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Sample records for healthy young smokers

  1. Analysis of plasma microRNA expression profiles revealed different cancer susceptibility in healthy young adult smokers and middle-aged smokers

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bing; Gao, Hongmin; Zhang, Tianyang; Cui, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a world-wide habit and an important risk factor for cancer. It was known that cigarette smoking can change the expression of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in healthy middle-aged adults. However, it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking can change the levels of circulating miRNAs in young healthy smokers and whether there are differences in cancer susceptibility for the two cases. In this study, the miRNA expression profiles of 28 smokers and 12 non-smokers were determined by Agilent human MicroRNA array. We further performed bioinformatics analysis for the differentially expressed miRNAs. The result showed that 35 miRNAs were differentially expressed. Among them, 24 miRNAs were up-regulated and 11 miRNAs were down-regulated in smokers. Functional enrichment analysis showed that the deregulated miRNAs are related to immune system and hormones regulation. Strikingly, the up-regulated miRNAs are mostly associated with hematologic cancers, such as lymphoma, leukemia. As a comparison, the up-regulated plasma miRNAs in middle-aged smokers are mostly associated with solid cancers, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and lung cancer, suggesting that smoking could have different influences on young adults and middle-aged adults. In a conclusion, we identified the circulating miRNAs deregulated by cigarette smoking and revealed that the age-dependent deregulated miRNAs tend to be mainly involved in different types of human cancers. PMID:26943588

  2. Serum Metabolite Biomarkers Discriminate Healthy Smokers from COPD Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiuying; Deeb, Ruba S.; Ma, Yuliang; Staudt, Michelle R.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Gross, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is defined by a fixed expiratory airflow obstruction associated with disordered airways and alveolar destruction. COPD is caused by cigarette smoking and is the third greatest cause of mortality in the US. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is the only validated clinical marker of COPD, but it correlates poorly with clinical features and is not sensitive enough to predict the early onset of disease. Using LC/MS global untargeted metabolite profiling of serum samples from a well-defined cohort of healthy smokers (n = 37), COPD smokers (n = 41) and non-smokers (n = 37), we sought to discover serum metabolic markers with known and/or unknown molecular identities that are associated with early-onset COPD. A total of 1,181 distinct molecular ions were detected in 95% of sera from all study subjects and 23 were found to be differentially-expressed in COPD-smokers vs. healthy-smokers. These 23 putative biomarkers were differentially-correlated with lung function parameters and used to generate a COPD prediction model possessing 87.8% sensitivity and 86.5% specificity. In an independent validation set, this model correctly predicted COPD in 8/10 individuals. These serum biomarkers included myoinositol, glycerophopshoinositol, fumarate, cysteinesulfonic acid, a modified version of fibrinogen peptide B (mFBP), and three doubly-charged peptides with undefined sequence that significantly and positively correlate with mFBP levels. Together, elevated levels of serum mFBP and additional disease-associated biomarkers point to a role for chronic inflammation, thrombosis, and oxidative stress in remodeling of the COPD airways. Serum metabolite biomarkers offer a promising and accessible window for recognition of early-stage COPD. PMID:26674646

  3. Serum Metabolite Biomarkers Discriminate Healthy Smokers from COPD Smokers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuying; Deeb, Ruba S; Ma, Yuliang; Staudt, Michelle R; Crystal, Ronald G; Gross, Steven S

    2015-01-01

    COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is defined by a fixed expiratory airflow obstruction associated with disordered airways and alveolar destruction. COPD is caused by cigarette smoking and is the third greatest cause of mortality in the US. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is the only validated clinical marker of COPD, but it correlates poorly with clinical features and is not sensitive enough to predict the early onset of disease. Using LC/MS global untargeted metabolite profiling of serum samples from a well-defined cohort of healthy smokers (n = 37), COPD smokers (n = 41) and non-smokers (n = 37), we sought to discover serum metabolic markers with known and/or unknown molecular identities that are associated with early-onset COPD. A total of 1,181 distinct molecular ions were detected in 95% of sera from all study subjects and 23 were found to be differentially-expressed in COPD-smokers vs. healthy-smokers. These 23 putative biomarkers were differentially-correlated with lung function parameters and used to generate a COPD prediction model possessing 87.8% sensitivity and 86.5% specificity. In an independent validation set, this model correctly predicted COPD in 8/10 individuals. These serum biomarkers included myoinositol, glycerophopshoinositol, fumarate, cysteinesulfonic acid, a modified version of fibrinogen peptide B (mFBP), and three doubly-charged peptides with undefined sequence that significantly and positively correlate with mFBP levels. Together, elevated levels of serum mFBP and additional disease-associated biomarkers point to a role for chronic inflammation, thrombosis, and oxidative stress in remodeling of the COPD airways. Serum metabolite biomarkers offer a promising and accessible window for recognition of early-stage COPD. PMID:26674646

  4. White matter integrity in young smokers: a tract-based spatial statistics study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai; Zhang, Baohua; Liu, Jixin; Dong, Minghao; Jin, Chenwang; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, Ying; Gu, Yu; Xue, Ting; Liu, Xin; Lu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies revealed contradictory effects of smoking on fractional anisotropy (FA). Multiple DTI-derived indices may help to deduce the pathophysiological type of white matter (WM) changes and provide more specific biomarkers of WM neuropathology in the whole brain of young smokers. Twenty-three young smokers and 22 age-, education- and gender-matched healthy non-smoking controls participated in this study. Tract-based spatial statistics was employed to investigate the WM microstructure in young smokers by integrating multiple indices, including FA, mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD). Compared with healthy non-smoking controls, young smokers showed significantly increased FA with increased AD and decreased RD in several brain regions, while no difference in MD was observed. Specifically, the overlapped WM regions with increased FA, increased AD and decreased RD were found in the right posterior limb of the internal capsule, the right external capsule and the right superior corona radiata. Additionally, average FA and RD values in the WM regions mentioned earlier were significantly correlated with pack-years and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, while no correlation in AD was found. The WM tracts with increased FA may be more associated with RD, rather than AD in young smokers. We suggested that WM properties of several fibres in young smokers may be the biomarker as the cumulative effect and severity of nicotine dependence. PMID:25752453

  5. Evaluation of young smokers and non-smokers with Electrogustometry and Contact Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pavlos, Pavlidis; Vasilios, Nikolaidis; Antonia, Anogeianaki; Dimitrios, Koutsonikolas; Georgios, Kekes; Georgios, Anogianakis

    2009-01-01

    Background Smoking is the cause of inducing changes in taste functionality under conditions of chronic exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate taste sensitivity in young smokers and non-smokers and identify any differences in the shape, density and vascularisation of the fungiform papillae (fPap) of their tongue. Methods Sixty-two male subjects who served in the Greek military forces were randomly chosen for this study. Thirty-four were non-smokers and 28 smokers. Smokers were chosen on the basis of their habit to hold the cigarette at the centre of their lips. Taste thresholds were measured with Electrogustometry (EGM). The morphology and density of the fungiform papillae (fPap) at the tip of the tongue were examined with Contact Endoscopy (CE). Results There was found statistically important difference (p < 0.05) between the taste thresholds of the two groups although not all smokers presented with elevated taste thresholds: Six of them (21%) had taste thresholds similar to those of non-smokers. Differences concerning the shape and the vessels of the fungiform papillae between the groups were also detected. Fewer and flatter fPap were found in 22 smokers (79%). Conclusion The majority of smokers shown elevated taste thresholds in comparison to non-smokers. Smoking is an important factor which can lead to decreased taste sensitivity. The combination of methods, such as EGM and CE, can provide useful information about the vascularisation of taste buds and their functional ability. PMID:19695082

  6. Comparison of salivary calcium level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Kambalyal, Preeti; Kambalyal, Prabhuraj; Hungund, Shital

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare salivary calcium (Ca) level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: 56 subjects were included in the study and were grouped as follows: 12 subjects who were periodontally healthy (Group I), 12 subjects having chronic periodontitis who were non-smokers (Group II), 12 non-smokers having aggressive periodontitis (Group III), 12 smokers with chronic periodontitis (Group IV), and 8 smokers with aggressive periodontitis (Group V). Clinical measurements and non-stimulated whole saliva samples were obtained and analyzed for Ca levels by ion-selective electrolyte analyzer. Results: When salivary Ca values were compared between the groups, they showed statistically significant values (P < 0.001) with the highest mean Ca level in Group IV and Group V, which include smokers with chronic periodontitis and smokers with aggressive periodontitis, respectively, than in other groups. Between groups II and III also, the mean salivary Ca level was statistically significant (P < 0.001) with higher mean salivary Ca in non-smokers having chronic periodontitis than in non-smokers having aggressive periodontitis. Conclusions: The present study showed that smokers having chronic periodontitis as well as smokers having aggressive periodontitis have higher salivary calcium levels. Also, patients with aggressive periodontitis were found to have lesser salivary calcium level than chronic periodontitis patients by ion-selective electrolyte analyzer. PMID:26942120

  7. The subgingival microbiome of clinically healthy current and never smokers.

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew R; Preshaw, Philip M; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Dabdoub, Shareef M; Rahman, Anis; Kumar, Purnima S

    2015-01-01

    Dysbiotic oral bacterial communities have a critical role in the etiology and progression of periodontal diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which smoking increases risk for disease by influencing the composition of the subgingival microbiome in states of clinical health. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 200 systemically and periodontally healthy smokers and nonsmokers. 16S pyrotag sequencing was preformed generating 1,623,713 classifiable sequences, which were compared with a curated version of the Greengenes database using the quantitative insights into microbial ecology pipeline. The subgingival microbial profiles of smokers and never-smokers were different at all taxonomic levels, and principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clustering of the microbial communities based on smoking status. Smokers demonstrated a highly diverse, pathogen-rich, commensal-poor, anaerobic microbiome that is more closely aligned with a disease-associated community in clinically healthy individuals, suggesting that it creates an at-risk-for-harm environment that is primed for a future ecological catastrophe. PMID:25012901

  8. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components. PMID:27606111

  9. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin, and oxygen saturation changes in healthy smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Tirlapur, V G; Gicheru, K; Charalambous, B M; Evans, P J; Mir, M A

    1983-01-01

    We have investigated the relationship between cigarette smoking, packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) in 114 non-smokers, 66 light smokers (1-20 cigarettes a day), and 50 heavy smokers (over 20 cigarettes a day) aged 20-75 years. Packed cell volume was greater in female heavy smokers (p less than 0.001) over 40 years of age and in all female smokers over 60 years (p less than 0.001) than in non-smoking contemporaries. Haemoglobin concentrations were higher in 40-59 year old female heavy smokers (p less than 0.05) and in male and female light (p less than 0.05) and heavy smokers (p less than 0.001) over 60 years of age than in non-smoking contemporaries. SaO2 was lower in 20-39 year old male heavy smokers (p less than 0.02) and female (p less than 0.05) light smokers and also in 40-59 year old male light and heavy smokers (p less than 0.001) and female light smokers (p less than 0.02) than in non-smoking contemporaries. It was also lower in female light (p less than 0.05) and heavy (p less than 0.02) smokers over 60 years, whereas it was higher in male light smokers over 60 (p less than 0.001). Changes in SaO2 were seen at a younger age than changes in haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume. Images PMID:6648858

  10. Tempol improves cutaneous thermal hyperemia through increasing nitric oxide bioavailability in young smokers.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Brunt, Vienna E; Minson, Christopher T

    2014-06-01

    We recently found that young cigarette smokers display cutaneous vascular dysfunction relative to nonsmokers, which is partially due to reduced nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS)-dependent vasodilation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that reducing oxidative stress improves NO bioavailability, enhancing cutaneous vascular function in young smokers. Ten healthy young male smokers, who had smoked for 6.3 ± 0.7 yr with an average daily consumption of 9.1 ± 0.7 cigarettes, were tested. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) during local heating to 42°C at a rate of 0.1°C/s was evaluated as laser-Doppler flux divided by mean arterial blood pressure and normalized to maximal CVC, induced by local heating to 44°C plus sodium nitroprusside administration. We evaluated plateau CVC during local heating, which is known to be highly dependent on NO, at four intradermal microdialysis sites with 1) Ringer solution (control); 2) 10 μM 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (tempol), a superoxide dismutase mimetic; 3) 10 mM N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA), a nonspecific NOS inhibitor; and 4) a combination of 10 μM tempol and 10 mM l-NNA. Tempol increased plateau CVC compared with the Ringer solution site (90.0 ± 2.3 vs. 77.6 ± 3.9%maximum, P = 0.028). Plateau CVC at the combination site (56.8 ± 4.5%maximum) was lower than the Ringer solution site (P < 0.001) and was not different from the l-NNA site (55.1 ± 4.6%maximum, P = 0.978), indicating the tempol effect was exclusively NO dependent. These data suggest that in young smokers, reducing oxidative stress improves cutaneous thermal hyperemia to local heating by enhancing NO production. PMID:24682395

  11. Electrophysiological mechanisms of biased response to smoking-related cues in young smokers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Zhang, Yajuan; Bi, Yanzhi; Bu, Limei; Li, Yangding; Shi, Sha; Liu, Peng; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai

    2016-08-26

    Cigarette smoking during young adult may result in serious health issues in later life. Hence, it is extremely necessary to study the smoking neurophysiological mechanisms in this critical transitional period. However, few studies revealed the electrophysiological mechanisms of cognitive processing biases in young adult smokers. In present study, nineteen young smokers with 12h abstinent and 19 matched nonsmokers were recruited. By employing event-related potentials (ERP) measurements during a smoking cue induced craving task, electrophysiological brain responses were compared between the young adult smokers and nonsmokers. The Slow Positive Wave (SPW) amplitude of smoking-related cues was enhanced in young adult smokers compared with nonsmokers. In addition, increased P300/SPW component of smoking-related cues relative to neutral cues were found in young adult smokers. Meanwhile, a positive correlation between Cigarette Per Day (CPD) and the amplitude of ERPs wave (P300/SPW) at anterior (Fz), central (Cz) were observed in young adult smokers. Our findings provided direct electrophysiological evidence for the cognitive processing bias of smoking cue and may shed new insights into the smoking behavior in young adult smokers. PMID:27373532

  12. Somatotype, physical growth, and sexual maturation in young male smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Lall, K B; Singhi, S; Gurnani, M; Singhi, P; Garg, O P

    1980-01-01

    One thousand school boys aged 8 to 16 were examined for their somatotype, physical growth, sexual maturation, and smoking habits. Fifty-two boys were found to be smokers, of whom 30 were regularly smoking between two and 20 bidis or cigarettes a day for a mean duration of 2.5 years. The mean height and weight of the smokers was significantly lower than that of the non-smokers at all ages, more so in regular than occasional smokers. Sixty-nine per cent of the smokers had mesomorphic type of body build; about 65% of the non-smokers had ectomorphic somatotype (P less than 0.001). Onset of puberty occurred significantly earlier among smokers compared with non-smokers, as was evident from the early appearance of genital stage 2, and an early and rapid increase in testicular size. Genital stage 2 appeared at a mean age of 11 years in smokers and 11.6 years in non-smokers. However, the appearance of pubic, axillary, and facial hair was delayed. The possible significance of this is discussed. PMID:7241030

  13. How Do Light and Intermittent Smokers Differ from Heavy Smokers in Young Adulthood: The Role of Smoking Restraint Strategies.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Ferguson, Stuart G; Bühler, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    Light and intermittent smoking has become a prevalent pattern of use among young adults. Little is known about which factors differentiate light and intermittent smokers (LITS) from heavy smokers (HS) in young adulthood. In this study, we compare young adult LITS with HS with regard to demographic- and smoking-related variables, self-control abilities, and concrete strategies of smoking restraint. The data were collected as part of an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study with 137 German young adult smokers (M Age = 21.1 years, 46.0% female; 76 HS [≥10 cigarettes/day] and 61 LITS [≤5 cigarettes/day]). Participants were recruited over the Internet and completed a baseline questionnaire online. Several variables differentiated LITS and HS in a multiple logistic regression analysis: LITS reported fewer smoking friends (p < .001) and a higher self-efficacy to resist smoking (p < .01). Further, LITS smoking status was associated with reporting a past quit attempt (p < .05) and the use of smoking restraint strategies (counting, limiting, and purposefully not smoking cigarettes; p < .05). Notably, nicotine dependence and trait self-control abilities did not differentiate between LITS and HS. Our results point to the role of smoking restraint strategies and self-monitoring of smoking to limit the daily number of cigarettes smoked. PMID:27120135

  14. The implication of frontostriatal circuits in young smokers: A resting-state study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Yu, Dahua; Bi, Yanzhi; Li, Yangding; Guan, Yanyan; Liu, Jixin; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Wei; Lu, Xiaoqi; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The critical roles of frontostriatal circuits had been revealed in addiction. With regard to young smokers, the implication of frontostriatal circuits resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in smoking behaviors and cognitive control deficits remains unclear. In this study, the volume of striatum subsets, i.e., caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, and corresponding RSFC differences were investigated between young smokers (n1  = 60) and nonsmokers (n2  = 60), which were then correlated with cigarette smoking measures, such as pack_years-cumulative effect of smoking, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)-severity of nicotine addiction, Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU)-craving state, and Stroop task performances. Additionally, mediation analysis was carried out to test whether the frontostriatal RSFC mediates the relationship between striatum morphometry and cognitive control behaviors in young smokers when applicable. We revealed increased volume of right caudate and reduced RSFC between caudate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex in young smokers. Significant positive correlation between right caudate volume and QSU as well as negative correlation between anterior cingulate cortex-right caudate RSFC and FTND were detected in young smokers. More importantly, DLPFC-caudate RSFC strength mediated the relationship between caudate volume and incongruent errors during Stroop task in young smokers. Our results demonstrated that young smokers showed abnormal interactions within frontostriatal circuits, which were associated with smoking behaviors and cognitive control impairments. It is hoped that our study focusing on frontostriatal circuits could provide new insights into the neural correlates and potential novel therapeutic targets for treatment of young smokers. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2013-2026, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26918784

  15. Hidden truth of circulating neutrophils (polymorphonuclear neutrophil) function in periodontally healthy smoker subjects

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Chitra; Baron, Tarun Kumar; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2016-01-01

    Context: Tobacco smoking is considered to be a major risk factor associated with periodontal disease. Smoking exerts a major effect on the protective elements of the immune response, resulting in an increase in the extent and severity of periodontal destruction. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess viability and phagocytic function of neutrophils in circulating blood of the smokers and nonsmokers who are periodontally healthy. Settings and Design: Two hundred subjects in the mean range of 20–30 years of age were included in the study population. It was a retrospective study carried out for 6 months. Materials and Methods: Two hundred subjects were divided into four groups: 50 nonsmokers, 50 light smokers (<5 cigarettes/day), 50 moderate smokers (5–15 cigarettes/day), and 50 heavy smokers (>15 cigarettes/day). Full mouth plaque index, sulcus bleeding index, and probing depths were measured. Percentage viability of circulating neutrophils and average number of phagocytosed Candida albicans were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Means and standard deviations were calculated from data obtained within the groups. Comparison between the smokers and nonsmokers was performed by Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA analysis. Comparison between smoker groups was performed using Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test. Results: Percentage viability of neutrophils was significantly less in heavy smokers (66.9 ± 4.0), moderate (76.6 ± 4.2), light smokers (83.1 ± 2.5) as compared to nonsmokers (92.3 ± 2.6) (P < 0.01). The ability of neutrophils to phagocytose, i.e., mean particle number was significantly less in light smokers (3.5 ± 0.5), moderate smokers (2.3 ± 0.5), and heavy smokers (1.4 ± 0.5) compared to nonsmokers (4.9 ± 0.7) (P < 0.01) with evidence of dose-response effect. Conclusions: Smoking significantly affects neutrophils viability and phagocytic function in periodontally healthy population. PMID:27143827

  16. Intra-regional and inter-regional abnormalities and cognitive control deficits in young adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dan; Yuan, Kai; Li, Yangding; Cai, Chenxi; Yin, Junsen; Bi, Yanzhi; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Shi, Sha; Yu, Dahua; Jin, Chenwang; Lu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco use during later adolescence and young adulthood may cause serious neurophysiological changes; rationally, it is extremely important to study the relationship between brain dysfunction and behavioral performances in young adult smokers. Previous resting state studies investigated the neural mechanisms in smokers. Unfortunately, few studies focused on spontaneous activity differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers from both intra-regional and inter-regional levels, less is known about the association between resting state abnormalities and behavioral deficits. Therefore, we used fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) to investigate the resting state spontaneous activity differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers. A correlation analysis was carried out to assess the relationship between neuroimaging findings and clinical information (pack-years, cigarette dependence, age of onset and craving score) as well as cognitive control deficits measured by the Stroop task. Consistent with previous addiction findings, our results revealed the resting state abnormalities within frontostriatal circuits, i.e., enhanced spontaneous activity of the caudate and reduced functional strength between the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in young adult smokers. Moreover, the fALFF values of the caudate were correlated with craving and RSFC strength between the caudate and ACC was associated with the cognitive control impairments in young adult smokers. Our findings could lead to a better understanding of intrinsic functional architecture of baseline brain activity in young smokers by providing regional and brain circuit spontaneous neuronal activity properties as well as their association with cognitive control impairments. PMID:26164168

  17. Bilateral Fronto-Parietal Integrity in Young Chronic Cigarette Smokers: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yanhui; Tang, Jinsong; Deng, Qijian; Deng, Yongwen; Luo, Tao; Wang, Xuyi; Chen, Hongxian; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Xiaogang; Brody, Arthur L.; Hao, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in China and other countries. Previous studies have demonstrated gray matter loss in chronic smokers. However, only a few studies assessed the changes of white matter integrity in this group. Based on those previous reports of alterations in white matter integrity in smokers, the aim of this study was to examine the alteration of white matter integrity in a large, well-matched sample of chronic smokers and non-smokers. Methodology/Principal Findings Using in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure the differences of whole-brain white matter integrity between 44 chronic smoking subjects (mean age, 28.0±5.6 years) and 44 healthy age- and sex-matched comparison non-smoking volunteers (mean age, 26.3±5.8 years). DTI was performed on a 3-Tesla Siemens scanner (Allegra; Siemens Medical System). The data revealed that smokers had higher fractional anisotropy (FA) than healthy non-smokers in almost symmetrically bilateral fronto-parietal tracts consisting of a major white matter pathway, the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Conclusion/Significance We found the almost symmetrically bilateral fronto-parietal whiter matter changes in a relatively large sample of chronic smokers. These findings support the hypothesis that chronic cigarette smoking involves alterations of bilateral fronto-parietal connectivity. PMID:22069452

  18. Young smokers and non-smokers perceptions of typical users of plain vs. branded cigarette packs: a between-subjects experimental survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In an attempt to minimize the pack design avenue of communication between tobacco producers and smokers and potential smokers, several jurisdictions, including Norway, have considered regulations on cigarette pack design. The main aim of the current study was to investigate how package design affects young people’s perceptions of typical smokers of some pre-chosen cigarette brands and brand varieties. Methods Based on data from a web survey among 1022 15–22 year-olds, possible effects of plain packaging of cigarettes on adolescents’ views about typical cigarette smokers were investigated. The data collection had a between-subjects design, in which participants were allocated to one of three groups, and asked to typify the smokers of selected cigarette packs either in branded, plain or plain with descriptor versions. The sample included boys and girls, and smokers and non-smokers. The smoker characteristics included in the investigation were: gender, glamour, stylishness, popularity, coolness, sophistication and slimness. Results After creating sum-scores within and across packs and pack versions, analyses indicated that a shift from branded to plain cigarette packaging would result in a reduction in positive user images related to smoking among adolescents and young adults. For girls, this effect held up after controlling for confounders. Conclusions To the extent that plain packaging contributes to making smoking images less positive, it can potentially be an efficient aid in reducing smoking uptake among adolescents. PMID:24156515

  19. Smoker Identity and Its Potential Role in Young Adults’ Smoking Behavior: A Meta-Ethnography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identity is an important influence on behavior. To identify potential targets for smoking cessation interventions in young adults, we synthesized findings from qualitative studies on smoker identity and potential influences on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: A systematic search of 4 electronic databases up to September 19, 2013, was conducted to identify qualitative studies on smoker identity in smokers and ex-smokers aged 16–34. Key concepts were extracted from individual studies and synthesized into higher-order interpretations by following the principles of meta-ethnography. Results: Seventeen relevant papers were identified. At the highest level of interpretation, we identified 4 types of findings: (a) contributory factors to identity, (b) identity in relation to smoking, (c) contextual and temporal patterning, and (d) behavior in relation to smoking. Contributory factors included the desire to establish aspirational individual and social identities, enact a smoker identity appropriate to the momentary social context, and alter personal nonsmoking rules when consuming alcohol. Smoker identity was multifaceted and incorporated individuals’ defensive rationalizations, and both positive and negative feelings attached to it. Smoker identities took time to develop, were subject to change, and were context dependent. Identity was found to play a role in quit attempts. Conclusions: Qualitative research into the identity of young adult smokers has established it as a multifaceted phenomenon serving important functions but also involving conflict and defensive rationalizations. It develops over time and contextual factors influence its expression. The nature of a smoker’s identity can play an important role in smoking cessation. PMID:25622078

  20. A Qualitative Study of How Young Scottish Smokers Living in Disadvantaged Communities Get Their Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Reducing access to cigarettes is an important element of youth smoking prevention strategies. This is particularly so in disadvantaged communities that have high rates of youth smoking. In 2010, Scotland banned proxy sales of tobacco products to under 18-year-olds who were getting older people to purchase cigarettes on their behalf. Methods: A qualitative study using 24 small single-sex friendship groups. Eighty young people, mostly aged 14–16, of whom 57 were smokers, were recruited in 2012 from community youth groups in 3 socially disadvantaged areas of Scotland. Results: Participants’ main sources of cigarettes were proxy sales, family, and peers and friends. Younger smokers were more likely to purchase single cigarettes from older smokers at school and to steal cigarettes from family members. Older and regular smokers were more likely to obtain cigarettes through proxy purchases. Proxy purchases were often facilitated by problem drug users who were willing to buy cigarettes for a small monetary reward. Direct purchases in shops were less commonly reported but appeared to involve complicit action by some retailers. Few reported that they bought blackmarket cigarettes, although they were available in these communities. Conclusions: Young people in areas of deprivation are still able to circumvent the age-of-sale legislation on selling cigarettes. Even though proxy sales have been banned, they are an important source of cigarettes for disadvantaged young smokers. PMID:23911845

  1. Perspectives of Mexican-origin smokers on healthy eating and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Strong, Larkin L; Hoover, Diana S; Heredia, Natalia I; Krasny, Sarah; Spears, Claire A; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Wetter, David W; Fernandez, Maria E

    2016-08-01

    Key modifiable risk behaviors such as smoking, poor diet and physical inactivity often cluster and may have multiplicative adverse effects on health. This study investigated barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and physical activity (PA) in overweight Mexican-origin smokers to inform the adaptation of an evidence-based smoking cessation program into a multiple health behavior change intervention. Five focus groups were conducted with overweight Mexican-origin men (n = 9) and women (n = 21) who smoked. Barriers and facilitators of healthy eating and PA were identified, and gender differences were assessed. Participants expressed some motivation to eat healthfully and identified strategies for doing so, yet many women experienced difficulties related to personal, family and work-related circumstances. Barriers to healthy eating among men were related to food preferences and lack of familiarity with fruits and vegetables. Participants performed PA primarily within the context of work and domestic responsibilities. Stress/depressed mood, lack of motivation and concern for physical well-being limited further PA engagement. Routines involving eating, PA and smoking highlight how these behaviors may be intertwined. Findings emphasize the importance of social, structural and cultural contexts and call for additional investigation into how to integrate healthy eating and PA into smoking cessation interventions for overweight Mexican-origin smokers. PMID:27240536

  2. Cardiovascular Effects of a Novel SIRT1 Activator, SRT2104, in Otherwise Healthy Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Venkatasubramanian, Sowmya; Noh, Radzi Mohd; Daga, Shruti; Langrish, Jeremy P.; Joshi, Nikhil V.; Mills, Nicholas L.; Hoffmann, Ethan; Jacobson, Eric W.; Vlasuk, George P.; Waterhouse, Brian R.; Lang, Ninian N.; Newby, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the effect of the oral SIRT1 activator SRT2104 on cardiovascular function in otherwise healthy cigarette smokers. Methods and Results Twenty‐four otherwise healthy cigarette smokers participated in a randomized double‐blind, placebo‐controlled crossover trial and received 28 days of oral SRT2104 (2.0 g/day) or matched placebo. Plasma SRT2104 concentrations, serum lipid profile, plasma fibrinolytic factors, and markers of platelet and monocyte activation were measured at baseline and at the end of each treatment period together with an assessment of forearm blood flow during intra‐arterial bradykinin, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside infusions. Three hours postdose, mean plasma SRT2104 concentration was 1328±748 ng/mL after 28 days of active treatment. Compared with placebo, serum lipid profile improved during SRT2104 administration, with reductions in serum total cholesterol (−11.6±20 versus 6±21 mg/dL), low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (−10±17 versus 3±21 mg/dL), and triglyceride (−39.8±77 versus 13.3±57 mg/dL) concentrations (P<0.05 for all). All vasodilators produced a dose‐dependent increase in blood flow (P<0.0001) that was similar during each treatment period (P>0.05 for all). No significant differences in fibrinolytic or blood flow parameters were observed between placebo and SRT2014. Conclusions SRT2104 appears to be safe and well tolerated and associated with an improved lipid profile without demonstrable differences in vascular or platelet function in otherwise healthy cigarette smokers. Clinical Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01031108. PMID:23770971

  3. Effect of Shisha (Waterpipe) Smoking on Lung Functions and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) among Saudi Young Adult Shisha Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; AlShehri, Khaled Ahmed; AlHarbi, Bader Bandar; Barayyan, Omar Rayyan; Bawazir, Abdulrahman Salem; Alanazi, Omar Abdulmohsin; Al-Zuhair, Ahmed Raad

    2014-01-01

    Shisha (waterpipe) smoking is becoming a more prevalent form of tobacco consumption, and is growing worldwide, particularly among the young generation in the Middle East. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the effects of shisha smoking on lung functions and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) among Saudi young adults. We recruited 146 apparently healthy male subjects (73 control and 73 shisha smokers). The exposed group consisted of male shisha smokers, with mean age 21.54 ± 0.41 (mean ± SEM) range 17–33 years. The control group consisted of similar number (73) of non-smokers with mean age 21.36 ± 0.19 (mean ± SEM) range 18–28 years. Between the groups we considered the factors like age, height, weight, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status to estimate the impact of shisha smoking on lung function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Lung function test was performed by using an Spirovit-SP-1 Electronic Spirometer. Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) was measured by using Niox Mino. A significant decrease in lung function parameters FEV1, FEV1/FVC Ratio, FEF-25%, FEF-50%, FEF-75% and FEF-75-85% was found among shisha smokers relative to their control group. There was also a significant reduction in the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide among Shisha smokers compared to control group. PMID:25233010

  4. Effect of shisha (waterpipe) smoking on lung functions and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) among Saudi young adult shisha smokers.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; AlShehri, Khaled Ahmed; AlHarbi, Bader Bandar; Barayyan, Omar Rayyan; Bawazir, Abdulrahman Salem; Alanazi, Omar Abdulmohsin; Al-Zuhair, Ahmed Raad

    2014-09-01

    Shisha (waterpipe) smoking is becoming a more prevalent form of tobacco consumption, and is growing worldwide, particularly among the young generation in the Middle East. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the effects of shisha smoking on lung functions and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) among Saudi young adults. We recruited 146 apparently healthy male subjects (73 control and 73 shisha smokers). The exposed group consisted of male shisha smokers, with mean age 21.54 ± 0.41 (mean ± SEM) range 17-33 years. The control group consisted of similar number (73) of non-smokers with mean age 21.36 ± 0.19 (mean ± SEM) range 18-28 years. Between the groups we considered the factors like age, height, weight, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status to estimate the impact of shisha smoking on lung function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Lung function test was performed by using an Spirovit-SP-1 Electronic Spirometer. Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) was measured by using Niox Mino. A significant decrease in lung function parameters FEV1, FEV1/FVC Ratio, FEF-25%, FEF-50%, FEF-75% and FEF-75-85% was found among shisha smokers relative to their control group. There was also a significant reduction in the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide among Shisha smokers compared to control group. PMID:25233010

  5. Facebook Recruitment of Young Adult Smokers for a Cessation Trial: Methods, Metrics, and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Ramo, Danielle E; Rodriguez, Theresa M S; Chavez, Kathryn; Sommer, Markus J; Prochaska, Judith J

    2014-04-01

    Further understanding is needed of the functionalities and efficiency of social media for health intervention research recruitment. Facebook was examined as a mechanism to recruit young adults for a smoking cessation intervention. An ad campaign targeting young adult smokers tested specific messaging based on market theory and successful strategies used to recruit smokers in previous clinical trials (i.e. informative, call to action, scarcity, social norms), previously successful ads, and general messaging. Images were selected to target smokers (e.g., lit cigarette), appeal to the target age, vary demographically, and vary graphically (cartoon, photo, logo). Facebook's Ads Manager was used over 7 weeks (6/10/13 - 7/29/13), targeted by age (18-25), location (U.S.), and language (English), and employed multiple ad types (newsfeed, standard, promoted posts, sponsored stories) and keywords. Ads linked to the online screening survey or study Facebook page. The 36 different ads generated 3,198,373 impressions, 5,895 unique clicks, at an overall cost of $2,024 ($0.34/click). Images of smoking and newsfeed ads had the greatest reach and clicks at the lowest cost. Of 5,895 unique clicks, 586 (10%) were study eligible and 230 (39%) consented. Advertising costs averaged $8.80 per eligible, consented participant. The final study sample (n=79) was largely Caucasian (77%) and male (69%), averaging 11 cigarettes/day (SD=8.3) and 2.7 years smoking (SD=0.7). Facebook is a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young adult smokers. Ads posted via newsfeed posts were particularly successful, likely because they were viewable via mobile phone. Efforts to engage more ethnic minorities, young women, and smokers motivated to quit are needed. PMID:25045624

  6. Facebook Recruitment of Young Adult Smokers for a Cessation Trial: Methods, Metrics, and Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Rodriguez, Theresa M.S.; Chavez, Kathryn; Sommer, Markus J.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2014-01-01

    Further understanding is needed of the functionalities and efficiency of social media for health intervention research recruitment. Facebook was examined as a mechanism to recruit young adults for a smoking cessation intervention. An ad campaign targeting young adult smokers tested specific messaging based on market theory and successful strategies used to recruit smokers in previous clinical trials (i.e. informative, call to action, scarcity, social norms), previously successful ads, and general messaging. Images were selected to target smokers (e.g., lit cigarette), appeal to the target age, vary demographically, and vary graphically (cartoon, photo, logo). Facebook’s Ads Manager was used over 7 weeks (6/10/13 – 7/29/13), targeted by age (18–25), location (U.S.), and language (English), and employed multiple ad types (newsfeed, standard, promoted posts, sponsored stories) and keywords. Ads linked to the online screening survey or study Facebook page. The 36 different ads generated 3,198,373 impressions, 5,895 unique clicks, at an overall cost of $2,024 ($0.34/click). Images of smoking and newsfeed ads had the greatest reach and clicks at the lowest cost. Of 5,895 unique clicks, 586 (10%) were study eligible and 230 (39%) consented. Advertising costs averaged $8.80 per eligible, consented participant. The final study sample (n=79) was largely Caucasian (77%) and male (69%), averaging 11 cigarettes/day (SD=8.3) and 2.7 years smoking (SD=0.7). Facebook is a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young adult smokers. Ads posted via newsfeed posts were particularly successful, likely because they were viewable via mobile phone. Efforts to engage more ethnic minorities, young women, and smokers motivated to quit are needed. PMID:25045624

  7. Greater Risk-Sensitivity of Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Young Smokers than in Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Galván, Adriana; Schonberg, Tom; Mumford, Jeanette; Kohno, Milky; Poldrack, Russell A.; London, Edythe D.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Despite a national reduction in the prevalence of cigarette smoking, ~19% of the adult U.S. population persists in this behavior, with the highest prevalence among 18–25-year-olds. Given that the choice to smoke imposes a known health risk, clarification of brain function related to decision-making, particularly involving risk-taking, in smokers may inform prevention and smoking cessation strategies. Objectives This study aimed to compare brain function related to decision-making in young smokers and nonsmokers. Methods The Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) is a computerized risky decision-making task in which participants pump virtual balloons, each pump associated with an incremental increase in potential payoff on a given trial but also with greater risk of balloon explosion and loss of payoff. We used this task to compare brain activation associated with risky decision-making in smokers (n=18) and nonsmokers (n=25) while they performed the BART during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The participants were young men and women, 17–21 years of age. Results Risk level (number of pumps) modulated brain activation in the right dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices more in smokers than in nonsmokers; and smoking severity (Heaviness of Smoking Index) was positively related to this modulation in an adjacent frontal region. Conclusions Given evidence for involvement of the right dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices in inhibitory control, these findings suggest that young smokers have a different contribution of prefrontal cortical substrates to risky decision-making than nonsmokers. Future studies are warranted to determine whether the observed neurobiological differences precede or result from smoking. PMID:23644912

