UP OF MAIN CANAL GATES, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

82

Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... multiples that share a single placenta containing blood vessels going from one baby to the other. Blood ... transferred to the larger "recipient" twin through interconnecting vessels causing an unequal exchange of blood. The recipient ...

83

Differences in Two Sisters' Acquisition of First Verbs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined prior qualitative differences in the process of the emergence of verb use in two sisters when they were each 12 to 24 months of age (the older sister is 2 years and 9 months older than the younger sister). Daily diaries on both children were kept by the mother, who noted emergent structure and vocabulary. Systematic Analysis of…

Braunwald, Susan R.

84

Crocodile Talk: Attributions of Incestuously Abused and Nonabused Sisters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study analyzed the retrospective attributions of adult sisters (five abused sister dyads, and five abused and nonabused sister dyads) who grew up in incestuous families. It examined the attributions of subjects regarding the general sibling group; victim selection and nonselection; and attributions regarding jealousy, protection,…

Monahan, Kathleen

1997-01-01

85

Malaysian Twin Registry.  

PubMed

The National Malaysian Twin Registry was established in Royal College of Medicine, Perak, University Kuala Lumpur (UniKL) in June 2008 through a grant provided by UniKL. The general objective is to facilitate scientific research involving participation of twins and their family members in order to answer questions of health and wellbeing relevant to Malaysians. Recruitment is done via mass media, poster, and pamphlets. We now have 266 adult and 204 children twins registered. Several research projects including reproductive health study of twins and the role of co-bedding on growth and development of children are carried out. Registry holds annual activities for twins and seeks to provide health-related information for twins. We seek international collaboration. PMID:23110917

Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Jaffar, Sharifah Halimah

2013-02-01

86

Twins discordant for myositis and systemic lupus erythematosus show markedly enriched autoantibodies in the affected twin supporting environmental influences in pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of twin pairs discordant for autoimmune conditions provide a unique opportunity to explore contributing factors triggered by complex gene-environment interactions. Methods In this cross-sectional study, thirty-one monozygotic or dizygotic twin pairs discordant for myositis or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), along with matched healthy controls were evaluated for antibodies against a panel of 21 autoantigens. Results Autoantibody profiling revealed that 42% of the affected twins showed significant seropositivity against autoantigens in the panel. In many of these affected twins, but none of healthy controls, there were high levels of autoantibodies detected against two or more autoantigens commonly seen in systemic autoimmune diseases including Ro52, Ro60, RNP-70 K and/or RNP-A. In contrast, only 10% (3/31) of the unaffected twins showed seropositivity and these immunoreactivities were against single autoantigens not seen in systemic autoimmune diseases. While no significant differences in autoantibodies were detected between the affected or unaffected twins against thyroid peroxidase, transglutaminase and several cytokines, 23% of the affected twins with myositis showed autoantibodies against the gastric ATPase. Analysis of the monozygotic twins separately also revealed a higher frequencies of autoantibodies in the affected twins compared to the unaffected twins (P?=?0.046). Lastly, clinical analysis of both the affected monozygotic and dizygotic twins revealed that the autoantibody seropositive affected twins had a greater global disease activity score compared to seronegative affected twins (P?=?0.019). Conclusion The findings of significantly more autoantibodies in the affected twins with myositis and SLE compared to the unaffected twins are consistent with potential non-genetic factors playing a role in autoantibody production and pathogenesis of these autoimmune disorders.

2014-01-01

87

Rhombohedral twinning in alumina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alumina single crystals were deformed in compression along the c axes at temperatures of 625 to 1373 K. Large scale deformation by rhombohedral twinning was observed at a constant resolved shear stress of only 12.6 MPa between about 900 and 1373 K. Below 900 K, the twinning stress for specimens with ground surfaces rose rapidly to 227 MPa at 625 K. A model for twin growth in the absence of dislocation slip is proposed.

Scott, W. D.; Orr, K. K.

1983-01-01

88

Erythropoietin in monochorionic twin pregnancies in relation to twin-twin transfusion syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetal erythropoietin (Epo) concentrations were studied in monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies in relation to twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Matched maternal and fetal blood samples in utero were obtained from MC twins with TTTS (n 15) and without TTTS (n 6). In a second group of five sets of twin pairs with or without TTTS, immunolocalization of Epo was performed in

Rekha Bajoria; Stuart War; Suren R. Sooranna

89

Angiographic evaluation of conjoined twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sets of conjoined twins were studied by angiocardiography and cerebral angiography. Conjoined heart was demonstrated in the thoracopagus twins and surgical separation was impossible. Cerebral angiography disclosed the separate circulations in craniopagus twins and surgical separation was performed.

A. Marcinski; H. Urbanik Lopatec; K. Wermenski; J. Wocjan; Z. Gajewski; W. Kaminski; W. Dura

1978-01-01

90

Basal Twinning of Hematite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When two crystals share a plane, there is a twinning composition plane. The result is an intergrowth of two separate crystals in a symmetrical manner. Crystallographers classify twinned crystals by a number of twin laws. These twin laws are specific to the crystal system. The type of twinning can be a diagnostic tool in mineral identification and characterization. Many twin laws cannot be recognized in ordinary optical analysis. So, the advent of diffraction techniques to describe punctual crystallographic orientation facilitated the identification of many twinned crystals in rocks. Samples containing hematite of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were analyzed by EBSD technique. Crystallographic orientation data were obtained from automatically indexed EBSD patterns collected on a JEOL JSM-5510. EBSD analysis was carried out on thin sections cut perpendicular to the foliation (XZ plane) and parallel to the stretching lineation (X-direction). Thin sections were polished before EBSD analysis. EBSD patterns were indexed using CHANNEL 5 software from HKL Technology, Oxford Instruments. The resulting data are presented in form of pole figures (upper hemisphere, equal angle, stereographic projection) and of colour-coded maps using Coincidence Site Lattice (? 3) and Twin Boundaries Components. Through electron backscatter diffraction analysis of hematite grains was possible to detect twin boundaries similar to Dauphiné twinning in quartz that is not described for hematite. Dauphiné twinning in trigonal ?-quartz consists of a 60° rotation around the c-axis resulting in a reversal of the crystallographic positive and negative forms (Frondel 1962). As both minerals show similar symmetry, the same mechanism can be described for hematite in this analysis. The basal twinning of hematite developed pervasively during the incipient stage of deformation. This paper investigates the relationships between this kind of twinning, deformation conditions and microstructural modifications in hematite grains. The results show that the presence of twins exerts an important role in the distribution of the intracrystalline plastic deformation in hematite, as well as in the activation of different sets of slip systems. We estimate that basal twin bands can be preferred sites for dynamic recrystallization.

Gonçalves, Fábio; Lagoeiro, Leonardo; Barbosa, Paola

2013-04-01

91

[Congenital hypothyroidism. Comparison of neuropsychological development of monozygotic twins].  

PubMed

Early treated congenital hypothyroidism (CH) allows a normal neuropsychological development in many cases, but sometimes light neuromotor, linguistic, behavioural disturbances are described. In this work we compare two 9 year old twins to study the direct influence of CH in the neuropsychological development, eliminating variables linked to environment and the genetic aspects; one of the twins is affected by early treated congenital hypothyroidism, the other doesn't show any somatic, motor, linguistic, cognitive or behaviour affection. Our intention is to value the influence of CH in the neuropsychological development eliminating the variables linked to environment and to the genetic aspects. From this study emerges that both the somatic and neuropsychological development of the two twins are globally identical still, slight differences could possibly be pointed out during the evaluations, in the their neuropsychological performances. The psychomotor development of the hypothyroid twin resulted to be normal, but slower than the normal twin in any time. In the light of these results we can hypothesize that the differences in the global development are linked to the presence of congenital hypothyroidism although early treated in one of them, because the other variables linked to the genetic, environmental and socio-cultural factors are of no relevance whatsoever in this case. The two sisters are actually genetically and phenotypically identical, and both subject to the same familiar dynamics and receive the same education. PMID:8965764

Romolini, E; Dinetti, D; Bargagna, S; Giachetti, C; Marcheschi, M; Chiovato, L

1996-01-01

92

Rotational Twin Paradox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two twins settle on a massive spherical planet at a train station S. Let's consider that each twin has an accompanying clock, and the two clocks are synchronized. One twin T1 remains in the train station, while the other twin T2 travels at a uniform high speed with the train around the planet (on the big circle of the planet) until he gets back to the same train station S. Assume the planet is not rotating. Since the planet is massive, we can consider that on a very small part on its surface the train rail road is linear, so the train is in a linear uniform motion. The larger is the planet's radius the more the rail road approaches a linear trajectory. Because the GPS clocks are alleged to be built on the Theory of Relativity, one can consider the twin T2 train's circular trajectory alike the satellite's orbit. In addition, the gravitation is the same for the reference frames of T1 and T2. Each twin sees the other twin as traveling, therefore each twin finds the other one has aged slower than him. Thus herein we have a relativistic symmetry. When T2 returns to train station S, he finds out that he is younger than T1 (therefore asymmetry). Thus, one gets a contradiction between symmetry and asymmetry.

Smarandache, Florentin

2012-10-01

93

Guidelines on Library Twinning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document serves as an overview of the many forms of library twinning, or formal exchanges of materials and/or staff between two institutions. Twinning can be reciprocal, but often involves a one-way arrangement whereby a library in a developing country receives a visit from a librarian of a developed country. Either way, both institutions can…

Doyle, Robert P., Comp.; Scarry, Patricia, Comp.

94

PTX3 genetic variation and dizygotic twinning in The Gambia: could pleiotropy with innate immunity explain common dizygotic twinning in Africa?  

PubMed Central

Dizygotic (DZ) twinning has a genetic component and is common among sub-Saharan Africans; in The Gambia its frequency is up to 3% of live births. Variation in Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a soluble pattern recognition receptor that plays an important role both in humoral innate immunity and in female fertility, has been associated with resistance to M. tuberculosis infection and to P. aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients. We tested whether PTX3 variants in Gambian women associate with DZ twinning, by genotyping five PTX3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 130 sister pairs (96 full sibs and 34 half sibs) who had DZ twins. We found that two, three and five SNP haplotypes differed in frequency between twinning mothers and those without a history of twinning (from p = 0.006 to 3.03e-06 for two SNP and three SNP haplotypes, respectively). Twinning mothers and West African tuberculosis-controls from a previous study shared several frequent haplotypes. Most importantly, our data are consistent with the previously reported association of PTX3 and female fertility in a West African sample from Ghana. Taken together, these results indicate that selective pressure on PTX3 variants that affect the innate immune response to infectious agents, could also produce the observed high incidence of DZ twinning in Gambians.

Sirugo, Giorgio; Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Ryckman, Kelli K.; Bisseye, Cyrille; White, Marquitta J.; Kebbeh, Bunja; Morris, Gerard A. J.; Adegbola, Richard A.; Tacconelli, Alessandra; Predazzi, Irene; Novelli, Giuseppe; Vannberg, Fredrik O.; Odunsi, Kunle; Page, Grier P.; Williams, Scott M.

2013-01-01

95

Classical twin studies and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twin studies have been a valuable source of information about the genetic basis of complex traits. To maximize the potential of twin studies, large, worldwide registers of data on twins and their relatives have been established. Here, we provide an overview of the current resources for twin research. These can be used to obtain insights into the genetic epidemiology of

Andreas Busjahn; Leena Peltonen; Dorret Boomsma

2002-01-01

96

Personality, depression, and premorbid lifestyle in twin pairs discordant for Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Present personality traits (Freiburg personality inventory, FPI-R), depression (von Zerssen's depression scale), and self assessed state of health were evaluated in 15 twin pairs (six monozygotic and nine dizygotic; mean age 62.5 years) discordant for idiopathic Parkinson's disease and in 17 unrelated healthy control subjects. The twins had additional questionnaire based interviews on premorbid lifestyle. For disability, twins with Parkinson's disease scored lower on FPI-R than controls in "achievement orientation" and "extraversion", higher in "inhibitedness", "somatic complaints", and "emotionality". They scored higher for depression and for state of health than unaffected twins and controls. For zygosity, monozygotic twins scored lower than dizygotic twins in "achievement orientation", "aggressiveness", and "strain". Monozygotic twins had less "achievement orientation" and "extraversion" and more "somatic complaints" than controls. Monozygotic twins had a lower within pair difference than dizygotic twins in "social orientation". During premorbid times the affected twin with later Parkinson's disease was estimated to have been "less often the leader" in the twin pair. Although small in sample size, this twin study indicates a genetic impact for some personality features beyond the Parkinson's disease motor syndrome. PMID:9489545

Heberlein, I; Ludin, H P; Scholz, J; Vieregge, P

1998-02-01

97

Personality, depression, and premorbid lifestyle in twin pairs discordant for Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Present personality traits (Freiburg personality inventory, FPI-R), depression (von Zerssen's depression scale), and self assessed state of health were evaluated in 15 twin pairs (six monozygotic and nine dizygotic; mean age 62.5 years) discordant for idiopathic Parkinson's disease and in 17 unrelated healthy control subjects. The twins had additional questionnaire based interviews on premorbid lifestyle.?For disability, twins with Parkinson's disease scored lower on FPI-R than controls in "achievement orientation" and "extraversion", higher in "inhibitedness", "somatic complaints", and "emotionality". They scored higher for depression and for state of health than unaffected twins and controls. For zygosity, monozygotic twins scored lower than dizygotic twins in "achievement orientation", "aggressiveness", and "strain". Monozygotic twins had less "achievement orientation" and "extraversion" and more "somatic complaints" than controls. Monozygotic twins had a lower within pair difference than dizygotic twins in "social orientation". During premorbid times the affected twin with later Parkinson's disease was estimated to have been "less often the leader" in the twin pair.?Although small in sample size, this twin study indicates a genetic impact for some personality features beyond the Parkinson's disease motor syndrome.??

Heberlein, I.; Ludin, H.; Scholz, J.; Vieregge, P.

1998-01-01

98

Differential giemsa staining of sister chromatids and the study of sister chromatid exchanges without autoradiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese hamster ovary cells grown for two rounds of DNA replication in the presence of BrdUrd contain sister chromatids that fluoresce differentially when stained with Hoechst 33258. If such fluorescent treatments are followed by incubation in 2 X SSC or water at 62° C and staining in 3% Giemsa, the chromosomes now contain one dark (unifilarly substituted) chromatid and one

Sheldon Wolff; Paul Perry

1974-01-01

99

Sister Mary Emil Penet, I.H.M.: Founder of the Sister Formation Conference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mary Emil Penet, I.H.M., (1916-2001) used her talents and charisma to shape the first national organization of American women religious, the Sister Formation Conference (SFC; 1954-1964), facilitating the integrated intellectual, spiritual, psychological, and professional development of vowed women religious. In the decade preceding Vatican II, her…

Glisky, Joan

2006-01-01

100

Progeria in twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pair of male monozygotic twins, both affected by progeria is described. The concordance in this manifestation suggests a genetic aetiology and other evidence indicates the implication of autosomal recessive factors; the chromosomes of these patients show no detectable abnormalities.

Judith Viégas; P. L. R. Souza; F. M. Salzano

1974-01-01

101

Epigastric heteropagus twin.  

PubMed

Parasitic twining is a rare type of monozygotic monochorionic monoamniotic asymmetrical conjoined twin. We report a case of epigastric heteropagus twin. An ultrasound scan showed a defect of 1.5 cm in the epigastrium. CT showed soft tissue lobulated mass with fat and air components coming out of the epigastric defect. At operation rudimentary alimentary canal with no viscera, was found in the parasite. The parasite was easily separated from the host. PMID:22953291

Qasim, Muhammad; Shaukat, Mahmood

2011-09-01

102

Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy  

MedlinePLUS

Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

103

Determinants of pressure pain threshold in adult twins: evidence that shared environmental influences predominate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors in determining pain perception in a classical twin study. Dolorimeter measurements of pressure pain threshold (PPT) were recorded in 609 healthy female-female twin pairs of whom 269 pairs were monozygotic (MZ) and 340 were dizygotic (DZ). There was a strong correlation (R) in PPT

Alexander J. MacGregor; Gareth O. Griffiths; Juliet Baker; Timothy D. Spector

1997-01-01

104

Neurodevelopmental outcomes of twins.  

PubMed

In population-based studies, the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disability is consistently higher in twins than singletons. This is largely because birth weight and gestational age (GA) distributions of twin births are shifted to the left when compared with singleton births, and lower birth weight and lower GA are associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental disability. From a pathophysiologic perspective, a question of interest is whether neurodevelopmental outcomes of twins differ from singletons after controlling for covariates. If significant differences in outcomes persist, this would suggest that the twining process itself or something intrinsic to shared life in the womb may be responsible for observed differences. From a clinical perspective, when counseling parents at risk for preterm delivery of twins, it is useful to understand how twin outcomes compare relative to singleton outcomes at the same birth weight or GA. The purpose of this review is to examine the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of twins compared with singletons with control for important covariates. PMID:22713502

Lorenz, John M

2012-06-01

105

A comprehensive neuropsychiatric study of elderly twins: the Older Australian Twins Study.  

PubMed

The Older Australian Twins Study (OATS) was recently initiated to investigate genetic and environmental factors and their associations and interactions in healthy brain ageing and ageing-related neurocognitive disorders. The study extends the classic MZ-DZ design to include one or two equivalently aged siblings for each twin pair and utilizes the rich resources of the Australian Twin Registry. The study has a number of distinguishing features including comprehensive psychiatric, neuropsychological, cardiovascular, metabolic, and neuroimaging assessments, a longitudinal design and links with a brain donor program. The study measures many behavioral and environmental factors, but in particular lifetime physical and mental activity, physical and psychological trauma, loss of parent early in life, later losses and life events, early-life socioeconomic environment, alcohol and drug use, occupational exposure, and nutrition. It also includes comprehensive cardiovascular assessment, blood biochemistry, genetics and proteomics. The socio-demographic and health data on the first 172 pairs of twins participating in this study are presented. Prevalence of mild cognitive impairment is 12.8% and of dementia 1.5% in the sample. The target sample size is 1000, with at least 400 pairs of twins aged 65-90 years. The cohort will be assessed every two years, with in-depth assessments being repeated. OATS offers an excellent opportunity for collaboration with other similar studies as well as researchers who share the same interests. PMID:19943720

Sachdev, Perminder S; Lammel, Andrea; Trollor, Julian N; Lee, Teresa; Wright, Margaret J; Ames, David; Wen, Wei; Martin, Nicholas G; Brodaty, Henry; Schofield, Peter R

2009-12-01

106

Twin transplants; twin study summary; human interest topics.  

PubMed

An overview of the nature and success of organ transplantation in monozygotic (MZ) twins is presented. Recent timely examples demonstrate the unique donor-recipient relationship shared by MZ co-twins. Next, a recent analysis of MZ co-twin differences in the epigenetic profile and associations with differences in life history factors is presented. This work has been the focus of considerable attention by scientists and the media. The final section of this column summarizes information and events concerning twins' longevity, screen careers, older parenting of twins and the origin of the word 'twin'. PMID:16212844

Segal, Nancy L

2005-10-01

107

Preadolescent development: case studies in twins.  

PubMed Central

The authors studied eight sets of healthy twins, ranging in physical maturity from prepubertal to late pubertal, and their parents, to assess psychological changes in early adolescence. A phase-specific psychosocial regression correlates with the biological onset of puberty. We present preliminary findings related to twinship, parental reactions, and longitudinal development, based on detailed case studies. Parents experienced increased conflict, detachment, and pride in response to their twins' psychosocial development at puberty. The more advanced child in a pair tended to lead in all spheres of adjustment-school success, heterosexual interest, peer friendships, and independent behavior. Although the more advanced child began to break away from his twin, in general the twin relationships remained close. Differences in personality traits and rate of psychosocial development within a twinship tended to remain consistent or to become accentuated. They were occasionally narrowed but rarely reversed from early childhood through early adolescence. Some of the differences were fostered by dissimilar patterns of identifying with the parents.

Frank, R. A.; Cohen, D. J.

1980-01-01

108

Intravenous iron administration together with parenteral nutrition to very preterm Jehovah's Witness twins.  

PubMed

Preterm twin sisters (monozygotic) were born at gestational age 27?weeks and 5?days with birth weights of 935 and 735?g. They were admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit for a period of 1?month. Their parents were Jehovah's Witnesses and refused blood transfusion for their preterm daughters. Subcutaneous erythropoietin and intravenous iron were given as a prophylactic to avoid anaemia. PMID:24891477

Poorisrisak, Porntiva; Schroeder, Allan Mikael; Greisen, Gorm; Zachariassen, Gitte

2014-01-01

109

EarthLabs Meet Sister Corita Kent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EarthLabs project provides a framework to enhance high school students' climate literacy and awareness of climate change. The project provides climate science curriculum and teacher professional development, followed by research on students' learning as teachers implement EarthLabs climate modules in the classroom. The professional development targets high school teachers whose professional growth is structured around exposure to current climate science research, data observation collection and analysis. During summer workshops in Texas and Mississippi, teachers work through the laboratories, experiments, and hand-on activities developed for their students. In summer 2013, three graduate students from the University of Texas at Austin Institute for Geophysics with expertise in climate science participated in two weeklong workshops. The graduate students partnered with exemplary teacher leaders to provide scientific content and lead the EarthLabs learning activities. As an experiment, we integrated a visit to the Blanton Museum and an associated activity in order to motivate participants to think creatively, as well as analytically, about science. This exercise was inspired by the work and educational philosophy of Sister Corita Kent. During the visit to the Blanton Museum, we steered participants towards specific works of art pre-selected to emphasize aspects of the climate of Texas and to draw participants' attention to ways in which artists convey different concepts. For example, artists use of color, lines, and symbols conjure emotional responses to imagery in the viewer. The second part of the exercise asked participants to choose a climate message and to convey this through a collage. We encouraged participants to combine their experience at the museum with examples of Sister Corita Kent's artwork. We gave them simple guidelines for the project based on techniques and teaching of Sister Corita Kent. Evaluation results reveal that participants enjoyed the activity and saw its value for enhancing their own appreciation of climate science. However, participants expressed skepticism about using the exercise with their own students. Teachers' perception was that students would not make the same connections that they did. From our perspective and participants' enthusiasm we encourage collaboration between art and science teachers in joint activities that emphasize the link between art and science.

Quartini, E.; Ellins, K. K.; Cavitte, M. G.; Thirumalai, K.; Ledley, T. S.; Haddad, N.; Lynds, S. E.

2013-12-01

110

Mentoring At-Risk Adolescent Girls: Listening to "Little Sisters"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to develop an understanding of mentoring relationships and the impact these relationships might have on the development of high-risk adolescent girls, this qualitative study explored the relationships between six "Little Sisters" and their "Big Sister" mentors. The purposefully-selected sample includes women and girls who were actively…

Maldonado, Nancy L.; Quarles, Alice; Lacey, Candace H.; Thompson, Steve D.

2008-01-01

111

Volcano Hazards in the Three Sisters Region, Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three Sisters is one of three potentially active volcanic centers that lie close to rapidly growing communities and resort areas in Central Oregon. Two types of volcanoes exist in the Three Sisters region and each poses distinct hazards to people and prop...

W. E. Scott R. M. Iverson S. P. Schilling B. J. Fisher

1999-01-01

112

Modern Physics Problem: Twin Paradox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The animation has 3 moving dots. The black dot corresponds to the Earthbound twin. The leading green dot gives the simultaneous (according to Earth) position of the traveling twin. The trailing red dot, which will change to blue, indicates what the Earthbound twin actually sees. (The color change represents the Doppler shift as the earthbound twin looks at his brother.) It lags the other red dot on the outbound leg, as the image of the traveling twin received by the Earthbound twin is late due to the light travel time. On the return leg, this dot turns blue and rapidly catches up to the green dot.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2007-03-03

113

Serial MR imaging and 1H-MR spectroscopy in monozygotic twins with Tay-Sachs disease.  

PubMed

Four-year-old monozygotic female twins with early onset Tay-Sachs disease are described. The sisters showed similar slowly progressive clinical symptoms and deterioration, however the younger sister also demonstrated intractable myoclonus in the right leg. The serial MR images and (1)H-MR spectroscopy of the brain were obtained in both twins. MR images showed high intensity on T (2)-weighted image in the bilateral white matter, however there were no signal changes in the basal ganglia and thalamus during any of the phases. The ratio of N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) was decreased in the both white matter lesions and the corpus striatum, and that of myoinositol (mI)/Cr was increased in the damaged white matter on MR spectroscopy. The elevation of the lactate peak was clearly demonstrated in the left basal ganglia of the younger sister; however it was not shown in cerebral lesions of the elder sister. Changes in metabolites on MR spectroscopy were closely linked to the respective clinical features of each twin. Follow-up examination by (1)H-MR spectroscopy is useful for the evaluation of neuronal changes in children with Tay-Sachs disease. PMID:19294598

Imamura, A; Miyajima, H; Ito, R; Orii, K O

2008-10-01

114

A matter of choice: the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion  

PubMed Central

Sister chromatid cohesion is the basis for the recognition of chromosomal DNA replication products for their bipolar segregation in mitosis. Fundamental to sister chromatid cohesion is the ring-shaped cohesin complex, which is loaded onto chromosomes long before the initiation of DNA replication and is thought to hold replicated sister chromatids together by topological embrace. What happens to cohesin when the replication fork approaches, and how cohesin recognizes newly synthesized sister chromatids, is poorly understood. The characterization of a number of cohesion establishment factors has begun to provide hints as to the reactions involved. Cohesin is a member of the evolutionarily conserved family of Smc subunit-based protein complexes that contribute to many aspects of chromosome biology by mediating long-range DNA interactions. I propose that the establishment of cohesion equates to the selective stabilization of those cohesin-mediated DNA interactions that link sister chromatids in the wake of replication forks.

Uhlmann, Frank

2009-01-01

115

The Texas Twin Project  

PubMed Central

Socioeconomic position, racial/ethnic minority status, and other characteristics of the macro-environment may be important moderators of genetic influence on a wide array of psychosocial outcomes. Designed to maximize representation of low socioeconomic status families and racial/ethnic minorities, the Texas Twin Project is an on-going study of school-age twins (preschool through 12th grade) enrolled in public schools in the Austin, Texas and Houston, Texas metropolitan areas. School rosters are used to identify twin families from a target population with sizable populations of African-American (18%), Hispanic / Latino (48%), and non-Hispanic White (27%) children and adolescents, over half of whom meet U.S. guidelines for classification as economically disadvantaged. Initial efforts have focused on a large-scale, family-based survey study involving both parent and child reports of personality, psychopathology, physical health, academic interests, parent-child relationships, and aspects of the home environment. In addition, the Texas Twin Project is the basis for an in-laboratory study of adolescent decision-making, delinquency, and substance use. Future directions include geographic expansion of the sample to the entire state of Texas (with a population of over 25 million people) and genotyping of participating twins.

Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Tackett, Jennifer L.

2013-01-01

116

Dicephalic parapagus tribrachius conjoined twins in a triplet pregnancy: a case report.  

PubMed

Dicephalic parapagus tribrachius conjoined twin is a very rare condition. We present a case of 5-days-old male dicephalic parapagus conjoined twins. The conjoined twins were diagnosed in 4(th) month of pregnancy by ultrasonography. The pregnancy terminates at 36 weeks by cesarean section and triplets were born. The babies were male conjoined twins and another healthy male baby. Many congenital defects of interest can now be detected before birth. Sever form of this malformation precludes postpartum life. It is supposed that with advances in screening methods for prenatal diagnosis these cases are terminated in first or second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:24971140

Kaveh, Mahbod; Kamrani, Kamyar; Naseri, Mohsen; Danaeian, Morteza; Asadi, Farhad; Davari-Tanha, Fatemeh

2014-06-01

117

Dicephalic Parapagus Tribrachius Conjoined Twins in a Triplet Pregnancy: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Dicephalic parapagus tribrachius conjoined twin is a very rare condition. We present a case of 5-days-old male dicephalic parapagus conjoined twins. The conjoined twins were diagnosed in 4th month of pregnancy by ultrasonography. The pregnancy terminates at 36 weeks by cesarean section and triplets were born. The babies were male conjoined twins and another healthy male baby. Many congenital defects of interest can now be detected before birth. Sever form of this malformation precludes postpartum life. It is supposed that with advances in screening methods for prenatal diagnosis these cases are terminated in first or second trimester of pregnancy.

Kamrani, Kamyar; Naseri, Mohsen; Danaeian, Morteza; Asadi, Farhad; Davari-Tanha, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

118

77 FR 13585 - Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 14364-000] Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted...2012. d. Applicant: Three Sisters Irrigation District. e. Name of Project: Three Sisters Irrigation District Hydroelectric Project....

2012-03-07

119

Branching of twins near an austenite - twinned-martensite interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the role of surface energy in determining twin width near an austenite—twinned-martensite interface. We find that there are two distinct regimes, depending on the relative values of the elastic moduli, surface energy density and grain size. In the first regime the twin width w is constant, of order L , where L is the grain size. In the

Robert V. Kohn; Stefan Müller

1992-01-01

120

Pregnant and parenting adolescents and their younger sisters: the influence of relationship qualities for younger sister outcomes.  

PubMed

On the basis of social modeling theory and a sibling interaction hypothesis, it was hypothesized that specific relationship qualities between a pregnant or parenting teen and her younger sister would be associated with permissive younger sister outcomes, such as permissive childbearing attitudes and permissive sexual behavior. Results indicated that negative relationship qualities, such as rivalry, competition, and conflict, were more closely related to younger sisters engaging in problem delinquent-like behavior and sexual behavior than were positive relationship qualities, such as warmth and closeness. Additionally, a shared friendship network with the older sister was found to be associated with extensive younger sister problem behavior and sexual behavior. Three potential explanatory processes are discussed. PMID:9113588

East, P L; Shi, C R

1997-04-01

121

Prospective Investigation of Twin Gestation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research focused on answering the following questions: (1) What are the characteristics of diets of women bearing twins; (2) Are caloric balance and/or nutrient density of maternal diets predictive of the birthweight or proportionate growth of twins;...

J. E. Brown

2000-01-01

122

Little twin Higgs model  

SciTech Connect

We present a twin Higgs model based on left-right symmetry with a tree level quartic. This is made possible by extending the symmetry of the model to include two Z{sub 2} parities, each of which is sufficient to protect the Higgs from getting a quadratically divergent mass squared. Although both parities are broken explicitly, the symmetries that protect the Higgs from getting a quadratically divergent mass are broken only collectively. The quadratic divergences of the Higgs mass are thus still protected at one loop. We find that the fine-tuning in this model is reduced substantially compared to the original left-right twin Higgs model. This mechanism can also be applied to the mirror twin Higgs model to get a significant reduction of the fine-tuning, while keeping the mirror photon massless.

Goh, Hock-Seng; Krenke, Christopher A. [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

2007-12-01

123

Refinement of Twinned Structures with SHELXL97  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four examples of the refinement of twinned structures are discussed. These structures illustrate three different types of twins: twinning by merohedry, pseudo-mero- hedry and non-merohedral twins. How the twinning was detected, how the structures were solved and how they were refined are shown in this paper. The difference between a refinement as a disordered model and a twinned model is

Regine Herbst-Irmer; George M. Sheldrick

1998-01-01

124

Twins in Cardiovascular Genetic Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Twin studies have been largely responsible for showing,the effects of genetic variance on a quantitative trait. The model is based on the fact that monozygotic twins share all genes in common, whereas dizygotic twins are related as siblings and share “on average” half their genes. Environmental confounders,are minimized,because twin children are usually exposed to similar environments. Blood pressure was first

Friedrich C. Luft

2010-01-01

125

Monochorionic monoamniotic twins: neonatal outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Monochorionic monoamniotic twins (MoMo) occur in one of 10 000 pregnancies. Cord entanglement, malformations, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTS) and prematurity are responsible for their high perinatal morbidity and mortality.Objective:To report our experience with 36 sets of MoMo twins (1990 to 2005) and to provide updated information for counseling.Methods:Chorionicity was determined by placental examination, gestational age and TTS clinically and by

L Cordero; A Franco; S D Joy

2006-01-01

126

Relativistic twins or sextuplets?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent study of the relativistic twin 'paradox' by Soni in this journal affirmed that 'A simple solution of the twin paradox also shows anomalous behaviour of rigidly connected distant clocks' but entailed a pedagogic hurdle which the present treatment aims to surmount. Two scenarios are presented: the first 'flight-plan' is akin to that depicted by Soni, with constant-velocity segments, while the second portrays an alternative mission undertaken with sustained acceleration and deceleration, illustrated quantitatively for a two-way spacecraft flight from Earth to Polaris (465.9 light years distant) and back.