  8. Quantification of plasma microRNAs in a group of healthy smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers and correlation to biomarkers of tobacco exposure

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Anisha; Waters, David; Camacho, Oscar M.; Minet, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The stability of circulating miRNAs, their non-invasive sampling techniques and deregulation in diseases make them potential candidate biomarkers of biological effect. Here, we profiled the level of 84 plasma miRNAs in 30 smokers, 20 non-smokers and 20 ex-smokers. A robust statistical strategy was applied with replicate samples to account for reproducibility of the results. We identified differential expression of miR-124 and let-7a between the smoking and control groups. We further explored the dose–response relationship of miR-124 and let-7a with two biomarkers of tobacco exposure and found that this relationship was affected by adjustments based on age, pack-year and gender. PMID:25598229

  9. Physical work-induced oxidative stress is exacerbated in young cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Creasy, Andrea K; Smith, Webb A

    2007-02-01

    Both cigarette smoking and strenuous physical work are associated with increased oxidative stress, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. No study to date has measured oxidative stress in response to graded exercise in cigarette smokers. We compared oxidative stress biomarkers before and after strenuous exercise (Bruce treadmill protocol) in 14 cigarette smokers and 15 nonsmokers of similar age (24+/-6 years) and fitness status. Plasma protein carbonyls (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured pre- and postexercise. Smoking status (p<.01) and time (p<.01) effects were noted for PC with values higher for smokers than nonsmokers and increasing from pre- to postexercise (52% vs. 25%, respectively). The smoking statusxtime interaction for PC approached statistical significance (p=.07). The change in PC from pre- to postexercise was positively correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (r=.5782, p=.03). A smoking statusxtime interaction was noted for MDA (p<.01), with values increasing 37% from pre- (0.6140+/-0.0708 micromol/L) to postexercise (0.8440+/-0.0687 micromol/L) for smokers and remaining relatively unchanged for nonsmokers (from 0.7664+/-0.0901 to 0.7419+/-0.0776 micromol/L). 8-OHdG was unaffected by smoking status (p=.43) or exercise (p=.40). These findings indicate that young cigarette smokers experience an exaggerated oxidative stress response to strenuous physical work, compared with nonsmokers of similar age. These results highlight yet another detrimental impact of cigarette smoking on human health. Future investigations should focus on older, more established smokers. PMID:17365751

  10. Hookah and Alcohol Use among Young Adult Hookah Smokers: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Soule, Eric K.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Curbow, Barbara A.; Moorhouse, Michael D.; Weiler, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Hookah tobacco smoking has grown steadily in popularity among young adults in the United States. Little attention has been given to the relationship between hookah smoking and another behavior that is common among young adults – alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to examine hookah and alcohol use among young adults. Methods Forty young adult hookah smokers (55% female) participated in focus group sessions on hookah use beliefs and a brief survey examining hookah and alcohol use including drinking alcohol before, during, or after smoking hookah. Results Quotes from the focus groups indicated that alcohol use may promote hookah use among individuals who have little or no hookah smoking experience. Alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol use before, during, and after hookah use were common among the participants regardless of legal drinking age status. Nearly half of the participants preferred to drink alcohol while smoking hookah due to the improved physical and social effects they associated with combining the 2 behaviors. Conclusions For some young adult hookah smokers, alcohol appears to enhance the hookah smoking experience and may play a role in hookah smoking initiation. Future research and interventions should address the association between hookah and alcohol use. PMID:26248176

  11. Smoking motives in the prediction of affective vulnerability among young adult daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Gregor, Kristin; Zvolensky, Michael J; Bernstein, Amit; Marshall, Erin C; Yartz, Andrew R

    2007-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether smoking to reduce negative affect was uniquely related to a range of affective vulnerability factors (e.g., anxiety sensitivity, anxious arousal, and negative affectivity) among daily smokers. Participants were 276 young adult daily smokers (124 females; M(age)=25.12, SD=10.37). Partially consistent with prediction, the motivation to smoke to reduce negative affect was significantly related to anxiety sensitivity and negative affectivity, but not anxious arousal; the observed significant effects were above and beyond other theoretically relevant factors (e.g., smoking rate, years smoked, age, gender). In contrast to prediction, habitual smoking motives demonstrated significant incremental associations with anxiety sensitivity and anxious arousal symptoms. These results suggest that there are important associations between certain smoking motives and negative affective states and that such relations are not attributable to other smoking factors (e.g., smoking rate). PMID:16712784

  12. Thirty month variability of aerosol pulse dispersion and conventional lung function parameters in healthy middle aged smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Siekmeier, R; Schiller-Scotland, C F; Stahlhofen, W

    1996-11-01

    Chronic cigarette consumption is a generally accepted reason for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD correlates to histomorphological parameters of lung structure as well as pulmonary function tests (PFT). COPD related changes affect PFT determined by conventional methods (bodyplethysmography, spirometry) as well as parameters of convective gas mixing. This study evaluates the diagnostic potential of a non-invasive aerosol method for the discrimination between healthy smokers and nonsmokers in comparison to conventional PFT. The aerosol method is based on the inhalation of small aerosol pulses suspended in particle free air and determines their changes during the breathing maneuver. Changes of aerosol pulse parameters (APP) are used to describe the convective component of gas mixing during ventilation. PFT and APP were determined in 40 healthy subjects (nonsmoker: 51.1 +/- 1.5 years; smoker: 49.6 +/- 1.5 years, 39.1 +/- 2.2 pack years) before and after a time interval of 30 months. Conventional PFT in smokers and nonsmokers showed no relevant differences between the values at the beginning and the end of the observation period. Thirty months later, at the end of the observation interval, a very similar behavior of the APP was obtained, which strongly confirmed the prior observed differences between smokers and nonsmokers. The data suggest that cigarette smoke-induced variations of lung function are also detectable in clinically asymptomatic smokers. Even in cases of normal PFT, most APP are able to discriminate between healthy smokers and nonsmokers. Since PFT showed only minor differences between both groups, it is indicated that APP are superior to PFT in the detection of early disturbances of lung ventilation in healthy smokers. Mean values of PFT and APP in smokers and nonsmokers showed a high reproducibility of the data obtained at the beginning of the study as well as at the end of the observation period. The data of our

  13. The effects of male age on sperm DNA damage in healthy non-smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, T; Eskenazi, B; Baumgartner, A; Marchetti, F; Young, S; Weldon, R; Anderson, D; Wyrobek, A

    2006-03-08

    The trend for men to have children at older ages raises concerns that advancing age may increase the production of genetically defective sperm, increasing the risks of transmitting germ-line mutations. We investigated the associations between male age and sperm DNA damage and the influence of several lifestyle factors in a healthy non-clinical group of 80 non-smokers (age: 22-80) with no known fertility problems using the sperm Comet analyses. The average percent of DNA that migrated out of the sperm nucleus under alkaline electrophoresis increased with age (0.18% per year, p=0.006); but there was no age association for damage measured under neutral conditions (p=0.7). Men who consumed >3 cups coffee per day had {approx}20% higher % tail DNA under neutral but not alkaline conditions compared to men who consumed no caffeine (p=0.005). Our findings indicate that (a) older men have increased sperm DNA damage associated with alkali-labile sites or single-strand DNA breaks, and (b) independent of age, men with substantial daily caffeine consumption have increased sperm DNA damage associated with double-strand DNA breaks. DNA damage in sperm can be converted to chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations after fertilization increasing the risks for developmental defects and genetic diseases among offspring.

  14. Airway basal cells of healthy smokers express an embryonic stem cell signature relevant to lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shaykhiev, Renat; Wang, Rui; Zwick, Rachel K; Hackett, Neil R; Leung, Roland; Moore, Malcolm A S; Sima, Camelia S; Chao, Ion Wa; Downey, Robert J; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Salit, Jacqueline; Crystal, Ronald G

    2013-09-01

    Activation of the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) signature genes has been observed in various epithelial cancers. In this study, we found that the hESC signature is selectively induced in the airway basal stem/progenitor cell population of healthy smokers (BC-S), with a pattern similar to that activated in all major types of human lung cancer. We further identified a subset of 6 BC-S hESC genes, whose coherent overexpression in lung adenocarcinoma (AdCa) was associated with reduced lung function, poorer differentiation grade, more advanced tumor stage, remarkably shorter survival, and higher frequency of TP53 mutations. BC-S shared with hESC and a considerable subset of lung carcinomas a common TP53 inactivation molecular pattern which strongly correlated with the BC-S hESC gene expression. These data provide transcriptome-based evidence that smoking-induced reprogramming of airway BC toward the hESC-like phenotype might represent a common early molecular event in the development of aggressive lung carcinomas in humans. PMID:23857717

  15. Are marketing campaigns in Taiwan by foreign tobacco companies targeting young smokers?

    PubMed Central

    Wen, C; Chen, T; Tsai, Y; Tsai, S; Chung, W; Cheng, T; Levy, D; Hsu, C; Peterson, R; Liu, W

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of promotions on cigarette sales in Taiwan after the cigarette market opened to foreign companies, and to assess whether young smokers were targeted by these companies. Methods: Trends in cigarette sales, advertising expenditure, brand preference, and cigarette consumption were examined for the period following the 1987 opening of the cigarette market. Tobacco industry internal documents from Legacy Tobacco Documents Library of the University of California, San Francisco, were searched for corporate strategies on promoting youth consumption in Taiwan. Results: Between 1995 and 2000, the inflation adjusted advertising expenditures by all foreign firms increased fourfold. Much of the expenditure was spent on brand stretching the Mild Seven (Japan) and Davidoff (Germany) brands in television advertising. By 2000, the market share of foreign cigarettes exceeded domestics by three to one among young smokers and the leading brand preferred by this segment shifted from the most popular domestic brand (Long Life) to a foreign brand (Mild Seven). Furthermore, there was a sudden increase of 16.4% in smoking rates among young adults (from 36.1% to 42.0%) during the first five years after the market opened. This was also accompanied by increased per capita cigarette consumption and decreased age of smoking initiation. Industry documents confirmed the use of strategies targeted at the young. In particular, establishing new point of sale (POS) retail stores or promotional activities at POS were found to be more effective than advertising in magazines. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that advertising increased with increased competition following the market opening, which, in turn, spurred cigarette sales and consumption. Foreign tobacco companies have deliberately targeted youth in Taiwan and succeeded in gaining three quarters of their cigarette purchases within a decade. Expanding youth consumption will incur excessive future health

  16. Comparisons of three nicotine dependence scales in a multiethnic sample of young adult menthol and non-menthol smokers

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Pebbles; Pohkrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Pagano, Ian; Vallone, Donna; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Sterling, Kymberle; Fryer, Craig S.; Moolchan, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have compared nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers in a multiethnic sample of young adult daily cigarette smokers. This study examines differences in nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers and the associations of nicotine dependence with quitting behaviors among Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and White cigarette smokers aged 18–35. Methods Craigslist.org, newspaper advertisements, and peer-to-peer referrals were used to recruit daily smokers (n = 186) into a lab-based study. Nicotine dependence was assessed using the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS), and the brief Wisconsin Inventory for Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine differences in nicotine dependence between menthol and non-menthol smokers and the relationship between each nicotine dependence scale with self-efficacy to quit, quit attempt in the past 12 months, and number of attempts. Results Menthol smokers were more likely to report difficulty refraining from smoking in places where forbidden (p = .04) and had higher scores on social/environmental goads subscale of the WISDM (p = . 0005). Two-way interaction models of the FTND and menthol status showed that menthol smokers with higher levels of dependence were more likely to have tried to quit smoking in the past 12 months (p = .02), but were less likely to have had multiple quit attempts (p =.01). Conclusions Components of the FTND and WISDM distinguish levels of dependence between menthol and non-menthol smokers. Higher FTND scores were associated with having a quit attempt, but fewer quit attempts among menthol smokers. PMID:25744873

  17. Exhaled and non-exhaled non-invasive markers for assessment of respiratory inflammation in patients with stable COPD and healthy smokers.

    PubMed

    Santini, Giuseppe; Mores, Nadia; Shohreh, Rugia; Valente, Salvatore; Dabrowska, Malgorzata; Trové, Andrea; Zini, Gina; Cattani, Paola; Fuso, Leonello; Mautone, Antonella; Mondino, Chiara; Pagliari, Gabriella; Sala, Angelo; Folco, Giancarlo; Aiello, Marina; Pisi, Roberta; Chetta, Alfredo; Losi, Monica; Clini, Enrico; Ciabattoni, Giovanni; Montuschi, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    We aimed at comparing exhaled and non-exhaled non-invasive markers of respiratory inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy subjects and define their relationships with smoking habit. Forty-eight patients with stable COPD who were ex-smokers, 17 patients with stable COPD who were current smokers, 12 healthy current smokers and 12 healthy ex-smokers were included in a cross-sectional, observational study. Inflammatory outcomes, including prostaglandin (PG) E2 and 15-F2t-isoprostane (15-F2t-IsoP) concentrations in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and sputum supernatants, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and sputum cell counts, and functional (spirometry) outcomes were measured. Sputum PGE2 was elevated in both groups of smokers compared with ex-smoker counterpart (COPD: P  <  0.02; healthy subjects: P  <  0.03), whereas EBC PGE2 was elevated in current (P  =  0.0065) and ex-smokers with COPD (P  =  0.0029) versus healthy ex-smokers. EBC 15-F2t-IsoP, a marker of oxidative stress, was increased in current and ex-smokers with COPD (P  <  0.0001 for both) compared with healthy ex-smokers, whereas urinary 15-F2t-IsoP was elevated in both smoker groups (COPD: P  <  0.01; healthy subjects: P  <  0.02) versus healthy ex-smokers. FENO was elevated in ex-smokers with COPD versus smoker groups (P  =  0.0001 for both). These data suggest that the biological meaning of these inflammatory markers depends on type of marker and biological matrix in which is measured. An approach combining different types of outcomes can be used for assessing respiratory inflammation in patients with COPD. Large studies are required to establish the clinical utility of this strategy. PMID:26814886

  18. Exposure to celebrity-endorsed small cigar promotions and susceptibility to use among young adult cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Kymberle L; Moore, Roland S; Pitts, Nicole; Duong, Melissa; Ford, Kentya H; Eriksen, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist's endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers' susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18-35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist's endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54). Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74) and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08) were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers' exposure to the music artist's small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking. PMID:24371444

  19. Exposure to Celebrity-Endorsed Small Cigar Promotions and Susceptibility to Use among Young Adult Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Kymberle L.; Moore, Roland S.; Pitts, Nicole; Duong, Melissa; Ford, Kentya H.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist's endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers' susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18–35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist's endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54). Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74) and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08) were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers' exposure to the music artist's small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking. PMID:24371444

  20. Altered Functional Connectivity Strength in Abstinent Chronic Cocaine Smokers Compared to Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Ray, Suchismita; Gohel, Suril; Biswal, Bharat B

    2015-10-01

    Past research involving cocaine and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) has shown altered functional connectivity within the frontal and between the frontal and other cortical and subcortical brain regions in chronic users of cocaine. However, there have been discrepancies in literature regarding the relationship between RSFC between brain regions and cocaine use behavior. This study explored the RSFC between brain regions in cocaine smokers abstinent from cocaine use for 72 h and healthy controls. Also, the relationship between RSFC between brain regions and various cocaine use measures (cocaine use duration; frequency, and money spent on cocaine/week) was examined. Twenty chronic cocaine users and 17 controls completed a resting-state scan and an anatomical MPRAGE scan. Group independent component analysis performed on functional magnetic resonance imaging data identified 13 ICs pertaining to distinct resting-state networks, and group-level differences were examined. To examine inter-network functional connectivity between brain regions, these 13 ICs were divided into 61 distinct regions of interest (ROIs). Correlations were calculated between 61 ROI time series. For the ROI pairs that significantly differed from controls in connectivity strength, correlations were computed between connectivity strength and cocaine use measures. Results showed an enhanced RSFC within the sensory motor cortex and the left frontal-parietal network in cocaine users than controls. An increased inter-network RSFC between frontal-temporal and frontal-parietal brain regions, and a decreased RSFC between parietal-parietal, occipital-limbic, occipital-occipital, and occipital-parietal brain regions was found in cocaine users. This study demonstrated that intra-network connectivity strength of sensory motor cortex was negatively correlated with years of cocaine use. Inter-network connectivity strength between occipital-limbic brain regions was positively correlated with years of

  1. Music and Movement for Young Children's Healthy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Morris, Vivian Gunn; Meredith, Cathy D.; Hicks, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Young children enjoy moving around when they hear music. Children take pleasure in physical activities that contribute to their healthy development. Physical activities are vital to retain healthy bodies, and inactivity is one cause of obesity in young children (Dow, 2010; Izumi-Taylor & Morris, 2007). This article describes how teachers and…

  2. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors, Smoking Cessation Idea and Education Level among Young Adult Male Smokers in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Lingli; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In 2012 in China, 52.9% of men were reported to smoke while only 2.4% of women smoked. This study explored the smoking-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) among young adult male smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four municipal areas of Chongqing using a questionnaire administered to 536 natives young male smokers aged 18–45 years old. Results: The total score of smoking cognition, the total score of smoking attitude and the total score of positive behavior to quit smoking was significantly different among the three groups by education. Besides, 30.97% of male smokers never seriously thought about quitting smoking. Logistic regression analysis found smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and sociodemographic factors affect having smoking cessation idea. But no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking in a sample of higher education. No statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.03012, p = 0.6811), and also no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08869, p = 0.2364)  in the sample of higher education young adult males Conclusions: Young adult males with higher education have a better knowledge of smoking hazards and a more positive attitude toward smoking, however, this knowledge and attitude do not necessarily translate into health behavioral outcomes such as not smoking. Overall the present findings indicate that no statistically significant correlation between the education level and quitting smoking idea exists among young adult male smokers in China. This survey gives a snapshot of the impact of education on smoking-related KAP among young adults male smokers. PMID:25689992

  3. A Randomized Trial of an Avatar-Hosted Multiple Behavior Change Intervention for Young Adult Smokers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young adulthood is a critical transition period for the development of health behaviors. We present here the results of a randomized controlled trial of an online avatar-hosted personal health makeover program designed for young adult smokers. Methods We conducted a three-group randomized trial comparing delivery of general lifestyle content (Tx1), personally tailored health information (Tx2), and personally tailored health information plus online video–based peer coaching (Tx3) as part of a 6-week online health program. Participants were asked to set weekly goals around eating breakfast, exercise, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking. Eligibility criteria included age (18–30 years) and smoking status (any cigarette use in the previous 30 days). The primary outcome was self-reported 30-day abstinence measured 12 weeks postenrollment. Results Participant (n = 1698) characteristics were balanced across the groups (72% women, mean age 24, 26% nonwhite, 32% high school education or less, and 50% daily smokers). Considering intention to treat, 30-day smoking abstinence rates were statistically significantly higher in the intervention groups (Tx1 = 11%, Tx2 = 23%, Tx3 = 31%, P < .001). Participants in the intervention groups were also more likely to reduce their number of days spent on binge drinking and increase their number of days eating breakfast and exercising. Overall, intervention group participants were much more likely to make positive changes in at least three or four of the target behaviors (Tx1 = 19%, Tx2 = 39%, Tx3 = 41%, P < .001). Conclusions This online avatar-hosted personal health makeover “show” increased smoking abstinence and induced positive changes in multiple related health behaviors. Addition of the online video–based peer coaching further improved behavioral outcomes. PMID:24395994

  4. Cigarette packaging and health warnings: the impact of plain packaging and message framing on young smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Niaura, Raymond S.; Evans, W. Douglas; Hammond, David; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the impact of pictorial cigarette warning labels, warning label message framing, and plain cigarette packaging on young adult smokers’ motivation to quit. Methods Smokers ages 18–30 (n=740) from a consumer research panel were randomized to one of four experimental conditions where they viewed online images of 4 cigarette packs with warnings about lung disease, cancer, stroke/heart disease, and death, respectively. Packs differed across conditions by warning message framing (gain versus loss) and packaging (branded versus plain). Measures captured demographics, smoking behavior, covariates, and motivation to quit in response to cigarette packs. Results Pictorial warnings about lung disease and cancer generated the strongest motivation to quit across conditions. Adjusting for pre-test motivation and covariates, a message framing by packaging interaction revealed gain-framed warnings on plain packs generated greater motivation to quit for lung disease, cancer, and mortality warnings (p < 0.05), compared with loss-framed warnings on plain packs. Conclusions Warnings combining pictorial depictions of smoking-related health risks with text-based messages about how quitting reduces risks may achieve better outcomes among young adults, especially in countries considering or implementing plain packaging regulations. PMID:24420310

  5. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Alyssa Marie M.; Fagan, Pebbles; Hamamura, Faith D.; Lagua, Ian Joseph N.; Liu, Jenny; Park, Devin J.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Pagano, Ian; Cassel, Kevin; Sy, Angela; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Boushey, Carol J.; Franke, Adrian; Clanton, Mark S.; Moolchan, Eric T.; Alexander, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates 1) the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2) the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 175). A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000). The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000). After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04). The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02) in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers. PMID:26844173

  6. Profiling the Proteome of Exhaled Breath Condensate in Healthy Smokers and COPD Patients by LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Fumagalli, Marco; Ferrari, Fabio; Luisetti, Maurizio; Stolk, Jan; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Capuano, Daniela; Viglio, Simona; Fregonese, Laura; Cerveri, Isa; Corana, Federica; Tinelli, Carmine; Iadarola, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Three pools of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from non-smokers plus healthy smokers (NS + HS, n = 45); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) without emphysema (COPD, n = 15) and subjects with pulmonary emphysema associated with α1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD, n = 23) were used for an exploratory proteomic study aimed at generating fingerprints of these groups that can be used in future pathophysiological and perhaps even clinical research. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was the platform applied for this hypothesis-free investigation. Analysis of pooled specimens resulted in the production of a “fingerprint” made of 44 proteins for NS/HS; 17 for COPD and 15 for the group of AATD subjects. Several inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2; IL-12, α and β subunits, IL-15, interferon α and γ, tumor necrosis factor α); Type I and II cytokeratins; two SP-A isoforms; Calgranulin A and B and α1-antitrypsin were detected and validated through the use of surface enhanced laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry (SELDI-MS) and/or by Western blot (WB) analysis. These results are the prelude of quantitative studies aimed at identifying which of these proteins hold promise as identifiers of differences that could distinguish healthy subjects from patients. PMID:23203040

  7. [Non-smokers about smokers].

    PubMed

    Kozarska, Maria; Waligóra, Aleksandra; Szumska, Magdalena; Tyrpień-Golder, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Although the knowledge that smoking is a health hazard is widely accessible, this addiction remains serious social problem among young generation. It poses a great challenge to therapists, economic consequences impair both national and family budgets and that is a reason why governments and publicly-founded institutions promote anti-nicotine behaviours. But still rate of young smokers is very high. Aim of work was to get a real picture of smokers seen through nonsmoker's eyes. The used questionnaire was prepared exclusively for that survey. There were 97 students of medicine that participated in the poll. The poll showed 70 of them had a negative picture of smokers. Soft personality given in to addiction was the main feature. The knowledge about compounds of tobacco smoke was very poor, much like its influence on the human body. Survey showed general need for further education in that matter during medical studies. PMID:26946564

  8. Results of a Feasibility and Acceptability Trial of an Online Smoking Cessation Program Targeting Young Adult Nondaily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Schauer, Gillian L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite increases in nondaily smoking among young adults, no prior research has aimed to develop and test an intervention targeting this group. Thus, we aimed to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of an online intervention targeting college student nondaily smokers. We conducted a one-arm feasibility and acceptability trial of a four-week online intervention with weekly contacts among 31 college student nondaily smokers. We conducted assessments at baseline (B), end of treatment (EOT), and six-week followup (FU). We maintained a 100% retention rate over the 10-week period. Google Analytics data indicated positive utilization results, and 71.0% were satisfied with the program. There were increases (P < .001) in the number of people refraining from smoking for the past 30 days and reducing their smoking from B to EOT and to FU, with additional individuals reporting being quit despite recent smoking. Participants also increased in their perceptions of how bothersome secondhand smoke is to others (P < .05); however, no other attitudinal variables were altered. Thus, this intervention demonstrated feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness among college-aged nondaily smokers. Additional research is needed to understand how nondaily smokers define cessation, improve measures for cessation, and examine theoretical constructs related to smoking among this population. PMID:22570666

  9. Healthy Young Children: A Manual for Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Abby Shapiro, Ed.; And Others

    This manual, which was developed as a reference and resource guide for program directors and teachers of young children, describes high standards for health policies. Also provided are information based on current research and recommendations from experts in health and early childhood education. The manual contains 7 sections and 19 chapters.…

  10. Healthy Behavior Trajectories between Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Frech, Adrianne

    2012-06-01

    Healthy behaviors including adequate exercise and sleep, eating breakfast, maintaining a healthy weight, and not smoking or binge drinking inhibit chronic disease. However, little is known about how these behaviors change across life course stages, or the social factors that shape healthy behaviors over time. I use multilevel growth models and waves I-III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=10,775) to evaluate relationships between adolescents' psychosocial resources, social support, and family of origin characteristics during adolescence and healthy behavior trajectories through young adulthood (ages 13-24). I find that healthy behaviors decline dramatically during the transition to young adulthood. Social support resources, such as school connectedness and support from parents, as well as living with non-smoking parents, are associated with higher levels of healthy behaviors across adolescence and adulthood. Social support from friends is associated with lower engagement in these behaviors, as is living in a single parent family or with a smoking parent during adolescence. Findings indicate that psychosocial, social support, and family of origin resources during adolescence exert a persistent, though generally not cumulative, influence on healthy behavior trajectories through young adulthood. PMID:22745923

  11. Craving, Cue Reactivity, and Stimulus Control Among Early-Stage Young Smokers: Effects of Smoking Intensity and Gender

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking initiation usually begins in adolescence, but how and for whom nicotine dependence emerges during this period is unclear. The cue-reactivity paradigm is well suited to examine one marker of dependence: craving-related stimulus control, i.e., the ability of environmental cues to elicit craving to smoke. This study examined the effects of both level of smoking involvement (daily vs. occasional smoking) and gender on reactivity to both smoking and alcohol cues. Methods: Young (age range 16–20; 42% female) daily (n = 55) and occasional (n = 52) smokers were exposed to each of three counterbalanced cues: (a) in vivo smoking (e.g., sight, smell, lighting of cigarette), (b) alcohol (e.g., opening, pouring, and smell of preferred beverage), and (c) neutral cue. Results: Daily smokers exhibited higher levels of tonic (i.e., noncue-elicited) craving than did occasional smokers. Both groups showed significant increases in craving in response to cues (i.e., cue-elicited craving), with little evidence that cue-elicited craving differed between groups. Females were more cue reactive to both the alcohol and smoking cues than males, particularly for the positively reinforced aspects of smoking (i.e., hedonic craving). There were no gender × group interaction effects in response to either the alcohol or the smoking cue. Conclusions: Findings show the presence of cue-elicited craving even among occasional smokers and are consistent with literature demonstrating heightened sensitivity to environmental cues among females. Cue-elicited craving may be one mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of smoking behavior and perhaps to the development of nicotine dependence within early stage smokers. PMID:24042699

  12. AKT1 genotype moderates the acute psychotomimetic effects of naturalistically smoked cannabis in young cannabis smokers.

    PubMed

    Morgan, C J A; Freeman, T P; Powell, J; Curran, H V

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cannabis daily doubles an individual's risk of developing a psychotic disorder, yet indicators of specific vulnerability have proved largely elusive. Genetic variation is one potential risk modifier. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the AKT1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes have been implicated in the interaction between cannabis, psychosis and cognition, but no studies have examined their impact on an individual's acute response to smoked cannabis. A total 442 healthy young cannabis users were tested while intoxicated with their own cannabis-which was analysed for delta-9-tetrahydrocannbinol (THC) and cannabidiol content-and also ± 7 days apart when drug-free. Psychotomimetic symptoms and working memory were assessed on both the sessions. Variation at the rs2494732 locus of the AKT1 gene predicted acute psychotic response to cannabis along with dependence on the drug and baseline schizotypal symptoms. Working memory following cannabis acutely was worse in females, with some suggestion of an impact of COMT polymorphism on working memory when drug-free. These findings are the first to demonstrate that AKT1 mediates the acute response to cannabis in otherwise healthy individuals and implicate the AKT1 pathway as a possible target for prevention and treatment of cannabis psychosis. PMID:26882038

  13. AKT1 genotype moderates the acute psychotomimetic effects of naturalistically smoked cannabis in young cannabis smokers

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, C J A; Freeman, T P; Powell, J; Curran, H V

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cannabis daily doubles an individual's risk of developing a psychotic disorder, yet indicators of specific vulnerability have proved largely elusive. Genetic variation is one potential risk modifier. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the AKT1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes have been implicated in the interaction between cannabis, psychosis and cognition, but no studies have examined their impact on an individual's acute response to smoked cannabis. A total 442 healthy young cannabis users were tested while intoxicated with their own cannabis—which was analysed for delta-9-tetrahydrocannbinol (THC) and cannabidiol content—and also ±7 days apart when drug-free. Psychotomimetic symptoms and working memory were assessed on both the sessions. Variation at the rs2494732 locus of the AKT1 gene predicted acute psychotic response to cannabis along with dependence on the drug and baseline schizotypal symptoms. Working memory following cannabis acutely was worse in females, with some suggestion of an impact of COMT polymorphism on working memory when drug-free. These findings are the first to demonstrate that AKT1 mediates the acute response to cannabis in otherwise healthy individuals and implicate the AKT1 pathway as a possible target for prevention and treatment of cannabis psychosis. PMID:26882038

  14. Acute thermogenic effects of nicotine and alcohol in healthy male and female smokers.

    PubMed

    Perkins, K A; Sexton, J E; DiMarco, A

    1996-07-01

    Nicotine intake is associated with lower body weight in both women and men. Despite its energy content, alcohol consumption is also associated with lower body weight in women but not in men. Each drug may reduce weight by acutely increasing thermogenesis. During four sessions, nicotine (20 micrograms/kg per dosing) or placebo was given to male and female smokers (n = 9 each) via measured-dose nasal spray every 30 min for 2 h after consumption of diet tonic water with or without alcohol (0.5 g/kg). Each nicotine/placebo dosing was followed by assessment of energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry. Alcohol alone induced no significant effect in men or women, whereas nicotine alone and combined with alcohol induced a significant thermogenic effect in men but not women. These results are consistent with other research suggesting a reduced thermogenic responsiveness to drugs in women and indicate that nicotine must act via appetite suppression to reduce body weight in women. Similarly, these findings do not support the notion that alcohol is inversely related to body weight in women because of excessive acute thermogenesis. PMID:8804681

  15. Endoscopic autofluorescence micro-spectroimaging of alveoli: comparative spectral analysis of amiodarone-induced pneumonitis patients and healthy smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourg-Heckly, G.; Vever-Bizet, C.; Blondel, W.; Salaün, M.; Thiberville, L.

    2011-03-01

    Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) with spectroscopic analysis capability was used during bronchoscopy, at 488nm excitation, to record autofluorescence images and associated emission spectra of the alveoli of 5 healthy smoking volunteers and 7 non-smoking amiodarone-induced pneumonitis (AIP) patients. Alveolar fluorescent cellular infiltration was observed in both groups. Our objective was to assess the potential of spectroscopy in differentiating these two groups. Methods: We previously demonstrated that in healthy smokers alveolar elastin backbone and tobacco tar contained in macrophages contribute to the observed signal. Each normalized spectrum was modeled as a linear combination of 3 components: Sexp(λ) = Ce.Se(λ)+Ct.St(λ)+CG.SG(λ), Ce, Ct and CG are amplitude coefficients. Se(λ) and St(λ) are respectively the normalized elastin and tobacco tar emission spectra measured experimentally and SG(λ) a gaussian spectrum with tunable width and central wavelength. Levenbergt-Marquardt algorithm determined the optimal set of coefficients. Results: AIP patient autofluorescence spectra can be uniquely modelized by the linear combination of the elastin spectrum (Ce = 0.61) and of a gaussian spectrum (center wavelength 550nm, width 40nm); the tobacco tar spectrum coefficient Ct is found to be zero. For healthy smoking volunteers, only two spectral components were considered: the tobacco tar component (Ct = 1,03) and the elastin component (Ce = 0). Conclusion: Spectral analysis is able to distinguish cellular infiltrated images from AIP patients and healthy smoking volunteers. It appears as a powerful complementary tool for FCFM.

  16. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  17. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  18. Autobiographical memory after acute stress in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Tollenaar, Marieke S; Elzinga, Bernet M; Spinhoven, Philip; Everaerd, Walter

    2009-04-01

    Autobiographical memories have been found to be less specific after hydrocortisone administration in healthy men, resembling memory deficits in, for example, depression. This is the first study to investigate the effects of stress-induced elevated cortisol levels on autobiographic memory specificity and experience in healthy young men. Autobiographical memories were elicited by neutral and negative cue words, with instructions to recall either recent or remote memories. No effect of psychosocial stress was found on memory specificity or experience, but cortisol increases tended to be related to less specific, recent memories elicited by neutral cue words, especially when participants were physically aroused during memory retrieval. These results indicate that autobiographical memories are fairly resistant to an acute stressor in healthy young men, but that endogenous cortisol increases might be related to autobiographical memory retrieval. More research into the relation between endogenous cortisol increases and autobiographic memory retrieval is needed, especially in stress-related disorders. PMID:19156564

  19. Effects of the small molecule SIRT1 activator, SRT2104 on arterial stiffness in otherwise healthy cigarette smokers and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Venkatasubramanian, Sowmya; Noh, Radzi M; Daga, Shruti; Langrish, Jeremy P; Mills, Nicholas L; Waterhouse, Brian R; Hoffmann, Ethan; Jacobson, Eric W; Lang, Ninian N; Frier, Brian M; Newby, David E

    2016-01-01

    Objective Arterial stiffness increases with age, and is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcome including increased mortality. The effect of the oral small molecule SIRT1 activator, SRT2104, on arterial stiffness was examined in otherwise healthy cigarette smokers and participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods 24 otherwise healthy cigarette smokers and 15 people with stable type 2 diabetes were randomised in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial and received 28 days of oral SRT2104 (2.0 g/day) or matched placebo. Blood pressure was measured using non-invasive oscillatory sphygmomanometry. Pulse wave analysis and velocity were measured using applanation tonometry at baseline and the end of each treatment period. Owing to the small sample size and similar trends for both groups, data for the two groups were pooled (post hoc analysis). Results Compared to placebo, treatment with SRT2104 was associated with a significant reduction in augmentation pressure (p=0.0273) and a trend towards improvement in the augmentation index and corrected augmentation index (p>0.05 for both). However, no changes were observed in pulse wave velocity and time to wave reflection (p>0.05). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures remained unchanged throughout the study. Treatment by cohort interaction was not significant for any of the pulse wave parameters, suggesting that the response to SRT2104 in otherwise healthy smokers and people with diabetes was consistent. Conclusions SRT2104 may improve measures of arterial stiffness in otherwise healthy cigarette smokers and in participants with type 2 diabetes. Definitive conclusions are not possible given the small sample size and exploratory nature of this analysis. Trial registration number NCT01031108. PMID:27239324

  20. 'Big, strong and healthy'. Young children's identification of food and drink that contribute to healthy growth.

    PubMed

    Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Hennessy, Eilis; Dean, Moira; Hollywood, Lynsey

    2013-12-01

    Growing awareness of the importance of healthy diet in early childhood makes it important to chart the development of children's understanding of food and drink. This study aimed to document young children's evaluation of food and drink as healthy, and to explore relationships with socioeconomic status, family eating habits, and children's television viewing. Data were gathered from children aged 3-5 years (n=172) in diverse socioeconomic settings in Ireland, and from their parents. Results demonstrated that children had very high levels of ability to identify healthy foods as important for growth and health, but considerably less ability to reject unhealthy items, although knowledge of these increased significantly between ages 3 and 5. Awareness of which foods were healthy, and which foods were not, was not related to family socioeconomic status, parent or child home eating habits, or children's television viewing. Results highlighted the importance of examining young children's response patterns, as many of the youngest showed a consistent 'yes bias'; however, after excluding these responses, the significant findings remained. Findings suggest it is important to teach children about less healthy foods in the preschool years. PMID:23973928

  1. The Relationship Between Young Adult Smokers' Beliefs About Nicotine Addiction and Smoking-Related Affect and Cognitions.