Sheldon, Eric

2003-01-01

127

Twin paradox in compact spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twins traveling at constant relative velocity will each see the other's time dilate leading to the apparent paradox that each twin believes the other ages more slowly. In a finite space, the twins can both be on inertial, periodic orbits so that they have the opportunity to compare their ages when their paths cross. As we show, they will agree

John D. Barrow; Janna Levin

2001-01-01

128

Anaesthesia of conjoined twins.  

PubMed

Conjoined twins have been a source of fascination to the public and the medical profession for centuries. Their birth was initially viewed as an ominous sign of impending disaster. Since Middle Ages into the 19th century they were regarded as monstrosities and were exhibited at circuses and sideshows. The frequency of conjoined twins is approximately 1 in 50,000 gestation, but many of them die in utero, are terminated or stillborn. The true incidence is estimated to be 1 in 200,000 live births. This article gives an overview of Siamese twins and of the prenatal diagnosis in assessing the prognosis, anaesthetic and post-natal surgical management and outcome. Anaesthesia for conjoined twins surgery, whether prior to or for separation, is an enormous challenge to the anaesthesiologist. The site and complexity of the conjunction affect management of the airway, an intravenous access, the extent of blood and number of surgical specialties involved. Preoperative assessment and planning with interdisciplinary communication and cooperation is vital to the success of the operations. Meticulous attention to detail, monitoring and vigilance are mandatory. PMID:24858973

Kobylarz, Krzysztof

2014-01-01

129

Twin Paradox and Causality  

Microsoft Academic Search

After pointing out the historical avatar at the origin of a would be twin or clock paradox, we argue that, at least on a local scale, the (re-qualified) paradox is but a necessary consequence of the sole principle of causality.

Thierry Grandou; J. L. Rubin

2007-01-01

130

Microchimerism in twins  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this paper was to report the occurrence of peripheral blood chimerism in newborns from bigeminal pregnancies. Material and methods Cord blood collected from 50 pairs of twins constituted the biological material studied. Analyses included: DNA isolation, quantitative and qualitative assessment of DNA preparations, hybridization analysis of SLS type as well as of MLS type, and analysis of microsatellite sequences with regard to polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction. Results The presence of additional fragments of DNA in peripheral blood lymphocytes was found in four out of fifty pairs of monozygotic twins (8%) at locus D7S21 (7p22, n = 3) and locus D12S11 (12q24.3, n = 1). In these cases, the presence of additional DNA fragments was also proved by analysis of microsatellite sequence polymorphisms at loci HUMPLA2A1 (pancreatic phospholipase A-2, 12q23), HUMCYARO (cytochrome P450, 15q21.1) and HUMvWF (von Willebrand factor, 12p13). Conclusions The results of our study confirm the occurrence of chimerism in twins and constitutes the starting point for further studies aimed at determining the clinical significance of chimerism in twins both for women and fetuses.

Cieslik, Krystyna; Wielgus, Karolina; Slomski, Ryszard; Szalata, Marlena; Skrzypczak-Zielinska, Marzena; Kempiak, Joanna; Breborowicz, Grzegorz

2013-01-01

131

The USC Adult Twin Cohorts: International Twin Study and California Twin Program.  

PubMed

The study of twin subjects permits the documentation of crude heritability and may promote the identification of specific causal alleles. We believe that at the current time, the chief research advantage of twins as subjects, especially monozygotic twins, is that the commonality of their genetic and cultural identity simplifies the interpretation of biological associations. In order to study genetic and environmental determinants of cancer and chronic diseases, we developed two twin registries, maintained at the University of Southern California: The International Twin Study (ITS) and the California Twin Program (CTP). The ITS is a volunteer registry of twins with cancer and chronic disease consisting of 17,245 twin pairs affected by cancer and chronic disease, respectively, ascertained by advertising in periodicals from 1980-1991. The CTP is a population-based registry of California-born twin pairs ascertained by linking the California birth records to the State Department of Motor Vehicles. Over 51,000 individual California twins representing 36,965 pairs completed and returned 16-page questionnaires. Cancer diagnoses in the California twins are updated by regular linkage to the California Cancer Registry. Over 5,000 cancer patients are represented in the CTP. Twins from both registries have participated extensively in studies of breast cancer, melanoma, lymphoma, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes mellitus type 1, mammographic density, smoking, and other traits and conditions. PMID:23218448

Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Cockburn, Myles G; Hamilton, Ann S; Zadnick, John; Mack, Thomas M

2013-02-01

132

Creating Sister Cities: An Exchange Across Hemispheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), this project creates a cultural and educational exchange program between communities in South and North America, linking San Pedro de Atacama in Chile and Magdalena, New Mexico in the United States. Both communities have similar demographics, are in relatively undeveloped regions of high-elevation desert, and are located near major international radio astronomy research facilities. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is just 40 km east of San Pedro; the Very Large Array (VLA) is just 40 km west of Magdalena. In February 2007, the Mayor of San Pedro and two teachers visited Magdalena for two weeks; in July 2007 three teachers from Magdalena will visit San Pedro. These visits enable the communities to lay the foundation for a permanent, unique partnership. The teachers are sharing expertise and teaching methodologies for physics and astronomy. In addition to creating science education opportunities, this project offers students linguistic and cultural connections. The town of San Pedro, Chile, hosts nearly 100,000 tourists per year, and English language skills are highly valued by local students. Through exchanges enabled by email and distance conferencing, San Pedro and Magdalena students will improve English and Spanish language skills while teaching each other about science and their respective cultures. This poster describes the AUI/NRAO Sister Cities program, including the challenges of cross-cultural communication and the rewards of interpersonal exchanges between continents and cultures.

Adams, M. T.; Cabezon, S. A.; Hardy, E.; Harrison, R. J.

2008-06-01

133

14. UPPER THREE SISTERS FALLS, LOOKING NORTHWEST Photocopy of photograph, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. UPPER THREE SISTERS FALLS, LOOKING NORTHWEST Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

134

8. STREAMSIDE PATH NEAR MIDDLE OF THREE SISTERS FALLS, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. STREAM-SIDE PATH NEAR MIDDLE OF THREE SISTERS FALLS, LOOKING WEST Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

135

Neuroectodermal tumours in the cerebellum in two sisters  

PubMed Central

Two sisters, one 5 years and the other 2 years old, with intrinsic tumours of the cerebellum are reported. One of the tumours was interpreted as being a ganglioneuroma with neuroblastomatous change. The other was a desmoplastic medulloblastoma. Images

Thomas, Myfanwy; Adams, J. Hume; Doyle, David

1977-01-01

136

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF 'NEANTHES ARENACEODENTATA', SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGE DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents a statistical evaluation of the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay using Neanthes arenaceodentata. Specific issues discussed are distribution of baseline SCE frequencies, transformations of SCE data, statistical sensitivity of the assay, repeatability of te...

137

UNDERSIDE FROM SOUTH BANKS; NOTICE NEW GLUE LAM CROSSBEAMS SISTERED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

UNDERSIDE FROM SOUTH BANKS; NOTICE NEW GLUE LAM CROSSBEAMS SISTERED TO OLDER BEAMS, NEW STRINGERS AND COMPONENTS MAKE UP A NEARLY NEW SUPPORT SYSTEM - Short Bridge, Spanning South Santiam River at High Deck Road, Cascadia, Linn County, OR

138

IgG subclass distribution in serum and rectal mucosa of monozygotic twins with or without inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed Central

Serum samples from 26 monozygotic twin pairs concordant or discordant with regard to inflammatory bowel disease, and rectal biopsies from 42 twins of the same subject group, were examined for IgG subclasses. They were all compared with normal controls. Almost all affected twins were in clinical remission. Paired immunofluorescence staining of the rectal mucosa showed that those with ulcerative colitis had a significantly higher (p < 0.01) proportion of IgG1 producing mucosal immunocytes than normal controls (78.1% v 55.9%). Conversely, the IgG2 cell fraction was significantly reduced (15.9% v 34.6%). Healthy twins from ulcerative colitis pairs tended to show a raised proportion of IgG1 cells and the IgG2 cell fraction was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). In discordant ulcerative colitis twin pairs, no difference appeared in the cellular IgG subclass pattern between healthy and affected twins. Furthermore, the proportion of IgG1 in these healthy and diseased twins showed good correlation (T = 0.867). The results in rectal mucosa of twins with Crohn's disease were widely scattered and affected twins did not differ significantly from normal controls. Healthy twins, however, showed a marginally raised IgG1 cell proportion, but no correlation was seen between the IgG subclass fractions in discordant Crohn's disease twin pairs. The serum concentrations of IgG1 and IgG2 did not differ from normal controls in twins of either category. These results suggested that in ulcerative colitis, the aberrant mucosal production of IgG1 and IgG2 does not depend on active disease, but is apparently at least partially explained by a genetic impact. Conversely, the mucosal IgG subclass pattern in Crohn's disease appears to be determined mainly by exogenous variables.

Helgeland, L; Tysk, C; Jarnerot, G; Kett, K; Lindberg, E; Danielsson, D; Andersen, S N; Brandtzaeg, P

1992-01-01

139

Efficiency of working memory encoding in twins discordant for schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that patients with schizophrenia and some of their relatives suffer from reduced neurocognitive efficiency, increasing their sensitivity to experimental task demands. The present study evaluated such a possibility during performance of a working memory task by schizophrenia patients and their co-twins along with a healthy control sample. Electrophysiological data were obtained from sets of 9 twin pairs (monozygotic and dizygotic pairs collapsed) discordant for a diagnosis of schizophrenia and from 9 matched, healthy control twin pairs, during administration of a variable-load spatial working memory task. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured immediately after memory set onset and during a delay period. For correctly performed trials, slow-wave ERP activity measured during the late stimulus encoding and delay periods exhibited a significant Diagnostic Group-by-Memory Load interaction, with schizophrenia patients showing a differentially strong load effect. Patients’ co-twins displayed an intermediate level of load sensitivity while healthy controls showed no significant load effect. These results support an inefficiency model of neurocognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, a pattern that appears to be related to the pathogenesis and inheritance of the disorder. Furthermore, this inefficiency appeared during the late stimulus encoding stage of working memory functioning, possibly reflecting disruptions in stimulus representation consolidation.

Bachman, Peter; Kim, Junghoon; Yee, Cindy M.; Therman, Sebastian; Manninen, Marko; Lonnqvist, Jouko; Kaprio, Jaakko; Huttunen, Matti O.; Naatanen, Risto; Cannon, Tyrone D.

2009-01-01

140

Monozygotic twins discordant for Aicardi syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Aicardi syndrome is a developmental disorder characterised by agenesis of the corpus callosum, retinal lacunae, seizures, and developmental delay. It is believed to be X linked with lethality in males. We report a set of monozygotic female twins one of whom is healthy and intellectually normal while the other has the classical Aicardi phenotype with profound retardation. Family history is negative. Both had normal karyotypes. Monozygosity was established by blood grouping, chromosomal heteromorphisms, and DNA analysis using six hypervariable probes (five autosomal and one X linked) and three X linked RFLP probes. We tested the hypothesis that preferential inactivation of a different X chromosome had occurred in each girl. Methylation sensitive RFLP analysis of DNA from EBV transformed B lymphocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts using MspI/HpaII digestion and probing with M27 beta showed a very similar pattern of X inactivation in both twins with no evidence of preferential expression of one particular X chromosome. We conclude that the abnormalities in the affected twin are probably the consequence of a postzygotic mutation in early embryonic development. Images

Costa, T; Greer, W; Rysiecki, G; Buncic, J R; Ray, P N

1997-01-01

141

The twin paradox and the principle of relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The twin paradox is intimately related to the principle of relativity. Two twins A and B meet, travel away from each other and meet again. From the point of view of A, B is the traveller. Thus, A predicts B to be younger than A herself, and vice versa. Both cannot be correct. The special relativistic solution is to say that if one of the twins, say A, was inertial during the separation, she will be the older one. Since the principle of relativity is not valid for accelerated motion according to the special theory of relativity B cannot consider herself as at rest permanently because she must accelerate in order to return to her sister. A general relativistic solution is to say that due to the principle of equivalence B can consider herself as at rest, but she must invoke the gravitational change of time in order to predict correctly the age of A during their separation. However one may argue that the fact that B is younger than A shows that B was accelerated, not A, and hence the principle of relativity is not valid for accelerated motion in the general theory of relativity either. I here argue that perfect inertial dragging may save the principle of relativity, and that this requires a new model of the Minkowski spacetime where the cosmic mass is represented by a massive shell with radius equal to its own Schwarzschild radius.

Gron, Oyvind

2013-02-01

142

[Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency with bronchiectasis in two sisters].  

PubMed

Two sisters with alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency and bronchiectasis are reported. The 53-year-old older sister (propositus) had pneumonia 3 times during her forties. She developed dyspnea on exertion in February, 1988, and a few months later she was seen at our hospital. Her serum alpha 1-antitrypsin level was 11 mg/dl. Vascular markings on chest X-ray were mildly decreased. Bronchography showed generalized cystic bronchiectasis. The younger sister was seen at our hospital at the age of 50. She had been in good health until one year previously when she had developed pneumonia, and thereafter she had suffered from productive cough and dyspnea on exertion. Her alpha 1-antitrypsin level was 22 mg/dl. Chest X-ray showed ring-like shadows and tram lines. Chest CT scans of both sisters revealed cystic changes, dilatation of bronchi, and the connection of these lesions diffusely. The alpha 1-antitrypsin phenotype of these sisters was found to be PiSiiyama (homozygote). Family study revealed that alpha 1-antitrypsin levels of 7 members were intermediate and no members had symptoms. We consider that bronchiectasis may have been related to alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency in these sisters. PMID:1630064

Fujita, A; Katoh, K; Shimizu, H; Hasako, K

1992-05-01

143

NOVA: Separating Twins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do skilled surgeons go about crafting a surgical procedure that will separate twins? That was the challenge faced by those medical experts who prepared to separate Trishna and Krishna, twin girls joined at the head who had been abandoned at an orphanage in Bangladesh. Visitors can watch the entire NOVA program that profiles this most remarkable procedure, and it's a great way to learn about this tremendously complex process. After watching the film, visitors can look over the Related Links. Here they can read an interview with one of the main surgeons, watch a short video on brain trauma, and find out about the possible future of brain transplants. On the right-hand side of the page, visitors can view related multimedia features, such as a map of the human heart.

2012-03-16

144

Challenges of Twin Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Family physicians have an important role in the diagnosis and management of twin pregnancies. Optimal antepartum management begins with early detection. Provision of patient education about the risks of the pregnancy is important. Intrapartum management is dependent on gestation age, placentation, fetal presentation, and fetal well-being. Anticipatory guidance and ongoing support should be provided for postpartum issues, such as breast-feeding and family adjustment.

Wilson, Lynn M.; Hose, Patricia M.

1991-01-01

145

Healthy Snacks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animated video segment adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, featuring American Indian characters, offers suggestions of what to eat for healthy snacks and looks at why less healthy snacks should be considered sometimes foods.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-07-01

146

Healthy Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... meals . Serve a variety of healthy foods and snacks. Be a role model by eating healthy yourself. ... eat fruits, vegetables, and grains less likely to snack on unhealthy foods less likely to smoke, use ...

147

Healthy Eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using websites and interactive games students will discover how eating healthy effects their bodies. Healthy eating is important in helping our bodies function at their best! Follow the links below and then answer the questions in our Healthy Foods project folder on our class wiki! VisitDining Decisionsand play a fun game where you will load your lunch tray with healthy choices. How do your current lunch choices ...

Smith, Mrs.

2011-12-12

148

Twin quintuplets in CVD diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atomic structure of twin quintuplets in a chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond film was - investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We conclude that the twin quintuplets have two main morphologies. The first consists of four Sigma = 3 twin boundaries and one Sigma = 81 twin boundary. The Sigma = 81 twin boundary contains the dislocations needed to accommodate a 7.35 deg misfit angle between a set of (111) planes on opposite sides of the boundary. In the second case, the 7.35 deg misfit angle is accommodated by two or more grain boundaries that are tilted slightly more than the 70.53 deg tilt of a Sigma = 3 boundary. These grain boundaries and the conventional diamond lattice twin boundaries are the only types of boundaries that we have observed in CVD diamond.

Shechtman, D.; Feldman, A.; Hutchison, J. L.

1992-08-01

149

Sister chromatid exchange induced by short-lived monoadducts produced by the bifunctional agents mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen. [CHO cells  

SciTech Connect

To see if DNA crosslinks are involved in the induction of sister chromated exchange (SCE), Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to two bifunctional alkylating agents,mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen, and their monofunctional derivatives, decarbamoyl mitomycin C and angelicin. The data indicates that monoadducts, rather than crosslinks, are responsible for SCE formation. Furthermore, all agents but angelicin produced short-lived lesions that led to SCEs in the first period of DNA replication after treatment (twin SCEs). In contrast, angelicin, like methyl methanesulfonate and N-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene, produced lesions that lasted more than one cycle, indicating that several different types of DNA lesions are capable of SCE induction.

Linnainmaa, K.; Wolff, S.

1982-01-01

150

Insulin secretion, insulin action, and hepatic glucose production in identical twins discordant for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed Central

12 identical twin pairs discordant for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were studied for insulin sensitivity (euglycemic insulin clamp, 40 mU/m2 per min), hepatic glucose production (HGP, [3-3H]glucose infusion), and insulin secretion (oral glucose tolerance test and hyperglycemic [12 mM] clamp, including glucagon administration). Five of the nondiabetic twins had normal and seven had impaired glucose tolerance. 13 matched, healthy subjects without a family history of diabetes were included as control subjects. The NIDDM twins were more obese compared with their non-diabetic co-twins. The nondiabetic twins were insulin resistant and had a delayed insulin and C-peptide response during oral glucose tolerance tests compared with controls. Furthermore, the nondiabetic twins had a decreased first-phase insulin response and a decreased maximal insulin secretion capacity during hyperglycemic clamping and intravenous glucagon administration. Nondiabetic twins and controls had similar rates of HGP. Compared with both nondiabetic twins and controls, the NIDDM twins had an elevated basal rate of HGP, a further decreased insulin sensitivity, and a further impaired insulin secretion pattern as determined by all tests. In conclusion, defects of both in vivo insulin secretion and insulin action are present in non- and possibly prediabetic twins who possess the necessary NIDDM susceptibility genes. However, all defects of both insulin secretion and glucose metabolism are expressed quantitatively more severely in their identical co-twins with overt NIDDM.

Vaag, A; Henriksen, J E; Madsbad, S; Holm, N; Beck-Nielsen, H

1995-01-01

151

Neuroblastoma in monozygotic twins - a case of probable twin-to-twin metastasis  

PubMed Central

Concordance for neuroblastoma in monozygotic twins has been reported only rarely, and the cause of the shared pathology has not been established. We describe a case of infant monozygotic twins developing tumours that were morphologically, clinically and molecularly indistinguishable, but with a delay of 6 months between times of presentation. Both tumours were metastatic and had amplification of MYCN and deletion at 1p36. Twin 1, who developed neuroblastoma first, had constitutional karyotype abnormalities in at least 5% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells involving 1p and 3p, and a deletion of 1q44 in 21% of cells. Twin 2 had a normal constitutional karyotype and lacked rearrangement or deletion of these regions. We propose an acquired neuroblastoma predisposition specific for twin 1, and in utero metastatic spread of tumour cells to twin 2 via the shared placental circulation. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

Anderson, J; Kempski, H; Hill, L; Rampling, D; Gordon, T; Michalski, A

2001-01-01

152

X-CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION PATTERNS IN MONOZYGOTIC TWINS AND SIB PAIRS DISCORDANT FOR NON-SYNDROMIC CLEFT LIP AND/OR PALATE  

PubMed Central

Background Orofacial clefts are common birth defects with a complex etiology. While underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown, altered gender ratios for clefting phenotypes, evidence for linkage to the X chromosome and the occurrence of several X-linked clefting syndromes suggest that skewed X chromosome inactivation (XCI) may contribute to the etiology of orofacial clefting. We tested this hypothesis in a sample set of female monozygotic (MZ) twins and sister pairs discordant for clefting. Methods We determined XCI in peripheral blood lymphocyte DNA using a methylation based androgen receptor gene assay. We measured skewing of XCI as the deviation in XCI pattern from a 50:50 ratio and used a paired t-test to compare the degree of skewing in cases and their unaffected sisters. Results Our analysis revealed no significant difference in the degree of skewing between twin pairs (P=0.3). However, significant differences were observed in the sister pairs (P=0.02), with the cleft lip with cleft palate (CL+P) group showing the most significant result (P=0.01). Results from the cleft lip only (P=0.79) and cleft palate only (P=0.75) groups were not significant. Conclusions We did not find evidence for involvement of skewed XCI in the discordance for clefting in our sample of female MZ twins. However, results from the paired sister study suggest that skewed XCI may be important in orofacial clefting, particularly CL+P.

Kimani, Jane W.; Shi, Min; Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Christensen, Kaare; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Marazita, Mary L.; Field, Leigh L.; Canady, John W.; Murray, Jeffrey C.

2009-01-01

153

Condensin aids sister chromatid decatenation by topoisomerase II  

PubMed Central

The condensin complex is a key determinant of mitotic chromosome architecture. In addition, condensin promotes resolution of sister chromatids during anaphase, a function that is conserved from prokaryotes to human. Anaphase bridges observed in cells lacking condensin are reminiscent of chromosome segregation failure after inactivation of topoisomerase II (topo II), the enzyme that removes catenanes persisting between sister chromatids following DNA replication. Circumstantial evidence has linked condensin to sister chromatid decatenation but, because of the difficulty of observing chromosome catenation, this link has remained indirect. Alternative models for how condensin facilitates chromosome resolution have been put forward. Here, we follow the catenation status of circular minichromosomes of three sizes during the Saccharomyeces cerevisiae cell cycle. Catenanes are produced during DNA replication and are for the most part swiftly resolved during and following S-phase, aided by sister chromatid separation. Complete resolution, however, requires the condensin complex, a dependency that becomes more pronounced with increasing chromosome size. Our results provide evidence that condensin prevents deleterious anaphase bridges during chromosome segregation by promoting sister chromatid decatenation.

Charbin, Adrian; Bouchoux, Celine; Uhlmann, Frank

2014-01-01

154

Condensin aids sister chromatid decatenation by topoisomerase II.  

PubMed

The condensin complex is a key determinant of mitotic chromosome architecture. In addition, condensin promotes resolution of sister chromatids during anaphase, a function that is conserved from prokaryotes to human. Anaphase bridges observed in cells lacking condensin are reminiscent of chromosome segregation failure after inactivation of topoisomerase II (topo II), the enzyme that removes catenanes persisting between sister chromatids following DNA replication. Circumstantial evidence has linked condensin to sister chromatid decatenation but, because of the difficulty of observing chromosome catenation, this link has remained indirect. Alternative models for how condensin facilitates chromosome resolution have been put forward. Here, we follow the catenation status of circular minichromosomes of three sizes during the Saccharomyeces cerevisiae cell cycle. Catenanes are produced during DNA replication and are for the most part swiftly resolved during and following S-phase, aided by sister chromatid separation. Complete resolution, however, requires the condensin complex, a dependency that becomes more pronounced with increasing chromosome size. Our results provide evidence that condensin prevents deleterious anaphase bridges during chromosome segregation by promoting sister chromatid decatenation. PMID:24062159

Charbin, Adrian; Bouchoux, Céline; Uhlmann, Frank

2014-01-01

155

Serendipitous Identification of Graves' Disease in Identical Twins with Polydipsia  

PubMed Central

Graves’ disease in adolescents and adults usually presents with classic symptoms including weight loss, frequent stools, irritability, and heat intolerance. However, the clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism in young children are often subtle, unrecognized, and atypical. Here, we report a 6 year-old girl who presented for evaluation of increased thirst. Review of systems was negative with respect to weight loss, irritability, palpitations, diarrhea, and school performance problems. Physical exam was unremarkable except for an enlarged thyroid gland. Her identical twin sister, who incidentally accompanied her to clinic, also had a previously unidentified goiter. Testing for diabetes was negative. Further laboratory investigation was consistent with Graves’ disease in both girls. Polydipsia is a rare and unusual presenting feature of hyperthyroidism in children. The evolution of this case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for thyroid disease during childhood.

Goldyn, Andrea K.; Eugster, Erica A.; Nebesio, Todd D.

2014-01-01

156

Twin Peaks - 3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

1997-01-01

157

"Best Friendship" and Teenage Twins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents of twins need to recognize that the formation of best friendships is not just a social act of adolescents. It is an important part of their developmental push towards independence and is also likely to be of heightened intensity which will magnify with twins. (CB)

Ireland, Patricia Daly; Pizzo, Peggy Daly

1985-01-01

158

Twin Paradox in Special Relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The familiar ``traveling twin paradox'' is discussed in a particularly simple manner, using special relativity only. The asymmetrical aging of the twins is predicted using only the relativistic definition of simultaneity and the relativistic time dilatation. Possible objections to such a treatment are discussed.

Robert H. Romer

1959-01-01

159

A Principal's Reflections on Twinning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A principal of three Ontario "twinned" schools (sharing principal and services) discusses the arrangement's advantages: greater sharing of both human and technical resources and increased opportunities for broader budget negotiations between schools. The disadvantages of twinning relate to the additional stress placed on the principal…

Kelliher, Shirley; Rees, Ruth

1997-01-01

160

Transformation: From Twin to Individual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores some of the complexities of psychotherapy with an identical twin. The difficulty of developing in psychotherapy while so much of what is oneself is located in the other twin will also be explored. The use of the countertransference as a therapeutic method will be considered as the young person develops her unique, separate…

Magagna, Jeanne

2007-01-01

161

Catholic Sister Nurses in Selma, Alabama, 1940-1972  

PubMed Central

This study analyzes the activities of religious sister nurses as they confronted racism in the American South from 1940 to 1972. Selma was chosen as a case study because, in the 1960s, events in that southern town marked a turning point in the civil rights movement in the United States. This is a story about the workings of gender, race, religion, and nursing. The sisters’ work demonstrates how an analysis of race in nursing history is incomplete without an understanding of the roles that a number of Catholic religious women took in reaching out to African Americans in the Deep South.

Wall, Barbra Mann

2009-01-01

162

[The frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in preimplantation mouse embryos].  

PubMed

The frequency of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) was analysed in spontaneously and superovulated morulae and blastocyst of CBA, C57Bl, F1 CBA x C57Bl mice in culture with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). The background level for SCE was found to be 4-5 times higher in early embryos than in fetal or adult tissues of the mouse. The phenomenon of spontaneous sister-chromatid differentiation (SCD) of blastocyst chromosomes without any treatment with BrdU was observed. The SCE frequency was calculated on such chromosomes and was the same as with BrdU. A possible mechanism of this phenomenon is suggested. PMID:8266578

Patkin, E L; Kustova, M E; Dyban, A P

1993-01-01

163

Drosophila twin spot clones reveal cell division dynamics in regenerating imaginal discs  

PubMed Central

Cell proliferation is required for tissue regeneration, yet the dynamics of proliferation during regeneration are not well understood. Here we investigated the proliferation of eye and leg regeneration in fragments of Drosophila imaginal discs. Using twin spot clones, we followed the proliferation and fates of sister cells arising from the same mother cell in the regeneration blastema. We show that the mother cell gives rise to two sisters that participate equally in regeneration. However, when cells switch disc identity and transdetermine to another fate, they fail to turn off the cell cycle and continue dividing long after regeneration is complete. We further demonstrate that the regeneration blastema moves as a sweep of proliferation, in which cells are displaced. Our results suggest that regenerating cells stop dividing once the missing parts are formed, but if they undergo a switch in cell fate, the proliferation clock is reset.

Sustar, Anne; Bonvin, Marianne; Schubiger, Margrit; Schubiger, Gerold

2011-01-01

164

Dramatically different dizygotic twins: will we include them in Research? Twin research reviews: congenital anomalies, mirror-image effects in conjoined twins, older mothers of twins; Twin statistics: 'Massachusetts, land of twins'; Tribute: Dr Victor A. McKusick.  

PubMed

The increased frequency of interracial marriage is a likely source of unusual-looking dizygotic (DZ) twins. Some members of DZ twin pairs born to mixed-race couples inherit very different physical features from their parents. This raises several questions, such as: Will researchers wish to include such twins in their ongoing studies? Next, new twin research concerned with congenital anomalies, mirror-image effects in conjoined twins and older mothers of twins will be reviewed. New statistics on twinning rates in Massachusetts will also be summarized, followed by a tribute to the late medical geneticist Dr. Victor A. McKusick. PMID:18828741

Segal, Nancy L

2008-10-01

165

Uneven X inactivation in a female monozygotic twin pair with Fabry disease and discordant expression of a novel mutation in the alpha-galactosidase A gene.  

PubMed Central

We describe two female monozygotic (MZ) twins heterozygous for Fabry disease, an X linked disorder resulting from the deficient activity of alpha-galactosidase A. While one of the twins was clinically affected, the other was asymptomatic. Enzymatic assay of alpha-galactosidase in blood leucocytes, skin fibroblasts, Epstein-Barr virus transformed lymphoid cell lines, and hair follicles of the twins and their parents confirmed the heterozygous status of the twins and indicated that Fabry disease had occurred as a result of a de novo mutation. The son of the unaffected twin sister was shown to be hemizygous. Molecular analysis of the alpha-galactosidase A gene permitted the identification of an as yet undescribed point mutation at position 10182 of exon 5 which causes an Asp to Asn substitution at codon 231. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis again showed the heterozygous status of the twins and a normal pattern in their parents. The basis for the discordant expression of this d novo mutation in the twins was investigated by studying their X inactivation status. Analysis of the inactive X specific methylation at the androgen receptor gene showed unbalanced inactivation in the twins' fibroblasts and in opposite directions. While the maternally derived X chromosome was preferentially active in the asymptomatic twin, the paternal X chromosome was active in the other, affected twin and was found in her hemizygotic nephew. These data suggest that the paternal X chromosome carries the de novo alpha-galactosidase A mutation and that uneven X inactivation is the underlying mechanism for disease expression in this novel female MZ twin pair. This is the first documented case of female twins discordant for Fabry disease. Images

Redonnet-Vernhet, I; Ploos van Amstel, J K; Jansen, R P; Wevers, R A; Salvayre, R; Levade, T

1996-01-01

166

Geologic map of Three Sisters volcanic cluster, Cascade Range, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The cluster of glaciated stratovolcanoes called the Three Sisters—South Sister, Middle Sister, and North Sister—forms a spectacular 20-km-long reach along the crest of the Cascade Range in Oregon. The three eponymous stratocones, though contiguous and conventionally lumped sororally, could hardly display less family resemblance. North Sister (10,085 ft), a monotonously mafic edifice at least as old as 120 ka, is a glacially ravaged stratocone that consists of hundreds of thin rubbly lava flows and intercalated falls that dip radially and steeply; remnants of two thick lava flows cap its summit. Middle Sister (10,047 ft), an andesite-basalt-dacite cone built between 48 and 14 ka, is capped by a thick stack of radially dipping, dark-gray, thin mafic lava flows; asymmetrically glaciated, its nearly intact west flank contrasts sharply with its steep east face. Snow and ice-filled South Sister is a bimodal rhyolitic-intermediate edifice that was constructed between 50 ka and 2 ka; its crater (rim at 10,358 ft) was created between 30 and 22 ka, during the most recent of several explosive summit eruptions; the thin oxidized agglutinate that mantles its current crater rim protects a 150-m-thick pyroclastic sequence that helped fill a much larger crater. For each of the three, the eruptive volume is likely to have been in the range of 15 to 25 km³, but such estimates are fairly uncertain, owing to glacial erosion. The map area consists exclusively of Quaternary volcanic rocks and derivative surficial deposits. Although most of the area has been modified by glaciation, the volcanoes are young enough that the landforms remain largely constructional. Furthermore, twelve of the 145 eruptive units on the map are postglacial, younger than the deglaciation that was underway by about 17 ka. The most recent eruptions were of rhyolite near South Sister, about 2,000 years ago, and of mafic magma near McKenzie Pass, about 1,500 years ago. As observed by trailblazing volcanologist, Howel Williams, "For magnificence of glacial scenery, for wealth of recent lavas, and for graphic examples of dissected volcanoes, no part of this range surpasses the area embracing the Sisters and McKenzie Pass." Scientific and journalistic interest in the Three Sisters volcanic cluster was aroused a few years ago when ongoing uplift centered about 5 km west of South Sister was identified, first recognized by satellite imagery in 2001. Subsequent geodetic measurements and continuing satellite imagery analysis confirmed 3 to 4 cm/yr uplift during the interval from 1997 to 2004; the uplift has been modelled as inflation thought to be caused by an intracrustal intrusion, largely aseismic and plausibly involving mafic magma.

Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy; Calvert, Andrew T.

2012-01-01

167

Twin Language Developnnent: A Case Study of a Twin with a Cochlear Implant and a Twin with Typical Hearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was a longitudinal examination (21 month follow-up) of language development in a pair of fraternal twins. One twin received a cochlear implant at age 20 months secondary to sen- sorineural hearing loss. The other twin had normal hearing. Data were obtained every 6 months fol- lowing her initial cochlear implant stimulation. Both twins showed delayed expressive vocabulary skills

HyeKyeung Seung; Alice Holmes

168

Healthy Snacking  

MedlinePLUS

Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Healthy Snacking Sometimes you just ... the protein foods group. Here are a few ideas from Go4Life for healthy snacking: l Stay away ...

169

Monozygotic twins with discordant karyotypes following preimplantation genetic screening and single embryo transfer: case report  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report a case of monozygotic monochorial diamniotic twins with discordant karyotypes. Methods and results The pregnancy was achieved following a treatment cycle with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) for chromosomes X, Y, 13, 16, 18, 21, 22. One embryo euploid for studied chromosomes was transferred. Prenatal ultrasonography revealed monozygotic twins. One fetus had growth retardation, multiple organ abnormalities and polyhydramnion. The other twin had normal ultrasound appearance. Delivery on week 29 of gestation resulted in the birth of two females, a stillborn twin with karyotype 45,XX,-13[12]/46,XX,r(13)[3] and a healthy twin with normal karyotype. Conclusions The discordance in the twins’ karyotypes originated from a mosaic embryo. Structural chromosomal abnormality of the affected twin could not be revealed using standard PGS investigation. Embryo splitting occurred probably due to apoptotic process in an early stage of embryo development. Apoptosis represents one of the possible mechanisms which can explain the embryo twinning process globally.

Gaillyova, Renata; Travnik, Pavel; Oracova, Eva; Vesela, Katerina; Hromadova, Lenka; Vesely, Jan; Musilova, Petra; Rubes, Jiri; Kadlecova, Jitka; Slamova, Iva; Makaturova, Eva; Vranova, Vladimira

2010-01-01

170

Chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and high frequency cells in young patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1).  

PubMed

Chromosomal aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and high frequency cells (HFCs) have been assessed in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 10 neurofibromatosis (NF1) patients and 10 healthy controls. In both groups, the spontaneous rates and the induced (bleomycin for CA and MMC for SCE) frequencies were analyzed. No differences between cells from NF1 patients and controls were observed with respect to spontaneous or bleomycin induced CA. Spontaneous or MMC induced SCE frequencies were also similar in NF1 patients and controls. HFCs, on the contrary, were statistically lower in NF1 patients. PMID:11043828

Bigatti, M P; Ardito, G; Lamberti, L; Crovella, S; Collell, M; Giordanino, S; Benso, L

2000-01-01

171

Standard sister clade comparison fails when testing derived character States.  

PubMed

Comparing species richness in sister clades that differ in a character state is one of the ways to study factors influencing diversification. While most of its applications have focussed on traits that increase diversification, some have been used to study the association of a trait with lower species richness, e.g., the occurrence of dioecy in flowering plants. We show here, using simulations and an analytical model, that the null expectation of equal species richness that is generally used in sister clade comparisons is wrong in the case of a derived trait occurring independently from speciation: one should expect fewer species in the clade with the derived character state when there is no difference in diversification rates. This is due to the waiting time for the derived state to appear, which causes it to occur more often on longer branches. This has the important implication that the probability for a clade to possess the derived state depends on the tree geometry, and thus on species richness: species-poorer clades are more likely to possess the derived state. We develop a statistical test for sister clade comparisons to study the effect of a derived character state. Applying it to a data set of dioecious clades, we find that we cannot confirm earlier work that concluded that dioecy decreases diversification; on the contrary, it seems to be associated to higher species richness than expected. [angiosperms; dioecy; diversification; sister clades; species richness.]. PMID:24671619

Käfer, Jos; Mousset, Sylvain

2014-07-01

172

Freud on Brothers and Sisters: A Neglected Topic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores Freud's developing thought on brothers and sisters, and their importance in his psychoanalytical writings and clinical work. Freud's work on sibling psychology has been seriously undervalued. This paper aims to give due recognition to Freud's work in this area. (Contains 1 note.)

Sherwin-White, Susan

2007-01-01

173

7. STREAMSIDE PATH BETWEEN THREE BRIDGE FALLS AND THREE SISTERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. STREAM-SIDE PATH BETWEEN THREE BRIDGE FALLS AND THREE SISTERS FALLS, LOOKING WEST Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

174

Mitotic toxicity, sister chromatid exchange, and rec assay of pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotoxicity of 10 pesticides (chlornitrofen, chlomethoxyfen, molinate, thiobencarb, simazine, simetryn, diazinon, iprofenfos, piperofos and oxadiazone) was studied by mitotic toxicity, sister chromatid exchange, and rec assay. The pesticides are detected frequently at high levels in the Yodo River water in Osaka, Japan, which is used for drinking water by thirteen million people. Mitotic toxicity was evaluated by mitotic index (MI)

Koichi Kuroda; Yukihiko Yamaguchi; Ginji Endo

1992-01-01

175

Clinical Design Sciences: A View from Sister Design Efforts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that the social sciences are clinical-like endeavors, and the way that "sister" fields discover and validate their results may inform research practice in education. Describes three fields of design that confront similar societal demands for improvement (engineering product design, research on the diffusion of innovations, and management…

Zaritsky, Raul; Kelly, Anthony E.; Flowers, Woodie; Rogers, Everett; O'Neill, Patrick

2003-01-01

176

Identification of protein complexes required for efficient sister chromatid cohesion.  

PubMed

Ctf8p is a component of Ctf18-RFC, an alternative replication factor C-like complex required for efficient sister chromatid cohesion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We performed synthetic genetic array (SGA) analysis with a ctf8 deletion strain as a primary screen to identify other nonessential genes required for efficient sister chromatid cohesion. We then assessed proficiency of cohesion at three chromosomal loci in strains containing deletions of the genes identified in the ctf8 SGA screen. Deletion of seven genes (CHL1, CSM3, BIM1, KAR3, TOF1, CTF4, and VIK1) resulted in defective sister chromatid cohesion. Mass spectrometric analysis of immunoprecipitated complexes identified a physical association between Kar3p and Vik1p and an interaction between Csm3p and Tof1p that we confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation from cell extracts. These data indicate that synthetic genetic array analysis coupled with specific secondary screens can effectively identify protein complexes functionally related to a reference gene. Furthermore, we find that genes involved in mitotic spindle integrity and positioning have a previously unrecognized role in sister chromatid cohesion. PMID:14742714

Mayer, Melanie L; Pot, Isabelle; Chang, Michael; Xu, Hong; Aneliunas, Victoria; Kwok, Teresa; Newitt, Rick; Aebersold, Ruedi; Boone, Charles; Brown, Grant W; Hieter, Philip

2004-04-01

177

Mainstreaming: "I Simply Wanted My Sister to Be a Bridesmaid"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a case history centering around a family controversy over the inclusion of a cerebral palsied sister in a wedding ceremony, which illustrates some of the difficulties of adjusting to and accepting a physically handicapped child in the family. (DLS)

Schleifer, Maxwell J., Ed.

1978-01-01

178

Sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes of petroleum retailers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure to petroleum vapour was assessed in workers employed in suburban petroleum retail outlets. Urinary output of thioethers provided a non-specific estimate of exposure to chemicals metabolised via a mercapturic acid pathway. Urinary d-glucaric acid (DGA) excretion was taken as an estimate of hepatic enzyme activity. Sister chromatid exchange frequency in lymphocytes was used as an indicator of genotoxic

J W Edwards; B G Priestly

1993-01-01

179

Preparation and Staining of Mammal Cells to View Sister Chromatids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was developed in the laboratory of Dr. Pablo Arenaz at the University of Texas at El Paso during a summer teacher research fellowship program sponsored by the American Society For Cell Biology. This protocol allows you to see chromatids in mammal tissue. The protocol below was used to observe sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (Cell line AA8).

Charles E. Geach (Technology & Information Systems REV)

1994-07-30

180

Investigations into sister chromatid exchange in patients under cytostatic therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo sister chromatid exchange (SCE) determinations were carried out in patients with Psoriasis vulgaris under methotrexate therapy and patients with histologically verified bronchial carcinoma under cyclophosphamide, methotrexate or a combined chemotherapy. A pronounced increase in SCE rate was only found after cyclophosphamide treatment.

Dagrun Dfiker

1981-01-01

181

Sister Chromatid Exchange in Patients Treated with Methotrexate for Psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sister chromatid exchange (SCE), which is considered a sensitive method in evaluation of mutagenicity and may be an indicator of carcinogenicity, was determined in lymphocytes from 8 patients with severe psoriasis who underwent treatment with oral methotrexate (MTX). During the treatment period (median 118 days, range 50-298 days) a significant increase in SCE compared to the pretreatment value was found

Rune Lindskov; Hans Christian Wulf; Gunhild Lange Wantzin; Erik Niebuhr

1984-01-01

182

Twin paradox on the photon sphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider another version of the twin paradox. The twins move along the same circular free photon path around the Schwarzschild center. In this case, despite their different velocities, all twins have the same nonzero acceleration. On the circular photon path, the symmetry between the twins situations is broken not by acceleration (as it is in the case of the

Marek A. Abramowicz; Stanislaw Bajtlik; Wlodek Kluzniak

2007-01-01

183

The Genetic Relationship between Indentical Twins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews current research on a woman's chances of bearing twins and the genetic relationship, prenatal competition, and personality similarities between twins. In addition, the nature/nurture controversy is discussed in terms of evidence from studies of identical twins reared apart. Future studies are suggested to discover the ways twinning might…

Herman, Rosemary

1984-01-01

184

Best Practices for Twin Placement in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The children's book "Two Is for Twins" celebrates twins and illustrates the many "twos" in a child's world. The uniqueness of twos does not have to mean separate classrooms for twins in child development programs, preschool, or elementary school settings. With recent dramatic increases in the US twin population, how should educators address the…

Lacina, Jan

2012-01-01

185

When You Are a Twin or Triplet  

MedlinePLUS

When You Are a Twin or Triplet KidsHealth > Kids > Feelings > My Home & Family > When You Are a Twin or Triplet Print A A A Text ... 7,000 triplet babies were born. Types of Twins There are two kinds of twins — fraternal and ...

186

Mechanism of slip and twinning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives are to: (1) demonstrate the mechanisms of deformation in body centered cubic (BCC), face centered cubic (FCC), and hexagonal close-packed (HCP)-structure metals and alloys and in some ceramics as well; (2) examine the deformed microstructures (slip lines and twin boundaries) in different grains of metallic and ceramic specimens; and (3) study visually the deformed macrostructure (slip and twin bands) of metals and alloys. Some of the topics covered include: deformation behavior of materials, mechanisms of plastic deformation, slip bands, twin bands, ductile failure, intergranular fracture, shear failure, slip planes, crystal deformation, and dislocations in ceramics.

Rastani, Mansur

1992-01-01

187

Failure of vincristine induce twinning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mammalian ova do not contain axes of symmetry from which are derived embryonic axes of symmetry. Mammalian axis determination is an early embryologic event occurring at about the time that monozygous twinning in mice. (Kaufma MH & O'Shea KS, 1978, Nature 276:707) and an attempt was made to reproduce their work in several strains of mice. Over 3200 embryos were examined without any twins being found. To rule out the possibility that vincristine caused twinning plus some lethal malformation (with subsequent resorption of the embryo) the embryos were examined 36-60 hours after vincristine treatment.

Binder, M.

1984-01-01

188

Twin paradox in compact spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twins traveling at constant relative velocity will each see the other's time dilate leading to the apparent paradox that each twin believes the other ages more slowly. In a finite space, the twins can both be on inertial, periodic orbits so that they have the opportunity to compare their ages when their paths cross. As we show, they will agree on their respective ages and avoid the paradox. The resolution relies on the selection of a preferred frame singled out by the topology of the space.

Barrow, John D.; Levin, Janna

2001-04-01

189

DNA methylation studies on imprinted loci in a male monozygotic twin pair discordant for Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.  

PubMed

Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is one of the most prevalent congenital disorders predominantly caused by epigenetic alterations. Here we present an extensive case study of a monozygotic monochorionic male twin pair discordant for BWS. Our analysis allows to correlate BWS symptoms, like a protruding tongue, indented ears and transient neonatal hypoglycaemia, to an abnormal methylation at the KvDMR1. DNAs extracted from peripheral blood, skin fibroblasts, saliva and buccal swab of both twins, their sister and parents were analysed at 11 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) including all four relevant DMRs of the BWS region. The KvDMR1 was exclusively found to be hypomethylated in all cell types of the affected BWS twin, while the unaffected twin and the relatives showed normal methylation in fibroblasts, buccal swab and saliva DNA. Interestingly, the twins share a common blood-specific hypomethylation phenotype most probably caused by a feto-fetal transfusion between both twins. Because microsatellite analysis furthermore revealed a normal biparental karyotype for chromosome 11, our results point to an exclusive correlation of the observed BWS symptoms to locally restricted epimutations at the KvDMR1 of the maternal chromosome. PMID:20618351

Tierling, S; Souren, N Y; Reither, S; Zang, K D; Meng-Hentschel, J; Leitner, D; Oehl-Jaschkowitz, B; Walter, J

2011-06-01

190

184. Photocopy of drawing (taken from right corner of Twin ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

184. Photocopy of drawing (taken from right corner of Twin Falls Canal Company drawing #7017, located in Twin Falls Canal Company office, Twin Falls, Idaho). ORIGINAL 1900 SEGREGATION DAM PLAN, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

191

Heritability of hallucinations in adolescent twins.  

PubMed

Hallucinations are common in normal individuals and patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Traditionally psycho-social approaches have emphasized the importance of environmental factors that contribute to variation of hallucinations. Using the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale-Revised (LSHS-R), we investigated genetic and environmental influences on hallucinations in 598 pairs of healthy South Korean adolescent twins. Parameter estimates in the best-fitting model indicated that additive genetic and individual specific environmental factors for the LSHS-R were 33% (95% CI: 23-42%) and 67% (95% CI: 60-77%), respectively. There was no evidence for sex-specific genes for hallucinations. The magnitudes of genetic and environmental influences on hallucinations were similar in males and females. These results have implications in future molecular genetic studies that search for genes for hallucinations. PMID:22578404

Hur, Yoon-Mi; Cherny, Stacey S; Sham, Pak C

2012-09-30

192

Healthy Living  

MedlinePLUS

... Environmental Health Sciences Kids Pages skip navigation Home Discover & Explore What's That Word Scientific Kids Fun & Games Parents & Teachers About Contact Home » Discover & Explore » Print this page Share Healthy Living By ...

193

Healthy Bones  

MedlinePLUS

... Next>> Page 1 of 21 Healthy Bones This decision aid is for you only if you are a ... can break more easily. The information in this decision aid is presented in five sections. Each new section ...

194

Healthy Water  

MedlinePLUS

... and safe drinking water is critical to sustain human life and without it waterborne illness can be a serious problem. Water, which is necessary for recreational water activities like swimming, also helps promote healthy living. Often, water’s vital ...

195

Healthy buildings  

SciTech Connect

This book is covered under the following headings: Healthy building strategies/productivity, Energy and design issues, Ventilation, Contaminants, Thermal, airflow, and humidity issues, School-related issues, Sources and sinks, Filtering, Operation and maintenance.

Not Available

1991-01-01

196

Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation, Copy Number Variation, and Gene Expression in Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Primary Biliary Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an uncommon autoimmune disease with a homogeneous clinical phenotype that reflects incomplete disease concordance in monozygotic (MZ) twins. We have taken advantage of a unique collection consisting of genomic DNA and mRNA from peripheral blood cells of female MZ twins (n?=?3 sets) and sisters of similar age (n?=?8 pairs) discordant for disease. We performed a genome-wide study to investigate differences in (i) DNA methylation (using a custom tiled four-plex array containing tiled 50-mers 19,084 randomly chosen methylation sites), (ii) copy number variation (CNV) (with a chip including markers derived from the 1000 Genomes Project, all three HapMap phases, and recently published studies), and/or (iii) gene expression (by whole-genome expression arrays). Based on the results obtained from these three approaches we utilized quantitative PCR to compare the expression of candidate genes. Importantly, our data support consistent differences in discordant twins and siblings for the (i) methylation profiles of 60 gene regions, (ii) CNV of 10 genes, and (iii) the expression of 2 interferon-dependent genes. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that 17 of these genes are differentially expressed in discordant sibling pairs. In conclusion, we report that MZ twins and sisters discordant for PBC manifest particular epigenetic differences and highlight the value of the epigenetic study of twins.

Selmi, Carlo; Cavaciocchi, Francesca; Lleo, Ana; Cheroni, Cristina; De Francesco, Raffaele; Lombardi, Simone A.; De Santis, Maria; Meda, Francesca; Raimondo, Maria Gabriella; Crotti, Chiara; Folci, Marco; Zammataro, Luca; Mayo, Marlyn J.; Bach, Nancy; Shimoda, Shinji; Gordon, Stuart C.; Miozzo, Monica; Invernizzi, Pietro; Podda, Mauro; Scavelli, Rossana; Martin, Michelle R.; LaSalle, Janine M.; Gershwin, M. Eric

2014-01-01

197

Neurodevelopmental risks in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: preliminary findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the neurodevelopmental risks in patients with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, a rare but serious complication of monochorionic twin gestations. From a total sample of 94 twins with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, admitted during 1989 and 1993, 49 patients survived and 40 patients were followed to a mean age of 24 months. Neurological status and

Fritz Haverkamp; Christiane Lex; Charlotte Hanisch; Hubert Fahnenstich; Klaus Zerres

2001-01-01

198

The Twin Jet Nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

M2-9 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or a bipolar planetary nebula. Another more revealing name might be the 'Twin Jet Nebula.' If the nebula is sliced across the star, each side of it appears much like a pair of exhausts from jet engines. Indeed, because of the nebula's shape and the measured velocity of the gas, in excess of 200 miles per second, astronomers believe that the description as a super-super-sonic jet exhaust is quite apt. This is much the same process that takes place in a jet engine: The burning and expanding gases are deflected by the engine walls through a nozzle to form long, collimated jets of hot air at high speeds. M2-9 is 2,100 light-years away in the constellation Ophiucus. The observation was taken Aug. 2, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. In this image, neutral oxygen is shown in red, once-ionized nitrogen in green, and twice-ionized oxygen in blue.

1997-01-01

199

Twin Dimples Intrigue Scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is part of the first set of pictures that was returned to Earth after the rover exited 'Eagle Crater.' Scientists are busy analyzing Opportunity's new view of the plains of Meridiani Planum. The plentiful ripples are a clear indication that wind is the primary geologic process currently in effect on the plains. On the left of the image are two depressions--each about a meter (about 3.3 feet) across--that feature bright spots in their centers. One possibility is that the bright material is similar in composition to the rocks in Eagle Crater's outcrop and the surrounding darker material is what's referred to as 'lag deposit,' or erosional remnants that are much harder and more difficult to wear away. These twin dimples might be revealing pieces of a larger outcrop that lies beneath. The depression closest to Opportunity is whimsically referred to as 'Homeplate' and the one behind it as 'First Base.' The rover's panoramic camera is set to take detailed images of the depressions today, on Opportunity's 58th sol. The backshell and parachute that helped protect the rover and deliver it safely to the surface of Mars are also visible near the horizon, in the center of the image. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera.

2004-01-01

200

Sister chromatid junctions in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus  

PubMed Central

Although the Archaea exhibit an intriguing combination of bacterial- and eukaryotic-like features, it is not known how these prokaryotic cells segregate their chromosomes before the process of cell division. In the course of our analysis of the third replication origin in the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, we identify and characterise sister chromatid junctions in this prokaryote. This pairing appears to be mediated by hemicatenane-like structures, and we provide evidence that these junctions persist in both replicating and postreplicative cells. These data, in conjunction with fluorescent in situ hybridisation analyses, suggest that Sulfolobus chromosomes have a significant period of postreplicative sister chromatid synapsis, a situation that is more reminiscent of eukaryotic than bacterial chromosome segregation mechanisms.

Robinson, Nicholas P; Blood, Katherine A; McCallum, Simon A; Edwards, Paul A W; Bell, Stephen D

2007-01-01

201

Sister chromatid junctions in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.  

PubMed

Although the Archaea exhibit an intriguing combination of bacterial- and eukaryotic-like features, it is not known how these prokaryotic cells segregate their chromosomes before the process of cell division. In the course of our analysis of the third replication origin in the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, we identify and characterise sister chromatid junctions in this prokaryote. This pairing appears to be mediated by hemicatenane-like structures, and we provide evidence that these junctions persist in both replicating and postreplicative cells. These data, in conjunction with fluorescent in situ hybridisation analyses, suggest that Sulfolobus chromosomes have a significant period of postreplicative sister chromatid synapsis, a situation that is more reminiscent of eukaryotic than bacterial chromosome segregation mechanisms. PMID:17255945

Robinson, Nicholas P; Blood, Katherine A; McCallum, Simon A; Edwards, Paul A W; Bell, Stephen D

2007-02-01

202

Factors involved in differential giemsa-staining of sister chromatids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microspectrophotometric evaluation of differentially stained sister chromatids made it possible to analyse precisely the factors involved in the Giemsa methods. The concentration of Hoechst 33258, pH of the mounting medium, temperature during UV-exposure and the quality (wavelength) of UV-light influenced the differential staining. Exposure of blacklight of 10-5 M Hoechst 33528-stained BrdU-labeled chromosome specimens mounted in McIlvaine buffer (pH 8.0)

Keiko Goto; S. Maeda; Y. Kano; T. Sugiyama

1978-01-01

203

Evidence for chromosomal replicons as units of sister chromatid exchanges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomal replicons have been described as the cytological counterpart of DNA replicon clusters and have previously been studied in vitro using premature chromosome condensation-sister chromatid differentiation (PCC-SCD) techniques. Chromosomal replicons are visualized as small SCD segments in S-phase cells, and measurement of these segments can provide estimates of relative chromosomal replicon size corresponding to DNA replicon clusters functioning coordinately in

Maria H. Lugo; Heather S. Rauchfuss; Helen R. Zakour; James W. Allen; John C. Hozier

1989-01-01

204

Sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes of petroleum retailers.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to petroleum vapour was assessed in workers employed in suburban petroleum retail outlets. Urinary output of thioethers provided a non-specific estimate of exposure to chemicals metabolised via a mercapturic acid pathway. Urinary d-glucaric acid (DGA) excretion was taken as an estimate of hepatic enzyme activity. Sister chromatid exchange frequency in lymphocytes was used as an indicator of genotoxic response to exposure. Workers were classified according to their employment at self service (where customers operate petrol pumps) or at driveway attended service stations (at which an employee operates the pumps), and according to exposure to cigarette smoke on the basis of urinary cotinine excretion. Prework and postwork urine samples of workers employed at driveway attended petrol stations contained more thioether than did those of self serve workers. When classified according to smoking behaviour there were no statistically significant differences, although thioether excretion tended to be higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. Urinary DGA excretion was similar in the two exposure groups. Cigarette smokers excreted more DGA, however, than nonsmokers. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies were higher in driveway attendants than in self serve personnel. When the influence of cigarette smoking was investigated there was a significant increase of sister chromatid exchange with combined exposure to petrol and cigarette smoking, but not with either factor alone. Correlation analysis showed that urinary cotinine concentrations were positively associated with urinary excretion of thioether and DGA, indicating that cigarette smoke induces the activity of hepatic enzymes and acts as a source of substrates metabolised through a thioether pathway. In conclusion it seems that exposure to petroleum vapour causes increased sister chromatid exchange in circulating lymphocytes of cigarette smokers, possibly as a result of enhanced hepatic conversion of vapour components to reactive metabolites. Urinary thioether output does not clearly discriminate between workers exposed to different amounts of petroleum vapour at retail outlets. PMID:8435347

Edwards, J W; Priestly, B G

1993-02-01

205

Sister acts: coordinating DNA replication and cohesion establishment  

PubMed Central

The ring-shaped cohesin complex links sister chromatids and plays crucial roles in homologous recombination and mitotic chromosome segregation. In cycling cells, cohesin's ability to generate cohesive linkages is restricted to S phase and depends on loading and establishment factors that are intimately connected to DNA replication. Here we review how cohesin is regulated by the replication machinery, as well as recent evidence that cohesin itself influences how chromosomes are replicated.

Sherwood, Rebecca; Takahashi, Tatsuro S.; Jallepalli, Prasad V.

2010-01-01

206

Sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes of petroleum retailers.  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure to petroleum vapour was assessed in workers employed in suburban petroleum retail outlets. Urinary output of thioethers provided a non-specific estimate of exposure to chemicals metabolised via a mercapturic acid pathway. Urinary d-glucaric acid (DGA) excretion was taken as an estimate of hepatic enzyme activity. Sister chromatid exchange frequency in lymphocytes was used as an indicator of genotoxic response to exposure. Workers were classified according to their employment at self service (where customers operate petrol pumps) or at driveway attended service stations (at which an employee operates the pumps), and according to exposure to cigarette smoke on the basis of urinary cotinine excretion. Prework and postwork urine samples of workers employed at driveway attended petrol stations contained more thioether than did those of self serve workers. When classified according to smoking behaviour there were no statistically significant differences, although thioether excretion tended to be higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. Urinary DGA excretion was similar in the two exposure groups. Cigarette smokers excreted more DGA, however, than nonsmokers. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies were higher in driveway attendants than in self serve personnel. When the influence of cigarette smoking was investigated there was a significant increase of sister chromatid exchange with combined exposure to petrol and cigarette smoking, but not with either factor alone. Correlation analysis showed that urinary cotinine concentrations were positively associated with urinary excretion of thioether and DGA, indicating that cigarette smoke induces the activity of hepatic enzymes and acts as a source of substrates metabolised through a thioether pathway. In conclusion it seems that exposure to petroleum vapour causes increased sister chromatid exchange in circulating lymphocytes of cigarette smokers, possibly as a result of enhanced hepatic conversion of vapour components to reactive metabolites. Urinary thioether output does not clearly discriminate between workers exposed to different amounts of petroleum vapour at retail outlets.

Edwards, J W; Priestly, B G

1993-01-01

207

Monozygotic twin discordance for phacomatosis cesioflammea further supports the post-zygotic mutation hypothesis.  

PubMed

Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis (PPV) is a group of sporadic skin disorders combining widespread cutaneous capillary malformations and pigmented nevi. Etiopathogenesis of the various forms of PPV is unknown, although a non-allelic twin spotting has been proposed as the most likely underlying mechanism. We report on the second instance of monozygotic twin discordance for PPV. Identical twins were observed shortly after birth, one affected by PPV and the other healthy, except for a standard Mongolian spot. Membrane examination was compatible with a monochorionic diamniotic pregnancy, and microsatellite analysis demonstrated monozygosity. This report confirms that PPV likely originates from a post-zygotic mutation rising shortly after conception and affecting different cell lineages. Speculations about mechanisms linked to phenotypic discrepancies among identical twins were also put forward. PMID:21815260

Castori, Marco; Sarazani, Stefano; Binni, Francesco; Pezzella, Francesca Romana; Cruciani, Giovanni; Grammatico, Paola

2011-09-01

208

Genomic sister-disorders of neurodevelopment: an evolutionary approach  

PubMed Central

Genomic sister-disorders are defined here as diseases mediated by duplications versus deletions of the same region. Such disorders can provide unique information concerning the genomic underpinnings of human neurodevelopment because effects of diametric variation in gene copy number on cognitive and behavioral phenotypes can be inferred. We describe evidence from the literature on deletions versus duplications for the regions underlying the best-known human neurogenetic sister-disorders, including Williams syndrome, Velocardiofacial syndrome, and Smith–Magenis syndrome, as well as the X-chromosomal conditions Klinefelter and Turner syndromes. These data suggest that diametric copy-number alterations can, like diametric alterations to imprinted genes, generate contrasting phenotypes associated with autistic-spectrum and psychotic-spectrum conditions. Genomically based perturbations to the development of the human social brain are thus apparently mediated to a notable degree by effects of variation in gene copy number. We also conducted the first analyses of positive selection for genes in the regions affected by these disorders. We found evidence consistent with adaptive evolution of protein-coding genes, or selective sweeps, for three of the four sets of sister-syndromes analyzed. These studies of selection facilitate identification of candidate genes for the phenotypes observed and lend a novel evolutionary dimension to the analysis of human cognitive architecture and neurogenetic disorders.

Crespi, Bernard; Summers, Kyle; Dorus, Steve

2009-01-01

209

Comparison of the frequency of sister chromatid exchange in pan chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients  

PubMed Central

Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test is a sensitive, biomarker of genotoxic substances. The frequency of SCE in lymphocytes of ten pan chewing patients, oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) patients and age matched healthy controls were investigated. The frequency of mean SCE/cell was found to be 10.428 ± 0.755 in OSF patients, 8.752 ± 0.383 in case of pan chewers as compared to 5.912 ± 0.310 in controls. These values show a significant increase in frequency of SCE/cell in OSF patients and pan chewers when compared with that of healthy controls. There is a positive correlation co-efficient of SCE/cell with frequency, quantity, duration, intensity and period of exposure of pan-parag to oral mucosa in pan chewers and OSF patients indicating genotoxic effect of pan. Thus SCE could be used as a biomarker in chewers also to assess the level of genomic damage and to advocate efficient control measures.

Jeyapradha, D; Saraswathi, TR; Ranganathan, K; Wilson, Kavitha

2011-01-01

210

Cephalothoracoomphalopagus: A Rare Type of Conjoined Twin  

PubMed Central

We present a case of female cephalothoracoomphalopagus conjoind twin, which is extremely rare type of conjoined twins. We also review the contemprory knowledge regarding incidence, etiopathogenesis, antenatal diagnosis and outcone or the prognosis of conjoint twins. The case belong to hindu female, no history of consanguineous marriage, ingestion of drugs or exposure to any radiation. History of one abortion and one twin delivery present. Conjoind twin was cephalothoracoomphalopagus type, delivered vaginaly at 30 wks of gestion to a 25 yrs old multigravida. Management of conjoind twin still remain challenges because of multiple congenital anomalies and poor outcome is seen.

Koreti, Sunita; Prasad, Nitin; Patell, G. Singh

2014-01-01

211

Healthy Eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Project will help you to discover how you're eating, and how that affects your life. You will also use the tools provided to help make healthy eating choices. First, Calculate your Body Mass Index using the BMI Calculator. Then, after exploring the website, answer these questions: 1) What exactly is the BMI? 2) What are two limitations of the BMI Calculator? 3) What is a healthy BMI for YOU (age group height? 4) List 7 other risk factors that can contribute to heart ...

Brobison

2010-12-03

212

127. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

127. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

213

31. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM DOWNSTREAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM DOWNSTREAM LOOKING UPSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

214

128. COTTONWOOD CUT, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

128. COTTONWOOD CUT, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

215

108. MURTAUGH LAKE HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

108. MURTAUGH LAKE HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW SOUTH. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

216

24. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, DOWNSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, DOWNSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD THE EAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

217

22. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN DISTANCE; LOOKING EAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

218

107. MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

107. MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; WEST VIEW OF LAKE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

219

100. MURTAUGH LAKE HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

100. MURTAUGH LAKE HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW OF HEADGATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

220

26. DETAIL OF HEADGATE HOIST MACHINERY, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. DETAIL OF HEADGATE HOIST MACHINERY, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

221

29. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM UPSTREAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM UPSTREAM LOOKING DOWNSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

222

27. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADGATE WITH CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADGATE WITH CANAL BRIDGE IN DISTANCE; LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

223

23. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN DISTANCE; LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

224

125. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

125. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW OF CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

225

32. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM VICINITY OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM VICINITY OF PROPOSED POWER CANAL, LOOKING UPSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

226

30. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM BRIDGE LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM BRIDGE LOOKING WEST DOWNSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

227

Healthy Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

Kennedy, Mike

2003-01-01

228

Monozygotic twins discordant for trisomy 13.  