    PubMed

    Waters, Erika A; Janssen, Eva; Kaufman, Annette R; Peterson, Laurel M; Muscanell, Nicole L; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Stock, Michelle L

    2016-06-01

    Risk beliefs and self-efficacy play important roles in explaining smoking-related outcomes and are important to target in tobacco control interventions. However, information is lacking about the underlying beliefs that drive these constructs. The present study investigated the interrelationships among young adult smokers' beliefs about the nature of nicotine addiction and smoking-related affect and cognitions (i.e., feelings of risk, worry about experiencing the harms of smoking, self-efficacy of quitting, and intentions to quit). Smokers (n = 333) were recruited from two large universities. Results showed that quit intentions were associated with feelings of risk, but not with worry or self-efficacy. Furthermore, higher feelings of risk were associated with lower beliefs that addiction is an inevitable consequence of smoking and with lower beliefs that the harms of smoking are delayed. This suggests that it is important for health messages to counter the possible negative effects of messages that strongly emphasize the addictiveness of nicotine, possibly by emphasizing the importance of quitting earlier rather than later. The findings also add to the evidence base that feelings of risk are powerful predictors of behavioral intentions. Furthermore, our results suggest that in some circumstances, feelings of risk predict quit intentions beyond that predicted by worry and self-efficacy. Gaining additional understanding of the tobacco-related beliefs that can increase feelings of risk and incorporating those beliefs into educational campaigns may improve the quality of such campaigns and reduce tobacco use. PMID:25903051

  2. The relationship between young adult smokers' beliefs about nicotine addiction and smoking-related affect and cognitions

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Erika A.; Janssen, Eva; Kaufman, Annette R.; Peterson, Laurel M.; Muscanell, Nicole L.; Guadagno, Rosanna E.; Stock, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Risk beliefs and self-efficacy play important roles in explaining smoking-related outcomes and are important to target in tobacco control interventions. However, information is lacking about the underlying beliefs that drive these constructs. The present study investigated the interrelationships among young adult smokers' beliefs about the nature of nicotine addiction and smoking-related affect and cognitions (i.e., feelings of risk, worry about experiencing the harms of smoking, self-efficacy of quitting, and intentions to quit). Smokers (N=333) were recruited from two large universities. Results showed that quit intentions were associated with feelings of risk, but not with worry or self-efficacy. Furthermore, higher feelings of risk were associated with lower beliefs that addiction is an inevitable consequence of smoking and with lower beliefs that the harms of smoking are delayed. This suggests that it is important for health messages to counter the possible negative effects of messages that strongly emphasize the addictiveness of nicotine, possibly by emphasizing the importance of quitting earlier rather than later. The findings also add to the evidence base that feelings of risk are powerful predictors of behavioral intentions. Furthermore, our results suggest that in some circumstances, feelings of risk predict quit intentions beyond that predicted by worry and self-efficacy. Gaining additional understanding of the tobacco-related beliefs that can increase feelings of risk and incorporating those beliefs into educational campaigns may improve the quality of such campaigns and reduce tobacco use. PMID:25903051

  3. Cerebellar contributions to neurological soft signs in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Hirjak, Dusan; Thomann, Philipp A; Kubera, Katharina M; Stieltjes, Bram; Wolf, Robert C

    2016-02-01

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) are frequently found in psychiatric disorders of significant neurodevelopmental origin, e.g., in patients with schizophrenia and autism. Yet NSS are also present in healthy individuals suggesting a neurodevelopmental signature of motor function, probably as a continuum between health and disease. So far, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying these motor phenomena in healthy persons, and it is even less known whether the cerebellum contributes to NSS expression. Thirty-seven healthy young adults (mean age = 23 years) were studied using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and "resting-state" functional MRI at three Tesla. NSS levels were measured using the "Heidelberg Scale." Cerebellar gray matter volume was investigated using cerebellum-optimized voxel-based analysis methods. Cerebellar function was assessed using regional homogeneity (ReHo), a measure of local network strength. The relationship between cerebellar structure and function and NSS was analyzed using regression models. There was no significant relationship between cerebellar volume and NSS (p < 0.005, uncorrected for height, p < 0.05 corrected for spatial extent). Positive associations with cerebellar lobule VI activity were found for the "motor coordination" and "hard signs" NSS domains. A negative relationship was found between lobule VI activity and "complex motor task" domain (p < 0.005, uncorrected for height, p < 0.05 corrected for spatial extent). The data indicate that in healthy young adults, distinct NSS domains are related to cerebellar activity, specifically with activity of cerebellar subregions with known cortical somatomotor projections. In contrast, cerebellar volume is not predictive of NSS in healthy persons. PMID:25708455

  4. Anxiety sensitivity: Concurrent associations with negative affect smoking motives and abstinence self-confidence among young adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Feldner, Matthew T; Leen-Feldner, Ellen; McLeish, Alison C; Gregor, Kristin

    2006-03-01

    The present study evaluated the association between the lower-order facets of Anxiety Sensitivity construct (Physical, Mental Incapacitation and Social Concerns) and theoretically relevant cognitive-based smoking processes. Participants were 151 young adult daily smokers (63 females); mean number of cigarettes/day = 12.3 [S.D. = 5.6]). Both AS Physical and Mental Incapacitation Concerns were significantly associated with greater negative affect reduction smoking motives and lower levels of self-confidence in remaining abstinent from smoking when emotionally distressed. The observed effects were over and above the variance accounted for by nicotine dependence, smoking rate, and gender. Results are discussed in relation to better understanding cognitive-based smoking processes among individuals at heightened risk for panic psychopathology. PMID:15964151

  5. Analysis of FEV1 decline in relatively healthy heavy smokers: implications of expressing changes in FEV1 in relative terms.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Laura H; Dirksen, Asger; Shaker, Saher B; Skovgaard, Lene T; Dahlbäck, Magnus; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2014-02-01

    Progressive decline in lung function has been widely accepted as the hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, recent evidence indicates that the rate of decline measured as decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) is higher in mild to moderate COPD than in severe COPD. Usually changes in FEV1 are measured in ml that is "absolute"; however, changes can also be measured "relative" as a percentage of the actual FEV1. We hypothesize that relative measurements could be more appropriate than absolute measurements for describing changes in lung function. We analyzed data from 3,218 relatively healthy heavy smokers who participated in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. The influences of age, sex, height, body mass index, smoking, and severity of airflow limitation on FEV1 were analyzed in mixed effects models. In absolute terms those with the best lung function consistently showed the steepest decline, whereas in relative terms most fast decliners are found among those with low lung function. Measuring changes in relative terms implied statistically significant acceleration of decline with advancing age, smoking (pack-years) and severity of airflow limitation. Relative measurements may lead to a better understanding of changes in lung function. Smoking and severity of airflow limitation speed up the loss of lung function, and this emphasizes the importance of abstaining from smoking the sooner the better. Measuring changes in relative terms could have important implications for the interpretation of results from clinical trials where FEV1 is the primary outcome. DLCST; www.ClinicalTrials.org , registration number: NCT00496977. PMID:24111638

  6. Adaptation of multijoint coordination during standing balance in healthy young and healthy old individuals.

    PubMed

    Engelhart, D; Pasma, J H; Schouten, A C; Aarts, R G K M; Meskers, C G M; Maier, A B; van der Kooij, H

    2016-03-01

    Standing balance requires multijoint coordination between the ankles and hips. We investigated how humans adapt their multijoint coordination to adjust to various conditions and whether the adaptation differed between healthy young participants and healthy elderly. Balance was disturbed by push/pull rods, applying two continuous and independent force disturbances at the level of the hip and between the shoulder blades. In addition, external force fields were applied, represented by an external stiffness at the hip, either stabilizing or destabilizing the participants' balance. Multivariate closed-loop system-identification techniques were used to describe the neuromuscular control mechanisms by quantifying the corrective joint torques as a response to body sway, represented by frequency response functions (FRFs). Model fits on the FRFs resulted in an estimation of time delays, intrinsic stiffness, reflexive stiffness, and reflexive damping of both the ankle and hip joint. The elderly generated similar corrective joint torques but had reduced body sway compared with the young participants, corresponding to the increased FRF magnitude with age. When a stabilizing or destabilizing external force field was applied at the hip, both young and elderly participants adapted their multijoint coordination by lowering or respectively increasing their neuromuscular control actions around the ankles, expressed in a change of FRF magnitude. However, the elderly adapted less compared with the young participants. Model fits on the FRFs showed that elderly had higher intrinsic and reflexive stiffness of the ankle, together with higher time delays of the hip. Furthermore, the elderly adapted their reflexive stiffness around the ankle joint less compared with young participants. These results imply that elderly were stiffer and were less able to adapt to external force fields. PMID:26719084

  7. Pramipexole Impairs Stimulus-Response Learning in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Haley; Vo, Andrew; Seergobin, Ken N; MacDonald, Penny A

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic therapy has paradoxical effects on cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, with some functions worsened and others improved. The dopamine overdose hypothesis is proposed as an explanation for these opposing effects of medication taking into account the varying levels of dopamine within different brain regions in PD. The detrimental effects of medication on cognition have been attributed to exogenous dopamine overdose in brain regions with spared dopamine levels in PD. It has been demonstrated that learning is most commonly worsened by dopaminergic medication. The current study aimed to investigate whether the medication-related learning impairment exhibited in PD patients is due to a main effect of medication by evaluating the dopamine overdose hypothesis in healthy young adults. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 40 healthy young undergraduate students completed a stimulus-response learning task. Half of the participants were treated with 0.5 mg of pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, whereas the other half were treated with a placebo. We found that stimulus-response learning was significantly impaired in participants on pramipexole relative to placebo controls. These findings are consistent with the dopamine overdose hypothesis and suggest that dopaminergic medication impairs learning independent of PD pathology. Our results have important clinical implications for conditions treated with pramipexole, particularly PD, restless leg syndrome, some forms of dystonia, and potentially depression. PMID:27594823

  8. Pramipexole Impairs Stimulus-Response Learning in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gallant, Haley; Vo, Andrew; Seergobin, Ken N.; MacDonald, Penny A.

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic therapy has paradoxical effects on cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, with some functions worsened and others improved. The dopamine overdose hypothesis is proposed as an explanation for these opposing effects of medication taking into account the varying levels of dopamine within different brain regions in PD. The detrimental effects of medication on cognition have been attributed to exogenous dopamine overdose in brain regions with spared dopamine levels in PD. It has been demonstrated that learning is most commonly worsened by dopaminergic medication. The current study aimed to investigate whether the medication-related learning impairment exhibited in PD patients is due to a main effect of medication by evaluating the dopamine overdose hypothesis in healthy young adults. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 40 healthy young undergraduate students completed a stimulus-response learning task. Half of the participants were treated with 0.5 mg of pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, whereas the other half were treated with a placebo. We found that stimulus-response learning was significantly impaired in participants on pramipexole relative to placebo controls. These findings are consistent with the dopamine overdose hypothesis and suggest that dopaminergic medication impairs learning independent of PD pathology. Our results have important clinical implications for conditions treated with pramipexole, particularly PD, restless leg syndrome, some forms of dystonia, and potentially depression. PMID:27594823

  9. Effects of dieting status and cigarette deprivation on progressive ratio responding for cigarette puffs by young women smokers.

    PubMed

    Jenks, Rebecca A; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-04-01

    There is evidence from self-report measures which suggests that young women dieters find cigarette smoking less rewarding than non-dieters. We aimed to further elucidate differences between dieters and non-dieters in their evaluation of smoking using a behavioural measure of drug reward. Thirty female undergraduates attended two sessions (cigarette deprived and non-deprived). A computer-based progressive ratio operant procedure was employed to assess the amount of effort that participants were willing to expend to gain a puff on a cigarette. The point at which responding ceased was taken as a measure of drug reward (breakpoint). Self-report measures of sensory/hedonic aspects of smoking were also completed. The breakpoints of both dieters and non-dieters were greater under deprived than non-deprived conditions but the breakpoints of dieters were significantly lower than those of the non-dieting smokers under both conditions. Self-reported enjoyment of smoking was lower for dieters than non-dieters and reports for non-dieters but not dieters were affected by deprivation level. Both behavioural and self-report measures of rewarding aspects of smoking suggest that young women dieters find smoking less rewarding than non-dieters, but self-report measures are more resistant to deprivation effects for dieters. This is consistent with the suggestion that subjective and behavioural measures assess different dimensions of the rewarding effects of smoking. PMID:21169394

  10. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Escota, Gerome; Önen, Nur

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed. PMID:23778059

  11. Salvia lavandulaefolia (Spanish sage) enhances memory in healthy young volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tildesley, N T J; Kennedy, D O; Perry, E K; Ballard, C G; Savelev, S; Wesnes, K A; Scholey, A B

    2003-06-01

    Sage (Salvia) has a longstanding reputation in British herbal encyclopaedias as an agent that enhances memory, although there is little evidence regarding the efficacy of sage from systematized trials. Based on known pharmacokinetic and binding properties, it was hypothesised that acute administration of sage would enhance memory in young adult volunteers. Two experiments utilised a placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, crossover methodology. In Trial 1, 20 participants received 50, 100 and 150 microl of a standardised essential oil extract of Salvia lavandulaefolia and placebo. In Trial 2, 24 participants received 25 and 50 microl of a standardised essential oil extract of S. lavandulaefolia and placebo. Doses were separated by a 7-day washout period with treatment order determined by Latin squares. Assessment was undertaken using the Cognitive Drug Research computerised test battery prior to treatment and 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter. The primary outcome measures were immediate and delayed word recall. The 50 microl dose of Salvia essential oil significantly improved immediate word recall in both studies. These results represent the first systematic evidence that Salvia is capable of acute modulation of cognition in healthy young adults. PMID:12895685

  12. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20) and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise. PMID:24949870

  13. Comparing tailored and untailored text messages for smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial among adolescent and young adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Skov-Ettrup, L S; Ringgaard, L W; Dalum, P; Flensborg-Madsen, T; Thygesen, L C; Tolstrup, J S

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were consecutively randomized to versions of the program that offered either tailored or untailored text messages. Thirty-day point abstinence from smoking was measured self-reportedly at 12-months follow-up. Response rates were 36.3% and 38.1% in the tailored and untailored group, respectively. We analyzed the entire study population, as well as those opting for text messages (n = 1619). In intention-to-treat analysis with multiple imputation of missing data, the odds ratio for 30-day point abstinence was 1.28 (95% CI 0.91-2.08) for the tailored compared with untailored messages. When restricting the analysis to those who had chosen to receive text messages, the corresponding odds ratio was 1.45 (95% CI 1.01-2.08). The higher long-term quit rates in the group receiving the tailored text messages compared with untailored text messages in the restricted analysis indicated that tailoring and higher frequency of text messages increases quit rates among young smokers. PMID:24399268

  14. Natural variability of lung function in young healthy school children.

    PubMed

    Kirkby, Jane; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Lum, Sooky; Wade, Angie; Stocks, Janet

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge about long-term variability of lung function in healthy children is essential when monitoring and treating those with respiratory disease over time. The aim of this study was to define the natural variability in spirometry in young children after an interval of 12 months.The Size and Lung function In Children study was a prospective study designed to assess spirometry and body size, shape and composition in a multi-ethnic population of London school children. 14 schools with a wide range of socioeconomic circumstances were recruited. Spirometric and anthropometric assessments and parental questionnaires pertaining to respiratory symptoms, previous medical history, pubertal status and socioeconomic circumstances were completed at baseline and ∼1 year later.Technically acceptable spirometry data on two occasions ∼1 year apart (range 9-16 months) were available in 758 children (39% boys, mean±sd age 8.1±1.6 years), 593 of whom were classified as "healthy". Mean±sd within-subject between-test variability was 0.05±0.6 z-scores, with 95% of all the children achieving a between-test variability within ±1.2 z-scores (equating to ∼13% predicted).Natural variations of up to 1.2 z-scores occur in healthy children over ∼1 year. These must be considered when interpreting results from annual reviews in those with lung disease who are otherwise stable, if unnecessary further investigations or changes in treatment are to be avoided. PMID:27076582

  15. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis and Diabetes Insipidus in a Young Smoker

    PubMed Central

    Earlam, K.; Souza, C. A.; Glikstein, R.; Gomes, M. M.; Pakhalé, S.

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis is characterized by the abnormal nodular proliferation of histiocytes in various organ systems. Pulmonary involvement seen in young adults is nearly always seen in the context of past or current cigarette smoking. Although it tends to be a single-system disease, extrapulmonary manifestations involving the skin, bone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-axis are possible. High resolution CT (HRCT) of the thorax findings includes centrilobular nodules and cysts that are bizarre in shape, variable in size, and thin-walled. Often the diagnosis can be made based on the appropriate clinical presentation and typical imaging findings. Treatment includes smoking cessation and the potential use of glucocorticoids or cytotoxic agents depending on the severity of disease and multisystem involvement.

  16. Energy Expenditure during Sexual Activity in Young Healthy Couples

    PubMed Central

    Frappier, Julie; Toupin, Isabelle; Levy, Joseph J.; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylene; Karelis, Antony D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine energy expenditure in kilocalories (kcal) during sexual activity in young healthy couples in their natural environment and compare it to a session of endurance exercise. Methods The study population consisted of twenty one heterosexual couples (age: 22.6 ± 2.8 years old) from the Montreal region. Free living energy expenditure during sexual activity and the endurance exercise was measured using the portable mini SenseWear armband. Perceived energy expenditure, perception of effort, fatigue and pleasure were also assessed after sexual activity. All participants completed a 30 min endurance exercise session on a treadmill at a moderate intensity. Results Mean energy expenditure during sexual activity was 101 kCal or 4.2 kCal/min in men and 69.1 kCal or 3.1 kCal/min in women. In addition, mean intensity was 6.0 METS in men and 5.6 METS in women, which represents a moderate intensity. Moreover, the energy expenditure and intensity during the 30 min exercise session in men was 276 kCal or 9.2 kCal/min and 8.5 METS, respectively and in women 213 kCal or 7.1 kCal/min and 8.4 METS, respectively. Interestingly, the highest range value achieved by men for absolute energy expenditure can potentially be higher than that of the mean energy expenditure of the 30 min exercise session (i.e. 306.1 vs. 276 kCal, respectively) whereas this was not observed in women. Finally, perceived energy expenditure during sexual activity was similar in men (100 kCal) and in women (76.2 kCal) when compared to measured energy expenditure. Conclusion The present study indicates that energy expenditure during sexual activity appears to be approximately 85 kCal or 3.6 kCal/min and seems to be performed at a moderate intensity (5.8 METS) in young healthy men and women. These results suggest that sexual activity may potentially be considered, at times, as a significant exercise. PMID:24205382

  17. α-Tocopherol Supplementation Reduces 5-Nitro-γ-Tocopherol Accumulation By Decreasing γ-Tocopherol In Young Adult Smokers1

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Scott W; Traber, Maret G; Bruno, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    γ-Tocopherol (γ-T) scavenges reactive nitrogen species (RNS) to form 5-NO2-γ-tocopherol (NGT). However, α-T supplementation decreases circulating γ-T, which could limit its RNS scavenging activities. We hypothesized that α-T supplementation would mitigate NGT accumulation by impairing γ-T status. Healthy smokers (21±1 y, n=11) and non-smokers (21±2 y, n=10) ingested 75 mg/d each of RRR- and all rac-α-tocopheryl acetate for 6 d. Plasma α-T, γ-T, γ-carboxyethyl-hydroxychromanol (CEHC), NGT, and nitrate/nitrite were measured prior to supplementation (Pre), the morning after 6 consecutive evenings of supplementation (Post 1), and on the mornings of d 6 (Post 6) and d 14 (Post 14) during the post-supplementation period. α-T supplementation increased plasma α-T, and decreased γ-T, in both groups and these returned to Pre concentrations on Post 6 regardless of smoking status. Plasma γ-CEHC increased after the first dose of supplementation in both groups, suggesting that α-T supplementation decreased plasma γ-T in part by increasing its metabolism. Plasma NGT and nitrate/nitrite at Pre were greater in smokers, indicating greater nitrative stress due to cigarette smoking. Plasma NGT was lowered only in smokers on Post 1 and Post 6 and was restored to Pre levels on Post 14. Plasma nitrate/nitrite tended (P=0.07) to increase post-supplementation only in smokers, supporting decreases in RNS scavenging by γ-T. Plasma NGT was more strongly correlated (P<0.05) with γ-T in smokers (R=0.83) compared to non-smokers (R=0.50), supporting that α-T-mediated decreases in γ-T reduces NGT formation. These data indicate that α-T supplementation limits γ-T scavenging of RNS in smokers by decreasing γ-T availability. PMID:25966030

  18. Prolonged Sleep Restriction Affects Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Young Men

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.; Hublin, Christer; Sallinen, Mikael; Härmä, Mikko; Hirvonen, Ari; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja

    2010-01-01

    This study identifies the effects of sleep restriction and subsequent recovery sleep on glucose homeostasis, serum leptin levels, and feelings of subjective satiety. Twenty-three healthy young men were allocated to a control group (CON) or an experimental (EXP) group. After two nights of 8 h in bed (baseline, BL), EXP spent 4 h in bed for five days (sleep restriction, SR), followed by two nights of 8 h (recovery, REC). CON spent 8 h in bed throughout the study. Blood samples were taken after the BL, SR, and REC period. In EXP, insulin and insulin-to-glucose ratio increased after SR. IGF-1 levels increased after REC. Leptin levels were elevated after both SR and REC; subjective satiety remained unaffected. No changes were observed in CON. The observed increase of serum IGF-1 and insulin-to-glucose ratio indicates that sleep restriction may result in an increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes. PMID:20414467

  19. Perceived Harm of Tobacco Products and Individual Schemas of a Smoker in Relation to Change in Tobacco Product Use Over One Year Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Romero, Devan R.; Pulvers, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Given increases in nondaily smoking and alternative tobacco use among young adults, we examined the nature of change of various tobacco product use among college students over a year and predictors of use at one-year follow-up. Methods An online survey was administered to students at six Southeast colleges and universities (N = 4,840; response rate = 20.1%) in Fall 2010, with attempts to follow up in Fall 2011 with a random subsample of 2,000 participants (N = 718; response rate = 35.9%). Data were analyzed from 698 participants with complete data regarding tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol use over a one-year period, perceived harm of tobacco use, and schemas of a “smoker” (as per the Classifying a Smoker Scale). Results Baseline predictors of current smoking at follow-up included being White (p = .001), frequency of smoking (p < .001), alternative tobacco use (p < .001), and perceived harm of smoking (p = .02); marginally significant predictors included marijuana use (p = .06) and lower scores on the Classifying a Smoker Scale (p = .07). Baseline predictors of current smoking at follow-up among baseline nondaily smokers included more frequent smoking (p = .008); lower Classifying a Smoker Scale score was a marginally significant predictor (p = .06). Baseline predictors of alternative tobacco use at follow-up included being male (p = .007), frequency of smoking (p = .04), alternative tobacco use (p < .001), and frequency of alcohol use (p = .003); marginally significant predictors included marijuana use (p = .07) and lower perceived harm of smokeless tobacco (p = .06) and cigar products (p = .08). Conclusions Tobacco control campaigns and interventions might target schemas of a smoker and perceived risks of using various tobacco products, even at low levels. PMID:25338288

  20. Young People's Wellbeing: Contradictions in Managing the Healthy Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the contradictions and complexities of young people's management of their health and wellbeing. It argues that it is important to understand how young people actively produce health outcomes, drawing substantially on themes developed in my recent book on young people and wellbeing (Wyn, 2009). The background to this…

  1. LINE-1 methylation is positively associated with healthier lifestyle but inversely related to body fat mass in healthy young individuals.

    PubMed

    Marques-Rocha, José Luiz; Milagro, Fermin I; Mansego, Maria Luisa; Mourão, Denise Machado; Martínez, J Alfredo; Bressan, Josefina

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of investigating if epigenetic biomarkers from white blood cells (WBC) are associated with dietary, anthropometric, metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in young and apparently healthy individuals. We evaluated 156 individuals (91 women, 65 men; age: 23.1±3.5 years; body mass index: 22.0±2.9 kg/m(2)) for anthropometric, biochemical and clinical markers, including some components of the antioxidant defense system and inflammatory response. DNA methylation of LINE-1, TNF-α and IL-6 and the expression of some genes related to the inflammatory process were analyzed in WBC. Adiposity was lower among individuals with higher LINE-1 methylation. On the contrary, body fat-free mass was higher among those with higher LINE-1 methylation. Individuals with higher LINE-1 methylation had higher daily intakes of calories, iron and riboflavin. However, those individuals who presented lower percentages of LINE-1 methylation reported higher intakes of copper, niacin and thiamin. Interestingly, the group with higher LINE-1 methylation had a lower percentage of current smokers and more individuals practicing sports. On the other hand, TNF-α methylation percentage was negatively associated with waist girth, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-stature ratio. Plasma TNF-α levels were lower in those individuals with higher TNF-α methylation. This study suggests that higher levels of LINE-1 and TNF-α methylation are associated with better indicators of adiposity status in healthy young individuals. In addition, energy and micronutrient intake, as well as a healthy lifestyle, may have a role in the regulation of DNA methylation in WBC and the subsequent metabolic changes may affect epigenetic biomarkers. PMID:26786189

  2. Healthy Young Children: A Manual for Programs, 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S., Ed.

    Noting that the health component of child care should be planned to respond to the developmental patterns of young children, this manual was developed as a reference and resource guide for program directors and teachers of young children and can be used as a textbook for adult learners. The manual, based on national standards and reviewed by…

  3. The risk of losing 10 years of life put in perspective: views of college student smokers.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shu-Hui; Huang, Song-Lih

    2015-03-01

    Health messages have limited effects on young smokers. The health effects typically have long latent periods, and the appreciation of risk depends on the meaning given to longevity. This study aims to understand how college student smokers interpreted the risks of losing 10 years of life because of smoking. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 23 male smokers from a relatively low-achieving college in southern Taiwan. The participants had vague ideas about the future; were not expecting a successful life, thought life was stressful and boring; and expressed that there was no need to live too long. Many believed that removing the stress and having a composed lifestyle was the way to becoming healthy, which could be achieved only by people with economic success. They would quit had they been rich. Empowerment to help young smokers gain control over their life events may be the key to tobacco control. PMID:23695539

  4. Why healthy eating is bad for young people's health: identity, belonging and food.

    PubMed

    Stead, Martine; McDermott, Laura; Mackintosh, Anne Marie; Adamson, Ashley

    2011-04-01

    Research into young people and healthy eating has focussed on identifying the 'barriers' to healthy eating and on developing interventions to address them. However, it has tended to neglect the emotional, social and symbolic aspects of food for young people, and the roles food might play in adolescence. This paper explores these issues, reporting findings from a qualitative study which explored the meanings and values young people attached to food choices, particularly in school and peer contexts. As part of a larger study into young people's relationships with food brands, 12 focus groups were conducted with young people aged 13-15 in the North East of England. The focus groups found that young people used food choices to help construct a desired image, as a means of judging others, and to signal their conformity with acceptable friendship and peer norms. Importantly, the findings suggested that the social and symbolic meanings associated with healthy eating conflicted with processes and values which are of crucial importance in adolescence, such as self-image and fitting in with the peer group. In other words, it was emotionally and socially risky to be seen to be interested in healthy eating. Interventions need not only to make healthy eating easier and more available, but also to address young people's emotional needs for identity and belonging. PMID:21429646

  5. Healthy Behaviors and Lifestyles in Young Adults with a History of Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in young adults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Young adults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance…

  6. Young People and Healthy Eating: A Systematic Review of Research on Barriers and Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, J.; Harden, A.; Rees, R.; Brunton, G.; Garcia, J.; Oliver, S.; Oakley, A.

    2006-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the barriers to, and facilitators of, healthy eating among young people (11-16 years). The review focused on the wider determinants of health, examining community- and society-level interventions. Seven outcome evaluations and eight studies of young people's views were included. The effectiveness of the…

  7. Effecting Healthy Lifestyle Changes in Overweight and Obese Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pett, Marjorie; Clark, Lauren; Eldredge, Alison; Cardell, Beth; Jordan, Kristine; Chambless, Cathy; Burley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a 12-week recreation center-based healthy lifestyle intervention for 30 obese home-dwelling young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities. Three cohorts participated: YA only, YA and parents, and parents only. The YA cohorts received a nutrition/exercise intervention; parents focused on modeling healthy lifestyle behaviors.…

  8. Surface morphology and function of human pulmonary alveolar macrophages from smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Ando, M; Sugimoto, M; Nishi, R; Suga, M; Horio, S; Kohrogi, H; Shimazu, K; Araki, S

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar macrophages were obtained by saline lavage from 23 healthy male volunteers--10 non-smokers and 13 cigarette smokers. Lavage produced three times as many alveolar macrophages in smokers than in non-smokers. When macrophages from smokers and from non-smokers were incubated in vitro, more cells from smokers adhered to glass, spread out, and showed enhanced nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction. The surface morphology of alveolar macrophages from smokers showed more with a plate like appearance and ridge like membrane surface, while the macrophages from non-smokers were predominantly spherical with ruffles. The proportions of cells which stained highly for beta galactosidase were 55% in smokers and 11% in non-smokers. Thus, in a resting state in vitro, alveolar macrophages from smokers were more active than those from non-smokers. When, however, macrophages from smokers and non-smokers were incubated with immunobeads and with opsonised or non-opsonised BCG, the phagocytic activity and stimulated NBT reduction of alveolar macrophages from smokers were similar to or somewhat less than those of non-smokers. Images PMID:6438822

  9. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  10. Passive exposure to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use increases desire for combustible and e-cigarettes in young adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrea C; Smith, Lia J; McNamara, Patrick J; Matthews, Alicia K; Fridberg, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Background Passive exposure to combustible cigarette use has been shown to act as a cue to increase smoking urge. Given the resemblance of e-cigarettes and other electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to combustible cigarettes, we examined whether these devices could also act as a cue to increase smoking desire and urges in those passively exposed. Methods Young adult daily smokers (age 18–35 years; N=60) completed subjective ratings before and after exposure to a study confederate drinking bottled water (control cue) and then smoking either a combustible or e-cigarette (active cue). Smoking desire and urge ratings were measured with visual analogue scale items for desire for a regular and an e-cigarette and the Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges. Results Passive exposure to both the e-cigarette and combustible cigarette cue significantly increased observers’ ratings of desire and urge to smoke a regular cigarette (all ps<0.05). Exposure to the e-cigarette cue but not the regular cigarette cue also increased desire to smoke an e-cigarette (p<0.01). Conclusions The results provide the first evidence in a controlled setting that electronic cigarette exposure may evoke smoking urges in young adult daily smokers. With replication, these findings may have relevance for ENDS regulation and policy. PMID:24848637

  11. Association of High Blood Pressure with Body Mass Index, Smoking and Physical Activity in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, George; Zerva, Efthimia; Zacharis, Ioannis; Papandreou, Maria; Papageorgiou, Effie; Tzima, Christina; Georgakopoulos, Dimitris; Evangelou, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between resting blood pressure (BP), smoking, physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in Greek young adults. Materials and Methodology: A standardised questionnaire and the Greek version of IPAQ-short were given to 1500 randomly selected health science students, in order to record smoking behaviour, PA status, BMI and resting BP. All healthy young adults aged 19-30 years old were eligible. The final size of the study cohort was 1249 students (522 men). Results: Males’ BP was 129.2/77.0 mmHg, significantly higher than the females’ values of 119.9/73.4 mmHg. Approximately 17% of the total population were classified as overweight and 3% as obese. In the overall population, smoking prevalence was 35.2%, with 15.3% being heavy smokers (≥21 cigs/d). Smoking prevalence did not differ significantly between sexes. The prevalence of health-enhancing PA (high PAclass) was only 14.0%, while 42.8% of the study population were classified as insufficiently active (low PAclass). Of the three lifestyle risk factors examined, only BMI was significantly and directly associated with systolic and diastolic BP levels. The prevalence of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) was significantly higher in men compared to women, and in obese and overweight participants compared to normal-weight subjects. Smoking and categorical PA (PAclass) were not correlated with BP. Continuous vigorous PAscore was significantly and directly associated with systolic BP, but only in males. Conclusion: BMI was significantly and directly associated with resting BP in both sexes. Smoking prevalence and PA status were not associated with BP in this sample of Greek young adults. PMID:25834651

  12. The Sexuality Education Challenge: Promoting Healthy Sexuality in Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drolet, Judy C., Ed.; Clark, Kay, Ed.

    This book offers the insights and perspectives of 39 sexuality educators. The collection of essays, full of theoretical considerations and practical implications, addresses the needs of those responsible for educating young people about sexuality and examines the major issues and concerns of sexuality education within the school setting.…

  13. The levels of serum vitamin C, malonyldialdehyde and erythrocyte reduced glutathione in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in healthy smokers.

    PubMed

    Calikoğlu, Mukadder; Unlü, Ali; Tamer, Lülüfer; Ercan, Bahadir; Buğdayci, Resul; Atik, Uğur

    2002-10-01

    There is an increasing interest in the concept that oxidant/antioxidant imbalance plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, most of the studies are concentrated on the local antioxidant/oxidant balance. In this study, we investigated the oxidant/antioxidant balance in systemic circulation of patients with COPD. Serum malonyldialdehyde (MDA), vitamin C and erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH) were determined in patients during acute exacerbation and during the stable phase of the disease, and compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The levels of serum MDA, vitamin C and erythrocyte GSH were determined according to Yagi, Beutler and Bauer et al., respectively. Serum MDA levels were significantly higher in patients compared to controls, and during acute exacerbation compared to the stable phase. MDA levels in patients with acute exacerbation and in those in stable phase were also higher than in controls. We found significantly decreased levels of erythrocyte GSH and serum vitamin C in patients with acute exacerbation and stable COPD compared to controls. Although smoking caused an increase in oxidative stress in controls, the measured parameters were not affected by smoking in the patient group. In conclusion, there is a systemic oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in COPD, and this imbalance is probably independent of smoking. PMID:12476943

  14. PULMONARY FUNCTION EFFECTS OF 1.0 AND 2.0 PPM SULFUR DIOXIDE EXPOSURE IN ACTIVE YOUNG MALE NON-SMOKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The threshold concentration of sulfur dioxide which will induce pulmonary function changes in the normal population has not been established. To investigate this question, the authors exposed nine young healthy adult non-smoking males for 2 hours to filtered air (FA), 1.0 ppm sul...

  15. Spinal epidural abscess with a rapid course in young healthy infantry recruits with multiple skin lacerations.

    PubMed

    Honig, Asaf; Or, Omer; Barzilay, Yair; Fraifeld, Shifra; Pikkel, Yoav Y; Eliahou, Ruth; Cohen, José E; Itshayek, Eyal

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there has been high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection among soldiers in the Israeli military, with devastating sequelae in several cases. Emergency department physicians have developed a high level of suspicion for spinal epidural abscess (SEA) in patients presenting known risk factors; however, SEA is a particularly elusive diagnosis in young healthy adults with no history of drug abuse. We review three cases of SEA secondary to methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) infection in young healthy soldiers without known risk factors. We retrospectively reviewed clinical files of soldiers treated at our Medical Center from 2004-2015 to identify patients diagnosed with SEA. Those aged less than 30years with no history of intravenous drug use, spine surgery or spine trauma were included in the study. Three young army recruits met the inclusion criteria. These young men developed SEA through extension of MSSA infection to proximal skin and soft tissue from impetigo secondary to skin scratches sustained during "basic" training. All presented with mild nuchal rigidity and severe persistent unremitting lancinating radicular pain. Although healthy at baseline, they had a severe, rapidly progressive course. Following urgent surgery, two patients recovered after rehabilitation; one remained with paraparesis at late follow-up. Neurological deficits and systemic evidence of S. aureus infection progressed rapidly in these young healthy SEA patients with no history of drug abuse, emphasizing the critical role of timely MRI, diagnosis, and surgery. PMID:27364320

  16. Urinary Tract Infection In Young Healthy Women Following Heterosexual Anal Intercourse: Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Lema, Valentino M

    2015-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in outpatient clinical settings globally. Young healthy women are at highest risk of community-acquired UTI. While uncomplicated UTI is not life-threatening, it is associated with high morbidity and treatment costs. The pathogenesis of urinary tract infection in young healthy women is complex. It is influenced by a number of host biological and behavioural factors and virulence of the uropathogen. The infecting uropathogens in community-acquired UTI originate from the fecal flora, E. coli being the most predominant, accounting for 80-90% of these UTIs. Vaginal colonization with uropathogens, a pre-requisite for bladder infection may be facilitated by sexual intercourse, which has been shown to be a strong risk factor and predictor of UTI. While majority of studies have explored the association between heterosexual vaginal intercourse and UTI in healthy young women, the possible association with heterosexual receptive anal intercourse has not received adequate attention despite evidence of high prevalence globally. This paper presents two young healthy married women who had severe UTI following heterosexual anal intercourse and discusses possible association thereof. Understanding the risk factors for UTI and identification of possible predisposing conditions in a particular individual are important in guiding therapeutic approaches and preventive strategies. Cognisant of reportedly high prevalence of various sexual practices including receptive heterosexual anal intercourse and their impact on individuals' health, details on sexual history should always be enquired into in young women presenting with genito-urinary complaints. PMID:26506666

  17. Inhibitory effect of cervical trachea and chest wall vibrations on cough reflex sensitivity and perception of urge-to-cough in healthy male never-smokers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-pharmacological options for symptomatic management of cough are desired. Although chest wall mechanical vibration is known to ameliorate cough reflex sensitivity, the effect of mechanical vibrations on perceptions of urge-to-cough has not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mechanical vibration of cervical trachea, chest wall and femoral muscle on cough reflex sensitivity, perceptions of urge-to-cough as well as dyspnea. Methods Twenty-four healthy male never-smokers were investigated for cough reflex sensitivity, perceptions of the urge-to-cough and dyspnea with or without mechanical vibration. Cough reflex sensitivity and urge-to-cough were evaluated by the inhalation of citric acid. The perception of dyspnea was evaluated by Borg scores during applications of external inspiratory resistive loads. Mechanical vibration was applied by placing a vibrating tuning fork on the skin surface of cervical trachea, chest wall and femoral muscle. Results Cervical trachea vibration significantly increased cough reflex threshold, as expressed by the lowest concentration of citric acid that elicited five or more coughs (C5), and urge-to-cough threshold, as expressed by the lowest concentration of citric acid that elicited urge-to-cough (Cu), but did not significantly affect dypnea sensation during inspiratory resistive loading. On the other hand, the chest wall vibration not only significantly increased C5 and Cu but also significantly ameliorated the load-response curve of dyspnea sensation. Conclusions Both cervical and trachea vibrations significantly inhibited cough reflex sensitivity and perception of urge-to-cough. These vibration techniques might be options for symptomatic cough management. PMID:24088411

  18. Differences in maximal isometric tongue strength and endurance of healthy young vs. older adults

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dong-Hwan; Park, Ji-Su; Jo, Young-Moon; Chang, Moonyoung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to measure and compare the maximal tongue strength and endurance of young and older adults. [Subjects and Methods] This study recruited 60 healthy young (aged 20 to 39 years) and older adults (aged 67 to 75 years) at a university and in public places. The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument was used to measure maximal tongue strength and endurance. [Results] Maximal tongue strength was significantly higher in the young adult group than the older adult group. Maximal tongue endurance was longer in the young adult group than in the older adult group, but the difference between the groups was not significant. [Conclusion] This study confirmed that older adults have a lower maximal tongue strength and endurance than young adults. PMID:27134371

  19. Healthy Older Adults Have Insufficient Hip Range of Motion and Plantar Flexor Strength to Walk Like Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Dennis E.; Madigan, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Limited plantar flexor strength and hip extension range of motion (ROM) in older adults are believed to underlie common age-related differences in gait. However, no studies of age-related differences in gait have quantified the percentage of strength and ROM used during gait. We examined peak hip angles, hip torques and plantar flexor torques, and corresponding estimates of functional capacity utilized (FCU), which we define as the percentage of available strength or joint ROM used, in ten young and ten older healthy adults walking under self-selected and controlled (slow and fast) conditions. Older adults walked with about 30% smaller hip extension angle, 28% larger hip flexion angle, 34% more hip extensor torque in the slow condition, and 12% less plantar flexor torque in the fast condition than young adults. Older adults had higher FCU than young adults for hip flexion angle (47% vs. 34%) and hip extensor torque (48% vs. 27%). FCUs for plantar flexor torque (both age groups) and hip extension angle (older adults in all conditions; young adults in self-selected gait) were not significantly <100%, and were higher than for other measures examined. Older adults lacked sufficient hip extension ROM to walk with a hip extension angle as large as that of young adults. Similarly, in the fast gait condition older adults lacked the strength to match the plantar flexor torque produced by young adults. This supports the hypothesis that hip extension ROM and plantar flexor strength are limiting factors in gait and contribute to age-related differences in gait. PMID:24461576

  20. PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IN CARS IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS IN HEALTHY YOUNG MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in older and cardiac patients. Potential physiologic effects of in-vehicle, roadside, and ambient PM(2.5) were investigated in young, healthy, nonsmoking, male North Caro...

  1. Differences in lower-extremity muscular activation during walking between healthy older and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Anne; Silder, Amy; Heiderscheit, Bryan; Mahoney, Jane; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have identified differences in gait kinetics between healthy older and young adults. However, the underlying factors that cause these changes are not well understood. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of age and speed on the activation of lower-extremity muscles during human walking. We recorded electromyography (EMG) signals of the soleus, gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, medial hamstrings, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris as healthy young and older adults walked over ground at slow, preferred and fast walking speeds. Nineteen healthy older adults (age, 73 ± 5 years) and 18 healthy young adults (age, 26 ± 3 years) participated. Rectified EMG signals were normalized to mean activities over a gait cycle at the preferred speed, allowing for an assessment of how the activity was distributed over the gait cycle and modulated with speed. Compared to the young adults, the older adults exhibited greater activation of the tibialis anterior and soleus during mid-stance at all walking speeds and greater activation of the vastus lateralis and medial hamstrings during loading and mid-stance at the fast walking speed, suggesting increased coactivation across the ankle and knee. In addition, older adults depend less on soleus muscle activation to push off at faster walking speeds. We conclude that age-related changes in neuromuscular activity reflect a strategy of stiffening the limb during single support and likely contribute to reduced push off power at fast walking speeds. PMID:19081734

  2. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CO-EXPOSURE TO FINE PARTICLES AND NITROGEN DIOXIDE IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse health effects. It is unclear if co-exposure to NO2, a common pollutant gas, potentiates the PM effects. Healthy young volunteers were recruited and exposed to either filtered air (FA), NO2 (0.5 ppm), concentrated Cha...

  3. Mechanism of Sequential Swallowing during Straw Drinking in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Corey, David M.; Hadskey, Leslie D.; Legendre, Calli; Priestly, Daniel H.; Rosenbek, John C.; Foundas, Anne L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has revealed differences between isolated and sequential swallowing in healthy young adults; however, the influence of normal aging on sequential swallowing has not been studied. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of normal aging on deglutition during sequential straw drinking. Videofluoroscopic…

  4. Healthy appearances--distorted body images? Young adults negotiating body motives.

    PubMed

    Liimakka, Satu

    2014-02-01

    Drawing on focus group discussions, this article explores how young, Finnish university students view the cultural ideals of health and appearance. The young adults noted how body practices aiming at health can turn into unhealthy obsessions. As a result, a healthy-looking body may serve to cover an underlying body image distortion. Health and well-being were defined as appropriate motives for engaging in body projects, while appearance as a motive was questioned. I argue that the current promotion of health may cause individuals to experience pressure to outwardly appear healthy at the cost of neglecting the subjective experience of well-being, and that this may especially influence young women. PMID:23283598

  5. Pulmonary responses of healthy young adults exposed to 0.06 and 0.08 ppm ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Previous studies have shown small but significant decreases in spirometric lung function in healthy young adults exposed to 0.08 ppm ozone. It is unclear, however, if such effects may are seen at concentrations below 0.08 ppm. Methods. A group of 30 healthy young adul...

  6. Cardiopulmonary interactions of salbutamol and hypoxaemia in healthy young volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Kiely, D G; Cargill, R I; Lipworth, B J

    1995-01-01

    1. Nebulised salbutamol is frequently used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Its effects on the cardiovascular system have been extensively investigated although as yet little is known concerning its effects on the pulmonary circulation, particularly during hypoxaemia. We have therefore examined the effects of nebulised salbutamol on pulmonary haemodynamics to see if it modifies hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. 2. Eight healthy normal volunteers were studied on two separate occasions. After resting to achieve baseline haemodynamics patients were randomised to receive 5 mg salbutamol or placebo via a nebuliser. They were restudied after 30 min and then rendered hypoxaemic by breathing an N2/O2 mixture to achieve an SaO2 of 75-80%. Doppler echocardiography was used to measure mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP), cardiac output (CO) and hence pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). 3. Treatment with salbutamol significantly increased MPAP during normoxaemia and hypoxaemia compared with placebo at 12.0 +/- 1.2 vs 8.0 +/- 0.7 mm Hg and 28.6 +/- 0.9 vs 25.2 +/- 1.0 mm Hg, respectively (P < 0.05). Salbutamol caused a significant increase in heart rate compared with placebo and effects were additive to those of hypoxia at 74 +/- 2 vs 67 +/- 3 beats min-1 during normoxaemia and 84 +/- 3 vs 77 +/- 4 beats min-1 during hypoxaemia, respectively (P < 0.05). Whilst systemic vascular resistance fell in response to salbutamol, PVR was unchanged by salbutamol during either normoxaemia or hypoxaemia. Cardiac output was increased by salbutamol and by hypoxia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8554932

  7. Evaluation of Vibration Response Imaging (VRI) Technique and Difference in VRI Indices Among Non-Smokers, Active Smokers, and Passive Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongying; Chen, Jichao; Cao, Jinying; Mu, Lan; Hu, Zhenyu; He, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Vibration response imaging (VRI) is a new technology for lung imaging. Active smokers and non-smokers show differences in VRI findings, but no data are available for passive smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of VRI and to assess the differences in VRI findings among non-smokers, active smokers, and passive smokers. Material/Methods Healthy subjects (n=165: 63 non-smokers, 56 active smokers, and 46 passive smokers) with normal lung function were enrolled. Medical history, physical examination, lung function test, and VRI were performed for all subjects. Correlation between smoking index and VRI scores (VRIS) were performed. Results VRI images showed progressive and regressive stages representing the inspiratory and expiratory phases bilaterally in a vertical and synchronized manner in non-smokers. Vibration energy curves with low expiratory phase and plateau were present in 6.35% and 3.17%, respectively, of healthy non-smokers, 41.07% and 28.60% of smokers, and 39.13% and 30.43% of passive smokers, respectively. The massive energy peak in the non-smokers, smokers, and passive-smokers was 1.77±0.27, 1.57±0.29, and 1.66±0.33, respectively (all P<0.001). A weak but positive correlation was observed between VRIS and smoking index. Conclusions VRI can intuitively show the differences between non-smokers and smokers. VRI revealed that passive smoking can also harm the lungs. VRI could be used to visually persuade smokers to give up smoking. PMID:26212715

  8. Recurrent exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis due to low intensity fitness exercise in a healthy young patient

    PubMed Central

    Karre, Premnath Reddy; Gujral, Jeetinder

    2011-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is an uncommon but life threatening condition that develops due to breakdown of muscle and release of intracellular components into the circulation. A 24-year-old man otherwise healthy was admitted to our hospital because of muscle aches and weakness as well as cola coloured urine developed 3 days after carrying out the low intensity exercise. Diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was made with creatine kinase (CK) levels of 214 356 U/l. He was treated for a similar condition at age 21. A muscle biopsy was done and the findings were normal. Rhabdomyolysis can develop with low intensity exercise; thus, it be considered in healthy young people. Young people with recurrent rhabdomyolysis due to low intensity exercise, in the absence of obvious medical and physical causes, should be evaluated further to rule out uncommon metabolic diseases. Our case demonstrates that complications especially renal failure in patients with rhabdomyolysis do not correspond to CK levels. PMID:22700603

  9. Mirtazapine Provokes Periodic Leg Movements during Sleep in Young Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Fulda, Stephany; Kloiber, Stefan; Dose, Tatjana; Lucae, Susanne; Holsboer, Florian; Schaaf, Ludwig; Hennings, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Recent evidence suggests that certain antidepressants are associated with an increase of periodic leg movements (PLMS) that may disturb sleep. So far, this has been shown in patients clinically treated for depression and in cross-sectional studies for various substances, but not mirtazapine. It is unclear whether antidepressants induce the new onset of PLMS or only increase preexisting PLMS, and whether this is a general property of the antidepressant or only seen in depressed patients. We report here the effect of mirtazapine on PLMS in young healthy men. Design: Open-labeled clinical trial (NCT00878540) including a 3-week preparatory phase with standardized food, physical activity, and sleep-wake behavior, and a 10-day experimental inpatient phase with an adaptation day, 2 baseline days, and 7 days with mirtazapine. Setting: Research institute. Participants: Twelve healthy young (20-25 years) men. Interventions: Seven days of nightly intake (22:00) of 30 mg mirtazapine. Measurements and results: Sleep was recorded on 2 drug-free baseline nights, the first 2 drug nights, and the last 2 drug nights. Eight of the 12 subjects showed increased PLMS after the first dose of mirtazapine. Frequency of PLMS was highest on the first drug night and attenuated over the course of the next 6 days. Three subjects reported transient restless legs symptoms. Conclusions: Mirtazapine provoked PLMS in 67% of young healthy males. The effect was most pronounced in the first days. The possible role of serotonergic, noradrenergic and histaminergic mechanisms in mirtazapine-induced PLMS is discussed. Citation: Fulda S; Kloiber S; Dose T; Lucae S. Mirtazapine provokes periodic leg movements during sleep in young healthy men. SLEEP 2013;36(5):661-669. PMID:23633748

  10. High-resolution Sonographic Measurements of Lower Extremity Bursae in Chinese Healthy Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yong-Yan; Wu, Chi-Qiu; Liu, Wei-Xing; Zhang, Lei; Li, Chun-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity bursae are very vulnerable to injury during strenuous physical exercises. Understanding the imaging characteristics of normal bursae is essential for early diagnosis of morphological abnormalities. Therefore, we evaluated the normal range of lower extremity bursae in healthy young men using high-resolution ultrasound (HR-US) imaging. Methods: Bursae in the lower extremities were examined by HR-US in 290 Chinese healthy young men with a median age of 18 years (range, 18–23 years). The bilateral suprapatellar bursa (SPB), deep infrapatellar bursa (DIPB), popliteal bursa (PB), and retrocalcaneal bursa (RCB) were imaged and measured for analysis. Results: The HR-US identification rates of the SPB, DIPB, PB, and RCB were 89.0% (517/580), 55.0% (319/580), 29.4% (171/580), and 49.5% (287/580), respectively. With the assumption that the bursae were normal in 95% of the study participants, the length and width values at the maximal cross-section of the SPB, DIPB, PB, and RCB were ≤18.00 and 6.09 mm, 8.10 and 2.11 mm, 7.67 and 3.93 mm, and 7.82 and 2.04 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Using HR-US imaging, we were able to analyze lower extremity bursae with high detection rates in healthy young men. The normal ranges of lower extremity bursa dimensions in healthy young men measured by HR-US in this study could be used as reference values for evaluation of bursa abnormalities in the lower extremity. PMID:26831233

  11. Marijuana use motives: concurrent relations to frequency of past 30-day use and anxiety sensitivity among young adult marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Zvolensky, Michael J; Bernstein, Amit

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation examined two theoretically relevant aspects of marijuana motives using the Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) [Simons, J., Correia, C. J., Carey, K. B., & Borsari, B. E. (1998). Validating a five-factor marijuana motives measure: Relations with use, problems, and alcohol motives. Journal of Counseling Psychology 45, 265-273] among 141 (78 female) young adults (M(age)=20.17, S.D.=3.34). The first objective was to evaluate the incremental validity of marijuana motives in relation to frequency of past 30-day use after controlling for the theoretically relevant factors of the number of years using marijuana (lifetime), current levels of alcohol, as well as tobacco smoking use. As expected, coping, enhancement, social, and expansion motives each were uniquely and significantly associated with past 30-day marijuana use over and above the covariates; conformity motives were not a significant predictor. A second aim was to explore whether coping, but no other marijuana motive, was related to the emotional vulnerability individual difference factor of anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety). As hypothesized, after controlling for number of years using marijuana (lifetime), past 30-day marijuana use, current levels of alcohol consumption, and cigarettes smoked per day, anxiety sensitivity was incrementally and uniquely related to coping motives for marijuana use, but not other motives. These results are discussed in relation to the clinical implications of better understanding the role of motivation for marijuana use among emotionally vulnerable young adults. PMID:16647822

  12. Acute responses of regional vascular conductance to oral ingestion of fructose in healthy young humans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, it was reported in healthy young subjects that fructose containing drinks increased blood pressure acutely, without any apparent change in total vascular conductance (TVC). However, because it is well known that the splanchnic vasculature is dilated by oral fructose ingestion, it is assumed to be the concomitant vasoconstriction in other peripheral region(s) that is responsible for this finding. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the acute response of regional VC to oral fructose ingestion in young healthy humans. Results In 12 healthy young subjects, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate, cardiac output, and blood flow (BF) in the superior mesenteric (SMA), brachial (BA), and popliteal (PA) arteries, in addition to forearm skin BF, were measured continuously for 2 h after ingestion of 400 ml fructose solution (containing 50 g fructose). Regional VC was calculated as BF/MAP. MAP increased for 120 min after fructose ingestion without any change in TVC. While VC in the SMA was elevated after ingestion, VC in BA and PA and forearm skin decreased. Conclusions While TVC was apparently unchanged during the 2 h after fructose ingestion, there were coincident changes in regional VCs in the peripheral circulation, but no net change in TVC. PMID:24887175

  13. Normal range of spinal mobility for healthy young adult Turkish men.

    PubMed

    Cidem, Muharrem; Karacan, Ilhan; Uludag, Murat

    2012-08-01

    Anthropometric characteristics may vary among human populations, especially with differences in race. The aim of the present study is to find normal values of some measures (chest expansion, Schober's test and modified Schober's test) frequently used in the assessment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, in young adult Turkish men. Initial recruitment identified 2,925 healthy male participants aged 20-30 years, and the final study sample included 1,982 of them. Participants joined the research from all cities except one in Turkey. The measurements of chest expansion, Schober's test, and modified Schober's test were performed by the same researcher using a plastic measuring tape. The mean (±standard error) values of the chest expansion, Schober's test, and modified Schober's test were 6.11 (±0.02), 5.62 (±0.02), and 7.78 (±0.02) cm, respectively. The estimated normal lower bounds for chest expansion, Schober's test, and modified Schober's test may be between 3.71-3.86 cm, 3.86-3.97 cm, and 5.46-5.60 cm, respectively, for young adult Turkish men. No correlation was found between height and spinal mobility. The normal values for spinal mobility in this sample of healthy young adult Turkish men differed from those reported for other young adult male populations (chest expansion ≥5 cm, Schober's test >5 cm, modified Schober's test >7 cm). It is thus useful to consider nationality in interpreting results of spinal mobility tests. PMID:21544633

  14. Anterior mediastinal mass in a young marijuana smoker: a rare case of small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kothadia, Jiten P; Chhabra, Saurabh; Marcus, Alan; May, Michael; Saraiya, Biren; Jabbour, Salma K

    2012-01-01

    The use of cannabis is embedded within many societies, mostly used by the young and widely perceived to be safe. Increasing concern regarding the potential for cannabis to cause mental health effects has dominated cannabis research, and the potential adverse respiratory effects have received relatively little attention. We report a rare case of 22-year-old man who presented with bilateral neck lymphadenopathy, fatigue, and sore throat without significant medical or family history. The patient had smoked one marijuana joint three times a week for three years but no cigarettes. Chest CT demonstrated a large anterior mediastinal mass compressing the superior vena cava and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. A final diagnosis of small-cell lung cancer was reached. Although rare, a small-cell lung cancer in this patient should alert the physician that cannabis smoking may be a risk factor for lung cancer. PMID:22545056

  15. Effects of immobilisation and caloric restriction on antioxidant parameters and T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinger, S.; Arendt, B. M.; Boese, A.; Juschus, M.; Schaefer, S.; Stoffel-Wagner, B.; Goerlich, R.

    Background: Astronauts are exposed to oxidative stress due to radiation and microgravity, which might impair immune functions. Effects of hypocaloric nutrition as often observed in astronauts on oxidative stress and immune functions are not clear. We investigated, if microgravity, simulated by 6 Head-down tilt (HDT) and caloric restriction (-25%, fat reduced) with adequate supply of micronutrients affect DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes, antioxidant parameters in plasma, and T-cell apoptosis. Material & Methods: 10 healthy male non-smokers were subjected to 4 different interventions (normocaloric diet or caloric restriction (CR) in upright position (UP) or HDT) for 14 days each (cross-over). DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes (Comet Assay), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and uric acid in plasma were measured before, after 5, 10, and 13 days of intervention, and after 2 days recovery. T-cell apoptosis (Annexin V binding test) was assessed before and after intervention. Results: Preliminary results show that only endogenous, but not ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks were reduced by CR compared to normocaloric diet. In upright position, endogenous DNA strand breaks decreased continuously during CR, reaching significance after recovery. During HDT, caloric restriction seems to counteract a temporary increase in DNA strand breaks observed in subjects receiving normocaloric diet. TEAC was reduced during HDT compared to UP in subjects under caloric restriction. An increase in plasma uric acid related to intervention occurred only after 5 days HDT in CR vs. normocaloric diet. T-cell apoptosis was not affected by any kind of intervention. Conclusion: Neither HDT nor CR with sufficient supply of micronutrients seem to induce oxidative stress or T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men. In contrast, CR might prevent endogenous DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes. As DNA-damage is a risk factor for carcinogenesis, protective effects of energy reduction are

  16. The added value of hybrid ventilation/perfusion SPECT/CT in patients with stable COPD or apparently healthy smokers. Cancer-suspected CT findings in the lungs are common when hybrid imaging is used.

    PubMed

    Jögi, Jonas; Markstad, Hanna; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Bajc, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Ventilation/perfusion (V/P) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is recognized as a diagnostic method with potential beyond the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. V/P SPECT identifies functional impairment in diseases such as heart failure (HF), pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The development of hybrid SPECT/computed tomography (CT) systems, combining functional with morphological imaging through the addition of low-dose CT (LDCT), may be useful in COPD, as these patients are prone to lung cancer and other comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the added value of LDCT among healthy smokers and patients with stable COPD, when examined with V/P SPECT/CT hybrid imaging. Sixty-nine subjects, 55 with COPD (GOLD I-IV) and 14 apparently healthy smokers, were examined with V/P SPECT and LDCT hybrid imaging. Spirometry was used to verify COPD grade. Only one apparently healthy smoker and three COPD patients had a normal or nearly normal V/P SPECT. All other patients showed various degrees of airway obstruction, even when spirometry was normal. The same interpretation was reached on both modalities in 39% of the patients. LDCT made V/P SPECT interpretation more certain in 9% of the patients and, in 52%, LDCT provided additional diagnoses. LDCT better characterized the type of emphysema in 12 patients. In 19 cases, tumor-suspected changes were reported. Three of these 19 patients (ie, 4.3% of all subjects) were in the end confirmed to have lung cancer. The majority of LDCT findings were not regarded as clinically significant. V/P SPECT identified perfusion patterns consistent with decompensated left ventricular HF in 14 COPD patients. In 16 patients (23%), perfusion defects were observed. HF and perfusion defects were not recognized with LDCT. In COPD patients and long-time smokers, hybrid imaging had added value compared to V/P SPECT alone, by identifying patients with lung malignancy and more clearly identifying

  17. Stimulation of the mineralocorticoid receptor improves memory in young and elderly healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Hinkelmann, Kim; Wingenfeld, Katja; Kuehl, Linn K; Fleischer, Juliane; Heuser, Isabella; Wiedemann, Klaus; Otte, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Glucocorticoids play an important role in cognitive function and act on glucocorticoid receptors and mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) in the brain. Previously, the blockade of the MR has been shown to impair visuospatial and working memory in healthy young men. Here, we investigated the effects of the MR agonist fludrocortisone on memory in young and elderly healthy individuals. Thirty-one young (mean age 25.4 ± 4.6 years) and 22 elderly (mean age 63.2 ± 8.2 years) healthy participants received the MR agonist fludrocortisone (0.4 mg) or placebo at least 3 days apart in a randomized, double-blind within-subject cross-over design. We measured verbal memory (auditory verbal learning test), nonverbal memory (Rey/Taylor complex figure test), and working memory (digit-span task). As expected, young participants performed significantly better than elderly individuals in visuospatial memory (effect of group: F = 42.7, p < 0.01), verbal memory (F = 33.1, p < 0.01), and working memory (digit-span backward: F = 4.5, p = 0.04). For visuospatial memory (F = 5.0, p = 0.03) and short-term and working memory (digit-span forward: F = 4.2, p = 0.05), we found a significant treatment effect indicating better memory performance after fludrocortisone compared with placebo across groups. In concert with the previous studies, our data suggest a role of the MR in memory function. A cognitive enhancing effect by MR stimulation warrants future studies. PMID:25442112

  18. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  19. Labial vibrotactile somatosensory perception: a pilot study in healthy aging versus young adult participants.

    PubMed

    Etter, Nicole M; Van Meter, Emily M; Andreatta, Richard D

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to begin characterizing changes in labial vibrotactile somatosensation in healthy older adults as a foundational step in determining how changes in orofacial sensation can affect functional behaviors, such as speech and feeding. Labial vibrotactile perception capacity of healthy older adults (n = 15) was compared to a cohort of healthy young adults (n = 5). Vibrotactile inputs were delivered to the glabrous surface of the left lower lip at 5, 10, 50, and 150 Hz. A modified von Bekesy (staircase) method was used to identify participants' thresholds and response standard deviations for each test frequency. Consistent with findings in other body regions, a decrease in labial vibrotactile detection sensitivity was expected in healthy older adults. The threshold values for the 5 and 10 Hz test frequencies were higher in the older group and the differences in response standard deviations at these frequencies were statistically significant. This pilot study identified changes in labial perception among healthy older adults. PMID:24897891

  20. Arousal Responses during Overnight Polysomnography and their Reproducibility in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Azarbarzin, Ali; Ostrowski, Michele; Younes, Magdy; Keenan, Brendan T.; Pack, Allan I.; Staley, Bethany; Kuna, Samuel T.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Arousal intensity and heart rate (HR) response to arousal during polysomnography (PSG) vary considerably between patients with sleep disorders. Our objective was to determine the range of these arousal characteristics in healthy young adults and whether they are consistent on repeated testing. Design: Post hoc analysis of 56 preexisting PSG files recorded from 28 healthy adults on 2 consecutive nights. Setting: Academic medical center and Research and Development Laboratory (YRT Limited, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada). Participants: Twenty-eight healthy young adults. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Arousals were identified using an automatic system followed by manual editing. The intensity of arousals was scaled (between 0 and 9) using an automatic algorithm based on the change in the electroencephalography (EEG) signals' wavelet characteristics. 4,751 arousals in 28 pairs of PSGs (night 1 and night 2) were scaled. HR responses (ΔHR) to all arousals were determined and averaged at each arousal scale per file. Overall average arousal intensity ranged 3.0–7.1 in different subjects, and average ΔHR ranged 1.9–18.3 beats.min−1. Heart rate response at a given arousal intensity, expressed as ΔHR at a moderate arousal scale of 5.0 (ΔHR5), ranged 4.1–18.1 beats.min−1. There was a strong correlation between arousal intensity and ΔHR within each subject. More importantly, there were excellent intraclass correlations (ICC) between night 1 and night 2 results for all three variables (ICC = 0.72 for average intensity, 0.92 for average ΔHR4, and 0.91 for ΔHR5). Conclusions: Average arousal intensity and heart rate response to arousal are highly variable among healthy young adults and stable within individuals. Citation: Azarbarzin A, Ostrowski M, Younes M, Keenan BT, Pack AI, Staley B, Kuna ST. Arousal responses during overnight polysomnography and their reproducibility in healthy young adults. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1313–1321. PMID

  1. Low Nourishment of Vitamin C Induces Glutathione Depletion and Oxidative Stress in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Attabi, Zahir; Guizani, Nejib

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the status of vitamin C among healthy young adults in relation to serum antioxidant parameters [glutathione (GSH), thiols, and total antioxidant capacity, (TAC)], and oxidative stress markers [malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitrites plus nitrates (NN)]. A prospective study included 200 young adults, and their dietary intake was assessed by using food diaries. Fasting plasma vitamin C, serum levels of GSH, thiols, TAC, MDA, and NN were measured using biochemical assays. It was observed that 38% of the enrolled subjects, n=76, had an adequate dietary intake of vitamin C (ADI group). Meanwhile, 62%, n=124, had a low dietary intake of vitamin C (LDI group) as compared to the recommended dietary allowances. The fasting plasma level of vitamin C was significantly higher in the ADI group as compared to the LDI group. Oxidative stress in the sera of the LDI group was evidenced by depletion of GSH, low thiols levels, impairment of TAC, an elevation of MDA, and increased NN. In the ADI group, positive correlations were found between plasma vitamin C and serum antioxidant parameters (GSH, thiols, and TAC). Meanwhile, the plasma vitamin C was negatively correlated with serum MDA and NN levels. This study reveals a significant increase of oxidative stress status and reduced antioxidant capacity in sera from healthy young adults with low intake of the dietary antioxidant, vitamin C. PMID:26451357

  2. The role of masturbation in healthy sexual development: perceptions of young adults.

    PubMed

    Kaestle, Christine E; Allen, Katherine R

    2011-10-01

    Despite efforts to identify masturbation as a strategy to improve sexual health, promote relational intimacy, and reduce unwanted pregnancy, STIs, and HIV transmission, masturbation as a context for healthy sexual development has been met with silence or trepidation in the scientific and educational communities. Relegated to the realm of commercial media, rather than rational discourse in families, schools, and the general public, young people receive mixed messages about this non-reproductive sexual behavior. In order to explore how young adults have learned about masturbation and currently perceive masturbation, we conducted a grounded theory study of 72 college students (56 females; 16 males) enrolled in a human sexuality class. Findings revealed that a young adult's perceptions of and feelings toward masturbation were the result of a developmental process that included: (1) learning about the act of masturbation and how to do it, (2) learning and internalizing the social contradiction of stigma and taboo surrounding this pleasurable act, and (3) coming to terms with this tension between stigma and pleasure. Although nearly all participants learned about masturbation through the media and peers (not parents or teachers), gender was salient in coming to terms with the contradiction of stigma and pleasure. Most of the women reported either still struggling with the contradiction or accepting it as normal. Most of the men recognized the beneficial aspects for healthy sexual development that result from masturbation. Both male and female participants identified differential sexual scripts as contributing to the double standard. PMID:21293916

  3. Ambient fine particles modify heart rate variability in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Maite; Ruiz, Silvia; Hermosillo, Antonio G; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2006-03-01

    Particulate air pollution has been related with cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have shown that an increase in particulate matter (PM)(2.5) ambient concentrations was associated with a decrease in heart rate variability (HRV) in the elderly with cardiovascular conditions, which could increase the risk of death. In order to assess if this association could also be observed in young adults, we studied 40 young healthy residents of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) who underwent 13 h Holter electrocardiographic and PM(2.5) personal monitoring. HRV was evaluated in time domain: the standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDNN) and the percentage of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals larger than 50 ms (pNN50). In multivariate analysis with mixed effects models, a significant negative association of pNN50 with PM(2.5) accumulative exposure was found. An increase in 30 microg/m(3) of the average PM(2.5) personal exposure in the previous 2 h decreased the pNN50 in 0.08% (P=0.01). This observation revealed an acute effect related to environmental exposure to PM(2.5) with regard to HRV in normal youngsters. The long-term health consequences of this association in young healthy adults remain to be clarified. PMID:16151470

  4. Relationship between QT interval and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy young subjects.

    PubMed

    Leotta, G; Maule, S; Rabbia, F; Del Colle, S; Tredici, M; Canadè, A; Verhovez, A; Veglio, F

    2005-08-01

    A prolongation of QT interval increases the risk for coronary heart disease, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death in diabetic patients, after myocardial infarction, and in the elderly. An association between QT prolongation and cardiovascular risk factors has been demonstrated in middle-aged and elderly subjects. Aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of a prolonged corrected QT interval (QTc) in a healthy young population (n=170, age 22-25 years, 84 males) and to investigate the association of QTc and QT dispersion (QTd) with cardiovascular risk factors (body mass index, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and cholesterol, smoking habits, and hypertensive familiarity). A prolonged QTc was observed in 10% of female and 5% of male subjects; in multiple regression analysis, QTc showed a significant positive relationship with blood glucose in females (P=0.04) and systolic blood pressure in male subjects (P=0.03), while QTd was not significantly related with any of the factors. In conclusion, the association between QTc length, glucose levels, and blood pressure is present also in young healthy subjects. QT measurement may represent a useful marker in the screening of young subjects for cardiovascular prevention. Journal of Human Hypertension (2005) 19, 623-627. doi:10.1038/sj.jhh.1001874; published online 19 May 2005. PMID:15905890

  5. Serum albumin and muscle measures in a cohort of healthy young and old participants.

    PubMed

    Reijnierse, E M; Trappenburg, M C; Leter, M J; Sipilä, S; Stenroth, L; Narici, M V; Hogrel, J Y; Butler-Browne, G; McPhee, J S; Pääsuke, M; Gapeyeva, H; Meskers, C G M; Maier, A B

    2015-10-01

    Consensus on clinically valid diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia requires a systematical assessment of the association of its candidate measures of muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance on one side and muscle-related clinical parameters on the other side. In this study, we systematically assessed associations between serum albumin as a muscle-related parameter and muscle measures in 172 healthy young (aged 18-30 years) and 271 old participants (aged 69-81 year) from the European MYOAGE study. Muscle measures included relative muscle mass, i.e., total- and appendicular lean mass (ALM) percentage, absolute muscle mass, i.e., ALM/height(2) and total lean mass in kilograms, handgrip strength, and walking speed. Muscle measures were standardized and analyzed in multivariate linear regression models, stratified by age. Adjustment models included age, body composition, C-reactive protein and lifestyle factors. In young participants, serum albumin was positively associated with lean mass percentage (p = 0.007) and with ALM percentage (p = 0.001). In old participants, serum albumin was not associated with any of the muscle measures. In conclusion, the association between serum albumin and muscle measures was only found in healthy young participants and the strongest for measures of relative muscle mass. PMID:26310888

  6. Design and evaluation of a computer game to promote a healthy diet for young adults.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei

    2009-03-01

    This article reports the development and evaluation of a computer game (RightWay Café) as a special medium to promote a healthy diet for young adults. Structural features of computer games, such as interactive tailoring, role playing, the element of fun, and narrative, were operationalized in the RightWay Café game to afford behavior rehearsal in a safe and entertaining way. Theories such as the health belief model, social cognitive theory, and theory of reasoned action guided the content design of the game to influence mediators of behavior change, including self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and behavior change intention. A randomized controlled evaluation study with pretest, posttest, and follow-up design demonstrated that this game was effective in teaching nutrition and weight management knowledge and increasing people's self-efficacy and perceived benefits of healthy eating, as well as their intention to be on a healthy diet. Limited long-term effects were also found: participants in the game-playing group had greater self-efficacy than participants in the control group after 1 month. This study validates the computer game-based approach to health promotion for young adults. Limitations and implications are also discussed. PMID:19280455

  7. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J.; Maurer, David G.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P.; Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12.9 mmol (0.8 g) of nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet-It Sport) on 2 study visits. At 3 h postconsumption, brachial artery diameter, flow, and blood velocity were measured (Doppler ultrasound) at rest and during 6 exercise intensities. Nitrate supplementation raised plasma nitrate (19.5-fold) and nitrite (1.6-fold) concentrations, and lowered resting arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) versus placebo (all p < 0.05) indicating absorption, conversion, and a biological effect of this supplement. The supplement-associated lowering of PWV was also negatively correlated with plasma nitrite (r = -0.72, p = 0.0127). Despite these systemic effects, nitrate supplementation had no effect on brachial artery diameter, flow, or shear rates at rest (all p ≥ 0.28) or during any exercise workload (all p ≥ 0.18). These findings suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies arterial PWV, but does not augment blood flow or brachial artery vasodilation during non-fatiguing forearm exercise in healthy young men. PMID:25536008

  8. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J; Maurer, David G; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N

    2015-02-01

    Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12.9 mmol (0.8 g) of nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet-It Sport) on 2 study visits. At 3 h postconsumption, brachial artery diameter, flow, and blood velocity were measured (Doppler ultrasound) at rest and during 6 exercise intensities. Nitrate supplementation raised plasma nitrate (19.5-fold) and nitrite (1.6-fold) concentrations, and lowered resting arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) versus placebo (all p < 0.05), indicating absorption, conversion, and a biological effect of this supplement. The supplement-associated lowering of PWV was also negatively correlated with plasma nitrite (r = -0.72, p = 0.0127). Despite these systemic effects, nitrate supplementation had no effect on brachial artery diameter, flow, or shear rates at rest (all p ≥ 0.28) or during any exercise workload (all p ≥ 0.18). These findings suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies arterial PWV, but does not augment blood flow or brachial artery vasodilation during nonfatiguing forearm exercise in healthy young men. PMID:25536008