PubMed

Monozygotic twins with discordant karyotypes are rare. We report a case of monozygotic twins discordant for trisomy 13 by amniocyte karyotypes. Ultrasound revealed multiple congenital anomalies in Twin A (47,XY,+13), none in Twin B (46,XY), and monochorionic-diamniotic placentation. Zygosity testing performed both prenatally and after birth supported monozygosity. Twin A died in the neontal period. Twin B survived and had normal physical examination, but peripheral blood karyotype revealed 20% mosaicism for trisomy 13. Monochorionic-diamniontic placentation with vascular anastomoses was confirmed by pathological examination. In this paper, we discuss the various mechanisms by which monozygotic twins may have discordant karyotypes. The surviving twin, structurally and developmentally normal at 6 months of age, will be monitored for potential complications of uniparental disomy of chromosome 13 and trisomy 13 mosaicism. PMID:22460600

Ramsey, K Wong; Slavin, T P; Graham, G; Hirata, G I; Balaraman, V; Seaver, L H

2012-04-01

229

Twin paradox on the photon sphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider another version of the twin paradox. The twins move along the same circular free photon path around the Schwarzschild center. In this case, despite their different velocities, all twins have the same nonzero acceleration. On the circular photon path, the symmetry between the twins situations is broken not by acceleration (as it is in the case of the classic twin paradox), but by the existence of an absolute standard of rest (timelike Killing vector). The twin with the higher velocity with respect to the standard of rest is younger on reunion. This closely resembles the case of periodic motions in compact (nontrivial topology) three-dimensional (3D) space recently considered in the context of the twin paradox by Barrow and Levin [Phys. Rev. A 63, 044104 (2001)], except that in that paper accelerations of all twins were equal to zero and that, in the case considered here, the 3D space has trivial topology.

Abramowicz, Marek A.; Bajtlik, Stanis?aw; Klu?niak, W?odek

2007-04-01

230

Paradoxical twins and their special relatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a variation and extension of the twin paradox recently put forth by Boughn. These additional considerations make a strong case that there is no meaning to the question of ``where'' the aging difference occurs in the twin paradox.

Price, Richard H.; Gruber, Ronald P.

1996-08-01

231

A remark on the twin ``paradox''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The twin “paradox” is investigated using a method that emphasises the symmetry between the twins. All the calculations are performed using the Schwarzschild metric, making the result valid in general relativity as well in the special case of Minkowski space.

Vandyck, M. A.

1991-12-01

232

49 CFR 372.221 - Twin Cities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Twin Cities. 372.221 Section 372.221 Transportation...ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.221 Twin Cities. For the purpose of determining commercial...

2010-10-01

233

49 CFR 372.221 - Twin Cities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 5 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Twin Cities. 372.221 Section 372.221 Transportation...ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.221 Twin Cities. For the purpose of determining commercial...

2009-10-01

234

49 CFR 372.221 - Twin Cities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Twin Cities. 372.221 Section 372.221 Transportation...ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.221 Twin Cities. For the purpose of determining commercial...

2013-10-01

235

Nike Twins Seven Seven: Nigerian Batik Artist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chronicles the personal and professional life of Nike Twins Seven Seven (born 1951), a Nigerian batik artist, and her husband, Twins Seven Seven, a musician-artist, both of whom have received international acclaim. (BJV)

LaDuke, Betty

1987-01-01

236

A Little Twin Higgs Model  

SciTech Connect

We present a twin Higgs model based on left-right symmetry with a tree level quartic. This is made possible by extending the symmetry of the model to include two Z_2 parities, each of which is sufficient to protect the Higgs from getting a quadratically divergent mass squared. Although both parities are brokenexplicitly, the symmetries that protect the Higgs from getting a quadratically divergent mass are broken only collectively. The quadratic divergences of the Higgs mass are thus still protected at one loop. We find that the fine-tuning in this model is reduced substantially compared to the original left-right twin Higgs model. This mechanism can also be applied to the mirror twin Higgs model to get a significant reduction of the fine-tuning, while keeping the mirror photon massless.

Goh, Hock-Seng; Goh, Hock-Seng; Krenke, Christopher A.

2007-07-25

237

150. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

150. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Book #363, Page 42, entitled, 'Diversion Tunnels', located in Twin Falls Canal Company office, Twin Falls, Idaho). PLAN OF DIVERSION TUNNELS, MILNER DAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

238

180. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. E. Pettygro, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

180. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. E. Pettygro, Photographer, date unknown. BLASTING TWIN FALLS CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; BLASTING COTTONWOOD AREA TO REPLACE FLUME BY RUNNING HIGH LINE THROUGH SOLID ROCK. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

239

Normal Personality Characteristics in Identical Twins Discordant for Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined normal personality characteristics of monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for schizophrenia. Twenty pairs of discordant twins were analyzed; 11 pairs of MZ twins concordant for schizophrenia served as a comparison group. Personality was assessed using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; A. Tellegen, 1995). Among discordant twin pairs, twins with schizophrenia were more deviant than normal co-twins on all

David L. DiLalla; Irving I. Gottesman

1995-01-01

240

Brief Report: Autistic Traits in Twins vs. Non-Twins--A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have suggested that among affected sib pairs with autism there is an increase in the frequency of twins over what would be expected in comparison to the prevalence of twins in the general population. In this study we sought to determine whether "sub-threshold" autistic traits were more pronounced in twins than in non-twins. The…

Ho, Alexander; Todd, Richard D.; Constantino, John N.

2005-01-01

241

Impact of Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome, Preterm Birth, and Vision Loss on Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the developmental outcomes of twin boys (one who is blind and one who is sighted) who were born prematurely and diagnosed with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) at age 24 months. The results indicate a disparity in the developmental outcomes of the twins. Although the medical risk factors that are associated with TTTS…

Celeste, Marie

2005-01-01

242

Twin paradox on the photon sphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a new version of the twin paradox. The twins move along the same\\u000acircular free photon path around the Schwarzschild center. In this case,\\u000adespite their different velocities, all twins have the same non-zero\\u000aacceleration. On the circular photon path, the symmetry between the twins\\u000asituations is broken not by acceleration (as it is in the case of

Marek A. Abramowicz; Stanis?aw Bajtlik; W?odek Klu?niak

2007-01-01

243

A composite twin Higgs model  

SciTech Connect

Twin Higgs models are economical extensions of the standard model that stabilize the electroweak scale. In these theories the Higgs field is a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson that is protected against radiative corrections up to scales of order 5 TeV by a discrete parity symmetry. We construct, for the first time, a class of composite twin Higgs models based on confining QCD-like dynamics. These theories naturally incorporate a custodial isospin symmetry and predict a rich spectrum of particles with masses of order a TeV that will be accessible at the LHC.

Batra, Puneet [Department of Physics, Columbia University, 538 W. 120th Street, NYC, NY 10027 (United States); Chacko, Z. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, 20742 (United States)

2009-05-01

244

Geographic Tongue in Monozygotic Twins  

PubMed Central

This article discusses a case of 5-year-old girl monozygotic twins who were suffering from geographic tongue (GT), a benign inflammatory disorder of the tongue which is characterized by circinate, irregular erythematous lesions on the dorsum and lateral borders of the tongue caused by loss of filiform papillae of the tongue epithelium. Whilst geographic tongue is a common entity, reports on this condition are uncommon in the literature. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report which has described monozygotic twins with geographic tongue in the literature.

2014-01-01

245

Estimating heritability from twin studies.  

PubMed

This chapter describes how the heritability of a trait can be estimated using data collected from pairs of twins. The principles of the classical twin design are described, followed by the assumptions and possible extensions of the design. In the second part of this chapter, two example scripts are presented and described, explaining the basic steps for estimating heritability using the statistical program OpenMx. OpenMx and the scripts used for this chapter can be downloaded so that readers can adapt and use the scripts for their own purposes. PMID:22307698

Verweij, Karin J H; Mosing, Miriam A; Zietsch, Brendan P; Medland, Sarah E

2012-01-01

246

Simulations of Stress-induced Twinning and De-twinning: a Phase-field Model  

SciTech Connect

Twinning in metals is a major plastic deformation mode. Here we present a phase-field model to describe twin formation and evolution in a polycrystalline FCC metal under loading and unloading. The model assumes that the twin nucleation, growth and de-twinning is a process of partial dislocation nucleation and slip on successive habit planes. Stacking fault energies, energy pathways ( surfaces), critical shear stresses for the formation of stacking faults, and dislocation core energies are used to construct the thermodynamic model. The simulation results demonstrate that the model is able to predict the nucleation of twins and partial dislocations as well as the morphology of the twin nuclei, and reasonably to describe twin growth and interaction. The twin microstructures at grain boundaries are in agreement with experimental observation . It is found that de-twinning occurs during unloading in performed simulations. However, strong dependence of twin structure evolution on loading history is observed.

Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Chen , L.Q.

2010-11-01

247

Natal Influences and Twin Differences: Draft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A classification of natal influences is proposed with a model of their operation. Natal influences affect maternal capacity, maternal load, and maternal efficiency. Since maternal load is increased in twin pregnancy, results of twin studies must be generalized with caution. The method of co-twin control is exemplified by examination of a small…

Van den Daele, Leland D.

1972-01-01

248

On Teaching About Twins and Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a four-step instructional presentation in which the twin on the earth is demonstrated older than the twin aboard a spaceship on the basis of the relativistic Doppler effect. Concludes that both twins can meet again at the same place in space at the expense of time. (CC)

Hewitt, Paul G.

1973-01-01

249

Twinned Schools: The Principals' Perspective. Part Three.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey responses from 68 Ontario principals who administered 141 "twinned" schools indicate that schools were twinned mainly to save money and offer full and better educational programs, yet not much money had been saved nor had educational programs been expanded or improved. From the principals' perspective, the main benefits of twinning were…

Rees, Ruth

1996-01-01

250

Research With Twins: The Concept of Emergenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminaty findings from an on-going study of monozygotic twins reared apart (MZA) and data from a larger sample of twins reared together (MZT and DZT), indicate a surprisingly strong influence of genetic variation on aptitudes, psychophysiological characteristics, personality traits and even dimensions of atti- tude and interest. For some of these variables, MZT and MZA twins show high intra-class correlations

David T. Lykken

1982-01-01

251

Diagnosis of Twin Zygosity by Mailed Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deterministic questionnaire method for zygosity determination is developed for use in epidemiological studies of adult twins. It is based on the answers of both members of a twin pair to two questions on similarity and confusion in childhood. The algorithm of the method is used to determine the zygosity status of a twin pair at two different levels of

Seppo Sarna; Jaakko Kaprio; Pertti Sistonen; Markku Koskenvuo

1978-01-01

252

Conjoined twins – the Cape Town experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper records our experience in the management of 25 sets of conjoined twins seen over a 32 year period (1964?–?1996). The twins were classified into 14 complete and symmetrical sets and 11 incomplete or heteropagus. The 14 symmetrical sets included 9 thoracopagus, 2 ischiopagus, 1 craniopagus and 1 omphalopagus twins. In the incomplete heteropagus group there was 1 ischiopagus,

S. Cywes; A. J. W. Millar; H. Rode; R. A. Brown

1997-01-01

253

The Personalities of Twins: Just Ordinary Folks  

Microsoft Academic Search

win studies have demonstrated that personality traits show moderate genetic influence. The conclusions drawn from twin studies rely on the assumptions that twins are represen- tative of the population at large and that monozygotic and dizygotic twins are comparable in every way that might have bearing on the traits being studied. To evaluate these assump- tions, we used Multidimensional Personality

Wendy Johnson; Robert F. Krueger; Thomas J. Bouchard; Matt McGue

2002-01-01

254

A Powerful Twin Arrives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First Images from FORS2 at VLT KUEYEN on Paranal The first, major astronomical instrument to be installed at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) was FORS1 ( FO cal R educer and S pectrograph) in September 1998. Immediately after being attached to the Cassegrain focus of the first 8.2-m Unit Telescope, ANTU , it produced a series of spectacular images, cf. ESO PR 14/98. Many important observations have since been made with this outstanding facility. Now FORS2 , its powerful twin, has been installed at the second VLT Unit Telescope, KUEYEN . It is the fourth major instrument at the VLT after FORS1 , ISAAC and UVES.. The FORS2 Commissioning Team that is busy installing and testing this large and complex instrument reports that "First Light" was successfully achieved already on October 29, 1999, only two days after FORS2 was first mounted at the Cassegrain focus. Since then, various observation modes have been carefully tested, including normal and high-resolution imaging, echelle and multi-object spectroscopy, as well as fast photometry with millisecond time resolution. A number of fine images were obtained during this work, some of which are made available with the present Press Release. The FORS instruments ESO PR Photo 40a/99 ESO PR Photo 40a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 345 pix - 203k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 689 pix - 563kb] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1280 x 1103 pix - 666kb] Caption to PR Photo 40a/99: This digital photo shows the twin instruments, FORS2 at KUEYEN (in the foreground) and FORS1 at ANTU, seen in the background through the open ventilation doors in the two telescope enclosures. Although they look alike, the two instruments have specific functions, as described in the text. FORS1 and FORS2 are the products of one of the most thorough and advanced technological studies ever made of a ground-based astronomical instrument. They have been specifically designed to investigate the faintest and most remote objects in the universe. They are "multi-mode instruments" that may be used in several different observation modes. FORS2 is largely identical to FORS1 , but there are a number of important differences. For example, it contains a Mask Exchange Unit (MXU) for laser-cut star-plates [1] that may be inserted at the focus, allowing a large number of spectra of different objects, in practice up to about 70, to be taken simultaneously. Highly sophisticated software assigns slits to individual objects in an optimal way, ensuring a great degree of observing efficiency. Instead of the polarimetry optics found in FORS1 , FORS2 has new grisms that allow the use of higher spectral resolutions. The FORS project was carried out under ESO contract by a consortium of three German astronomical institutes, the Heidelberg State Observatory and the University Observatories of Göttingen and Munich. The participating institutes have invested a total of about 180 man-years of work in this unique programme. The photos below demonstrate some of the impressive possibilities with this new instrument. They are based on observations with the FORS2 standard resolution collimator (field size 6.8 x 6.8 armin = 2048 x 2048 pixels; 1 pixel = 0.20 arcsec). In addition, observations of the Crab pulsar demonstrate a new observing mode, high-speed photometry. Protostar HH-34 in Orion ESO PR Photo 40b/99 ESO PR Photo 40b/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 444 pix - 220kb] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 887 pix - 806kb] [Full-Res - JPEG: 2000 x 2217 pix - 3.6Mb] The Area around HH-34 in Orion ESO PR Photo 40c/99 ESO PR Photo 40c/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 494 pix - 262kb] [Full-Res - JPEG: 802 x 991 pix - 760 kb] The HH-34 Superjet in Orion (centre) PR Photo 40b/99 shows a three-colour composite of the young object Herbig-Haro 34 (HH-34) , now in the protostar stage of evolution. It is based on CCD frames obtained with the FORS2 instrument in imaging mode, on November 2 and 6, 1999. This object has a remarkable, very complicated appearance that includes two opposite jets that ram into the surrounding interstellar matter. This structure is produced by a machine-gu

1999-11-01

255

Four twins for a paradox: on "sensitive" twins and the biological counterpart of the "twin paradox".  

PubMed

Monozygotic twin (MZT) epigenetic development, i.e., aging, diverges largely in time despite the initially very small genetic differences between MZTs. This fact is interpreted as a "sensitivity to initial conditions" phenomenon, a common property of either deterministic or stochastic chaotic systems. Some of the biotheoretical implications stemming from this empirical observation are briefly discussed here, while an actual measure of MZT epigenetic time divergence is given through an estimate of the (Stochastic) Lyapunov exponents (LEs) (i.e., the rate of exponential time divergence). These results suggest a reconsideration of the Langevin-Einstein thought experiment known as the "twin paradox." At least four twins are necessary in order to take into account the inertially independent divergent aging described here. Alternatively, LE estimates, like those given here, should be used. Finally suggested in the actual special-relativity experiments is the replacement of clocks with some nonlinear (chaotic) forced oscillator. PMID:19334992

Ascioti, Fortunato A

2009-03-01

256

Four twins for a paradox: On ``sensitive'' twins and the biological counterpart of the ``twin paradox''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monozygotic twin (MZT) epigenetic development, i.e., aging, diverges largely in time despite the initially very small genetic differences between MZTs. This fact is interpreted as a ``sensitivity to initial conditions'' phenomenon, a common property of either deterministic or stochastic chaotic systems. Some of the biotheoretical implications stemming from this empirical observation are briefly discussed here, while an actual measure of MZT epigenetic time divergence is given through an estimate of the (Stochastic) Lyapunov exponents (LEs) (i.e., the rate of exponential time divergence). These results suggest a reconsideration of the Langevin-Einstein thought experiment known as the ``twin paradox.'' At least four twins are necessary in order to take into account the inertially independent divergent aging described here. Alternatively, LE estimates, like those given here, should be used. Finally suggested in the actual special-relativity experiments is the replacement of clocks with some nonlinear (chaotic) forced oscillator.

Ascioti, Fortunato A.

2009-03-01

257

FtsK actively segregates sister chromosomes in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Bacteria use the replication origin-to-terminus polarity of their circular chromosomes to control DNA transactions during the cell cycle. Segregation starts by active migration of the region of origin followed by progressive movement of the rest of the chromosomes. The last steps of segregation have been studied extensively in the case of dimeric sister chromosomes and when chromosome organization is impaired by mutations. In these special cases, the divisome-associated DNA translocase FtsK is required. FtsK pumps chromosomes toward the dif chromosome dimer resolution site using polarity of the FtsK-orienting polar sequence (KOPS) DNA motifs. Assays based on monitoring dif recombination have suggested that FtsK acts only in these special cases and does not act on monomeric chromosomes. Using a two-color system to visualize pairs of chromosome loci in living cells, we show that the spatial resolution of sister loci is accurately ordered from the point of origin to the dif site. Furthermore, ordered segregation in a region ?200 kb long surrounding dif depended on the oriented translocation activity of FtsK but not on the formation of dimers or their resolution. FtsK-mediated segregation required the MatP protein, which delays segregation of the dif-surrounding region until cell division. We conclude that FtsK segregates the terminus region of sister chromosomes whether they are monomeric or dimeric and does so in an accurate and ordered manner. Our data are consistent with a model in which FtsK acts to release the MatP-mediated cohesion and/or interaction with the division apparatus of the terminus region in a KOPS-oriented manner.

Stouf, Mathieu; Meile, Jean-Christophe; Cornet, Francois

2013-01-01

258

NOTE: Increasing cardiac output and decreasing oxygenation sequence in pump twins of acardiac twin pregnancies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An acardiac twin pregnancy is a rare but serious complication of monochorionic twinning and consists of an acardiac twin and a pump twin. The acardiac twin is a severely malformed fetus that lacks most organs, particularly a heart, but grows during pregnancy because it is perfused by the developmentally normal pump twin via a set of arterioarterial and venovenous placental anastomoses. Pump twins die intrauterine or neonatally in about 50% of the cases. Because the effects of an acardiac mass on the pump twin's development are incompletely known, methods for outcome prognosis are currently not available. We sought to derive simple relations for the pump twin's excess cardiac output and decreased oxygenation and to use available clinical cases for a preliminary test of the model. As a method, we used a theoretical flow model to represent the fetoplacental circulation of an acardiac twin pregnancy and estimated blood deoxygenation and reoxygenation following perfusion of the two bodies and placentas, respectively. The results show the pump twin's excess cardiac output and decrease of venous oxygen saturation to depend on the ratio of pump twin to acardiac twin umbilical blood flow, whose ratio can be measured by ultrasonography. The clinical cases show a decreasing umbilical flow ratio with gestation. In conclusion, prospective serial study is necessary to test whether measurement of umbilical flow ratios allows monitoring the pump twin's pathophysiologic development, possibly resulting in a guideline for prognosis of pump twin survival.

van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Umur, Asli; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Van Bavel, Ed; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.

2005-02-01

259

Sisters at the Rockface – the Van der Riet Twins and Dorothea Bleek's Rock Art Research and Publishing, 1932–1940  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the processes, networks and contingencies underlying the making of scientific knowledge in the field, theorising these in relation to scholarship dealing with the field sciences which has engaged with the dynamics of ‘the field’ as complex site and context of knowledge production in particular disciplines. Drawing on the archive and scholarship of Dorothea Bleek, it examines a

Jill Weintroub

2009-01-01

260

Chalcogen bond: a sister noncovalent bond to halogen bond.  

PubMed

A sister noncovalent bond to halogen bond, termed chalcogen bond, is defined in this article. By selecting the complexes H(2)CS...Cl(-), F(2)CS...Cl(-), OCS...Cl(-), and SCS...Cl(-) as models, the bond-length change, interaction energy, topological property of the electron charge density and its Laplacian, and the charge transfer of the chalcogen bond have been investigated in detail theoretically. It was found that the similar misshaped electron clouds of the chalcogen atom and the halogen atom result in the similar properties of the chalcogen bond and the halogen bond. Experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. PMID:19537765

Wang, Weizhou; Ji, Baoming; Zhang, Yu

2009-07-16

261

Sister chromatid interactions in bacteria revealed by a site-specific recombination assay  

PubMed Central

The process of Sister Chromosome Cohesion (SCC), which holds together sister chromatids upon replication, is essential for chromosome segregation and DNA repair in eukaryotic cells. Although cohesion at the molecular level has never been described in E. coli, previous studies have reported that sister sequences remain co-localized for a period after their replication. Here, we have developed a new genetic recombination assay that probes the ability of newly replicated chromosome loci to interact physically. We show that Sister Chromatid Interaction (SCI) occurs exclusively within a limited time frame after replication. Importantly, we could differentiate sister cohesion and co-localization since factors such as MatP and MukB that reduced the co-localization of markers had no effect on molecular cohesion. The frequency of sister chromatid interactions were modulated by the activity of Topo-IV, revealing that DNA topology modulates cohesion at the molecular scale in bacteria.

Lesterlin, Christian; Gigant, Emmanuelle; Boccard, Frederic; Espeli, Olivier

2012-01-01

262

Twin Disc Gear Tooth Simulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of an effort to develop a disc on disc test rig for evaluating lubricant load capacity. The goal of the program has been to develop a reliable disc on disc (or Twin Disc) test rig capable of providing more reliable and lo...

M. W. Eusepi J. F. Dill

1994-01-01

263

Twin Turbine Vortex Wind Mill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The twin turbine vortex wind mill consists of a pair of multibladed rotors placed at the ends of a hollow cylindrical cage which is specially designed to produce vortex motion. Both the turbines are coupled to a single vertical shaft from which rotary mec...

M. A. B. Narayanan

1979-01-01

264

Einstein and the twin paradox  

Microsoft Academic Search

Einstein was the first to discuss and resolve the 'twin paradox', which in 1905 he did not consider paradoxical and treated as a consequence of lack of simultaneity. He maintained this view until at least 1914. However, in 1918 Einstein brought forward arguments about accelerated frames of reference that tended to overshadow his initial resolution. His earlier arguments were gradually

Peter Pesic

2003-01-01

265

Duodenal atresia in dizygotic twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report duodenal atresia occurring in both members of dizygotic twins who showed no signs of Down's syndrome, and both had normal chromosomal constitutions. They both had the two unlinked end type of atresia in the second portion of the duodenum, and direct end-to-end duodenoduodenostomy was carried out. Their postoperative courses were smooth, and both babies were discharged 32

Takahide Yokoyama; Shinpachi Ishizone; Yoshitaka Momose; Masaru Terada; Shuuichirou Kitahara; Seiji Kawasaki

1997-01-01

266

Twin-Etalon Scanning Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A twin-etalon scanning spectrometer is disclosed that provides high luminosity and high resolution. The etalons are positioned in spaced relationship with respect to one another in series in the path of an emission light source. With identical etalons so ...

G. J. Hernandez

1982-01-01

267

Pregnancy risk among the younger sisters of pregnant and childbearing adolescents.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that younger sisters of childbearing teenagers are at increased risk for adolescent childbearing. We critically review this research and discuss three plausible theoretical explanations (social modeling, shared parenting influences, and shared societal risk) why the younger sisters of childbearing adolescents would themselves be at risk for teenage pregnancy. Considerations for preventive interventions aimed at the younger sisters of pregnant teenagers and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:1577959

East, P L; Felice, M E

1992-04-01

268

Twinning in nanocrystalline fcc and bcc metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deformation twinning in nanocrystalline (nc) face-centered cubic (fcc) metals, body-centered cubic (bcc) metals, and in nc Si is analyzed. The phenomenological approach is used to make a bridge between microscopical mechanisms of twin nucleation and macroscopical characteristics of twinning with different crystal structures and to calculate the grain size range of the twinning propensity, the requisite external stress for twinning propagation in nc polycrystals, and the grain size at which the slip begins to prevail over the twinning. The developed approach allows to derive analytical expressions and estimate lower and and upper limits of grain sizes at which a twinning propensity is occurred. Results of calculations for the nc fcc metals Al, Cu, Ni, Pd, Au, nc bcc metals Ta, Fe, Mo, W, Nb, and nc diamond-cubic Si are compared with the experimental data, otherwise predictions are made.

Boyko, Vladimir S.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.

2013-03-01

269

Do Twin Boundaries Always Strengthen Metal Nanowires?  

PubMed Central

It has been widely reported that twin boundaries strengthen nanowires regardless of their morphology—that is, the strength of nanowires goes up as twin spacing goes down. This article shows that twin boundaries do not always strengthen nanowires. Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, the authors show that whether twin boundaries strengthen nanowires depends on the necessary stress for dislocation nucleation, which in turn depends on surface morphologies. When nanowires are circular cylindrical, the necessary stress of dislocation nucleation is high and the presence of twin boundaries lowers this stress; twin boundaries soften nanowires. In contrast, when nanowires are square cylindrical, the necessary stress of dislocation nucleation is low, and a higher stress is required for dislocations to penetrate twin boundaries; they strengthen nanowires.

2009-01-01

270

Monochorionic twins discordant for mosaic trisomy 14.  

PubMed

Monochorionic-diamniotic twins are usually monozygotic twins and known to be associated with adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. Cases of discordant karyotype of monozygotic twins are rare and most involves sex chromosomes. We present the first case of monochorionic twins with discordant karyotype manifested as mosaic trisomy 14 in one twin (B) and a normal karyotype in the other (A). We describe the postmortem pathological and imaging findings of the trisomic twin and for the first time neuropathological findings of this entity. Metaphase chromosome analysis of twin B using fetal tissue showed a 47,XX, +14 karyotype. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) using fetal tissue revealed 38% mosaicism. CMA with placental tissue from both sides demonstrated normal karyotype and confirmed monozygosity, highlighting the value of array based testing on diagnosing mosaicism and zygosity. PMID:24458767

He, Mai; Pepperell, John R; Gundogan, Fusun; De Paepe, Monique E; Maggio, Lindsay; Lu, Shaolei; Kostadinov, Stefan; O'Brien, Barbara; Delamonte, Suzanne; Pinar, Halit; Tantravahi, Umadevi

2014-05-01

271

Heritability of oral microbial species in caries-active and caries-free twins.  

PubMed

Oral microbes that colonize in the mouths of humans contribute to disease susceptibility, but it is unclear if host genetic factors mediate colonization. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the levels at which oral microbes colonize in the mouth are heritable. Dental plaque biofilms were sampled from intact tooth surfaces of 118 caries-free twins. An additional 86 caries-active twins were sampled for plaque from carious lesions and intact tooth surfaces. Using a reverse capture checkerboard assay the relative abundance of 82 bacterial species was determined. An integrative computational predictive model determined microbial abundance patterns of microbial species in caries-free twins as compared to caries-active twins. Heritability estimates were calculated for the relative microbial abundance levels of the microbial species in both groups. The levels of 10 species were significantly different in healthy individuals than in caries-active individuals, including, A. defectiva, S. parasanguinis, S. mitis/oralis, S. sanguinis, S. cristatus, S. salivarius, Streptococcus sp. clone CH016, G. morbillorum and G. haemolysans. Moderate to high heritability estimates were found for these species (h(2) = 56%-80%, p < .0001). Similarity of the overall oral microbial flora was also evident in caries-free twins from multivariate distance matrix regression analysis. It appears that genetic and/or familial factors significantly contribute to the colonization of oral beneficial species in twins. PMID:18179393

Corby, Patricia M; Bretz, Walter A; Hart, Thomas C; Schork, Nicholas J; Wessel, J; Lyons-Weiler, James; Paster, Bruce J

2007-12-01

272

Narcolepsy with Cataplexy Mimicry: The Strange Case of Two Sisters  

PubMed Central

We report on two sisters, 17 and 12 years of age, with clinical features suggesting narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC): daytime sleepiness, spontaneous and emotionally triggered sudden falls to the ground, and overweight/obesity. MSLT showed borderline sleep latency, with 1 and 0 sleep onset REM periods. HLA typing disclosed the DQB1*0602 allele. Video-polygraphy of the spells ruled out NC diagnosis by demonstrating their easy elicitation by suggestion, with wake EEG, electromyo-graphic persistence of muscle tone, and stable presence of tendon reflexes (i.e., pseudo-cataplexy), together with normal cerebrospinal hypocretin-1 levels. Our cases emphasize the need of a clear depiction of cataplexy pattern at the different ages, the usefulness of examining ictal neurophysiology, and collecting all available disease markers in ambiguous cases. Citation: Pizza F; Vandi S; Poli F; Moghadam KK; Fran-ceschini C; Bellucci C; Cipolli C; Ingravallo F; Natalini G; Mignot E; Plazzi G. Narcolepsy with cataplexy mimicry: the strange case of two sisters. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(6):611-612.

Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Poli, Francesca; Moghadam, Keivan Kaveh; Franceschini, Christian; Bellucci, Claudia; Cipolli, Carlo; Ingravallo, Francesca; Natalini, Giuliana; Mignot, Emmanuel; Plazzi, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

273

Risk of Oral Clefts in twins  

PubMed Central

Background Small studies have indicated that twinning increases the risk of oral cleft. Methods We used data from a Danish national population-based cohort study to investigate whether twinning was associated with isolated oral cleft, and to estimate the twin probandwise concordance rate and heritability. Twins (207 affected/130,710) and singletons (7766 affected/4,798,526) born from 1936 through 2004 in Denmark were ascertained by linkage among the Danish Facial Cleft Database, the Danish Twin Registry and the Civil Registration System. We computed oral cleft prevalence and prevalence proportion ratio for twins versus singletons, stratified for three sub-phenotypes. Probandwise concordance rates and heritability for twins were estimated for two phenotypes—cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate (CP). Results The prevalence of oral cleft was 15.8 per 10,000 twins and 16.6 per 10,000 singletons (prevalence proportion ratio = 0.95; 95% confidence interval = 0.83 – 1.1). This prevalence was similar for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. The probandwise concordance rate was higher for CL/P for monozygotic twins than for dizygotic twins (50 % vs. 8%, respectively). A similar contrast was present for CP. Recurrence risk for both types of clefts was greater in dizygotic twins than in non-twin siblings. Heritability estimates were above 90% for both CL/P and CP. Conclusion No excess risk of oral cleft could be demonstrated for twins compared with singletons. The concordance rates and heritability estimates for both types of clefts show a strong genetic component.