  9. Anterior Displacement of Lamina Cribrosa during Valsalva Maneuver in Young Healthy Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Woo; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Jeoung, Jin Wook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate lamina cribrosa (LC) displacement during the Valsalva maneuver in young healthy eyes using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods Forty-eight eyes of 48 young healthy volunteers (age range: 20–34 years) underwent intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement by Goldmann applanation tonometry as well as Cirrus HD-OCT scans before and during the Valsalva maneuver. The optic nerve head (ONH) parameters (average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, rim area, disc area, average C/D ratio, vertical C/D ratio, cup volume), anterior LC depth (LCD), subfoveal and peripapillary choroidal thickness, and neural canal opening diameter were measured on compensated OCT and compared during Valsalva challenge. The subjects were asked to take a five-minute break after each Valsalva maneuver. Results During the Valsalva maneuver, the IOP significantly increased, from 12.7 ± 3.0 mmHg to 16.0 ± 3.2 mmHg (P < 0.001), while the LCD sharply decreased, from 463.4 ± 118.8 μm to 427.3 ± 106.4 μm (P < 0.001). The subfoveal choroidal thickness (300.7 ± 90.6 vs. 309.6 ± 93.5 μm), peripapilllary choroidal thickness (152.2 ± 55.4 vs. 150.8 ± 49.3 μm), neural canal opening diameter (1651.8 ± 204.2 vs. 1651.0 ± 217.6 μm), and all of the ONH parameters did not change significantly (all P > 0.05). Conclusions The Valsalva maneuver induced anterior displacement of the LC, but did not alter the choroidal thickness or ONH morphology. The data describe the positional characteristics of the LC in response to the Valsalva maneuver in young healthy eyes. PMID:27442120

  10. Focal encephalitis following varicella-zoster virus reactivation without rash in a healthy immunized young adult.

    PubMed

    Halling, Geoffrey; Giannini, Caterina; Britton, Jeffrey W; Lee, Ricky W; Watson, Robert E; Terrell, Christine L; Parney, Ian F; Buckingham, Erin M; Carpenter, John E; Grose, Charles

    2014-09-01

    Herein we describe an episode of focal varicella-zoster virus (VZV) encephalitis in a healthy young man with neither rash nor radicular pain. The symptoms began with headaches and seizures, after which magnetic resonance imaging detected a single hyperintense lesion in the left temporal lobe. Because of the provisional diagnosis of a brain tumor, the lesion was excised and submitted for pathological examination. No tumor was found. But the tissue immunostained positively for VZV antigens, and wild-type VZV sequences were detected. In short, this case represents VZV reactivation, most likely in the trigeminal ganglion, in the absence of clinical herpes zoster. PMID:24604820

  11. Response of choroidal blood flow to carbogen breathing in smokers and non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wimpissinger, B; Resch, H; Berisha, F; Weigert, G; Schmetterer, L; Polak, K

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate a potential difference in ocular vascular reactivity during carbogen breathing in optic nerve head, choroid, and retina between healthy smokers and non-smokers. Methods: 25 (13 smokers and 12 non-smokers) healthy male volunteers participated in this observer masked, two cohort study. During inhalation of carbogen (5% CO2 and 95% O2) over 10 minutes measurements were taken using laser Doppler flowmetry to assess submacular choroidal and optic nerve head blood flow, laser interferometry to assess fundus pulsation amplitudes, and retinal vessel analyser (RVA) to assess retinal vessel diameters. Results: At baseline choroidal blood flow was higher (p = 0.018, ANOVA) in smokers than in non-smokers. During administration of carbogen the response in choroidal blood flow was significantly different between the two groups: there was an increase in non-smokers after carbogen breathing (p = 0.048) compared with relatively stable blood flow in smokers (p = 0.049 between groups, ANOVA). A similar response pattern was seen for fundus pulsation amplitude, which increased notably after carbogen breathing in non-smokers but not in smokers (p<0.001 between groups, ANOVA). Optic nerve head blood flow and retinal vessel diameters were reduced in both groups to a comparable degree during carbogen breathing. Conclusion: The study indicated abnormal choroidal vascular reactivity in chronic smokers. These early haemodynamic changes may be related to the increased risk to smokers of developing ocular vascular diseases. The specific mechanisms underlying abnormal choroidal vascular reactivity in chronic smokers remain to be characterised. PMID:15148211

  12. Ankle-Brachial Index, Toe-Brachial Index, and Pulse Volume Recording in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Masaki, Hisao; Yunoki, Yasuhiro; Tabuchi, Atushi; Morita, Ichiro; Mohri, Satoshi; Tanemoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To clarify the characteristics of ankle-brachial index (ABI), toe-brachial index (TBI), and pulse volume recording (PVR) of the ankle with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in healthy young adults. Material and Methods: We analyzed ABI, TBI, baPWV, and PVR in the ankle of healthy adults aged 20 to 25 years (median, 20 years) using an automatic oscillometric device between 2002 and 2013. The ABI, baPWV, and PVR in 1282 legs of 641 subjects (301 men and 340 women) and the TBI in 474 toes of 237 subjects (117 men and 120 women) were evaluated. Results: The measured values showed no bilateral differences. ABI and baPWV were higher in men than in women, but TBI was similar in both sexes. ABI <1.0 was observed in 18.1% of the legs in men and in 25.6% in women. TBI <0.7 was observed in 16.2% of the toes in men and 19.1% in women. For ankle PVR, the % mean arterial pressure was higher in women than in men. The upstroke time was <180 ms in most subjects. Conclusions: For young people, ABI <1.0 or TBI <0.7 may not always indicate vascular abnormalities. When evaluating circulatory indexes, age and sex should be considered. PMID:26421072

  13. Determine the effect of neck muscle fatigue on dynamic visual acuity in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Saif, Amer A.; Al Senany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine whether neck muscle fatigue affects dynamic visual acuity in healthy young participants. [Subjects and Methods] This study was a double-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Thirty healthy young subjects (ages 21 to 30 years) participated in the study. Participants were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). The experimental group performed an exercise designed to induce neck muscle fatigue and the control group preformed non-fatiguing sham exercises. [Results] There were significant differences in mean dynamic visual acuity between the two groups (0.26±0.11 LogMar versus 0.003±0.02 LogMar). Subjects in the experimental group showed a significant decline in their dynamic visual acuity compared with the control group. Dynamic visual acuity strongly correlated with neck muscle fatigue (r = 0.79). No significant differences in joint position error were observed between the two groups and no significant correlations between joint position error and neck muscle fatigue were observed (r = 0.23). [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that neck muscle fatigue negatively impacts dynamic visual acuity. Although not statistically significant, cervical spine proprioception as measured by the joint position error in the experimental group was diminished after fatigue. PMID:25642087

  14. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Converse, Alexander K; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Travers, Brittany G; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD. PMID:24478679

  15. The Effect of BCMO1 Gene Variants on Macular Pigment Optical Density in Young Healthy Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Kyle-Little, Zachary; Zele, Andrew J.; Morris, C. Phillip; Feigl, Beatrix

    2014-01-01

    Background: Serum lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) positively correlate with macular pigment optical density (MPOD); hence, the latter is a valuable indirect tool for measuring L and Z content in the macula. L and Z have been attributed antioxidant capacity and protection from certain retinal diseases but their uptake within the eye is thought to depend on genetic, age, and environmental factors. In particular, gene variants within beta-carotene monooxygenase (BCMO1) are thought to modulate MPOD in the macula. Objectives: To determine the effect of BCMO1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs11645428, rs6420424, and rs6564851 on MPOD in a cohort of young healthy participants of Caucasian origin with normal ocular health. Design: In this cohort study, MPOD was assessed in 46 healthy participants (22 male and 24 female) with a mean age of 23.8 ± 4.0 years (range 19–33). The three SNPs, rs11645428, rs6420424, rs6564851 that have established associations with MPOD were determined using MassEXTEND (hME) Sequenom assay. One-way analysis of variance was performed on groups segregated into homozygous and heterozygous BCMO1 genotypes. Correlations between body mass index (BMI), iris color, gender, central retinal thickness (CRT), diet, and MPOD were investigated. Results: Macular pigment optical density neither significantly varied with BCMO1 rs11645428 (F2,41 = 0.70, p = 0.503), rs6420424 (F2,41 = 0.21, p = 0.801) nor rs6464851 homozygous or heterozygous genotypes (F2,41 = 0,13, p = 0.88), in this young healthy cohort. The combination of these three SNPs into triple genotypes based on plasma conversion efficiency did not affect MPOD (F2,41 = 0.07, p = 0.9). There was a significant negative correlation with MPOD and CRT (r = −0.39, p = 0.01) but no significant correlation between BMI, iris color, gender, and MPOD. Conclusion: Our results indicate that macular pigment deposition within the central retina is not dependent on

  16. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals. PMID:26808852

  17. Chronic stress exposure decreases the cortisol awakening response in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongxia; Yuan, Yiran; Zhang, Liang; Qin, Shaozheng; Zhang, Kan; Buchanan, Tony W; Wu, Jianhui

    2013-11-01

    Academic examination is a major stressor for students in China. Investigation of stress-sensitive endocrine responses to major examination stress serves as a good model of naturalistic chronic psychological stress in an otherwise healthy population. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is an endocrine marker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to stress. However, it remains unknown how chronic examination stress impacts the CAR in a young healthy population To exclude the influence of sex effects on hormone level, the CAR and psychological stress responses were assessed on two consecutive workdays in 42 male participants during their preparations for the Chinese National Postgraduate Entrance Exam (NPEE) and 21 non-exam, age-matched male comparisons. On each day, four saliva samples were collected immediately after awakening, 15 minutes, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after awakening. The waking level (S1), the increase within 30 minutes after awakening (R30), the area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg), and the area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) were used to quantify the CAR. Psychological stress and anxiety were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Male participants in the exam group had greater perceived stress and anxiety scores relatibe to the non-exam group. Both R30 and AUCi in the exam group were significantly lower than the comparison group and this effect was most pronounced for participants with high levels of perceived stress in the exam group. Perceived stress and anxiety levels were negatively correlated with both R30 and AUCi. Chronic examination stress can lead to the decrease of CAR in healthy young men, possibly due to reduced HPA axis activity under long-term sustained stress. PMID:23992539

  18. Relationship between spontaneous sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in healthy young individuals.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Chloe E; Witter, Trevor; El Sayed, Khadigeh; Hissen, Sarah L; Johnson, Aaron W; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2015-11-01

    Low baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk. However, the evidence is based primarily on measurements of cardiac BRS. It cannot be assumed that cardiac or sympathetic BRS alone represent a true reflection of baroreflex control of blood pressure. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between spontaneous sympathetic and cardiac BRS in healthy, young individuals. Continuous measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were made under resting conditions in 50 healthy individuals (18-28 years). Sympathetic BRS was quantified by plotting MSNA burst incidence against diastolic pressure (sympathetic BRSinc), and by plotting total MSNA against diastolic pressure (sympathetic BRStotal). Cardiac BRS was quantified by plotting R-R interval against systolic pressure using the sequence method. Significant sympathetic BRSinc and cardiac BRS slopes were obtained for 42 participants. A significant positive correlation was found between sympathetic BRSinc and cardiac BRS (r = 0.31, P = 0.049). Among this group, significant sympathetic baroreflex slopes were obtained for 39 participants when plotting total MSNA against diastolic pressure. In this subset, a significant positive correlation was observed between sympathetic BRStotal and cardiac BRS (r = 0.40, P = 0.012). When males and females were assessed separately, these modest relationships only remained significant in females. Analysis by gender revealed correlations in the females between sympathetic BRSinc and cardiac BRS (r = 0.49, P = 0.062), and between sympathetic BRStotal and cardiac BRS (r = 0.57, P = 0.025). These findings suggest that gender interactions exist in baroreflex control of blood pressure, and that cardiac BRS is not appropriate for estimating overall baroreflex function in healthy, young populations. This relationship warrants investigation in aging and clinical populations. PMID:26564059

  19. Relationship between spontaneous sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in healthy young individuals

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Chloe E; Witter, Trevor; El Sayed, Khadigeh; Hissen, Sarah L; Johnson, Aaron W; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2015-01-01

    Low baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk. However, the evidence is based primarily on measurements of cardiac BRS. It cannot be assumed that cardiac or sympathetic BRS alone represent a true reflection of baroreflex control of blood pressure. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between spontaneous sympathetic and cardiac BRS in healthy, young individuals. Continuous measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were made under resting conditions in 50 healthy individuals (18–28 years). Sympathetic BRS was quantified by plotting MSNA burst incidence against diastolic pressure (sympathetic BRSinc), and by plotting total MSNA against diastolic pressure (sympathetic BRStotal). Cardiac BRS was quantified by plotting R-R interval against systolic pressure using the sequence method. Significant sympathetic BRSinc and cardiac BRS slopes were obtained for 42 participants. A significant positive correlation was found between sympathetic BRSinc and cardiac BRS (r = 0.31, P = 0.049). Among this group, significant sympathetic baroreflex slopes were obtained for 39 participants when plotting total MSNA against diastolic pressure. In this subset, a significant positive correlation was observed between sympathetic BRStotal and cardiac BRS (r = 0.40, P = 0.012). When males and females were assessed separately, these modest relationships only remained significant in females. Analysis by gender revealed correlations in the females between sympathetic BRSinc and cardiac BRS (r = 0.49, P = 0.062), and between sympathetic BRStotal and cardiac BRS (r = 0.57, P = 0.025). These findings suggest that gender interactions exist in baroreflex control of blood pressure, and that cardiac BRS is not appropriate for estimating overall baroreflex function in healthy, young populations. This relationship warrants investigation in aging and clinical populations. PMID:26564059

  20. Interactive relation of insulin and gender to cardiovascular reactivity in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Waldstein, Shari R; Burns, Halina O

    2003-01-01

    High levels of insulin may promote hypertension pathogenesis, in part, via enhanced sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. This study examined potential interactive relations of fasting insulin levels, gender, and race to cardiovascular reactivity-a correlate of SNS activation. Hemodynamic responses to 4 laboratory challenges were determined by impedance cardiography in 64 healthy young adults (ages 18-26; 48% male; 50% White, 50% African American). Also examined were lipoprotein lipids, central and total adiposity, self-reported dietary factors, and physical activity. High-insulin (>10.2 mU/ml) men showed greater total peripheral resistance and longer pre-ejection period responses than low-insulin ( pound 10.2 mU/ml) men. High-insulin women displayed greater cardiac index responses than high-insulin men. High insulin levels were related to greater percentage body fat, dietary carbohydrate and fat intake, lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (in men), higher total cholesterol (in women), and a trend toward higher triglycerides. Cardiovascular reactivity findings were unchanged after statistical adjustment for total and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, percentage body fat, dietary carbohydrates, and fat. The Gender x Insulin (continuous scores) interaction accounted for 7% and 9% of the variance in cardiac index and total peripheral resistance responses, respectively. These results indicate that high insulin levels are associated with greater vascular reactivity in young men and cardiac reactivity in young women. Enhanced cardiovascular reactivity may constitute a biobehavioral dimension of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:12763711

  1. The effects of four weeks aerobic training on saliva cortisol and testosterone in young healthy persons.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Aly, Farag A

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 4 weeks moderate aerobic exercise on outcome measures of saliva stress hormones and lactate levels in healthy adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen healthy students with an age range of 15-25 years participated in this study. The participants performed an exercise test of moderate intensity for 4 weeks, three times per week. The exercise was treadmill walking. Saliva concentrations of cortisol, testosterone and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured before and after the 4 weeks of moderate aerobic training using immunoassay techniques. [Results] After 4 weeks of exercise, there were significant increases in cortisol, free testosterone levels, and LDH activity along with a significant decrease in the ratios between testosterone and cortisol levels. No significant correlations were found among the studied parameters in the resting stage, a result which supports the positive effect of exercise on stress hormones following 4 weeks of training. [Conclusion] The results suggest that four weeks exercise of moderate intensity significantly affects the salivary stress hormones of young healthy volunteers. The data support the importance of salivary stress hormones as potential biological markers especially for older ages. However, more research is required to validate these biological markers which determine the host response to physical activity. PMID:26311920

  2. The effects of four weeks aerobic training on saliva cortisol and testosterone in young healthy persons

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Aly, Farag A.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 4 weeks moderate aerobic exercise on outcome measures of saliva stress hormones and lactate levels in healthy adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen healthy students with an age range of 15–25 years participated in this study. The participants performed an exercise test of moderate intensity for 4 weeks, three times per week. The exercise was treadmill walking. Saliva concentrations of cortisol, testosterone and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured before and after the 4 weeks of moderate aerobic training using immunoassay techniques. [Results] After 4 weeks of exercise, there were significant increases in cortisol, free testosterone levels, and LDH activity along with a significant decrease in the ratios between testosterone and cortisol levels. No significant correlations were found among the studied parameters in the resting stage, a result which supports the positive effect of exercise on stress hormones following 4 weeks of training. [Conclusion] The results suggest that four weeks exercise of moderate intensity significantly affects the salivary stress hormones of young healthy volunteers. The data support the importance of salivary stress hormones as potential biological markers especially for older ages. However, more research is required to validate these biological markers which determine the host response to physical activity. PMID:26311920

  3. Detection of suPAR in the Saliva of Healthy Young Adults: Comparison with Plasma Levels

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Anna; Ajeti, Vjosa; Ljunggren, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been detected in blood, plasma, serum, urine, ovarian cystic fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid. Elevated suPAR levels in plasma have been associated with negative outcomes in various diseases, such as bacteremia, sepsis, SIRS, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and tuberculosis. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether suPAR can be detected in saliva from healthy individuals and thus, if saliva suPAR can be related to plasma suPAR, CRP, BMI, or gender. Blood and unstimulated whole saliva was collected from 20 healthy individuals (10 female and 10 male, median age of 28 years; range 21–41). CRP and suPAR were measured with ELISA in saliva and serum/plasma. suPAR was detected in all saliva samples in the 5.2–28.1 ng/mL range, with a median value of 17.1 ng/mL. Saliva suPAR was significantly higher (P < 0.001) but not correlated to plasma suPAR in healthy young adults with normal plasma suPAR levels. suPAR and CRP levels were correlated in blood but not in saliva. No correlation was found between BMI, age, or gender and suPAR in saliva. PMID:22084570

  4. White matter microstructure in the executive network associated with aggression in healthy adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Bato, Angelica A; Blair, Melanie A; DeRosse, Pamela; Szeszko, Philip R; Malhotra, Anil K

    2015-09-01

    Predicting which individuals may engage in aggressive behavior is of interest in today's society; however, there is little data on the neural basis of aggression in healthy individuals. Here, we tested whether regional differences in white matter (WM) microstructure were associated with later reports of aggressive tendencies. We recontacted healthy young adults an average of 3 years after they underwent research MRI scans. Via electronic survey, we administered the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire. We divided aggression into Aggressive Thoughts (Anger and Hostility subscales) and Aggressive Acts (Verbal and Physical subscales) and used Tract-Based Spatial Statistics to test the relationship of those measures to WM microstructure. In 45 individuals age 15-30 at baseline, we observed significant relationships between Aggressive Acts and fractional anisotropy (FA) in a parietal region consistent with the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). As the SLF has an established relationship to executive function, we performed an exploratory analysis in a subset of individuals with working memory data. Decreased FA in executive network regions, as well as working memory performance, were associated with later self-reported aggressive tendencies. This has implications for our healthy behavior understanding of as well as that of patient populations known to have executive dysfunction. PMID:25691778

  5. Rib Cartilage Assessment Relative to the Healthy Ear in Young Children with Microtia Guiding Operative Timing

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Shen-Song; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Dong-Yi; Jiang, Du-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The optimal age at which to initiate for auricular reconstruction is controversial. Rib cartilage growth is closely related to age and determines the feasibility and outcomes of auricular reconstruction. We developed a method to guide the timing of auricular reconstruction in children with microtia ranging in age from 5 to 10 years. Methods: Rib cartilage and the healthy ear were assessed using low-dose multi-slice computed tomography. The lengths of the eighth rib cartilage and the helix of the healthy ear (from the helical crus to the joint of the helix and the earlobe) were measured. Surgery was performed when the two lengths were approximately equal. Results: The preoperative eighth rib measurements significantly correlated with the intraoperative measurements (P < 0.05). From 5 to 10 years of age, eighth rib growth was not linear. In 76 (62.8%) of 121 patients, the eighth rib length was approximately equal to the helix length in the healthy ear; satisfactory outcomes were achieved in these patients. In 18 (14.9%) patients, the eighth rib was slightly shorter than the helix, helix fabrication was accomplished by adjusting the length of the helical crus of stent, and satisfactory outcomes were also achieved. Acceptable outcomes were achieved in 17 (14.0%) patients in whom helix fabrication was accomplished by cartilage splicing. In 9 (7.4%) patients with insufficient rib cartilage length, the operation was delayed. In one (0.8%) patient with insufficient rib cartilage length, which left no cartilage for helix splicing, the result was unsatisfactory. Conclusions: Eighth rib cartilage growth is variable. Rib cartilage assessment relative to the healthy ear can guide auricular reconstruction and personalize treatment in young patients with microtia. PMID:26265615

  6. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate

  7. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  8. Pharmacokinetics and electrocardiographic effect of ebastine in young versus elderly healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Huang, M Y; Argenti, D; Wilson, J; Garcia, J; Heald, D

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and electrocardiographic effect of a 10-mg oral dose of ebastine in elderly (ages, 65-85 years) and young (ages, 18-35 years) healthy volunteers. Thirty-seven subjects completed this randomized, double-blind, multiple-dose, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. The elderly group consisted of 18 subjects, with 13 subjects receiving 10 mg ebastine and 5 receiving matching placebo. The young group consisted of 19 subjects, with 13 subjects receiving 10 mg ebastine and 6 receiving matching placebo. On study days 1 and 3 through 10, each subject received a single 10-mg dose of ebastine or matching placebo in the morning with a standard breakfast. No drug was administered on study day 2 because of pharmacokinetic sampling. Blood samples were collected at selected times postdose on study days 1, 2, and 10. Plasma samples were analyzed for ebastine and its active metabolite, carebastine, using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. No plasma ebastine concentrations were detected, suggesting essentially complete metabolic conversion of ebastine to its metabolites. Analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences between young and elderly single- and multiple-dose carebastine pharmacokinetics with respect to area under the plasma concentration-time curve, maximum concentration (Cmax ), terminal elimination rate constant, apparent oral clearance, or apparent volume of distribution. The mean time of maximum concentration value for young subjects was 1 hour longer than that for elderly subjects after single-dose administration but was comparable after multiple-dose administration. Within-group comparisons of both the young and elderly showed that pharmacokinetics between single dose and steady state were not statistically different. However, the mean steady-state carebastine Cmax values were approximately twofold greater than the mean Cmax values

  9. Executive function on the 16-day of bed rest in young healthy men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizaki, Yuko; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Tanaka, Hidetaka; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Fujii, Yuri; Hattori-Uchida, Yuko; Nakamura, Minako; Ohkawa, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Hodaka; Taniuchi, Shoichiro; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2009-05-01

    Microgravity due to prolonged bed rest may cause changes in cerebral circulation, which is related to brain function. We evaluate the effect of simulated microgravity due to a 6° head-down tilt bed rest experiment on executive function among 12 healthy young men. Four kinds of psychoneurological tests—the table tapping test, the trail making test, the pointing test and losing at rock-paper-scissors—were performed on the baseline and on day 16 of the experiment. There was no significant difference in the results between the baseline and day 16 on all tests, which indicated that executive function was not impaired by the 16-day 6° head-down tilting bed rest. However, we cannot conclude that microgravity did not affect executive function because of the possible contribution of the following factors: (1) the timing of tests, (2) the learning effect, or (3) changes in psychophysiology that were too small to affect higher brain function.

  10. Default Mode Network Activity Predicts Early Memory Decline in Healthy Young Adults Aged 18-31.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Steven M; Savalia, Neil K; Fishell, Andrew K; Gilmore, Adrian W; Zou, Fan; Balota, David A; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research conducted in healthy young adults is typically done with the assumption that this sample is largely homogeneous. However, studies from cognitive psychology suggest that long-term memory and attentional control begin to diminish in the third decade of life. Here, 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 31 learned Lithuanian translations of English words in an individual differences study using fMRI. Long-term memory ability was operationalized for each participant by deriving a memory score from 3 convergent measures. Age of participant predicted memory score in this cohort. In addition, degree of deactivation during initial encoding in a set of regions occurring largely in the default mode network (DMN) predicted both age and memory score. The current study demonstrates that early memory decline may partially be accounted for by failure to modulate activity in the DMN. PMID:26209847

  11. Oat Bran as a Cholesterol-Reducing Dietary Adjunct in a Young, Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Kurt V.; Davidson, Dennis M.

    1988-01-01

    In a study to examine the effects of dietary oat bran on serum lipids, subjects who ate two oat bran muffins a day for 28 days showed a 5.3% reduction in serum total cholesterol and an 8.7% reduction in low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, while no changes were noted in subjects consuming wheat or mixed wheat and oat bran muffins. Similarly, those who ingested oat bran muffins showed an 8.3% reduction in serum triglyceride values as contrasted with an overall increase of 6.4% in the other groups combined. These findings suggest that oat bran taken daily can significantly lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in a young, healthy population. PMID:2834883

  12. The effect of retrograde and anterograde glucose administration on memory performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Foster, Jonathan K; Durlach, Paula; Perez, Catalina

    2002-08-21

    Memory for a list of 20 words can be enhanced by preceding learning by consumption of 25 g of glucose, compared with consumption of an equally sweet aspartame solution (Psychopharmacology 137 (1998) 259; Psychopharmacology 157 (2001) 46). However, using this anterograde administration procedure, it is impossible to separate whether glucose affects encoding, consolidation, or retrieval. The present placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the effect of anterograde and retrograde administration on memory performance in healthy young participants. In order to evaluate whether post-acquisition administration of glucose can improve memory performance and to compare possible differences in the size of the effect, participants were administered 25 g of glucose immediately before or immediately after presentation of a word list. Moreover, in order to investigate whether the effect of glucose administration on memory performance is time-dependent, a third group received 25 g of glucose 15 min before learning the word list. Word- list recall was tested 30 min and 24 h after word list presentation. Measures of spatial memory performance and working memory were also evaluated. The results of this study showed that both pre- and post-acquisition oral glucose administration (25 g) can improve memory performance. However, as the time interval between anterograde glucose administration and memory encoding increased, the glucose memory facilitation effect decreased. This study provides evidence that glucose enhances memory performance in healthy young people even when it is given after learning has taken place, and that this effect is observed at least up to 24 h after glucose administration. Moreover, it provides evidence that the effect of glucose on memory performance may be time-dependent, as the enhancement of retention was decreased when the administration-learning interval was increased. PMID:12191837

  13. Leptin and Hunger Levels in Young Healthy Adults After One Night of Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Pejovic, Slobodanka; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Basta, Maria; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Zoumakis, Emanuel; Vgontzas, Angeliki; Bixler, Edward O.; Chrousos, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system in healthy, young adults has been shown to be associated with decreased leptin levels, impaired insulin sensitivity and increased hunger and appetite. To assess the effects of one night of sleep loss in a less stressful environment on hunger, leptin, adiponectin, cortisol, and blood pressure/heart rate and whether a 2-hour mid-afternoon nap reverses the changes associated with sleep loss, 21 young healthy individuals (10 men, 11 women) participated in a 7-day sleep deprivation experiment (4 consecutive nights followed by a night of sleep loss and 2 recovery nights). Half of the subjects were randomly assigned to take a mid-afternoon nap (1400–1600) the day following the night of total sleep loss. Serial 24-hour blood sampling and hunger scales were completed on the fourth (pre-deprivation) and sixth day (post-deprivation). Leptin levels were significantly increased after one night of total sleep loss, whereas adiponectin, cortisol levels, blood pressure/heart rate, and hunger were not affected. Daytime napping did not influence the effects of sleep loss on leptin, adiponectin or hunger. Acute sleep loss, in a less stressful environment, influences leptin levels in an opposite manner from that of short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system. It appears that sleep loss associated with activation of the stress system but not sleep loss per se may lead to increased hunger and appetite and hormonal changes which ultimately may lead to increased consumption of “comfort” food and obesity. PMID:20545838

  14. Impaired glucose tolerance after brief heat exposure: a randomized crossover study in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Faure, Cécile; Charlot, Keyne; Henri, Stéphane; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Hue, Olivier; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    A high demand on thermoregulatory processes may challenge homoeostasis, particularly regarding glucose regulation. This has been understudied, although it might concern millions of humans. The objective of this project was to examine the isolated and combined effects of experimental short-term mild heat exposure and metabolic level on glucoregulation. Two experimental randomized crossover studies were conducted. Ten healthy young men participated in study A, which comprises four sessions in a fasting state at two metabolic levels [rest and exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake (O2) for 40 min] in two environmental temperatures (warm: 31°C and control: 22°C). Each session ended with an ad libitum meal, resulting in similar energy intake across sessions. In study B, 12 healthy young men underwent two 3 h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in warm and control environmental temperatures. Venous blood was sampled at several time points. In study A, repeated measure ANOVAs revealed higher postprandial serum glucose and insulin levels with heat exposure. Glycaemia following the OGTT was higher in the warm temperature compared with control. The kinetics of the serum glucose response to the glucose load was also affected by the environmental temperature (temperature-by-time interaction, P=0.030), with differences between the warm and control conditions observed up to 90 min after the glucose load (all P<0.033). These studies provide evidence that heat exposure alters short-term glucoregulation. The implication of this environmental factor in the physiopathology of Type 2 diabetes has yet to be investigated. PMID:26980346

  15. A study of Hepatitis A and E virus seropositivity profile amongst young healthy adults in India

    PubMed Central

    Kotwal, Atul; Singh, Harpreet; Verma, A.K.; Gupta, R.M.; Jain, Shishir; Sinha, S.; Joshi, R.K.; Teli, Prabhakar; Khunga, Vijay; Bhatnagar, Anuj; Ranjan, Richa

    2014-01-01

    Background Various Serosurveys and studies provide ample evidence of differing perspectives regarding epidemiology of HAV and HEV in India. This study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence of HAV and HEV and its associated factors with an aim to provide inputs to planners regarding requirement of HAV vaccine. Methods A multi-centric cross sectional survey amongst 4175 healthy trainees (young adults) was carried out in training centres, selected by multistage random sampling, giving equal representation to all regions of India. Sample size was calculated by taking prevalence of HAV seropositivity amongst adults as 60% and alpha 0.05. Results Seroprevalence for HAV and HEV was 92.68% (95% CI 91.82, 93.47) and 17.05% (15.90, 18.26), respectively. Logistic regression showed that hand washing without soap, regular close contact with domestic animals, consumption of unpasteurized milk and regular consumption of food outside home were risk factors for HAV (p < 0.05). For HEV, irregular hand washing, consumption of unpasteurized milk and irregular consumption of freshly prepared food were risk factors (p < 0.05). Conclusion High level of immunity against HAV among the healthy young adults clearly demonstrates that vaccination against HAV is not required at present in our country. The large proportion being susceptible to HEV points towards the requirement of preventive strategies in the form of safe drinking water supply, hygiene, sanitation, increasing awareness and behaviour change with respect to personal hygiene especially hand and food hygiene. PMID:25378774

  16. Alterations of Choroidal Blood Flow Regulation in Young Healthy Subjects with Complement Factor H Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Told, Reinhard; Palkovits, Stefan; Haslacher, Helmuth; Frantal, Sophie; Schmidl, Doreen; Boltz, Agnes; Lasta, Michael; Kaya, Semira; Werkmeister, René M.; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2013-01-01

    A common polymorphism in the complement factor H gene (rs1061170, Y402H) is associated with a high risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the present study we hypothesized that healthy young subjects homozygous for the high-risk haplotype (CC) show abnormal choroidal blood flow (ChBF) regulation decades before potentially developing the disease. A total of 100 healthy young subjects were included in the present study, of which 4 subjects were excluded due to problems with genotyping or blood flow measurements. ChBF was measured continuously using laser Doppler flowmetry while the subjects performed isometric exercise (squatting) for 6 minutes. The increase in ChBF was less pronounced than the response in ocular perfusion pressure (OPP), indicating for some degree of choroidal blood flow regulation. Eighteen subjects were homozygous for C, 47 subjects were homozygous for T and 31 subjects were heterozygous (CT). The increase in OPP during isometric exercise was not different between groups. By contrast the increase in ChBF was more pronounced in subjects homozygous for the high risk C allele (p = 0.041). This was also evident from the pressure/flow relationship, where the increase in ChBF in homozygous C carriers started at lower OPPs as compared to the other groups. Our data indicate that the regulation of ChBF is abnormal in rs1061170 CC carriers. So far this polymorphism has been linked to age related macular degeneration (AMD) mainly via inflammatory pathways associated with the complement system dysfunction. Our results indicate that it could also be related to vascular factors that have been implicated in AMD pathogenesis. PMID:23596508

  17. Alterations of choroidal blood flow regulation in young healthy subjects with complement factor H polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Told, Reinhard; Palkovits, Stefan; Haslacher, Helmuth; Frantal, Sophie; Schmidl, Doreen; Boltz, Agnes; Lasta, Michael; Kaya, Semira; Werkmeister, René M; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2013-01-01

    A common polymorphism in the complement factor H gene (rs1061170, Y402H) is associated with a high risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the present study we hypothesized that healthy young subjects homozygous for the high-risk haplotype (CC) show abnormal choroidal blood flow (ChBF) regulation decades before potentially developing the disease. A total of 100 healthy young subjects were included in the present study, of which 4 subjects were excluded due to problems with genotyping or blood flow measurements. ChBF was measured continuously using laser Doppler flowmetry while the subjects performed isometric exercise (squatting) for 6 minutes. The increase in ChBF was less pronounced than the response in ocular perfusion pressure (OPP), indicating for some degree of choroidal blood flow regulation. Eighteen subjects were homozygous for C, 47 subjects were homozygous for T and 31 subjects were heterozygous (CT). The increase in OPP during isometric exercise was not different between groups. By contrast the increase in ChBF was more pronounced in subjects homozygous for the high risk C allele (p = 0.041). This was also evident from the pressure/flow relationship, where the increase in ChBF in homozygous C carriers started at lower OPPs as compared to the other groups. Our data indicate that the regulation of ChBF is abnormal in rs1061170 CC carriers. So far this polymorphism has been linked to age related macular degeneration (AMD) mainly via inflammatory pathways associated with the complement system dysfunction. Our results indicate that it could also be related to vascular factors that have been implicated in AMD pathogenesis. PMID:23596508

  18. Plasma vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid and heart rate variability in healthy young Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Sucharita, Sambashivaiah; Sowmya, Sharma; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura V; Vaz, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in the Indian population is not known, however; it is considered to be higher than in the Western population. Vitamin B12 deficiency is generally diagnosed by the plasma vitamin B12 level. Metabolites of vitamin B12 such as homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) are considered to be better markers to diagnose vitamin B12 deficiency at the tissue level. Autonomic neuropathy in vitamin B12 deficiency appears to precede other neurological signs. One of the recent techniques to evaluate autonomic neuropathy is heart rate variability (HRV). We evaluated 14 healthy young adults to explore the association of plasma vitamin B12, MMA, and Hcy levels with HRV. Resting lead II ECG was recorded and power spectral analyses were performed. Plasma MMA level was significantly and negatively correlated with the log-transformed low frequency (r = - 0.74, p = 0.002) and total power spectra (r = - 0.55, p = 0.03) of HRV in absolute units. Low frequency (LF) (r = - 0.56, p = 0.03) and high frequency (HF) (r = 0.57, p = 0.03), when represented in normalized units, were also correlated significantly with plasma MMA. In summary, plasma MMA but not vitamin B12 was significantly associated with HRV indices in a young adult population, suggesting that a tissue-level marker of vitamin B12 deficiency is more closely correlated with functional changes. PMID:24846903