Grosen, Dorthe; Bille, Camilla; Petersen, Inge; Skytthe, Axel; von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe; Murray, Jeffrey Clark; Christensen, Kaare

2011-01-01

274

Four twins for a paradox: On “sensitive” twins and the biological counterpart of the “twin paradox”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monozygotic twin (MZT) epigenetic development, i.e., aging, diverges largely in time despite the initially very small genetic differences between MZTs. This fact is interpreted as a “sensitivity to initial conditions” phenomenon, a common property of either deterministic or stochastic chaotic systems. Some of the biotheoretical implications stemming from this empirical observation are briefly discussed here, while an actual measure of

Fortunato A. Ascioti

2009-01-01

275

Four twins for a paradox: On ``sensitive'' twins and the biological counterpart of the ``twin paradox''  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monozygotic twin (MZT) epigenetic development, i.e., aging, diverges largely in time despite the initially very small genetic differences between MZTs. This fact is interpreted as a ``sensitivity to initial conditions'' phenomenon, a common property of either deterministic or stochastic chaotic systems. Some of the biotheoretical implications stemming from this empirical observation are briefly discussed here, while an actual measure of

Fortunato A. Ascioti

2009-01-01

276

[Neuropsychological tests and smooth pursuit eye movements in schizophrenic twins].  

PubMed

The authors compares results of neuropsychological tests/Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery, Stroop test, Wechsler Memory Scale, Seashore Tonal Memory Test/with results of smooth pursuit eye movements in nine pairs of twins/5 monozygotic and 4 dizygotic pairs/. In all instances at least one twin suffered from schizophrenia. The majority of neuropsychological tests differentiated clearly schizophrenic and healthy twins. Of seven parameters of smooth pursuit eye movements big saccades differentiated significantly. The authors found also correlations between neuropsychological tests and smooth pursuit eye movements. Significant correlations pertained to motor velocity (correlation of the Oscillation test with big saccades and with small saccades), complex psychomotor abilities (correlation of the Tactual Performance Test-Localization with big saccades), general indicators of cerebral activity or neuropsychological performance (correlation of the Tonal Memory test with big saccades and correlation of the Rhythm test with the amplitude of the curve), memory (correlation of the memory quotient MQ and the Logical Memory sub-test with small saccades) and work performance during a perception or psychic load (correlation of Stroop sub-test with big saccades). The method of smooth pursuit eye movements is not time consuming and does not involve major demands on the patient's cooperation. On the other hand, neuropsychological tests have the advantage that they reveal the impact of possible pathological conditions of the brain on behaviour. On the whole the results support the hypothesis that in schizophrenic patients a disease with structural or functional abnormalities of the brain is involved. PMID:8269522

Preiss, J; Hynek, K; Dvoráková, M; Zvárová, J

1993-10-01

277

Dauphiné twins or not, that's the question  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dauphiné twinning in trigonal low-quartz is defined by a two-fold axis (180° rotation) about the crystallographic c-axis [0001]. Dauphiné twinning has thus no effect on the orientation of the crystallographic axes of quartz, but transposes the positive and negative rhombs. Therefore, Dauphiné twinning remain undetectable by standard optical microscopy. Dauphiné twins were first resolved in euhedral quartz crystals by natural or artificial etching. In texture analysis, the different orientation distribution of the positive and negative rhombs indicates that Dauphiné twinning has likely been active within many polycrystalline quartz aggregates. Since the introduction of EBSD-OIM (SEM) Dauphiné twin boundaries can effectively be mapped in polycrystalline quartz aggregates. Dauphiné twins in quartz can be a primary microstructure, formed during crystal growth, or a secondary microstructure, resulting from transformational or mechanical twinning. Transformational Dauphiné twinning, occurring at the polymorphic transition of hexagonal high-quartz to trigonal low-quartz (573°C at atmospheric conditions), causes a variant selection through slight atomic displacements arising from internal thermal vibrations. Mechanical Dauphiné twinning in low-quartz, on the other hand, is stress-induced. It acts to align the direction of greatest elastic compliance, orthogonal to the positive rhombs, with the compressive principal stress direction. Dauphiné twin boundaries separate the two variant domains within the quartz grain. The question, though, is which of the variant domains is the 'twin' and which is the 'host'. In previous work on mechanical Dauphiné twinning in naturally deformed quartz-bearing rocks, the distinction between 'host' and 'twin' has been made mostly arbitrarily, guided by an observations bias (e.g. smallest fraction in grain represents the 'twin') or an interpretational bias (e.g. twins develop at grain boundaries). However, with respect to grains that are (nearly) free of Dauphiné twin boundaries, it is impossible to unequivocally conclude whether the grain has been (nearly) completely twinned (and should be labeled 'twin') or has remained (nearly) completely untwinned (and should be labeled 'host'). Whether or not Dauphiné twinning initiated or went to completion, largely depends on the crystallographic orientation of the quartz grain with respect to the principal stresses that have triggered mechanical Dauphiné twinning in the polycrystalline quartz aggregate. Only by means of a procedure, in which the orientation distribution of the rhombs in the individual variant domains of individual quartz grains is related to the compressive principal stresses, an attempt can be made to correctly label the different variant domains within an individual quartz grain as 'r-domains' or 'z-domains', rather than 'twin' and 'host' respectively (cf. 'r-twin' and 'z-twin' of Menegon et al., 2011). This procedure is based on the assumption that grains (nearly) free of Dauphiné twin boundaries are, on the one hand, favorably oriented with respect to the principal stresses so that twinning could easily go to completion, or, on the other hand, have a 'stable' crystallographic orientation with respect to the principal stresses, so that they remained untwinned. In both cases, these grains can be labeled as 'single r-domain grains'. We will illustrate this procedure for a sample taken from a massive quartz vein that precipitated and deformed in low-grade metamorphic conditions during the late stages of orogeny. References Menegon et al. 2011. Contribution to Mineralogy and Petrology 161, 635-652.

Sintubin, Manuel; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

2014-05-01

278

Healthy Sleep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Who doesn't love a good night's sleep? The Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard and WGBH have collaborated to produce the Healthy Sleep website to help "illuminate the relevance of sleep, explain the underlying science of sleep, and, most importantly, provide practical information for getting the sleep you need." Visitors interested in getting the sleep they need will find the many videos and interactive features here well worth their time. Under the "Why Sleep Matters" link, visitors will find an interactive timeline entitled "Historical and Cultural Perspectives of Sleep". The "Consequences of Insufficient Sleep" gives visitors the choice of several short videos to watch, including those that address the consequences of driving while drowsy, the link between disease risk and poor sleep, and the public safety and performance issues that arise due to insufficient sleep. The "Getting the Sleep You Need" link has many tips for visitors on how to approach poor sleep habits, including when to seek treatment.

279

Healthy Air at School  

MedlinePLUS

... School > Healthy Air at School Healthy Air at School To grow into healthy adults, our children need ... more difficult problems. How to Keep Air at School Healthy Want to get involved in protecting the ...

280

Healthy Air at Work  

MedlinePLUS

... for ENews Home > Healthy Air > At Work Healthy Air at Work Employees should be safe while on ... air in the workplace threatens workers' lives. Healthy Air at Work Healthy air quality is an important ...

281

The relationship between twin language, twins' close ties, and social competence.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationship between twin language, twins' close ties, and social competence in a prospective longitudinal study. We hypothesized that twins whose tie is close would be more likely to develop a twin language, and these twins would be less likely to develop social competence. In addition, we hypothesize that some environmental factors, such as having an older sibling, preschool attendance, zygosity, and sex are also related to twin language, twins' close ties, and social competence. At baseline in 1999 a mailed questionnaire survey was conducted, and a follow-up questionnaire was distributed in 2004 among 958 mothers. As a result, 516 respondents returned the questionnaire (53.9%). In this study, we used 261 twin pairs aged from 6 to 12 years (school-age children) for analysis, excluding those with missing values. In the present study, we found that zygosity and sex were associated with twins' close ties. Having an older sibling and preschool attendance did not affect the twins' close tie, twin language, or social competence. One of the most important findings was that social competence was not affected directly by twins' close tie, but was affected when a twin language was found. PMID:24330841

Hayashi, Chisato; Mikami, Hiroshi; Nishihara, Reiko; Maeda, Chiho; Hayakawa, Kazuo

2014-02-01

282

Birdshot retinochoroidopathy in monozygotic twins.  

PubMed

Birdshot retinochoroidopathy is a rare ocular disorder which was named and delineated as a separate clinical entity by Ryan & Maumenee in 1980. We diagnosed birdshot retinochoroidopathy in a monozygotic pair of twins, who were affected with a time interval of 12 years, respectively. These are the first with birdshot retinochoroidopathy to be reported from the Nordic countries and the first report on this disorder in monozygotic twins. Due to night-blindness, visual field defects and a severely affected electroretinogram one of our cases initially was diagnosed as a choroidoretinal dystrophy. Birdshot retinochoroidopathy should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in retinitis pigmentosa-like disorders with widespread choroidal involvement. Our cases substantiated the evidence of a strong correlation with the presence of HLA-A29 antigen. PMID:1471497

Fich, M; Rosenberg, T

1992-10-01

283

Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

Project WET Foundation, 2003

2003-01-01

284

A Novel, Homozygous c.1502T>G (p.Val501Gly) Mutation in the Thyroid peroxidase Gene in Malaysian Sisters with Congenital Hypothyroidism and Multinodular Goiter.  

PubMed

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) with multinodular goiter (MNG) is uncommonly seen in children. However, CH associated with goiter is often caused by defective Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene. In this study, we screened for mutation(s) in the TPO gene in two siblings with CH and MNG and their healthy family members. The two sisters, born to consanguineous parents, were diagnosed with CH during infancy and received treatment since then. They developed MNG during childhood despite adequate L-thyroxine replacement and negative thyroid antibody screening. PCR-amplification of all exons using flanking primers followed by DNA sequencing revealed that the two sisters were homozygous for a novel c.1502T>G mutation. The mutation is predicted to substitute valine for glycine at a highly conserved amino acid residue 501 (p.Val501Gly). Other healthy family members were either heterozygotes or mutation-free. The mutation was not detected in 50 healthy unrelated individuals. In silico analyses using PolyPhen-2 and SIFT predicted that the p.Val501Gly mutation is functionally "damaging." Tertiary modeling showed structural alterations in the active site of the mutant TPO. In conclusion, a novel mutation, p.Val501Gly, in the TPO gene was detected expanding the mutation spectrum of TPO associated with CH and MNG. PMID:23737781

Lee, Ching Chin; Harun, Fatimah; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Heh, Choon Han; Othman, Rozana; Mat Junit, Sarni

2013-01-01

285

A Novel, Homozygous c.1502T>G (p.Val501Gly) Mutation in the Thyroid peroxidase Gene in Malaysian Sisters with Congenital Hypothyroidism and Multinodular Goiter  

PubMed Central

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) with multinodular goiter (MNG) is uncommonly seen in children. However, CH associated with goiter is often caused by defective Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene. In this study, we screened for mutation(s) in the TPO gene in two siblings with CH and MNG and their healthy family members. The two sisters, born to consanguineous parents, were diagnosed with CH during infancy and received treatment since then. They developed MNG during childhood despite adequate L-thyroxine replacement and negative thyroid antibody screening. PCR-amplification of all exons using flanking primers followed by DNA sequencing revealed that the two sisters were homozygous for a novel c.1502T>G mutation. The mutation is predicted to substitute valine for glycine at a highly conserved amino acid residue 501 (p.Val501Gly). Other healthy family members were either heterozygotes or mutation-free. The mutation was not detected in 50 healthy unrelated individuals. In silico analyses using PolyPhen-2 and SIFT predicted that the p.Val501Gly mutation is functionally “damaging.” Tertiary modeling showed structural alterations in the active site of the mutant TPO. In conclusion, a novel mutation, p.Val501Gly, in the TPO gene was detected expanding the mutation spectrum of TPO associated with CH and MNG.

Lee, Ching Chin; Harun, Fatimah; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Heh, Choon Han; Othman, Rozana; Mat Junit, Sarni

2013-01-01

286

Einstein and the twin paradox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Einstein was the first to discuss and resolve the 'twin paradox', which in 1905 he did not consider paradoxical and treated as a consequence of lack of simultaneity. He maintained this view until at least 1914. However, in 1918 Einstein brought forward arguments about accelerated frames of reference that tended to overshadow his initial resolution. His earlier arguments were gradually rediscovered during the subsequent controversy about this 'paradox'.

Pesic, Peter

2003-11-01

287

Clinical and echographic features of in utero cardiac dysfunction in the recipient twin in twin-twin transfusion syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--Fetal twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) presenting in the second trimester has been associated with almost no perinatal survival until recently, when serial drainage of amniotic fluid has improved the prognosis to 70%-80%. Most recipient twins now survive but develop cardiac dysfunction. The study was undertaken to evaluate the abnormal echocardiographic features and clinical complications of cardiac disease in the recipient

N Zosmer; R Bajoria; E Weiner; M Rigby; J Vaughan; N M Fisk

1994-01-01

288

187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM LOCATION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

289

182. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

182. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and date unknown. MILNER DAM TUNNELS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; APPROACH TO TUNNELS. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

290

183. Photocopy of map (Twin Falls Canal Company). TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

183. Photocopy of map (Twin Falls Canal Company). TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; MAP, LEFT SIDE ONLY. CROSS REFERENCE: ID-15-192. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

291

36. Photocopy of Photograph (original print located in the Twin ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. Photocopy of Photograph (original print located in the Twin Falls Library, Twin Falls, Idaho). Original Photograph, Bisbee Photo, William H. Eaton, Photographer, date unknown. COTTONWOOD FLUME SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

292

151. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

151. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #363, Page 20). SURVEY PRINT SHOWING POINT SPILLWAY AND FIELD NOTES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

293

191. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

191. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. SPILLWAY GATES, MILNER DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

294

158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Transit Book #404T, Page 3, #46, Division One). START OF MAIN CANAL SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

295

154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 2, #46 Division One). STATEMENT OF SIGHT-SETTING FOR 1903 SURVEY TO ALIGN SOUTH SIDE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

296

186. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

186. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. DRY CREEK RESERVOIR, CASSIA COUNTY (NOW TWIN FALLS COUNTY); MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

297

157. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

157. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Field Book #360, Page 75, entitled, 'Clay-Seam Cut-Off.' Cross-Reference: ID-15-153). MILNER DAM SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

298

177. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

177. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, September, 1912. Photographer unknown. COTTONWOOD FLUME, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW FROM UPPER SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

299

152. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

152. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #363, Page 1). 1912 CONDITION REPORT OF MILNER DAM AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

300

193. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

193. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. MILNER DAM PROFILE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

301

181. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

181. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and date unknown. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

302

189. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

189. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ROCK CREEK CROSSING, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

303

194. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

194. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. PROFILE AND GATE PLAN, NORTH ISLAND CROSS SECTION OF DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

304

192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP (DAM DRAWN IN), MILNER SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; RIGHT SIDE OF MAP (LEFT ON ID-15-183). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

305

185. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

185. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. MILNER DAM CROSS SECTION PLAN, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

306

153. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

153. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Field Book #360, Page 74, entitled, 'Clay-Seam Cut-Off.' Cross-Reference: ID-15-157). MILNER DAM SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

307

190. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

190. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. GENERAL PLAN OF MILNER DAM TUNNELS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

308

179. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

179. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, September, 1912. Photographer unknown. VIEW OF LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; VIEW OF LOW LINE CANAL IN PETE LINK'S FIELD. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

309

178. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. C. R. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

178. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. C. R. Savage, Photographer, March, 1905. FIRST FULL WATER OVER MILNER DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; SOUTHWEST VIEW OF SPILLWAY GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

310

155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 1, #46 Division One). STATEMENT RE: SURVEY ALIGNMENT 3/03, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

311

195. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

195. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. PLAN OF CONSTRUCTION AREA PLANT, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

312

1. GENERAL VIEW OF THE LOWER END OF TWIN LAKES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF THE LOWER END OF TWIN LAKES SHOWING THE HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS AT THE EDGE OF THE WATER NEAR CENTER OF THE PHOTO WITH THE NEW TWIN LAKES DAM JUST BEHIND. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

313

Support Groups for Sisters and Brothers of Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This prospective study aimed at shedding some light on the functioning of French support groups for brothers and sisters of children with disabilities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the sisters, brothers and parents of children with disabilities along with care professionals. Focus groups were carried out with healthcare…

Scelles, Regine; Bouteyre, Evelyne; Dayan, Clemence; Picon, Ingrid

2012-01-01

314

Sister Mary Joseph Nodule as a Presenting Sign of Pancreatobiliary Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Sister Mary Joseph nodules represent metastatic cancer of the umbilicus. These malignancies are usually associated with the ovary and gastrointestinal tract. The authors report the case of a Sister Mary Joseph nodule originating from the bifurcation of the common hepatic duct. Umbilical nodules should prompt clinical evaluations, as these tumors are usually associated with poor prognosis.

Shelling, Michael L.; Vitiello, Magalys; Lanuti, Emma L.; Rodriguez, Senen

2012-01-01

315

The syndrome of osteopetrosis, renal acidosis and cerebral calcification in two sisters.  

PubMed

The syndrome of osteopetrosis associated with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification, inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder, as seen in two sisters, is described. The primary defect in this rare syndrome is deficiency of carbonic anhydrase (CA) II. Significant reduction in blood levels of CA II were found in both parents and another sister, suggesting that these individuals are heterozygotic carriers. PMID:3221988

Al Rajeh, S; el Mouzan, M I; Ahlberg, A; Ozaksoy, D

1988-08-01

316

Brothers and Sisters of Adults with Mental Retardation: Gendered Nature of the Sibling Relationship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences and similarities between 245 brothers and sisters of adults with mental retardation in the sibling relationship were examined. Sisters scored higher in the caregiving, companionship, and positive affect aspects of the sibling relationship. Sibling involvement increased over time, but was dependent upon changes in maternal health.…

Orsmond, Gael I.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

2000-01-01

317

Youths' Caretaking of Their Adolescent Sisters' Children: Results from Two Longitudinal Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent and experiences of youths' caretaking of their adolescent sisters' children have been assessed in two longitudinal studies. The first study examines the caretaking patterns of 132 Latino and African American youth during middle and late adolescence. The second study involves 110 Latino youth whose teenage sister has recently given…

East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.; Slonim, Ashley

2009-01-01

318

The younger sisters of childbearing adolescents: their attitudes, expectations, and behaviors.  

PubMed

To examine the precursors of the disproportionately high rates of early childbearing among the younger sisters of adolescent mothers, this study compared the attitudes, expectations, and behaviors of early adolescent girls (M age = 12.93) who had an adolescent childbearing sister (n = 75) to those of early adolescent girls who had only adolescent nonchildbearing sisters (n = 348). Results indicated that the younger sisters of childbearing adolescents were consistently different from the younger sisters of nonchildbearing adolescents on key characteristics known to be correlated with early sexual activity and adolescent childbearing: that is, they were more accepting of nonmarital adolescent childbearing, perceived younger ages for typical life-course transitions (best age to get married, have first child), had more pessimistic school and career expectations, and were more likely to have engaged in problem behaviors (smoke cigarettes, skip school). These younger sister characteristics were associated with a nonvirgin sexual status in the current sample and with high closeness and high rivalry with the childbearing sister but could not be accounted for by such within-family experiences as subjects' mothers' permissiveness or lack of mother-daughter communication. Findings suggest the mechanisms by which the younger sisters of childbearing teens themselves become vulnerable to early parenthood. PMID:8625714

East, P L

1996-04-01

319

Improved light sources for induction of sister chromatid differentiation.  

PubMed

Various light sources, including ultraviolet light, mercury, germicidal, fluorescent, and incandescent lamps, were studied for their ability to induce sister chromatid differentiation (SCD) in rat bone marrow cells. The light sources were used along with Hoechst 33258 and Giemsa stains for SCD induction. When those lamps which emit significant amounts of heat were used, 60 degrees C incubation in 2X SSC was found to be unnecessary for SCD induction. A high wattage lamp, a high ambient temperature, a short distance between the lamp and the slides, or a light with 360 nm wavelength, minimized the required exposure time to the light. The pH value of the mounting buffer was also a significant factor. Fluorescent black light and incandescent lamps were found to be ideal light sources for SCD induction. PMID:2419042

Chen, J F; Lin, Y J

1985-01-01

320

Sister chromatid exchanges in peripheral lymphocytes after preoperative mammography  

SciTech Connect

Examination of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in peripheral lymphocytes may be useful for evaluating in vivo exposure to chemical mutagens. In vitro exposure of human lymphocytes to low levels of ionizing radiation has failed to produce increased SCE rates. Scarcity of information about the SCE test system and in vivo exposure to radiation prompted the present study of SCE rates in peripheral lymphocytes in women investigated with mammography prior to operation because of a tumor of the breast. In 64 of a total of 131 women a mammography was performed before the operation. The two groups of patients were identical with respect to age, smoking habits, and incidence of malignancy of the mammary tumors. SCE rates were examined in 30 metaphases from each patient following cultivation of peripheral blood lymphocytes using the BrdU/Giemsa technique.

Husum, B. (Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark); Wulf, H.C.; Niebuhr, E.

1981-09-01

321

Telomere sister chromatid exchange and the process of aging.  

PubMed

Telomeres are a hotspot for sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE). Any biological consequence of this form of instability remained obscure until quantitative modeling revealed a link between elevated T-SCE rates and accelerated cellular replicative senescence. This work strongly suggests that progressive telomere erosion is not the only determinant of replicative capacity; instead, T-SCE need to be considered as an independent factor controlling colony growth and senescence. Additionally high T-SCE rates have been observed in cells with deficiencies in WRN and BLM, the genes that are defective in Werner's and Bloom's syndromes, implying a connection to premature aging. In this Research Perspective we will explore some of the implications this recent work has for human health. PMID:20952810

Blagoev, Krastan B; Goodwin, Edwin H; Bailey, Susan M

2010-10-01

322

Symmetrical enchondromatosis of the hands and feet in two sisters.  

PubMed

We report two Portuguese sisters aged 9 and 12 years with symmetric well-circumscribed radiolucent cystic lesions on the long bone metaphysis of the hands and feet. The eldest also has soft tissue calcifications. They have no dysmorphic features and their growth is normal. Plasma values of parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and alkaline phosphatase are normal. Cerebral computed tomography (CT) scan shows no intracranial calcifications. A Raynaud phenomenon became evident during the last year in the eldest. The incisional biopsy of the left proximal metatarsial was performed through an area of typical radiographic appearance. The pathology specimen consisted of enchondroma tissue. The present cases are an extremely rare instance of this pathology, with symmetrical involvement of the hands and feet and a familial incidence. PMID:9039661

Mota, C R; Marques, L; Silva, E; Fonseca, M; Pinho, M; Torcato, M; Barbot, J; Medina, M; Maroteaux, P

1997-01-01

323

Sister chromatid exchange, DNA repair, and single-gene mutation  

SciTech Connect

Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) has been studied in cultured mammalian cells with regard to the nature of the inducing lesion, mutation induction, and factors that modify the observed frequency following mutagen exposure, SCEs can be induced by a wide spectrum of DNA lesions and, for nine agents examined, the frequency of induced SCE is linearly related to induced single-gene mutation. Further, a deficiency in DNA repair may alter the expression of both SCE and mutation in a qualitatively similar manner. The frequency of SCE induced by mitomycin-C is suppressed in heterochromatic relative to euchromatin and, in nondividing lymphocytes, the lesions leading to the formation of SCEs may persist for several months.

Carrano, A.V.; Thompson, L.H.

1982-01-01

324

Sisters in Science: Confronting Equity in Science and Mathematics Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sisters in Science (SIS) program seeks to increase elementary school girls' interest and achievement in science and mathematics, create a more positive learning climate for minority school girls and their families on academic and community/social levels, and increase the knowledge base and understanding of parents with respect to their influence in promoting girls' interest and achievement in science and mathematics. This article reports on how 577 fourth grade girls changed their interest and achievement in science and mathematics during their involvement in year 1 of the program. Findings show that the girls started the program with positive attitudes and perceptions of science and about science career possibilities. The girls significantly (p < 0.001) increased their science and mathematics skill levels after having participated in the program. It could be stated that the girls' achievement scores on the skills test increased significantly because the girls' attitudes and perceptions were positive before program implementation.

Hammrich, Penny L.; Richardson, Greer M.; Livingston, Beverly D.

325

Two sisters in the same dress: Heliconius cryptic species  

PubMed Central

Background Sister species divergence and reproductive isolation commonly results from ecological adaptation. In mimetic Heliconius butterflies, shifts in colour pattern contribute to pre- and post-mating reproductive isolation and are commonly correlated with speciation. Closely related mimetic species are therefore not expected, as they should lack several important sources of reproductive isolation. Results Here we present phenotypic, behavioral and genetic evidence for the coexistence of two sympatric 'cryptic' species near Florencia in the eastern Andes of Colombia that share the same orange rayed colour pattern. These represent H. melpomene malleti and a novel taxon in the H. cydno group, here designated as novel race of Heliconius timareta, Heliconius timareta florencia. No-choice mating experiments show that these sympatric forms have strong assortative mating (?96%) despite great similarity in colour pattern, implying enhanced divergence in pheromonal signals. Conclusion We hypothesize that these species might have resulted from recent convergence in colour pattern, perhaps facilitated by hybrid introgression of wing pattern genes.

2008-01-01

326

Telomere sister chromatid exchange in telomerase deficient murine cells  

SciTech Connect

We have recently demonstrated that several types of genomic rearrangements (i.e., telomere sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE), genomic-SCE, or end-to-end fusions) were more often detected in long-term cultured murine telomerase deficient embryonic stem (ES) cells than in freshly prepared murine splenocytes, even through they possessed similar frequencies of critically short telomeres. The high rate of genomic rearrangements in telomerase deficient ES cells, when compared to murine splenocytes, may reflect the cultured cells' gained ability to protect chromosome ends with eroded telomeres allowing them to escape 'end crisis'. However, the possibility that ES cells were more permissive to genomic rearrangements than other cell types or that differences in the microenvironment or genetic background of the animals might consequentially determine the rate of T-SCEs or other genomic rearrangements at critically short telomeres could not be ruled out.

Wang, Yisong [ORNL; Giannone, Richard J [ORNL; Liu, Yie [ORNL

2005-01-01

327

Twins Eye Study in Tasmania (TEST): Rationale and Methodology to Recruit and Examine Twins  

PubMed Central

Visual impairment is a leading cause for morbidity and poor quality of life in our community. Unravelling the mechanisms underpinning important blinding diseases could allow for preventative or curative steps to be implemented. Twin siblings provide a unique opportunity in biology to discover genes associated with numerous eye diseases and ocular biometry. Twins are particularly useful for quantitative trait analysis through genome-wide association and linkage studies. Although many studies involving twins rely on twin registries, we present our approach to the Twins Eye Study in Tasmania to provide insight into possible recruitment strategies, expected participation rates and potential examination strategies that can be considered by other researchers for similar studies. Five separate avenues for cohort recruitment were adopted: 1) piggy-backing existing studies where twins had been recruited; 2); utilising the national twin registry; 3) word of mouth and local media publicity; 4) directly approaching schools; and finally 5) collaborating with other research groups studying twins.

Mackey, David A; MacKinnon, Jane R; Brown, Shayne A; Kearns, Lisa S; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Sun, Cong; Hammond, Christopher J; Young, Terri L; Martin, Nicholas G; Hewitt, Alex W

2013-01-01

328

Analysis of Twin Data Using SAS  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Twin studies are essential for assessing disease inheritance. Data generated from twin studies are traditionally analyzed using specialized computational programs. For many researchers, especially those who are new to twin studies, understanding and using those specialized computational programs can be a daunting task. Given that SAS is the most popular software for statistical analysis, we suggest the use of SAS procedures for twin data may be a helpful alternative and demonstrate that we can obtain similar results from SAS to those produced by specialized computational programs. This numerical validation is practically useful, because a natural concern with general statistical software is whether it can deal with data that are generated from special study designs such as twin studies and whether it can test a particular hypothesis. We conclude through our extensive simulation that SAS procedures can be used easily as a very convenient alternative to specialized programs for twin data analysis.

Feng, Rui; Zhou, Gongfu; Zhang, Meizhuo; Zhang, Heping

2008-01-01

329

The role of brothers and sisters in the gender development of preschool children.  

PubMed

The study examined whether the sex of older siblings influences the gender role development of younger brothers and sisters of age 3 years. Data on the Pre-School Activities Inventory, a measure of gender role behavior that discriminates within as well as between the sexes, were obtained in a general population study for 527 girls and 582 boys with an older sister, 500 girls and 561 boys with an older brother, and 1665 singleton girls and 1707 singleton boys. It was found that boys with older brothers and girls with older sisters were more sex-typed than same-sex singletons who, in turn, were more sex-typed than children with other-sex siblings. Having an older brother was associated with more masculine and less feminine behavior in both boys and girls, whereas boys with older sisters were more feminine but not less masculine and girls with older sisters were less masculine but not more feminine. PMID:11063630

Rust, J; Golombok, S; Hines, M; Johnston, K; Golding, J

2000-12-01

330

Having a Brother or Sister with Down Syndrome: Perspectives from Siblings  

PubMed Central

This study asks brothers and sisters about their feelings and perceptions toward their sibling with Down syndrome. We analyzed valid and reliable surveys from 822 brothers and sisters whose families were on the mailing lists of six non-profit Down syndrome organizations around the country. More than 96% of brothers/sisters that responded to the survey indicated that they had affection toward their sibling with Down syndrome; and 94% of older siblings expressed feelings of pride. Less than 10% felt embarrassed, and less than 5% expressed a desire to trade their sibling in for another brother or sister without Down syndrome. Among older siblings, 88% felt that they were better people because of their siblings with Down syndrome, and more than 90% plan to remain involved in their sibling’s lives as they become adults. The vast majority of brothers and sisters describe their relationship with their sibling with Down syndrome as positive and enriching.

Skotko, Brian G.; Levine, Susan P.; Goldstein, Richard

2012-01-01

331

The effect of known cardiovascular risk factors on carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in school-aged children: a population based twin study.  

PubMed

Childhood cardiovascular risk factors affect vascular function long before overt cardiovascular disease. Twin studies provide a unique opportunity to examine the influence of shared genetic and environmental influences on childhood cardiovascular function. We examined the relationship between birth parameters, markers of adiposity, insulin resistance, lipid profile and blood pressure and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a validated non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness in a healthy cohort of school-aged twin children. PWV was performed on a population-based birth cohort of 147 twin pairs aged 7-11 years. Fasting blood samples, blood pressure and adiposity measures were collected concurrently. Mixed linear regression models were used to account for twin clustering, within- and between-twin pair associations. There were positive associations between both markers of higher adiposity, insulin resistance, elevated triglycerides and PWV, which remained significant after accounting for twin birth-set clustering. There was a positive association between both diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure and PWV in within-pair analysis in dizygotic, but not monozygotic twins, indicating genetic differences evident in dizygotic not monozygotic twins may affect these associations. Increased blood pressure, triglycerides and other metabolic markers are associated with increased PWV in school-aged twins. These results support both the genetic and environmental contribution to higher PWV, as a marker of arterial stiffness, and reiterate the importance of preventing metabolic syndrome from childhood. PMID:24965137

McCloskey, K; Sun, C; Pezic, A; Cochrane, J; Morley, R; Vuillermin, P; Burgner, D; Dwyer, T; Ponsonby, A-L

2014-08-01

332

The twin paradox in a cosmological context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently Abramowicz and Bajtlik (arXiv:0905.2428 (2009)) have studied the twin paradox in Schwarzschild spacetime. Considering circular motion they showed that the twin with a non-vanishing 4-acceleration is older than his brother at the reunion and argued that, in spaces that are asymptotically Minkowskian, there exists an absolute standard of rest determining which twin is the oldest at the reunion. Here

Ø. Grøn; S. Braeck

2011-01-01

333

A twin paradox for 'clever' students  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the twin paradox or the clock paradox under the small velocity approximation of special relativity. In this paper the traveller twin of the standard twin parable sets out with a non-relativistic speed for the trip leaving behind the stay-at-home one on earth and continues up to a distance and finally returns home with the same speed when the

S. K. Ghosal; Debarchana Das

2005-01-01

334

The twin paradox in a cosmological context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently Abramowicz and Bajtlik [ArXiv: 0905.2428 (2009)] have studied the twin paradox in Schwarzschild spacetime. Considering circular motion they showed that the twin with a non-vanishing 4-acceleration is older than his brother at the reunion and argued that in spaces that are asymptotically Minkowskian there exists an absolute standard of rest determining which twin is oldest at the reunion. Here

O. Gron; Simen Braeck

2009-01-01

335

Multiple regression analysis of twin data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiple regression model for the analysis of twin data is described in which a cotwin's score is predicted from a proband's score and the coefficient of relationship (R=1.0 and 0.5 for identical and fraternal twin pairs, respectively). This model is especially appropriate for the analysis of data on twins in which one member of each pair has been selected

J. C. DeFries; David W. Fulker

1985-01-01

336

The geography and ecology of plant speciation: range overlap and niche divergence in sister species.  