  19. Endothelial dysfunction in young healthy men is associated with aspirin resistance.

    PubMed

    Doroszko, Adrian; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Janus, Agnieszka; Jakubowski, Maciej; Turek, Aleksandra; Ilnicka, Paulina; Szuba, Andrzej; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between endothelial dysfunction and aspirin response in a young healthy population (102 men aged 18-40). Initial concentrations of the NO pathway metabolites (ADMA, l-arginine, SDMA), cardiovascular risk markers, oxidative stress markers (MDA, thiol index), sICAM1, sVCAM1, PAI-1, sE-selectin, sP-selectin, VEGF, thromboxane B2, 6-keto-PGF1α and arachidonate-induced platelet aggregation (to separate aspirin resistant from sensitive group) were measured. Flow-mediated-vasodilation (FMD) was measured before and after intravenous infusion of 16.0 g of l-arginine. Measurements were repeated following aspirin administration (75 mg/24 h) for 4 days. Both groups were homogenous regarding demographic and biochemical characteristics reflecting cardiovascular risk. Aspirin resistant subjects were characterized by lower baseline FMD and higher FMD following aspirin and l-arginine treatment, as compared to aspirin sensitive control. MDA and nitrotyrosine were greater, whereas thiol index was lower in aspirin resistant men. The sICAM1, sVCAM1, PAI-1, sE-selectin, sP-selectin and VEGF levels were similar in the analyzed groups. Thromboxane in aspirin resistant subjects was greater both at baseline and following aspirin therapy. However, a significant decrease following aspirin treatment was present in both groups. Aspirin resistance in young men is associated with endothelial dysfunction, which could be due to oxidative stress resulting from lipid peroxidation. PMID:25697550

  20. Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Cognitive Functions in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Antonenko, Daria; Faxel, Miriam; Grittner, Ulrike; Lavidor, Michal; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Recently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has emerged as a tool to enhance human cognitive processes. Here, we provide a brief summary of the rationale behind tACS-induced effects on task-relevant brain oscillations and associated cognitive functions and review previous studies in young subjects that have applied tACS in cognitive paradigms. Additionally, we present pilot data where we administered theta-tACS (6 Hz) over the temporoparietal cortex and a supraorbital reference for 20 min during implicit language learning in healthy young (mean/SD age: 22/2) and older (mean/SD age: 66/4) adults, in a sham-controlled crossover design. Linear mixed models revealed significantly increased retrieval accuracy following tACS-accompanied associative learning, after controlling for session order and learning success. These data provide the first implementation of tACS during cognitive performance in older adults and support recent studies suggesting that tACS in the theta frequency range may serve as a tool to enhance cognition, possibly through direct modulation of task-relevant brain oscillations. So far, studies have been heterogeneous in their designs, leaving a number of issues to be addressed in future research, including the setup of electrodes and optimal stimulation frequencies to be employed, as well as the interaction with age and underlying brain pathologies in specific patient populations. PMID:27298740

  1. Response inhibition and avoidance of virtual obstacles during gait in healthy young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Potocanac, Zrinka; Smulders, Ellen; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Verschueren, Sabine; Duysens, Jacques

    2015-02-01

    Adjustments of preplanned steps are essential for fall avoidance and require response inhibition. Still, inhibition is rarely tested under conditions resembling daily living. We evaluated the ability of young and older adults to modify ongoing walking movements using a novel precision step inhibition (PSI) task combined with an auditory Stroop task. Healthy young (YA, n=12) and older (OA, n=12) adults performed the PSI task at 4 individualized difficulty levels, as a single and dual task (DT). Subjects walked on a treadmill by stepping on virtual stepping stones, unless these changed color during approach, forcing the subjects to avoid them. OA made more failures (40%) on the PSI task than YA (16%), but DT did not affect their performance. In combination with increased rates of omitted Stroop task responses, this indicates a "posture first" strategy. Yet, adding obstacles to the PSI task significantly deteriorated Stroop performance in both groups (the average Stroop composite score decreased by 13% in YA and 27% in OA). Largest deficit of OA was observed in rates of incorrect responses to incongruent Stroop stimuli (OA 35% and YA 12%), which require response inhibition. We concluded that the performance of OA suffered specifically when response inhibition was required. PMID:25461431

  2. Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Cognitive Functions in Healthy Young and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Antonenko, Daria; Faxel, Miriam; Grittner, Ulrike; Lavidor, Michal; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Recently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has emerged as a tool to enhance human cognitive processes. Here, we provide a brief summary of the rationale behind tACS-induced effects on task-relevant brain oscillations and associated cognitive functions and review previous studies in young subjects that have applied tACS in cognitive paradigms. Additionally, we present pilot data where we administered theta-tACS (6 Hz) over the temporoparietal cortex and a supraorbital reference for 20 min during implicit language learning in healthy young (mean/SD age: 22/2) and older (mean/SD age: 66/4) adults, in a sham-controlled crossover design. Linear mixed models revealed significantly increased retrieval accuracy following tACS-accompanied associative learning, after controlling for session order and learning success. These data provide the first implementation of tACS during cognitive performance in older adults and support recent studies suggesting that tACS in the theta frequency range may serve as a tool to enhance cognition, possibly through direct modulation of task-relevant brain oscillations. So far, studies have been heterogeneous in their designs, leaving a number of issues to be addressed in future research, including the setup of electrodes and optimal stimulation frequencies to be employed, as well as the interaction with age and underlying brain pathologies in specific patient populations. PMID:27298740

  3. Protein Considerations for Optimising Skeletal Muscle Mass in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Witard, Oliver C.; Wardle, Sophie L.; Macnaughton, Lindsay S.; Hodgson, Adrian B.; Tipton, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is critical for human health. Protein feeding, alongside resistance exercise, is a potent stimulus for muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and is a key factor that regulates skeletal muscle mass (SMM). The main purpose of this narrative review was to evaluate the latest evidence for optimising the amino acid or protein source, dose, timing, pattern and macronutrient coingestion for increasing or preserving SMM in healthy young and healthy older adults. We used a systematic search strategy of PubMed and Web of Science to retrieve all articles related to this review objective. In summary, our findings support the notion that protein guidelines for increasing or preserving SMM are more complex than simply recommending a total daily amount of protein. Instead, multifactorial interactions between protein source, dose, timing, pattern and macronutrient coingestion, alongside exercise, influence the stimulation of MPS, and thus should be considered in the context of protein recommendations for regulating SMM. To conclude, on the basis of currently available scientific literature, protein recommendations for optimising SMM should be tailored to the population or context of interest, with consideration given to age and resting/post resistance exercise conditions. PMID:27023595

  4. Effects of Chinese Liquors on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Healthy Young Humans

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Yang, Jing; Huang, Tao; Hu, Xiao-Jie; Luo, Ming; Li, Duo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To elucidate whether consumption of two Chinese liquors, tea-flavor liquor (TFL) and traditional Chinese liquor (TCL) have protective effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in healthy human subjects. Methods. Forty-five healthy subjects (23 men, 22 women), aged 23–28, were recruited and randomized into two groups: TFL and TCL, and consumed 30 mL/day (45% (v/v) alcohol) of either liquor for 28 days. Results. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C/LDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1 were significantly increased, and total cholesterol (TC) and TC/HDL-C were significantly decreased after the intervention in both groups (P < 0.05). Serum uric acid (P = 0.004 for TFL, P = 0.001 for TCL), glucose (P < 0.001 for TFL, P < 0.001 for TCL) and endothelial adhesion molecules (P < 0.05) were significantly decreased after the intervention. ADP-induced whole blood platelet aggregation was also significantly decreased after the intervention in both TFL and TCL groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions. TFL and TCL consumption had protective effects on CVD risk factors in young humans. However, the results were valid only for 28 days, and that the possibility of adverse effect (liver, kidney) of chronic alcohol consumption should be considered. PMID:22919307

  5. The Relationship between Processing Speed and Regional White Matter Volume in Healthy Young People

    PubMed Central

    Magistro, Daniele; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Nejad, Keyvan Kashkouli; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    Processing speed is considered a key cognitive resource and it has a crucial role in all types of cognitive performance. Some researchers have hypothesised the importance of white matter integrity in the brain for processing speed; however, the relationship at the whole-brain level between white matter volume (WMV) and processing speed relevant to the modality or problem used in the task has never been clearly evaluated in healthy people. In this study, we used various tests of processing speed and Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) analyses, it is involves a voxel-wise comparison of the local volume of gray and white, to assess the relationship between processing speed and regional WMV (rWMV). We examined the association between processing speed and WMV in 887 healthy young adults (504 men and 383 women; mean age, 20.7 years, SD, 1.85). We performed three different multiple regression analyses: we evaluated rWMV associated with individual differences in the simple processing speed task, word–colour and colour–word tasks (processing speed tasks with words) and the simple arithmetic task, after adjusting for age and sex. The results showed a positive relationship at the whole-brain level between rWMV and processing speed performance. In contrast, the processing speed performance did not correlate with rWMV in any of the regions examined. Our results support the idea that WMV is associated globally with processing speed performance regardless of the type of processing speed task. PMID:26397946

  6. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lippelt, D. P.; van der Kint, S.; van Herk, K.; Naber, M.

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0–2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants. PMID:27341028

  7. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    PubMed

    Lippelt, D P; van der Kint, S; van Herk, K; Naber, M

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants. PMID:27341028

  8. [Sensitivity of cough with capsaicin in smokers].

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Cetin Aydin; Celik, Pinar; Havlucu, Yavuz; Coşkun, Evşen; Yorgancioğlu, Arzu; Sakar, Ayşin; Dinç, Gönül

    2008-01-01

    In this study, effect of long term smoking on sensitivity of cough reflex was investigated. Healthy, current smoker male and female was evaluated by capsaicin cough challenge test and they were compared with healthy, non-smoker persons with similar age and gender, prospectively. In current smokers, there were 50 male and 39 female, in non-smoker control group, there were 20 male and 21 female. Mean and log C5 dosage in current smoker and non-smoker groups and mean and log C5 dosage in current smoker according to gender were calculated by using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results of capsaicin cough challenge test in current and non-smoker groups were evaluated by using Pearson Chi-Square test and Fisher's Exact test. In current smokers comparison of results of capsaicin cough challenge test with smoking history (age with first smoking, duration, pocket year and smoking per day) was evaluated by using Mann-Whitney U-test. Mean C5 and mean log C5 dosage were found decreased in current smokers when they were compared to control group (p< 0.00). In current smoker group mean C5 and mean log C5 dosage were found decreased in male (p< 0.002). When the results of capsaicin cough challenge test were compared between current smoker and control groups, sensitivity of cough reflex in concentration with 0.49, 0.98, 1.95, 3.9, 7.8, 15.6 microM was significantly decreased in current smoker group. Also there was a significant correlation between concentration with 0.98, 1.95, 3.9, 7.8, 15.6, 31.2 microM, and duration of smoking and pocket year of smoking. Also there was a correlation between concentration with 15.6, 31.2, 62.5, 125 microM and smoking per day. This results were correlated with hypothesis about inhibition of C-fibers with nicotin or decrease of C-fibers' sensitivity due to induction of neuropeptide wasting. PMID:18330750

  9. Acute effects of whole-body vibration on trunk muscle functioning in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jiajia; Ng, Gabriel; Yuen, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the immediate effects of different frequencies of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the performance of trunk muscles of healthy young adults. A group of 30 healthy subjects (15 men; 15 women; age, 26.8 ± 3.74 years; body mass index, 21.9 ± 1.802) participated in the study. Each subject received 3 sessions of vibration exercise with different exercise parameters with frequencies of 25 Hz and 40 Hz and sham stimulation in a random order on different days. Before and after each WBV exercise session, subjects were assessed for trunk muscle strength/endurance tests and trunk proprioception tests. There was a significant increase in trunk extensor strength (p ≤ 0.05) after low-frequency (25 Hz) WBV exercise, but high-frequency (40 Hz) vibration exercise had resulted in a significant decrease in trunk extensor endurance (p ≤ 0.05). Statistical gender difference (p = 0.04) was found for trunk extensor endurance with lower WBV training. No change was noted in the trunk proprioception with different frequencies of WBV. In conclusions, the immediate response of the body to WBV was different for low and high frequencies. Low-frequency vibration enhanced trunk extensor strength, but high-frequency vibration would decrease endurance of the trunk extensor muscles. Males are more sensitive than females in trunk extensor endurance for lower frequency WBV exposure. These results indicated that short-term WBV with low frequency was effective to improve trunk extensor strength in healthy adults, and that could be helpful for relevant activities of trunk extensor performing and preventing sport injury. PMID:24714536

  10. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Calabrese, Pasquale; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA) at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT) as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD), and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females), 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females), and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy adolescents and healthy young adults, and equivalent levels of moderate-intensity PA and SD as young adults. MS patients reported lower levels of vigorous PA compared to both healthy adolescents and young adults. Conclusion The pattern of the results of the present study suggests that the onset of MS is not associated with poor MT, poor sleep, or reduced moderate-intensity PA. Lower levels of vigorous PA were observed in MS patients. Low levels of vigorous PA may lead to decreased cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with MS and, in the long run, to reduced cardiovascular health and degraded psychological functioning. PMID:27390520

  11. Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Male Smokers and Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Hayati, Zahra; Rezaei, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the most important risk factors for the development of oral mucosal lesions such as leukoplakia and hairy tongue. Controversy exists in the literature, however, about the prevalence of oral lesions in smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral lesions in male smokers compared with nonsmokers in Hamadan. A total of 516 male participants were assessed, 258 of whom were smokers and 258 of whom were healthy nonsmokers. The prevalence of lesions was evaluated by clinical observation and biopsy. We found that the most prevalent lesions among smokers were gingival problems and coated tongue; smokers had significantly more lesions than did nonsmokers. Malignant and premalignant lesions were found in a higher age range. Among all participants in our study, we found a large number of oral mucosal lesions in smokers that had a strong correlation with smoking. Dental services need to implement care and health education for smokers to promote health. PMID:24010068

  12. Specific Interference between a Cognitive Task and Sensory Organization for Stance Balance Control in Healthy Young Adults: Visuospatial Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Raymond K. Y.; Mills, Bradley; Dailey, Leanna; Lane, Elizabeth; Smith, Sarah; Lee, Kyoung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a computational overload results when two activities, one motor and the other cognitive that draw on the same neural processing pathways, are performed concurrently. Healthy young adult subjects carried out two seemingly distinct tasks of maintaining standing balance control under conditions of low (eyes closed),…

  13. Levels of adipocytokines and vitamin D in a biracial sample of young metabolically healthy obese and metabolically abnormal obese women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Adipocytokines and vitamin D (vitD) concentrations may contribute to cardiometabolic risk profiles in obese populations. The purpose was to determine if levels of adipocytokines and vitD differ between young metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) black and ...

  14. Informal Mealtime Pedagogies: Exploring the Influence of Family Structure on Young People's Healthy Eating Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarmby, Thomas; Dagkas, Symeon

    2015-01-01

    Families are increasingly recognised as informal sites of learning, especially with regard to healthy eating. Through the use of Bourdieu's conceptual tools, this paper explores the role of family meals within different family structures and the informal pedagogic encounters that take place. How they help to construct young people's…

  15. Balancing Healthy Meals and Busy Lives: Associations between Work, School, and Family Responsibilities and Perceived Time Constraints among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize associations between perceived time constraints for healthy eating and work, school, and family responsibilities among young adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: A large, Midwestern metropolitan region. Participants: A diverse sample of community college (n = 598) and public university (n = 603) students.…

  16. "Eating Beans ... that Is a "No-No" for Our Times": Young Cypriots' Consumer Meanings of "Healthy" and "Fast" Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Soula

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in-depth beliefs and experiences relating to the choice of fast and/or healthy foods from a group of young people living in Cyprus. Design: Data for the study were generated from one-to-one qualitative interviews which encouraged the participants to articulate the symbolic value of eating choices in their day-to-day…

  17. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: Rationale and design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally ...

  18. Alertness in Young Healthy Subjects: An fMRI Study of Brain Region Interactivity Enhanced by a Warning Signal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perin, B.; Godefroy, O.; Fall, S.; de Marco, G.

    2010-01-01

    An effective connectivity study was carried out on 16 young, healthy subjects performing an alertness task. The objective of this study was to develop and to evaluate a putative network model of alertness by adapting structural equation modeling to fMRI data. This study was designed to evaluate the directed interactivity of an attentional network…

  19. Pulmonary Responses in Healthy Young Adults Exposed to Low Concentration of Ozone for 6.6 Hours with Mild Exercise

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rational: Recent studies have shown small but significant decreases in lung function following a prolonged exposure (6.6 hour) of healthy young adults to levels of ozone (0.08 ppm) near the current 8 hour standard. It is unclear, however, if such effects may be extended to concen...

  20. Phospholipids from herring roe improve plasma lipids and glucose tolerance in healthy, young adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Herring roe is an underutilized source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for human consumption with high phospholipid (PL) content. Studies have shown that PL may improve bioavailability of n-3 PUFAs. Arctic Nutrition’s herring roe product MOPL™30 is a PL: docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich fish oil mixture, with a DHA:eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ratio of about 3:1, which is also rich in choline. In this pilot study, we determined if MOPL30 could favorably affect plasma lipid parameters and glucose tolerance in healthy young adults. Methods Twenty female and one male adults, between 22 and 26 years of age, participated in the study. Participants took encapsulated MOPL30, 2.4 g/d EPA + DHA, for 14 days, and completed a three-day weighed food record before and during the capsule intake. Plasma lipids and their fatty acid (FA) composition, plasma and red blood cell (RBC) phosphatidylcholine (PC) FA composition, acylcarnitines, choline, betaine and insulin were measured before and after supplementation (n = 21), and one and four weeks after discontinuation of supplementation (n = 14). An oral glucose tolerance test was performed before and after supplementation. Results Fasting plasma triacylglycerol and non-esterified fatty acids decreased and HDL-cholesterol increased after 14 days of MOPL30 intake (p < 0.05). The dietary records showed that PUFA intake prior to and during capsule intake was not different. Fasting plasma glucose was unchanged from before to after supplementation. However, during oral glucose tolerance testing, blood glucose at both 10 and 120 min was significantly lower after supplementation with MOPL30 compared to baseline measurements. Plasma free choline and betaine were increased, and the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA) ratio in plasma and RBC PC were decreased post-supplementation. Four weeks after discontinuation of MOPL30, most parameters had returned to baseline, but a delayed effect was observed on n-6

  1. Evaluation of stimulus velocity in automated kinetic perimetry in young healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Kazunori; Shoji, Nobuyuki; Okada, Ayaka; Takano, Kana; Tomioka, Seiya

    2014-05-01

    This prospective study aimed to evaluate the stimulus velocity for automated kinetic perimetry based on the test duration, the kinetic sensitivity, and the variability of the kinetic sensitivity in 31 eyes of 31 young healthy participants. Automated kinetic perimetry was performed using an Octopus 900 perimeter with Goldmann stimuli III4e, I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e. The participants underwent testing at 14 predetermined meridians for each stimulus, with velocities of 2°, 3°, 4°, 5°, and 10°/s; each velocity was tested twice. The test duration, kinetic sensitivity, and variability of kinetic sensitivity were compared among the stimulus velocities. Twenty-nine eyes from 29 participants were analyzed, and two participants were excluded. The test durations at the velocities of 2°, 3°, 4°, 5°, and 10°/s were negatively correlated with the stimulus velocity (p<0.01). The variability of the kinetic sensitivities did not significantly differ among the stimulus velocities. The kinetic sensitivities at 2° and 3°/s did not differ significantly for all stimuli. However, those at 4°/s decreased for III4e, I4e, and I1e (p<0.05), and those at 5° and 10°/s decreased for all stimuli (p<0.05) compared with those at 2° or 3°/s. Although the test durations for each stimulus velocity were negatively correlated with the stimulus velocities, a stimulus velocity of 3° or 4°/s might be recommended for automated kinetic perimetry based on the changes in the kinetic sensitivity. As this study included only young participants, further studies in elderly participants may also be necessary. PMID:24705075

  2. Effects of a prolonged submersion on bone strength and metabolism in young healthy submariners.

    PubMed

    Luria, Tal; Matsliah, Yinnon; Adir, Yochai; Josephy, Noam; Moran, Daniel S; Evans, Rachel K; Abramovich, Amir; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Submariners taking part in prolonged missions are exposed to environmental factors that may adversely affect bone health. Among these, relatively high levels of CO(2), lack of sunlight exposure affecting vitamin D metabolism, limited physical activity, and altered dietary habits. The aims of this study were to examine the effect of a prolonged submersion (30 days) on changes in bone strength using quantitative bone speed of sound and in markers of bone metabolism that include bone turnover (BAP, PINP, TRAP5b, and CTx) and endocrine regulators (serum calcium, PTH, and 25[OH]D) in a group of 32 young healthy male submariners. The prolonged submersion led to increases in body weight and BMI and to a decrease in fitness level. There was a significant decrease in bone strength following the submersion. Speed of sound exhibited continued decline at 4 weeks after return to shore and returned to baseline levels at the 6-month follow-up. There was a significant increase in circulating calcium level. PTH and 25(OH)D levels decreased significantly. Significant decreases were observed in both TRAP5b and CTx levels, markers of bone resorption, as well as in N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), a bone formation marker. Prolonged submersion led to a significant decrease in bone strength, accompanied by an overall decrease in bone metabolism. Bone strength was regained only 6 months after return to shore. Prevention and/or rehabilitation programs should be developed following periods of relative disuse even for young submariners. The effects of repeated prolonged submersions on bone health are yet to be determined. PMID:19882096

  3. Brain structures and functional connectivity associated with individual differences in Internet tendency in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwei; Li, Yadan; Yang, Wenjing; Zhang, Qinglin; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Hitchman, Glenn; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Internet addiction (IA) incurs significant social and financial costs in the form of physical side-effects, academic and occupational impairment, and serious relationship problems. The majority of previous studies on Internet addiction disorders (IAD) have focused on structural and functional abnormalities, while few studies have simultaneously investigated the structural and functional brain alterations underlying individual differences in IA tendencies measured by questionnaires in a healthy sample. Here we combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity, rsFC) information to explore the neural mechanisms underlying IAT in a large sample of 260 healthy young adults. The results showed that IAT scores were significantly and positively correlated with rGMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, one key node of the cognitive control network, CCN), which might reflect reduced functioning of inhibitory control. More interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right DLPFC and the medial prefrontal cortex/rostral anterior cingulate cortex (mPFC/rACC, one key node of the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher IAT scores, which might be associated with reduced efficiency of the CCN and DMN (e.g., diminished cognitive control and self-monitoring). Furthermore, the Stroop interference effect was positively associated with the volume of the DLPFC and with the IA scores, as well as with the connectivity between DLPFC and mPFC, which further indicated that rGMV variations in the DLPFC and decreased anticonnections between the DLPFC and mPFC may reflect addiction-related reduced inhibitory control and cognitive efficiency. These findings suggest the combination of structural and functional information can provide a valuable basis for further understanding of the mechanisms and pathogenesis of IA. PMID:25698637

  4. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Intelligence in Healthy Young Adults: The Role of Basal Ganglia Volume

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Cosima; Mühle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. Conclusions/Significance The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia

  5. Task Specific Frequencies of Neck Motion Measured in Healthy Young Adults over a 5 Day Period

    PubMed Central

    Cobian, Daniel G.; Sterling, Andrew C.; Anderson, Paul A.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Observational cohort design. Objective To quantify the frequencies and magnitudes of neck motion during daily activities in healthy subjects. Summary of Background Data Previous studies have measured the maximum excursions during re-created ADLs in lab settings, but there is a lack of information available on frequencies and excursions of neck motion with ADLs in non-artificial settings. Methods Ten healthy young adults were fitted with a portable motion measurement device that recorded movement about each primary axis. Participants were instructed to wear the unit continuously over a 5-day period and record their daily activities with corresponding times. After the collection period, subjects' activity logs were analyzed and data were partitioned into five categories which provided the most primary representation of ADLs: athletics, work, travel, sleep, and miscellaneous. Each category was further divided into increasingly specific activities (e.g. running and walking). Frequency of motions within 5° increments was determined and an hourly rate was calculated for each activity. Median motion about each axis for each activity was also determined. Results The total number of movements per hour for all axes, regardless of amplitude, was highest during athletic activity and lowest during sleeping. The majority of movements (92% of athletic activity, 90% of work) required less than 25° of lateral bending, while greater range of movement requirements were observed for flexion-extension and axial rotation. The median range of motion along all axes was highest for athletic activity and lowest for sleeping. Conclusions The results of this study provide a baseline of the frequency and magnitude of neck motion during normal ADLs for the specified population. These findings can assist physicians and physical therapists in determining the extent of disability and identifying activities that will likely be problematic for patients with limited cervical motion

  6. APOE Polymorphism Affects Brain Default Mode Network in Healthy Young Adults: A STROBE Article.

    PubMed

    Su, Yun Yan; Liang, Xue; Schoepf, U Joseph; Varga-Szemes, Akos; West, Henry C; Qi, Rongfeng; Kong, Xiang; Chen, Hui Juan; Lu, Guang Ming; Zhang, Long Jiang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism on the resting-state brain function, structure, and blood flow in healthy adults younger than 35 years, using multimodality magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.Seventy-six healthy adults (34 men, 23.7 ± 2.8 y; 31 APOE ε4/ε3 carriers, 31 ε3/ε3 carriers, and 14 ε2/ε3 carriers) were included. For resting-state functional MRI data, default mode network (DMN) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation maps were extracted and analyzed. Voxel-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging from structural imaging, and cerebral blood flow based on arterial spin labeling MR imaging were also analyzed. Correlation analysis was performed between the above mentioned brain parameters and neuropsychological tests.There were no differences in neuropsychological performances, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, gray/white matter volumes, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, or whole brain cerebral blood flow among the 3 groups. As for DMN, the ε4/ε3 group showed increased functional connectivities (FCs) in the left medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral posterior cingulate cortices/precuneus compared with the ε3/ε3 group, and increased FCs in the left medial prefrontal cortex and right temporal lobe compared with the ε2/ε3 group (P < 0.05, Alphasim corrected). No differences of DMN FCs were found between the ε2/ε3 and ε3/ε3 groups. FCs in the right temporal lobe positively correlated with the performances of vocabulary learning, delayed recall, and graph recall in all participants (P < 0.05).APOE ε4 carriers exhibited significantly increased DMN FCs when compared with ε3 and ε2 carriers. The ε4 affects DMN FCs before brain structure and blood flow in cognitively intact young patients, suggesting DMN FC may serve as a potential biomarker for the detection of early manifestations of genetic effect. PMID:26717353

  7. Electromyographic standardized indices in healthy Brazilian young adults and data reproducibility.

    PubMed

    De Felício, C M; Sidequersky, F V; Tartaglia, G M; Sforza, C

    2009-08-01

    The determination of normal parameters is an important procedure in the evaluation of the stomatognathic system. We used the surface electromyography standardization protocol described by Ferrario et al. (J Oral Rehabil. 2000;27:33-40, 2006;33:341) to determine reference values of the electromyographic standardized indices for the assessment of muscular symmetry (left and right side, percentage overlapping coefficient, POC), potential lateral displacing components (unbalanced contractile activities of contralateral masseter and temporalis muscles, TC), relative activity (most prevalent pair of masticatory muscles, ATTIV) and total activity (integrated areas of the electromyographic potentials over time, IMPACT) in healthy Brazilian young adults, and the relevant data reproducibility. Electromyography of the right and left masseter and temporalis muscles was performed during maximum teeth clenching in 20 healthy subjects (10 women and 10 men, mean age 23 years, s.d. 3), free from periodontal problems, temporomandibular disorders, oro-facial myofunctional disorder, and with full permanent dentition (28 teeth at least). Data reproducibility was computed for 75% of the sample. The values obtained were POC Temporal (88.11 +/- 1.45%), POC masseter (87.11 +/- 1.60%), TC (8.79 +/- 1.20%), ATTIV (-0.33 +/- 9.65%) and IMPACT (110.40 +/- 23.69 microV/microV.s %). There were no statistical differences between test and retest values (P > 0.05). The Technical Errors of Measurement (TEM) for 50% of subjects assessed during the same session were 1.5, 1.39, 1.06, 3.83 and 10.04. For 25% of the subjects assessed after a 6-month interval, the TEM were 0.80, 1.03, 0.73, 12.70 and 19.10. For all indices, there was good reproducibility. These electromyographic indices could be used in the assessment of patients with stomatognathic dysfunction. PMID:19548958

  8. Clinical characteristics of respiratory syncytial virus infection in hospitalized healthy infants and young children in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Wahab, A A; Dawod, S T; Raman, H M

    2001-12-01

    To evaluate seasonal trends, clinical profile, and outcome of disease in previously healthy infants and young children hospitalized for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection at Hamad Medical Corporation in the state of Qatar, we reviewed the records of 257 children admitted between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 1998. RSV epidemics occurred yearly during the winter months with peak hospitalizations occuring between November and February. Of the 257 admissions, 160 (62.3 per cent) were male and 97 (37.7 per cent) female. The mean age of all children was 5.7 months (range, 10 days to 32 months). The most common admitting diagnoses were bronchiolitis (59.9 per cent), pneumonia (17.5 per cent), bronchiolitis with pneumonia (8.9 per cent), possible sepsis (7.8 per cent), asthma (4.7 per cent) and apnea (1.2 per cent). A family history of asthma was quite common (63.8 per cent), although no statistical significant difference was noted in complication or length of stay. Treatment was supportive, the majority of the patients received oxygen therapy in 77.8 per cent of cases, bronchodilators in 85.4 per cent, and antibiotics therapy in 49.4 per cent. The median duration of hospital stay was 6 days (range, 1 to 29 days). Of the 14 (5.4 per cent) patients requiring intensive care, four (1.6 per cent) needed mechanical ventilation. No deaths were reported, but subjects aged < or = 12 months had a significantly higher oxygen requirement, intensive care unit admission, bronchodilators and antibiotics therapy than those > 12 months old. Within 1-2 years after admission with RSV infection, 63 of the 257 patients attended for recurrent episodes of wheezy chest. These results indicate that, during the season of infection, RSV is an important pathogen in infants and young children in the state of Qatar, highlighting the need for development of effective vaccines to ameliorate the impact of annual RSV epidemics in infants and young children. PMID:11827306

  9. Parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M; Baur, Louise A

    2013-12-01

    Parenting style may have a role in the development of young children's dietary behaviour, and a better understanding of parenting style may lead to better-targeted childhood obesity prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of parental self-efficacy, parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. A cross-sectional study with 242 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in one of the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of south-western Sydney, in 2007-2010. Parental self-efficacy, parenting style (warmth and hostility) and children's dietary behaviours (consumption of vegetables, fruit, soft-drink and snacks) were assessed by face-to-face interviews with participating mothers in the control group when their children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between parenting style and the child's dietary behaviour. Mothers with higher levels of global parental self-efficacy and self-efficacy for an infant were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetables per day, with odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (95%CI 1.35-4.27, P=0.003) and OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.06-3.36, P=0.03), respectively. A higher level of global parental self-efficacy or self-efficacy for an infant was significantly associated with having 2 serves of fruit per day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.46 (95%CI 1.35-4.48, P=0.003) and AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.00-3.41, P=0.048), respectively, after adjusting for annual household income. Mothers with a higher level of parental warmth were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetable per day with OR 1.85 (95%CI 1.06-3.25, P=0.03). Parental self-efficacy and parenting style were associated, cross-sectionally, with important children's dietary behaviours. Interventions which target parental self-efficacy and parenting style may improve eating habits of young children, and

  10. Normal variation in cortical osteocyte lacunar parameters in healthy young males

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Yasmin; Suchorab, Jessica L; Thomas, C David L; Clement, John G; Cooper, David M L

    2014-01-01

    The most abundant cell in bone, osteocytes form an interconnected system upon which the regulation of healthy bone relies. Although the complete nature of the role of osteocytes has yet to be defined, they are generally accepted to play a part in the sensing of load and the initiation of damage repair. A previous study conducted by our group identified variation of up to 30% in osteocyte lacunar density and morphological parameters between regions of a single cross-section of human femoral shaft; that study, however, was limited to a single individual. The aim of the current study was to determine whether this pattern consistently occurs in healthy young male femora. Anterior, posterior, medial and lateral blocks were prepared from the proximal femoral shaft of seven males and synchrotron radiation micro-CT imaged. Average lacunar densities (± SD) from the anterior, posterior, medial and lateral regions were 23 394 ± 1705, 30 180 ± 4860, 35 946 ± 5990 and 29 678 ± 6081 lacunae per mm3 of bone tissue, respectively. These values were significantly different between the anterior and both the medial and posterior regions (P < 0.05). The density of the combined anterior and posterior regions was also significantly lower (P = 0.006) than the density of the combined medial and lateral regions. Although no difference was found in predominant orientation, shape differences were found; with the combined anterior-posterior regions having lacunae that were significantly more elongated and less flat than the combined medial-lateral values (P < 0.001). As expected, in this larger study, there was a dramatic difference in lacunar density between the medial and anterior region (up to ∼ 54%). The study clearly demonstrates that the high variation seen in osteocyte lacunar density as well as other lacunar parameters, noted in a number of biomechanical, age and pathology studies, are well within the range of normal variation; however, the reasons for and

  11. Effect of sitting postures and shoulder position on the cervicocephalic kinesthesia in healthy young males.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2016-06-01

    Information about head orientation, position, and movement with respect to the trunk relies on the visual, vestibular, extensive muscular, and articular proprioceptive system of the neck. Various factors can affect proprioception since it is the function of afferent integration, and tuning of muscular and articular receptors. Pain, muscle fatigue, and joint position have been shown to affect proprioceptive capacity. Thus, it can be speculated that changes in body posture can alter the neck proprioception. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of body posture on cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense in healthy subjects. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility was measured by the kinesthetic sensibility test in healthy young adults while in (a) habitual slouched sitting position with arms hanging by the side (SS), (b) habitual slouched sitting position with arms unloaded (supported) (SS-AS), and (c) upright sitting position with arms hanging by the side (US) during maximum and 30 degree right, left rotations, flexion, and extension. Thirty healthy male adults (mean age 27.83; SD 3.41) volunteered for this study. The least mean error was found for the SS-AS position (0.48; SD 0.24), followed by SS (0.60; SD 0.43) and US (0.96; SD 0.71), respectively. For all test conditions, there was significant difference in mean absolute error while head repositioning from maximum and 30 degree rotation during SS and SS-AS positions (p < 0.05). In conclusion, body posture can affect the proprioception function of the neck. Supporting the upper extremities in such a way that their weight is unloaded, which leads to reduction in the tension between the neck and shoulder girdle, can improve cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense in both the horizontal and vertical planes. The findings of this study can be implemented in people who have to do repeated arm and neck movements, by using ergonomically effective chairs with proper arm supports. This might help in prevention and

  12. Azuki Bean Juice Lowers Serum Triglyceride Concentrations in Healthy Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Chizuko; Araki, Risa; Kawamura, Mito; Kondo, Naoko; Kigawa, Mieko; Kawai, Yukari; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Miyashita, Koichi; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2008-01-01

    Effects of azuki bean juice supplementation, prescribed according to a Kanpo medicine regimen, on serum lipid concentrations were studied. Healthy young Japanese women were recruited and were randomly assigned to one of the three groups using a parallel-group design. Control (n = 10), azuki (n = 11) and Concentrated azuki (CA) (n = 12) juice groups consumed 150 g daily of the isocaloric assigned juice for one menstrual cycle with their usual diet. Triglyceride concentrations were decreased in the azuki juice group (p<0.05) and tended to be decreased in the CA juice group (p = 0.055). Triglyceride concentrations in the azuki and CA juice groups decreased by 0.170 mmol/liter (15.4%) and 0.159 mmol/liter (17.9%), respectively (p<0.05). The azuki and CA juice used in this study inhibited pancreatic lipase activity 29.2% and 56.9%, respectively, in vitro. Lipid peroxide changes, based on ANCOVA with the initial level and α-tocopherol changes as covariates, did not differ among the three groups. Serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) cholesterol concentrations did not change. Thus, azuki bean juice intake, as a traditional Kampo prescription, might be beneficial for preventing hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:18648655

  13. Network-Dependent Modulation of COMT and DRD2 Polymorphisms in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fangshi; Zhang, Xuejun; Qin, Wen; Liu, Feng; Wang, Qiuhui; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Junping; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear modulation of the dopamine signaling on brain functions can be estimated by the interaction effects of dopamine-related genetic variations. We aimed to explore the interaction effects of COMT rs4680 and DRD2 rs1076560 on intra-network connectivity using independent component analysis. In 250 young healthy adults, we identified 11 meaningful resting-state networks (RSNs), including the salience, visual, auditory, default-mode, sensorimotor, attention and frontoparietal networks. A two-way analysis of covariance was used to investigate COMT×DRD2 interactions on intra-network connectivity in each network, controlling for age, gender and education. Significant COMT×DRD2 interaction was found in intra-network connectivity in the left medial prefrontal cortex of the anterior default-mode network, in the right dorsolateral frontal cortex of the right dorsal attention network, and in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex of the salience network. Post hoc tests revealed that these interactions were driven by the differential effects of DRD2 genotypes on intra-network connectivity in different COMT genotypic subgroups. Moreover, even in the same COMT subgroup, the modulation effects of DRD2 on intra-network connectivity were different across RSNs. These findings suggest a network-dependent modulation of the DA-related genetic variations on intra-network connectivity. PMID:26642826

  14. Ambient carbon monoxide associated with alleviated respiratory inflammation in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhuohui; Chen, Renjie; Lin, Zhijing; Cai, Jing; Yang, Yingying; Yang, Dandan; Norback, Dan; Kan, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing controversy on whether acute exposure to ambient carbon monoxide (CO) is hazardous on respiratory health. We therefore performed a longitudinal panel study to evaluate the acute effects of ambient CO on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a well-established biomarker of airway inflammation. We completed 4-6 rounds of health examinations among 75 healthy young adults during April to June in 2013 in Shanghai, China. We applied the linear mixed-effect model to investigate the short-term associations between CO and FeNO. CO exposure during 2-72 h preceding health tests was significantly associated with decreased FeNO levels. For example, an interquartile range increase (0.3 mg/m(3)) of 2-h CO exposure corresponded to 10.6% decrease in FeNO. This association remained when controlling for the concomitant exposure to co-pollutants. This study provided support that short-term exposure to ambient CO might be related with reduced levels of FeNO, a biomarker of lower airway inflammation. PMID:26282584

  15. Increased impulsivity in response to food cues after sleep loss in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Cedernaes, Jonathan; Brandell, Jon; Ros, Olof; Broman, Jan-Erik; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether acute total sleep deprivation (TSD) leads to decreased cognitive control when food cues are presented during a task requiring active attention, by assessing the ability to cognitively inhibit prepotent responses. Methods Fourteen males participated in the study on two separate occasions in a randomized, crossover within-subject design: one night of TSD versus normal sleep (8.5 hours). Following each nighttime intervention, hunger ratings and morning fasting plasma glucose concentrations were assessed before performing a go/no-go task. Results Following TSD, participants made significantly more commission errors when they were presented “no-go” food words in the go/no-go task, as compared with their performance following sleep (+56%; P<0.05). In contrast, response time and omission errors to “go” non-food words did not differ between the conditions. Self-reported hunger after TSD was increased without changes in fasting plasma glucose. The increase in hunger did not correlate with the TSD-induced commission errors. Conclusions Our results suggest that TSD impairs cognitive control also in response to food stimuli in healthy young men. Whether such loss of inhibition or impulsiveness is food cue-specific as seen in obesity—thus providing a mechanism through which sleep disturbances may promote obesity development—warrants further investigation. PMID:24839251

  16. Cognitive Behavior Evaluation Based on Physiological Parameters among Young Healthy Subjects with Yoga as Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nagendra, H.; Kumar, Vinod; Mukherjee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect of yoga practice on cognitive skills, autonomic nervous system, and heart rate variability by analyzing physiological parameters. Methods. The study was conducted on 30 normal young healthy engineering students. They were randomly selected into two groups: yoga group and control group. The yoga group practiced yoga one and half hour per day for six days in a week, for a period of five months. Results. The yoga practising group showed increased α, β, and δ EEG band powers and significant reduction in θ and γ band powers. The increased α and β power can represent enhanced cognitive functions such as memory and concentration, and that of δ signifies synchronization of brain activity. The heart rate index θ/α decreased, neural activity β/θ increased, attention resource index β/(α + θ) increased, executive load index (δ + θ)/α decreased, and the ratio (δ + θ)/(α + β) decreased. The yoga practice group showed improvement in heart rate variability, increased SDNN/RMSSD, and reduction in LF/HF ratio. Conclusion. Yoga practising group showed significant improvement in various cognitive functions, such as performance enhancement, neural activity, attention, and executive function. It also resulted in increase in the heart rate variability, parasympathetic nervous system activity, and balanced autonomic nervous system reactivity. PMID:25759746

  17. An outbreak of histoplasmosis among healthy young Japanese women after traveling to Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hideaki; Ogata, Yoshiko; Suguro, Hajime; Yokota, Soichiro; Watanabe, Akira; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Yamagoe, Satoshi; Ishida-Okawara, Akiko; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Horino, Atsuko; Yamane, Kunikazu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Nagata, Noriyo; Hasegawa, Hideki; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Sata, Tetsutaro; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu

    2010-01-01

    Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, is an endemic mycosis in many countries of the world except for Japan. Outbreaks of histoplasmosis among Japanese people are very rare and are mainly imported by travelers. We report an outbreak of histoplasmosis among healthy Japanese people who traveled to a resort area in Southeast Asia. Three young Japanese women traveled to Langkawi island, Malaysia and stayed on the island for five days without visiting caves, a known reservoir of H. capsulatum. All three individuals developed flu-like symptoms with multiple nodule shadows on chest X rays or chest CT scans at around ten days after their return to Japan. Serum samples obtained from the three subjects were positive for anti-Histoplasma antibody and specific PCR for H. capsulatum on lung biopsy specimens and the serum from one patient was positive. The clinical course of all three patients improved without the use of anti-fungal agents and no recurrence has been confirmed. Clinical attendants should consider histoplasmosis when they see patients with flu-like symptoms with abnormal chest X-rays after visiting H. capsulatum endemic areas, especially Southeast Asia. PMID:20190491

  18. Associations between Vitamin D Levels and Depressive Symptoms in Healthy Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, David C. R.; Zava, David T.; Piper, Walter T.; Saturn, Sarina R.; Frei, Balz; Gombart, Adrian F.