PubMed

A goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the roles of geography and ecology in speciation. The recent shared ancestry of sister species can leave a major imprint on their geographical and ecological attributes, possibly revealing processes involved in speciation. We examined how ecological similarity, range overlap and range asymmetry are related to time since divergence of 71 sister species pairs in the California Floristic Province (CFP). We found that plants exhibit strikingly different age-range correlation patterns from those found for animals; the latter broadly support allopatric speciation as the primary mode of speciation. By contrast, plant sisters in the CFP were sympatric in 80% of cases and range sizes of sisters differed by a mean of 10-fold. Range overlap and range asymmetry were greatest in younger sisters. These results suggest that speciation mechanisms broadly grouped under 'budding' speciation, in which a larger ranged progenitor gives rise to a smaller ranged derivative species, are probably common. The ecological and reproductive similarity of sisters was significantly greater than that of sister-non-sister congeners for every trait assessed. However, shifts in at least one trait were present in 93% of the sister pairs; habitat and soil shifts were especially common. Ecological divergence did not increase with range overlap contrary to expectations under character displacement in sympatry. Our results suggest that vicariant speciation is more ubiquitous in animals than plants, perhaps owing to the sensitivity of plants to fine-scale environmental heterogeneity. Despite high levels of range overlap, ecological shifts in the process of budding speciation may result in low rates of fine-scale spatial co-occurrence. These results have implications for ecological studies of trait evolution and community assembly; despite high levels of sympatry, sister taxa and potentially other close relatives, may be missing from local communities. PMID:24452025

Anacker, Brian L; Strauss, Sharon Y

2014-03-01

337

Atomistic deformation mechanisms in twinned copper nanospheres  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we perform molecular dynamic simulations to investigate the compression response and atomistic deformation mechanisms of twinned nanospheres. The relationship between load and compression depth is calculated for various twin spacing and loading directions. Then, the overall elastic properties and the underlying plastic deformation mechanisms are illuminated. Twin boundaries (TBs) act as obstacles to dislocation motion and lead to strengthening. As the loading direction varies, the plastic deformation transfers from dislocations intersecting with TBs, slipping parallel to TBs, and then to being restrained by TBs. The strengthening of TBs depends strongly on the twin spacing.

2014-01-01

338

Effects of twin separation in primary school.  

PubMed

We studied the short- and long-term effects of classroom separation in twins on behavior problems and academic performance. Short-term effects were studied at age 7 in twins separated at age 5 and long-term effects at age 12 in twins who had been separated or together most of the time at school. Behavior problems were rated by mothers (Child Behavior Checklist at ages 3, 7 and 12) and teachers (Teacher Report Form at ages 7 and 12). Academic achievement was measured at age 12 using a national academic achievement test (CITO). At age 7, twins from separated pairs had more internalizing and externalizing problems than nonseparated twins, as rated by both mothers and teachers. Only for the maternal ratings of internalizing problems, however, could these effects be attributed to the separation itself and not to preexisting problems (at age 3) between separated and nonseparated twins. Long-term effects of separation were significant for maternal and teacher ratings of internalizing and externalizing problems, but these effects could be explained by preexisting differences between separated and nonseparated groups. There were no differences in academic achievement between the separated and nonseparated group. These results suggest that the decision to separate twins when they go to school is based in part on the existing behavioral problems of the twins and that, in the long run, separation does not affect problem behavior or academic achievement. The findings were the same for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. PMID:16176724

van Leeuwen, Marieke; van den Berg, Stéphanie M; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Boomsma, Dorret I

2005-08-01

339

Deformation-Twin-Induced Grain Boundary Failure  

SciTech Connect

This work presents a mechanism of deformation-twin-induced grain boundary failure, and demonstrates the mechanism using molecular dynamics simulations. Deformation twinning is observed as the dominant mechanism during tensile deformation of columnar nanocrystalline body-centered cubic Mo. As a twin approaches a grain boundary, local stress concentration develops due to the incompatible plastic deformations in the two neighboring grains. The magnitude of the stress concentration increases as the twin widens, leading to grain boundary cracking by nucleation and coalescence of microcracks/voids.

Yongfeng Zhang; Paul C. MIllett; Michael Tonks; Bulent Biner

2012-01-01

340

Twinned Schools: A Description of Twinned Schools in Ontario, Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twinning (or clustering) is the joining together of two or more (usually small) schools administered by one principal, in order to share resources and services. A survey of 104 of the 170 Ontario school boards examined prevalence of twinned schools, organization and administration of twinned schools, types of resources shared, and advantages and…

Rees, Ruth

1996-01-01

341

Endoscopic Laser Surgery versus Serial Amnioreduction for Severe Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Monochorionic twin pregnancies complicated by severe twin-to-twin transfusion syn- drome at midgestation can be treated by either serial amnioreduction (removal of large volumes of amniotic fluid) or selective fetoscopic laser coagulation of the communicat- ing vessels on the chorionic plate. We conducted a randomized trial to compare the effi- cacy and safety of these two treatments. methods Pregnant women

Marie-Victoire Senat; Jan Deprest; Michel Boulvain; Alain Paupe; Norbert Winer; Yves Ville

2004-01-01

342

Twin Loss: Implications for Counselors Working with Surviving Twins.(practice & Theory)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple births are becoming increasingly prevalent due to the use of fertility drugs and women choosing to wait until later life to conceive. With the growth in the twin population, little research has been done to investigate the effects on the grief process when 1 twin dies. Counselors must understand the unique experience of twins to formulate…

Withrow, Rebecca; Schwiebert, Valerie L.

2005-01-01

343

Monozygotic vs. dizygotic twin behavior in artificial mouse twins.  

PubMed

Adult inbred mice of an isogenic strain (AKR/NHan or C57BL/6J Han) differ in social (sexual and agonistic), emotional and psychomotoric behavior, depending on the kind of manipulation to which they were subjected at an early ontogenetic stage. Monozygotic twins (MZT) from eight-cell stages halved and transferred to uterine foster mothers were compared with dizygotic twins (DZT) from nonreduced but transferred eight-cell stages and with naturally born animals (NBA). Generally, early embryonic conditions predict the behavioral characteristics of the adult animals to a high degree. The MZT are motorially less active, less emotional, less aggressive and less socially interested than DZT and NBA. In tests of spontaneous social behavior (allogrooming, anogenital licking, mounting, fighting), as well as in tests for emotionality (open field: crossed fields and defecation), these behavioral patterns occurred less frequently in MZT than in DZT; the NBA were mostly intermediate. The copulatory pattern of male MZT differs from that of male DZT by a shortage of intromission latency and duration; furthermore, MZT pairs do not build up a steady rank order in competitive copulation tests, as opposed to DZT and NBA pairs. In a test for psychomotoric behavior (swimming), the MZT prefer "floating" as a survival strategy, whereas the DZT and NBA prefer "adult swimming." Therefore, it can be concluded that these behavioral differences may be caused by the particular psychosocial environment in which the twins grow up or may be due to early prenatal peculiarities, such as inadequate synchronization of the developmental status of uterus and embryo. PMID:6538528

Baunack, E; Falk, U; Gärtner, K

1984-03-01

344

Monozygotic VS. Dizygotic Twin Behavior in Artificial Mouse Twins  

PubMed Central

Adult inbred mice of an isogenic strain (AKR/NHan or C57BL/6J Han) differ in social (sexual and agonistic), emotional and psychomotoric behavior, depending on the kind of manipulation to which they were subjected at an early ontogenetic stage. Monozygotic twins (MZT) from eight-cell stages halved and transferred to uterine foster mothers were compared with dizygotic twins (DZT) from nonreduced but transferred eight-cell stages and with naturally born animals (NBA). Generally, early embryonic conditions predict the behavioral characteristics of the adult animals to a high degree. The MZT are motorially less active, less emotional, less aggressive and less socially interested than DZT and NBA. In tests of spontaneous social behavior (allogrooming, anogenital licking, mounting, fighting), as well as in tests for emotionality (open field: crossed fields and defecation), these behavioral patterns occurred less frequently in MZT than in DZT; the NBA were mostly intermediate. The copulatory pattern of male MZT differs from that of male DZT by a shortage of intromission latency and duration; furthermore, MZT pairs do not build up a steady rank order in competitive copulation tests, as opposed to DZT and NBA pairs. In a test for psychomotoric behavior (swimming), the MZT prefer "floating" as a survival strategy, wheras the DZT and NBA prefer "adult swimming." Therefore, it can be concluded that these behavioral differences may be caused by the particular psychosocial environment in which the twins grow up or may be due to early prenatal peculiarities, such as inadequate synchronization of the developmental status of uterus and embryo.

Baunack, E.; Falk, U.; Gartner, K.

1984-01-01

345

Associations between Childbirth, Hospitalization and Disability Pension: A Cohort Study of Female Twins  

PubMed Central

Background As the literature on long-term effects of childbirth on risk of morbidity or permanent work incapacity (DP) is limited, we aimed to study associations of childbirth with hospitalization and DP, adjusting for familial factors. Methods This cohort study included female twins, i.e. women with twin sister, born 1959–1990 in Sweden (n?=?5 118). At least one in the twin pair had their first childbirth 1994–2009. Women were followed regarding all-cause and cause-specific (mental or musculoskeletal diagnoses) DP during year 2–5 after first delivery or equivalent. Associations between childbirth, hospitalization and DP were calculated as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Women who did not give birth had markedly higher number of DP days/year compared to those giving birth. Hospitalization after first childbirth was associated with a higher HR of DP. Those hospitalized at least once after their first childbirth had a three-fold DP risk (HR: 3.2; 95% CI 1.1–9.6), DP due to mental diagnoses (HR: 3.2; 1.2–8.8), and of DP due to musculoskeletal diagnoses (HR: 6.1; 1.6–22.9). Lower HRs in the discordant twin pair analyses indicated that familial factors may influence the studied associations. Conclusions Women who did not give birth had a much higher risk for DP than those who did. Among those who gave birth, the risk for DP was markedly higher among those with a previous hospitalization, and especially in women with repeated hospitalizations. The results indicate a health selection into giving birth as well as the importance of morbidity for DP.

Bjorkenstam, Emma; Narusyte, Jurgita; Alexanderson, Kristina; Ropponen, Annina; Kjeldgard, Linnea; Svedberg, Pia

2014-01-01

346

11. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works construction drawing dated January 15, 1951. Drawn by W.A. Doe for the Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Co. (copy in possession of Bureau of Reclamation, location of original unknown) 'AS CONSTRUCTED' PLANS OF 1949-1950, REHABILITATION OF TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR OUTLET WORKS, DETAILS OF UPSTREAM WING WALLS. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

347

12. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works construction drawing dated January 15, 1951. Drawn by W.A. Doe for the Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Co. (copy in possession of Bureau of Reclamation, location of original unknown) 'AS CONSTRUCTED' PLANS OF 1949-50, REHABILITATION OF TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR OUTLET WORKS, DETAILS OF DISCHARGE BASIN. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

348

Cross-twinning in a natural spinel from Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified cross-twinning growth mechanism is put forward to explain the anomalous morphology of a spinel multiple-twin from Sri Lanka, flattened crosswise the twin\\u000a planes. Cross-twinning in spinel was found also in other specimens from Pegu (Myanmar), and the results were published in\\u000a a previous paper. This particular type of twinning is derived from the combination of cyclic\\u000a twinning with

Rosa Anna Fregola; Eugenio Scandale

2007-01-01

349

Acquired right heart outflow tract anomaly without systemic hypertension in recipient twins in twin-twin transfusion syndrome.  

PubMed

Significant hemodynamic changes are commonly observed in both fetuses in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. In the recipient twin there is cardiac dysfunction with hypertrophy of both ventricles and overall enlargement of the heart. We describe five cases of recipient twins in twin-twin transfusion syndrome with right ventricle hypertrophy, pulmonary stenosis and tricuspid regurgitation acquired in utero. These symptoms developed with no signs of systemic hypertension. Three of the five recipient twins survived and were developing normally at 3-30 months of age. Postnatal outcome is likely to have improved as a result of prenatal diagnosis of right ventricle outflow tract obstruction and timed delivery. These acquired anomalies of the right heart might be related to the particular hemodynamic conditions of the recipient twin. A global heart dilatation is logically expected, but this hypertrophy without dilatation is probably related to the shared plasma of fetuses with opposite hemodynamic conditions. This is what we consider as the hemodynamic-hormonal paradox. These acquired anomalies, though severe, are accessible to neonatal treatment if treated early. PMID:11844213

Nizard, J; Bonnet, D; Fermont, L; Ville, Y

2001-12-01

350

Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome: Prenatal Diagnosis and Treatment.  

PubMed

Clinical Problem?Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) increases perinatal morbidity and mortality for 10 to 15% of monochorionic (MC) gestations. Pathophysiology?MC gestations are at risk due to the angioarchitecture of the shared placenta, with anastomoses of varying type, size, and quantity. TTTS results from progression of a chronic perfusion imbalance across unbalanced placental anastomoses, typically arising between 15 and 26 weeks gestation. The resulting abnormal fetal blood volume levels and compensatory physiological responses lead to an increased risk for fetal death, end-organ damage, and preterm birth. Prenatal Diagnosis?Surveillance with ultrasound is essential for detection and treatment. TTTS is diagnosed once polyhydramnios occurs in the recipient (maximal vertical fluid pocket [MVP]?>?8 cm) and oligohydramnios in the donor (MVP?

Benoit, Richard M; Baschat, Ahmet A

2014-08-01

351

The USA's nurse managers and UK's ward sisters: critical roles for empowerment.  

PubMed

The nurse manager/ward sister role is becoming endangered as many of these nurses are being asked to take fiscal and personnel responsibility for multiple units/programmes and supervise more non-registered nursing staff. Loss of this important nurse manager/ward sister role could severely decrease nursing's voice in the development and implementation of policies that affect nurses and the care they deliver. The authors review 20 years of literature from both the USA and the UK regarding supportive supervision and the role of the nurse manager/ward sister. Nurse managers/ward sisters were found to be key individuals within the entire health-care organization. Nurse managers/ward sisters can empower the nurses they supervise to initiate changes that will improve patient care. Nurse managers/ward sisters can also improve the working conditions and thus increase the job satisfaction and retention of those they supervise. Strategies for being more supportive of these overworked and endangered nurse managers/ward sisters are suggested. PMID:8055167

Cameron-Buccheri, R; Ogier, M E

1994-07-01

352

Chromosome orientation fluorescence in situ hybridization (CO-FISH) to study sister chromatid segregation in vivo  

PubMed Central

Previously, assays for sister chromatid segregation patterns relied on incorporation of BrdU and indirect methods to infer segregation patterns after two cell divisions. Here we describe a method to differentially label sister chromatids of murine cells and directly assay sister chromatid segregation patterns following one cell division in vitro and in vivo by adaptation of the well-established CO-FISH (chromosome orientation fluorescent in situ hybridization) technique. 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is incorporated into newly-formed DNA strands, followed by photolysis and exonuclease digestion to create single-stranded sister chromatids containing parental template DNA only. Such single-stranded sister chromatids are differentially labeled using unidirectional probes to major satellite sequences coupled to fluorescent markers. Differentially-labeled sister chromatids in post-mitotic cells are visualized using fluorescence microscopy and sister chromatid segregation patterns can be directly assayed after one cell division. This procedure requires four days for in vivo mouse tissues, and two days for in vitro cultured cells.

Falconer, Ester; Chavez, Elizabeth; Henderson, Alexander; Lansdorp, Peter M.

2013-01-01

353

The role of sister chromatid cohesiveness and structure in meiotic behaviour.  

PubMed

Sister chromatid cores, kinetochores and the connecting strand between sister kinetochores were differentially silver stained to analyse the behaviour of these structures during meiosis in normal and two spontaneous desynaptic individuals of Chorthippus jucundus (Orthoptera). In these desynaptic individuals most of the chromosomes appear as univalents and orient equationally in the first meiotic division. Despite this abnormal segregation pattern, the changes in chromosome structure follow the same timing as in normal individuals and seem to be strictly phase dependent. Chromosomes in the first prometaphase have associated sister kinetochores and sister chromatid cores that lie in the chromosome midline; we propose that this promotes the initial monopolar orientation of chromosomes. However, the requirements of tension for stable attachment to the spindle force the autosomal univalents to acquire amphitelic orientation. Sister kinetochores behave in a chromosome orientation-dependent manner and, in the first metaphase, they appear to be interconnected by a strand that can be detected by silver impregnation, as seen in the second metaphase of wild-type individuals. The disappearance of the sister kinetochore-connecting strand, needed for equational chromatid segregation, however, can only take place in the second meiotic division. This connecting strand is ultimately responsible for the inability of chromosomes to segregate sister chromatids in the first anaphase. PMID:9391215

Giménez-Abián, J F; Clarke, D J; García de la Vega, C; Giménez-Martín, G

1997-12-01

354

Chromosome-specific non-random sister chromatid segregation during stem cell division  

PubMed Central

Adult stem cells undergo asymmetric cell division to self-renew and give rise to differentiated cells that comprise mature tissue1. Sister chromatids may be distinguished and segregated non-randomly in asymmetrically dividing stem cells2, although the underlying mechanism and the purpose it may serve remain elusive. We developed the CO-FISH (chromosome orientation fluorescence in situ hybridization) technique3 with single-chromosome resolution and show that sister chromatids of X and Y chromosomes, but not autosomes, are segregated non-randomly during asymmetric divisions of Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs). This provides the first direct evidence that two sister chromatids containing identical genetic information can be distinguished and segregated non-randomly during asymmetric stem cell divisions. We further show that the centrosome, SUN-KASH nuclear envelope proteins, and Dnmt2 are required for non-random sister chromatid segregation. Our data suggest that the information on X and Y chromosomes that enables non-random segregation is primed during gametogenesis in the parents. Moreover, we show that sister chromatid segregation is randomized in GSC overproliferation and dedifferentiated GSCs. We propose that non-random sister chromatid segregation may serve to transmit distinct information carried on two sister chromatids to the daughters of asymmetrically dividing stem cells.

Yadlapalli, Swathi; Yamashita, Yukiko M.

2013-01-01

355

Twin-Foucault imaging method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of Lorentz electron microscopy, which enables observation two Foucault images simultaneously by using an electron biprism instead of an objective aperture, was developed. The electron biprism is installed between two electron beams deflected by 180° magnetic domains. Potential applied to the biprism deflects the two electron beams further, and two Foucault images with reversed contrast are then obtained in one visual field. The twin Foucault images are able to extract the magnetic domain structures and to reconstruct an ordinary electron micrograph. The developed Foucault method was demonstrated with a 180° domain structure of manganite La0.825Sr0.175MnO3.

Harada, Ken

2012-02-01

356

Acquired Obesity Is Associated with Changes in the Serum Lipidomic Profile Independent of Genetic Effects - A Monozygotic Twin Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both genetic and environmental factors are involved in the etiology of obesity and the associated lipid disturbances. We determined whether acquired obesity is associated with changes in global serum lipid profiles independent of genetic factors in young adult monozygotic (MZ) twins. 14 healthy MZ pairs discordant for obesity (10 to 25 kg weight difference) and ten weight concordant control pairs

Kirsi H. Pietiläinen; Marko Sysi-Aho; Aila Rissanen; Tuulikki Seppänen-Laakso; Hannele Yki-Järvinen; Jaakko Kaprio; Matej Oresic; Alessandro Bartolomucci

2007-01-01

357

Attractiveness Differences Between Twins Predicts Evaluations of Self and Co-Twin  

PubMed Central

One of the most consistent findings in psychology shows that people prefer and make positive attributions about attractive compared with unattractive people. The goal of the current study was to determine the power of attractiveness effects by testing whether these social judgments are made where attractiveness differences are smallest: between twins. Differences in facial attractiveness predicted twins’ evaluations of self and their co-twin (n = 158; 54 male). In twin pairs, the more attractive twin judged their less attractive sibling as less physically attractive, athletic, socially competent, and emotionally stable. The less attractive twin did the reverse. Given that even negligible differences in facial attractiveness predicted self and co-twin attitudes, these results provide the strongest test yet of appearance-based stereotypes.

Principe, Connor P.; Rosen, Lisa H.; Taylor-Partridge, Teresa; Langlois, Judith H.

2012-01-01

358

Counterpropagating Twin Photons by Parametric Fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

An original geometry for parametric fluorescence is proposed and analyzed theoretically, in which counterpropagating twin photons are emitted in a thin waveguide. In this original down-conversion process, a dramatic decrease of the spectral signal bandwidth at degeneracy is expected, as compared to usual parametric fluorescence processes. The possibility of using the counterpropagating twin photons for quantum cryptography is emphasized. It

A. de Rossi; V. Berger

2002-01-01

359

Fetal fibronectin in symptomatic twin gestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the negative fetal fibronectin (fFN) assay in patients with twin gestations who are symptomatic for preterm labor (PTL).Study Design: Fetal fibronectin expression in 955 symptomatic patients combined from two prospective multicenter trials was studied. Of the 955 patients, 43 had twin gestations in PTL with intact amniotic membranes at 24 and 35 weeks. Fetal fibronectin expression was

Dom A. Terrone; Brian K. Rinehart; Usha Kraeden; John C. Morrison

1998-01-01

360

Statistical mechanics analysis of the ``twins paradox''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aging of the two brothers in the “twins paradox” is analyzed through the space-time evolution of the densities that correspond to their internal complex structure. Taking into account their relative motion, it is shown that the traveling brother evolves over a shorter interval of time than his twin, which makes him younger than his brother.

Ben-Ya'Acov, Uri

1995-12-01

361

The Reality of the Twin Paradox Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the assumption put forth recently by Sachs, that the proper time of a particle is a single-valued function of the space-time coordinates. We demonstrate that while it eliminates the age difference between the twins in the twin paradox, it also eliminates every other relativistic effect and implies Newtonian physics. We then discuss exactly how the nature of this

Daniel M. Greenberger

1972-01-01

362

Statistical mechanics analysis of the ``twins paradox''  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aging of the two brothers in the ``twins paradox'' is analyzed through the space-time evolution of the densities that correspond to their internal complex structure. Taking into account their relative motion, it is shown that the traveling brother evolves over a shorter interval of time than his twin, which makes him younger than his brother.

Uri Ben-Ya'Acov

1995-01-01

363

The twin paradox and space topology  

Microsoft Academic Search

If space is compact, then a traveller twin can leave Earth, travel back home without changing direction and find her sedentary twin older than herself. We show that the asymmetry between their spacetime trajectories lies in a topological invariant of their spatial geodesics, namely the homotopy class. This illustrates how the spacetime symmetry invariance group, although valid locally, is broken

Jean-Philippe Uzan; Jean-Pierre Luminet; Roland Lehoucq; Patrick Peter

2002-01-01

364

Dynamical dislocation emission processes from twin boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ tensile straining transmission electron microscopy investigation of electrodeposited copper with high density of nanoscale growth twins reveals that twin boundaries (TBs) can serve as dislocation sources. Atomic steps at TBs formed by sessile Frank partial dislocations are beneficial for TBs serving as dislocation sources. The underlying mechanism that includes dislocation reactions with TBs is discussed.

Wang, Y. B.; Wu, B.; Sui, M. L.

2008-07-01

365

Twinning Two Schools: What We Have Learned.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the implementation of twinning (sharing administrative staff) in two Ontario elementary schools; the actions that the board of education undertook to monitor and assess the demonstration project; and a survey of parents and community members evaluating whether twinning was cost effective, improved program quality in the two schools, and…

Rees, Ruth

1997-01-01

366

Twinning: A Marker for Biological Insults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of various statistics from birth records of 317 consecutive births revealed that twins are nonrepresentative of newborns with respect to birth weight and gestation, with male pairs to same-sex pairs the least representative. Differences between Negro and Caucasian twins were also found. (MH)

Howard, Robert G.; Brown, Anne M.

1970-01-01

367

The power of the classical twin study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method based on the non-central chi-square distribution is developed for the calculation of sample sizes required to reject, with given probability, models of variation when they are “ wrong ”. The method is illustrated with reference to simple alternative models of variation in MZ and DZ twins reared together. Simulation of twin experiments finds the empirical power in good

N. G. MARTIN; L. J. EAVES; M. J. KEARSEY; P. DAVIESt

1978-01-01

368

[Hungarian twin studies: results of four decades].  

PubMed

Twin studies play a role in examining the contribution of genetic variations and environmental factors responsible for the determination of phenotypic variables and of genetic linkage between genotypes. Hungarian twin studies, supported by three twin registries (among them two twin-database), date back to 1970s. Studies mainly focused on various congenital abnormalities, the effect of contraceptive pills and folic acid on the frequency of twin pregnancies, as well as psychosexual and alcohol consumptional behaviors. Monogenic Mendelian inheritance of lactose (mal)absorption was demonstrated for the first time. Hungarian Twin Registry was founded in 2007, which contributed to the current understanding on the background of several disorders, e.g. metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. As part of an international twin study, among others, arterial stiffness, central blood pressure, carotid intima/media thickness, venous biomechanics, body composition, lung function and smoking characteristics were also assessed. Absence of genetic background in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and high inheritance of carotid plaque characteristics were demonstrated for the first time. The review also aims to summarize future plans of the Hungarian Twin Registry. PMID:24077161

Tárnoki, Ádám Domonkos; Tárnoki, Dávid László; Horváth, Tamás; Métneki, Júlia; Littvay, Levente

2013-10-01

369

Wild female baboons bias their social behaviour towards paternal half-sisters.  

PubMed Central

Adult female cercopithecines have long been known to bias their social behaviour towards close maternal kin. However, much less is understood about the behaviour of paternal kin, especially in wild populations. Here, we show that wild adult female baboons bias their affiliative behaviour towards their adult paternal half-sisters in the same manner and to the same extent that they bias their behaviour towards adult maternal half-sisters. Females appear to rely heavily on social familiarity as a means of biasing their behaviour towards paternal half-sisters, but may use phenotype matching as well.

Smith, Kerri; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne

2003-01-01

370

Sisters Helping Sisters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a comprehensive guide to the philosophy, organization, and management of a mentoring program for African American girls. It is based on a program sponsored by the Wheeler Avenue Baptist Church in Houston (Texas). This program matches between 25 and 50 young women with Christian women mentors. The program emphasizes Christian values,…

Wright, Madeleine E.

371

Colorado Twin Registry--An Update  

PubMed Central

The Colorado Twin Registry (CTR) is a population based registry housed at the Institute for Behavioral Genetics (IBG) at the University of Colorado. Recruitment began in 1982 and includes twins born from 1968 to the present. Four samples are currently drawn from the CTR: The Community Twin Sample (CTS), the Longitudinal Twin Sample (LTS), the Early Reading Development Sample (ERDS), and the Colorado Learning Sample. Criteria for enrollment, recruitment strategies, demographic information and zygosity assignment are explained for each sample. In addition, five studies in which CTR twins are now participating are highlighted. These include studies of cognition, learning ability, and vulnerability to substance abuse and antisocial behavior. The development of the CTR is an ongoing and evolving process, and it has proven to be a valuable registry, relatively representative of the population from which it was drawn.

Rhea, Sally-Ann; Gross, Andy A.; Haberstick, Brett C.; Corley, Robin P.

2013-01-01

372

Familial clustering of major depression and anxiety disorders in Australian and Dutch twins and siblings.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate familial influences and their dependence on sex for panic disorder and/or agoraphobia, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder and major depression. Data from Australian (N = 2287) and Dutch (N = 1185) twins and siblings who were selected for a linkage study and participated in clinical interviews to obtain lifetime Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) diagnoses were used. In a liability model, tetrachoric correlations were estimated in sibling pairs and sex differences between sibling correlations were tested. For each diagnosis, the sibling correlations could be constrained to be equal across the Australian and Dutch samples. With the exception of panic disorder and/or agoraphobia, all sibling correlations were the same for brother, sister and opposite-sex sibling pairs and were around .20. For panic disorder and/or agoraphobia, the correlation was .23 in brother and sister pairs, but absent in opposite-sex sibling pairs. From these results it can be concluded that upper heritability estimates, based on twice the correlations in the sibling pairs, vary between 36% (major depression) and 50% (social phobia). Furthermore, different genetic risk factors appear to contribute to the vulnerability for panic disorder and/or agoraphobia in men and women. No other sex differences were found. PMID:16354503

Middeldorp, Christel M; Birley, Andrew J; Cath, Danielle C; Gillespie, Nathan A; Willemsen, Gonneke; Statham, Dixie J; de Geus, Eco J C; Andrews, J Gavin; van Dyck, Richard; Beem, A Leo; Sullivan, Patrick F; Martin, Nicholas G; Boomsma, Dorret I

2005-12-01

373

Sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberration frequencies in plutonium workers.  

PubMed

Peripheral blood lymphocytes from controls and from a small population of plutonium workers with internal plutonium depositions, cumulative chronic external irradiation, and occupational exposure to single or multiple chemicals, were analysed for the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and chromosome aberrations. SCE are sensitive to some chemical mutagens, while chromosome aberrations are induced by moderate to high doses of ionizing radiation, and therefore these different cytogenetic end-points are complementary. We analysed the frequency data from workers grouped by internal systemic burdens of plutonium (less than 148, 148-740 and greater than 740 Bq) and to those exposed to five chemicals in the workplace: perchloroethylene, beryllium, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, and trichloroethylene. A significant increase in chromosome aberrations compared with the control frequency was observed only in cells of workers with greater than 740 Bq of internalized plutonium. Based on prior studies, the lack of a dose-response indicator from internal plutonium was not unexpected because of the small sample and the low frequency of aberrations induced at the lower plutonium burdens. There were no significant increases in the SCE mean frequencies when analysed by estimated internal plutonium or from exposure to any of the chemicals. PMID:1973437

Brandom, W F; McGavran, L; Bistline, R W; Bloom, A D

1990-07-01

374

The sister group relation of parmeliaceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycota).  

PubMed

The family Parmeliaceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycota) is possibly the largest, best known and most thoroughly studied lichen family within its order. Despite this fact the relationship between Parmeliaceae and other groups in Lecanorales is still poorly known. The aim of the present study is to contribute to finding the sister group of Parmeliaceae as an aid in future studies on the phylogeny and character evolution of the group. We do this by sampling all potential relatives to the Parmeliaceae that we have identified, i.e. Gypsoplaca, Japewia, Mycoblastus, Protoparmelia, and Tephromela, a good representation of the major groups within the Parmeliaceae s. lat. and a good representation of other taxa in the core Lecanorales. We use molecular data from two genes, the large subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nrLSU) and the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene (mrSSU), and a Bayesian analysis of the combined data. The results show that the closest relatives to Parmeliaceae are the two genera Protoparmelia and Gypsoplaca, which are crustose lichens. Parmeliaceae in our sense is a well supported group, including also the family segregates Alectoriaceae, Hypogymniaceae, Usneaceae and Anziaceae. PMID:17663122

Arup, Ulf; Ekman, Stefan; Grube, Martin; Mattsson, Jan-Eric; Wedin, Mats

2007-01-01

375

Chloroplast Phylogenomics Indicates that Ginkgo biloba Is Sister to Cycads  

PubMed Central

Molecular phylogenetic studies have not yet reached a consensus on the placement of Ginkgoales, which is represented by the only living species, Ginkgo biloba (common name: ginkgo). At least six discrepant placements of ginkgo have been proposed. This study aimed to use the chloroplast phylogenomic approach to examine possible factors that lead to such disagreeing placements. We found the sequence types used in the analyses as the most critical factor in the conflicting placements of ginkgo. In addition, the placement of ginkgo varied in the trees inferred from nucleotide (NU) sequences, which notably depended on breadth of taxon sampling, tree-building methods, codon positions, positions of Gnetopsida (common name: gnetophytes), and including or excluding gnetophytes in data sets. In contrast, the trees inferred from amino acid (AA) sequences congruently supported the monophyly of a ginkgo and Cycadales (common name: cycads) clade, regardless of which factors were examined. Our site-stripping analysis further revealed that the high substitution saturation of NU sequences mainly derived from the third codon positions and contributed to the variable placements of ginkgo. In summary, the factors we surveyed did not affect results inferred from analyses of AA sequences. Congruent topologies in our AA trees give more confidence in supporting the ginkgo–cycad sister-group hypothesis.

Wu, Chung-Shien; Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Huang, Ya-Yi

2013-01-01

376

Ecologically distinct dinosaurian sister group shows early diversification of Ornithodira.  

PubMed

The early evolutionary history of Ornithodira (avian-line archosaurs) has hitherto been documented by incomplete (Lagerpeton) or unusually specialized forms (pterosaurs and Silesaurus). Recently, a variety of Silesaurus-like taxa have been reported from the Triassic period of both Gondwana and Laurasia, but their relationships to each other and to dinosaurs remain a subject of debate. Here we report on a new avian-line archosaur from the early Middle Triassic (Anisian) of Tanzania. Phylogenetic analysis places Asilisaurus kongwe gen. et sp. nov. as an avian-line archosaur and a member of the Silesauridae, which is here considered the sister taxon to Dinosauria. Silesaurids were diverse and had a wide distribution by the Late Triassic, with a novel ornithodiran bauplan including leaf-shaped teeth, a beak-like lower jaw, long, gracile limbs, and a quadrupedal stance. Our analysis suggests that the dentition and diet of silesaurids, ornithischians and sauropodomorphs evolved independently from a plesiomorphic carnivorous form. As the oldest avian-line archosaur, Asilisaurus demonstrates the antiquity of both Ornithodira and the dinosaurian lineage. The initial diversification of Archosauria, previously documented by crocodilian-line archosaurs in the Anisian, can now be shown to include a contemporaneous avian-line radiation. The unparalleled taxonomic diversity of the Manda archosaur assemblage indicates that archosaur diversification was well underway by the Middle Triassic or earlier. PMID:20203608

Nesbitt, Sterling J; Sidor, Christian A; Irmis, Randall B; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Smith, Roger M H; Tsuji, Linda A

2010-03-01

377

Atypically low spontaneous sister chromatid exchange formation in uveal melanoma.  

PubMed

Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular cancer of adults and is characterized by several well-established chromosomal changes. More recently, a specific mutation of guanine nucleotide binding protein Gq alpha subunit (GNAQ) has also been identified in a proportion of UM. Although some of these alterations have been suggested to be early changes, the genetic alterations responsible for the development of UM have yet to be clearly determined. Cancers are characterized by increased genetic instability, and analysis of established cancer cell lines and blood from cancer patients has universally been associated with an increased level of sister chromatid exchange (SCE). We have observed that the spontaneous frequency of SCE in primary cultures of UM and UM-derived cell lines is decreased below normal baseline levels, a phenomenon unique to UM when compared with multiple other cancers. This finding was specific to the tumor and not found in lymphocytes from the patients. Although we cannot exclude the possibility that low SCE (LSCE) is peculiar to the uveal melanocytes lineage, as it was consistently observed in all UM studied, regardless of other genetic defects, we propose that this phenomenon contributes to the molecular pathogenesis of UM. PMID:20960562

Hoh, Leslie; Gravells, Polly; Canovas, David; Ul-Hassan, Aliya; Rennie, Ian G; Bryant, Helen; Sisley, Karen

2011-01-01

378

NOTE: Modelling the influence of amnionicity on the severity of twin twin transfusion syndrome in monochorionic twin pregnancies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical treatment for diamniotic monochorionic twin twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) may include conversion of diamniotic pregnancies to a monoamniotic monochorionic state by disrupting the amnion septum. We sought to test the underlying hypothesis, i.e. that a monoamniotic state reduces the severity of TTTS. With use of our previously developed mathematical model of two equal fetoplacental circulatory units connected by various sizes and types of placental anastomoses, we compared the haemodynamic and amniotic fluid dynamics of monoamniotic and diamniotic twins that develop TTTS. We used three anastomotic patterns that produce severe, moderate or mild forms of TTTS, respectively, in our diamniotic monochorionic twin model. Monoamnionicity was modelled by adding the two amniotic fluid volumes and using the volume-averaged amniotic fluid osmolality. The results were as follows: for severe TTTS, small differences develop between diamniotic and monoamniotic donor twins in fetal urine production, swallowed volume, blood volume, blood pressures, net fetofetal transfusion, and blood and amniotic fluid osmolality. However, the circulatory imbalance between the monoamniotic twins deteriorates similar to that of diamniotic twins. The pathophysiological differences tend to disappear for milder TTTS. In conclusion, our model suggests that the uncommon finding of TTTS in monoamniotic twins is not due to the presence of a single amniotic sac. Rather, clinically significant differences in anastomotic patterns and the delayed or lack of identification of manifestations in monoamniotic twins account for the reduced rate of TTTS diagnosis. Based on these results we expect the clinical disruption of the amnion septum in diamniotic monochorionic TTTS pregnancies to have only minimal benefits.

van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Umur, Asli; Ross, Michael G.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

2004-03-01

379

Increased UV-induced sister-chromatid exchange in cultured fibroblasts of first-degree relatives of melanoma patients  

SciTech Connect

Cultured fibroblasts of 17 first-degree relatives of familial melanoma patients and six first-degree relatives of cutaneous melanoma (CMM) patients with multiple CMM primaries were tested for in vitro sensitivity to UV light. Fibroblasts of nine familial CMM patients with a known UV-sensitivity and 19 healthy probands served as a control. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) was used as a parameter to detect UV-induced genotoxic damage. The authors found significantly (p less than 0.001) increased UV-induced SCE levels in familial melanoma patients, as well as in first-degree relatives of familial melanoma patients (p less than 0.001) after UV-A,B irradiation (375 J/m2), compared to the healthy probands without a family history of CMM. A significant (p less than 0.001) increase of UV-induced SCE was also observed in the relatives of CMM patients with multiple CMM primaries. In addition, the spontaneous SCE were significantly increased (p less than 0.05) in familial CMM patients. This study shows that increased UV sensitivity is a familial phenomenon. It is consistent with the concept of a genetic predisposition to CMM, which is based on increased UV sensitivity and may help to define groups with an elevated risk of developing cutaneous malignant melanoma.

Knees-Matzen, S.; Roser, M.; Reimers, U.; Ehlert, U.; Weichenthal, M.; Breitbart, E.W.; Ruediger, H.W. (Department of Occupational Medicine, University of Hamburg (Germany))

1991-06-01

380

NOTE: Thrombosis of anastomoses may affect the staging sequence of twin twin transfusion syndrome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twins, which share one single monochorionic placenta. It is caused by placental anastomoses which link the two fetoplacental circulations of the twins and allow a chronic net inter-twin transfusion to develop between the fetuses. Clinical presentation of TTTS manifestations has been classified into five different stages. In this paper, we used our computational model of TTTS and examined the possible differences between chronic and rapidly increasing inter-twin transfusion in the simulated TTTS staging sequence. Our results suggest that rapid alterations in the net inter-twin transfusion, e.g. due to thrombosis of placental anastomoses, may produce a different staging sequence than in TTTS caused by chronic inter-twin transfusion. These results may aid an improved knowledge of TTTS pathophysiology under conditions of a rapidly changing cardiovascular function, and contribute to the planning of optimal intervention under such circumstances. Supported in part by the European Community Euro-twin-2-twin project (JPHMvdW) and by the National Institutes of Health, grant HL40899 (MGR).

van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Ross, Michael G.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

2008-03-01

381

Sisters' and Girlfriends' Sexual and Childbearing Behavior: Effects on Early Adolescent Girls' Sexual Outcomes  

PubMed Central

This study examined three key issues related to the effects of sisters’ and girlfriends’ sexual and childbearing behavior on early adolescent girls’ sexual outcomes. Subjects were 455 girls from predominantly minority racial backgrounds. Results indicated that number of sexually active girlfriends, number of sexually active sisters, and presence of an adolescent childbearing sister were positively associated with permissive sexual attitudes, positive intentions for future sexual activity, and a greater likelihood of being a nonvirgin. The strength of these relationships did not vary by race, but there was a greater presence of permissive social influences for African American girls than for nonblack girls. Results from multiple hierarchical regression analyses indicated that having both many sexually active girlfriends and an adolescent childbearing sister had particularly strong effects on permissive sexual attitudes and a nonvirgin status.

East, Patricia L.; Felice, Marianne E.; Morgan, Maria C.

2013-01-01

382

Catholic Nursing Sisters and Brothers and Racial Justice in Mid-20th-Century America  

PubMed Central

This historical article considers nursing’s work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses’ work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of “bearing witness,” a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely.

Wall, Barbra Mann

2009-01-01

383

Sister Mary Joseph's Nodule as a First Manifestation of Primary Peritoneal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Sister Mary Joseph's nodule metastasis is a rather rare finding. The primary malignancy in women is usually ovarian, endometrial, gastric, or pancreatobiliary tree cancer. We present a case of an 87-year-old patient with Sister Mary Joseph's nodule metastasis caused by a primary peritoneal malignancy. Through a literature search, we also discuss the pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, management, and prognosis of such a condition.

Iavazzo, C.; Madhuri, K.; Essapen, S.; Akrivos, N.; Tailor, A.; Butler-Manuel, S.

2012-01-01

384

Sister Chromatid Cohesion Role for CDC28-CDK in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-fidelity chromosome segregation requires that the sister chromatids produced during S phase also become paired during S phase. Ctf7p (Eco1p) is required to establish sister chromatid pairing specifically during DNA replication. However, Ctf7p also becomes active during G2\\/M in response to DNA damage. Ctf7p is a phosphoprotein and an in vitro target of Cdc28p cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), suggesting one possible

Alex Brands; Robert V. Skibbens

2008-01-01

385

Protein phosphatase 2A protects centromeric sister chromatid cohesion during meiosis I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Segregation of homologous maternal and paternal centromeres to opposite poles during meiosis I depends on post-replicative crossing over between homologous non-sister chromatids, which creates chiasmata and therefore bivalent chromosomes. Destruction of sister chromatid cohesion along chromosome arms due to proteolytic cleavage of cohesin's Rec8 subunit by separase resolves chiasmata and thereby triggers the first meiotic division. This produces univalent chromosomes,

Christian G. Riedel; Vittorio L. Katis; Yuki Katou; Saori Mori; Takehiko Itoh; Wolfgang Helmhart; Marta Gálová; Mark Petronczki; Juraj Gregan; Bulent Cetin; Ingrid Mudrak; Egon Ogris; Karl Mechtler; Laurence Pelletier; Frank Buchholz; Katsuhiko Shirahige; Kim Nasmyth

2006-01-01

386

The East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey (EFPTS).  

PubMed

The East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey (EFPTS) is a registry of multiple births in the province of East-Flanders, Belgium. It has several unique features: it is population-based and prospective, with the possibility of long-term follow-up; the twins (and higher order multiple births) are ascertained at birth; basic perinatal data are recorded; chorion type and zygosity are established; and since 1969 placental biopsies have been taken and frozen at -20 degrees C for later determination of genetic markers. The EFPTS is the only large register that includes placental data and allows differentiation of three subtypes of monozygotic (MZ) twins based on the time of the initial zygotic division: the dichorionic-diamnionic pairs (early, before the fourth day after fertilisation), the monochorionic-diamnionic pairs (intermediate, between the fourth and the seventh day post fertilisation), and the monochorionic-monoamnionic pairs (late, after the eight day post fertilisation). This added a new dimension to didymology (the science of twins; delta iota delta upsilon mu omicron zeta = twins): the timing of twinning. Studies can be initiated on primary biases, those originating "in utero". Such studies may throw new light on the controversy over the validity of the classic twin method, the consequences of early embryological events (before and just after implantation of the embryo), the origin of congenital malformations, the sex proportion of multiples, the gene-environment interactions as far as intrauterine environment is concerned, to name but a few. PMID:12537855

Derom, Catherine; Vlietinck, Robert; Thiery, Evert; Leroy, Fernand; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Derom, Robert

2002-10-01

387

The East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey (EFPTS).  

PubMed

The East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey (EFPTS) is a prospective, population-based registry of multiple births in the province of East Flanders, Belgium. EFPTS has several unique features: it is population based and prospective, with the possibility of long-term follow-up; the twins (and higher order multiple births) are ascertained at birth; basic perinatal data recorded; chorion type and zygosity established; and since 1969 placental biopsies have been taken and frozen at -20 degrees C for later determination of genetic markers. The EFPTS is the only large register that includes placental data and allows differentiation of 3 subtypes of monozygotic (MZ) twins based on the time of the initial zygotic division: the dichorionic-diamnionic pairs (early, before the 4th day after fertilization), the monochorionic-diamnionic pairs (intermediate, between the 4th and the 7th day post fertilization), and the monochorionic-monoamnionic pairs (late, after the 8-day post fertilization). This added a new dimension to didymology (the science of twins; didymos is the Greek word for twin): the timing of MZ twinning. Studies can be initiated taking into account primary biases, those originating in utero. Such studies could throw new light on the controversy over the validity of the classic twin method, the consequences of early embryological events (before and just after implantation of the embryo), the origin of congenital malformations, the sex proportion of multiples, the gene-environment interactions as far as intrauterine environment is concerned, to name but a few. PMID:17254399

Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Thiery, Evert W; Leroy, Fernand O G; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Derom, Robert M

2006-12-01

388

The Sri Lankan Twin Registry: 2012 update.  

PubMed

The Sri Lankan Twin Registry (SLTR), established in 1997, is a unique resource for twin and genetic research in a low- and middle-income country (LMIC). It comprises of a volunteer cohort of 14,120 twins (7,060 pairs) and 119 sets of triplets, and a population-based cohort of 19,040 (9,520 pairs) twins and 89 sets of triplets. Several studies have been conducted using this registry, including the Colombo Twin and Singleton Study (CoTaSS 1; 4,387 twins, 2,311 singletons), which have explored the prevalence and heritability of a range of psychiatric disorders as well as gene-environmental interplay. Currently, a follow-up study (CoTaSS 2) of the same cohort is underway, looking at the prevalence and interrelationship of key cardiovascular and metabolic risk markers (e.g., metabolic syndrome). A significant feature of CoTaSS 2 is the establishment of a biobank. Current SLTR work is extending beyond mental health and the interface between mental and physical health to new horizons, extending collaborations with the wider global twin research community. Ethics and governance have been given special emphasis in the initiative. Capacity building and public engagement are two crucial components. Establishment of a state-of-the-art genetic laboratory was a major accomplishment. SLTR is a classic showcase of successful North-South partnership in building a progressive research infrastructure in a LMIC. PMID:23302519

Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Hotopf, Mathew; McGuffin, Peter; Glozier, Nick; Ball, Harriet; Kovas, Yulia; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Yatawara, Lalani; Pariante, Carmine; Zavos, Helena; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Pannala, Gayani; Jayaweera, Kaushalya; Adikari, Anushka; Gunewardane, Dinesha

2013-02-01

389

Hypothesis test for synchronization: Twin surrogates revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of twin surrogates has been introduced to test for phase synchronization of complex systems in the case of passive experiments. In this paper we derive new analytical expressions for the number of twins depending on the size of the neighborhood, as well as on the length of the trajectory. This allows us to determine the optimal parameters for the generation of twin surrogates. Furthermore, we determine the quality of the twin surrogates with respect to several linear and nonlinear statistics depending on the parameters of the method. In the second part of the paper we perform a hypothesis test for phase synchronization in the case of experimental data from fixational eye movements. These miniature eye movements have been shown to play a central role in neural information processing underlying the perception of static visual scenes. The high number of data sets (21 subjects and 30 trials per person) allows us to compare the generated twin surrogates with the ``natural'' surrogates that correspond to the different trials. We show that the generated twin surrogates reproduce very well all linear and nonlinear characteristics of the underlying experimental system. The synchronization analysis of fixational eye movements by means of twin surrogates reveals that the synchronization between the left and right eye is significant, indicating that either the centers in the brain stem generating fixational eye movements are closely linked, or, alternatively that there is only one center controlling both eyes.

Romano, M. Carmen; Thiel, Marco; Kurths, Jürgen; Mergenthaler, Konstantin; Engbert, Ralf

2009-03-01

390

Monoamniotic Monochorionic Twins Discordant for Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Occasionally “identical twins” are phenotypically different, raising the question of zygosity and the issue of genetic versus environmental influences during development. We recently noted monochorionic-monoamniotic twins, one of which had an isolated cardiac abnormality, noncompaction cardiomyopathy, a condition characterized by cardiac ventricular hypertrabeculation. We examined the prenatal course and subsequent pathologic correlation since ventricular morphogenesis may depend on early muscular contraction and blood flow. The monochorionic-monoamniotic female twin pair was initially identified since one fetus presented with increased nuchal translucency. Complete heart block was later identified in the fetus with nuchal translucency who did not survive after delivery. In contrast, the unaffected twin had normal cardiac studies both prenatally and postnatally. Pathologic analysis of the affected twin demonstrated noncompaction of the left ventricle with dysplasia of the aortic and pulmonary valves. Dissection of the cardiac conduction system disclosed atrioventricular bundle fibrosis. Maternal lupus studies, amniocentesis with karyotype, and studies for 22q11.2 were normal. To test for zygosity, we performed multiple STR marker analysis and found that all markers were shared even using non-blood tissues from the affected twin. These studies demonstrate that monozygotic twins that are monochorionic monoamniotic can be discordant for cardiac noncompaction. The results suggest further investigation into the potential roles of pathologic fibrosis, contractility, and blood flow in cardiac ventricle development.

Ng, Dianna; Bouhlal, Yosr; Ursell, Philip C.; Shieh, Joseph T.C.

2013-01-01

391

Periodically twinned SiC nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twinning has been recognized to be an important microstructural defect in nanoscale materials. Periodically twinned SiC nanowires were largely synthesized by the carbothermal reduction of a carbonaceous silica xerogel prepared from tetraethoxysilane and biphenyl with iron nitrate as an additive. The twinned ?-SiC nanowires, with a hexagonal cross section, a diameter of 50-300 nm and a length of tens to hundreds of micrometers, feature a zigzag arrangement of periodically twinned segments with a rather uniform thickness along the entire growth length. Computer simulation has been used to generate three-dimensional atomic structures of the zigzag columnar twin structure by the stacking of hexagonal discs of {111} planes of SiC. A minimum surface energy and strain energy argument is proposed to explain the formation of periodic twins in the SiC nanowires. The thickness of the periodic twinned segments is found to be linearly proportional to the nanowire diameter, and a constant volume model is proposed to explain the relation.

Wang, Dong-Hua; Xu, Di; Wang, Qing; Hao, Ya-Juan; Jin, Guo-Qiang; Guo, Xiang-Yun; Tu, K. N.

2008-05-01

392

Inheritance of Occlusal Topography: A Twin Study  

PubMed Central

Aim This was to determine the relative contribution of genetic factors on the morphology of occlusal surfaces of mandibular primary first molars by employing the twin study model. Methods The occlusal morphology of mandibular primary first molar teeth from dental casts of 9 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs and 12 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs 4 to 7 years old, were digitized by contact-type three-dimensional (3D) scanner. To compare the similarity of occlusal morphology between twin sets, each twin pair of occlusal surfaces was superimposed to establish the best fit by using computerized least squared techniques. Heritability was computed using a variance component model, adjusted for age and gender. Results DZ pairs demonstrated a greater degree of occlusal morphology variance. The total amount of difference in surface overlap was 0.0508 mm (0.0018 (inches) for the MZ (n=18) sample and 0.095 mm (0.0034 inches) for the DZ (n=24) sample and were not statistically significant (p=0.2203). The transformed mean differences were not statistically significantly different (p=0.2203). Heritability estimates of occlusal surface areas for right and left mandibular primary first molars were 97.5% and 98.2% (p<0.0001), respectively. Conclusions Occlusal morphology of DZ twin pairs was more variable than that of MZ twin pairs. Heritability estimates revealed that genetic factors strongly influence occlusal morphology of mandibular primary first molars.

Su, C-Y.; Corby, P.M.; Elliot, M.A.; Studen-Pavlovich, D.A.; Ranalli, D.N.; Rosa, B.; Wessel, J.; Schork, N.J.; Hart, T.C.; Bretz, W.A.

2011-01-01

393

Motor Performance of Pre-school Twins and Singletons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to assess gross and fine motor control within pairs of twins and between twins and singletons found that singletons out-performed twins in motor development. There were no apparent performance differences by sex or between the first- and second-born twins. Research methodology and analysis of data are presented. (DF)

Cook, Camille F.; Broadhead, Geoffrey D.

1984-01-01

394

25. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS FROM UPSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS FROM UPSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD THE WEST (DAM-TENDER RICHARD CARL ADJUSTING THE GATES TO ALLOW 3400 CFS THROUGH). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

395

Unaccelerated-returning-twin paradox in flat space-time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twin paradox in a flat space-time which is spatially closed on ; itseif is considered. In such a universe, twin B can move with constant velocity ; away from twin A and yet return younger than A. This paradox cannot be resolved ; in the usual way since neither twin is accelerated or locally subject to other ; than

Carl Brans; Dennis Stewart

1973-01-01

396

Unaccelerated-Returning-Twin Paradox in Flat Space-Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twin paradox in a flat space-time which is spatially closed on itself is considered. In such a universe, twin B can move with constant velocity away from twin A and yet return younger than A. This paradox cannot be resolved in the usual way since neither twin is accelerated or locally subject to other than flat Minkowski geometry. Thus

Carl H. Brans; Dennis Ronald Stewart

1973-01-01

397

Twinned Schools in Ontario: A Description and a Comparison.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 76 principals of twinned schools and 44 administrators of Ontario districts containing twinned schools provided baseline data about twinning, types of resource sharing, advantages and disadvantages, and suggestions for improvement. Commitment to twinning was not evident, and lack of a full-time principal was considered a disadvantage.…

Rees, Ruth; Woodward, Susan

1998-01-01

398

118. COTTONWOOD CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

118. COTTONWOOD CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; WEST VIEW OF GATES ON HIGH LINE CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

399

129. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

129. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF SIPHON UNDER CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

400

90. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

90. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

401

110. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

110. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; INLET SIDE WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

402

28. VIEW FROM IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. VIEW FROM IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH CANAL BRIDGE IN DISTANCE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

403

93. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

93. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OVERALL NORTHEAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

404

113. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

113. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF INLET SIDE OF SIPHON, NORTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

405

131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF LOW LINE CANAL, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

406

130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF THE HIGH LINE GATES, NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

407

115. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

115. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; WEST VIEW OF SIPHON CROSSING ROCK CREEK. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

408

104. DRY CREEK OUTLET (SPILL), TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

104. DRY CREEK OUTLET (SPILL), TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; OUTLET FOR MURTAUGH LAKE, SOUTHEAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

409

103. DRY CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

103. DRY CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; INLET SIDE TO DRY CREEK, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

410

109. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

109. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW LOOKING WEST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

411

94. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

94. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF GATES FROM THE CANAL SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

412

91. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

91. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; NORTHEAST VIEW OF CANAL AND GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

413

121. MCMULLEN CREEK DRAW, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

121. MCMULLEN CREEK DRAW, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF CREEK, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

414

122. MCMULLEN CREEK, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

122. MCMULLEN CREEK, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF THE CREEK, ENTRANCE INTO THE HIGH LINE CANAL, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

415

89. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

89. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF CANAL, SOUTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

416

101. DRY CREEK SPILL, MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

101. DRY CREEK SPILL, MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; NORTHEAST VIEW OF DRY CREEK OUTLET. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

417

114. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

114. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW, WEST OF INLET SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

418

106. DRY CREEK SPILL, MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

106. DRY CREEK SPILL, MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF GATES, NORTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

419

117. COTTONWOOD CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

117. COTTONWOOD CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET SIDE OF SPILL, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

420

126. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

126. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET SIDE OF SIPHON, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

421

119. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

119. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF COTTONWOOD CREEK, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

422

116. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

116. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET, DIVERSION SPILL IN BACKGROUND, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

423

112. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

112. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

424

88. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

88. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; WEST VIEW OF CANAL AND GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

425

105. MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

105. MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; NORTHWEST VIEW OF LAKE AND HEADGATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

426

111. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

111. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF SIPHON, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

427

95. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

95. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW LOOKING EAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

428

124. MCMULLEN CREEK HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

124. MCMULLEN CREEK HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OVERALL SOUTH VIEW OF DRAW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

429

120. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

120. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF THE COTTONWOOD CREEK DRAW, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

430

92. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

92. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET SIDE OF GATES, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

431

96. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

96. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF CEDAR DRAW, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

432

8. BRIDGEWORK PLANKING FROM EAST SIDE WITH TWIN FALLS MAIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. BRIDGEWORK PLANKING FROM EAST SIDE WITH TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS IN DISTANCE; LOOKING WEST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

433

102. MURTAUGH LAKE HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

102. MURTAUGH LAKE HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; LAKE SIDE OF HEADGATES, NORTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

434

123. MCMULLEN CREEK, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

123. MCMULLEN CREEK, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW OF THE CREEK EMPTYING INTO THE HIGH LINE CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

435

Monozygotic twins with discordant karyotypes: a case report.  

PubMed

A monochorionic twin pregnancy had normal male karyotype on chorionic villous sampling. At delivery, one twin presented as morphologically normal, the other as trisomy 21. A twinning event and chromosome division error shortly after conception resulted in monozygotic twins with discordant tissue karyotypes and blood chromosome chimerism for trisomy 21. PMID:15343200

O'Donnell, Colm P F; Pertile, Mark D; Sheffield, Leslie J; Sampson, Amanda

2004-09-01

436

Epidemiology of twinning in developed countries.  

PubMed

Twin births contribute disproportionately to the overall burden of perinatal morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Twins constitute 2%-4% of all births, and the rate of twining has increased by 76% between 1980 and 2009. The rate of preterm birth (<37 weeks) among twins is about 60%. Of all twin preterm births in the United States, roughly half are indicated, a third are due to spontaneous onset of labor, and about 10% are due to preterm premature rupture of membranes. Mortality related to preterm birth is influenced by antecedent factors and is highest when preterm delivery is the consequence of preterm premature rupture of membranes, followed by those as a result of spontaneous preterm labor and lowest among indicated preterm births. There also appears to have been a recent decline in serious neonatal morbidity (one or more of 5-minute Apgar score <4, neonatal seizures or assisted ventilation for ? 30 minutes) among twin gestations. Compared with twins conceived naturally, those born of assisted reproduction methods are more likely to deliver at <37 weeks. Although perinatal mortality rates have declined among twin births, the effect of preterm delivery on trends in mortality and morbidity and other long-term consequences remain issues for major concern. With the rapid increase in the liberal use of assisted reproduction methods combined with women electing to postpone their pregnancies and increased likelihood of spontaneous twins with advancing maternal age, this review underscores the need to develop priorities to understand the peripartum and long-term consequences facing twin births. PMID:22713495

Ananth, Cande V; Chauhan, Suneet P

2012-06-01

437

Breastfeeding Twins: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this qualitative research was to explore the needs and difficulties of mothers who had multiple babies at Sakarya County by focusing on their breastfeeding experience. Ten mothers who gave birth to multiple infants participated in the study voluntarily. The framework method of data analysis was applied systematically both within and across cases, with categories and themes identified by reading transcripts of interviews. Major themes generated from focus narrative interviews are described. These themes are: willingness of mothers to breastfeed and continue, management of breastfeeding, use of pacifier, daily life, ?nstructions of healthcare personnel, and advices from practice of experienced mothers. This study showed that women were aware of the importance of mother's milk for their babies. They all, somehow, made intensive efforts to breastfeed their twins. Women who expect and/or have multiple babies need much more support and guidance, which may include advice for nutritional and daily care.

Alvur, Tuncay Muge; Kose, Dilek; Nemut, Tijen

2013-01-01

438

Linking sister chromatid cohesion and apoptosis: role of Rad21.  

PubMed

Rad21 is one of the major cohesin subunits that holds sister chromatids together until anaphase, when proteolytic cleavage by separase, a caspase-like enzyme, allows chromosomal separation. We show that cleavage of human Rad21 (hRad21) also occurs during apoptosis induced by diverse stimuli. Induction of apoptosis in multiple human cell lines results in the early (4 h after insult) generation of 64- and 60-kDa carboxy-terminal hRad21 cleavage products. We biochemically mapped an apoptotic cleavage site at residue Asp-279 (D(279)) of hRad21. This apoptotic cleavage site is distinct from previously described mitotic cleavage sites. hRad21 is a nuclear protein; however, the cleaved 64-kDa carboxy-terminal product is translocated to the cytoplasm early in apoptosis before chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. Overexpression of the 64-kDa cleavage product results in apoptosis in Molt4, MCF-7, and 293T cells, as determined by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling) and Annexin V staining, assaying of caspase-3 activity, and examination of nuclear morphology. Given the role of hRad21 in chromosome cohesion, the cleaved C-terminal product and its translocation to the cytoplasm may act as a nuclear signal for apoptosis. In summary, we show that cleavage of a cohesion protein and translocation of the C-terminal cleavage product to the cytoplasm are early events in the apoptotic pathway and cause amplification of the cell death signal in a positive-feedback manner. PMID:12417729

Pati, Debananda; Zhang, Nenggang; Plon, Sharon E

2002-12-01

439

Cohesin-independent segregation of sister chromatids in budding yeast  

PubMed Central

Cohesin generates cohesion between sister chromatids, which enables chromosomes to form bipolar attachments to the mitotic spindle and segregate. Cohesin also functions in chromosome condensation, transcriptional regulation, and DNA damage repair. Here we analyze the role of acetylation in modulating cohesin functions and how it affects budding yeast viability. Previous studies show that cohesion establishment requires Eco1p-mediated acetylation of the cohesin subunit Smc3p at residue K113. Smc3p acetylation was proposed to promote establishment by merely relieving Wpl1p inhibition because deletion of WPL1 bypasses the lethality of an ECO1 deletion (eco1? wpl1?). We find that little, if any, cohesion is established in eco1? wpl1? cells, indicating that Eco1p performs a function beyond antagonizing Wpl1p. Cohesion also fails to be established when SMC3 acetyl-mimics (K113Q or K112R,K113Q) are the sole functional SMC3s in cells. These results suggest that Smc3p acetylation levels affect establishment. It is remarkable that, despite their severe cohesion defect, eco1? wpl1? and smc3-K112R,K113Q strains are viable because a cohesin-independent mechanism enables bipolar attachment and segregation. This alternative mechanism is insufficient for smc3-K113Q strain viability. Smc3-K113Q is defective for condensation, whereas eco1? wpl1? and smc3-K112R,K113Q strains are competent for condensation. We suggest that Smc3p acetylation and Wpl1p antagonistically regulate cohesin's essential role in condensation.

Guacci, Vincent; Koshland, Douglas

2012-01-01

440

Teaching about twins: college courses and public lectures.  

PubMed

The present article describes teaching experiences and observations in college courses and public lectures on twins. It is concluded that much more information about twins, at both research and practical levels, requires general dissemination. This discussion is followed by reviews of recent twin research on the topics of obesity control, post-zygotic mutation, in vitro fertilization, and schisis-associated defects. Media reports of twins accused of rape, infant Chinese twins sold separately for profit, a twin CEO, and twins pursuing the same career are presented. PMID:24229489

Segal, Nancy L

2013-12-01

441

CMP surface characteristics of twinned copper subgrains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper wafers are polished with an experimental slurry prepared to contain strong oxidizing components for revealing grain structures. Two types of surface morphologies, twinned and equiaxed grains, are observed on two groups of wafers, following chemical mechanical planarization (CMP). An atomic force microscope surface analysis indicates that the equiaxed grain structure provides better overall surface quality than the twinned structure. A polishing model is proposed to explain the surface relief among the twinned subgrains. The results suggest that Cu electroplating and the subsequent annealing processes should be optimized to promote uniform equiaxed grains for better integration with CMP and other chip manufacturing processes.

Ni, Chaoying; Hall, Ian W.; Thomas, Terence M.; So, Joseph K.; Quanci, John

2004-09-01

442

On radar time and the twin ``paradox''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we apply the concept of radar time (popularized by Bondi in his work on k calculus) to the well-known relativistic twin ``paradox.'' Radar time is used to define hypersurfaces of simultaneity for a class of traveling twins, from the ``immediate turn-around'' case, through the ``gradual turn-around'' case, to the ``uniformly accelerating'' case. We show that this definition of simultaneity is independent of choice of coordinates, and assigns a unique time to any event (with which the traveling twin can send and receive signals), resolving some common misconceptions.