    2015-01-01

    There have been few studies of whether vitamin D insufficiency is linked with depression in healthy young women despite women’s high rates of both problems. Female undergraduates (n = 185) living in the Pacific Northwest during fall, winter, and spring academic terms completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale weekly for four weeks (W1–W5). We measured serum levels of vitamin D3 and C (ascorbate; as a control variable) in blood samples collected at W1 and W5. Vitamin D insufficiency (<30ng/mL) was common at W1 (42%) and W5 (46%), and rates of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) were 35–42% at W1–W5. Lower W1 vitamin D3 predicted clinically significant depressive symptoms across W1–W5 (β = −.20, p < .05), controlling for season, BMI, race/ethnicity, diet, exercise, and time outside. There was some evidence that lower levels of depressive symptoms in Fall participants (vs. Winter and Spring) were explained by their higher levels of vitamin D3. W1 depressive symptoms did not predict change in vitamin D3 levels from W1 to W5. Findings are consistent with a temporal association between low levels of vitamin D and clinically meaningful depressive symptoms. The preventive value of supplementation should be tested further. PMID:25791903

  19. Differential sweetness of commercial sour liquids elicited by miracle fruit in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Go; Higuchi, Ryota; Yamazaki, Takako; Ito, Naoko; Ashida, Ichiro; Miyaoka, Yozo

    2013-06-01

    Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) contains the glycoprotein miraculin which turns a sour taste into a sweet one. Chemical analyses and sensory evaluation experiments were conducted to examine the sweetening effect of miracle fruit with regard to five different commercial sour liquids which were diluted until they were subjectively equally sour. HPLC-based analyses revealed that (1) the predominating acids in two and three of the liquids were citric acid and acetic acid, respectively and (2) all five liquids contained fructose and glucose. Healthy young adults (eight males and 10 females) in the sensory evaluation experiments were asked to chew a miracle fruit and apply their saliva to the oral mucosae. They were asked to score the sweetness elicited by the five liquids relative to a sucrose standard at 0, 15, 25 and 35 min thereafter. The citric acid-based liquids were perceived as being sweeter than the acetic acid-based liquids at all timepoints. Thus, commercial sour liquids that mainly contain citric acid are more effective than acetic acid-based liquids in eliciting a perception of sweetness after the miracle fruit application, while the sugars in the liquids seemed to play a minimal role as determinants of sweetness. PMID:23685565

  20. Effect of Regular Gum Chewing on Levels of Anxiety, Mood, and Fatigue in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki-Otomaru, Akiyo; Sakuma, Yumiko; Mochizuki, Yoshiko; Ishida, Sadayo; Kanoya, Yuka; Sato, Chifumi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The effect of regular gum chewing on psychological status is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gum chewing for fourteen days on psychological status and physical and mental fatigue in healthy young adults. Methods: We assigned 50 volunteers randomly to an intervention group (n = 26) and a control group (n = 24). Participants in the intervention group were requested to chew the gum twice per a day for fourteen days. The volunteers were required to complete a questionnaire related to lifestyle for baseline assessment. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Profile of Mood State (POMS), the World Health Organization Quality of Life 26, and assessment of physical and mental fatigue by visual analog scale were used at baseline, 2 weeks (after intervention), and 4 weeks (follow-up). Results: At 2 weeks, the score of state anxiety was significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group. The intervention participants’ scores of depression-dejection, fatigue and confusion in POMS were better than the control group scores. Mental fatigue were also relieved after the intervention. At 4 weeks, there were no significant differences between both groups. Conclusion: Fourteen days’ gum chewing may improve the levels of anxiety, mood and fatigue. PMID:21866229

  1. A rare case of Candida parapsilosis endocarditis in a young healthy woman – case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Disseminated fungal infections are still rare conditions, mostly caused by Candida spp. during immunosuppression. Infection of immunocompetent individuals is uncommon. Endocarditis is a rare manifestation during candidaemia, mostly in patients with prosthetic valves. Affection of previously unaltered valves is uncommon. Case presentation We presented a case of a young, previously healthy female patient with endocarditis, caused by Candida parapsilosis. The initial symptom, fever, was present four months before hospital admittance. She was febrile without other symptoms and during observation in a local hospital. After her condition deteriorated, she was transferred to the Institute for infectious and tropical diseases, Belgrade. Clinical findings on admission include petechial skin rash and moderate hepatosplenomegaly. Newly developed systolic murmur was noted, and Candida parapsilosis was isolated in multiple blood cultures. Echocardiography revealed 15 × 14 mm vegetations on the right aortic vellum. She was treated with antifungal drugs (fluconasole, liposomal amphotericin B), and the affected valve was successfully replaced. The same strain of Candida parapsilosis was isolated from the intraoperative material of the valve. There were no markers of immunosuppression or other conditions which could affect the immune system. Conclusion After a prolonged period of treatment she was successfully cured, and she received a long-term intermittent suppressive fluconasole therapy for the time being. PMID:23433239

  2. 1Interaction between serum BDNF and aerobic fitness predicts recognition memory in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Whiteman, Andrew; Young, Daniel E.; He, Xuemei; Chen, Tai C.; Wagenaar, Robert C.; Stern, Chantal; Schon, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Convergent evidence from human and non-human animal studies suggests aerobic exercise and increased aerobic capacity may be beneficial for brain health and cognition. It is thought growth factors may mediate this putative relationship, particularly by augmenting plasticity mechanisms in the hippocampus, a brain region critical for learning and memory. Among these factors, glucocorticoids, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hormones that have considerable and diverse physiological importance, are thought to effect normal and exercise-induced hippocampal plasticity. Despite these predictions, relatively few published human studies have tested hypotheses that relate exercise and fitness to the hippocampus, and none have considered the potential links to all of these hormonal components. Here we present cross-sectional data from a study of recognition memory; serum BDNF, cortisol, IGF-1, and VEGF levels; and aerobic capacity in healthy young adults. We measured circulating levels of these hormones together with performance on a recognition memory task, and a standard graded treadmill test of aerobic fitness. Regression analyses demonstrated BDNF and aerobic fitness predict recognition memory in an interactive manner. In addition, IGF-1 was positively associated with aerobic fitness, but not with recognition memory. Our results may suggest an exercise adaptation-related change in the BDNF dose-response curve that relates to hippocampal memory. PMID:24269495

  3. Associations between vitamin D levels and depressive symptoms in healthy young adult women.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David C R; Zava, David T; Piper, Walter T; Saturn, Sarina R; Frei, Balz; Gombart, Adrian F

    2015-05-30

    There have been few studies of whether vitamin D insufficiency is linked with depression in healthy young women despite women׳s high rates of both problems. Female undergraduates (n=185) living in the Pacific Northwest during fall, winter, and spring academic terms completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale weekly for 4 weeks (W1-W5). We measured serum levels of vitamin D3 and C (ascorbate; as a control variable) in blood samples collected at W1 and W5. Vitamin D insufficiency (<30ng/mL) was common at W1 (42%) and W5 (46%), and rates of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were 34-42% at W1-W5. Lower W1 vitamin D3 predicted clinically significant depressive symptoms across W1-W5 (β=-0.20, p<0.05), controlling for season, BMI, race/ethnicity, diet, exercise, and time outside. There was some evidence that lower levels of depressive symptoms in Fall participants (vs. Winter and Spring) were explained by their higher levels of vitamin D3. W1 depressive symptoms did not predict change in vitamin D3 levels from W1 to W5. Findings are consistent with a temporal association between low levels of vitamin D and clinically meaningful depressive symptoms. The preventive value of supplementation should be tested further. PMID:25791903

  4. Myocardial Infarction and Stroke Risk in Young Healthy Men Treated with Injectable Testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Robert S.; Cook, Kelly R.; Reilly, William G.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between testosterone therapy and new myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke events in a series of patients treated at Low T Centers across the United States, consisting of mainly young (mean age = 46), otherwise, healthy men. Electronic medical records were queried between the years 2009 and 2014 to identify patients diagnosed with hypogonadism, MI, and stroke, as indicated by ICD-9 codes. The incidence of MI and stroke events was compared to community-based registries. 39,936 patients recruited from 40 Low T Centers across the United States were treated and 19,968 met eligibility criteria for receiving testosterone treatment. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for MI in testosterone- (T-) treated versus nontreated patients was 0.14 (C.I. = 0.08 to 0.18, P < 0.0001) whereas the IRR for stroke for T-treated versus nontreated patients was 0.11 (C.I. = 0.02 to 0.13, P < 0.0001). There was no evidence of worsening preexisting MI or stroke in patients treated with testosterone. The experience in Low T Centers shows that, in an injectable testosterone patient registry, testosterone is generally safe for younger men who do not have significant risk factors. Of patients that developed MI with testosterone, there was no association with testosterone or hematocrit levels. PMID:26124832

  5. Hair cortisol concentrations in relation to ill-being and well-being in healthy young and old females.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Nina; Bianchin, Matilde; Thorn, Lisa; Hucklebridge, Frank; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Stalder, Tobias; Clow, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) provides a retrospective measure of long-term (i.e. over a period of months) cortisol secretion and has been shown to be elevated in relation to chronic stress conditions. However associations in healthy participants with subjective ill-being are less clear and associations with well-being have not been explored. The current study examined HCC in relation to independent comprehensive measures of ill-being (stress, depression, anxiety) and well-being (subjective happiness, life satisfaction, psychological well-being) in healthy young and old females (mean±SD: 19.5±2.2years and 78.6±6.7years respectively, total N=115). The data supported evidence of increased total cortisol secretion with increased age. No association between ill-being and HCC was found in either the young or older group of participants. A positive association between HCC and well-being was found in the older participant group which was independent of ill-being and potential confounds. These findings do not support associations between HCC and ill-being in healthy young or old females. However the results suggest that HCC is able to distinguish levels of well-being in healthy older females. PMID:26948137

  6. Texting and walking: effect of environmental setting and task prioritization on dual-task interference in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Prudence; Apple, Sarah; Dowd, Colleen; Keith, Eliza

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that young adults significantly reduce their gait speed and weave more when texting while walking. Previous research has not examined the simultaneous dual-task effects on texting performance, therefore, the attention prioritization strategy used by young adults while texting and walking is not currently known. Moreover, it is not known whether laboratory-based studies accurately reflect texting and walking performance in the real world. This study compared dual-task interference during texting and walking between laboratory and real-world settings, and examined the ability of young adults to flexibly prioritize their attention between the two tasks in each environment. Texting and walking were assessed in single-task and three dual-task conditions (no-priority, gait-priority, texting-priority) in the lab and a University Student Center, in 32 healthy young adults. Dual-task effects on gait speed, texting speed, and texting accuracy were significant, but did not significantly differ between the two environments. Young adults were able to flexibly prioritize their attention between texting and walking, according to specific instruction, and this ability was not influenced by environmental setting. In the absence of instructions, young adults prioritized the texting task in the low-distraction environment, but displayed more equal focus between tasks in the real world. The finding that young adults do not significantly modify their texting and walking behavior in high-distraction environments lends weight to growing concerns about cell phone use and pedestrian safety. PMID:25193796

  7. The experiences of young people with obesity in secondary school: some implications for the healthy school agenda.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Penny

    2008-07-01

    In 1995, the World Health Organisation launched a Global School Health Initiative to reduce health risks among young people. In the UK, the National Healthy School Programme (HSP) developed as part of a wider government commitment to promoting social inclusion. One of the key issues to be tackled by the programme is childhood obesity, for obesity is widely argued to be a public health problem for which a solution needs to be found. However, the assumption that obesity is necessarily problematic and that a higher body weight leads to health problems and social exclusion, is not without challenge. Critics of anti-obesity campaigns question the significance of weight per se and highlight the potential implications of discrediting not only fatness, but also the people who are seen as fat. This paper therefore explores the experiences of young people with obesity within the secondary school environment in relation to areas of concern prioritised by the HSP. The paper draws upon data from a qualitative research study involving 18 children and young people, between the ages of 10 and 17. Data were generated in focus group discussions and individual interview with participants of a community-based obesity intervention programme in South Yorkshire, UK. Data collection took place in 2005, and thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. Findings suggest that the issues prioritised in the HSP, particularly physical exercise and healthy eating, present challenges to young people with obesity and can reinforce their vulnerability to bullying in schools and contribute to their social exclusion. It concludes that social exclusion is a process experienced by, and pertinent to, children and young people, which has meaning for their experiences of, and during, childhood and youth. The whole-school approach of the HSP may fail to adequately address the experiences of marginalised and vulnerable groups of young people within schools, challenging and undermining the social inclusion

  8. Interactions between beta-2 adrenoceptor gene variation, cardiovascular control and dietary sodium in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Eisenach, John H; Schroeder, Darrell R; Pavey, Emily S; Penheiter, Alan R; Knutson, Jean N; Turner, Stephen T; Joyner, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Dietary sodium affects function of the beta-2 adrenoceptor (ADRB2). We tested the hypothesis that haplotype variation in the ADRB2 gene would influence the cardiovascular and regional vasodilator responses to sympathoexcitatory manoeuvres following low, normal and high sodium diets, and ADRB2-mediated forearm vasodilation in the high sodium condition. Seventy-one healthy young adults were grouped by double homozygous haplotypes: Arg16+Gln27 (n = 31), the rare Gly16+Gln27 (n = 10) and Gly16+Glu27 (n = 30). Using a randomized cross-over design, subjects were studied following 5 days of controlled low, normal and high sodium with 1 month or longer between diets (and low hormone phase of the menstrual cycle). All three visits utilized ECG and finger plethysmography for haemodynamic measures, and the high sodium visit included a brachial arterial catheter for forearm vasodilator responses to isoprenaline with plethysmography. Lymphocytes were sampled for ex vivo analysis of ADRB2 density and binding conformation. We found a main effect of haplotype on ADRB2 density (P = 0.03) with the Gly16+Glu27 haplotype having the greatest density (low, normal, high sodium: 12.9 ± 0.9, 13.5 ± 0.9 and 13.6 ± 0.8 fmol mg−1 protein, respectively) and Arg16+Gln27 having the least (9.3 ± 0.6, 10.1 ± 0.5 and 10.3 ± 0.6  fmol mg−1 protein, respectively), but there were no sodium or haplotype effects on receptor binding conformation. In the mental stress trial, there was a main effect of haplotype on cardiac output (P = 0.04), as Arg16+Gln27 had the lowest responses. Handgrip and forearm vasodilation yielded no haplotype differences, and no correlations were present for ADRB2 density and haemodynamics. Our findings support cell-based evidence that ADRB2 haplotype influences ADRB2 protein expression independent of dietary sodium, yet the haemodynamic consequences appear modest in healthy humans. PMID:25260632

  9. Effect of Fasting Blood Glucose Level on Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lutfi, Mohamed Faisal; Elhakeem, Ramaze Farouke

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown. Aims To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV) derived indices. Subjects and Methods The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln) of total power (LnTP), very low frequency (LnVLF), low frequency (LnLF) and high frequency (LnHF), low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF), normalized low frequency (LF Norm) and high frequency (HF Norm). Results FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031) and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025) and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025) and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035). LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34) ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94) n.u) compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63) ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73) n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively). LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94) n.u and 0.73 (0.53)) compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83) n.u and 0.03 (0.79), P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively). Conclusion The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which

  10. Comprehensive Profiling of Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Young Healthy Canadian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmagid, Salma A.; Clarke, Shannon E.; Nielsen, Daiva E.; Badawi, Alaa; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Mutch, David M.; Ma, David W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating fatty acids (FA) are associated with a multitude of chronic diseases. However, a major gap in establishing such relationships is the lack of accepted fatty acid reference ranges representing healthy individuals. Data on validated FA reference ranges would provide a better understanding of study baseline measures and aid in the evaluation and interpretation of pharmaceutical or dietary interventions. Reference ranges for plasma FA levels have been reported in a few small studies and on a limited number of FA. Therefore, we determined the average and percentiles of a broad set of 61 FA (C14 - C24:1) from plasma total lipids from an ethnically diverse population of healthy young Canadian males and females (Total n = 826). Plasma concentrations of some of the major FA ranged from 0.3 to 4.1 mmol/L for palmitic acid, 0.1 to 1.0 mmol/L for stearic acid, 0.03 to 3.2 mmol/L for oleic acid, 0.2 to 5.0 mmol/L for linoleic acid (LA), 12.0 to 186.9 μmol/L for α-linolenic acid, and 7.2 to 237.5 μmol/L for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Males had significantly higher plasma concentrations of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid and lower concentrations of palmitoleic acid, LA and DHA than females. Comparison of FA concentrations between Caucasians, East Asians and South Asians revealed that South Asians had significantly lower levels of palmitoleic acid (p < 0.01) and oleic acid (p = 0.01) while East Asians had lower levels of GLA (p = 0.02) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (p = 0.03). Overall, these data provide a comprehensive set of quantitative values that profiles a small cohort of Canadians which highlights the utility of establishing validated FA reference ranges that may be used to understand how deficient, suboptimal, or excess amounts of a given FA may be associated with chronic disease. PMID:25675440

  11. Fulminant pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 in a healthy young woman in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Kou, Tadayuki; Kato, Haru; Watanabe, Masaki; Uno, Shoichi; Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Fukuda, Tadashi; Hata, Atsuko; Yazumi, Shujiro

    2014-11-01

    In the past two decades, Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction ribotype 027 strain has rapidly emerged as the leading cause of antibiotic-associated colitis in North America and Europe; however, it has been reported only occasionally in Japan. We report a case of fulminant pseudomembranous colitis caused by this strain in a healthy young woman in Japan without any previous medical history. The strain isolated from our patient was susceptible to both gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin, thus representing a historic strain. The acquisition of fluoroquinolone resistance was reported as the important key genetic event linked to the virulence of this strain. It is noteworthy that the fluoroquinolone-susceptible 027 strain caused fulminant colitis in a healthy young woman in a non-endemic area. Our experience suggests that C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 has the potential virulence factors that are not associated with a fluoroquinolone resistance-conferring mutation. PMID:25127156

  12. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2015-10-15

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69-80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18-34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0-180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P < 0.05). In summary, despite having slower gastric emptying, elderly men exhibited blunted protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men. PMID:26290103

  13. Universal and individual characteristics of postural sway during quiet standing in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tomohisa; Smith, Charles E; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Tanahashi, Takao; Sakoda, Saburo; Morasso, Pietro; Nomura, Taishin

    2015-01-01

    The time course of the center of pressure (CoP) during human quiet standing, corresponding to body sway, is a stochastic process, influenced by a variety of features of the underlying neuro-musculo-skeletal system, such as postural stability and flexibility. Due to complexity of the process, sway patterns have been characterized in an empirical way by a number of indices, such as sway size and mean sway velocity. Here, we describe a statistical approach with the aim of estimating “universal” indices, namely parameters that are independent of individual body characteristics and thus are not “hidden” by the presence of individual, daily, and circadian variations of sway; in this manner it is possible to characterize the common aspects of sway dynamics across healthy young adults, in the assumption that they might reflect underlying neural control during quiet standing. Such universal indices are identified by analyzing intra and inter-subject variability of various indices, after sorting out individual-specific indices that contribute to individual discriminations. It is shown that the universal indices characterize mainly slow components of sway, such as scaling exponents of power-law behavior at a low-frequency regime. On the other hand, most of the individual-specific indices contributing to the individual discriminations exhibit significant correlation with body parameters, and they can be associated with fast oscillatory components of sway. These results are consistent with a mechanistic hypothesis claiming that the slow and the fast components of sway are associated, respectively, with neural control and biomechanics, supporting our assumption that the universal characteristics of postural sway might represent neural control strategies during quiet standing. PMID:25780094

  14. Respiratory kinematic and airflow differences between reflex and voluntary cough in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Brandimore, Alexandra E.; Troche, Michelle S.; Huber, Jessica E.; Hegland, Karen W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cough is a defensive behavior that can be initiated in response to a stimulus in the airway (reflexively), or on command (voluntarily). There is evidence to suggest that physiological differences exist between reflex and voluntary cough; however, the output (mechanistic and airflow) differences between the cough types are not fully understood. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the lung volume, respiratory kinematic, and airflow differences between reflex and voluntary cough in healthy young adults. Methods: Twenty-five participants (14 female; 18–29 years) were recruited for this study. Participants were evaluated using respiratory inductance plethysmography calibrated with spirometry. Experimental procedures included: (1) respiratory calibration, (2) three voluntary sequential cough trials, and (3) three reflex cough trials induced with 200 μM capsaicin. Results: Lung volume initiation (LVI; p = 0.003) and lung volume excursion (LVE; p < 0.001) were significantly greater for voluntary cough compared to reflex cough. The rib cage and abdomen significantly influenced LVI for voluntary cough (p < 0.001); however, only the rib cage significantly impacted LVI for reflex cough (p < 0.001). LVI significantly influenced peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) for voluntary cough (p = 0.029), but not reflex cough (p = 0.610). Discussion: Production of a reflex cough results in significant mechanistic and airflow differences compared to voluntary cough. These findings suggest that detection of a tussigenic stimulus modifies motor aspects of the reflex cough behavior. Further understanding of the differences between reflex and voluntary cough in older adults and in persons with dystussia (cough dysfunction) will be essential to facilitate the development of successful cough treatment paradigms. PMID:26500560

  15. Sleep extension increases IGF-I concentrations before and during sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle

    2016-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to suppress circulating trophic factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This experiment examined the effect of an intervention involving 6 nights of extended sleep before total sleep deprivation on this catabolic profile. In a randomized crossover design, 14 young men (age range: 26-37 years) were either in an extended (EXT; time in bed: 2100-0700 h) or habitual (HAB: 2230-0700 h) sleep condition, followed by 3 days in the laboratory with blood sampling at baseline (B), after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24h-SD), and after 1 night of recovery sleep (R). In the EXT condition compared with the HAB condition, free IGF-I levels were significantly higher at B, 24h-SD, and R (P < 0.001), and those of total IGF-I at B and 24h-SD (P < 0.05). EXT did not influence growth hormone, IGF binding protein 3, BDNF, insulin, and glucose levels. The only effect of 24 h of sleep deprivation was for insulin levels, which were significantly higher after R compared with B. In a healthy adult, additional sleep over 1 week increased blood concentrations of the anabolic factor IGF-I before and during 24 h of sleep deprivation and after the subsequent recovery night without effects on BDNF. With further research, these findings may prove to be important in guiding effective lifestyle modifications to limit physical or cognitive deficits associated with IGF-I decrease with age. PMID:27560704

  16. The acute effect of commercially available pulse powders on postprandial glycaemic response in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G Harvey; Liu, Yudan; Smith, Christopher E; Liu, Ting Ting; Nunez, Maria Fernanda; Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L

    2014-12-28

    Whole pulses (beans, peas, chickpeas and lentils) elicit low postprandial blood glucose (BG) responses in adults; however, their consumption in North America is low. One potential strategy to increase the dietary intake of pulses is the utilisation of commercial pulse powders in food products; however, it is unclear whether they retain the biological benefits observed with whole pulses. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of commercially prepared pulse powders on BG response before and after a subsequent meal in healthy young men. Overall, three randomised, within-subject experiments were conducted. In each experiment, participants received whole, puréed and powdered pulses (navy beans in Expt 1; lentils in Expt 2; chickpeas in Expt 3) and whole-wheat flour as the control. All treatments were controlled for available carbohydrate content. A fixed-energy pizza meal (50·2 kJ/kg body weight) was provided at 120 min. BG concentration was measured before (0-120 min) and after (140-200 min) the pizza meal. BG concentration peaked at 30 min in all experiments, and pulse forms did not predict their effect on BG response. Compared with the whole-wheat flour control, navy bean treatments lowered peak BG concentrations (Expt 1, P< 0.05), but not the mean BG concentration over 120 min. The mean BG concentration was lower for all lentil (Expt 2, P= 0.008) and chickpea (Expt 3, P= 0.002) treatments over 120 min. Processing pulses to powdered form does not eliminate the benefits of whole pulses on BG response, lending support to the use of pulse powders as value-added food ingredients to moderate postprandial glycaemic response. PMID:25327223

  17. Adverse Impact of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment on Autonomic Function in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Daniela; Carter, Jason R; Van Cauter, Eve; Leproult, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Insufficient sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances have been each associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in epidemiological studies, but experimental evidence for a causal link is scarce. The present study compares the impact of circadian misalignment (CM) to circadian alignment (CA) on human autonomic function using a nonrandomized parallel group design to achieve the same total sleep time in both conditions. After baseline assessments (3 days with 10-hour bedtimes), 26 healthy young adults were assigned to sleep restriction (SR; eight 5-hour bedtimes) with either fixed nocturnal bedtimes (CA; n=13) or bedtimes delayed by 8.5 hours on 4 of the 8 days (CM; n=13). Daytime ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate (HR; CA, n=11; CM, n=10) and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine levels (CA, n=13; CM, n=13) were assessed at baseline and the end of SR. Nocturnal HR and HR variability were analyzed during sleep at baseline and during the fourth and seventh nights of SR (CA, n=8; CM, n=12). SR resulted in a significant increase in daytime HR in both groups, without changes in blood pressure. SR increased 24-hour urinary norepinephrine in the CM group (30±4 versus 21±2 μg), but not in the circadian alignment group (group×condition, P=0.005). In contrast to the lack of detectable impact of CM on daytime autonomic function, SR with CM elicited greater increases in nocturnal HR, as well as greater reductions in vagal indices of HR variability, than SR without CM (group×condition, P<0.05). In conclusion, SR and CM both result in impaired autonomic function that could lead, under chronic conditions, to enhanced cardiovascular risk. PMID:27271308

  18. [Nutrition in pregnancy - Practice recommendations of the Network "Healthy Start - Young Family Network"].

    PubMed

    Koletzko, B; Bauer, C-P; Bung, P; Cremer, M; Flothkötter, M; Hellmers, C; Kersting, M; Krawinkel, M; Przyrembel, H; Rasenack, R; Schäfer, T; Vetter, K; Wahn, U; Weißenborn, A; Wöckel, A

    2012-06-01

    Nutrition, physical activity and lifestyle in pregnancy influence maternal and child health. The "Healthy start - Young Family Network" supported by the German Government with the national action plan IN FORM developed recommendations on nutrition in pregnancy. Folic acid supplements (400 µg/day) should be started before pregnancy and continue for at least the first trimester. Iodine rich foods and salt and an iodine supplement (100-150 µg/day) are recommended. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids should be provided with ≥ 1 weekly portion of oily sea fish, or a DHA-supplement if regular fish consumption is avoided. Vitamin D supplementation is advisable unless there is regular exposure to sunlight. Iron supplements should be used based on medical history and blood testing. Vegetarian diets with nutritional supplements can provide adequate nutrition, but counselling is recommended. In contrast, a vegan diet is inadequate and requires additional micronutrient supplementation. For risk reduction of listeriosis and toxoplasmosis, raw animal foods, soft cheeses and packed fresh salads should be avoided; fresh fruit, vegetables and salad should be washed well and consumed promptly. Pregnant women should remain physically active and perform sports with moderate intensity. They should avoid alcohol, active and passive smoking. Up to 3 daily cups of coffee are considered harmless, but energy drinks should be avoided. Childhood allergy is not reduced by avoiding certain foods in pregnancy whereas oily sea fish is recommended. Health care professions should lead parents to health-promoting lifestyles. Subjects of part 1 of the article are practice recommendations on nutrition, on energy needs, micronutrient needs and body weight/weight gain in pregnancy. PMID:22692838

  19. A bilberry drink with fermented oatmeal decreases postprandial insulin demand in young healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background in traditional medicine, blueberries have been used to facilitate blood glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes. Recent studies in diabetic mice have indicated facilitated glycaemic regulation following dietary supplementation with extracts from European blueberries, also called bilberries, (Vaccinium myrtillus). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of fermented oat meal drinks containing bilberries or rosehip (Rosa canina) on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Methods glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in young healthy adults were measured in two series. In series 1, two drinks based on oat meal (5%), fermented using Lactobacillus plantarum 299v, and added with fruit (10%); bilberries (BFOMD) or rose hip (RFOMD) respectively, were studied. In series 2, BFOMD was repeated, additionally, a drink enriched with bilberries (47%) was tested (BBFOMD). As control a fermented oat meal drink (FOMD) was served. Results in series 1 the bilberry- and rosehip drinks, gave high glucose responses similar to that after the reference bread. However, the insulin index (II) after the BFOMD was significantly lower (II = 65) (P < 0.05). In series 2 a favourably low insulin demand to BFOMD was confirmed. FOMD gave high glucose response (GI = 95) but, significantly lower insulin response (II = 76). BBFOMD gave remarkably low insulin response II = 49, and tended to lower glycaemia (GI = 79) (P = 0.0684). Conclusion a fermented oat meal drink added with bilberries induced a lower insulin response than expected from the glycaemic response. The mechanism for the lowered acute insulin demand is still unclear, but may be related to some bio-active component present in the bilberries, or to the fermented oat meal base. PMID:21600021

  20. Acute Effects of Modafinil on Brain Resting State Networks in Young Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Pieramico, Valentina; Ferretti, Antonio; Macchia, Antonella; Tommasi, Marco; Saggino, Aristide; Ciavardelli, Domenico; Manna, Antonietta; Navarra, Riccardo; Cieri, Filippo; Stuppia, Liborio; Tartaro, Armando; Sensi, Stefano L.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing debate on the use of drugs that promote cognitive enhancement. Amphetamine-like drugs have been employed as cognitive enhancers, but they show important side effects and induce addiction. In this study, we investigated the use of modafinil which appears to have less side effects compared to other amphetamine-like drugs. We analyzed effects on cognitive performances and brain resting state network activity of 26 healthy young subjects. Methodology A single dose (100 mg) of modafinil was administered in a double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Both groups were tested for neuropsychological performances with the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices II set (APM) before and three hours after administration of drug or placebo. Resting state functional magnetic resonance (rs-FMRI) was also used, before and after three hours, to investigate changes in the activity of resting state brain networks. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was employed to evaluate differences in structural connectivity between the two groups. Protocol ID: Modrest_2011; NCT01684306; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01684306. Principal Findings Results indicate that a single dose of modafinil improves cognitive performance as assessed by APM. Rs-fMRI showed that the drug produces a statistically significant increased activation of Frontal Parietal Control (FPC; p<0.04) and Dorsal Attention (DAN; p<0.04) networks. No modifications in structural connectivity were observed. Conclusions and Significance Overall, our findings support the notion that modafinil has cognitive enhancing properties and provide functional connectivity data to support these effects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01684306 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01684306. PMID:23935959

  1. Age-Related 1H NMR Characterization of Cerebrospinal Fluid in Newborn and Young Healthy Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Francesca; Elmi, Alberto; Romagnoli, Noemi; Bacci, Maria Laura

    2016-01-01

    When it comes to neuroscience, pigs represent an important animal model due to their resemblance with humans’ brains for several patterns including anatomy and developmental stages. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a relatively easy-to-collect specimen that can provide important information about neurological health and function, proving its importance as both a diagnostic and biomedical monitoring tool. Consequently, it would be of high scientific interest and value to obtain more standard physiological information regarding its composition and dynamics for both swine pathology and the refinement of experimental protocols. Recently, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy has been applied in order to analyze the metabolomic profile of this biological fluid, and results showed the technique to be highly reproducible and reliable. The aim of the present study was to investigate in both qualitative and quantitative manner the composition of Cerebrospinal Fluid harvested form healthy newborn (5 days old-P5) and young (30-P30 and 50-P50 days old) piglets using 1H NMR Spectroscopy, and to analyze any possible difference in metabolites concentration between age groups, related to age and Blood-Brain-Barrier maturation. On each of the analyzed samples, 30 molecules could be observed above their limit of quantification, accounting for 95–98% of the total area of the spectra. The concentrations of adenine, tyrosine, leucine, valine, 3-hydroxyvalerate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate were found to decrease between P05 and P50, while the concentrations of glutamine, creatinine, methanol, trimethylamine and myo-inositol were found to increase. The P05-P30 comparison was also significant for glutamine, creatinine, adenine, tyrosine, leucine, valine, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate, while for the P30-P50 comparison we found significant differences for glutamine, myo-inositol, leucine and trimethylamine. None of these molecules showed at P30 concentrations

  2. Wii Fit exer-game training improves sensory weighting and dynamic balance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Cone, Brian L; Levy, Susan S; Goble, Daniel J

    2015-02-01

    The Nintendo Wii Fit is a balance training tool that is growing in popularity due to its ease of access and cost-effectiveness. While considerable evidence now exists demonstrating the efficacy of the Wii Fit, no study to date has determined the specific mechanism underlying Wii Fit balance improvement. This paucity of knowledge was addressed in the present study using the NeuroCom Balance Manager's Sensory Organization Test (SOT) and Limits of Stability (LOS) test. These well-recognized posturography assessments, respectively, measure sensory weighting and dynamic stability mechanisms of balance. Forty healthy, young participants were recruited into two groups: Wii Fit Balance Intervention (WFBI) (n=20) and Control (CON) (n=20). Balance training consisted of seven Wii Fit exer-games played over the course of six consecutive weeks (2-4×/week, 30-45min/day). The WFBI group performed Neurocom testing before and after the intervention, while the CON group was tested along a similar timeline with no intervention. Mixed-design ANOVAs found significant interactions for testing time point and condition 5 of the SOT (p<0.02), endpoint excursion (p<0.01), movement velocity (p<0.02), and response time (p<0.01). These effects were such that greater improvements were seen for the WFBI group following Wii Fit training. These findings suggest that individuals with known issues regarding the processing of multiple sources of sensory information and/or who have limited functional bases of support may benefit most from Wii Fit balance training. PMID:25703183

  3. Reference values for the Y Balance Test and the lower extremity functional scale in young healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Alnahdi, Ali H; Alderaa, Asma A; Aldali, Ali Z; Alsobayel, Hana

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish gender-specific reference values for the Y Balance Test (YBT) and the Arabic version of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS-Ar) in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia, and to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Subjects and Methods] Healthy young adults (31 females, 30 males) completed the YBT and LEFS-Ar in 1 test session. Descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval) was used to compute the YBT and LEFS-Ar reference values. Independent t-tests were used to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Results] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the right, left, dominant, and non-dominant leg as well as for the average performance of both the legs. males showed greater YBT normalized reach distances than females did in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions; furthermore, males showed higher YBT composite scores than females did. However, the LEFS-Ar values did not differ between males and females. [Conclusion] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the YBT and LEFS-Ar in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia. males performed better than females did in the YBT. However, no gender differences were noted in LEFS-Ar. PMID:26834380

  4. Reference values for the Y Balance Test and the lower extremity functional scale in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Alnahdi, Ali H; Alderaa, Asma A; Aldali, Ali Z; Alsobayel, Hana

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish gender-specific reference values for the Y Balance Test (YBT) and the Arabic version of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS-Ar) in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia, and to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Subjects and Methods] Healthy young adults (31 females, 30 males) completed the YBT and LEFS-Ar in 1 test session. Descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval) was used to compute the YBT and LEFS-Ar reference values. Independent t-tests were used to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Results] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the right, left, dominant, and non-dominant leg as well as for the average performance of both the legs. males showed greater YBT normalized reach distances than females did in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions; furthermore, males showed higher YBT composite scores than females did. However, the LEFS-Ar values did not differ between males and females. [Conclusion] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the YBT and LEFS-Ar in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia. males performed better than females did in the YBT. However, no gender differences were noted in LEFS-Ar. PMID:26834380

  5. Variability of cytochrome P450 1A2 activity over time in young and elderly healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Simon, T; Becquemont, L; Hamon, B; Nouyrigat, E; Chodjania, Y; Poirier, J M; Funck-Brentano, C; Jaillon, P

    2001-01-01

    Aims To assess the age-associated changes over time of plasma paraxanthine/caffeine (PAX/CAF) ratios used as a probe for CYP1A2 activity. Methods Intraindividual and interindividual variabilities in PAX/CAF ratio were compared by phenotyping with caffeine, 16 young and 16 elderly healthy subjects on five occasions. Results PAX/CAF ratio variability was comparable regardless of age (intraindividual CV: 17.6 ± 6% and 16.2 ± 5.9%, interindividual CV: 48.1 ± 2.9% and 42.7 ± 3.6% in young and elderly, respectively). The PAX/CAF ratio was lower in elderly than in young subjects (95% CI for the difference: 0.004, 0.32) but the difference was not significant in nonsmokers compared separately. Conclusions The variability over time of the PAX/CAF ratio is not influenced by age. PMID:11736870

  6. Population structure and uropathogenic virulence-associated genes of faecal Escherichia coli from healthy young and elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Vollmerhausen, Tara L; Ramos, Nubia L; Gündogdu, Aycan; Robinson, Wayne; Brauner, Annelie; Katouli, Mohammad

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the population structures of faecal Escherichia coli in 30 healthy young adults (13 males and 17 females) aged between 20 and 45 years and 29 elderly adults (14 females and 15 males) aged between 65 and 77 years. In all, 1566 strains were typed with the PhPlate system and grouped into biochemical phenotypes (BPTs). Strains with shared BPTs were further typed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Forty-four per cent of the strains were shared between two or more age and gender groups. Elders had a significantly higher (P<0.001) number of BPTs (mean±standard error 3.3±0.27) than younger groups (1.82±0.27). Phylogenetic affiliation and virulence-associated genes (VAGs) of the strains showed that more than 80 % of the strains belonging to dominant types belonged to phylogroups B2 and D. Amongst dominant BPTs, phylogenetic group A was significantly associated with females (P<0.0001), and elders were more likely to carry group D (P<0.0124). Elderly males had a higher prevalence of VAGs than young males (P<0.0001) and young females (P<0.0005). We conclude that there is a lower prevalence of E. coli with uropathogenic properties in healthy young adults than in elders. PMID:21292854

  7. Evaluation of smoking genotoxicity in Turkish young adults

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Ayse G.; Durakbasi-Dursun, H. Gul; Demirel, Sennur; Acar, Aynur

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For the past few decades, it has been widely known in developed countries that tobacco is dangerous, but it is still insufficiently realized how big these dangers really are. AIMS: To determine and evaluate micronuclei (MN) frequencies of young smokers and nonsmokers in three different tissues (peripheric blood lymphoctes, buccal mucosa, and exfoliative urothelial cells) at the same time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MN assay was performed on buccal mucosa, urothelial cells, and peripheric blood lymphocyte samples obtained from 15 healthy male smokers (>5 pack-years) and 15 healthy male nonsmoker controls who had not been exposed to any known genotoxic agent. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The statistical differences between smoker and nonsmoker groups were calculated by using student t test. The differences between smoker-group tissues were compared by ANOVA. RESULTS: It was found that MN frequency (mean value ± standard deviation) in oral mucosa cells from smokers and controls were 1.20 ± 0.22% and 0.26 ± 0.10%; in urothelial exfoliative cells, 1.29 ± 0.28% and 0.12 ± 0.08%; in peripheric blood lymphocytes, 1.53 ± 0.23% and 0.38 ± 0.12%, respectively. The mean MN frequencies in buccal mucosa, urothelial exfoliative cells, and peripheric blood lymphocytes were significantly higher in smokers than in those of controls (P<0.05). All tissues were affected from smoking, but the most destructive effect was seen in urothelial cells of smokers (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that cigarette smoke is a DNA damage causitive agent on exfoliative buccal mucosa and urothelial cells and peripheric blood lymphocytes of young smokers, but it has most destructive effect on urothelial cells. PMID:21814336

  8. Comparison of intraocular pressure measurements with different contact tonometers in young healthy persons

    PubMed Central

    Galgauskas, Saulius; Strupaite, Rasa; Strelkauskaite, Ernesta; Asoklis, Rimvydas

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyze the correlation of Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), I-Care tonometer and Tono-Pen tonometer results in young healthy persons, and to investigate the influence of central corneal thickness (CCT) on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements recorded with these tonometers. METHODS We conducted a pilot clinical study in 78 eyes of 78 subjects aged 22-28 years old (44 women and 34 men; mean age 23.8±1.19y). IOP was measured using GAT, I-Care and Tono-Pen tonometers, followed by measurements of CCT. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0. RESULTS The mean IOPs and standard deviation (±SD) for GAT, I-Care and Tono-Pen were 15.62±2.281 mm Hg, 16.29±2.726 mm Hg and 16.32±2.393 mm Hg, respectively. The mean CCT was 555.15±29.648 µm. Clear positive correlations between GAT and I-Care, GAT and Tono-Pen, and I-Care and Tono-Pen tonometers were found (r=0.867, P<0.001; r=0.861, P<0.001; r=0.915, P<0.001, respectively). In comparison between devices, Bland–Altman analysis showed a significant mean difference (MD) in the measurements by GAT and I-Care of −0.679 mm Hg and by GAT and Tono-Pen of −0.705 mm Hg ( P<0.001), but there was no significant difference between I-Care and Tono-Pen ( P>0.05). Both non-gold standard tonometers were affected by CCT; that is, both I-Care and Tono-Pen tonometer values were significantly higher with higher CCT means (>555 µm; MD=−1.282, P<0.001; MD=−0.949, P<0.001, respectively) compared with GAT. CONCLUSION Both I-Care and Tono-Pen tonometers overestimated IOP compared with the GAT values. Either the I-Care or Tono-Pen tonometer could be used instead of GAT because there was no significant difference between their results. Higher CCT values (>555 µm) were associated with overestimated IOP values. PMID:26949614

  9. COPD in Never Smokers

    PubMed Central

    McBurnie, Mary Ann; Vollmer, William M.; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Welte, Tobias; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Ewa; Studnicka, Michael; Bateman, Eric; Anto, Josep M.; Burney, Peter; Mannino, David M.; Buist, Sonia A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of patients with COPD. Their characteristics and possible risk factors in this population are not yet well defined. Methods: We analyzed data from 14 countries that participated in the international, population-based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study. Participants were aged ≥ 40 years and completed postbronchodilator spirometry testing plus questionnaires about respiratory symptoms, health status, and exposure to COPD risk factors. A diagnosis of COPD was based on the postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio, according to current GOLD (Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease) guidelines. In addition to this, the lower limit of normal (LLN) was evaluated as an alternative threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Results: Among 4,291 never smokers, 6.6% met criteria for mild (GOLD stage I) COPD, and 5.6% met criteria for moderate to very severe (GOLD stage II+) COPD. Although never smokers were less likely to have COPD and had less severe COPD than ever smokers, never smokers nonetheless comprised 23.3% (240/1,031) of those classified with GOLD stage II+ COPD. This proportion was similar, 20.5% (171/832), even when the LLN was used as a threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Predictors of COPD in never smokers include age, education, occupational exposure, childhood respiratory diseases, and BMI alterations. Conclusion: This multicenter international study confirms previous evidence that never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of individuals with COPD. Our data suggest that, in addition to increased age, a prior diagnosis of asthma and, among women, lower education levels are associated with an increased risk for COPD among never smokers. PMID:20884729

  10. Healthy Bones Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my bones more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Reprinted from The Surgeon General’s Report on ... women who don’t smoke, and they often go through menopause earlier. Smokers also may absorb less ...

  11. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...

  12. Paradoxes of a Healthy Way of Life for Young People in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belova, Natal'ia Il'inichna

    2009-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005 the author and her colleagues conducted a survey among first-year students at Moscow State University of the Humanities titled "College Students' Attitudes Toward Health and a Healthy Way of Life," to determine students' perceptions and knowledge about a healthy way of life as well as habits fostering and promoting health. The…

  13. Tongue Movements during Water Swallowing in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; Van Lieshout, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the nature and extent of variability in tongue movement during healthy swallowing as a function of aging and gender. In addition, changes were quantified in healthy tongue movements in response to specific differences in the nature of the swallowing task (discrete vs. sequential swallows). Method:…

  14. The Vilification of Smokers: Students' Perceptions of Current Smokers, Former Smokers, and Nonsmokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kathleen; Katona, Chris; Brosh, Joanne; Shull, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine

    Smokers are increasingly stigmatized in our society. Pressures to limit public smoking have mounted, and there is evidence of discrimination against smokers in the workplace. This study examined how current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers were differentially characterized by students drawn from a suburban high school and college. Students…

  15. Variants of ESR1, APOE, LPL and IL-6 loci in young healthy subjects: association with lipid status and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sertic, Jadranka; Juricic, Ljiljana; Ljubic, Hana; Bozina, Tamara; Lovric, Jasna; Markeljevic, Jasenka; Jelakovic, Bojan; Merkler, Marijan; Reiner, Zeljko

    2009-01-01

    Findings BMI was increased (>25) in 22% of young healthy subjects. Increased cholesterol values (>5.0 mmol/L) were found in 23% of subjects, LDL-C (>3.0 mmol/L) in 23%, triglycerides (>1.7 mmol/L) in 11% of subjects. We found statistically significant differences in subjects' weight (p = 0.015), BMI (p = 0.023), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) (p = 0.015) in regard to their diet type; subjects with Mediterranean diet had the lowest values compared to those on continental and mixed diet. Significant associations were found for: LPL genetic polymorphic variant and abdominal obesity (p = 0.013), APO epsilon4 allele and hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.003), and ESR1-TA long allele and hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.011). Background Human obesity is a multifactorial syndrome influenced also by genetic factors. Among gene variants found to be involved in body weight regulation and development of obesity, particular attention has been paid to polymorphisms in genes associated with obesity-related metabolic disorders. We explored the association of genetic polymorphisms of: estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1-TA repeats); interleukin-6 (IL-6 G-174C); apolipoprotein E (APO epsilon2, epsilon3, epsilon4); lipoprotein lipase Pvu II (LPL P+/-), with clinical variables: gender, age, body mass index (BMI), diet type and biological variables: triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, CRP, homocysteine, urate, and glucose in 105 healthy young subjects (20-35 yrs) of Croatian origin. Methods Genotyping of IL-6, LPL was performed by PCR-RFLP, of APOE by real-time PCR, and of ESR1 by PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Association analyses were performed of alleles and genotypes with biological variables. Conclusion ESR-1, LPL, and APO E genetic polymorphic variants could represent predictive genetic risk markers for obesity-related metabolic disorders in young healthy subjects. Mediterranean type of diet is also an important protective factor against abdominal obesity. PMID:19804633

  16. Left Ventricular Function during Acute High-Altitude Exposure in a Large Group of Healthy Young Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Mingyue; Li, Jiabei; Qin, Jun; Zhang, Jihang; Gao, Xubin; Yu, Shiyong; Yu, Jie; Chen, Guozhu; Xu, Baida; Li, Huijie; Rao, Rongsheng; Huang, Lan; Jin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to observe left ventricular function during acute high-altitude exposure in a large group of healthy young males. Methods A prospective trial was conducted in Szechwan and Tibet from June to August, 2012. By Doppler echocardiography, left ventricular function was examined in 139 healthy young Chinese men at sea level; within 24 hours after arrival in Lhasa, Tibet, at 3700 m; and on day 7 following an ascent to Yangbajing at 4400 m after 7 days of acclimatization at 3700 m. The resting oxygen saturation (SaO2), heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were also measured at the above mentioned three time points. Results Within 24 hours of arrival at 3700 m, the HR, ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and left ventricular (LV) Tei index were significantly increased, but the LV end-systolic dimension (ESD), end-systolic volume (ESV), SaO2, E/A ratio, and ejection time (ET) were significantly decreased compared to the baseline levels in all subjects. On day 7 at 4400 m, the SV and CO were significantly decreased; the EF and FS Tei were not decreased compared with the values at 3700 m; the HR was further elevated; and the SaO2, ESV, ESD, and ET were further reduced. Additionally, the E/A ratio was significantly increased on day 7 but was still lower than it was at low altitude. Conclusion Upon acute high-altitude exposure, left ventricular systolic function was elevated with increased stroke volume, but diastolic function was decreased in healthy young males. With higher altitude exposure and prolonged acclimatization, the left ventricular systolic function was preserved with reduced stroke volume and improved diastolic function. PMID:25629435

  17. Rejecting familiar distracters during recognition in young adults with traumatic brain injury and in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Lana J; Skinner, Erin I; Fernandes, Myra A

    2010-05-01

    The most common cognitive complaint reported by healthy older adults and young adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is memory difficulties. We investigated the effects of normal aging and the long-term effects of TBI in young adults on the susceptibility to incorrectly endorse distracter information on a memory test. Prior to a study phase, participants viewed a "pre-exposure" list containing distracter words, presented once or three times, and half of the target study words. Subsequently, during the study phase, all target words were presented such that, across lists, study words were viewed either once or three times. On the recognition test, TBI and older adult participants were more likely to falsely endorse "pre-exposed" distracter words viewed three times as being from the target study list, compared to non-head-injured young controls. Normal aging and head injury in young may similarly compromise one's ability to reject highly familiar, but distracting, information during recognition. Older adult and TBI participants were also slower to complete the Trail Making task and had poorer output on a Digit Span task, suggesting these two populations share a deficit in executive function and working memory. Similar changes in frontal lobe function may underlie these shared cognitive deficits. PMID:20211048

  18. Correcting Media Mis-Education: The Portrayal of Smokers and Smoking in Top Grossing Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Alyssa; Brackin, Taryn; Chubb, Jamie; Covata, Sandy; Ferguson, Liz; Hinckley, Adele; Hodges, Jilda; Liberati, Cheryl; Tornetta, Jonette; Chambliss, Catherine

    Given that young people are extremely concerned with how they appear socially, beguiling and glamorous portrayals of smokers in recent films may be contributing to the continual rise in college student smoking. The pervasive positive depiction of smokers as attractive and appealing easily preys on young people who lack confidence and self esteem.…

  19. Effects of surface irregularity and lighting on step variability during gait: a study in healthy young and older women.

    PubMed

    Thies, Sibylle B; Richardson, James K; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2005-08-01

    Relatively few studies have examined how uneven surfaces affect human gait. To study this, along with the effects of advancing age and low light conditions, we measured step width and step time variability, as well as comfortable gait speed, in 12 healthy young women (YW) and 12 healthy older women (OW) as they walked at a comfortable speed along a 10-m walkway. Ten trials were completed for each cell of a 2 x 2 factorial design: (1) flat surface with regular lighting; (2) flat surface with low lighting; (3) irregular surface with regular lighting; and (4) irregular surface with low lighting. Effects of surface type, incident lighting, and age on gait parameters were tested via repeated measures ANOVA. Surface type significantly affected step width variability (P < 0.001) and step time variability (P < 0.001). Light level showed no significant effect on any of the gait parameters. One significant age group difference was found: step width variability was significantly greater in OW than YW (P = 0.010). We conclude that the irregular surface had a greater effect on the gait variability of healthy OW than on that of healthy YW. PMID:15996588

  20. Investigation of cerebral haemodynamics by near-infrared spectroscopy in young healthy volunteers reveals posture-dependent spontaneous oscillations.

    PubMed

    Tachtsidis, Ilias; Elwell, Clare E; Leung, Terence S; Lee, Chuen-Wai; Smith, Martin; Delpy, David T

    2004-04-01

    Autonomic reflexes enable the cardiovascular system to respond to gravitational displacement of blood during changes in posture. Spontaneous oscillations present in the cerebral and systemic circulation of healthy subjects have demonstrated a regulatory role. This study assessed the dynamic responses of the cerebral and systemic circulation upon standing up and the posture dependence of spontaneous oscillations. In ten young healthy volunteers, blood pressure and cerebral haemodynamics were continuously monitored non-invasively using the Portapres and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), respectively. Oscillatory changes in the cerebral NIRS signals and the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) signal have been identified by the fast Fourier analysis. Blood pressure increased during standing and returned to basal level when volunteers sat on a chair. The mean value of cerebral tissue oxygen index (TOI) as measured by NIRS did not demonstrate any significant changes. Oscillatory changes in DBP, oxyhaemoglobin concentration [O2Hb] and TOI showed a significant increase when subjects were standing. Investigation of the low frequency component (approximately 0.1 Hz) of these fluctuations revealed posture dependence associated with activation of autonomic reflexes. Systemic and cerebral changes appeared to preserve adequate blood flow and cerebral perfusion during standing in healthy volunteers. Oscillatory changes in [O2Hb] and TOI, which may be related to the degree of cerebral sympathetic stimulation, are posture dependent in healthy subjects. PMID:15132309

  1. The effect of topical adrenergic and anticholinergic agents on the choroidal thickness of young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Sander, Beata P; Collins, Michael J; Read, Scott A

    2014-11-01

    The human choroid is capable of rapidly changing its thickness in response to a variety of stimuli. However little is known about the role of the autonomic nervous system in the regulation of the thickness of the choroid. Therefore, we investigated the effect of topical parasympatholytic and sympathomimetic agents upon the choroidal thickness and ocular biometrics of young healthy adult subjects. Fourteen subjects (mean age 27.9 ± 4 years) participated in this randomized, single-masked, placebo-controlled study. Each subject had measurements of choroidal thickness (ChT) and ocular biometrics of their right eye taken before, and then 30 and 60 min following the administration of topical pharmacological agents. Three different drugs: 2% homatropine hydrobromide, 2.5% phenylephrine hydrochloride and a placebo (0.3% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) were tested in all subjects; each on different days (at the same time of the day) in randomized order. Participants were masked to the pharmacological agent being used at each testing session. The instillation of 2% homatropine resulted in a small but significant increase in subfoveal ChT at 30 and 60 min after drug instillation (mean change 7 ± 3 μm and 14 ± 2 μm respectively; both p < 0.0001). The parafoveal choroid also exhibited a similar magnitude, significant increase in thickness with time after 2% homatropine (p < 0.001), with a mean change of 7 ± 0.3 μm and 13 ± 1 μm (in the region located 0.5 mm from the fovea center), 6 ± 1 μm and 12.5 ± 1 μm (1 mm from the fovea center) and 6 ± 2 μm and 12 ± 2 μm (1.5 mm from the fovea center) after 30 and 60 min respectively. Axial length decreased significantly 60 min after homatropine (p < 0.01). There were also significant changes in lens thickness (LT) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) (p < 0.05) associated with homatropine instillation. No significant changes in choroidal thickness, or ocular biometrics were found after

  2. Comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviours between young haemophilia A patients and healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    González, L M; Peiró-Velert, C; Devís-Devís, J; Valencia-Peris, A; Pérez-Gimeno, E; Pérez-Alenda, S; Querol, F

    2011-07-01

    In recent studies, adolescent haemophilia A patients and healthy adolescents have been encouraged to participate in physical activity (PA) based on its many established health benefits. However, none of the studies to date has used objective measures of PA and sedentary behaviour. The aims of the current study included: (i) to determine the amount and intensity of habitual PA among haemophilia A and healthy adolescents, and in haemophilia A patients with and without bleeding episodes in the previous year, and (ii) to identify the type and determine the time spent in sedentary activities in which both groups participate to obtain a broadened view of their daily activities. A total of 41 adolescent haemophiliacs and 25 healthy adolescents, between the ages of 8 and 18 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure PA and the Adolescent Sedentary Activity Questionnaire to assess sedentary behaviours among members of both groups. Adolescent haemophilia A patients showed a higher daily mean time engaged in light, moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PAs relative to their healthy counterparts (P < 0.001). Patients who had experienced bleeding episodes during the previous year also spent more time participating in vigorous PAs than healthy adolescents (P = 0.002). With regard to sedentary behaviours, healthy adolescents spent more time listening to music than haemophilia A adolescents (P = 0.003), whereas haemophilia A adolescents spent more time watching TV (P < 0.001) and playing videogames (P = 0.003) than healthy counterparts. Findings suggest that increased participation in moderate intensity PAs and reduced sedentary behaviours should be recommended among adolescents with haemophilia A. PMID:21299746

  3. Metabolic and structural connectivity within the default mode network relates to working memory performance in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, Igor; Chételat, Gael; Fischer, Florian U; Landeau, Brigitte; Bastin, Christine; Scheurich, Armin; Perrotin, Audrey; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Drzezga, Alexander; Eustache, Francis; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Salmon, Eric

    2013-10-01

    Studies of functional connectivity suggest that the default mode network (DMN) might be relevant for cognitive functions. Here, we examined metabolic and structural connectivity between major DMN nodes, the posterior cingulate (PCC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), in relation to normal working memory (WM). DMN was captured using independent component analysis of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data from 35 young healthy adults (27.1 ± 5.1 years). Metabolic connectivity, a correlation between FDG uptake in PCC and MPFC, was examined in groups of subjects with (relative to median) low (n=18) and high (n=17) performance on digit span backward test as an index of verbal WM. In addition, fiber tractography based on PCC and MPFC nodes as way points was performed in a subset of subjects. FDG uptake in the DMN nodes did not differ between high and low performers. However, significantly (p=0.01) lower metabolic connectivity was found in the group of low performers. Furthermore, as compared to high performers, low performers showed lower density of the left superior cingulate bundle. Verbal WM performance is related to metabolic and structural connectivity within the DMN in young healthy adults. Metabolic connectivity as quantified with FDG-PET might be a sensitive marker of the normal variability in some cognitive functions. PMID:23631988

  4. Entorhinal volume, aerobic fitness, and recognition memory in healthy young adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; Budson, Andrew E; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis effects of aerobic exercise and environmental enrichment are beneficial for cognition, in particular for hippocampus-supported learning and memory. Recent work in humans suggests that exercise training induces changes in hippocampal volume, but it is not known if aerobic exercise and fitness also impact the entorhinal cortex. In animal models, aerobic exercise increases expression of growth factors, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This exercise-enhanced expression of growth hormones may boost synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival and differentiation, potentially supporting function and structure in brain areas including but not limited to the hippocampus. Here, using voxel based morphometry and a standard graded treadmill test to determine cardio-respiratory fitness (Bruce protocol; ·VO2 max), we examined if entorhinal and hippocampal volumes were associated with cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy young adults (N=33). In addition, we examined if volumes were modulated by recognition memory performance and by serum BDNF, a putative marker of synaptic plasticity. Our results show a positive association between volume in right entorhinal cortex and cardio-respiratory fitness. In addition, average gray matter volume in the entorhinal cortex, bilaterally, was positively associated with memory performance. These data extend prior work on the cerebral effects of aerobic exercise and fitness to the entorhinal cortex in healthy young adults thus providing compelling evidence for a relationship between aerobic fitness and structure of the medial temporal lobe memory system. PMID:26631814

  5. Hypovitaminosis-D and EBV: no interdependence between two MS risk factors in a healthy young UK autumn cohort.

    PubMed

    Ramien, Caren; Pachnio, Annette; Sisay, Sofia; Begum, Jusnara; Leese, Alison; Disanto, Giulio; Kuhle, Jens; Giovannoni, Gavin; Rickinson, Alan; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V; Moss, Paul; Meier, Ute-Christiane

    2014-05-01

    Late Epstein-Barr virus infection and hypovitaminosis-D as environmental risk factors in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis are gaining great interest. We, therefore, tested for in-vivo interdependence between Epstein-Barr-virus (EBV)-status and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) -level in healthy young individuals from a United Kingdom (UK) autumn cohort. EBV-load was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 25(OH)D3 levels by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This young, healthy UK autumn cohort showed surprisingly low levels of 25(OH)D3 (mean value: 40.5 nmol/L ± 5.02). Furthermore, we found that low 25(OH)D3 levels did not impact on EBV load and anti-EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) titers. However, we observed a correlation between EBV load and EBNA-1 titers. These observations should be of value in the study of the potential relationship between hypovitaminosis-D and EBV-status in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis. PMID:24192216

  6. In Healthy Young Men, a Short Exhaustive Exercise Alters the Oxidative Stress Only Slightly, Independent of the Actual Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Finkler, Maya; Hochman, Ayala; Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the apparent disagreement regarding the effect of a typical cycling progressive exercise, commonly used to assess VO2max, on the kinetics of ex vivo copper induced peroxidation of serum lipids. Thirty-two (32) healthy young men, aged 24–30 years, who do not smoke and do not take any food supplements, participated in the study. Blood was withdrawn from each participant at three time points (before the exercise and 5 minutes and one hour after exercise). Copper induced peroxidation of sera made of the blood samples was monitored by spectrophotometry. For comparison, we also assayed TBARS concentration and the activity of oxidation-related enzymes. The physical exercise resulted in a slight and reversible increase of TBARS and slight changes in the activities of the studied antioxidant enzymes and the lag preceding peroxidation did not change substantially. Most altered parameters returned to baseline level one hour after exercise. Notably, the exercise-induced changes in OS did not correlate with the physical fitness of the subjects, as evaluated in this study (VO2max = 30–60 mL/min/kg). We conclude that in healthy young fit men a short exhaustive exercise alters only slightly the OS, independent of the actual physical fitness. PMID:26989456

  7. Anxious/Depressed Symptoms are Linked to Right Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortical Thickness Maturation in Healthy Children and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Simon; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Hudziak, James J.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Truong, Catherine; Evans, Alan C.; Karama, Sherif; Ball, William S.; Byars, Anna Weber; Schapiro, Mark; Bommer, Wendy; Carr, April; German, April; Dunn, Scott; Rivkin, Michael J.; Waber, Deborah; Mulkern, Robert; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Chiverton, Abigail; Davis, Peter; Koo, Julie; Marmor, Jacki; Mrakotsky, Christine; Robertson, Richard; McAnulty, Gloria; Brandt, Michael E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Kramer, Larry A.; Yang, Grace; McCormack, Cara; Hebert, Kathleen M.; Volero, Hilda; Botteron, Kelly; McKinstry, Robert C.; Warren, William; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Almli, C. Robert; Todd, Richard; Constantino, John; McCracken, James T.; Levitt, Jennifer; Alger, Jeffrey; O'Neil, Joseph; Toga, Arthur; Asarnow, Robert; Fadale, David; Heinichen, Laura; Ireland, Cedric; Wang, Dah-Jyuu; Moss, Edward; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Bintliff, Brooke; Bradford, Ruth; Newman, Janice; Evans, Alan C.; Arnaoutelis, Rozalia; Pike, G. Bruce; Collins, D. Louis; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas; Zijdenbos, Alex; Das, Samir; Fonov, Vladimir; Fu, Luke; Harlap, Jonathan; Leppert, Ilana; Milovan, Denise; Vins, Dario; Zeffiro, Thomas; Van Meter, John; Lange, Nicholas; Froimowitz, Michael P.; Botteron, Kelly; Almli, C. Robert; Rainey, Cheryl; Henderson, Stan; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Warren, William; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Dubois, Diane; Smith, Karla; Singer, Tish; Wilber, Aaron A.; Pierpaoli, Carlo; Basser, Peter J.; Chang, Lin-Ching; Koay, Chen Guan; Walker, Lindsay; Freund, Lisa; Rumsey, Judith; Baskir, Lauren; Stanford, Laurence; Sirocco, Karen; Gwinn-Hardy, Katrina; Spinella, Giovanna; McCracken, James T.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Levitt, Jennifer; O'Neill, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between anxious/depressed traits and neuromaturation remains largely unstudied. Characterizing this relationship during healthy neurodevelopment is critical to understanding processes associated with the emergence of child/adolescent onset mood/anxiety disorders. In this study, mixed-effects models were used to determine longitudinal cortical thickness correlates of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Young Adult Self Report Anxious/Depressed scores in healthy children. Analyses included 341 subjects from 4.9 to 22.3 year-old with repeated MRI at up to 3 time points, at 2-year intervals (586 MRI scans). There was a significant “CBCL Anxious/Depressed by Age” interaction on cortical thickness in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), including the medial orbito-frontal, gyrus rectus, and subgenual anterior cingulate areas. Anxious/Depressed scores were negatively associated with thickness at younger ages (<9 years), but positively associated with thickness at older ages (15–22 years), with the shift in polarity occurring around age 12. This was secondary to a slower rate of vmPFC cortical thinning in subjects with higher scores. In young adults (18–22 years), Anxious/Depressed scores were also positively associated with precuneus/posterior cingulate cortical thickness. Potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying this maturation pattern are proposed. These results demonstrate the dynamic impact of age on relations between vmPFC and negative affect in the developing brain. PMID:23749874

  8. The Influence of Emotional State on the Masticatory Muscles Function in the Group of Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Anna, Stocka; Joanna, Kuc; Teresa, Sierpinska; Maria, Golebiewska; Aneta, Wieczorek

    2015-01-01

    Stress may affect the function of all the components of the masticatory system and may ultimately lead to differentiated symptoms and finally to systemic and structural dysfunctions. Objective. To determine the effect of stress on the masticatory muscles function in young healthy adults. Material and Methods. A total of 201 young, Angle's first class, healthy volunteers, 103 female and 98 male, in the age between 18 and 21 years were recruited into the study. All the participants underwent clinical examination according to the Slavicek scheme, questionnaire survey according to Perceived Stress Scale, and assessment of masticatory muscles function in central occlusion. Results. Symptoms of masticatory system dysfunction were found in the group of 86 subjects (46,24%). All the muscles activity in central occlusion was comparable in female and male groups. Mean values of masseters activities in the group of low stress subjects (75,52 µV ± 15,97) were statistically different from the groups with medium (82,43 µV ± 15,04) and high (81,33 ± 12,05) perceived stress (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Chronic stress may reveal or exacerbate symptoms of masticatory dysfunction. PMID:25883942

  9. Effect of Broccoli Sprouts on Nasal Response to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus in Smokers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Noah, Terry L.; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, Haibo; Glista-Baker, Ellen; Müller, Loretta; Bauer, Rebecca N.; Meyer, Megan; Murphy, Paula C.; Jones, Shannon; Letang, Blanche; Robinette, Carole; Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Background Smokers have increased susceptibility and altered innate host defense responses to influenza virus infection. Broccoli sprouts are a source of the Nrf2 activating agentsulforaphane, and short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH) has been shown to reduce nasal inflammatory responses to oxidant pollutants. Objectives Assess the effects of BSH on nasal cytokines, virus replication, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in smokers and nonsmokers. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effects of BSH on serially sampled nasal lavage fluid (NLF) cytokines, viral sequence quantity, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in NLF cells and biopsied epithelium. Healthy young adult smokers and nonsmokers ingested BSH or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate) for 4 days, designated Days -1, 0, 1, 2. On Day 0 they received standard vaccine dose of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) intranasally. Nasal lavage fluids and nasal biopsies were collected serially to assess response to LAIV. Results In area under curve analyses, post-LAIV IL-6 responses (P = 0.03) and influenza sequences (P = 0.01) were significantly reduced in NLF from BSH-treated smokers, whileNAD(P)H: quinoneoxidoreductasein NLF cells was significantly increased. In nonsmokers, a similar trend for reduction in virus quantity with BSH did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions In smokers, short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates appears to significantly reduce some virus-induced markers of inflammation, as well as reducing virus quantity. Nutritional antioxidant interventions have promise as a safe, low-cost strategy for reducing influenza risk among smokers and other at risk populations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723 PMID:24910991

  10. Hormonal, cardiovascular, and subjective responses to acute stress in smokers

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Harriet

    2009-01-01

    Rationale There are complex relationships between stress and smoking; smoking may reduce the emotional discomfort of stress, yet nicotine activates stress systems and may alter responses to acute stress. It is important to understand how smoking affects physiological and psychological outcomes after stress and how these may interact to motivate smoking. Objectives This study aimed to examine the magnitude and time course of hormonal, cardiovascular, and psychological responses to acute psychosocial stress in smokers and non-smokers to investigate whether responses to acute stress are altered in smokers. Materials and methods Healthy male non-smokers (n=20) and smokers (n=15) participated in two experimental sessions involving a standardized public speaking stress procedure and a control non-stressful task. The outcome measures included self-reported mood, cardiovascular measures (heart rate and blood pressure), and plasma hormone levels (noradrenaline, cortisol, progesterone, and allopregnanolone). Results Smokers exhibited blunted increases in cortisol after the Trier Social Stress Test, and they reported greater and more prolonged subjective agitation than non-smokers. Stress-induced changes in progesterone were similar between smokers and non-smokers, although responses overall were smaller among smokers. Stress did not significantly alter levels of allopregnanolone, but smokers exhibited lower plasma concentrations of this neurosteroid. Conclusions These findings suggest that smoking dampens hormonal responses to stress and prolongs subjective discomfort. Dysregulated stress responses may represent a breakdown in the body’s ability to cope efficiently and effectively with stress and may contribute to smokers’ susceptibility to acute stress, especially during abstinence. PMID:18936915