Dolby, Carl E.; Gull, Stephen F.

2001-12-01

443

The Boston University Twin Project (BUTP)  

PubMed Central

The Boston University Twin Project (BUTP) is a multimetthod, multi-situation, longitudinal study of early child temperament and related behaviors. The first phase of this project focused on primarily on activity level and comprised over 300 twin pairs assessed in the home and lab at ages 2 and 3. Subject recruitment, sample characteristics and study procedures are described. A second phase broadens our focus to the development of multiple temperament dimensions and developmental outcomes in a new cohort of 300 twin pairs to be assessed at 3, 4 and 5 years of age. Recruitment is currently underway.

Saudino, Kimberly J; Asherson, Philip

2013-01-01

444

Effects of twin gestation on maternal morbidity.  

PubMed

As the incidence of twin gestation increases, it is important to consider the maternal risks associated with carrying multiples. Compared with singleton gestation, there are increased risks to the mother during the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods. Certain pregnancy complications are more likely to occur during a twin gestation, including preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders, antepartum hospitalization for preterm labor or abnormal bleeding, nutritional deficiencies, cesarean delivery, and postpartum hemorrhage. Women carrying twins may benefit from early education regarding these issues, close maternal monitoring as well as physical therapy sessions, and nutrition counseling during their pregnancies. PMID:22713496

Young, Brett C; Wylie, Blair J

2012-06-01

445

Removing the twin image in digital holography by segmented filtering of in-focus twin image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose and investigate a new digital method for the reduction of twin-image noise from digital Fresnel holograms. For the case of in-line Fresnel holography the unwanted twin is present as a highly corruptive noise when the object image is numerically reconstructed. We propose to firstly reconstruct the unwanted twin-image when it is in-focus and in this plane we calculate a segmentation mask that borders this in focus image. The twin-image is then segmented and removed by simple spatial filtering. The resulting digital wavefield is the inverse propagated to the desired object image plane. The image is free of the twin-image resulting in improved quality reconstructions. We demonstrate the segmentation and removal of the unwanted twin-image from in-line digital holograms containing real-world macroscopic objects. We offer suggestions for its rapid computational implementation.

McElhinney, C.; Hennelly, B. M.; Ahrenberg, L.; Naughton, T. J.

2008-08-01

446

Fragile X syndrome and the (CGG)[sub n] mutation: Two families with discordant MZ twins  

SciTech Connect

The fragile X phenotype has been found, in the majority of cases, to be due to the expansion of a CGG repeat in the 5'UTR region of the FMR-1 gene, accompanied by methylation of the adjacent CpG island and inactivation of the FMR-1 gene. Although several important aspects of genetics of fragile X have been resolved, it remains to be elucidated at which stage in development the transition from the premutation to the full mutation occurs. The authors present two families in which discordance between two sets of MZ twins illustrates two important genetic points. In one family, two affected MZ brothers differed in the number of CGG repeats, demonstrating in vivo mitotic instability of this CGG repeat and suggesting that the transition to the full mutation occurred postzygotically. In the second family, two MZ sisters had the same number of repeats, but only one was mentally retarded. When the methylation status of the FMR-1 CpG island was studied, the authors found that the majority of normal chromosomes had been inactivated in the affected twin, thus leading to the expression of the fragile X phenotype. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Kruyer, H.; Estivill, X.; Mila, M.; Ballesta, F.; Glover, G.; Carbonell, P. (Biochemistry and Clinical Genetics Center, Murcia (Spain))

1994-03-01

447

Thermomechanics of twinning from a parent to a twin with mirror image symmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  In the paper we develop a modeling with multiple configurations and mirror image of parent crystal in the twinned structure,\\u000a to describe the behavior of partially twinned structure. In the constitutive framework we take into account that: (1) the\\u000a untwinned and twinned material have distinct natural configurations by virtue of their miscrostructure being different, (2)\\u000a the material symmetry groups of

Sanda Cleja-Tigoiu

2009-01-01

448

Overview and Long-term Outcomes of Patients Born With Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) results from a disproportionate blood supply between two (or more) fetuses that share a single placenta. Multiple complications can occur as a result of the syndrome, including intrauterine growth restriction in the donor twin, cardiomyopathies in recipients, and neurodevelopmental morbidities in survivors. Studies indicate that patients with TTTS have higher incidences of congenital heart disease compared with the unaffected population, and even when compared with uncomplicated monochorionic diamniotic twins. If managed properly, TTTS can result in a positive outcome for most patients.

Wagner, Stephen; Repke, John T; Ural, Serdar H

2013-01-01

449

Early Infantile Autism in Monozygotic Twins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents a case history of a pair of male monozygotic twins who both had autism. During pregnancy the mother suffered from severe toxemia, and delivery occurred 2 months before term. (Author/DLS)

Eshkevari, H. Salimi

1979-01-01

450

GM1 gangliosidosis type 1 in twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes 7-month-old monozygotic twin female infants with GM1 gangliosidosis type I. In addition to the usual clinical and biochemical abnormalities generalized intracutaneous telangiectasis were present in both infants.

C M Ginsburg; C G Long

1977-01-01

451

Strong crystal size effect on deformation twinning.  

PubMed

Deformation twinning in crystals is a highly coherent inelastic shearing process that controls the mechanical behaviour of many materials, but its origin and spatio-temporal features are shrouded in mystery. Using micro-compression and in situ nano-compression experiments, here we find that the stress required for deformation twinning increases drastically with decreasing sample size of a titanium alloy single crystal, until the sample size is reduced to one micrometre, below which the deformation twinning is entirely replaced by less correlated, ordinary dislocation plasticity. Accompanying the transition in deformation mechanism, the maximum flow stress of the submicrometre-sized pillars was observed to saturate at a value close to titanium's ideal strength. We develop a 'stimulated slip' model to explain the strong size dependence of deformation twinning. The sample size in transition is relatively large and easily accessible in experiments, making our understanding of size dependence relevant for applications. PMID:20090749

Yu, Qian; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju; Huang, Xiaoxu; Xiao, Lin; Sun, Jun; Ma, Evan

2010-01-21

452

Shock Driven Twinning in Tantalum Single Crystals  

SciTech Connect

Recovery based observations of high pressure material behavior generated under high explosively driven flyer based loading conditions are reported. Two shock pressures, 25, and 55 GPa and four orientations {l_brace}(100), (110), (111), (123){r_brace} were considered. Recovered material was characterized using electron backscatter diffraction along with a limited amount of transmission electron microscopy to assess the occurrence of twinning under each test condition. Material recovered from 25 GPa had a very small fraction of twinning for the (100), (110), and (111) oriented crystals while a more noticeable fraction of the (123) oriented crystal was twinned. Material recovered from 55 GPa showed little twinning for (100) orientation slightly more for the (111) orientation and a large area fraction for the (123) orientation. The EBSD and TEM observations of the underlying deformation substructure are rationalized by comparing with previous static and dynamic results.

McNaney, J M; HSUING, L M; Barton, N R; Kumar, M

2009-07-20

453

Monozygotic twins concordant for autism and hyperlexia.  

PubMed

The authors describe male monozygotic twins, Jon and Jay, who are concordant for autism and hyperlexia. Autism and mental retardation were diagnosed at the age of 2 years 5 months. Jay was the more advanced twin in motor co-ordination, attention span and receptive abilities, but had frequent tantrums. When psychologically assessed at 7 years 2 months, Jon showed borderline/severe mental retardation on the measure of non-verbal intelligence and Jay was moderately retarded. Their receptive language age was greater than their expressive language age: Jon's speech was less mature but more communicative and Jay's was perseverative and ritualistic. Even though Jon was the more mentally retarded twin, Jay was the more autistic in some behavioral aspects. These twins highlight the relationship between autism and hyperlexia. PMID:3169393

Smith, I M; Bryson, S E

1988-08-01

454

GM1 gangliosidosis type 1 in twins.  

PubMed Central

This report describes 7-month-old monozygotic twin female infants with GM1 gangliosidosis type I. In addition to the usual clinical and biochemical abnormalities generalized intracutaneous telangiectasis were present in both infants. Images

Ginsburg, C M; Long, C G

1977-01-01

455

The impact of cobedding on sleep patterns in preterm twins.  

PubMed

Interest in cobedding multiple-gestation infants has grown as focus has increased on the developmental approach to the care of the neonate. Little data, however, exist on the infants' response to cobedding. It is important to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and physiologic impact of this practice. Cobedding was offered to parents of twin infants < 37 weeks gestation, without arterial lines or ventilator requirements, by the health care team according to standard practice in our nursery. After parental informed consent, infants were placed on an event-recording cardiorespiratory monitor for 12 hours before cobedding and for the first 12 hours of cobedding. Recordings were evaluated by an investigator blinded to the bedding status of the infant. Apnea (a pause of respiration > 10 seconds, central apnea), bradycardia (a decline in heart rate to < 80 beats per minute), periodic breathing (a respiratory pattern in which there are > or = 3 pauses in respiration of > or = 3 seconds with < 20 seconds of breathing between pauses), adverse events (changes in medication, changes in oxygen requirements, temperature instability, the need for sepsis evaluation, or death) were evaluated. Other physiologic parameters were obtained through the use of standard bedside monitoring. Eleven sets of preterm infants, n = 22, with a mean gestation of 31.8+/-2.9 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1,698.7+/-552.0 grams were studied. Infants were evaluated at a corrected gestational age of 33.5+/-1.9 weeks and a mean weight of 1,713.2+/-484.0 grams. The number of events of central apnea before cobedding (57) was greater than those recorded during cobedding (18), p<0.05. There was no difference found in any of the other parameters compared. The numbers of events recorded before and during cobedding were compared by Student's t-test and significance was determined by p < 0.05. No adverse events (AE) were noted, and all infants remained cobedded throughout the study. This preliminary study suggests that cobedding of healthy preterm twins showed no increase in adverse events. Of the physiologic parameters studied, only the occurrence of central apnea changed with cobedding. This decrease in central apnea may reflect a change in sleep pattern due to more frequent arousal by the twin. Alternatively, a more regular breathing pattern may reflect a positive physiological response to contact between twins. PMID:12166795

Touch, Suzanne M; Epstein, Michele L; Pohl, Charles A; Greenspan, Jay S

2002-01-01

456

Semiconductor Waveguide Source of Counterpropagating Twin Photons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We experimentally demonstrate an integrated semiconductor source of counterpropagating twin photons in the telecom range. A pump beam impinging on top of an AlGaAs waveguide generates parametrically two counterpropagating, orthogonally polarized signal\\/idler guided modes. A 2 mm long waveguide emits at room temperature one average photon pair per pump pulse, with a spectral linewidth of 0.15 nm. The twin character

L. Lanco; S. Ducci; J.-P. Likforman; X. Marcadet; J. A. W. van Houwelingen; H. Zbinden; G. Leo; V. Berger

2006-01-01

457

Colorado longitudinal twin study of reading disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the\\u000a first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties,\\u000a and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive abilities in this sample. Preliminary\\u000a examination of the test

Sally J. Wadsworth; John C. DeFries; Richard K. Olson; Erik G. Willcutt

2007-01-01

458

On radar time and the twin ``paradox''  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we apply the concept of radar time (popularized by Bondi in his work on k calculus) to the well-known relativistic twin ``paradox.'' Radar time is used to define hypersurfaces of simultaneity for a class of traveling twins, from the ``immediate turn-around'' case, through the ``gradual turn-around'' case, to the ``uniformly accelerating'' case. We show that this definition

Carl E. Dolby; Stephen F. Gull

2001-01-01

459

Prenatal diagnosis of dicephalic parapagus conjoined twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dicephalic parapagus is a rare anomaly of monochorionic twinning. We present prenatal diagnosis of this anomaly with ultrasonography\\u000a and magnetic resonance imaging. She was at the 19th week of gestation. Even if earlier diagnosis is possible, this was her\\u000a first examination unfortunately. Baby had two head and a common trunk. This is one of the rarest twinning. Termination of\\u000a pregnancy

Hakan Camuzcuoglu; Harun Toy; Mehmet Vural; Hasan Cece; Halef Aydin

2010-01-01

460

p.R182C mutation in Korean twin with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) is the most severe form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia which is caused by mutations in the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). The mutations in StAR gene resulted in failure of the transport cholesterol into mitochondria for steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland. Twin sisters (A, B) with normal 46, XX were born at 36+2 gestational week, premature to nonrelated parents. They had symptoms as hyperpigmentation, slightly elevated potassium level and low level of sodium. Laboratory finding revealed normal 17-hydroxyprogesterone level, elevated adrenocorticotropin hormone (A, 4,379.2 pg/mL; B, 11,616.1 pg/mL), and high plasma renin activity (A, 49.02 ng/mL/hr; B, 52.7 ng mL/hr). However, the level of plasma cortisol before treatment was low (1.5 µg/dL) in patient B but normal (8.71 µg/dL) in patient A. Among them, only patient A was presented with adrenal insufficiency symptoms which was suggestive of CLAH and prompted us to order a gene analysis in both twin. The results of gene analysis of StAR in twin revealed same heterozygous conditions for c.544C>T (Arg182Cys) in exon 5 and c.722C>T (Gln258*) in exon 7. We report the first case on the mutation of p.R182C in exon 5 of the StAR gene in Korea.

Park, Hye Won; Kwak, Byung Ok; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han-Wook

2013-01-01

461

Twinning in Strained Ferroelastics: Microstructure and Statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of functional interfaces such as superconducting and ferroelectric twin boundaries requires new ways to nucleate as many interfaces as possible in bulk materials and thin films. Materials with high densities of twin boundaries are often ferroelastics and martensites. In this review, we show that the nucleation and propagation of twin boundaries depend sensitively on temperature and system size. Sudden changes of the domain pattern manifest themselves as avalanches or "jerks" in the potential energy of the sample. At high temperatures, the change of the twin pattern is thermally activated; the probability P to find sudden energy changes of jerks E follows the Vogel-Fulcher statistics P( E) ~ exp ( E/( T - T VF)), whereas the athermal regime at low temperatures corresponds to power-law statistics P( E) ~ E - ? . We find that the complexity of the pattern is well characterized by the number of junctions between twin boundaries. Materials with soft bulk moduli have much higher junction densities than those with hard bulk moduli. Soft materials also show an increase in the junction density with diminishing sample size. The change of the complexity and the number density of twin boundaries represents an important step forward in the development of "domain boundary engineering," where the functionality of the materials is directly linked to the domain pattern.

Ding, X.; Lookman, T.; Salje, E. K. H.; Saxena, A.

2013-03-01

462

Twin-core fiber optical tweezers.  

PubMed

We present an abruptly tapered twin-core fiber optical tweezers, which is fabricated by fusing and drawing the twin-core fiber. In the twin-core fiber, the two beams are guided by the tapered fiber. At the end of the fiber tip, a larger converge angle between the two beams are made due to the abrupt tapered shape, which is formed a fast divergent optical field. The microscopic particle trapping performance of this special designed tapered twin-core fiber tip is investigated. The functionality of the proposed novel twin-core fiber optical tweezers is extended since an in-fiber integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been used to control orientation of the trapped particle. The distribution of the optical field emerging from the tapered fiber tip is simulated based on the beam propagation method (BPM). By using this two-beam combination technique, a strong enough gradient forces well is obtained for microscopic particles trapping in three dimensions. The abruptly tapered twin-core fiber optical tweezers is rigid and easy to handle, especially useful for building up a multi-tweezers system for trapping and manipulating micro-scale particles. PMID:18542553

Yuan, Libo; Liu, Zhihai; Yang, Jun; Guan, Chunying

2008-03-31

463

Intraventricular twin fetuses in fetu.  

PubMed

The authors report a rare case of multiple intracranial fetuses in fetu, fulfilling Willis' traditional criteria, which include an axial and appendicular skeleton with surrounding organized tissue. This case was ascertained from studies of a full-term female neonate who presented with ventriculomegaly. A CT scan showed intracranial calcifications that were suggestive of an axial skeleton. Her birth weight was 3.176 kg (50th-75th percentile), length was 52 cm (90th percentile), head circumference was 35 cm (50th-75th percentile), and Apgar scores were 7 and 8 at 1 and 5 minutes, respectively. Prenatal ultrasonography studies performed at 12 weeks and 5 days, and 19 weeks and 6 days revealed normal findings. A 37-week prenatal ultrasonography study showed ventriculomegaly and obstructive hydrocephalus, with a possible intracranial teratoma. Cranial imaging at birth with ultrasonography, CT and MR imaging, and MR angiography demonstrated 2 complex intraventricular masses with cystic, solid, and bony elements. A craniotomy with resection of the masses was performed at 3 months of age. The infant survived and is now 12 months old with some developmental progress. Two axial skeletons, with accompanying rib cage and extremities, including well-formed feet and toes, were noted. Both anencephalic structures had skin with hair, fat, skeletal and smooth muscle, and bony structures with bone marrow and focal areas of calcification. Multiple viscera were present and included thymus, bowel, stomach, salivary gland, kidney, adrenal gland, lung, and presumed adnexal structures. A diagnosis of fetuses in fetu was rendered. Chromosomal studies of the child and tissue from the 2 fetuses in fetu showed normal female karyotypes. A single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis from the proband infant and tissue from the 2 identified fetuses in fetu appeared to be genetically identical. These results are consistent with a monozygotic twin embryonic origin of the fetus in fetu tissue, which is a mechanism that has been suggested in previous reports in which karyotypes, blood types, and limited genetic loci have been studied. This is the first report of a rare example of intracranial intraventricular twin fetuses in fetu for which a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism assay has confirmed their genetic identity. PMID:22208315

Huddle, Lauren N; Fuller, Christine; Powell, Tiffany; Hiemenga, Judith A; Yan, Jia; Deuell, Brian; Lyders, Eric M; Bodurtha, Joann N; Papenhausen, Peter R; Jackson-Cook, Colleen K; Pandya, Arti; Jaworski, Margie; Tye, Gary W; Ritter, Ann M

2012-01-01

464

Development of the Preterm Gut Microbiome in Twins at Risk of Necrotising Enterocolitis and Sepsis  

PubMed Central

The preterm gut microbiome is a complex dynamic community influenced by genetic and environmental factors and is implicated in the pathogenesis of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis. We aimed to explore the longitudinal development of the gut microbiome in preterm twins to determine how shared environmental and genetic factors may influence temporal changes and compared this to the expressed breast milk (EBM) microbiome. Stool samples (n = 173) from 27 infants (12 twin pairs and 1 triplet set) and EBM (n = 18) from 4 mothers were collected longitudinally. All samples underwent PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) analysis and a selected subset underwent 454 pyrosequencing. Stool and EBM shared a core microbiome dominated by Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Staphylococcaceae. The gut microbiome showed greater similarity between siblings compared to unrelated individuals. Pyrosequencing revealed a reduction in diversity and increasing dominance of Escherichia sp. preceding NEC that was not observed in the healthy twin. Antibiotic treatment had a substantial effect on the gut microbiome, reducing Escherichia sp. and increasing other Enterobacteriaceae. This study demonstrates related preterm twins share similar gut microbiome development, even within the complex environment of neonatal intensive care. This is likely a result of shared genetic and immunomodulatory factors as well as exposure to the same maternal microbiome during birth, skin contact and exposure to EBM. Environmental factors including antibiotic exposure and feeding are additional significant determinants of community structure, regardless of host genetics.

Stewart, Christopher J.; Marrs, Emma C. L.; Nelson, Andrew; Lanyon, Clare; Perry, John D.; Embleton, Nicholas D.; Cummings, Stephen P.; Berrington, Janet E.

2013-01-01

465

Determinants of pressure pain threshold in adult twins: evidence that shared environmental influences predominate.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors in determining pain perception in a classical twin study. Dolorimeter measurements of pressure pain threshold (PPT) were recorded in 609 healthy female-female twin pairs of whom 269 pairs were monozygotic (MZ) and 340 were dizygotic (DZ). There was a strong correlation (R) in PPT in both MZ and DZ pairs (R(MZ) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.49, 0.65]; R(DZ) = 0.51, 95% CI: [0.42, 0.59]). The slight excess in intraclass correlation observed in MZ when compared with DZ twins corresponds to a heritability for PPT of only 10% and is not statistically significant. Neither estimate of intraclass correlation was substantially altered after adjusting for a range of potential confounding variables including age, current tobacco and alcohol use, current analgesic use, psychological status assessed by the general health questionnaire, and social class. The dolorimeter measurements were shown to be reliable (between observer agreement R = 0.66; within observer agreement R = 0.70-0.76) and stable over time. In conclusion, these data suggest that there is no significant genetic contribution to the strong correlation in PPT that is observed in twin pairs. These findings reinforce the view that learned patterns of behaviour within families are an important determinant of perceived sensitivity to pain. PMID:9415513

MacGregor, A J; Griffiths, G O; Baker, J; Spector, T D

1997-11-01

466

Plagioclase twin laws in lunar highland rocks - Possible petrogenetic significance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plagioclases in different types of lunar highland rocks (all highly feldspathic) are twinned according to different laws and in different styles. Carlsbad and Carlsbad-albite twins, presumed to be growth twins, occur mainly in rocks which show igneous texture, and which have not been severely brecciated. These two twin laws appear to be absent from cataclastic rocks, including cataclastic anorthosite, possibly because the original twins were preferentially broken up in cataclasis (the composition plane being a plane of weakness). Pericline and lamellar albite twins, presumed to be deformation twins (except for some albite growth twins) occur in all types of rocks, and obvious deformation features, such as bending of lamellae, are well shown in many cataclastic rocks. Surprisingly, some Carlsbad and Carlsbad-albite twins are found in rocks with granoblastic texture, which presumably recrystallized in the solid state.

Dowty, E.; Keil, K.; Prinz, M.

1974-01-01

467

A Phase-field Model for Deformation Twinning  

SciTech Connect

We propose a phase-field model for modeling microstructure evolution during deformation twinning. The order parameters are proportional to the shear strains defined in terms of twin plane orientations and twinning directions. Using a face-centered cubic aluminum as an example, the deformation energy as a function of shear strain is obtained using first-principle calculations. The gradient energy coefficients are fitted to the twin boundary energies along the twinning planes and to the dislocation core energies along the directions that are perpendicular to the twinning planes. The elastic strain energy of a twinned structure is included using the Khachaturyan’s elastic theory. We simulated the twinning process and microstructure evolution under a number of fixed deformations and predicted the twinning plane orientations and microstructures.

Heo, Tae Wook; Wang, Yi; Bhattacharya, Saswata; Sun, Xin; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Chen , L.Q.

2011-01-12

468

Digital Data for Volcano Hazards of the Three Sisters Region, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three Sisters is one of three active volcanic centers that lie close to rapidly growing communities and resort areas in Central Oregon. The major composite volcanoes of this area are clustered near the center of the region and include South Sister, Middle Sister, and Broken Top. Additionally, hundreds of mafic volcanoes are scattered throughout the Three Sisters area. These range from small cinder cones to large shield volcanoes like North Sister and Belknap Crater. Hazardous events include landslides from the steep flanks of large volcanoes and floods, which need not be triggered by eruptions, as well as eruption-triggered events such as fallout of tephra (volcanic ash) and lava flows. A proximal hazard zone roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter surrounding the Three Sisters and Broken Top could be affected within minutes of the onset of an eruption or large landslide. Distal hazard zones that follow river valleys downstream from the Three Sisters and Broken Top could be inundated by lahars (rapid flows of water-laden rock and mud) generated either by melting of snow and ice during eruptions or by large landslides. Slow-moving lava flows could issue from new mafic volcanoes almost anywhere within the region. Fallout of tephra from eruption clouds can affect areas hundreds of kilometers (miles) downwind, so eruptions at volcanoes elsewhere in the Cascade Range also contribute to volcano hazards in Central Oregon. Scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory created a geographic information system (GIS) data set which depicts proximal and distal lahar hazard zones as well as a regional lava flow hazard zone for Three Sisters (USGS Open-File Report 99-437, Scott and others, 1999). The various distal lahar zones were constructed from LaharZ software using 20, 100, and 500 million cubic meter input flow volumes. Additionally, scientists used the depositional history of past events in the Three Sisters Region as well as experience and judgment derived from the study of volcanoes to help construct the regional hazard zone.

Schilling, S. P.; Doelger, S.; Scott, W. E.; Iverson, R. M.

2008-01-01

469

Characterization of twinning in electrodeposited Ni-Mn alloys.  

SciTech Connect

Twinning is ubiquitous in electroplated metals. Here, we identify and discuss unique aspects of twinning found in electrodeposited Ni-Mn alloys. Previous reports concluded that the twin boundaries effectively refine the grain size, which enhances mechanical strength. Quantitative measurements from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the relative boundary length in the as-plated microstructure primarily comprises twin interfaces. Detailed TEM characterization reveals a range of length scales associated with twinning beginning with colonies ({approx}1000 nm) down to the width of individual twins, which is typically <50 nm. We also consider the connection between the crystallographic texture of the electrodeposit and the orientation of the twin planes with respect to the plating direction. The Ni-Mn alloy deposits in this work possess a 110-fiber texture. While twinning can occur on {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes either perpendicular or oblique to the plating direction in {l_brace}110{r_brace}-oriented grains, plan-view TEM images show that twins form primarily on those planes parallel to the plating direction. Therefore, grains enclosed by twins and multiply twinned particles are produced. Another important consequence of a high twin density is the formation of large numbers of twin-related junctions. We measure an area density of twin junctions that is comparable to the density of dislocations in a heavily cold-worked metal.

Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Kelly, James J.; Lucadamo, Gene Anthony; Talin, Albert Alec

2004-06-01

470

Twin disc gear tooth simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the results of an effort to develop a disc on disc test rig for evaluating lubricant load capacity. The goal of the program has been to develop a reliable disc on disc (or Twin Disc) test rig capable of providing more reliable and lower cost evaluation of lubricant load capacity than the Ryder gear test which is currently used. Disc rigs have been evaluated for this application in the past, but have failed to provide scuffing results which are comparable to those found in gear tests. The unique feature of the rig designed and evaluated under this program is a drive system design which varies the disc to disc sliding and rolling speeds in a fixed manner to simulate the combined rolling and sliding motion found in a gear tooth contact. Other features include a drive system design which insures that the same points on each disc always contact each other as they rotate, and material selection and heating system design for operation with experimental lubricants at temperatures up to 700 deg F.

Eusepi, Martin W.; Dill, James F.

1994-05-01

471

The Onsala Twin Telescope Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper described the Onsala Twin Telescope project. The project aims at the construction of two new radio telescopes at the Onsala Space Observatory, following the VLBI2010 concept. The project starts in 2013 and is expected to be finalized within 4 years. Z% O. Rydbeck. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Göteborg, ISBN 91-7032-621-5, 407-823, 1991. B. Petrachenko, A. Niell, D. Behrend, B. Corey, J. Böhm, P. Charlot, A. Collioud, J. Gipson, R. Haas, Th. Hobiger, Y. Koyama, D. MacMillan, Z. Malkin, T. Nilsson, A. Pany, G. Tuccari, A. Whitney, and J. Wresnik. Design Aspects of the VLBI2010 System. NASA/TM-2009-214180, 58 pp., 2009. R. Haas, G. Elgered, J. Löfgren, T. Ning, and H.-G. Scherneck. Onsala Space Observatory - IVS Network Station. In K. D. Baver and D. Behrend, editors, International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2011 Annual Report, NASA/TP-2012-217505, 88-91, 2012. H.-G. Scherneck, G. Elgered, J. M. Johansson, and B. O. Rönnäng. Phys. Chem. Earth, Vol. 23, No. 7-8, 811-823, 1998. A. R. Whitney. Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Electrical engineering, MIT Cambridge, MA., 1974. B. A. Harper, J. D. Kepert, and J. D. Ginger. Guidelines for converting between various wind averaging periods in tropical cyclone conditions. WMO/TD-No. 1555, 64 pp., 2010 (available at \\url{http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/documents/WMO_TD_1555_en.pdf})

Haas, R.

2013-08-01

472

Aeroacoustic Experiments with Twin Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While the noise produced by a single jet is azimuthally symmetric, multiple jets produce azimuthally varying far-field noise. The ability of one jet to shield another reduces the noise radiated in the plane of the jets, while often increasing the noise radiated out of the plane containing the jets. The present study investigates the shielding potential of twin jet configurations over subsonic and over-expanded supersonic jet conditions with simulated forward flight. The experiments were conducted with 2 in. throat diameter nozzles at four jet spacings from 2.6d to 5.5d in center-to-center distance, where d is the nozzle throat diameter. The current study found a maximum of 3 dB reduction in overall sound pressure level relative to two incoherent jets in the peak jet noise direction in the plane containing the jets. However, an increase of 3 dB was found perpendicular to the plane containing the jets. In the sideline direction, shielding is observed for all jet spacings in this study.

Bozak, Richard F.; Henderson, Brenda S.

2012-01-01

473

Sabinas syndrome in monozygotic twins.  

PubMed

A pair of 2-year-old female monozygotic twins presented with short and brittle hair. There was marked reduction in hair density, and excessive curving of the eyelashes. Onychodystrophy was also evident. They also had developmental delay in verbal and motor skills. Neither their parents nor other relatives were known to be affected, and there was no history of consanguinity. Examination of the hair shaft under light microscopy showed trichoschisis, which was more evident under electron microscopy. Under polarized light, the hair shafts showed the pathognomonic 'tiger-tail' pattern. The level of sulphur in the hair was low. Both patients were negative for TTDN1 mutation. Clinical correlation was performed and the diagnosis of Sabinas syndrome was made. Sabinas syndrome is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder first described in a group of patients from a small community in north-eastern Mexico. It is diagnosable at birth, and its major symptoms include brittle hair, mental retardation and nail dysplasia. Structural hair abnormalities are seen by both light and electron microscopy. PMID:19438561

López-García, D R; Salas-Alanis, J C; Christiano, A M; Ocampo-Candiani, J; Gómez-Flores, M

2009-07-01

474

Two sisters reveal autosomal recessive inheritance of epidermodysplasia verruciformis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is a rare genodermatosis characterized by a unique susceptibility to cutaneous human papillomaviruses infection. Most patients show autosomal recessive patterns of inheritance. Case presentation We report a case of two sisters with clinically epidermodysplasia verruciformis specific lesions on the face, neck, trunk, and extremities. PCR analysis indicated the presence of human papillomavirus type 5 in the lesions. Electron microscopic examination showed viral-like particles in keratinocyte nuclei and the stratum corneum of the epidermodysplasia verruciformis lesions. In addition, we examined the EVER1 and EVER2 genes using eight different primer pairs without finding any nonsense or frameshift mutations in the gDNA from lymphocytes of the elder sister. Conclusions In this report, the patient’s parents did not have epidermodysplasia verruciformis lesions or a consanguineous marriage. EV did not develop in the elder sister until five years of age, so the parents did not perceive EV as an inherited disease. The probability that EV developed in both sisters was only 6.25%. Thus, it is rare for both sisters to develop epidermodysplasia verruciformis lesions considering that the parents were presumed to be carriers and the disease reveal an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.

2014-01-01

475

Neuropsychological profiles of three sisters homozygous for the fragile X premutation  

SciTech Connect

Fragile X syndrome (fraX) is associated with an amplification of a CGG repeat within the fraX mental retardation (FMR-1) gene. We describe an exceptional family in which 3 adult sisters are homozygous for the FMR-1 premutation. Each sister inherited 2 premutation alleles (ca. 80 CGG repeats) from their biologically unrelated parents. The 3 sisters were administered measures of executive function, visual spatial, memory, and verbal skills. Deficiencies in the first 2 of these domains have been reported among females with the full mutation. The sisters` performances were compared with available normative data and with published group means for females affected by fraX. These women did not appear to have verbal or memory difficulties. None of the women demonstrated a global executive function deficit, and none had global deficits in spatial ability. The profiles of these sisters are consistent with reports that the fragile X premutation does not affect cognitive performance. 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Mazzocco, M.M.M. [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Holden, J.J.A. [Ongwanada Resource Centre, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)] [Ongwanada Resource Centre, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

1996-08-09

476

Twin Paradox: A Complete Treatment from the Point of View of Each Twin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modifies and expands on the treatment of the twin paradox by solving the gravitational field equations and geodesic equations of motion in the traveling twin's reference frame, thus determining the time elapsed on the Earth during the periods of acceleration. (Author/GA)

Perrin, Robert

1979-01-01

477